WorldWideScience

Sample records for maximal profit intensity

  1. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  3. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  4. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  5. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  6. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  7. Maximizing remanufacturing profit using product acquisition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D.R. Guide Jr (Daniel); R.H. Teunter (Ruud); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe profitability of remanufacturing depends on the quantity and quality of product returns and on the demand for remanufactured products. The quantity and quality of product returns can be influenced by varying quality dependent acquisition prices, i.e., by using product acquisition

  8. How Managerial Ownership Affects Profit Maximization in Newspaper Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busterna, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Explores whether different levels of a manager's ownership of a newspaper affects the manager's profit maximizing attitudes and behavior. Finds that owner-managers tend to place less emphasis on profits than non-owner-controlled newspapers, contrary to economic theory and empirical evidence from other industries. (RS)

  9. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  10. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENEA CONSTANŢA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considered the production and the delivery touristic services except through the of a alone objective major prism scilicet maximizarea of the profits, falls to is exceeded. For the past decades ale the century XX, the impact technological changes in the industry services becomes all determine maul influenced the „traditional sectors” in charge, as for example the education, the trade, the touring, the informatics. Certainly, globalized can be interpretation in different senses. Referenced to the touristic services, the globalized is define as be a form an advanced still more complex maul of which nationalization involves a degrees of functional integration between the touristic activities disperse on plans transfrontalier.

  11. Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct

  12. PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES, INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN STIMULATING JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT THINKING, UNDERSTANDING, AND DECISION MAKING AS ASSOCIATED WITH PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES OF FARM OPERATION FOR USE IN FARM MANAGEMENT. IT WAS DEVELOPED UNDER A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION GRANT BY TEACHER-EDUCATORS, A FARM…

  13. A note on a profit maximizing location model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a locational model with a profit-maximizing objective. The model can be illustrated by the following situation. There is a set of potential customers in a given region. A firm enters the market and wants to sell a certain product to this set of customers. The

  14. The Profit-Maximizing Firm: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Explains and illustrates a simplified use of graphical analysis for analyzing the profit-maximizing firm. Believes that graphical analysis helps college students gain a deeper understanding of marginalism and an increased ability to formulate economic problems in marginalist terms. (DB)

  15. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day...

  16. A decision theoretic framework for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, L.; van der Scheer, H.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Montgomery, A.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing a firm involved in direct marketing is the selection of addresses from a mailing list. When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually,

  17. Maximizing profits associated with abandonment decisions and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Economic strategies which are designed to maximize profits associated with abandonment decisions and options focus on: extending field life; offsetting of economic risks onto a third party; reuse of facilities and infrastructure; expansion of associated secondary processing and distribution capabilities and usage; and the sale of abandonment units to a third party

  18. Short Run Profit Maximization in a Convex Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilko Vrankic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the short run profit maximization problem in a convex analysis framework. The goal is to apply the results of convex analysis due to unique structure of microeconomic phenomena on the known short run profit maximization problem where the results from convex analysis are deductively applied. In the primal optimization model the technology in the short run is represented by the short run production function and the normalized profit function, which expresses profit in the output units, is derived. In this approach the choice variable is the labour quantity. Alternatively, technology is represented by the real variable cost function, where costs are expressed in the labour units, and the normalized profit function is derived, this time expressing profit in the labour units. The choice variable in this approach is the quantity of production. The emphasis in these two perspectives of the primal approach is given to the first order necessary conditions of both models which are the consequence of enveloping the closed convex set describing technology with its tangents. The dual model includes starting from the normalized profit function and recovering the production function, and alternatively the real variable cost function. In the first perspective of the dual approach the choice variable is the real wage, and in the second it is the real product price expressed in the labour units. It is shown that the change of variables into parameters and parameters into variables leads to both optimization models which give the same system of labour demand and product supply functions and their inverses. By deductively applying the results of convex analysis the comparative statics results are derived describing the firm's behaviour in the short run.

  19. Competitive prices as profit-maximizing cartel prices

    OpenAIRE

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.I.; Wen, Q.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in Economics Letters, 114, 39-42. Even under antitrust enforcement, firms may still form a cartel in an infinitely-repeated oligopoly model when the discount factor is sufficiently close to one. We present a linear oligopoly model where the profit-maximizing cartel price converges to the competitive equilibrium price as the discount factor goes to one. We then identify a set of necessary conditions for this seemingly counter-intuitive result.

  20. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  1. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  2. Monopsony in the labor market: Profit vs. Wage maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Đorđe, Olgin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the efficiency of profit- and wage-maximizing (PM and WM monopsony in the labor market. We show that, both locally and globally, a PM monopsony may well be dominated by its WM twin, where the local and global dominance are defined with respect to a single (inverse labor supply function and a single family of such functions. This family is always divided in the two disjoint (subfamilies of the PM and WM dominance. We also analyze some major factors that explain the size of these (subfamilies. .

  3. Risk Pricing and Profit Maximization of Insurance Companies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research investigates the impact of pricing of risk on the profitability of Nigeria insurance market and also the relationship between operation expenses and profitability of the non-life insurance market in Nigeria. Results show that economy, competition and government regulation have effect on pricing of risk. Also, it was ...

  4. A note on profit maximization and monotonicity for inbound call centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, G.M.; Pot, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider an inbound call center with a fixed reward per call and communication and agent costs. By controlling the number of lines and the number of agents, we can maximize the profit. Abandonments are included in our performance model. Monotonicity results for the maximization problem are

  5. Bioeconomic of profit maximization of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) culture using polynomial growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanto, D.; Kurohman, F.; Nugroho, RA

    2018-03-01

    The research purpose was to develop a model bioeconomic of profit maximization that can be applied to red tilapia culture. The development of fish growth model used polynomial growth function. Profit maximization process used the first derivative of profit equation to time of culture equal to zero. This research has also developed the equations to estimate the culture time to reach the target size of the fish harvest. The research proved that this research model could be applied in the red tilapia culture. In the case of this study, red tilapia culture can achieve the maximum profit at 584 days and the profit of Rp. 28,605,731 per culture cycle. If used size target of 250 g, the culture of red tilapia need 82 days of culture time.

  6. The Optimization of Capital Structure in Maximizing Profit and Corporate Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisya Ayu Effendi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal capital structure which could maximize profits and corporate value. The benefits of this research were companies knew clearly that optimal capital structure could maximize profits and corporate value. The method used was quantitative descriptive analysis. Moreover, the data used was secondary data in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII from 2011 to 2015. The results of this research are companies which have optimal capital structure are in line with the trade-off theory models. The capital structure is optimal if the debt levels are to a certain extent so that the corporate value will increase . However, if the debt limit passes the certain degree, profit and corporate value will decrease. Meanwhile, pecking order theory in this research does not conform and cannot be said to be optimal, because of the low debt level describing the opposite result with the theory as low profits.

  7. Joint Profit Maximization, Negotiation, and the Determinacy of Price in Bilateral Monopoly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truett, Dale B.; Truett, Lila J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the case of bilateral monopoly in the context of joint profit-maximizing solutions. Asserts that, although bilateral monopoly is sometimes viewed as a theoretical model with few real-world applications, the elements of negotiations it contains form the basis for contracts between input sellers and input buyers. (CFR)

  8. A quasi-PTAS for profit-maximizing pricing on line graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbassioni, K.M.; Sitters, R.A.; Zhang, Y.; Arge, L.; Hoffmann, M.; Welzl, E.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of pricing items so as to maximize the profit made from selling these items. An instance is given by a set E of n items and a set of m clients, where each client is specified by one subset of E (the bundle of items he/she wants to buy), and a budget (valuation), which is the

  9. The risk function approach to profit maximizing estimation in direct mailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, Lars; Scheer, Hiek van der; Wansbeek, Tom

    1999-01-01

    When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually, these parameters are unknown and are to be estimated. Standard estimation are based on a quadratic loss function. In the present

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING THE UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCORMICK, FLOYD G.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN FARM MANAGEMENT WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. PRINCIPLES WERE IDENTIFIED FROM LITERATURE SELECTED BY AGRICULTURAL ECONOMISTS. FORTY-FIVE MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS WERE REFINED ON THE BASIS OF RESULTS OF THREE PRETESTS AND…

  11. Designing a Profit-Maximizing Critical Peak Pricing Scheme Considering the Payback Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Chan Park

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Critical peak pricing (CPP is a demand response program that can be used to maximize profits for a load serving entity in a deregulated market environment. Like other such programs, however, CPP is not free from the payback phenomenon: a rise in consumption after a critical event. This payback has a negative effect on profits and thus must be appropriately considered when designing a CPP scheme. However, few studies have examined CPP scheme design considering payback. This study thus characterizes payback using three parameters (duration, amount, and pattern and examines payback effects on the optimal schedule of critical events and on the optimal peak rate for two specific payback patterns. This analysis is verified through numerical simulations. The results demonstrate the need to properly consider payback parameters when designing a profit-maximizing CPP scheme.

  12. Firms’ corporate social responsibility behavior: An integration of institutional and profit maximization approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Susan L Young; Mona V Makhija

    2014-01-01

    Understanding firms’ behavior across countries – a key concern in the international business literature – requires the joint consideration of both institutional influences and firms’ profit maximization goals. In the corporate social responsibility (CSR) area, however, researchers have utilized theories that take into account only one or the other – institutional theory, which explains CSR as legitimacy-seeking activities in line with national-level institutions, or economic-based approaches ...

  13. Shared temptations: An fMRI study of dishonest profit maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmank, Fabian

    2017-12-01

    A single case of a tempting-decision task involving financial gain is reported. The subject showed a prosocial Social Value Orientation and applied a profit-maximizing strategy. Differential brain activation patterns for self-serving and other-serving decisions were observed. Results provide new insight into the design of paradigms on bounded ethicality and self- and group-serving behavior. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Xie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.

  15. Profit maximization with customer satisfaction control for electric vehicle charging in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the market of electric vehicles is gaining popularity, large-scale commercialized or privately-operated charging stations are expected to play a key role as a technology enabler. In this paper, we study the problem of charging electric vehicles at stations with limited charging machines and power resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel profit maximization framework for station operation in both offline and online charging scenarios, under certain customer satisfaction constraints. The main goal is to maximize the profit obtained by the station owner and provide a satisfactory charging service to the customers. The framework includes not only the vehicle scheduling and charging power control, but also the managing of user satisfaction factors, which are defined as the percentages of finished charging targets. The profit maximization problem is proved to be NPcomplete in both scenarios (NP refers to “nondeterministic polynomial time”, for which two-stage charging strategies are proposed to obtain efficient suboptimal solutions. Competitive analysis is also provided to analyze the performance of the proposed online two-stage charging algorithm against the offline counterpart under non-congested and congested charging scenarios. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed two-stage charging strategies achieve performance close to that with exhaustive search. Also, the proposed algorithms provide remarkable performance gains compared to the other conventional charging strategies with respect to not only the unified profit, but also other practical interests, such as the computational time, the user satisfaction factor, the power consumption, and the competitive ratio.

  16. Maximizing profit and endangering health: corporate strategies to avoid litigation and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohme, Susanna Rankin; Zorabedian, John; Egilman, David S

    2005-01-01

    Corporations and industries use various tactics to obscure the fact that their products are dangerous or deadly. Their aim is to secure the least restrictive possible regulatory environment and avert legal liability for deaths or injuries in order to maximize profit. They work with attorneys and public relations professionals, using scientists, science advisory boards; front groups, industry organizations, think tanks, and the media to influence scientific and popular opinion of the risks of their products or processes. The strategy, which depends on corrupt science, profits corporations at the expense of public health. Public health professionals can learn from this strategy how to effectively build scientific and public opinion that prioritizes both good science and the public health.

  17. Determination of optimum values for maximizing the profit in bread production: Daily bakery Sdn Bhd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Sim, Raymond

    2015-02-01

    An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers. In many settings the term refers to integer linear programming (ILP), in which the objective function and the constraints (other than the integer constraints) are linear. An ILP has many applications in industrial production, including job-shop modelling. A possible objective is to maximize the total production, without exceeding the available resources. In some cases, this can be expressed in terms of a linear program, but variables must be constrained to be integer. It concerned with the optimization of a linear function while satisfying a set of linear equality and inequality constraints and restrictions. It has been used to solve optimization problem in many industries area such as banking, nutrition, agriculture, and bakery and so on. The main purpose of this study is to formulate the best combination of all ingredients in producing different type of bread in Daily Bakery in order to gain maximum profit. This study also focuses on the sensitivity analysis due to changing of the profit and the cost of each ingredient. The optimum result obtained from QM software is RM 65,377.29 per day. This study will be benefited for Daily Bakery and also other similar industries. By formulating a combination of all ingredients make up, they can easily know their total profit in producing bread everyday.

  18. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.

  19. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Kai Peng

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications.

  20. Data-Driven Engineering of Social Dynamics: Pattern Matching and Profit Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Kai; Lee, Hao-Chih; Pan, Jia-Yu; Marculescu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new problem related to social media, namely, the data-driven engineering of social dynamics. More precisely, given a set of observations from the past, we aim at finding the best short-term intervention that can lead to predefined long-term outcomes. Toward this end, we propose a general formulation that covers two useful engineering tasks as special cases, namely, pattern matching and profit maximization. By incorporating a deep learning model, we derive a solution using convex relaxation and quadratic-programming transformation. Moreover, we propose a data-driven evaluation method in place of the expensive field experiments. Using a Twitter dataset, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our dynamics engineering approach for both pattern matching and profit maximization, and study the multifaceted interplay among several important factors of dynamics engineering, such as solution validity, pattern-matching accuracy, and intervention cost. Finally, the method we propose is general enough to work with multi-dimensional time series, so it can potentially be used in many other applications. PMID:26771830

  1. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The profit maximizing liner shipping problem with flexible frequencies: logistical and environmental considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giovannini, Massimo; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2018-01-01

    for the ship operator and as a result they typically minimize costs. This treatment does not capture a fundamental characteristic of shipping market behavior, that ships tend to speed up in periods of high freight rates and slow down in depressed market conditions. This paper develops a simple model...... for a fixed route scenario which, among other things, incorporates the influence of freight rates, along with that of fuel prices and cargo inventory costs into the overall decision process. The objective to be maximized is the line’s average daily profit. Departing from convention, the model is also able...... to consider flexible service frequencies, to be selected from a broader set than the standard assumption of one call per week. It is shown that this may lead to better solutions and that the cost of forcing a fixed frequency can be significant. Such cost is attributed either to additional fuel cost...

  3. Impact of subclinical mastitis on greenhouse gas emissions intensity and profitability of dairy cows in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Gülzari, Şeyda; Vosough Ahmadi, Bouda; Stott, Alistair W

    2018-02-01

    Impaired animal health causes both productivity and profitability losses on dairy farms, resulting in inefficient use of inputs and increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced per unit of product (i.e. emissions intensity). Here, we used subclinical mastitis as an exemplar to benchmark alternative scenarios against an economic optimum and adjusted herd structure to estimate the GHG emissions intensity associated with varying levels of disease. Five levels of somatic cell count (SCC) classes were considered namely 50,000 (i.e. SCC50), 200,000, 400,000, 600,000 and 800,000cells/mL (milliliter) of milk. The effects of varying levels of SCC on milk yield reduction and consequential milk price penalties were used in a dynamic programming (DP) model that maximizes the profit per cow, represented as expected net present value, by choosing optimal animal replacement rates. The GHG emissions intensities associated with different levels of SCC were then computed using a farm-scale model (HolosNor). The total culling rates of both primiparous (PP) and multiparous (MP) cows for the five levels of SCC scenarios estimated by the model varied from a minimum of 30.9% to a maximum of 43.7%. The expected profit was the highest for cows with SCC200 due to declining margin over feed, which influenced the DP model to cull and replace more animals and generate higher profit under this scenario compared to SCC50. The GHG emission intensities for the PP and MP cows with SCC50 were 1.01kg (kilogram) and 0.95kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO 2 e) per kg fat and protein corrected milk (FPCM), respectively, with the lowest emissions being achieved in SCC50. Our results show that there is a potential to reduce the farm GHG emissions intensity by 3.7% if the milk production was improved through reducing the level of SCC to 50,000cells/mL in relation to SCC level 800,000cells/mL. It was concluded that preventing and/or controlling subclinical mastitis consequently reduces the GHG

  4. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-03-28

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. On Profit-Maximizing Pricing for the Highway and Tollbooth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbassioni, Khaled; Raman, Rajiv; Ray, Saurabh; Sitters, René

    In the tollbooth problem on trees, we are given a tree T= (V,E) with n edges, and a set of m customers, each of whom is interested in purchasing a path on the graph. Each customer has a fixed budget, and the objective is to price the edges of T such that the total revenue made by selling the paths to the customers that can afford them is maximized. An important special case of this problem, known as the highway problem, is when T is restricted to be a line. For the tollbooth problem, we present an O(logn)-approximation, improving on the current best O(logm)-approximation. We also study a special case of the tollbooth problem, when all the paths that customers are interested in purchasing go towards a fixed root of T. In this case, we present an algorithm that returns a (1 - ɛ)-approximation, for any ɛ> 0, and runs in quasi-polynomial time. On the other hand, we rule out the existence of an FPTAS by showing that even for the line case, the problem is strongly NP-hard. Finally, we show that in the discount model, when we allow some items to be priced below zero to improve the overall profit, the problem becomes even APX-hard.

  7. Maximizing Total Profit in Two-agent Problem of Order Acceptance and Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reisi-Nafchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In competitive markets, attracting potential customers and keeping current customers is a survival condition for each company. So, paying attention to the requests of customers is important and vital. In this paper, the problem of order acceptance and scheduling has been studied, in which two types of customers or agents compete in a single machine environment. The objective is maximizing sum of the total profit of first agent's accepted orders and the total revenue of second agent. Therefore, only the first agent has penalty and its penalty function is lateness and the second agent's orders have a common due date and this agent does not accept any tardy order. To solve the problem, a mathematical programming, a heuristic algorithm and a pseudo-polynomial dynamic programming algorithm are proposed. Computational results confirm the ability of solving all problem instances up to 70 orders size optimally and also 93.12% of problem instances up to 150 orders size by dynamic programming.

  8. Using and comparing metaheuristic algorithms for optimizing bidding strategy viewpoint of profit maximization of generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hosein; Nazemi, Ali; Hafezalkotob, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    With the formation of the competitive electricity markets in the world, optimization of bidding strategies has become one of the main discussions in studies related to market designing. Market design is challenged by multiple objectives that need to be satisfied. The solution of those multi-objective problems is searched often over the combined strategy space, and thus requires the simultaneous optimization of multiple parameters. The problem is formulated analytically using the Nash equilibrium concept for games composed of large numbers of players having discrete and large strategy spaces. The solution methodology is based on a characterization of Nash equilibrium in terms of minima of a function and relies on a metaheuristic optimization approach to find these minima. This paper presents some metaheuristic algorithms to simulate how generators bid in the spot electricity market viewpoint of their profit maximization according to the other generators' strategies, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA) and hybrid simulated annealing genetic algorithm (HSAGA) and compares their results. As both GA and SA are generic search methods, HSAGA is also a generic search method. The model based on the actual data is implemented in a peak hour of Tehran's wholesale spot market in 2012. The results of the simulations show that GA outperforms SA and HSAGA on computing time, number of function evaluation and computing stability, as well as the results of calculated Nash equilibriums by GA are less various and different from each other than the other algorithms.

  9. AN APPRAISAL OF INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES. APPENDIX TO FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    TWENTY-TWO OHIO HIGH SCHOOLS OFFERING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TO 262 JUNIOR AND SENIOR STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY TO MEASURE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FARM MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS DESIGNED TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF BASIC PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES WHEN USED IN TEACHING VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS IN THE SCHOOL…

  10. AN APPRAISAL OF INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.; BENDER, RALPH E.

    TWENTY-TWO SELECTED OHIO VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS AND 262 JUNIOR AND SENIOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN A STUDY TO MEASURE THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF NEWLY DEVELOPED INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS DESIGNED TO ENHANCE STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN FARM MANAGEMENT. FARM MANAGEMENT WAS TAUGHT IN THE…

  11. Contracting under asymmetric holding cost information in a serial supply chain with a nearly profit maximizing buyer

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Voigt

    2012-01-01

    Screening contracts (or non-linear "menu of contracts") are frequently used for aligning the incentives in supply chains with private information. In this context, it is assumed that all supply chain parties are strictly (expected) profit maximizing and, therefore, sensible to even arbitrarily small pay-off differences between contract alternatives. However, previous behavioral work on contracting under asymmetric information in supply chains shows that agents (buyers) are not always strictly...

  12. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  13. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  14. Joint optimization of customer segmentation and marketing policy to maximize long-term profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-J. Jonker (Jedid-Jah); N. Piersma (Nanda); D. Van den Poel (Dirk)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWith the advent of one-to-one marketing media, e.g. targeted direct mail or internet marketing, the opportunities to develop targeted marketing campaigns are enhanced in such a way that it is now both organizationally and economically feasible to profitably support a substantially larger

  15. Open pit mining profit maximization considering selling stage and waste rehabilitation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttaqin, B. I. A.; Rosyidi, C. N.

    2017-11-01

    In open pit mining activities, determination of the cut-off grade becomes crucial for the company since the cut-off grade affects how much profit will be earned for the mining company. In this study, we developed a cut-off grade determination mode for the open pit mining industry considering the cost of mining, waste removal (rehabilitation) cost, processing cost, fixed cost, and selling stage cost. The main goal of this study is to develop a model of cut-off grade determination to get the maximum total profit. Secondly, this study is also developed to observe the model of sensitivity based on changes in the cost components. The optimization results show that the models can help mining company managers to determine the optimal cut-off grade and also estimate how much profit that can be earned by the mining company. To illustrate the application of the models, a numerical example and a set of sensitivity analysis are presented. From the results of sensitivity analysis, we conclude that the changes in the sales price greatly affects the optimal cut-off value and the total profit.

  16. Optimization of enrichment zones that maximize the regeneration profits in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachic, J.

    1983-01-01

    Using a simplified model of Super Phenix reactor, the admissible limits of internal and external enrichment core without control rods, that assure an auto-stability related to fuel Doppler coefficient were determined. A Linear Programming System was developed to solve this problem, using the SIMPLEX method. The solution showed that the regeneration profits could be increased at least in 14% if the internal enrichment core decrease 0.97 and the external 0.3%. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Removal intensity and tree size effects on harvesting cost and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kluender; D. Lortz; W. McCoy; B. Stokes; J. Klepac

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen stands were harvested at intensities (proportion of basal area removed) ranging from 0.27 to 1.00. Logging contractors used chain saws and rubber-tired skidders. Harvested sites were similar in slope and tree size. Harvest cost per hundred cubic feet of wood (CCF) was inversely related to harvest intensity and tree size. Harvesting profitability per CCF was...

  18. Profit maximization algorithms for utility companies in an oligopolistic energy market with dynamic prices and intelligent users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiansong Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic energy pricing provides a promising solution for the utility companies to incentivize energy users to perform demand side management in order to minimize their electric bills. Moreover, the emerging decentralized smart grid, which is a likely infrastructure scenario for future electrical power networks, allows energy consumers to select their energy provider from among multiple utility companies in any billing period. This paper thus starts by considering an oligopolistic energy market with multiple non-cooperative (competitive utility companies, and addresses the problem of determining dynamic energy prices for every utility company in this market based on a modified Bertrand Competition Model of user behaviors. Two methods of dynamic energy pricing are proposed for a utility company to maximize its total profit. The first method finds the greatest lower bound on the total profit that can be achieved by the utility company, whereas the second method finds the best response of a utility company to dynamic pricing policies that the other companies have adopted in previous billing periods. To exploit the advantages of each method while compensating their shortcomings, an adaptive dynamic pricing policy is proposed based on a machine learning technique, which finds a good balance between invocations of the two aforesaid methods. Experimental results show that the adaptive policy results in consistently high profit for the utility company no matter what policies are employed by the other companies.

  19. Optimum hub height of a wind turbine for maximizing annual net profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehwan; Kim, Dong Rip; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Annual Net Profit was proposed to optimize the hub height of a wind turbine. • Procedures of the hub height optimization method were introduced. • Effect of local wind speed characteristics on optimum hub height was illustrated. • Effect of rated power on optimum hub height was negligible in the range 0.75–3 MW. • Rated speed and cut-out speed had great effects on optimum hub height. - Abstract: The optimization method of the hub height, which can ensure the economic feasibility of the wind turbine, is proposed in this study. Annual Net Profit is suggested as an objective function and the optimization procedure is developed. The effects of local wind speed and wind turbine power characteristics on the optimum hub height are investigated. The optimum hub height decreased as the mean wind speed and wind shear exponent increased. Rated power had little effect on optimum hub height; it follows that the economies of scale are negligible in the rated power range of 0.75–3 MW. Among the wind turbine power characteristics, rated speed and cut-out speed most strongly affected the optimum hub height

  20. Net returns, fiscal risks, and the optimal patient mix for a profit-maximizing hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozatalay, S; Broyles, R

    1987-10-01

    As is well recognized, the provisions of PL98-21 not only transfer financial risks from the Medicare program to the hospital but also induce institutions to adjust the diagnostic mix of Medicare beneficiaries so as to maximize net income or minimize the net loss. This paper employs variation in the set of net returns as the sole measure of financial risk and develops a model that identifies the mix of beneficiaries that maximizes net income, subject to a given level of risk. The results indicate that the provisions of PL98-21 induce the institution to deny admission to elderly patients presenting conditions for which the net return is relatively low and the variance in the cost per case is large. Further, the paper suggests that the treatment of beneficiaries at a level commensurate with previous periods or the preferences of physicians may jeopardize the viability and solvency of Medicare-dependent hospitals.

  1. How can dairies maximize their profits and properly remunerate their dairy farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cedric Möller Meneghini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The current pricing process of raw milk in Brazil discourages producers from improving milk composition, which affects both yield and quality of dairy products. Furthermore, small and medium-sized dairies face great difficulties when it comes to planning production. Thus, a linear programming model was developed to price the raw milk and determine the optimal mix (combination of quantities of dairy products that maximizes total contribution margin (TCM under daily scenarios of high (January and low (July raw milk supplies (summer and winter, respectively by comparing optimal solutions with actual results. The TCM of optimal and actual mixes were higher in January due to the greater availability of raw material. Packaging was a limiting factor in the production of cheese in optimal mixes. The relationship between unit contribution margin (UCM and the required amount of raw materials per product unit and resource availability is crucial to defining the mix of dairy products and TCM of the dairy. Casein and raw milk volume showed shadow prices. Under both scenarios, the calculated prices of raw milk were higher than the prices charged by the dairy and were higher in January. The proposed model remunerates the producers based on the quantity and quality of raw milk. The dairy can maximize its TCM by better planning its mix of products with the use of linear programming.

  2. Including nonadditive genetic effects in mating programs to maximize dairy farm profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliloo, H; Pryce, J E; González-Recio, O; Cocks, B G; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J

    2017-02-01

    We compared the outcome of mating programs based on different evaluation models that included nonadditive genetic effects (dominance and heterozygosity) in addition to additive effects. The additive and dominance marker effects and the values of regression on average heterozygosity were estimated using 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 7,902 and 7,510 Holstein cows with calving interval and production (milk, fat, and protein yields) records, respectively. Expected progeny values were computed based on the estimated genetic effects and genotype probabilities of hypothetical progeny from matings between the available genotyped cows and the top 50 young genomic bulls. An index combining the traits based on their economic values was developed and used to evaluate the performance of different mating scenarios in terms of dollar profit. We observed that mating programs with nonadditive genetic effects performed better than a model with only additive effects. Mating programs with dominance and heterozygosity effects increased milk, fat, and protein yields by up to 38, 1.57, and 1.21 kg, respectively. The inclusion of dominance and heterozygosity effects decreased calving interval by up to 0.70 d compared with random mating. The average reduction in progeny inbreeding by the inclusion of nonadditive genetic effects in matings compared with random mating was between 0.25 to 1.57 and 0.64 to 1.57 percentage points for calving interval and production traits, respectively. The reduction in inbreeding was accompanied by an average of A$8.42 (Australian dollars) more profit per mating for a model with additive, dominance, and heterozygosity effects compared with random mating. Mate allocations that benefit from nonadditive genetic effects can improve progeny performance only in the generation where it is being implemented, and the gain from specific combining abilities cannot be accumulated over generations. Continuous updating of genomic predictions and mate

  3. Staffing to Maximize Profit for Call Centers with Impatient and Repeat-Calling Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by call center practice, we study the optimal staffing of many-server queues with impatient and repeat-calling customers. A call center is modeled as an M/M/s+M queue, which is developed to a behavioral queuing model in which customers come and go based on their satisfaction with waiting time. We explicitly take into account customer repeat behavior, which implies that satisfied customers might return and have an impact on the arrival rate. Optimality is defined as the number of agents that maximize revenues net of staffing costs, and we account for the characteristic that revenues are a direct function of staffing. Finally, we use numerical experiments to make certain comparisons with traditional models that do not consider customer repeat behavior. Furthermore, we indicate how managers might allocate staffing optimally with various customer behavior mechanisms.

  4. FUSE: a profit maximization approach for functional summarization of biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seah Boon-Siew

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein interaction network (PPI using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of PPIS remains a daunting task as it is challenging to make sense out of the deluge of high-dimensional interaction data. Specifically, techniques that automatically abstract and summarize PPIS at multiple resolutions to provide high level views of its functional landscape are still lacking. We present a novel data-driven and generic algorithm called FUSE (Functional Summary Generator that generates functional maps of a PPI at different levels of organization, from broad process-process level interactions to in-depth complex-complex level interactions, through a pro t maximization approach that exploits Minimum Description Length (MDL principle to maximize information gain of the summary graph while satisfying the level of detail constraint. Results We evaluate the performance of FUSE on several real-world PPIS. We also compare FUSE to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment by constructing the biological process landscape of the PPIS. Using AD network as our case study, we further demonstrate the ability of FUSE to quickly summarize the network and identify many different processes and complexes that regulate it. Finally, we study the higher-order connectivity of the human PPI. Conclusion By simultaneously evaluating interaction and annotation data, FUSE abstracts higher-order interaction maps by reducing the details of the underlying PPI to form a functional summary graph of interconnected functional clusters. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness and superiority over state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment.

  5. FUSE: a profit maximization approach for functional summarization of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Boon-Siew; Bhowmick, Sourav S; Dewey, C Forbes; Yu, Hanry

    2012-03-21

    The availability of large-scale curated protein interaction datasets has given rise to the opportunity to investigate higher level organization and modularity within the protein interaction network (PPI) using graph theoretic analysis. Despite the recent progress, systems level analysis of PPIS remains a daunting task as it is challenging to make sense out of the deluge of high-dimensional interaction data. Specifically, techniques that automatically abstract and summarize PPIS at multiple resolutions to provide high level views of its functional landscape are still lacking. We present a novel data-driven and generic algorithm called FUSE (Functional Summary Generator) that generates functional maps of a PPI at different levels of organization, from broad process-process level interactions to in-depth complex-complex level interactions, through a pro t maximization approach that exploits Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to maximize information gain of the summary graph while satisfying the level of detail constraint. We evaluate the performance of FUSE on several real-world PPIS. We also compare FUSE to state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment by constructing the biological process landscape of the PPIS. Using AD network as our case study, we further demonstrate the ability of FUSE to quickly summarize the network and identify many different processes and complexes that regulate it. Finally, we study the higher-order connectivity of the human PPI. By simultaneously evaluating interaction and annotation data, FUSE abstracts higher-order interaction maps by reducing the details of the underlying PPI to form a functional summary graph of interconnected functional clusters. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness and superiority over state-of-the-art graph clustering methods with GO term enrichment.

  6. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  7. Petroleum industry is cleaning up its act -- Self-cleaning filters to maximize profits, minimize waste and reduce liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent steps taken by the petroleum industry to control end-of-pipe pollution and to minimize waste at the source by changing over to self-cleaning, backwashable filters instead of the traditional disposable filters such as bags or cartridges, are discussed. Various self-cleaning filter systems and their advantages are described, using REACTOGARD which provides total protection for catalysts in fixed-bed reactors and EROSIONGARD, used in fluidized catalytic crackers, as examples. Both filter systems have been developed by RPA Process Technologies, Inc., a global leader in industrial filtration systems. Major advantages attributed to self-cleaning filters include significantly reduced costs through reducing the number of catalyst change-out cycles, maximized platform productivity through virtually eliminating the risk of plugged wells, reduced waste through ability to recycle cleaning liquids, increased profits through shorter return-on-investment cycles, reduced emissions and reduced future liability through higher safety in the workplace; also reduced pollution of landfill sites. 1 photo

  8. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  9. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  10. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  11. Combined Use of Mathematical Optimization and Design of Experiments for the Maximization of Profit in a Four-Echelon Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arturo Olivares Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a location-allocation model to optimize a four-echelon supply chain network, addressing manufacturing and distribution centers location, supplier selection and flow allocation for raw materials from suppliers to manufacturers, and finished products for end customers, while searching for system profit maximization. A fractional-factorial design of experiments is performed to analyze the effects of capacity, quality, delivery time, and interest rate on profit and system performance. The model is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming problem and solved by using well-known commercial software. The usage of factorial experiments combined with mathematical optimization is a novel approach to address supply chain network design problems. The application of the proposed model to a case study shows that this combination of techniques yields satisfying results in terms of both its behavior and the obtained managerial insights. An ANOVA analysis is executed to quantify the effects of each factor and their interactions. In the analyzed case study, the transportation cost is the most relevant cost component, and the most relevant opportunity for profit improvement is found in the factor of quality. The proposed combination of methods can be adapted to different problems and industries.

  12. Sponsorship for the Sustainability of Historical-Architectural Heritage: Application of a Model’s Original Test Finalized to Maximize the Profitability of Private Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Dolores

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with private sponsorship as a tool for the redevelopment of Italy’s vast wealth of historical-architectural public heritage sites. Italian law provides for the stipulation of sponsorship agreements by and between public sector agencies or entities (which need financial resources to restore or re-qualify property and private sector investors (which guarantee the capital sought by the public sector in exchange for significant returns on their investments raising various economic issues, particularly in connection with the profitability thresholds for private sector investors in return for the public sector’s use of their financial resources. In this paper, the authors focus on how private sector investors determine how much of their businesses turnover constitutes the optimal percentage level of overall income that may be invested in sponsorships to maximize business profitability. For this purpose, a model based on past works on the subject (Bucci et al., 2003 has been chosen by the authors. Such model gives a solution for verifying a sponsorship’s profitability. This model is static and is applicable to single-product companies that invest in sponsorships, under the theories of monopolistic competition and of Cobb-Douglas production function. Our objectives are to present this model, explaining in detail the mathematical steps, simplifying the model where possible in order to reduce the levels of complexity in its application, and finally to apply it to real case scenarios of cultural sponsorships.

  13. Intracyclic Velocity Variation of the Center of Mass and Hip in Breaststroke Swimming With Maximal Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Koulexidis, Stylianos; Gketzenis, Panagiotis; Tzouras, Grigoris

    2018-03-01

    Gourgoulis, V, Koulexidis, S, Gketzenis, P, and Tzouras, G. Intra-cyclic velocity variation of the center of mass and hip in breaststroke swimming with maximal intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 830-840, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the center of mass (CM) and hip (HIP) intracyclic velocity variation in breaststroke swimming using 3-dimensional kinematic analysis. Nine male breaststrokes, of moderate performance level, swam 25-m breaststroke with maximal intensity, and their movements were recorded, both under and above the water surface, using 8 digital cameras. Their CM and HIP velocities and their intracyclic variations were estimated after manual digitization of 28 selected points on the body in a complete arm and leg breaststroke cycle. Paired sample t-tests or Wilcoxon tests, when the assumption of normality was broken, were used for statistical analyses. In both, CM and HIP velocity-time curves, the results revealed a similar pattern of 2 clear peaks associated with the leg and arm propulsive phases and 2 minimal velocities that corresponded to the arm and leg recovery phase and the lag time between the leg and arm propulsive phases, respectively. However, despite this similar general pattern, the HIP minimum resultant velocity was significantly lower, whereas its maximal value was significantly greater, than the corresponding CM values. Consequently, the HIP intracyclic swimming velocity fluctuation significantly overestimates the actual variation of the swimmer's velocity in breaststroke swimming.

  14. On maximizing profit of wind-battery supported power station based on wind power and energy price forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Aguilera, Ricardo P.; Savkin, Andrey V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to develop an optimal power dispatch strategy for grid-connected wind power plants containing a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). Considering the intermittent nature of wind power and rapidly varying electricity market price, short-term forecasting...... Dynamic Programming tool which can incorporate the predictions of both wind power and market price simultaneously as inputs in a receding horizon approach. The proposed strategy is validated using real electricity market price and wind power data in different scenarios of BESS power and capacity...... of these variables is used for efficient energy management. The predicted variability trends in market price assist in earning additional income which subsequently increase the operational profit. Then on the basis of income improvement, optimal capacity of the BESS can be determined. The proposed framework utilizes...

  15. Representing a Model Using Data Mining Approach for Maximizing Profit with Considering Product Assortment and Space Allocation Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of which products to stock among numerous competing products and how much space to allocate to those products are central decisions for retailers. This study aimed to apply data mining approach so that, we got needed information from large datasets of sale transactions to find the relations between products and to make product assortments. Thus, we represented a model for product assortment and space allocation. Research population was transactional data of a store, the sample included transactional data of one-month period in the time series. Data were collected in October and November, 2015 from Shaghayegh store. 525 transactions with regard to 79 different products were analyzed. Based on the result 10 product assortments formed although some products were allocated to more than 1 product category. By solving profit equation and finding volume increase indices we allocated spaces for each product assortment.

  16. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam; Skovborg, Camilla; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-04-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fat Max ) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal-weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of Fat Max in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (age: 28 (26-29) years; body mass index: 36 (35-38) kg·m -2 ; 95% confidence interval) on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which Fat Max was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10 min of continuous exercise at 35%, 50%, and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between the protocols were 0.75 and 0.72 and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) was 5 (3-7)%. A Bland-Altman plot revealed a bias of -3% points of maximal oxygen uptake (limits of agreement: -12 to 7). A tendency towards a systematic difference (p = 0.06) was observed, where Fat Max occurred at 42 (40-44)% and 45 (43-47)% of maximal oxygen uptake with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the 2 protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend towards systematic difference between the protocols reveal that further optimization of the graded exercise protocol is needed to improve validity.

  17. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Profit and loss analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU in Japan: a tool for strategic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate cost estimate and a profit and loss analysis are necessary for health care practice. We performed an actual financial analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU of a university hospital in Japan, and tried to discuss the health care policy and resource allocation decisions that have an impact on critical intensive care. Methods The costs were estimated by a department level activity based costing method, and the profit and loss analysis was based on a break-even point analysis. The data used included the monthly number of patients, the revenue, and the direct and indirect costs of the ICU in 2003. Results The results of this analysis showed that the total costs of US$ 2,678,052 of the ICU were mainly incurred due to direct costs of 88.8%. On the other hand, the actual annual total patient days in the ICU were 1,549 which resulted in revenues of US$ 2,295,044. However, it was determined that the ICU required at least 1,986 patient days within one fiscal year based on a break-even point analysis. As a result, an annual deficit of US$ 383,008 has occurred in the ICU. Conclusion These methods are useful for determining the profits or losses for the ICU practice, and how to evaluate and to improve it. In this study, the results indicate that most ICUs in Japanese hospitals may not be profitable at the present time. As a result, in order to increase the income to make up for this deficit, an increase of 437 patient days in the ICU in one fiscal year is needed, and the number of patients admitted to the ICU should thus be increased without increasing the number of beds or staff members. Increasing the number of patients referred from cooperating hospitals and clinics therefore appears to be the best strategy for achieving these goals.

  19. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  20. Profitability indicators of milk production cost center in intensive systems of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to estimate some profitability indicators of dairy cost center farms with a high volume of daily production in feedlot. The Intended was also to identify the components that had the greatest influence on the operational cost. We used data from three milk systems production, with the origin of the purebred Holsteins. It was considered as a milk cost center production all expenses related in lactating and dry cows. The methodology used total cost and operating cost in profitability analysis. A production system, by presenting gross margin, net positive result, was able to produce short, medium and long term. Another production system had a positive gross margin and net, with conditions to survive in the short and medium term. Finally, the third system of production has shown a negative gross margin presenting decapitalizing and entering into debt, as revenues were not enough to pay operating expenses even effective. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised higher “impact” cost and income from milk were, in decreasing order, the feeding, labor, miscellaneous expenses, sanitation, energy, milking, reproduction, equipment rental, BST and taxes.

  1. Profit intensity and cases of non-compliance with the law of demand/supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Marcin; Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan; Syska, Jacek

    2017-05-01

    We consider properties of the measurement intensity ρ of a random variable for which the probability density function represented by the corresponding Wigner function attains negative values on a part of the domain. We consider a simple economic interpretation of this problem. This model is used to present the applicability of the method to the analysis of the negative probability on markets where there are anomalies in the law of supply and demand (e.g. Giffen's goods). It turns out that the new conditions to optimize the intensity ρ require a new strategy. We propose a strategy (so-called à rebours strategy) based on the fixed point method and explore its effectiveness.

  2. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencse-Mucha Judit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4. Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.

  3. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874

  4. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT). Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; [Formula: see text], 44 ± 11 mL kg -1 ·min -1 ) underwent 8 weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either: (1) HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n = 8), (2) work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n = 7), or (3) RT performed alone (RT group, n = 8). Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM) strength, CMJ performance and body composition (DXA) were obtained before (PRE), mid-way (MID), and after (POST) training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ± 90% confidence interval; 38.5 ± 8.5%; effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval; 1.26 ± 0.24; P body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ± 2.0%; ES; 0.33 ± 0.16; P = 0.023) and MICT+RT (3.6 ± 2.4%; ES; 0.45 ± 0.30; P = 0.052); however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ± 1.6%; ES; 0.13 ± 0.12; P = 0.069). We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work-matched MICT similarly attenuates improvements in maximal lower-body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  5. A Novel Intensive Distribution Logistics Network Design and Profit Allocation Problem considering Sharing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Gan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of logistics distribution highlights the problems including the imperfect infrastructure of logistics distribution network, the serious shortage of distribution capacity of each individual enterprise, and the high cost of distribution in China. While the development of sharing economy makes it possible to achieve the integration of whole social logistic resources, big data technology can grasp customer’s logistics demand accurately on the basis of analyzing the customer’s logistics distribution preference, which contributes to the integration and optimization of the whole logistics resources. This paper proposes a kind of intensive distribution logistics network considering sharing economy, which assumes that all the social logistics suppliers build a strategic alliance, and individual idle logistics resources are also used to deal with distribution needs. Analyzing customer shopping behavior by the big data technology to determine customer’s logistics preference on the basis of dividing the customer’s logistics preference into high speed, low cost, and low pollution and then constructing the corresponding objective function model according to different logistics preferences, we obtain the intensive distribution logistics network model and solve it with heuristic algorithm. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mechanism of interest distribution of the participants in the distribution network and puts forward an improved interval Shapley value method considering both satisfaction and contribution, with case verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the model. The results showed that, compared with the traditional Shapley method, distribution coefficient calculated by the improved model could be fairer, improve stakeholder satisfaction, and promote the sustainable development of the alliance as well.

  6. Effects of volume-based overload plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.

  7. Maximal intensity higher-order Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and their systematic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Siu A., E-mail: chin@physics.tamu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ashour, Omar A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Nikolić, Stanko N. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Belić, Milivoj R. [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar)

    2016-10-23

    It is well known that Akhmediev breathers of the nonlinear cubic Schrödinger equation can be superposed nonlinearly via the Darboux transformation to yield breathers of higher order. Surprisingly, we find that the peak height of each Akhmediev breather only adds linearly to form the peak height of the final breather. Using this peak-height formula, we show that at any given periodicity, there exists a unique high-order breather of maximal intensity. Moreover, these high-order breathers form a continuous hierarchy, growing in intensity with increasing periodicity. For any such higher-order breather, a simple initial wave function can be extracted from the Darboux transformation to dynamically generate that breather from the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. - Highlights: • Proved an analytical formula for the peak-height of an nth-order Akhmediev breather. • Constructed nth-order Akhmediev breathers of maximal peak intensity. • Extracted initial wave functions that can be used experimentally to produce these maximal breathers in optical fibers.

  8. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2017-01-01

    . The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which FatMax was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10-min continuous exercise at 35, 50 and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between......2max with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the two protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend...

  9. Combining purpose with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the

  10. The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during short-duration maximal-intensity intermittent cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael; Moir, Gavin L

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of fatigue measures, as derived from 4 separate formulae, during tests of repeat sprint ability. On separate days over a 3-week period, 2 groups of 7 recreationally active men completed 6 trials of 1 of 2 maximal (20 x 5 seconds) intermittent cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 or 30 seconds). All trials were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer, and fatigue scores were derived from measures of mean power output for each sprint. Apart from formula 1, which calculated fatigue from the percentage difference in mean power output between the first and last sprint, all remaining formulae produced fatigue scores that showed a reasonably good level of test-retest reliability in both intermittent test protocols (intraclass correlation range: 0.78-0.86; 95% likely range of true values: 0.54-0.97). Although between-protocol differences in the magnitude of the fatigue scores suggested good construct validity, within-protocol differences highlighted limitations with each formula. Overall, the results support the use of the percentage decrement score as the most valid and reliable measure of fatigue during brief maximal intermittent work.

  11. The effects of three days of sub-maximal-intensity mountain biking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pro- posed that each individual has a threshold of duration and intensity of exercise. Once this threshold is exceeded, sleep is negatively af- fected by the exercise. Possibly the most physically taxing exercise events are multi- day stage races of either cross-country skiing, running, road cycling, mountain biking or adventure ...

  12. Determining the amount of rumen-protected methionine supplement that corresponds to the optimal levels of methionine in metabolizable protein for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Overton, T R; Schwab, C G; Tauer, L W

    2007-10-01

    The profitability of feeding rumen-protected Met (RPMet) sources to produce milk protein was estimated using a 2-step procedure: First, the effect of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) on milk protein production was estimated by using a quadratic Box-Cox functional form. Then, using these estimation results, the amounts of RPMet supplement that corresponded to the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms were determined. The data used in this study were modified from data used to determine the optimal level of Met in MP for lactating cows in the Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (NRC, 2001). The data used in this study differ from that in the NRC (2001) data in 2 ways. First, because dairy feed generally contains 1.80 to 1.90% Met in MP, this study adjusts the reference production value (RPV) from 2.06 to 1.80 or 1.90%. Consequently, the milk protein production response is also modified to an RPV of 1.80 or 1.90% Met in MP. Second, because this study is especially interested in how much additional Met, beyond the 1.80 or 1.90% already contained in the basal diet, is required to maximize farm profits, the data used are limited to concentrations of Met in MP above 1.80 or 1.90%. This allowed us to calculate any additional cost to farmers based solely on the price of an RPMet supplement and eliminated the need to estimate the dollar value of each gram of Met already contained in the basal diet. Results indicated that the optimal level of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production was 2.40 and 2.42%, where the RPV was 1.80 and 1.90%, respectively. These optimal levels were almost identical to the recommended level of Met in MP of 2.40% in the NRC (2001). The amounts of RPMet required to increase the percentage of Met in MP from each RPV to 2.40 and 2.42% were 21.6 and 18.5 g/d, respectively. On the other hand, the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing profit were 2.32 and 2.34%, respectively. The amounts

  13. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  14. Focus On Impact for a Profit-Driven Medical Practice. Part II: Six Processes You Can Use to Maximize and Capitalize on the Uniqueness of Your Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton-Dibner, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the second part of the proven Focus on Impact strategic model for practice growth. It spotlights six specific processes you can use to maximize and capitalize on the uniqueness of your practice to increase revenues, enhance patient care and service, improve executive team alignment and intra- and interdepartmental teamwork, and dramatically reduce conflict and stress among practice personnel.

  15. Endurance training intensity does not mediate interference to maximal lower-body strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson J Fyfe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of concurrent training incorporating either high-intensity interval training (HIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on maximal strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance, and body composition adaptations, compared with single-mode resistance training (RT. Twenty-three recreationally-active males (mean ± SD: age, 29.6 ± 5.5 y; V ̇O 2peak, 44 ± 11 mL∙kg-1•min-1 were ranked by one-repetition maximum (1-RM leg press strength and randomly allocated tounderwent 8 weeks (3 sessions•wk-1 of either: 1 HIT combined with RT (HIT+RT group, n=8, 2 work-matched MICT combined with RT (MICT+RT group, n=7, or 3 RT performed alone (RT group, n=8. Measures of aerobic capacity, maximal (1-RM strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ performance and body composition (DXA were obtained before (PRE, mid-way (MID, and after (POST eight weeks of training. Maximal (one-repetition maximum [1-RM] leg press strength was improved from PRE to POST for RT (mean change ±90% confidence interval; 38.5 ±8.5%; effect size [ES] ±90% confidence interval; 1.26 ±0.24; P<0.001, HIT+RT (28.7 ±5.3%; ES, 1.17 ±0.19; P<0.001 and MICT+RT (27.5 ±4.6%, ES, 0.81 ±0.12; P<0.001; however, the magnitude of this change was greater for RT vs. both HIT+RT (7.4 ±8.7%; ES, 0.40 ±0.40 and MICT+RT (8.2 ±9.9%; ES, 0.60 ±0.45. There were no substantial between-group differences in 1-RM bench press strength gain. RT induced greater changes in peak CMJ force vs. HIT+RT (6.8 ±4.5%; ES, 0.41 ±0.28 and MICT+RT (9.9 ±11.2%; ES, 0.54 ±0.65, and greater improvements in maximal CMJ rate of force development (RFD vs. HIT+RT (24.1 ±26.1%; ES, 0.72 ±0.88. Lower-body lean mass was similarly increased for RT (4.1 ±2.0%; ES; 0.33 ±0.16; P=0.023 and MICT+RT (3.6 ±2.4%; ES; 0.45 ±0.30; P=0.052; however, this change was attenuated for HIT+RT (1.8 ±1.6%; ES; 0.13 ±0.12; P=0.069. We conclude that concurrent training incorporating either HIT or work

  16. Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; González-Jurado, José Antonio; Martínez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Peñailillo, Luis; Meylan, Cesar M P; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; Moran, Jason; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of a six-week plyometric training and creatine supplementation intervention on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during in-season training. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Young (age 22.9±2.5y) female players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to a plyometric training group receiving placebo (PLACEBO, n=10), a plyometric training group receiving creatine supplementation (CREATINE, n=10) or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric program (CONTROL, n=10). Athletes were evaluated for jumping, maximal and repeated sprinting, endurance and change-of-direction speed performance before and after six weeks of training. After intervention the CONTROL group did not change, whereas both plyometric training groups improved jumps (ES=0.25-0.49), sprint (ES=0.35-0.41), repeated sprinting (ES=0.48-0.55), endurance (ES=0.32-0.34) and change-of-direction speed performance (ES=0.46-0.55). However, the CREATINE group improved more in the jumps and repeated sprinting performance tests than the CONTROL and the PLACEBO groups. Adaptations to plyometric training may be enhanced with creatine supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-05-01

    During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  19. Effects of Plyometric Training and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Maximal-Intensity Exercise and Endurance in Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas Fabián

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8, a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8, or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9. Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0, sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78, repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91, 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45, endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37, and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58, whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.

  20. Effects of Plyometric Training and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Maximal-Intensity Exercise and Endurance in Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Fabián; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; McCrudden, Emma; Meylan, Cesar; Moran, Jason; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu; Diaz, Daniela; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years) were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8), a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9). Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0), sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78), repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91), 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45), endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37), and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58), whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.

  1. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  2. Direct reconstruction of the source intensity distribution of a clinical linear accelerator using a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaconstadopoulos, P; Levesque, I R; Maglieri, R; Seuntjens, J

    2016-02-07

    Direct determination of the source intensity distribution of clinical linear accelerators is still a challenging problem for small field beam modeling. Current techniques most often involve special equipment and are difficult to implement in the clinic. In this work we present a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) approach to the source reconstruction problem utilizing small fields and a simple experimental set-up. The MLEM algorithm iteratively ray-traces photons from the source plane to the exit plane and extracts corrections based on photon fluence profile measurements. The photon fluence profiles were determined by dose profile film measurements in air using a high density thin foil as build-up material and an appropriate point spread function (PSF). The effect of other beam parameters and scatter sources was minimized by using the smallest field size ([Formula: see text] cm(2)). The source occlusion effect was reproduced by estimating the position of the collimating jaws during this process. The method was first benchmarked against simulations for a range of typical accelerator source sizes. The sources were reconstructed with an accuracy better than 0.12 mm in the full width at half maximum (FWHM) to the respective electron sources incident on the target. The estimated jaw positions agreed within 0.2 mm with the expected values. The reconstruction technique was also tested against measurements on a Varian Novalis Tx linear accelerator and compared to a previously commissioned Monte Carlo model. The reconstructed FWHM of the source agreed within 0.03 mm and 0.11 mm to the commissioned electron source in the crossplane and inplane orientations respectively. The impact of the jaw positioning, experimental and PSF uncertainties on the reconstructed source distribution was evaluated with the former presenting the dominant effect.

  3. MAXIMIZING PROFIT - OPTICAL TRADITIONAL TRAVEL AGENCIES EXCEEDED

    OpenAIRE

    ENEA CONSTANŢA; ENEA CONSTANTIN

    2013-01-01

    Recently concepts of globalized the services the advertising only that and substantial modifications, but that just radicals, in the structure net of touristic states. Is directed to of a new conceive the organic fashions of structures ale net of realized and of casting of guy colaborative, baze on interconexion, the interface and flexible interactions, from which his. I result the competitive advantages popularly the partners of business. The optics traditional agencies of tourings considere...

  4. The Profit-Maximizing Weber Problem

    OpenAIRE

    HANSEN, Pierre; PEETERS, Dominique; THISSE, Jacques-François

    1994-01-01

    We consider the location of a single-plant firm in a continuous space under five different pricing policies: (i) spatial discriminatory pricing; (ii) uniform delivered pricing; (iii) uniform mill pricing; (iv) zone pricing; and (v) mixed pricing where clients have the choice between pick-up or delivery. Global optimization methods are proposed for solving the cOlTesponding problems and numerical experiments are reported on.

  5. Effects of a high-intensity interval training program versus a moderate-intensity continuous training program on maximal oxygen uptake and blood pressure in healthy adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Serna, Víctor Hugo; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Gómez Arias, Rubén Darío; Feito, Yuri

    2016-08-18

    Participation in aerobic exercise generates increased cardiorespiratory fitness, which results in a protective factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. High-intensity interval training might cause higher increases in cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training; nevertheless, current evidence is not conclusive. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the effect of high-intensity interval training with total load duration of 7.5 min per session. A randomized controlled trial will be performed on two groups of healthy, sedentary male volunteers (n = 44). The study protocol will include 24 exercise sessions, three times a week, including aerobic training on a treadmill and strength training exercises. The intervention group will perform 15 bouts of 30 s, each at an intensity between 90 % and 95 % of maximal heart rate. The control group will complete 40 min of continuous exercise, ranging between 65 % and 75 % of maximal heart rate. The primary outcome measure to be evaluated will be maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be evaluated as secondary outcome measures. Waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition will also be evaluated. Epidemiological evidence shows the link between VO2max and its association with chronic conditions that trigger CVD. Therefore, finding ways to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure it is of vital importance to public health. NCT02288403 . Registered on 4 November 2014.

  6. Light intensity as major factor to maximize biomass and lipid productivity of Ettlia sp. in CO2-controlled photoautotrophic chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Hyun; Ha, Ji-San; Yoo, Chan; Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyun; La, Hyun-Joon; Han, Myung-Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-11-01

    The optimal culture conditions are critical factors for high microalgal biomass and lipid productivity. To optimize the photoautotrophic culture conditions, combination of the pH (regulated by CO 2 supply), dilution rate, and light intensity was systematically investigated for Ettlia sp. YC001 cultivation in a chemostat during 143days. The biomass productivity increased with the increase in dilution rate and light intensity, but decreased with increasing pH. The average lipid content was 19.8% and statistically non-variable among the tested conditions. The highest biomass and lipid productivities were 1.48gL -1 d -1 and 291.4mgL -1 d -1 with a pH of 6.5, dilution rate of 0.78d -1 , and light intensity of 1500μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 . With a sufficient supply of CO 2 and nutrients, the light intensity was the main determinant of the photosynthetic rate. Therefore, the surface-to-volume ratio of a photobioreactor should enable efficient light distribution to enhance microalgal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on Blood Fatigue Factors and Cytokines in Juvenile Athletes Submitted to Maximal Intensity Rowing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ga Hee; Woo, Jinhee; Kang, Sungwhun; Shin, Ki Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to understand the impacts of BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) and glutamine supplementation on the degree of blood fatigue factor stimulation and cytokines along with performance of exercise at the maximal intensity. [Subjects] Five male juvenile elite rowing athletes participated in this study as the subjects; they took 3 tests and received placebo supplementation (PS), BCAA supplementation (BS), and glutamine supplementation (GS). [Methods] The exercise applied in the tests was 2,000 m of rowing at the maximal intensity using an indoor rowing machine, and blood samples were collected 3 times, while resting, at the end of exercise, and after 30 min of recovery, to analyze the blood fatigue factors (lactate, phosphorous, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK)) and blood cytokines (IL (interleukin)-6, 8, 15). [Results] The results of the analysis showed that the levels of blood phosphorous in the BS and GS groups at the recovery stage were decreased significantly compared with at the end of exercise, and the level of CK appeared lower in the GS group alone at recovery stage than at the end of exercise. The level of blood IL-15 in the PS and BS groups appeared higher at the end of exercise compared with the resting stage. [Conclusion] It seemed that glutamine supplementation had a positive effect on the decrease in fatigue factor stimulation at the recovery stage after maximal intensity exercise compared with supplementation with the placebo or BCAA. Besides, pre-exercise glutamine supplementation seemed to help enhance immune function and the defensive inflammatory reaction.

  8. Estimation of error in maximal intensity projection-based internal target volume of lung tumors: a simulation and comparison study using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Read, Paul W; Baisden, Joseph M; Larner, James M; Benedict, Stanley H; Sheng, Ke

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)-based lung tumor internal target volume determination using a simulation method based on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Eight healthy volunteers and six lung tumor patients underwent a 5-min MRI scan in the sagittal plane to acquire dynamic images of lung motion. A MATLAB program was written to generate re-sorted dMRI using 4D-CT acquisition methods (RedCAM) by segmenting and rebinning the MRI scans. The maximal intensity projection images were generated from RedCAM and dMRI, and the errors in the MIP-based internal target area (ITA) from RedCAM (epsilon), compared with those from dMRI, were determined and correlated with the subjects' respiratory variability (nu). Maximal intensity projection-based ITAs from RedCAM were comparatively smaller than those from dMRI in both phantom studies (epsilon = -21.64% +/- 8.23%) and lung tumor patient studies (epsilon = -20.31% +/- 11.36%). The errors in MIP-based ITA from RedCAM correlated linearly (epsilon = -5.13nu - 6.71, r(2) = 0.76) with the subjects' respiratory variability. Because of the low temporal resolution and retrospective re-sorting, 4D-CT might not accurately depict the excursion of a moving tumor. Using a 4D-CT MIP image to define the internal target volume might therefore cause underdosing and an increased risk of subsequent treatment failure. Patient-specific respiratory variability might also be a useful predictor of the 4D-CT-induced error in MIP-based internal target volume determination.

  9. Refinery profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable shutting down of oil refinery capacity in response to the increasing pressures on profitability. This article examines the situation and the industry's response to it, including the drive for mergers, disposal of fuel oil, downsizing of workforces and strategic alliances. Future trends and their implications are also discussed. (UK)

  10. Profit U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Preparing employees for the immediate work in front of them is a challenge. While most companies are still mastering effectively training their own workforce, some, such as "Training" magazine Top 10 Hall of Famer The Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, have set up for-profit academies open to the public. When Ritz-Carlton won the national Malcolm…

  11. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  12. Influence of regression model and initial intensity of an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Tucker, Ross; Granados, Cristina; Irazusta, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gil, Susana María

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the regression model and initial intensity during an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and performance in elite-standard runners. Twenty-three well-trained runners completed a discontinuous incremental running test on a treadmill. Speed started at 9 km · h(-1) and increased by 1.5 km · h(-1) every 4 min until exhaustion, with a minute of recovery for blood collection. Lactate-speed data were fitted by exponential and polynomial models. The lactate threshold was determined for both models, using all the co-ordinates, excluding the first and excluding the first and second points. The exponential lactate threshold was greater than the polynomial equivalent in any co-ordinate condition (P performance and is independent of the initial intensity of the test.

  13. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  14. A new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia to improve body composition and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Martínez Guardado, Ismael; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timon, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study had the aim to determine the effects of a new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia in active adults. Twenty-four university student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia group, normoxia group or control group. The eight training sessions consisted of 2 sets of 5 repeated sprints of 10 seconds with a recovery of 20 seconds between sprints and a recovery period of 10 minutes between sets. Body composition was measured following standard procedures. A blood sample was taken for an immediate hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration assessment. An all-out 3-ute test was performed to evaluate ventilation parameters and power. HCT and Hb were significantly higher for the hypoxia group in Post- and Det- (P=0.01; P=0.03). Fat mass percentage was significantly lower for the hypoxia group in both assessments (P=0.05; P=0.05). The hypoxia group underwent a significant increase in mean power after the recovery period. A new dose of 8 sessions of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia is enough to decrease the percentage of fat mass and to improve HCT and Hb parameters and mean muscle power in healthy and active adults.

  15. Empirically defining rapid response to intensive treatment to maximize prognostic utility for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; Trottier, Kathryn; McFarlane, Traci; Olmsted, Marion P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid response (RR) to eating disorder treatment has been reliably identified as a predictor of post-treatment and sustained remission, but its definition has varied widely. Although signal detection methods have been used to empirically define RR thresholds in outpatient settings, RR to intensive treatment has not been investigated. This study investigated the optimal definition of RR to day hospital treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder. Participants were 158 patients who completed ≥6 weeks of day hospital treatment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to create four definitions of RR that could differentiate between remission and nonremission at the end of treatment. Definitions were based on binge/vomit episode frequency or percent reduction from pre-treatment, during either the first four or first two weeks of treatment. All definitions were associated with higher remission rates in rapid compared to nonrapid responders. Only one definition (i.e., ≤3 episodes in the first four weeks of treatment) predicted sustained remission (versus relapse) at 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings provide an empirically derived definition of RR to intensive eating disorder treatment, and provide further evidence that early change is an important prognostic indicator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  17. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: A new first line patient quality assurance tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); and others

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Methods: Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. Results: The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference >3% or {<=}3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. Conclusions: A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  18. A spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection map for patient dose evaluation: a new first line patient quality assurance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Graff, Pierre; Boettger, Thomas; Pouliot, Jean

    2011-04-01

    To develop a spatially encoded dose difference maximal intensity projection (DD-MIP) as an online patient dose evaluation tool for visualizing the dose differences between the planning dose and dose on the treatment day. Megavoltage cone-beam CT (MVCBCT) images acquired on the treatment day are used for generating the dose difference index. Each index is represented by different colors for underdose, acceptable, and overdose regions. A maximal intensity projection (MIP) algorithm is developed to compress all the information of an arbitrary 3D dose difference index into a 2D DD-MIP image. In such an algorithm, a distance transformation is generated based on the planning CT. Then, two new volumes representing the overdose and underdose regions of the dose difference index are encoded with the distance transformation map. The distance-encoded indices of each volume are normalized using the skin distance obtained on the planning CT. After that, two MIPs are generated based on the underdose and overdose volumes with green-to-blue and green-to-red lookup tables, respectively. Finally, the two MIPs are merged with an appropriate transparency level and rendered in planning CT images. The spatially encoded DD-MIP was implemented in a dose-guided radiotherapy prototype and tested on 33 MVCBCT images from six patients. The user can easily establish the threshold for the overdose and underdose. A 3% difference between the treatment and planning dose was used as the threshold in the study; hence, the DD-MIP shows red or blue color for the dose difference > 3% or < or = 3%, respectively. With such a method, the overdose and underdose regions can be visualized and distinguished without being overshadowed by superficial dose differences. A DD-MIP algorithm was developed that compresses information from 3D into a single or two orthogonal projections while hinting the user whether the dose difference is on the skin surface or deeper.

  19. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, Luis A.; Meca, Ana; Timmer, Judith B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in supply chains under decentralized control in which a single supplier supplies several retailers with goods for replenishment of stocks. The goal of the supplier and the retailers is to maximize their individual profits. Since the

  20. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  1. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  2. Escolha de cultivares de soja com base na composição química dos grãos como perspectiva para maximização dos lucros nas indústrias processadoras The selection of soybean varieties based on the chemical composition of the grains as a mean of maximizing soybean processing industry's profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sbardelotto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se um modelo matemático baseado em programação linear para dar suporte às decisões referentes à escolha de cultivares de soja para processamento (extração de óleo e produção de farelo, de forma que esta escolha possa maximizar os lucros da indústria processadora. Este estudo utilizou amostras de nove cultivares de soja produzidas no município de Dois Vizinhos, região sudoeste do Estado do Paraná. Análises laboratoriais forneceram as respectivas composições dos grãos, os subprodutos, os resíduos e as perdas. O modelo permitiu estimar os retornos econômicos proporcionados à indústria processadora por meio do cultivo individual e pela média destas. A partir da análise dos resultados, conclui-se que a composição química dos grãos processados tem influência direta nos resultados econômicos da indústria e que o esmagamento das cultivares "BRS133", "CD215", "EMBRAPA48", "BRS184", "SPRING8350" e "M-SOY5826" pode maximizar os lucros da indústria processadora, enquanto que o esmagamento das cultivares "CD 205", "CD 206" e "BRS 214" pode reduzir os lucros, em relação à média obtida pelas cultivares avaliadas.This article presents a mathematical model based on linear programming to support decision-making when selecting the soybean variety to be processed for oil extraction and bran production, since the appropriate choice can maximize industry's profits. Samples of nine soybean varieties produced in the town of Dois Vizinhos, in the southwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil, were used in this study. Laboratory analyses revealed the chemical composition of the grains, the byproducts, residues and losses. The model made it possible to estimate the profits from the processing of each variety and of the nine varieties' average. Our results show that the chemical composition of the grains directly influences the industry's profits and that the processing of the varieties 'BRS133', 'CD215', 'EMBRAPA48', 'BRS

  3. Can productivity and profitability be enhanced in intensively managed cereal systems while reducing the environmental footprint of production? Assessing sustainable intensification options in the breadbasket of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Jat, Hanuman S; Sharma, Parbodh C; Balwinder-Singh; Gathala, Mahesh K; Malik, Ram K; Kamboj, Baldev R; Yadav, Arvind K; Ladha, Jagdish K; Raman, Anitha; Sharma, D K; McDonald, Andrew

    2018-01-15

    In the most productive area of the Indo-Gangetic Plains in Northwest India where high yields of rice and wheat are commonplace, a medium-term cropping system trial was conducted in Haryana State. The goal of the study was to identify integrated management options for further improving productivity and profitability while rationalizing resource use and reducing environmental externalities (i.e., "sustainable intensification", SI) by drawing on the principles of diversification, precision management, and conservation agriculture. Four scenarios were evaluated: Scenario 1 - "business-as-usual" [conventional puddled transplanted rice (PTR) followed by ( fb ) conventional-till wheat]; Scenario 2 - reduced tillage with opportunistic diversification and precision resource management [PTR fb zero-till (ZT) wheat fb ZT mungbean]; Scenario 3 - ZT for all crops with opportunistic diversification and precision resource management [ZT direct-seeded rice (ZT-DSR) fb ZT wheat fb ZT mungbean]; and Scenario 4 - ZT for all crops with strategic diversification and precision resource management [ZT maize fb ZT wheat fb ZT mungbean]. Results of this five-year study strongly suggest that, compared with business-as-usual practices, SI strategies that incorporate multi-objective yield, economic, and environmental criteria can be more productive when used in these production environments. For Scenarios 2, 3, and 4, system-level increases in productivity (10-17%) and profitability (24-50%) were observed while using less irrigation water (15-71% reduction) and energy (17-47% reduction), leading to 15-30% lower global warming potential (GWP), with the ranges reflecting the implications of specific innovations. Scenario 3, where early wheat sowing was combined with ZT along with no puddling during the rice phase, resulted in a 13% gain in wheat yield compared with Scenario 2. A similar gain in wheat yield was observed in Scenario 4 vis-à-vis Scenario 2. Compared to Scenario 1, wheat yields in

  4. Maximização da lucratividade em produção conjunta: um caso na indústria frigorífica Maximizing the profitability in joint-production: a case in the poultry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Cassel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo parte do problema do cálculo de custos em indústrias de produção conjunta. Observa-se que a abordagem tradicional adotada para tratar o tema, o método do custo conjunto, apresenta limitações no que tange ao modelo adotado e aos resultados obtidos em termos da análise da lucratividade dos diferentes produtos finais. Como forma de tratar o problema apresenta-se uma abordagem alternativa baseada na Teoria das Restrições suportada por técnicas de Pesquisa Operacional. Visando mostrar as diferenças dos resultados na utilização dos dois métodos, é realizado um estudo de caso em uma unidade de abate e industrialização de aves. Os resultados obtidos, em termos da lucratividade global da operação, apresentam diferenças significativas. A abordagem da Teoria das Restrições aplicada com base na utilização de técnicas de Pesquisa Operacional demonstra-se mais eficaz do prisma da tomada de decisão.This paper discusses the problem related to the costing in joint product industries. Traditional approaches to this subject present limitations regarding the analysis of the individual profitability of each final product. This problem is discussed and an alternative approach based on the Theory of Constraints, and supported by the Operational Research, is proposed. To demonstrate the differences between this new approach and the traditional one, a case study in a poultry company is presented, and the results are discussed.

  5. Price and Profit Optimization for Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Bolancé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prospective customers of financial and insurance products can be targeted based on the profit the provider expects to earn from them. We present a model for individual expected profit and two alternatives for calculating optimal personalized prices that maximize the expected profit. For one of these alternatives, we obtain a closed-form expression for the price offered to each prospective customer; for the other, we need to use a numerical approximation. In both approaches, the profits generated by prospective customers are not immediately observed, given that the products sold by these companies have a risk component. We assume that willingness to pay is heterogeneous and apply our methodology using real data from a European insurance company. Our study indicates that a substantial boost in profits can be expected when applying the simplest optimal pricing method proposed.

  6. JM Maweu The Morality of Profit in Business pp75-89

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JM Maweu

    The main argument of this theoretical paper is that the pursuit of honest profits ... Is the pursuit of profits in business compatible with ethical business behavior? ..... behavior since the doctrine of maximizing self interest rooted in ethical egoism.

  7. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  8. Prudent Investing: Maximizing Profits from the Law Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jon S.

    1990-01-01

    In response to budgetary constraints, the University of Houston Law Center's faculty services department provides trained research assistants to faculty not needing a full-time assistant. The research assistants are supervised by a lawyer-librarian. The program has been successful, well received, and cost effective. (MSE)

  9. Maximizing profit per unit time in cointegration based pairs trading

    OpenAIRE

    Tutal, Duygu

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineering and The Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 57-59 Tutal, Duygu Master's

  10. Maximizing probable oil field profit: uncertainties on well spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of uncertainties in field development costs, well costs, lifting costs, selling price, discount factor, and oil field reserves are evaluated for their impact on assessing probable ranges of uncertainty on present day worth (PDW), oil field lifetime τ 2/3 , optimum number of wells (OWI), and the minimum (n-) and maximum (n+) number of wells to produce a PDW ≥ O. The relative importance of different factors in contributing to the uncertainties in PDW, τ 2/3 , OWI, nsub(-) and nsub(+) is also analyzed. Numerical illustrations indicate how the maximum PDW depends on the ranges of parameter values, drawn from probability distributions using Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, the procedure illustrates the relative importance of contributions of individual factors to the total uncertainty, so that one can assess where to place effort to improve ranges of uncertainty; while the volatility of each estimate allows one to determine when such effort is needful. (author)

  11. Windfalls and other profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    'Windfall profits' again is a popular term, but mostly the term is used inappropriately. This short article discusses why, and proposes a more complete taxonomy of profits. There exists little ground and need for policy to act against genuine windfalls, while the contrary holds for other excessive earnings. Very few windfalls, freely fallen down from winds in the sky, occur after observed excessive profits are stripped from deliberate man-made interventions. That is why clear identification and correct language are needed

  12. Optimization of planar metallic nonrefracting transmission-grating profiles for M/sup th/-order intensity maximization in the soft x-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.; Csonka, P.L.; Lindau, I.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the thickness profiles of metallic transmission-grating bars which maximize either the power throughput into the m/sup th/ diffracted order or the ratio of the m/sup th/-order diffracted power to the total output power (in the soft x-ray range). The derivation is performed for both general and symmetric bar shapes and for the two physically important cases of continuous gratings and gratings with integral bars. The solutions derived are shown to be valid for cases where the optical constants are generalized to be functions of position in a direction perpendicular to the grating bars. Examples of some optimum profiles for gold in the soft x-ray range are computed on the basis of the presented analysis and tabulated for convenient reference. 18 references

  13. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Cambri, Lucieli Teresa [UNESP; Ribeiro, Carla [UNESP; Botezelli, Jose Diego [UNESP; Ghezzi, Ana Carolina [UNESP; Mello, Maria Alice Rostom de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.Methods: The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Bal...

  14. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling.......DataProfit er et værktøj til at kortlægge og analysere din virksomheds evne til datadreven forretningsudvikling....

  15. Profit vs. Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls.......Money helps us meet our basic needs, but what about our need for meaning? Businesses will profit — not just financially — by finding their souls....

  16. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  17. High intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate production, time trial and competition performance in 9-11 year old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Helleman, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, H. C.; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Open Access - This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present s...

  18. Dance-Based ExerGaming: User Experience Design Implications for Maximizing Health Benefits Based on Exercise Intensity and Perceived Enjoyment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, Alasdair G.; Poole, Nicola

    Dance is a form of exercise that is considered to have widespread popular appeal and in particular to adolescent females. Dance-based body-movement controlled video games are a popular form of ExerGaming that is being adopted for use in school-based physical activity health promotion programs. The results of this study indicate that the game play mechanics and skill demands of the dance-based ExerGames would appear to have limited the subjects' level of physical exertion over the period of study. After training there was an increase in enjoyment rating for the Step Aerobics game which appears related to a perceptible improvement in game performance. It is therefore recommended that ExerGames should be designed with very low initial skill demands in order to maximize the user's level of exertion and to realize and reward progress, thereby helping to promote an enjoyable exercise experience and counterbalance any sense of exertional discomfort. Keywords: exercise; health promotion; exergaming; user experience; design; video game; enjoyment.

  19. Antiatherosclerotic effects of long-term maximally intensive statin therapy after acute coronary syndrome: insights from Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Ballantyne, Christie M; Barter, Philip J; Chapman, M John; Erbel, Raimund; Libby, Peter; Raichlen, Joel S; Uno, Kiyoko; Kataoka, Yu; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2014-11-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) display diffuse coronary atheroma instability and heightened risk of early and late recurrent coronary events. We compared the long-term antiatherosclerotic efficacy of high-intensity statins in patients with ACS when compared with stable disease. Study of Coronary Atheroma by Intravascular Ultrasound: Effect of Rosuvastatin Versus Atorvastatin (SATURN) used serial intravascular ultrasound measures of coronary atheroma volume in patients treated with rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg for 24 months. The overall effect of high-intensity statins on the change in coronary percent atheroma volume and major adverse cardiovascular events (death/nonfatal myocardial infarction/coronary revascularization) were evaluated in this post hoc analysis. When compared with non-ACS patients (n=678), patients with ACS (n=361) were younger, actively smoking, and have had a previous myocardial infarction (all P<0.001). At baseline, patients with ACS exhibited lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (43.5±11 versus 45.8±11 mg/dL; P=0.002), a higher apolipoprotein B: apolipoprotein A-1 ratio (0.90±0.24 versus 0.83±0.24; P<0.001) and greater percent atheroma volume (37.3±8.5% versus 35.9±8.1%; P=0.01) when compared with non-ACS patients. Despite similar achieved levels of lipid and inflammatory markers after high-intensity statin therapy, patients with ACS demonstrated greater percent atheroma volume regression than non-ACS patients (-1.46±0.14 versus -0.89±0.13; P=0.003). After propensity-weighted multivariable adjustment, baseline percent atheroma volume (P<0.001) and an ACS clinical presentation (P=0.02) independently associated with plaque regression. The 24-month major adverse cardiovascular events-free survival was similar between patients with ACS and non-ACS (90.6 versus 92.9%; P=0.25). Long-term high-intensity statin therapy caused greater plaque regression and comparable major adverse cardiovascular events rates in

  20. Muscle glycogen metabolism changes in rats fed early postnatal a fructose-rich diet after maternal protein malnutrition: effects of acute physical exercise at the maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambri, Lucieli T; Ribeiro, Carla; Botezelli, José D; Ghezzi, Ana C; Mello, Maria Ar

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the muscle glucose metabolism in rats fed a fructose-rich diet after fetal protein malnutrition, at rest and after acute physical exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity. The male offspring born of mothers fed on a balanced or low-protein diet were split in four groups until 60 days: Balanced (B): balanced diet during the whole period; Balanced/Fructose (BF): balanced diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth; Low protein/Balanced (LB): low-protein diet in utero and balanced diet after birth; Low protein/Fructose (LF): low protein diet in utero and fructose-rich diet after birth. Acute physical exercise reduced the muscle glycogen concentrations in all groups, although the LF group showed higher concentrations at rest. There was no difference among the groups in the glucose uptake and oxidation rates in the isolated soleus muscle neither at rest nor after acute exercise. However, glycogen synthesis was higher in the LF muscle than in the others at rest. Acute physical exercise increased glycogen synthesis in all groups, and the LF group showed the highest values. The fructose-rich diet administered in rats after fetal protein malnutrition alters muscle glycogen concentrations and glycogen synthesis in the rest and after acute exercise at maximal lactate steady-state intensity.

  1. Profitables Food & Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Studer, Adrian; Blatter, Martin; Glenz-Mounir, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    Die Diplomarbeit befasst sich mit dem Thema „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“, es geht darum, wie Restaurationsstätten, Beherbergungsbetriebe und Campingbetreiber ihren Umsatz innerhalb kürzester Zeit um 6 bis 8 % und den Gewinn um 8 bis 10 % steigern können. Grundlage für die Diplomarbeit ist das Buch „Profitables Food & Beverage Management“ von Urs Schaffer1 und die angebotenen Kurse von ritzy*2. Mit dem Buch und dem Module Profit Management auf dem ritzycampus3 haben die Wirte, Hote...

  2. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  3. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  4. Gigantic environmental profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on possible profits and advantages by converting vehicles such as buses and taxis from diesel to gas fuel engines for the environment and human beings in Norway. Some applications for automobiles are mentioned

  5. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  6. Financialization and financial profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the critical review of the concept of financial capital. I consider it is necessary not to confuse this category with of financialization, which has acquired a certificate of naturalization from the rise of neoliberalism. Although financial monopoly-financial capital is the hegemonic segment of the bourgeoisie in the major capitalist countries, their dominance does not imply, a fortiori, financialization of economic activity, since it depends of the conditions of the process reproduction of capital. The emergence of joint stock companies modified the formation of the average rate of profit. The "promoter profit" becomes one of the main forms of income of monopoly-financial capital. It is postulated that financial profit is a kind of "extraordinary surplus-value" which is appropriated by monopoly-financial capital by means of the monopolistic control it exerts on the issue and circulation of fictitious capital.

  7. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  8. S.210: A Bill to establish the United States Enrichment Corporation to operate the Federal uranium enrichment program on a profitable and efficient basis in order to maximize the long term economic value to the United States, to provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry and to provide a Federal contribution for the reclamation of mill tailings generated pursuant to Federal defense contracts at active uranium and thorium processing sites, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, January 15, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The bill would amend the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 to establish the US Enrichment Corporation to operate the Federal uranium enrichment program on a profitable and efficient basis in order to maximize the long term economic value to the US, would provide a Federal contribution for the reclamation of mill tailings generated as a result of Federal defense contracts at active uranium and thorium processing sites, and would provide assistance to the domestic uranium industry

  9. Profit and Risk Measures in Oil Production Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Foss, Bjarne; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2015-01-01

    In oil production optimization, we usually aim to maximize a deterministic scalar performance index such as the profit over the expected reservoir lifespan. However, when uncertainty in the parameters is considered, the profit results in a random variable that can assume a range of values dependi...... pro and cons for each of them. Finally, among the presented risk measures, we identify two of them as appropriate risk measures when minimizing the risk....

  10. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.

  11. DataProfit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Eibe Sørensen, Hans

    sammen for at udnytte mulighederne for datadreven profitabel vækst. Denne guide giver en anvendelsesorienteret gennemgang af de ni kompetencer i vores kort, som vi kalder for DataProfit. I guiden beskrives hver kompetence – og du inviteres til at analysere din virksomhed. Til sidst sætter vi hele...

  12. Being 'green' helps profitability?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, D.

    1999-01-01

    Pollution reduction beyond regulatory compliance is gaining momentum among firms, but managers ask if being 'green' helps profitability. Evidence suggests it doesn't hurt, but when we see environmentally attractive firms with sound financial performance, it cannot yet say which is cause and which is effect [it

  13. From People to Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, L.; Hayday, S.; Bevan, S.

    An empirical test of the service-profit chain in a large United Kingdom retail business explored how employee attitudes and behavior can improve customer retention and, consequently, company sales performance. Data were collected from 65,000 employees and 25,000 customers from almost 100 stores. The business collected customer satisfaction for…

  14. Comparison of efficiency and profitability of investor-owned multihospital systems with not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sear, A M

    1991-01-01

    It is often assumed that investor-owned hospitals are more market driven than are not-for-profit hospitals, and that they will maximize output and minimize inputs, to the exclusion of other management strategies. To resolve the conflicting research evidence, this study analyzed efficiency and profitability measures for approximately 50 investor-owned and 60 not-for-profit hospitals in Florida for the period from 1982 through 1988. The results indicate that the investor-owned hospitals used significantly fewer FTE staff per bed, had significantly fewer manhours per adjusted patient day, and paid significantly less in wages and had significantly higher operating margins (profit) than did the not-for-profit institutions.

  15. Profit and place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Bentley

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and symbolic effects the built environment has on human activities in a capitalist economy. The built environment is integrated in the capitalist economy on three levels: as the focus of a profit-oriented manufacturing industry, as the setting for all sorts of other enterprises and as the built context of the whole economy. The built environment is understood as a commodity. The capitalist system contains inbuilt tensions which have important design implications: the first tension arises because the system, if left to itself, lacks any overall planning functions, the second tension stems from the ability of the system to generate profit and the third arises from the character of labour, which distinguishes it from other commodities used in the production process. In conclusion methods of designing built environments, which perpetuate social order, are discussed.

  16. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN; LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2011-01-01

    The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow), and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow). Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an ...

  17. Does the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan predict the severity of hypothyroidism? Correlation between maximal standardized uptake value and serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruthi, Ankur; Choudhury, Partha Sarathi; Gupta, Manoj; Taywade, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan and hypothyroidism. The aim was to determine whether the intensity of diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scans predicts the severity of hypothyroidism. A retrospective analysis of 3868 patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, between October 2012 and June 2013 in our institution for various oncological indications was done. Out of them, 106 (2.7%) patients (79 females, 27 males) presented with bilateral diffuse thyroid gland uptake as an incidental finding. These patients were investigated retrospectively and various parameters such as age, sex, primary cancer site, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), results of thyroid function tests (TFTs) and fine-needle aspiration cytology results were noted. The SUVmax values were correlated with serum thyroid stimulating hormone (S. TSH) levels using Pearson's correlation analysis. Pearson's correlation analysis. Clinical information and TFT (serum FT3, FT4 and TSH levels) results were available for 31 of the 106 patients (27 females, 4 males; mean age 51.5 years). Twenty-six out of 31 patients (84%) were having abnormal TFTs with abnormal TSH levels in 24/31 patients (mean S. TSH: 22.35 μIU/ml, median: 7.37 μIU/ml, range: 0.074-211 μIU/ml). Among 7 patients with normal TSH levels, 2 patients demonstrated low FT3 and FT4 levels. No significant correlation was found between maximum standardized uptake value and TSH levels (r = 0.115, P > 0.05). Incidentally detected diffuse thyroid gland uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was usually associated with hypothyroidism probably caused by autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients should be investigated promptly irrespective of the intensity of FDG uptake with TFTs to initiate replacement therapy and a USG examination to look for any suspicious nodules

  18. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  19. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  20. Amazon: Is Profitability a Possibility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett DENNIS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, companies seem to all be following the same trend; growth in profitability at all cost. Higher profits, for the most part, leads to more investors and more potential financing. Amazon.com appears to be breaking that trend, however. Their strategy seems to be growth, but not in profits. We would like to look into how and why Amazon is growing at such a fast pace, while their profits are staying steady at a very low level. Is profitability a possibility for Amazon? We believe that a marginal increase in price could accomplish just that, with a minimal impact to consumers.

  1. A simple technique to increase profits in wood products marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George B. Harpole

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical models can be used to solve quickly some simple day-to-day marketing problems. This note explains how a sawmill production manager, who has an essentially fixed-capacity mill, can solve several optimization problems by using pencil and paper, a forecast of market prices, and a simple algorithm. One such problem is to maximize profits in an operating period...

  2. The Service-profit Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Lars; Martensen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the links between employee attitudes, customer loyalty and company profitability. From a conceptual point of view, this employee-customer-profit chain, also known as the service-profit chain, is well founded and generally accepted. But for many companies, it seems difficult...... to demonstrate such links, and several issues must be addressed to uncover the links. To investigate these links empirically, a hotel chain provided data matching employee and customer measures with measures of profitability. We have successfully employed a modeling approach, and the paper reports empirical...... evidence of the employee-customer-profit chain. As it is possible to estimate the links, we have demonstrated their effect on company profitability. The research findings provide a better understanding of the service-profit chain and may help practitioners in improving company financial performance....

  3. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  4. Not for the Profit, but for the Training? Gender Differences in Training in the For-Profit and Non-Profit Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Dostie, Benoît; Javdani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    We use Canadian linked employer-employee data to examine gender differences in probability, duration, and intensity of firm-sponsored training. We find that women in the for-profit sector are less likely to receive classroom training, and receive shorter classroom training courses. However, we find the reverse in the non-profit sector, with women being more likely to receive both classroom and on-the-job training, and also receiving longer classroom training courses. Our results suggest that ...

  5. Atlantic Basin refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the profitability margins of oil refining in the Atlantic Basin was presented. Petroleum refiners face the continuous challenge of balancing supply with demand. It would appear that the profitability margins in the Atlantic Basin will increase significantly in the near future because of shrinking supply surpluses. Refinery capacity utilization has reached higher levels than ever before. The American Petroleum Institute reported that in August 1997, U.S. refineries used 99 per cent of their capacity for several weeks in a row. U.S. gasoline inventories have also declined as the industry has focused on reducing capital costs. This is further evidence that supply and demand are tightly balanced. Some of the reasons for tightening supplies were reviewed. It was predicted that U.S. gasoline demand will continue to grow in the near future. Gasoline demand has not declined as expected because new vehicles are not any more fuel efficient today than they were a decade ago. Although federally-mandated fuel efficiency standards were designed to lower gasoline consumption, they may actually have prevented consumption from falling. Atlantic margins were predicted to continue moving up because of the supply and demand evidence: high capacity utilization rates, low operating inventories, limited capacity addition resulting from lower capital spending, continued U.S. gasoline demand growth, and steady total oil demand growth. 11 figs

  6. Profitability of irradiation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustos R, M.E.; Gonzalez F, C.; Liceaga C, G.; Ortiz A, G.

    1997-01-01

    In any industrial process it is seek an attractive profit from the contractor and the social points of view. The use of the irradiation technology in foods allows keep their hygienically, which aid to food supply without risks for health, an increment of new markets and a losses reduction. In other products -cosmetics or disposable for medical use- which are sterilized by irradiation, this process allows their secure use by the consumers. The investment cost of an irradiation plant depends mainly of the plant size and the radioactive material reload that principally is Cobalt 60, these two parameters are in function of the type of products for irradiation and the selected doses. In this work it is presented the economic calculus and the financial costs for different products and capacities of plants. In general terms is determined an adequate utility that indicates that this process is profitable. According to the economic and commercial conditions in the country were considered two types of credits for the financing of this projects. One utilizing International credit resources and other with national sources. (Author)

  7. Advanced quality systems : probabilistic optimization for profit (Prob.O.Prof) software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Contractors constantly have to make decisions regarding how to maximize profit and minimize risk on paving projects. With more and more States adopting incentive/disincentive pay adjustment provisions for quality, as measured by various acceptance qu...

  8. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  9. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  10. Atomic profits, no thanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, W.; Dietrich, K.; Moeller, H.; Speier, C.

    1980-01-01

    The authors deal with the following topics: The secret of nuclear energy; the atom programmes of Bonn; on some arguments of the present nuclear energy discussion; how socialist countries solve the problems of nuclear energy. From the socialist point of view they discuss sociological, ideological and moral reasons for a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy. Nevertheless they refuse Bonn's atom programme because the high finance's interests concerning profit and power make it a danger. The biggest danger is said to lie in the creation of a plutonium-industry and the militaristic abuse which would be connected with it. The socialist way of utilizing atomic energy is seen by them as a way with a high feeling of responsibility towards all people and towards a guaranteed energy supply. (HSCH) [de

  11. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  12. A Kitchen with too Many Cooks: Factors Associated with Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Eun Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we carefully investigate previous literature to extract 10 relevant factors to explain the hospital profitability and build an econometrically well-specified model of explaining hospital profitability that does not suffer from omitted variable bias. Then we provide empirical evidence to a common belief that the objective function of a hospital varies with the type of hospital. We identified distinct objective functions for three types of hospitals: for-profit hospitals are driven by the overarching agreed-upon goal of profit maximization for shareholders; government hospitals, which are often the insurers of last resort, are obliged to put the public interest over profit objectives; nonprofit hospitals, which are legally prohibited from distributing profits, occupy the middle ground between for-profit and government hospitals. The results of this paper suggest that the ownership type should determine the factors on which hospitals focus and hence are useful to hospital management and academic researchers.

  13. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  14. Vectors for Increasing the Effectiveness of Profit Management at Company Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. V.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect management of processes involved in accumulation and disposal of profit at Ukrainian companies affects their performance, with the consequent losses of public budget revenues. This raises the need for new and more effective mechanisms for accumulation and disposal of corporate profit, which would be focused on maximal utilization of production, marketing and fiscal capacities of business entities and enhancement of their competitiveness at domestic and global market. The article’s objective is to conduct theoretical study of profit as an economic category and an essential component of company’s performance, sum up the principles of profit management, and analyze the profit management system at company level. A brief review of theoretical definitions of profit is made, economic origin of profit and its role in business operation in the Ukrainian context is highlighted. The components of profit management system at company level, essential principles of strategic management of company profit, organizational and economic mechanism for company profit management, a strategy for profit management at company level is discussed and summed up. The organizational and economic mechanism for profit quality management at company level is proposed.

  15. SU-G-BRA-04: Simulation of Errors in Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP)-Based Lung Tumor Internal Target Volumes (ITV) Using Real-Time 2D MRI and Deformable Image Registration Based Lung Tumor Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D [University of California, Los Angeles, Ca (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric

  16. SU-G-BRA-04: Simulation of Errors in Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP)-Based Lung Tumor Internal Target Volumes (ITV) Using Real-Time 2D MRI and Deformable Image Registration Based Lung Tumor Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY IN BRAZILIAN LISTED COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Hong Yuh Ching; Prof. MSc. Ayrton Novazzi; Prof. Dr. Fábio Gerab

    2011-01-01

    To overcome competition in a very complex environment, few companies have been able to use the optimization of working capital as a real competitive advantage to leverage profit. The objectives of this article are twofold: a) to investigate if there is any difference between corporate profitability and working capital management in two separate groups of companies: working capital intensive and fixed capital intensive; b) to identify the variables that most affect profitability. The profitabi...

  18. PROFITABILITY AND FINANCIAL STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CĂRUNTU CONSTANTIN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The business activity allows identifying two categories of flows: flows of results and cash flows. Flows affect the income and expenses, participating in training result, the company's profitability. Financial flows involved in their formation both monetary items (which drive the monetary input or output and thus implies a cash flow, and non-cash items (affecting the result, without leading to a cash flow. Are equally identifiable cash flows that do not involve an immediate effect on the outcome or effect on the result equivalent to that spread on the treasury. Financial equilibrium in a general manner evokes the idea of harmony between different elements of a system, which in finance is harmonization of resources with the needs. Financial equilibrium can be defined by the company's ability to secure payment of its proceeds without interruption to current liabilities incurred in implementing its object of activity or tax laws, so it can avoid the risk of bankruptcy. Maintaining financial stability is the essential condition of survival of the enterprise, financial and balanced assessment must take into account the concrete conditions of the occurrence of default.

  19. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  20. Generic phase transitions and profit singularities in Arnol'd's model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, Aleksei A; Matos, Helena Mena

    2007-01-01

    For a smooth one-parameter family of pairs of control systems and profit densities on a circle, the generic transitions between optimal rotations and stationary strategies are studied in the problem of maximization of the time-averaged profit on the infinite horizon. It is shown that there are only two types of such transitions, the corresponding singularities of the average profit as a function of the family parameter are found, and it is proved that these singularities are stable under small perturbations of a generic family. The classification of singularities of the maximum average profit is completed for generic families. Bibliography: 16 titles.

  1. Energy Profit Ratio Compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    We need more oil energy to take out oil under the ground. Limit resources make us consider other candidates of energy source instead of oil. Electricity shall be the main role more and more like electric vehicles and air conditioners so we should consider electricity generation ways. When we consider what kind of electric power generation is the best or suitable, we should not only power generation plant but whole process from mining to power generation. It is good way to use EPR, Energy Profit Ratio, to analysis which type is more efficient and which part is to do research and development when you see the input breakdown analysis. Electricity by the light water nuclear power plant, the hydrogen power plant and the geothermal power plant are better candidates from EPR analysis. Forecasting the world primly energy supply in 2050, it is said that the demand will be double of the demand in 2000 and the supply will not be able to satisfy the demand in 2050. We should save 30% of the demand and increase nuclear power plants 3.5 times more and recyclable energy like hydropower plants 3 times more. When the nuclear power plants are 3.5 times more then uranium peak will come and we will need breed uranium. I will analysis the EPR of FBR. Conclusion: A) the EPR of NPS in Japan is 17.4 and it is the best of all. B) Many countries will introduce new nuclear power plants rapidly may be 3.5 times in 2050. C) Uranium peak will happen around 2050. (author)

  2. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  3. Profitability of Management Systems on German Fenlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Rebhann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fens are organic sites that require drainage for agricultural use. Lowering the groundwater level leads to trade-offs between economic benefits and environmental impacts (i.e., CO2 and nutrient emissions. To identify management options that are both environmentally and economically sustainable, a propaedeutic systematic analysis of the costs, income and profit of different land use and management systems on fenlands is necessary. This study provides an overview of the profitability, labor demand and comparative advantages of feasible management systems on German fenlands. Twenty management practices in four land use systems are analyzed. The results indicate that most management systems are profitable only with subsidies and payments for ecosystem services. In addition to sales revenue, these payments are indispensable to promote peat-saving agricultural practices on fenlands. Regarding the labor aspect, intensive management systems caused an increase in working hours per hectare, which may positively affect employment in rural areas. The calculations obtained in this study can be used as a basis for estimations of greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation costs when management systems are associated with GHG emission values.

  4. Full truckload vehicle routing problem with profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new variant of the full truckload vehicle routing problem is studied. In this problem there are more than one delivery points corresponding to the same pickup point, and one order is allowed to be served several times by the same vehicle or different vehicles. For the orders which cannot be assigned because of resource constraint, the logistics company outsources them to other logistics companies at a certain cost. To maximize its profits, logistics company decides which to be transported by private fleet and which to be outsourced. The mathematical model is constructed for the problem. Since the problem is NP-hard and it is difficult to solve the large-scale problems with an exact algorithm, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed. Computational results show the effectiveness of the hybrid genetic algorithm.

  5. Cancer: a profit-driven biosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2008-08-01

    The argument is made that solid malignant tumors behave as profit-driven biological systems in that they expand their nutrient-uptaking surface to increase energetic revenue, at a comparably low metabolic cost. Within this conceptual framework, cancer cell migration is a critical mechanism as it maximizes systemic surface expansion while minimizing diffusion distance. Treating these tumor systems with adjuvant anti-proliferative regimen only should increase the energetic net gain of the viable cancer cells left behind, hence would facilitate tumor recurrence. Therapeutic attempts to better control tumor (re)growth should therefore aim primarily at containing its surface expansion, thus reducing its energetic revenue, or increasing its metabolic costs or better yet, both.

  6. Profit-driven drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Random drug testing of people being treated for chronic pain has become more common. Physicians may drug test patients on opioid therapy as a result of concerns over prosecution, drug misuse, addiction, and overdose. However, profit motive has remained unexplored. This article suggests profits also drive physician drug-testing behavior and evidence is offered, including an exploration of Medicare reimbursement incentives and kickbacks for drug testing.

  7. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  8. IS THE PRICE RIGHT? PRICING FOR LONG TERM PROFITABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Erika NYÁRÁDI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The way how we choose our pricing strategy has a significant impact on company’s success. Nowadays companies more and more adopt a new way of thinking in pricing, namely pricing for a long term period in order to bring higher profitability, to build an efficient pricing strategy. Marketers have only recently begun to focus seriously on effective pricing. These companies are the so called progressive companies. They have begun doing more than just worrying about pricing. To increase profitability many are abandoning traditional reactive pricing procedures in favor of proactive pricing, making explicit corporate decisions to change their focus to growth in top-line sales to growth in profitability. The long-term implications of price strategies are still under-researched, and managers should be aware of shifts in customer reactions that may result from frequent adoption of certain strategies. The company pricing strategy should be seen in relation to developments in the company variables, internal ones (capital strength, competencies, organizational conditions, efficiency of the work force etc. as well as external ones (customers, competitors, the technological development etc., adopting strategic pricing. In this paper I will present the most effective pricing strategies leading to long term profitability, and also suggest practical conditions for pricing strategies to maximize profit in the long run.

  9. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  10. Electronic Payments Profitability Extent Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Vohnout

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashless payments are recent phenomena, which even increased with the introduction of contactless means like NFC, PayPass or payWave. Such new methods speed-up the entire payment process and in comparison to cash transactions are much simpler and faster. But on the other hand the key question for merchant is if it is worth to have such device, which accept these new payment means or not to have the terminal at all. What is the amount of cash flow, which delimits the cash holdings to be still profitable? This paper tries to give answers to such question by presenting general profitability model, which will address defining the cash threshold amount. The aim is to show that cash holdings could be profitable up to certain amount, but after the threshold is met, cashless payment methods are fairly superior despite their additional costs.

  11. Meet the New For-Profit: The Low-Profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    "Doing well by doing good" is the business mantra of the for-profit-college industry. But one does not have to look far to find people who question the slogan's sincerity or the very legitimacy of that model. And that was even before reports of some companies' abusive student-recruiting practices and questionable educational standards fed a public…

  12. Hydro-Quebec is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.

    1997-01-01

    The pros and cons of the potential privatisation of Hydro-Quebec were discussed. A brief review of charges of less than competent management, low profitability and the corporation's recent administrative restructuring was presented. The general thrust of the argument was that Hydro-Quebec plays a crucial role in the economic development of Quebec, it can be made to be more profitable and that for the good of Quebec it should continue as a public corporation under the control of the provincial government

  13. Bank Relationship and Firm Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines how bank relationships affect firm performance. An empirical implication of recent theoretical models is that firms maintaining multiple bank relationships are less profitable than their single-bank peers. We investigate this empirical implication using a data set containing

  14. Profit margins in Japanese retailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A. Potjes; A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractUsing a rich data source, we explain differences and developments in profit margins of medium-sized stores in Japan. We conclude that the protected environment enables the retailer to pass on all operating costs to the customers and to obtain a relatively high basic income. High service

  15. Introduction of the Profit Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Peter N

    2010-01-01

    The profit surface is a visualization technique for data computed from trading rules. I simulate price paths and operate the trading rules to compute cumulative returns for the rule under different specifications. The specifications are pairs of integers, filter lag lengths, so a contour plot is useful to display cumulative returns for more specifications than can be shown otherwise.

  16. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  17. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  18. A importância do planejamento estratégico associado à utilização de ferramentas de controle para maximização da lucratividade em confinamento de gado de corte = Importance of strategic planning associated with the use of control tools for maximizing profitability in beef cattle feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Braren Damato

    2015-04-01

    information of production and financial results in the year 2012 were obtained. Actual and simulated scenarios were compared to apply EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization. A brief explanation of factors that directly influenced the calculations was also presented. Studies show that the use of a strategic plan can contribute positively to profitability by showing the best time to confine, animals’ profile, and ideal period to keep animals in the fattening system. Due to business confidentiality, the source of the data was not allowed to be disclosed.

  19. Environmental performance, profitability, asset utilization, debt monitoring and firm value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukit, R. Br; Haryanto, B.; Ginting, P.

    2018-02-01

    The growing issue on firm value shows that firm value is not only determined by the firm ability to increase financial profit, but also by the company's concern in maintaining the environmental condition. The industrial development produces waste that pollutes the environment that has potential to serious impact on the next life. In addition to provide financial benefits, companies are increasingly facing pressure to be socially responsible for the survival of the company. However, past findings demonstrate that the effect of environmental performance, profitability, and asset utilization to the firm’s value are still unclear. This study aims to test whether environmental performance, firm profitability and asset utilization can effectively enhance firm value in two different conditions: intensive debt monitoring and less intensive debt monitoring. Sample of companies is taken from the list of Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period of 2013 to 2015. Using multiple regression analysis, discloses that: in intensive monitoring, managers tend to have high firm value when company has high environmental performance and or high profitability and high asset utilization. Monitoring system needs to be intensified especially for companies with the above characteristics.

  20. Testing competing measures of profitability for mobile resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrette, Maryse; Wu, Gi-Mick; Brodeur, Jacques; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Boivin, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Optimal diet theory often fails to predict a forager's diet choice when prey are mobile. Because they escape or defend themselves, mobile prey are likely to increase the forager's handling time, thereby decreasing its fitness gain rate. Many animals have been shown to select their prey so as to maximize either their fitness gain or their fitness gain rate. However, no study has yet compared directly these two measures of profitability by generating testable predictions about the choice of the forager. Under laboratory conditions, we compared these two measures of profitability, using the aphid parasitoid Aphidius colemani and its host, Myzus persicae. Fitness gain was calculated for parasitoids developing in each host instar by measuring life-history traits such as developmental time, sex ratio and fecundity. Fitness gain rate was estimated by dividing fitness gain by handling time, the time required to subdue the host. Fourth instar aphids provided the best fitness gain to parasitoids, whereas second instar aphids were the most profitable in terms of fitness gain rate. Host choice tests showed that A. colemani females preferred second instar hosts, suggesting that their decision maximizes fitness gain rate over fitness gain. Our results indicate that fitness gain rate is a reliable predictor of animal's choice for foragers exploiting resources that impose additional time cost due to their mobility.

  1. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Turner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover, and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552. The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of

  2. A Decomposition of Hospital Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Kevin; Elliott, Michael; Lee, Jen-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This paper evaluates the drivers of profitability for a large sample of U.S. hospitals. Following a methodology frequently used by financial analysts, we use a DuPont analysis as a framework to evaluate the quality of earnings. By decomposing returns on equity (ROE) into profit margin, total asset turnover, and capital structure, the DuPont analysis reveals what drives overall profitability. Methods: Profit margin, the efficiency with which services are rendered (total asset turnover), and capital structure is calculated for 3,255 U.S. hospitals between 2007 and 2012 using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ Healthcare Cost Report Information System (CMS Form 2552). The sample is then stratified by ownership, size, system affiliation, teaching status, critical access designation, and urban or non-urban location. Those hospital characteristics and interaction terms are then regressed (OLS) against the ROE and the respective DuPont components. Sensitivity to regression methodology is also investigated using a seemingly unrelated regression. Results: When the sample is stratified by hospital characteristics, the results indicate investor-owned hospitals have higher profit margins, higher efficiency, and are substantially more leveraged. Hospitals in systems are found to have higher ROE, margins, and efficiency but are associated with less leverage. In addition, a number of important and significant interactions between teaching status, ownership, location, critical access designation, and inclusion in a system are documented. Many of the significant relationships, most notably not-for-profit ownership, lose significance or are predominately associated with one interaction effect when interaction terms are introduced as explanatory variables. Results are not sensitive to the alternative methodology. Conclusion: The results of the DuPont analysis suggest that although there appears to be convergence in the behavior of NFP and IO

  3. Profitability analysis of KINGLONG nearly 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wen, Jinghua

    2017-08-01

    Profitability analysis for measuring business performance and forecast its prospects play an important role. In this paper, the research instance King Long Motor in understanding the basic theory on the basis of financial management, to take a combination of theory and data analysis methods, combined with a measure of profitability related indicators of King Long Motor company’s profitability do a specific analysis to identify factors constraining the profitability of Kinglong company exists and the motivation to improve profitability, which made recommendations to improve the profitability of Kinglong car company to promote the company’s future can be better and faster development.)

  4. Converting MEMS technology into profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzek, Janusz

    1998-08-01

    This paper discusses issues related to transitioning a company from the advanced technology development phase (with a particular focus on MEMS) to a profitable business, with emphasis on start-up companies. It includes several case studies from (primarily) NovaSensor MEMS development history. These case studies illustrate strategic problems with which advanced MEMS technology developers have to be concerned. Conclusions from these case studies could be used as checkpoints for future MEMS developers to increase probability of profitable operations. The objective for this paper is to share the author's experience from multiple MEMS start-ups to accelerate development of the MEMS market by focusing state- of-the-art technologists on marketing issues.

  5. Is merging and acquisition profitable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeret, Frode; Soergard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report deals with mergers and acquisitions in the electricity sector in Norway. The background is the fact that the profitability of these activities proves to be low. In buying, it is typically the selling shareholder who profits from the transaction, while the buying company does not really earn much. This result appears to be a robust result both in different countries, between sectors and independent of methodology. The report provides theoretical justification for merging and buying up and empirical evaluations of the effects of company integration. It is asserted that what can be learned in general from the literature may also occur in the European power sector. Furthermore, the report discusses the challenges faced by the companies if they want to expand through mergers and acquisitions

  6. Ownership concentration and bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether ownership concentration influences bank profitability in a developing country context. We focus on bank ownership concentration measured as the amount of direct equity held by a majority shareholder categorised into: high ownership concentration, moderate ownership concentration and disperse ownership. We find that banks with high ownership concentration have higher return on assets, higher net interest margin and higher recurring earning power while banks with dispersed ownership have lower return on assets but have higher return on equity. Also, higher cost efficiency improves the return on assets of widely-held banks and the return on equity of banks with moderate ownership. The findings have implications. JEL: Code: G3, G34, G31, Keywords: Corporate governance, Ownership structure, Agency theory, Profitability, Firm performance, Banks, Return on asset, Return on equity

  7. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  8. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  9. The renovated Almaraz is profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehkanen, S.; Vaelisuo, M.

    2001-01-01

    The Almaraz power plant is situated in the Province of Extremadura in southwestern Spain. In the plant there are two pressurised water reactors that are delivered by Westinghouse and commissioned in the beginning of 1980's. In mid 1990's major renovations were made by Siemens. The plant is very profitable, says plant manager Araluce. The richness of the living nature in the area surrounding the power plant was emphasized in the oral and written presentations. (author)

  10. Factors influencing the profitability of optimizing control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broussaud, A.; Guyot, O.

    1999-01-01

    Optimizing control systems supplement conventional Distributed Control Systems and Programmable Logic Controllers. They continuously implement set points, which aim at maximizing the profitability of plant operation. They are becoming an integral part of modern mineral processing plants. This trend is justified by economic considerations, optimizing control being among the most cost-effective methods of improving metallurgical plant performance. The paper successively analyzes three sets of factors, which influence the profitability of optimizing control systems, and provides guidelines for analyzing the potential value of an optimizing control system at a given operation: external factors, such as economic factors and factors related to plant feed; features of the optimizing control system; and subsequent maintenance of the optimizing control system. It is shown that pay back times for optimization control projects are typically measured in days. The OCS software used by the authors for their applications is described briefly. (author)

  11. The Charpin report confirms the profitability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    An official report written by 3 experts committed by the French government in may 1999 about the profitability of nuclear energy has been published. In this report 7 scenarios have been compared according to the demand of electricity, the price of gas, the operating life of power plants and the nuclear equipment replacement schedule. If the prices of fossil energies (oil and gas) remain stable, the cheapest scenarios are those based on the non-replacement of nuclear power plants when they reach their maximal operating life. The differences between scenarios are so slight than the uncertainty about the price of gas is enough to make a scenario more profitable than another. The extra-costs of carbon emissions that France will have to face in order to respect the Kyoto agreement, will weigh more in the economic balance than the management of radioactive wastes. (A.C.)

  12. Hospital Market Structure and the Behavior of Not-for-Profit Hospitals: Evidence from Responses to California's Disproportionate Share Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan

    2000-01-01

    I exploit a plausibly exogenous change in hospital financial incentives to examine whether the behavior of private not-for-profit hospitals varies with the share of nearby hospitals organized as for-profit firms. My results show that not-for-profit hospitals in for-profit intensive areas are significantly more responsive to an increased incentive to treat low-income patients insured by the Medicaid program than are other not-for-profit providers. The heterogeneity in behavior is not due to di...

  13. La maximisation du taux de profit

    OpenAIRE

    De Mesnard, Louis

    1991-01-01

    On the traditional micro-economic theory, firms are supposed to maximise pure profit. We study what happened when we take into consideration shareholders and the financial profit remunerating the financial capital. We show that it is necessary to surrender the financial profit maximisation to use the rate of financial profit maximisation. The cases of concurrence with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with fix coefficient of capital, monopoly with variable coefficient of capital are studie...

  14. Management of Enterprise Profit: Theory and Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and methodological approach to profit management of organization is offered: its application is connected with revision of acting control system of enterprise profit on the basis of assessing the initial condition of profit, planning the demanded profit level, periodical monitoring condition of planned values on profit, and also adoption of flexible administrative decisions on reduction of deviations and increasing the efficiency of organization activity. The system of profit formation including corresponding income and expenses of organization is presented. Methods of revenue planning are characterized. The characteristics of income and expenses connected with non-operating operations and transactions is given. The essence of the main directions of using enterprise profit is revealed. Need of application of author’s technique of management of profit of organization taking into account influence of external and internal factors is proved. The universal purpose of management of profit of organization and a task providing achievement of the goal are formulated . Tools of assessment efficiency of the system of formation and use of profit which is actually created in organization are offered. The methodical approach to planning of profit allowing to increase efficiency of activity of organization is presented. The mechanism of an assessment deviations of planned indicators of effective management of profit from actual and adoptions of correcting decisions on

  15. Profitability of wood harvesting enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penttinen, M. email: markku.penttinen@metla.fi; Mikkola, J. email: jarmo.mikkola@metla.fi; Rummukainen, A. email: arto.rummukainen@metla.fi

    2009-07-01

    The forest machine business is about 50 years old. The rapid technical development of machinery increased productivity up to the end of last century. In 2007, the total value of round and energy wood harvesting and silvicultural work operated by forest machine enterprises exceeded 570 mill. euro. According to the materials of the Vehicle Administration Finland and Statistics Finland there are about 1 600 active harvesting enterprises in the personal and business taxation system. Beside this, there are according to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry about 1 300 farmers who do harvesting as side business. About 1 000 enterprises working in June 2007 were studied with their retrospective economic analyses from 2001. The data includes all enterprises that had supplied closing of the accounts data. One-machine entrepreneurs represent more than a third of the number of enterprises, but only 13 percent of the turnover. Enterprises with seven or more machines represent less than ten percent of the number, but over twenty percent of the turnover. Enterprises are largest in eastern and northern Finland, where the average number of machines per enterprise exceeds three. Small enterprises are mostly singleowner business enterprises with a median turnover of 125 000 euros per annum. Partnerships and limited enterprises have double the median turnover of single-owner businesss. Limited companies turn over a median of 450 000 euro/y, representing 67 percent of total turnover. Median net profit varied between 6 and 10 percent of turnover in 2001-2007, but only between 2 and 4 percent where the wage adjustment is deducted from the profit. The wage adjustment is estimated as if the owners of single-owner businesses earn an operator's salary. Profit was highest in 2002 and lowest 2006. In the smallest enterprise class with a turnover of less than 75 000 euro/y, profit was lowest and negative in 2006 and 2007. The variation in profits between enterprises was also biggest in

  16. The strategic value of customer profitability analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van E.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of the paper is to show how intelligence emanating from customer profitability analysis (CPA) can help improve strategic marketing planning. Insights into the profitability of individual customers, as well as the distribution of profitability across the customer base, can lead to

  17. 78 FR 11164 - Policy on Contractor Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Policy on Contractor Profits AGENCY... Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013. Section 804, Department of Defense Policy on Contractor Profits... modifications to such guidelines that are necessary to ensure an appropriate link between contractor profit and...

  18. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  20. Mapping the Profit Motive: The Distinct Geography and Demography of For-Profit Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, W. Brett

    2015-01-01

    For-profit charter schools represent a controversial new market-based education reform (Garcia, Barber, & Molnar, 2009; Conn, 2002). This essay explores how schools operated by for-profit corporations differ from those operated by non-profit organizations. Specifically, do for-profit charter schools locate in demographically distinct areas and…

  1. Measuring Customer Profitability in Complex Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Morten; Kumar, V.; Rohde, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Customer profitability measurement is an important element in customer relationship management and a lever for enhanced marketing accountability. Two distinct measurement approaches have emerged in the marketing literature: Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) and Customer Profitability Analysis (CPA...... propositions. Additionally, the framework provides design and implementation guidance for managers seeking to implement customer profitability measurement models for resource allocation purposes....... that the degree of sophistication deployed when implementing customer profitability measurement models is determined by the type of complexity encountered in firms’ customer environments. This gives rise to a contingency framework for customer profitability measurement model selection and five research...

  2. How to make microenterprise profitable

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimenko, Pavel; Hokkanen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    The idea of the thesis is to give a good insight on how to make a microenterprise profitable from marketing and networking points of view and explain the basic steps that are needed to be taken when establishing a company. We took the company Maks Investment & Consulting Group Oy (MIC Group), which is approximately one year old consulting firm, as a case study. The company was studied very carefully from the very beginning of its operations. Business plan of MIC Group was also studied in orde...

  3. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  4. Comparison of transaxial source images and 3-plane, thin-slab maximal intensity projection images for the diagnosis of coronary artery stenosis with using ECG-gated cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Seo, Joon Beom; Do, Kyung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to compare the transaxial source images with the optimized three plane, thin-slab maximum intensity projection (MIP) images from electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated cardiac CT for their ability to detect hemodynamically significant stenosis (HSS), and we did this by means of performing a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Twenty-eight patients with a heart rate less than 66 beats per minute and who were undergoing both retrospective ECG-gated cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography were included in this study. The contrast-enhanced CT scans were obtained with a collimation of 16 x 0.75-mm and a rotation time of 420 msec. The tranaxial images were reconstructed at the mid-diastolic phase with a 1-mm slice thickness and a 0.5-mm increment. Using the transaxial images, the slab MIP images were created with a 4-mm thickness and a 2-mm increment, and they covered the entire heart in the horizontal long axis (4 chamber view), in the vertical long axis (2 chamber view) and in the short axis. The transaxial images and MIP images were independently evaluated for their ability to detect HSS. Conventional coronary angiograms of the same study group served as the standard of reference. Four radiologists were requested to rank each image with using a five-point scale (1 = definitely negative, 2 = probably negative, 3 = indeterminate, 4 = probably positive, and 5 definitely positive) for the presence of HSS; the data were then interpreted using ROC analysis. There was no statistical difference in the area under the ROC curve between transaxial images and MIP images for the detection of HSS (0.8375 and 0.8708, respectively; ρ > 0.05). The mean reading time for the transaxial source images and the MIP images was 116 and 126.5 minutes, respectively. The diagnostic performance of the MIP images for detecting HSS of the coronary arteries is acceptable and this technique's ability to detect HSS is comparable to that of the transaxial source images

  5. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  6. Application of Data Envelopment Analysis to Measure Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Kočišová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature analysing efficiency of financial institutions has enveloped rapidly over the last years. Most studies have focused on the input side analysing input technical and cost efficiency. Only few studies have examined the output side evaluating output technical and revenue efficiency. We know that both sides are relevant when evaluating efficiency of financial institutions. Therefore the primary purpose of this paper is to review a number of approaches for efficiency measurement. In particular, the concepts of cost, revenue and profit functions are discussed. We apply Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA to a sample of Slovak and Czech commercial banks during years 2009–2013 comparing the efficiencies by either minimizing cost or maximizing revenue and profit. The results showed that the level of average revenue efficiency was the highest and the average profit efficiency was the lowest one. As can be seen the Czech banks were more cost, revenue and profit efficient than Slovak ones during the whole analysed period.

  7. DETERMINING THE RIGHT MARKETING-RELATED METRICS TO MAXIMIZE PROFITABILITY IN BANKING

    OpenAIRE

    Akdogan, Cagla Burcin; Uray, Nimet; Ulengin, Burc

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Securing a sustainable competitive advantage iscrucial in today’s highly turbulent market environment. One of the requirementsfor achieving this objective is understanding the interrelationships betweenmarketing activities and business performance through the use of a suitablemethod of marketing performance assessment. Accordingly, the purpose of this studyis to propose a model that can be used to assess the business performance ofbanks from the perspective of marketing resources, m...

  8. Sharing values or maximizing profits?: ethical discourses and sustainable food initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, de E.; Dagevos, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we pose that in a social context dominated by neoliberal politics utilitarian and contractarian ethics tend to hinder and can even smother critical alternatives of our food system that have more holistic narratives on the consequences of our food choices. First of all, we will argue

  9. A Dynamic Model of Internally-Driven Corporate Social Responsibility and Enlightened Profit Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Balboni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the analysis of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from an economic perspective, in two ways. Firstly, introducing a new definition and a new framework of analysis, which can account for both the externallydriven and the internallydriven view of CSR. Secondly, developing a dynamic model of internallydriven CSR – which draws inspiration from the literature on renewable resources – to show that, under certain circumstances, an enlightened profit‐maxi...

  10. A note on a multi-period profit maximizing model for retail supply chain management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Heuvel (Wilco); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this note we present an efficient exact algorithm to solve the joint pricing and inventory problem for which Bhattacharjee and Ramesh (2000) proposed two heuristics. Our algorithm appears to be superior also in terms of computation time. Furthermore, we point out several mistakes in

  11. The Maximums and Minimums of a Polnomial or Maximizing Profits and Minimizing Aircraft Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Brenton R.

    1984-01-01

    Plotting a polynomial over the range of real numbers when its derivative contains complex roots is discussed. The polynomials are graphed by calculating the minimums, maximums, and zeros of the function. (MNS)

  12. Compromising Long-Term Sustainability for Short-Term Profit Maximization: Unethical Business Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doorasamy Mishelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current environmental challenges caused by the dependence on nonrenewable energy, increased waste disposal, the toxic emissions created by operational activities, and also the scarce supply of water are so complex and important that it requires immediate attention. Strict environmental legislation, market pressures, and urgent need for sustainability have given businesses no option but to ensure that they do all that is possible to ensure that their business operations are sustainable. This paper addresses the underlying factors that determine the extent to which organizations adopt sustainable business practices and cleaner production techniques and technologies. It had been concluded that ethics is linked to sustainable business practices, because the objectives of both these concepts are to think about doing what’s right for others and the world, including the environment. According to the organizational corporate compliance regulations, a company’s commitment to ethical business and sustainable business practices should be detailed in their policy handbook and communicated to all employees within the company (Sustainability Report 2013/2014.

  13. Taxes, bankruptcy costs, and capital structure in for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sean S; Yang, Jie; Carroll, Nathan

    2018-02-01

    About 60% of the US hospitals are not-for-profit and it is not clear how traditional theories of capital structure should be adapted to understand the borrowing behavior of not-for-profit hospitals. This paper identifies important determinants of capital structure taken from theories describing for-profit firms as well as prior literature on not-for-profit hospitals. We examine the differential effects these factors have on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, we use a difference-in-differences regression framework to study how differences in leverage between for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals change in response to key explanatory variables (i.e. tax rates and bankruptcy costs). The sample in this study includes most US short-term general acute hospitals from 2000 to 2012. We find that personal and corporate income taxes and bankruptcy costs have significant and distinct effects on the capital structure of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. Specifically, relative to not-for-profit hospitals: (1) higher corporate income tax encourages for-profit hospitals to increase their debt usage; (2) higher personal income tax discourages for-profit hospitals to use debt; and (3) higher expected bankruptcy costs lead for-profit hospitals to use less debt. Over the past decade, the capital structure of for-profit hospitals has been more flexible as compared to that of not-for-profit hospitals. This may suggest that not-for-profit hospitals are more constrained by external financing resources. Particularly, our analysis suggests that not-for-profit hospitals operating in states with high corporate taxes but low personal income taxes may face particular challenges of borrowing funds relative to their for-profit competitors.

  14. Charity care: do not-for-profits influence for-profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Jan P; White, Kenneth R; Valdmanis, Vivian

    2002-03-01

    This study further examines whether not-for-profit hospitals exert pressure on for-profit hospitals to provide charity care and whether for-profit hospitals react differently than not-for-profit hospitals to managed care pressures and hospital competition in providing charity care. A two equation model is estimated using 1996 data from California hospitals. The results indicate that in mixed ownership markets, for-profit hospitals provide significantly less charity care as not-for-profit hospitals in the market provide more. Unexpectedly, study for-profit hospitals were not more influenced by price competition than other hospitals with respect to charity care. Having a unique role in providing charity care may justify continuing tax exemption for not-for-profit hospitals and enhance interest in payment and other policies with regard to conversions to ensure that not-for-profit hospitals continue to be represented in market areas.

  15. Profitable tail-end production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchbeck, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This presentation discusses the origins of the present challenge faced in making mature oil fields profitable in the North Sea. It briefly examines the origins of these challenges, which are rooted in the industrial psychology of the North Sea. It develops a methodological formula for the successful re-engineering of inefficiently-run assets, focusing in particular on the personnel management aspects. It identifies some key areas to seek sustainable cost reductions and recognises the importance of renewing the context for investment in tail-end fields. Finally, it speculates about the way in which the learnings developed in the experiences of the last few years will influence the future of the North Sea. 2 refs.

  16. Introduction: Translating Potential into Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina; Kipping, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    potential into profits.’ The history of multinational enterprises (MNEs) knows many examples of economies with these characteristics similar to modern understandings of ‘emerging markets.’ This special issue analyzes foreign multinationals in emerging markets from a historical perspective. It seeks...... to understand changes and continuities in the opportunities and challenges less developed markets presented for MNEs, and in the various ways in which their managers responded to these. Rather than relying on the ‘emerging market’ label, we ask (1) why managers perceived certain markets as ‘emerging’ and which...... expectations they had when investing in these markets, (2) which challenges they faced there, and (3) how they subsequently addressed them. By tracing and comparing these investments and their consequences over time (and space), we hope to shed more light on managerial decisions and understand to what extent...

  17. Photovoltaic is always more profitable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    While indicating 31 recommendations made by the ADEME for the development of photovoltaic production, this article outlines a result published in the same report: the cost of solar photovoltaic production keeps on decreasing, and therefore, profitabilities without subsidy might appear before the 2020's in France. The cost of ground-based photovoltaic plant has indeed been decreasing from 6 to 1.5 euro per Watt in less than 10 years, with some regional variations. The connection cost could also be reduced by nearly 30 per cent for individual installations. New business models could then be implemented for a development without subsidy. The new thermal regulation could also have an influence on the development of solar production. These trends can be noticed in the world as well

  18. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  19. PROFIT SENSITIVITY IN THE DECISION - MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimi Ofilean

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Projections on the profitability of an entity is a prerequisite impact assessment of implementing various management strategies. The literature did not include a model sensitivity analysis in terms of profit margin of safety modification and safety coefficient. This article aims to explicit solutions for identifying the factors that influence the sensitivity of profit, the proposed analytical models to change the margin of safety (physical and value and coefficient of safety. The model allows the determination of limits that can increase or decrease sales costs so that the company remains profitable, ie to be able to maintain an adequate level of profit. This analysis allows knowing the influence of each factor in the evolution of the profitability of the entity, allowing managers to adopt the right decisions based on the importance of the influence of the analysis results of the entity. To facilitate understanding of the proposed analytical model is presented a case study.

  20. Impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-07-01

    We sought to determine the impact of robotic operative efficiency on profitability and assess the impact of secondary variables. Financial data were collected for all robotic cases performed for fiscal years 2010 (FY10) and 2011 (FY11) at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and included 9 surgical subspecialties. Profitability was defined as a positive operating income. From July 2009 through June 2011, 1295 robotic cases were performed. Robotic surgery was profitable in both fiscal years, with an operating income of $386,735 in FY10 and $822,996 in FY11. In FY10, urogynecology and pediatric surgery were the only nonprofitable subspecialties. In FY11, all subspecialties were profitable. Profitability was associated with case time, payor mix, and procedure type (all P profitability regardless of surgical specialty. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Profitability analysis in the hospital industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O

    1978-01-01

    Measures of marginal profit are derived for the two payment classes--cost payers and charge payers--that the hospital industry must consider in profitability analysis, i.e., prediction of the excess of revenue over expenses. Two indexes of profitability, use when payment mix is constant and when it is nonconstant, respectively, are derived from the two marginal profit measures, and one of them is shown to be a modification of the contribution margin, the conventional measure of profitability used in general industry. All three measures--the contribution margin and the two new indexes of profitability--are used to estimate changes in net income resulting from changes in patient volume with and without accompanying changes in payment mix. The conventional measure yields large overestimates of expected excess revenue. PMID:632101

  2. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  3. Improving profitability in a grassroots refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T. [Star Petroleum Refining Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kennedy, P.; Bhargava, S. [KBC Process Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    1999-05-01

    Actions taken to maximise profit at the Star Refinery in Thailand are described. The company made good use of the Profit Improvement Programme (PIP) (which specialises in refinery economics) and the way in which PIP addressed the problem and the benefits derived therefrom is the nub of this paper. The efforts appear to have been more than satisfactory from the aspect of increasing profit margins. (UK)

  4. Public ownership helps boost HMOs' profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, P J

    1992-05-04

    Health maintenance organizations have found that the route to faster growth and better profitability may be turning into a for-profit business and issuing stock. For the past five years, such organizations have generally outperformed their older, not-for-profit counterparts that rely on debt to fuel growth. Since 1988, HMOs have completed 48 stock and debt offerings, raising $3.6 billion.

  5. DETERMINANTS OF BANK PROFITABILITY: EVIDENCE FROM US

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Yinglin; Huang, Yating

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that affect bank profitability. We construct a sample of US banks from 2003 to 2015, and use return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) to measure bank profitability. We find that banks with higher profitability are the banks that have: (1) a higher deposits to total asset ratio, (2) a higher diversification ratio, and (3) higher operational efficiency. We also find that better-capitalized banks tend to be more profitable only when we use ROA as the me...

  6. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  7. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  8. Pareto optimization of an industrial ecosystem: sustainability maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. M.-S. Monteiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates a procedure to design an Industrial Ecosystem for sequestrating CO2 and consuming glycerol in a Chemical Complex with 15 integrated processes. The Complex is responsible for the production of methanol, ethylene oxide, ammonia, urea, dimethyl carbonate, ethylene glycol, glycerol carbonate, β-carotene, 1,2-propanediol and olefins, and is simulated using UNISIM Design (Honeywell. The process environmental impact (EI is calculated using the Waste Reduction Algorithm, while Profit (P is estimated using classic cost correlations. MATLAB (The Mathworks Inc is connected to UNISIM to enable optimization. The objective is granting maximum process sustainability, which involves finding a compromise between high profitability and low environmental impact. Sustainability maximization is therefore understood as a multi-criteria optimization problem, addressed by means of the Pareto optimization methodology for trading off P vs. EI.

  9. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  10. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  11. Project risk definition and measurement in a not-for-profit setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapenski, L C

    1992-11-01

    The health care finance literature on capital investment decisions generally applies conventional market risk concepts without distinguishing between proprietary and not-for-profit forms of organization. Since proprietary firms have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, a project's relevant risk is its contribution to the riskiness of the equity investors' well diversified stock portfolios, or its market risk. However, not-for-profit organizations do not have shareholder wealth maximization as their primary goal, and thus market risk concepts are not applicable. Rather, the relevant risk in a not-for-profit setting is a project's corporate risk; that is, the project's contribution to the riskiness of the organization. The difference in risk definition and measurement between proprietary and not-for-profit firms has two implications for managerial decisions: (1) in making capital investment decisions, a manager must define and measure a project's riskiness on the basis of the firm's organizational form; and (2) although diversification for the sole purpose of risk reduction is not a valid rationale for proprietary firms because stockholders can achieve the same result at less cost, risk-reducing diversification does make sense for not-for-profit firms.

  12. Intellectual Capital and Profitability: A Firm Value Approach in the European Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intangibles are, at a knowledge-based economy, the most important resources, driving companies towards systematic and sometimes unexpected returns. This paper follows a positivist approach and aims to investigate the association between the degree of intangibility, value of firms and their profitability. Based on the 500 largest European companies, rated by Financial Times, the most relevant insights emerge from the association between firms’ knowledge intensity level and its degree of profitability. These insights consolidate the evidences that immaterial resources act as drivers of future benefits and are embodied on firms’ profitability ratios.

  13. Design for life-cycle profit with simultaneous consideration of initial manufacturing and end-of-life remanufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minjung; Kim, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Remanufacturing is emerging as a promising solution for achieving green, profitable businesses. This article considers a manufacturer that produces new products and also remanufactured versions of the new products that become available at the end of their life cycle. For such a manufacturer, design decisions at the initial design stage determine both the current profit from manufacturing and future profit from remanufacturing. To maximize the total profit, design decisions must carefully consider both ends of product life cycle, i.e. manufacturing and end-of-life stages. This article proposes a decision-support model for the life-cycle design using mixed-integer nonlinear programming. With an aim to maximize the total life-cycle profit, the proposed model searches for an (at least locally) optimal product design (i.e. design specifications and the selling price) for the new and remanufactured products. It optimizes both the initial design and design upgrades at the end-of-life stage and also provides corresponding production strategies, including production quantities and take-back rate. The model is extended to a multi-objective model that maximizes both economic profit and environmental-impact saving. To illustrate, the developed model is demonstrated with an example of a desktop computer.

  14. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    2017-01-01

    Author's accepted version (post-print). Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consi...

  15. Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCanne, Claire E; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2018-01-01

    Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably. Little work has focused on the relative costs and benefits of novel regenerative farming operations, which necessitates studying in situ , farmer-defined best management practices. Here, we evaluate the relative effects of regenerative and conventional corn production systems on pest management services, soil conservation, and farmer profitability and productivity throughout the Northern Plains of the United States. Regenerative farming systems provided greater ecosystem services and profitability for farmers than an input-intensive model of corn production. Pests were 10-fold more abundant in insecticide-treated corn fields than on insecticide-free regenerative farms, indicating that farmers who proactively design pest-resilient food systems outperform farmers that react to pests chemically. Regenerative fields had 29% lower grain production but 78% higher profits over traditional corn production systems. Profit was positively correlated with the particulate organic matter of the soil, not yield. These results provide the basis for dialogue on ecologically based farming systems that could be used to simultaneously produce food while conserving our natural resource base: two factors that are pitted against one another in simplified food production systems. To attain this requires a systems-level shift on the farm; simply applying individual regenerative practices within the current production model will not likely produce the documented results.

  16. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  17. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  18. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  19. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  20. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 147, 155 and 156 [CMS-9945-IFC] RIN 0938-AS17 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities AGENCY... meeting the size standards of the Small Business Administration (SBA); (2) a not-for-profit organization...

  1. Optimal solutions for routing problems with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archetti, C.; Bianchessi, N.; Speranza, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a branch-and-price algorithm to solve two well-known vehicle routing problems with profits, the Capacitated Team Orienteering Problem and the Capacitated Profitable Tour Problem. A restricted master heuristic is applied at each node of the branch-and-bound tree in order to

  2. Price Discrimination, Economies of Scale, and Profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Donghyun

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that it is possible for economies of scale to induce a price-discriminating monopolist to sell in an unprofitable market where the average cost always exceeds the price. States that higher profits in the profitable market caused by economies of scale may exceed losses incurred in the unprofitable market. (CMK)

  3. Education for Profit, Education for Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Martha C.

    2009-01-01

    Education is often discussed in low-level utilitarian terms: how can educators produce technically trained people who can hold onto "their" share of the global market? With the rush to profitability, values precious for the future of democracy are in danger of getting lost. The profit motive suggests to most concerned politicians that science and…

  4. Management Practices: Are Not For Profits Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Delfgaauw (Josse); A.J. Dur (Robert); C. Propper (Propper); S. Smith (Sarah)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have demonstrated the importance of good management for firm performance. Here, we focus on management in not-for-profits (NFPs). We present a model predicting that management quality will be lower in NFPs compared to for-profits (FPs), but that outputs may not be worse if

  5. For-Profit Schools: They Get IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The for-profit sector of higher education has generated some disturbing headlines recently. Widely publicized charges of predatory recruiting practices have prompted new regulations and provided fuel for scorching criticism of the entire business model. But while the spotlight is focused on what for-profits are doing wrong, are people overlooking…

  6. Profit sharing for increased training investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates whether paying a profit-related wage stimulates training investments. The results point to increased worker effort and wage flexibility as two channels through which profit sharing enhances investments in training. While both effects are found for young workers, for older

  7. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming-Hsun; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-10-07

    Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV), break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP), is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  8. Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsun Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value (NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process, and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and 173 million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process (EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

  9. Anti-profit beliefs: How people neglect the societal benefits of profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amit; Dana, Jason; Baron, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    Profit-seeking firms are stereotypically depicted as immoral and harmful to society. At the same time, profit-driven enterprise has contributed immensely to human prosperity. Though scholars agree that profit can incentivize societally beneficial behaviors, people may neglect this possibility. In 7 studies, we show that people see business profit as necessarily in conflict with social good, a view we call anti-profit beliefs . Studies 1 and 2 demonstrate that U.S. participants hold anti-profit views of real U.S. firms and industries. Study 3 shows that hypothetical organizations are seen as doing more harm when they are labeled "for-profit" rather than "non-profit," while Study 4 shows that increasing harm to society is viewed as a strategy for increasing a hypothetical firm's long-run profitability. Studies 5-7 demonstrate that carefully prompting subjects to consider the long run incentives of profit can attenuate anti-profit beliefs, while prompting short run thinking does nothing relative to a control. Together, these results suggest that the default view of profits is zero-sum. While people readily grasp how profit can incentivize firms to engage in practices that harm others, they neglect how it can incentivize firms to engage in practices that benefit others. Accordingly, people's stereotypes of profit-seeking firms are excessively negative. Even in one of the most market-oriented societies in history, people doubt the contributions of profit-seeking industry to societal progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  11. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  12. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  13. Slovnaft posts unexpectedly high profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, Slovnaft used the movement of the price of Brent crude as an argument to explain the movement of its prices. It assumed the price of Urals crude would follow the Brent crude price after a short period. It was still using this argument in 2002. Urals crude was for a long period about 2 USD per barrel (159 l) cheaper than Brent. But over recent last months, the price difference between Brent crude and Ural crude has been increasing. According to the pricing policy, customers of Hungarian-owned MOL/Slovnaft might expect fuel prices to fall. But this did not happen. Slovnaft no longer uses Brent prices to justify its prices and focuses on the development of the FOB Rotterdam fuel market. When prices increase on the FOB Rotterdam fuel market, refineries in neighbouring regions export oil to this market. And in order to maintain stability on the market, other refineries also increase their prices. Slovnaft benefits not only from cheaper Russian oil but also from the major investments it made in the past. While other refineries use distillation residues to produce cheaper heavy heating oils, Slovnaft is able to convert such residues into fuel. And this also has an economic impact. B. Kelemen admits that it will be mainly shareholders who benefit from these developments.It is not only rising oil prices that have been noticeable recently, but also the lack of investment in the oil industry. The capacity of Russian pipelines, tankers and the processing capacity of refineries has been insufficient for some time. Whereas fuel consumption is growing year after year. Preliminary calculations indicate the oil industry needs to invest about 700 bill. USD and investors expect a return, according to B. Kelemen, of 10 to 17%. The closest competitors of Slovnaft will have to invest in desulphurization and the processing of heavy residues. And so Slovnaft can look forward to very profitable years. The same cannot be said of its customers. Slovnaft is set to publish

  14. Environmental policy and profitability - Evidence from Swedish industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braennlund, Runar; Lundgren, Tommy. e-mail; runar.brannlund@econ.umu.se

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the existence of a 'Porter effect' using firm level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. By utilizing a factor demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function which has a technology component dependent upon firm specific effective tax on CO{sub 2}, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a reversed 'Porter effect' in most industrial sectors, specifically energy intensive industries

  15. Optimality of profit-including prices under ideal planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, P A

    1973-07-01

    Although prices calculated by a constant percentage markup on all costs (nonlabor as well as direct-labor) are usually admitted to be more realistic for a competitive capitalistic model, the view is often expressed that, for optimal planning purposes, the "values" model of Marx's Capital, Volume I, is to be preferred. It is shown here that an optimal-control model that maximizes discounted social utility of consumption per capita and that ultimately approaches a steady state must ultimately have optimal pricing that involves equal rates of steady-state profit in all industries; and such optimal pricing will necessarily deviate from Marx's model of equal rates of surplus value (markups on direct-labor only) in all industries.

  16. The tipping point: A mathematical model for the profit-driven abandonment of restaurant tipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Sara M.; Herbers, Eileen; Chen, Jack; Abrams, Daniel M.

    2018-02-01

    The custom of voluntarily tipping for services rendered has gone in and out of fashion in America since its introduction in the 19th century. Restaurant owners that ban tipping in their establishments often claim that social justice drives their decisions, but we show that rational profit-maximization may also justify the decisions. Here, we propose a conceptual model of restaurant competition for staff and customers, and we show that there exists a critical conventional tip rate at which restaurant owners should eliminate tipping to maximize profits. Because the conventional tip rate has been increasing steadily for the last several decades, our model suggests that restaurant owners may abandon tipping en masse when that critical tip rate is reached.

  17. Strongly intensive quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Gazdzicki, M.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of fluctuations of hadron production properties in collisions of relativistic particles profits from use of measurable intensive quantities which are independent of system size variations. The first family of such quantities was proposed in 1992; another is introduced in this paper. Furthermore we present a proof of independence of volume fluctuations for quantities from both families within the framework of the grand canonical ensemble. These quantities are referred to as strongly intensive ones. Influence of conservation laws and resonance decays is also discussed.

  18. 48 CFR 1415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1415.404-4 Profit. (a) DOI's policy is to use a... also refer to the Armed Services Pricing Manual (ASPM No. 1). The “Other Costs” factor shall include...

  19. relating customer satisfaction to customer profitability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Purchase behavior and profitability data derived from the accounting system of a firm, are ... terms of cost control, in the sense that marketing ... internal accounting system which allows for an ..... information and advice, and the effects of such.

  20. Profitability expertise of rural methanization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to analyze the profitability of projects of methanization, and to identify factors which curb or favour their profitability. It is based on a detailed analysis of the investment and of the profitability of 50 sites of different sizes and at different stages of progress (from the feasibility study to few months of operation), and also of experiences in three neighbour countries (Germany, Switzerland and Belgium). First, the study highlights the importance of investment costs in the biogas production global cost, notably with respect to current German prices. Then, it comments the impact of subsidies on facility profitability. It proposes ways to improve public support to the different energetic vectors produced from biogas: electricity, biomethane, and heat

  1. 48 CFR 915.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4 Profit. (c)(4)(i) Contracting officer...) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) functions. Pursuant to section 602(d) (13) and (20) of the...

  2. Causes of different profitability of agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Branko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work involves identification of causes of different profitability of agricultural sector done on case study of nearly identical agricultural enterprises. It shows that financial mix even in scope of similar companies can lead to various profit indicators. Through comparative financial analysis in the same industry and activity by applying methods and techniques we have concluded that company PP Ratkovo operates more stable and closer to determined norms and also shows better results in majority of the indicators. Horizontal and vertical analysis indicates that companies in Agribusiness partner group use expensive external sources of financing. We have precisely defined in which cost segment occurs highest distinction. Also we have shown reasons why PP Ratkovo in the last two years manifests great profitability measured by ebit, ebitda and net profit as well as excellent structure of material costs and wages costs in in frame of the operating income, and reasons why enterprises in Agribusiness partner group does not.

  3. 48 CFR 315.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., unusual contingency provisions, or other risk-reducing measures, the amount of profit shall be less than... contribute to successful results. Conversely, the Contracting Officer shall view failure or unwillingness on...

  4. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  5. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  6. The impact of liquidity on bank profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Bordeleau, Etienne; Graham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The recent crisis has underlined the importance of sound bank liquidity management. In response, regulators are devising new liquidity standards with the aim of making the financial system more stable and resilient. In this paper, the authors analyse the impact of liquid asset holdings on bank profitability for a sample of large U.S. and Canadian banks. Results suggest that profitability is improved for banks that hold some liquid assets, however, there is a point at which holding further liq...

  7. Management of Enterprise Profit: Theory and Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Nadezhda Sergeevna Piontkevich

    2015-01-01

    Effective management of financial activity of commercial organization promotes achievement of the main objective of its activity – receiving profit. Both external and internal factors causing specifics of financial management of organization in the field of management of profit have impact on this process. In modern conditions of economic development this problem gains the greatest relevance, and new approaches for its decision are required. In the present article the author’s theoretical and...

  8. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy optimization of wind farm project net profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Nikolić, Vlastimir; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Mohd Shuib, Nor Liyana; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyzing of wind farm project investment. • Net present value (NPV) maximization of the wind farm project. • Adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) optimization of the number of wind turbines to maximize NPV. • The impact of the variation in the wind farm parameters. • Adaptive neuro fuzzy application. - Abstract: A wind power plant which consists of a group of wind turbines at a specific location is also known as wind farm. To maximize the wind farm net profit, the number of turbines installed in the wind farm should be different in depend on wind farm project investment parameters. In this paper, in order to achieve the maximal net profit of a wind farm, an intelligent optimization scheme based on the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is applied. As the net profit measures, net present value (NPV) and interest rate of return (IRR) are used. The NPV and IRR are two of the most important criteria for project investment estimating. The general approach in determining the accept/reject/stay in different decision for a project via NPV and IRR is to treat the cash flows as known with certainty. However, even small deviations from the predetermined values may easily invalidate the decision. In the proposed model the ANFIS estimator adjusts the number of turbines installed in the wind farm, for operating at the highest net profit point. The performance of proposed optimizer is confirmed by simulation results. Some outstanding properties of this new estimator are online implementation capability, structural simplicity and its robustness against any changes in wind farm parameters. Based on the simulation results, the effectiveness of the proposed optimization strategy is verified

  9. Fractal profit landscape of the stock market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Yi, Il Gu; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the profit landscape obtained from the most basic, fluctuation based, trading strategy applied for the daily stock price data. The strategy is parameterized by only two variables, p and q Stocks are sold and bought if the log return is bigger than p and less than -q, respectively. Repetition of this simple strategy for a long time gives the profit defined in the underlying two-dimensional parameter space of p and q. It is revealed that the local maxima in the profit landscape are spread in the form of a fractal structure. The fractal structure implies that successful strategies are not localized to any region of the profit landscape and are neither spaced evenly throughout the profit landscape, which makes the optimization notoriously hard and hypersensitive for partial or limited information. The concrete implication of this property is demonstrated by showing that optimization of one stock for future values or other stocks renders worse profit than a strategy that ignores fluctuations, i.e., a long-term buy-and-hold strategy.

  10. Does Capital Structure Influence Company Profitability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herciu Mihaela

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Every company has a different structure of balance sheet. Some of the companies have more liabilities than equity. Considering the industry or debt-to-equity ratio, the balance sheet structure affects the company profitability measured by DuPont system. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the structure of balance sheet and to identify some optimal levels in order to increase company profitability. The DuPont returns like ROA (return on assets and ROE (return on equity will be used to measure the company profitability, while the debt-to-equity ratio will be used as a measure (reflection of capital structure. The samples consist on the most profitable non-financial companies ranked in Fortune Global 500. The companies will be grouped in clusters (based on industry or debt-to-equity ratio in order to identify the signification of the correlation between the profit and the balance sheet structure. The main results of the paper refer to the company profitability that can be increased by using an optimal structure of liabilities and equity.

  11. DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS OF BANK PROFITABILITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rozga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Discriminant analysis has been employed in this paper in order to identify and explain key features of bank profitability levels. Bank profitability is set up in the form of two categorical variables: profit or loss recorded and above or below average return on equity. Predictor variables are selected from various groups of financial indicators usually included in the empirical work on microeconomic determinants of bank profitability. The data from the Croatian banking sector is analyzed using the Enter method. General recommendations for a more profitable business of banking found in the bank management literature and existing empirical framework such as rationalization of overhead costs, asset growth, increase of non-interest income by expanding scale and scope of financial products proved to be important for classification of banks in different profitability levels. A higher market share may bring additional advantages. Classification results, canonical correlation and Wilks’ Lambda test confirm statistical significance of research results. Altogether, discriminant analysis turns out to be a suitable statistical method for solving presented research problem and moving forward from the bankruptcy, credit rating or default issues in finance.

  12. Not-for-profits trek into for-profit accounting: goodwill impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Acquisitions may be integral and strategic drivers for successfully executing the business objectives of an entity or fulfilling its mission. The new guidance creates accounting and valuation challenges for not-for-profit entities that for-profit entities have been dealing with for years. Now that not-for-profit entities apply the same principles, the fair value concepts and accounting complexities are more pervasive. By brining to bear the rights complement of accounting, finance, and valuation resources, not-for-profit entities can successfully navigate these challenges and gain an understanding of the full magnitude of acquisition decisions on financial results.

  13. Factors affecting the entry of for-profit providers into a price regulated market for formal long-term care services: a case study from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Mutsumi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    While the distinct behaviors of for-profit and non-profit providers in the healthcare market have been compared in the economic literature, their choices regarding market entry and exit have only recently been debated. Since 2000, when public Long-Term Care Insurance was introduced in Japan, for-profit providers have been able to provide formal long-term homecare services. The aim of this study is to determine which factors have affected market entry of for-profit providers under price regulation and in competition with existing non-profit providers. We used nation-wide panel data from 2002 to 2010, aggregated at the level of local public insurers (n = 1557), a basic area unit of service provision. The number of for-profit providers per elderly population in the area unit was regressed against factors related to local demand and service costs using first-difference linear regression, a fixed effects model, and Tobit regression for robustness checking. Results showed that demand (the number of eligible care recipients) and cost factors (population density and minimum wage) significantly influenced for-profit providers' choice of market entry. These findings indicate that for-profit providers will strategically choose a local market for maximizing profit. We believe that price regulation should be redesigned to incorporate quality of care and market conditions, regardless of the profit status of the providers, to ensure equal access to efficient delivery of long-term care across all regions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  15. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  16. Is There a Trade-off Between Quality and Profitability in United States Nursing Homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godby, Tyler; Saldanha, Sarah; Valle, Jazmine; Paul, David P; Coustasse, Alberto

    Nursing home residents across the United States rely on quality care and effective services. Nursing homes provide skilled nurses and nursing aides who can provide services 24 hours a day for individuals who could not perform these tasks for themselves. Not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) nursing homes have been examined for utilization and efficacy; however, it has been shown that NFP nursing homes generally offer higher quality care and generate greater profit margins compared with FP nursing homes. The purpose of this research was to determine if NFP nursing homes provide enhanced quality care and a larger profit margin compared with FP nursing homes. Benefits and barriers in regard to financial stability and quality of care exist for both FP and NFP homes. Based on the findings of this review, it is suggested that NFP nursing homes have achieved higher quality of care because of a more effective balance of business aspects, as well as prioritizing resident well-being, and care quality over profit maximization in NFP homes.

  17. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  18. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  19. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  20. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  1. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  2. Profits in reverse? An examination of the decisive factors for reverse supply chain profitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Samuel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although the concept of the reverse supply chain (RSC) is not unknown in industry, an inhibitor for its successful use is low (or no) profitability. A research challenge is investigating ways to establish the RSC as a profit-creating center in the organization. This paper contributes...

  3. Competition for FDI and Profit Shifting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Jie; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    When countries compete for the location of a new multinational plant they need to be aware of the profit shifting opportunities this new plant creates for the global multinational firm. By modelling explicitly the multinational’s intra-firm transactions, we show that the home market advantage...... that large countries have due to their size will be counteracted by such profit shifting opportunities. As a result of this, large countries will not be able to capitalize on their size and sustain high corporate taxes. We show that, on the basis of these profit shifting opportunities, a small country can...... easily win the location game ahead of a large country. How lenient the small country is in implementing transfer pricing regulations turns out to be an important variable in such location games....

  4. Willow growing - Methods of calculation and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenqvist, H.

    1997-01-01

    The calculation method presented here makes it possible to conduct profitability comparisons between annual and perennial crops and in addition take the planning situation into account. The method applied is a modified total step calculation. The difference between a traditional total step calculation and the modified version is the way in which payments and disbursements are taken into account over a period of several years. This is achieved by combining the present value method and the annuity method. The choice of interest rate has great bearing on the result in perennial calculations. The various components influencing the interest rate are analysed and factors relating to the establishment of the interest rate in different situations are described. The risk factor can be an important variable component of the interest rate calculation. Risk is also addressed from an approach in accordance with portfolio theory. The application of the methods sheds light on the profitability of Salix cultivation from the viewpoint of business economics, and also how different factors influence the profitability of Salix cultivation. Aspects studied are harvesting intervals, the importance of yield level, the competitiveness of Salix versus grain cultivation, the influence of income taxes on profitability etc. Methods for evaluation of activities concerning cultivation of a perennial crop are described and also involve the application of nitrogen fertilization to Salix cultivation. Studies have been performed using these methods to look into nitrogen fertilizer profitability in Salix cultivation during the first rotation period. Nitrogen fertilizer profitability has been investigated involving both production functions and cost calculations, taking the year fertilization into consideration. 72 refs., 2 figs., 52 tabs

  5. Research of profit earner in professional football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganok A.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of professional sport is considered. The models of entrepreneurial activity are described in this sphere. The structure of income of soccer clubs of France, USA and Ukraine is analysed. The tendencies of receipt of profits are rotined on the example of professional soccer clubs of Ukraine. It is marked that in Ukraine actual two models of orientation of conduct of sporting business on condition of high-efficiency management and marketing. For the increase of profits necessary changes are in a current legislation.

  6. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  7. FARM RESOURCE ALLOCATION AND PROFITABILITY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unique cropping systems have emerged in Nigeria to suit limited farmer resources and production objectives in humid forest inland valley ecosystems. But the basis for farm resource allocation and profitability of different crop enterprises are not properly understood. This study is based on a survey of 48 randomly selected ...

  8. The profitability of low-volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blitz, David; Vidojevic, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Low-risk stocks exhibit higher returns than predicted by established asset pricing models, but this anomaly seems to be explained by the new Fama-French five-factor model, which includes a profitability factor. We argue that this conclusion is premature given the lack of empirical evidence for a

  9. EPA for Businesses and Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and links to EPA web pages that are meant to help businesses and non-profits adhere to EPA regulations and otherwise protect the environment, take advantage of opportunities to collaborate with the EPA, and find training EPA training programs.

  10. Profitability of Qualified-Labour-Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldino, Roberto Ribeiro; Cabral, Tânia Cristina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In Baldino and Cabral (2013) we introduced the concept of qualified labour-power as the commodity produced by the school system. In the present article we outline a quantitative model to evaluate the profit rate of educational programmes. We compare a medical school programme with a teacher education programme at a public university in Brazil,…

  11. Oil price scenarios and refining profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.

    1993-01-01

    Currently refining profitability is low because there has been an overbuilding of conversion capacity in Western Europe in the last round. Oil marketing, the chemicals business and the fundamental economy itself are at low points in their cycles which have not coincided, at least in the UK, since 1975. Against that gloomy background, it is predicted that downstream profitability will recover in the mid-1990s. Crude oil prices will remain low until the call on OPEC crude increases again and takes up the capacity which has been brought on stream in response to the Gulf War. When this happens, it is likely to trigger another price spike and another round of investment in production capacity. Environmentally driven investments in desulphurisation or emissions reduction will be poorly remunerated all the way through the value chain. Refining margins will recover when white oil demand growth tightens up the need for conversion capacity. Marketing will need to reduce the retail network overcapacity in the mature markets if it is to improve its profitability. In this period of low profitability, even with the light at the end of the tunnel for refiners in the middle of the decade, the industry structure is under threat. There is a strong argument for new modes of competitive behaviour which are backed by strong elements of cooperation. (author)

  12. Cooperation and profit allocation in distribution chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardiola, L.A.; Meca, A.; Timmer, Judith B.

    2005-01-01

    We study the coordination of actions and the allocation of profit in distribution chains under decentralized control. We consider distribution chains in which a single supplier supplies goods for replenishment of stocks of several retailers who, in turn, sell these goods to their own separate

  13. 14 CFR 271.6 - Profit element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS GUIDELINES FOR SUBSIDIZING AIR CARRIERS PROVIDING ESSENTIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION § 271.6 Profit element. The reasonable return for a carrier for providing essential air service at an eligible place...

  14. 48 CFR 215.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... prenegotiation profit or fee objective on any negotiated contract action when cost or pricing data is obtained, except for cost-plus-award-fee contracts (see 215.404-74, 216.405-2, and FAR 16.405-2) or contracts with... DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-4...

  15. 48 CFR 415.404-4 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Termination settlements; and (v) Cost-plus-award-fee contracts; (b) Unless otherwise restricted by contracting... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 415.404-4 Profit. (a)(1) USDA will use a... negotiation is based on cost analysis. (2) The following types of acquisitions are exempt from the...

  16. 40 CFR 35.937-7 - Profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance and not merely the application of a predetermined percentage factor. For the purpose of... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.937-7 Profit. The objective of negotiations shall be the exercise of sound business judgment and good administrative practice including the...

  17. Continuous sawmill studies: protocols, practices, and profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Mayer; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2005-01-01

    In today's global economy, the "opportunity cost" associated with suboptimal utilization of raw material and mill resources is significant. As a result, understanding the profit potential associated with different types of logs is critically important for sawmill survival. The conventional sawmill study typically has been conducted on a substantially...

  18. Dramaturgi Kepemimpinan Perempuan dalam Organisasi Profit

    OpenAIRE

    Negari, Leidena Sekar; Sunarto, Sunarto; Lukmantoro, Triyono

    2013-01-01

    DRAMATURGI KEPEMIMPINAN PEREMPUAN DALAMORGANISASI PROFITAbstrakPemimpin dalam organisasi biasanya didominasi oleh kaum pria, karena konsepdan tradisi yang dimiliki oleh masyarakat Indonesia yang mengaut pahampaternalistik. Seiring perkembangan zaman perempuan kini mampu mendudukijajaran top tier manajemen di sejumlah organisasi profit. Gaya komunikasiperempuan yang dianggap mampu dicintai karyawan dan lingkungan kerjanyadalam membangun sebuah hubungan menjadi sebuah nilai plus.Di dalam peneli...

  19. Profitability analysis and management practices among poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This shows poultry production is profitable. The study recommends the formation of poultry farmers association, so as to source more funds from financial institutions, government agencies at lower interest rate, adequate, reliable, affordable and constant feed, water, stable market and electricity supply to its members.

  20. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  1. Profitability primer: a guide to profitability analysis in the electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Lloyd-Zannetti, D.; Martin, J.; Price, S.

    1996-06-01

    As the electric power industry is opened to forces of competition, increased attention must be focused to develop products and services that deliver good value to customers and to identify customer segments that are profitable to serve. This primer introduces the concept of profitability analysis and its application to the electric power industry. The primer recognizes that some segments of the business will remain monopolistic and subject to regulations, while other segments will become competitive. The primer also recognizes that customer profitability is critically dependent on a host of related issues such as how internal costs are allocated to various functions and how revenues are collected and allocated

  2. Audits contribute to pride, productivity and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Q.

    1984-01-01

    The object of this writing is to demonstrate that audits (in general) when used as a ''management tool' can contribute to pride, productivity, and profit. The goal of ''pride'' achievement is demonstrated through the use of techniques developed from behavioral sciences. Discussed is dealing with people and their basic needs. This is intended to point out the fact that satisfying individual needs and concerns is the first step to achieving the goals of pride, productivity, and profit. Also discussed are the basic needs of safety (security), social, ego/esteem, and self-fulfillment as well as providing some basic techniques of auditing which will help assure general satisfaction of these needs. Also noted are reporting methods. The goal of ''productivity'' is approached by demonstrating that objectives must be clear and workable. Objectives must be translated into specific action and that action must be compatible with the overall company objectives. All objectives must be known and understood by those affected. Consideration must be given to men, money, and machines (present technology). All of the objectives must also be weighed against external constraints. The goal of ''profit'' then becomes the product of a combination of ''pride'' and ''productivity''. Audits must be cost conscious. Value engineer the problem, the cause, and the solution. Discussion continues with quality cost programs briefly indicating that ''Q'' costs could be considered a type of audit. Identifying deficiencies and weaknesses, then correcting them, contributes to profit. Increased pride and productivity contributes to profit. Consider the employee's awareness and commitment for doing a good job when auditing

  3. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  4. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  5. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  6. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  7. Are loyal customers profitable? : customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Øyvind

    2000-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is supposed to be positively related to profitability. This conception may be called “the paradigm of customer satisfaction”. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined this fundamental relationship. Thus, evidence for this “much talked about relationship” is questioned. In this working paper the focus is on the individual customer with respect to the relationships between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the customer level. The f...

  8. The profitability of Norwegian salmon farming companies : a study of profitability variation

    OpenAIRE

    Eilertsen, Bendik Foss; Hui, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The conditions in the Norwegian salmon farming industry are constantly changing. Locally and globally, regulations, consolidation and technological advancements are some of the factors having a deep impact on the current industry. To ensure competitiveness, it is essential to emphasise on profitability and taking the correct strategic decisions. The objective of this thesis is to indicate what may cause variation in profitability in the current Norwegian salmon farming industry...

  9. Alternative profit rate shariah-compliant for islamic banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazali, Nadhirah; Halim, Nurfadhlina Abdul; Ghazali, Puspa Liza

    2017-09-01

    Profit is the aims for Islamic banking and conventional banking. Determination of profit in Islamic banking in Malaysia depends on the profit rate, whereas profit rate is essentially from reference rate which is known as the base rate (BR). However, the determination of the components contained in the BR such as benchmark cost of funds and the statutory reserve requirement (SRR) is non-compliance with the Shariah because its directly proportional to the overnight policy rate (OPR). Therefore, an alternative formula for the profit rate are proposed which is known as the base profit rate (BPR). Construction of BPR formula is based on the principle that are more Shariah-compliant.

  10. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to

  11. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  12. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhisong; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-11-20

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  13. Competition and Profitability in European Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Morten; Lierman, F.; Mullineux, A.

    Financial services firms play a key role in the European economy. The efficiency and profitability of these firms and the competition among them have an impact on allocation of savings, financing of investment, economic growth, the stability of the financial system and the transmission of monetary...... policy. This collection of research contributions includes evaluations of trends in the European financial service industry and examinations of the driving forces of efficiency, competition and profitability of financial firms and institutions in Europe. The papers have been written by leading academics...... and researchers in the field, who specialize in strategic, systematic and policy issues related to the European financial services industry. This edited collection will be will be essential reading for students and academics but will also be of interest to financial practitioners and government officials...

  14. Profitability and Efficiency of Red Onion Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imron Rosyadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine and analyze the profitability and performance of onion farming marketing margins; analyze and know the parts of prices received by farmers and analyze the efficiency of onion farming in the district of Brebes. Samples taken in this study is 30 onion farmers in the district of Brebes, who settled in six villages, each village was taken 5 farmers as the research sample. These results indicate that the location of onion farming research does not provide benefits significantly to the household economy of farmers. Higher selling prices at the retail level and supermarkets do not have a significant impact on the level of profits of farming in the study area. Farming is done by farmers in the study area is inefficient. Onion marketing chain in the study area is relatively long, which consists of 4 lines of marketing.

  15. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...

  16. Creating Societal Benefits and Corporate Profits

    OpenAIRE

    Raisch, Sebastian; Probst, Gilbert; Gomez, Peter; Zimmermann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The odds of launching a new business that creates value for both the company and the public can be improved with good planning. An in-depth analysis of how four companies created for-profit initiatives that also have high societal value suggests that each followed a similar step-by-step process to achieve what the researchers call synergistic value creation. Those steps include establishing cross-business incubators and installing multi-perspective monitoring systems.

  17. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    OpenAIRE

    S. Alarcón; M. Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation) on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relat...

  18. Mobbing in a Non-Profit Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacic Andrej

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse mobbing in a large, non-profit, state-owned organization in order to find out to what extent mobbing is present and in what way it takes place. In addition, the purpose of the research is to analyse whether the extent of mobbing is connected to employee’s age, gender and position.

  19. Corporate Profit Shifting and the Multinational Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes ways in which Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) shift profits from one country to another to reduce their income tax expense. This is an important topic for a number of reasons. From a country’s perspective, its income tax rates and policies can have a significant impact upon its tax revenue, economic competitiveness, and the vibrancy of its economy. From the MNE’s perspective, income tax rates and policies determine a firm’s tax obligations, and thus ...

  20. Bureaucratic Corruption and Profit Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Laszlo Goerke

    2006-01-01

    Firms may evade taxes on profits and can also avoid fulfilling legal restrictions on production activities by bribing bureaucrats. It is shown that the existence of tax evasion does not affect corruption activities at the firm level, while the budgetary repercussions of tax evasion induce less corruption. Policy measures which alter the gains or losses from corruption have a non-systematic impact on tax evasion behaviour.

  1. Earnings and bank profitability in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bank earnings in form of retained profit help in the capital formation of banks. This is critical because capital inadequacy is often a cause of bank failures. During the banking crisis in Nigeria the gross earnings of many banks diminished considerably due to frauds and bad management. For example, in 2009 the Central Bank of Nigeria revoked the operating licences of fourteen banks which had huge nonperforming loans and were making losses. The fragility in the Nigerian banking system in the 1990s and beyond was compounded due to wide spread poor corporate governance practices and imprudent lending that led to the erosion of gross earnings and profitability. The study employed the exploratory research design. Data analyses were done through description statistics and the regression technique using the statistical package for the social sciences. The regression result was Y = 4.926 + 1.877x meaning that with an increase of 1 percent in gross earnings bank profitability increases by 1.88 percent. This is the crux of the study.

  2. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  3. Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of relationship marketing in non-profit organisations involved in the provision of sport and recreational services. ... A variety of factors have over time contributed to a need for marketing in non-profit ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. 10 CFR 603.230 - Fee or profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... participant is to receive fee or profit. Note that this policy extends to all performers of the project... subrecipients' payment of reasonable fee or profit when making purchases from suppliers of goods (e.g., supplies...

  5. Marketing strategies and profitability analysis of restaurants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing strategies and profitability analysis of restaurants in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. ... Abstract. The study examined the marketing strategies and profitability of restaurants in Sokoto metropolis. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability analysis of plantain marketing in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state Nigeria. ... The study was carried out to analyze the profitability of plantain marketing and to examine the ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Profit-Sharing – A Tool for Improving Productivity, Profitability and Competitiveness of Firms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fibirova Jana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of appropriate utilization of rewards for performance is still growing and therefore this type of rewards can be seen as a significant part of a total rewards package. Companies that are able to appropriately implement rewards for performance may gain competitive advantage over their competitors, but successful implementation requires a good knowledge of these rewards. The main aim of this paper is to contribute to the growth of this knowledge by identifying possible positive and negative impacts of profit-sharing on various areas that are important for the performance of a company, nevertheless, addressed are also macroeconomic consequences of profit-sharing. Furthermore, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the relevant literature is provided, under-researched areas are identified and suggestions for further research are given. To accomplish these goals, we applied methods of bibliometric analysis to the articles indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge to identify the most important articles, authors and topics. According to our findings, the majority of studies report a neutral or positive impact of profit-sharing on productivity and profitability. This impact may be achieved by direct influence of profit-sharing on productivity of employees (due to the dependence of their pay on profit, but it seems that yet more important are various mediating mechanisms, especially effects on employment stability, absenteeism, quits and related issues, as well as effects on attitudes of employees and on relationships between employees. We argue that a well-designed profit-sharing plan is crucial for its success, but it is a relatively under-researched problem.

  8. Improving health, safety, and profits in extended hours operations (shiftwork).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerin, Alex; Aguirre, Acacia

    2005-01-01

    Circadian Technologies, Inc. (CIRCADIAN) is an international consulting firm that for over 20 yr has helped employees better cope with shiftwork, while ensuring their employers reduce costs and maximize profits. This paper describes two of the methods employed to reduce accidents, absenteeism, and turnover, while improving morale and productivity in extended hour operations (shiftwork). Shiftworkers rarely receive on-the-job training to help them cope better with the rigors of working nights, evenings, and early mornings. A pre- and post-training study by CIRCADIAN demonstrated improvements in health and fatigue indices, and an increase in daytime sleep length. Companies who provide shiftwork lifestyle training also have lower rates of absenteeism and turnover compared to companies that do not provide training. The second intervention described in this paper is a novel method of shift scheduling. There are thousands of potential schedules, so how does a company choose the best schedule for their facility? The answer lies in allowing employees to be involved in the process of selection. This results in a workforce that experiences less fatigue, turnover and absenteeism, and higher morale.

  9. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  10. Profit inefficiency and its determinants among yam producers in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farm profit inefficiency in yam production in Imo State, Nigeria was estimated using stochastic translog profit frontier model. The mean output of yam producers was 10.3tons/ha, while the mean level of profit inefficiency was 63.7 percent with a wide range of 23.41 – 94.23 percent. Mean loss of profit was N76061 per hectare.

  11. Measuring customer profitability through time-driven activity-based costing: a case study at hotel x Jogjakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Ardiansyah Garry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling intensity has been higher in the past few years making hospitality industry must be ready to provide the best service at optimum prices to customers who purchase and enjoy the services. Hotel as one of the accommodation service providers should be able to allocate resources accurately according to the actual needed capacity and thorough tariff policy for not losing the competition and obtain profit according to how much is projected. TDABC system is the most updated costing system which can assist the allocation of these resources. TDABC system is considered twice important to be applied in the service industry as service is intangible so costing system must show the exact and accurate number of resources used to provide the service. Through TDABC system, Customer Profitability Analysis is conducted with the aim of knowing the level of profitability every customer type possesses and classifying them as profitable or non-profitable customers. A case study had been conducted in a five-star hotel located in the Special Region of Jogjakarta resulting a profit recognized under TDABC system that traditional method used as the hotel’s costing system failed to do so and more proper data on costs and profitability of customers.

  12. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...

  13. Decomposing dynamic profit inefficiency of Belgian dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ang, Frederic; Lansink, Alfons Oude

    2018-01-01

    This paper introduces a nonparametric framework for analysing dynamic profit inefficiency and applies this to a sample of Belgian, specialised dairy farms from 1996 to 2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into technical and allocative inefficiency. The paper also decomposes profit inefficiency

  14. An Algorithm for the Nucleolus of Airport Profit Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Inarra, E.; Tijs, S.H.; Zarzuelo, J.

    2003-01-01

    Airport profit games are a generalization of airport cost games as well as of bankruptcy games.In this paper we present a simple algorithm to compute the nucleolus of airport profit games.In addition we prove that there exists an unique consistent allocation rule in airport profit problems, and it

  15. Profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue state, Nigeria | Tsue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined profit efficiency among catfish farmers in Benue State of Nigeria using a stochastic profit frontier approach. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 143 catfish farmers through a well structured questionnaire. The study used a Cobb-Douglas stochastic profit frontier function to ...

  16. Maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses during deepwater running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p41   Aquatic exercises provide numerous benefits to the health of their practitioners. To secure these benefits, it is essential to have proper prescriptions to the needs of each individual and, therefore, it is important to study the cardiorespiratory responses of different activities in this environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses at the anaerobic threshold (AT between maximal deep-water running (DWR and maximal treadmill running (TMR. In addition, two methods of determining the AT (the heart rate deflection point [HRDP] and ventilatory method [VM] are compared in the two evaluated protocols. Twelve young women performed the two maximal protocols. Two-factor ANOVA for repeated measures with a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used (α < 0.05. Significantly higher values of maximal heart rate (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 and maximal oxygen uptake (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 in TMR compared to the DWR were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the methods for determining the AT (TMR: VM: 28.1 ± 5.3, HRDP: 26.6 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1; DWR: VM: 18.7 ± 4.8, HRDP: 17.8 ± 4.8 ml.kg−1.min−1. The results indicate that a specific maximal test for the trained modality should be conducted and the HRDP can be used as a simple and practical method of determining the AT, based on which the training intensity can be determined

  17. FOREX Trades: Can the Takens Algorithm Help to Obtain Steady Profit at Investment Reallocations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, V. Yu.; Tribelsky, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    We report our preliminary results of application of the Takens algorithm to build a FOREX trade strategy, resulting in a steady long-time gain for a trader. The actual historical rates for pair EUR vs. USD are used. The values of various parameters of the problem including the "stop loss" and "take profit" thresholds are optimized to provide the maximal gain during the training period. Then, these values are employed for trades. We have succeeded to get the steady gain, if the spread is neglected. It proves that the FOREX market is predictable.

  18. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queuing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay...... for the service but there is no waiting time, hence no waiting costs. Under the premises that the subcontractor prices his services in order to maximize his profit, we study two work allocation rules, which given the price of subcontractor seek to allocate work such that the costs of the customers are minimized...

  19. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where request for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the customer is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must pay...... for the service but there is no waiting time, hence no waiting costs. Under the premises that the subcontractor prices his services in order to maximize his profit, we study two work allocation rules, which given the price of the subcontractor seek to allocate work such that the costs of the customers...

  20. Comparing two socially optimal work allocation rules when having a profit optimizing subcontractor with ample capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We study a service system modelled as a single server queueing system where requests for service either can be processed at the service system or by a subcontractor. In the former case the subcontractor is incurred waiting costs but the service is free, while in the latter case the customer must...... pay for the service but there is no waiting time, hence no waiting costs. Under the premises that the subcontractor prices his services in order to maximize his profit, we study two work allocation rules, which given the príce of the subcontractor seek to allocate work such that the costs...

  1. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  2. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  3. Do Emotional Appeal and Media-context Influence the Effectiveness of TV Commercials for Profit and Non-profit Brands?

    OpenAIRE

    Roozen, Irene; Claeys, Christel

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of emotions, both ad- and context-evoked, on the effectiveness of commercials for non-profit vs. profit brands. Effectiveness is made operational by rational measures, recall and recognition, and by emotional measures, ad likeability and brand attitude. Four different experimental groups were exposed to a sequence of warm and sad commercials for non-profit and profit brands, embedded either in a warm film fragment or a sad one. The results indicate that, ove...

  4. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  5. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  6. Risk-informed profitability-based analysis support of nuclear power station balance-of-plant change management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, J.K. [EQE International, Inc., An ABS Group Company, Irvine, CA (United States); Kee, E.J.; Grantom, C.R.; Richards, A.M. [STP Nuclear Operating Company, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, a three-phased method is proposed for the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) Risk and Reliability Analysis Section (RRA) to perform analyses and decision-making support for the STPNOC Balance-of-Plant (BOP)Task Force in managing change to simultaneously optimize plant safety and maximize long-term return-on-asset (or profitability) for the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). (authors)

  7. Risk-informed profitability-based analysis support of nuclear power station balance-of-plant change management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liming, J.K.; Kee, E.J.; Grantom, C.R.; Richards, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a three-phased method is proposed for the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) Risk and Reliability Analysis Section (RRA) to perform analyses and decision-making support for the STPNOC Balance-of-Plant (BOP)Task Force in managing change to simultaneously optimize plant safety and maximize long-term return-on-asset (or profitability) for the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). (authors)

  8. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  10. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  11. ANALIZA CONTULUI PROFIT ŞI PIERDERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Pavaloaia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The rich informational fund of the financial reports makes them known, both nationally and internationally, as basic instruments of management at all organizatory levels. The profit and loss account is part of the financial annual reports, is a synthesis accounting document that shows the result of the enterprise activity and thus measures the firm’s performance during a period. The users of the information offered by this financial report are: the investors (present and potential shareholders, managers, financial creditors, clients, the state, the public, the financial analysts etc.

  12. «Neutral» Profit Taxation, Risk Taking and Optimal Profit Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. MINTZ

    1982-01-01

    The object of this study is to answer two questions related to the design of profit taxes when taking into account riskiness of firms. The first question is the following: leaving aside general equilibrium effects of taxation on the interest rate and risk premia faced by firms, would a cash flow tax be neutral with respect to the investment decisions made by firms. The second question to be considered is whether profit tax rates should vary across industries because of different degrees of ri...

  13. RODUCTION COSTS AND PROFITABILITY OF THREE POTATO VARIETIES: LORD, VINETA AND JELLY IN YEARS 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz KUTA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper Farm incomes in Poland vary substantially, which is entirely confirmed by the results of agricultural accounting in Polish FADN. The income is influenced by a range of factors of which the most important are natural conditions, the farm production potential, production intensity as well as subsidies under the Common Agricultural Policy. The increase in potato production on the European market has caused a low price level. In some countries the decline in prices was even 15% in 2010. The decline in prices led to the decline in profitability of potato production because low prices obtained by producers entailed higher costs of potato production. This work shows research results from years 2011-2013. The aim of the research was to compare the profitability of edible potato production on an individual farm in the Lódz Province in the early and late harvesting of the analysed years. The data needed to estimate the profitability were obtained based on the data included in the report which an individual farm runs in order to determine the profitability of the application of new cultivation technique or new varieties. Based on the obtained data, direct and indirect costs as well as profit were calculated. The profitability estimated on the basis of the data collected from the farmer was compared to the profitability which would be achieved by the farmer on the basis of the percentage of direct and indirect costs provided by the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics. The profitability calculated on the basis of indicators of the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics was lower than the profitability estimated on the basis of the data obtained from the analysis of the farm financial report.

  14. Civil society: beyond non profit / Sociedad civil: más allá del non profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Haro Serrano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a numerous group of recognized and proved authority authors, the Civil Society is limited to the Non Profit organizations. Non Profit is the great limit, the rigid and static border. The limes on the Roman Empire were less overwhelming than the non profit of certain academics. Dura lex and unfair law that keeps aside from the civil society scope the entities on the social economy and the whole market around mercantile enterprises and businesses. Nevertheless, the new changes in the today’s society and the new concept of businesses oriented to the society without forsaking the quest for economic profit, poses a Civil Society beyond non profit.

  15. DEA best practice assesses relative efficiency, profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.T.; Thompson, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in its Order 636 of Apr. 8, 1992, stated, ''All natural gas suppliers, including pipelines, will compete for gas purchases on an equal footing.'' This FERC order changed the economic environment in the natural gas pipeline industry. Now, gas pipeline companies must know their market position, since rate of return regulation is no longer relevant. They must be managed more than before as companies have been in less-regulated parts of the oil and gas business. How they adapt to the new environment, therefore, can be instructive to companies throughout the energy industry. In this article, DEA best-practice methods measure relative efficiency and profitability potential. This measurement reflects fundamental economic relationships. The operational efficiency model analyzed is as follows: Y 1 = f(x 1 , x 2 ), where Y 1 is gross profits, x 1 is total assets (capital employed), and x 2 is total employees (labor employed). Y 1 is a comprehensive indicator of a pipeline's output, whereas x 1 represents the pipeline's total capital employed, and x 2 represents the pipeline's total labor employed. This model reflects principles long studied in economics

  16. Energy, safety and profitability - the thinking behind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.

    2015-01-01

    The energy industry is under heavy financial pressure in large parts of Europe. This motivates an even stricter cost control. The traditional approach in assessing investments is to use cost-benefit analysis for the profitability, in combination with risk-informed analysis for safety aspects. Risk-informed analysis is normally based on the probabilities and consequences of various potential accidents. However, we have realized this approach has limitations in comparisons between different production technologies. In this talk, some thinking about the philosophical difference between energy technologies in which a single accident can wipe out the entire company (hydro, nuclear) versus those not facing the same threat of immediate extinction (fossil, bio, wind) is presented. This affects not only the economy and technology, but also the management in general and safety management in particular. The interplay of technology challenges and management, in particular concerning profitability aspects, will be developed and examples from technologies with large potential risks will be used for illustration. (author).

  17. Prompt nuclear coal analysis ups profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, D.

    1982-01-01

    To maximise profitability it is essential that products should comply with specification, while ensuring that mining procedures are designed to optimise fully the exploitation of coal reserves. For the producer to realise maximum profits, it is necessary to produce a consistently satisfactory product, while utilising the lowest possible quality of reserves. For the potential need for on-stream analysis, a comprehensive research program, produced several unique systems. The Nucoalyzer CONAC has been developed to analyse continuously a coal sample stream of up to 13 t/h. On-stream analysis is also particularly appropriate as a means of controlling a coal beneficiation plant, especially where coal have a high middling content. Major coal users such as thermal power stations and Synfuel processes can also realise substantial economic benefits through the use of on-stream analysis. On-stream analysis can again significantly reduce operating costs, as it offers the possibility of controlling the level of sulphur in the coal feed. The analytical principle employed in the various Nucoalyzer system is based on Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis

  18. Bioeconomic evaluation of sow longevity and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Southey, B R; Knox, R V; Connor, J F; Lowe, J F; Roskamp, B J

    2003-12-01

    Sow production indicators, including litter size, litter weight, and the length of time that sows remained in the herd (sow longevity), were used to characterize sow performance and profitability. Sow longevity and production records from 148,568 sows in 32 commercial herds from Central Illinois from January 1995 to May 2001 were analyzed using survival and repeatability models, respectively. The factors studied included sow genetics (32 genetic lines), with eight major lines present in multiple herds, and the combination of herd and year of entry in the herd. The largest difference in longevity between the major genetic lines was approximately one parity. There were differences (P present value per sow (present value of future cash flows and the present value of the sow) was used to evaluate the effect of sow longevity and production traits on economic returns. Assuming a zero discount rate per parity, genetic lines with longer herd life resulted in greater profit than genetic lines with shorter herd life. This difference was reduced with increasing discount rates and was reversed with high discount rates and low net income per litter. These results suggest that the magnitude of the economic improvement attained through the use of sow genetic lines with longer longevity depends on the economic context under which the evaluation is made.

  19. Business strategies, profitability and efficiency of production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alarcón

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The strategy choices of market-oriented companies are a topic now under wide investigation in the analysis of business performance antecedents. The purpose of this study is to examine the outcomes of the combination of three different organizational strategies (market orientation, innovativeness and entrepreneurial orientation on business performance indicators. Models using profitability and efficiency indicators are proposed with the specific aim of obtaining a deeper analysis of the relative roles played by each. The empirical work takes place in the agro-food industry in the Ebro Valley, one of Spain’s most competitive regions. The estimates from profitability quantile and truncated regressions of the efficiency scores reveal that market orientation has a positive effect on economic and productivity performance. The impact of pro-active, innovation-seeking, and risk-averse entrepreneurship is nevertheless more debatable, despite some influence of these entrepreneurial styles on observed performance values. This enables conclusions regarding the possibility of combining a market-oriented business culture with innovation and entrepreneurial activity with a view to obtaining business performance gains.

  20. The Brimmond Reservoir extending the Forties Field into the millenium by maximizing profits without extensive rig upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.; Perras, L. [Noble Drilling (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Drilling a horizontal well with a minimum facilities workover rig in the Brimmond Field (North Sea) which overlies the Forties Reservoir, was described. Feasibility studies indicated that further development of the Brimmond Field would require extensive rig upgrade to be able to drill the horizontal well within recognized industry parameters. Since the upgrading of the drilling package would have delayed the project by several months, as well as making it uneconomical, a number of critical operations were identified and analyzed, which led to introducing `new technology` - premixed cement, leading edge LWD tools and hole cleanup techniques. The first horizontal sidetrack was successfully completed with the minimum facilities drilling package and production commenced at an initial rate of 2.4 mbd dry oil from a 13 ft cased hole gravel pack utilizing an existing Forties Field producing well. The original Paleocene interval was abandoned with cement plugs prior to milling a window on the 9-5/8 inch casing and installing a gravel pack. Steady production of this new well led to consideration of further development of the field. 4 figs.

  1. Cost of production. Maximize profitability in the manufacture of solar modules; Maximizar la rentabilidad en la fabricacion de modulos solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G. R.

    2011-07-01

    Plus the cost of photovoltaic energy production, parity with the network also consider the total investment made to generate a certain amount of energy. Some factors to consider include production, labor, initial cost of system components, installation, operation and maintenance. (Author)

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR TEACHING PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES IN VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE WRITING, EVALUATION, AND REVISION OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS WERE COMPLETED ON SCHEDULE AND A SUMMARY OF THE STUDY WILL BE PUBLISHED IN THE LOCAL "RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION" TO BE SENT TO ALL STATES. THE DEVELOPMENT AND FINDINGS OF THE STUDY WILL BE INCLUDED IN "AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION MAGAZINE." SAMPLE COPIES OF THE UNIT WERE…

  3. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  4. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  5. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  6. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  8. TO THE QUESTION OF PROFIT CATEGORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic category “profit” is considered. The discrepancies and inconsistency of the existing financial-andeconomic model of management based only upon the “profitable” paradigm is demonstrated. It is shown how a “profit” affects a discrepancy between the supply of goods and the related solvent demand. It is suggested to build the laws of economics starting not from the private interests of separate social groups but from the universal laws of the Nature. The transition from “profit” maximization to wages/salary maximization is recommended. It is proposed to exclude a category “profit” from the financial-and-economic model of management as an unnecessary and imaginary one that continuously leads the economic system to crisis.

  9. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector...

  10. Methanization - how to better figure out profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschaseaux, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the content of a study to be published on the conditions of profitability for methanization installations, in order to enable the assessment of the influence of the modifications of different parameters such as purchase tariffs, subsidies, taxes, investment management and exploitation costs. An analysis has been performed on different categories of projects: farm projects (80 to 250 kW), collective farm projects with a small collective dwelling (350 kW) and local projects (1 to 2,5 MW), hybrid farm-industrial projects, and projects based only on industrial wastes. The analysis has been made with respect to final use: co-generation or bio-methane production. It appears that most of projects still need subsidies but that there is no correlation between installed power and production cost

  11. Maximum Profit Configurations of Commercial Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Chen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of commercial engines with finite capacity low- and high-price economic subsystems and a generalized commodity transfer law [n ∝ Δ (P m] in commodity flow processes, in which effects of the price elasticities of supply and demand are introduced, is presented in this paper. Optimal cycle configurations of commercial engines for maximum profit are obtained by applying optimal control theory. In some special cases, the eventual state—market equilibrium—is solely determined by the initial conditions and the inherent characteristics of two subsystems; while the different ways of transfer affect the model in respects of the specific forms of the paths of prices and the instantaneous commodity flow, i.e., the optimal configuration.

  12. Pharmaceutical technology management--profitable business avenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthli, Shivanand P

    2010-01-01

    Growing research expenditure, regulatory framework and generic erosion have forced pharmaceutical companies globally to resort to pharmaceutical technology management (PTM). Indeed, the pharmaceutical industry has witnessed the impact of innovative drug delivery and device technologies and their influence on business. PTM has given a new business insight with greater profits and enhancement of product franchise. Promising breakthrough technologies have not been able to reach a commercial platform largely owing to lack of capital at the preliminary stages of the product development program. Intellectual property plays a considerable role in protecting innovative technologies. Joint ventures and strategic alliances also become important for commercializing a new technology. The synergy of PTM with options of in-licensing is expected to infuse newer opportunities to the pharmaceutical business.

  13. How to sell services more profitably.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Ulaga, Wolfgang

    2008-05-01

    When products become commodities, manufacturing companies may seek to differentiate themselves with value-added services--a potentially profitable strategy. Unfortunately, companies often stumble in the effort. Reinartz and Ulaga conducted in-depth studies of 18 leading companies in a broad variety of product markets to learn what distinguished the successes from the rest. They discovered four steps to developing a profitable services capability. RECOGNIZE THAT YOU ALREADY HAVE A SERVICE COMPANY: You can identify and charge for simple services--as Merck did when it stopped quietly absorbing shipping costs. Switching services from free to fee clarifies their value for managers as well as for customers. INDUSTRIALIZE THE BACK OFFICE: To prevent delivery costs from eating up service-offering margins, build flexible service platforms, closely monitor process costs, and exploit new technologies that enable process innovations. The Swedish bearings manufacturer SKF provided off-site access to an online monitoring tool that could warn of potential failure in customers' machines. CREATE A SERVICE-SAVVY SALES FORCE: Services require longer sales cycles and, often, decisions from high up in a customer's hierarchy; what's more, product salespeople may be inimical to change. Schneider-Electric did a major overhaul of its sales organization and trained its people to switch from cost-plus pricing to value-based pricing. FOCUS ON CUSTOMERS' PROCESSES AND THE OPPORTUNITIES THEY AFFORD FOR NEW SERVICE OFFERINGS: You may need to acquire new capabilities to take advantage of those opportunities: The industrial coatings specialist PPG had to learn how painting robots function after it offered to take over Fiat's Torino paint shop. Services can both lock in customers and help acquire new accounts. They should be developed with care and attention.

  14. Study notes separability of oil company profitability, efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, the large publicly traded oil companies have been restructuring and downsizing to improve efficiency. Newly developed decision theory forces one to question the widely held singular focus on efficiency because improving efficiency will not necessarily improve profits. This is especially likely in the oil industry, where price volatility is the norm. Because its products are so basic, its price volatility typically ripples widely throughout the economy. In light of this, efficiency and profitability in the oil industry require separate treatment. More specifically, the efficient are not necessarily the most profitable; conversely, the most profitable are not necessarily the most efficient. Such a decoupling of efficiency and profitability requires a totally new look at business strategy. In the face of highly variable prices, firms can no longer depend on the long-accepted duality norm between profits and efficiency

  15. Profit Forecast Model Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BALOGH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Profit forecast is very important for any company. The purpose of this study is to provide a method to estimate the profit and the probability of obtaining the expected profit. Monte Carlo methods are stochastic techniques–meaning they are based on the use of random numbers and probability statistics to investigate problems. Monte Carlo simulation furnishes the decision-maker with a range of possible outcomes and the probabilities they will occur for any choice of action. Our example of Monte Carlo simulation in Excel will be a simplified profit forecast model. Each step of the analysis will be described in detail. The input data for the case presented: the number of leads per month, the percentage of leads that result in sales, , the cost of a single lead, the profit per sale and fixed cost, allow obtaining profit and associated probabilities of achieving.

  16. The determinants of Bank Profitability: Does Liquidity Creation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sahyouni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel data set of 4995 banks across 11 developed and emerging countries during the period (2011-2015, this report analyses the amount of liquidity created by banks, how liquidity creation, bank-specific and the macroeconomic factors affecting bank profitability. The results show evidence of increased creation of liquidity over the period. By applying the panel data fixed effect technique, banks that create more liquidity, are set up to have lower profitability. As well as, Asset management, bank size and capital ratio are positively correlated with bank profitability. While, credit quality and operating efficiency affect bank’s profits negatively. Additionally, macroeconomic factors have different impact on profitability indicators in each market. Our findings may help decision makers inside and outside bank to determine important factors affecting bank profitability.

  17. Approaches to economic analysis of profitability of forestry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Dzyubenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the directions of adaptation of existing analytical procedures for assessing the profitability to specific activities of forestry enterprises, which is an integral part of evaluating financial potential of enterprises of the investigated branch. In particular, the author identifies the following analytical procedures that make it possible to assess the performance of forestry enterprises and determine its financial potential: the return on equity (assets on net profit, the return on equity, the return on assets, the return on sales of profits from operating activities, the profitability of sold products at net profit, reinvestment factor, the economic growth sustainability ratio, the period of payback capital, the payback period of equity capital. On the basis of these indicators, the current state of profitability of forestry enterprises was substantiated and their critical points were determined.

  18. WHAT DETERMINES THE PROFITABILITY OF BANKS? EVIDENCE FROM THE US

    OpenAIRE

    Ruochen Wang; Xuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors affecting bank profitability. We use a sample of US banks over the period 2002-2014, and measure profitability using both return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). We find that banks have higher profitability when they have: (1) a lower loans to total assets ratio, (2) a lower customer deposits to total liabilities ratio, (3) a lower nonperforming loans to gross loans ratio, (4) higher efficiency, and (5) higher revenue diversification.   We...

  19. Islamic banks and profitability: an empirical analysis of Indonesian banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...

  20. Dynamic Profit Inefficiency: A DEA Application to Belgian Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, Frederic; Oude Lansink, Alfons

    2014-01-01

    Using a nonparametric framework, we analyze dynamic profit inefficiency for a sample of Belgian, specialized dairy farms from 1996–2008. Profit inefficiency is decomposed into contributions of output, input, and investment. Moreover, we identify the contributions of technical and allocative inefficiency in each input and output. The results suggest substantial profit inefficiency under the current dairy-quota system, mainly driven by an average underproduction of approximately 50 percent and ...

  1. Components of the Profitability of Technical Currency Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the sources of the profitability of 1024 moving average and momentum models when trading in the German mark (euro)/U.S. dollar market based on daily data. The main results are as follows. First, each of these models would have been profitable over the entire sample period. Second, this profitability is exclusively due to the exploitation of persistent exchange rate trends. Third, these results do not change substantially when trading is examined within subperiods. Four...

  2. CSHURI - Modified HURI algorithm for Customer Segmentation and Transaction Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Jyothi; Vyas, O. P.

    2012-01-01

    Association rule mining (ARM) is the process of generating rules based on the correlation between the set of items that the customers purchase.Of late, data mining researchers have improved upon the quality of association rule mining for business development by incorporating factors like value (utility), quantity of items sold (weight) and profit. The rules mined without considering utility values (profit margin) will lead to a probable loss of profitable rules. The advantage of wealth of the...

  3. There's no profiting from a joint venture misadventure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Gary W

    2004-10-01

    In St. David's vs. IRS, a not-for-profit health system effectively challenged the IRS's determination that the system should be disqualified from tax exemption because it had entered a 50/50 joint venture with a for-profit system. The court decisions in St. David's, coupled with a recent IRS ruling, Revenue Ruling 2004-51, provide insight into how a not-for-profit hospital can structure such a joint venture to avoid jeopardizing its tax-exempt status.

  4. Benefits and Costs of For-Profit Public Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Molnar

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As a policy initiative, for-profit operation of public schools has not lived up to the claims of its proponents. An examination of issues such as teaching methods, academic achievement, autonomy, local control, and the image and influence of for-profit public schools suggests that "for-profits" are unlikely to succeed in the long term in improving the overall quality of public education. They do, however, seem capable of harming public schools.

  5. Profit Sharing and Reciprocity: Theory and Survey Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Thomas; Heywood, John S.; Jirjahn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The 1/n problem potentially limits the effectiveness of profit sharing in motivating workers. While the economic literature suggests that reciprocity can mitigate this problem, it remains silent on the optimal degree of reciprocity. We present a representative model demonstrating that reciprocity may increase productive effort but may also increase unproductive effort such as socializing on the job. The model implies that reciprocity increases profit up to a point but decreases profit beyond ...

  6. THE PERFORMANCE AND PROFITABILITY OF SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was obtained from vine cutting of 40 cm and 20 t ha. −1 cattle manure, .... effects of cattle manure and vine cutting size on the growth and yield ...... Intensive vegetable production using composed ... Crop Production Techniques for the. Tropics.

  7. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  8. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  9. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  10. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  11. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  12. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  13. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  14. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  15. A proposed selection index for feedlot profitability based on estimated breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J

    2009-04-22

    It is generally accepted that feed intake and growth (gain) are the most important economic components when calculating profitability in a growth test or feedlot. We developed a single post-weaning growth (feedlot) index based on the economic values of different components. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations for and between initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), feed intake (FI), and shoulder height (SHD) were estimated by multitrait restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the economic values for IW, FW and FI were used in a selection index to estimate a post-weaning or feedlot profitability value. Heritabilities for IW, FW, FI, and SHD were 0.41, 0.40, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were 0.78 (between IW and FW) and 0.70 (between FI and FW). EBVs were used in a selection index to calculate a single economical value for each animal. This economic value is an indication of the gross profitability value or the gross test value (GTV) of the animal in a post-weaning growth test. GTVs varied between -R192.17 and R231.38 with an average of R9.31 and a standard deviation of R39.96. The Pearson correlations between EBVs (for production and efficiency traits) and GTV ranged from -0.51 to 0.68. The lowest correlation (closest to zero) was 0.26 between the Kleiber ratio and GTV. Correlations of 0.68 and -0.51 were estimated between average daily gain and GTV and feed conversion ratio and GTV, respectively. These results showed that it is possible to select for GTV. The selection index can benefit feedlotting in selecting offspring of bulls with high GTVs to maximize profitability.

  16. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  17. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  18. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  19. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  20. The relationship of CSR and the business profit: can the most responsible companies be more profitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Gil Salmerón

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent financial crisis and the cases of corruption afflicting Spain have broken the trust of society that forcefully demands an ethical, responsible and sustainable management of organizations, which are not immune to environmental problems. The effects of globalization, the introduction of tecnoestructura as a management model, technological and socio-economic changes have reshaped the cultural, management and ownership system of the current company, the company nowadays is transferred the responsibility to combine growth and competitiveness with social development and environmental improvement. This reconfiguration of business management model is implemented with the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the strategic plans of the companies with the purpose of achieving a competitive advantage. The question is: can the most responsible companies be more profitable? The introduction of CSR in the organizational culture of the companies involved as a vector, accelerates the profitability of the companies that apply it: the higher level of CSR used, the more profitable the companies are. These conclusions are determined from a linear regression analysis comparing the ROA –return on assets– to CSR levels in a hundred companies with higher levels of sustainability that operate in Spain, according to a survey published in 2014 by the Monitor business Corporate Reputation (Merco

  1. On Maximal Hard-Core Thinnings of Stationary Particle Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christian; Last, Günter

    2018-02-01

    The present paper studies existence and distributional uniqueness of subclasses of stationary hard-core particle systems arising as thinnings of stationary particle processes. These subclasses are defined by natural maximality criteria. We investigate two specific criteria, one related to the intensity of the hard-core particle process, the other one being a local optimality criterion on the level of realizations. In fact, the criteria are equivalent under suitable moment conditions. We show that stationary hard-core thinnings satisfying such criteria exist and are frequently distributionally unique. More precisely, distributional uniqueness holds in subcritical and barely supercritical regimes of continuum percolation. Additionally, based on the analysis of a specific example, we argue that fluctuations in grain sizes can play an important role for establishing distributional uniqueness at high intensities. Finally, we provide a family of algorithmically constructible approximations whose volume fractions are arbitrarily close to the maximum.

  2. Evaluating Banking Profit Performance in Ghana during and post Profit Decline: A five Step Du-Pont Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aimed at three objectives. First, identify and rank banks based on a composite score comprising of all five du-pont variables. Second, we identify variables in the five step du-pont set up that are most likely to influence bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. And third, we estimate a model to capture the variables that drive bank ROE during and post profit declining periods. We first establish from our rankings that, foreign banks in Ghana performed better during profit declining periods while the local banks performed better in post profit decline periods using the top ten banks as a benchmark in both periods. Employing Pearson correlation coefficients matrix, we recognized that operating profit margin, asset turnover and leverage were most likely to influence bank ROE in both time periods. We further employ OLS regression and find that bank ROE was impacted by operating profit margin and leverage during profit declining periods and post profit decline while tax effect added up in post profit declining periods.

  3. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  4. CO2 cost pass-through and windfall profits in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, Jos; Neuhoff, Karsten; Yihsu Chen

    2006-01-01

    In order to cover their CO 2 emissions, power companies receive most of the required EU ETS allowances for free. In line with economic theory, these companies pass on the costs of these allowances in the price of electricity. This article analyses the implications of the EU ETS for the power sector, notably the impact of free allocation of CO 2 emission allowances on the price of electricity and the profitability of power generation. As well as some theoretical reflections, the article presents empirical and model estimates of CO 2 cost pass-through for Germany and The Netherlands, indicating that pass-through rates vary between 60 and 100% of CO 2 costs, depending on the carbon intensity of the marginal production unit and various other market- or technology-specific factors. As a result, power companies realize substantial windfall profits, as indicated by the empirical and model estimates presented in the article. (Author)

  5. Trends in asset structure between not-for-profit and investor-owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Paula H; Reiter, Kristin L

    2010-12-01

    The delivery of health care is a capital-intensive industry, and thus, hospital investment strategy continues to be an important area of interest for both health policy and research. Much attention has been given to hospitals' capital investment policies with relatively little attention to investments in financial assets, which serve an important role in not-for-profit (NFP) hospitals. This study describes and analyzes trends in aggregate asset structure between NFP and investor-owned (IO) hospitals during the post-capital-based prospective payment system implementation period, providing the first documentation of long-term trends in hospital investment. The authors find hospitals' aggregate asset structure differs significantly based on ownership, size, and profitability. For both NFP and IO hospitals, financial securities have remained consistent over time, while fixed asset representation has declined in IO hospitals.

  6. Recruiting intensity

    OpenAIRE

    R. Jason Faberman

    2014-01-01

    To hire new workers, employers use a variety of recruiting methods in addition to posting a vacancy announcement. The intensity with which employers use these alternative methods can vary widely with a firm’s performance and with the business cycle. In fact, persistently low recruiting intensity helps to explain the sluggish pace of US job growth following the Great Recession.

  7. Five TWh saved on profitable upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakken, Stein Arne.

    1999-01-01

    Article. In Norway, a project is planned to evaluate the upgrading potential of the hydroelectric power sector. The article criticizes the authorities for not supporting the upgrading of hydroelectric power plants in their eager to promote the development of wind power. An important contribution of the planned project will be a book from which the utilities may get advice on measures of upgrading. Generators and control systems account for 80% of the faults and interruptions in the power utilities. The turbine technology has made important progress in the 1990s. By pure upgrading measures alone, the turbine efficiencies may be increased enough for an additional 3 TWh to be taken out from the Norwegian hydroelectric power system. Today, the price of imported carbon-based Danish power determines whether the utilities find it profitable to rehabilitate the hydroelectric plants. The energy potential of upgrading is estimated to be 5 TWh. This energy can be generated with known technology and with no serious consequences for the environment

  8. THE PROFIT TARGET IN A RESTAURATION UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briciu Sorin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry represents one of the most dynamic sectors of the contemporary society, with an emphasised role in the process of globalization. Currently, the hospitality industry does not only face the challenges of the economic crisis but the changes in the market, the consumers behaviour and the technological trends, too. That is why, in this time, it is extremely important to apply the management accounting and the cost calculation in any entity in the hospitality industry in order to cope with the market challenges. The main services are performed through the hospitality industry: the accommodation and the restauration. These services satisfy the vital needs of the tourists, but this industry must meet other needs or requests such as the acknowledgement of the social status, the desire to know other cultures or traditions, to spend free time in a pleasant manner etc. Our intention and goal in the current article is to approach an image of the CVP analysis in the decision making process with an emphasis on the restauration in the hospitality industry. In order to cope with this critical time, the competition and to achieve the profits estimated, the managers in the hospitality industry can apply the CVP analysis, one of the simplest and most useful analytical instruments. The paper will tackle with the problem of the break even point in a restaurant, one of the main indicators of the CVP model and also the possibility of the decision making process orientation.

  9. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  10. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  11. Siemens IT solutions for power sector. PROFIT solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunter, P.

    2004-01-01

    The cost reduction, flexibility and revenue increase, potential exploitation, productivity increase, and business opportunities exploitation - that is all what can be required in the races for the promonent positioning on the electricity power market. These requirements can be realized by the sophisticated IT solutions hand-tailored to the special requirements of the electric power producers and tradesmen. This approach makes it possible to achieve greater profit. Our solutions 'PROFIT Solutions', that are symbiosis of the most progressive information technologies and the power plant techniques of the company Siemens, satisfy submitted specifications in substantial measure. The system solutions 'PROFIT Solutions' comprise three solution groups: process, operation a business. The solutions of the group 'IT Process Solutions' increase flexibility and manoeuvrability of equipment, improve the efficiency and contribute to more economical operation of the power generation. Solutions 'IT Process Solutions' simplify and shorten the period of power cycles and conduce to higher labour productivity. Solutions group 'IT Process Solutions' approaches equipment to the market - supports the profit strategies, helps quickly and expertly to determine and predict hazards. The extension PROFIT Cockpit means the nuance to the solutions world 'PROFIT Solutions'. The survey about the whole installation is within reach at the simple touch of a button. It is possible to compile the total system part by part from single solutions 'PROFIT Solutions'. As a matter of fact all single parts can be interconnected with already existing solutions. Routines 'PROFIT Solutions' cooperate with all modern control systems. (author)

  12. Concept of Capital and Profit in Economy, Finance and Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Szot -Gabryś

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes economic, financial and accountancy theories, concepts and models of capital and profit. The aim of the article is to present different meaning of this economic category in economic knowledge. The results of research in this paper is providing to conclusion that the knowledge debate of nature and measurement method of capital and profit is still continuing.

  13. Profitability analysis of catfish farming in Suleja local government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of profitability and scale of production of catfish has not been properly addressed. This study was conducted in Suleja Local Government Area of Niger State to assess the profitability of catfish production. Forty (40) catfish farmers were selected from the study area using simple random sampling techniques.

  14. 26 CFR 509.105 - Industrial and commercial profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sales promotion, the orders being transmitted to Switzerland for acceptance, then the profits arising... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Industrial and commercial profits. 509.105 Section 509.105 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...

  15. Analysis of profitability and poverty reduction of yoghurt processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the profitability of yoghurt processing with a view of determining its potentials for reducing poverty in Maiduguri Metropolitan Area. Data were collected from a survey of 10 yoghurt processing firms in Maiduguri and analysed using profit model and descriptive statistics. Results revealed that yoghurt ...

  16. A More Detailed Understanding Of Factors Associated With Hospital Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2016-05-01

    To identify the characteristics of the most profitable US hospitals, we examined the profitability of acute care hospitals in fiscal year 2013, measured as net income from patient care services per adjusted discharge. Based on Medicare Cost Reports and Final Rule Data, the median hospital lost $82 for each such discharge. Forty-five percent of hospitals were profitable, with 2.5 percent earning more than $2,475 per adjusted discharge. The ten most profitable hospitals, seven of which were nonprofit, each earned more than $163 million in total profits from patient care services. Hospitals with for-profit status, higher markups, system affiliation, or regional power, as well as those located in states with price regulation, tended to be more profitable than other hospitals. Hospitals that treated a higher proportion of Medicare patients, had higher expenditures per adjusted discharge, were located in counties with a high proportion of uninsured patients, or were located in states with a dominant insurer or greater health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration had lower profitability than hospitals that did not have these characteristics. These findings can inform policy reforms, while providing a baseline against which to measure the impact of any subsequent reforms. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...

  18. A method for predicting the probability of business network profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, P.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; Välja, M.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Magnusson, C; Ladhe, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly

  19. Methods utilized in evaluating the profitability of commercial space processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, H. L.; Schmitt, P. T.

    1976-01-01

    Profitability analysis is applied to commercial space processing on the basis of business concept definition and assessment and the relationship between ground and space functions. Throughput analysis is demonstrated by analysis of the space manufacturing of surface acoustic wave devices. The paper describes a financial analysis model for space processing and provides key profitability measures for space processed isoenzymes.

  20. The relationship between size, growth and profitability of commercial banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, C. T.; De Haan, J.; Scholtens, B.

    2013-01-01

    Using a dynamic panel model for more than 15 000 banks from 148 countries from 1988 to 2010, we investigate the interaction between size, growth and profitability of banks. For our total sample, we cannot reject the hypotheses that the variability of bank profitability and the level and variability

  1. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dariy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, R.; Kooistra, S.R.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared

  2. The implementation of customer profitability analysis: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, E.M.; Vernooij, M.J.A.; Vernooij, Maarten J.A.; van Triest, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    By using customer profitability analysis (CPA), firms can determine the profit contribution of customer segments and/or individual customers. This article presents an approach for the implementation of CPA. The implementation process is illustrated using a case study of a firm producing and selling

  3. Profit Tax Evasion Under Oligopoly With Endogenous Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Goerke, Laszlo; Runkel, Marco

    2006-01-01

    This note investigates the impact of profit tax evasion on firms' output decisions in a Cournot oligopoly setting in which the market structure is determined endogenously. It is shown that tax evasion intensifies market entry and raises aggregate output, while production of each incumbent firm decreases. Therefore, tax evasion choices affect activity decisions and an evadable profit tax distorts the market outcome.

  4. Gender Gaps and the Presence and Profitability of College Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishe, Patrick James

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes data from the 1995-96 academic year for schools that compete at the Division I level of college athletics to determine the influence of the presence and profitability of football on female athletes in terms of funding and opportunity. Reveals that presence and profitability, as well as regional and ethnic considerations, influence…

  5. Profitability analysis of catfish production in Kaduna state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the profitability of catfish production in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the costs and returns in catfish production and thus the profit. Data for the study were collected through the use of well-structured questionnaire. A total of 60 catfish farmers were randomly selected from four ...

  6. smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Rhizobia inoculant, a product of Kenya, and its profitability in smallholder farms. Data were collected from ... of the inoculants use and gross margin analysis to examine profitability. The area under the .... the effects of various factors on the extent of. BIOFIX® use. ..... little information, resulting in reduced adoption of legume ...

  7. Micro-CHP for self-supply in the housing industry. Profitability and system integration; Mikro-BHKW zur Eigenversorgung in der Wohnungswirtschaft. Wirtschaftlichkeit und Systemintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollinger, Raphael; Buettner, Markus; Erge, Thomas; Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard; Wittwer, Christof [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The use of micro-CHP units in multifamily buildings is particularly profitable if the produced electricity - coupled with the thermal energy production - is used directly by the operator or sold locally. To maximize the share of own consumption the use of thermal storages to operate the CHP at times of high electrical demand is necessary. By conducting a field test it is shown that the share of own consumption can be increased by predictive control of CHP with thermal storages. The approach increases the profitability of the CHP operation under today's conditions as well as the system integration of the CHP electricity. (orig.)

  8. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  9. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, R; Kooistra, S R; Hogeveen, H

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared with farms using a conventional milking system (CMS) based on real accounting data. In total, 62 farms (31 using an AMS and 31 using a CMS) were analyzed for the year 2003 in a case control study. Differences between the years 2002 and 2003 also were analyzed by comparing a subgroup of 16 farms with an AMS and 16 farms with a CMS. Matching was based on the time of investment in a milking system (same year), the total milk production per year, and intensity of land use (kg/ha). Results from 2003 showed that the farms with an AMS used, on average, 29% less labor than farms with a CMS. In contrast, farms using a CMS grew faster (37,132 kg of milk quota and 5 dairy cows) than farms with an AMS (-3,756 kg milk quota and 0.5 dairy cows) between 2002 and 2003. Dairy farmers with a CMS had larger (euro7,899) revenues than those with an AMS. However, no difference in the margin on dairy production was detected, partly because of numerically greater (euro6,822) variable costs on CMS farms. Dairy farms were compared financially based on the amount of money that was available for rent, depreciation, interest, labor, and profit (RDILP). The CMS farms had more money (euro15,566) available for RDILP than the AMS farms. This difference was caused by larger fixed costs (excluding labor) for the AMS farms, larger contractor costs (euro6,422), and larger costs for gas, water, and electricity (euro1,549). Differences in costs for contractors and for gas, water, and electricity were statistically significant. When expressed per full-time employee, AMS farms had greater revenues, margins, and gross margins per full-time employee than did CMS farms. This resulted in a substantially greater

  10. The liquidity-profitability trade-off in Bulgaria in terms of the changed financial management functions during crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeni Raykov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis evaluates the basic functions of modern financial managers and important aspects related to their roles in the business environment. In consideration of the global changes within the economic and financial system after 2007, the role of financial managers in corporations significantly changed. This has happened with the increasing number of functions they perform and with extending the influence of the financial manager on almost all other areas of activity within companies - trading, logistics, property management, production and technology through changing highlights and guidance on financial policies, changes in the scope of activities and time determination of the decisions taken. The analysis points at the increasing role of liquidity management in times of crisis and its effect on maximizing company’s results. The effective financial performance should guarantee a minimum impact of liquidity decisions on profitability and wealth. Empirical tests for the Bulgarian economy in crisis showed weak but clearly negative relationship between controllable liquidity and operational profitability in long term. Moreover, the volatility of liquidity remains relatively low and poorly related to the considerable variations in profitability. Contrary to that, the liquidity is not significantly influenced by the capital gains due to the instable profitability for the analysed period.

  11. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  12. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  13. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  14. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sofie; Werner, S.

    2001-01-01

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  15. Profits for nonprofits: find a corporate partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, A R

    1996-01-01

    Here's a familiar story. A nonprofit organization joins forces with a corporation in a caused-related marketing campaign. It seems like a win-win deal, but the nonprofit--and the media--find out several weeks into the campaign that the corporation's business practices are antithetical to the nonprofit's mission. The nonprofit's credibility is severely damaged. Is the moral of the story that nonprofits should steer clear of alliances with for-profit organizations? Not at all, Alan Andreasen says. Nonprofit managers can help their organizations avoid many of the risks and reap the rewards of cause-related marketing alliances by thinking of themselves not as charities but as partners in the marketing effort. More than ever, nonprofits need what many companies can offer: crucial new sources of revenue. But nonprofits offer corporate partners a great deal in return: the opportunity to enhance their image--and increase the bottom line--by supporting a worthy cause. Consider the fruitful partnership between American Express and Share Our Strength, a hunger-relief organization. Through the Charge Against Hunger program, now in its fourth year, American Express has helped contribute more than +16 million to SOS. In return, American Express has seen an increase in transactions with the card and in the number of merchants carrying the card. How can nonprofit managers build a successful partnership? They can assess their organization to see how it can add value to a corporate partner. They can identify those companies that stand to gain the most from a cause-related marketing alliance. And they can take an active role in shaping the partnership and monitoring its progress.

  16. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  17. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  18. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  19. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  20. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  1. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  2. Non-profit Drug Research and Development at a Crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher; Auquier, Pascal; Dussart, Claude

    2018-02-07

    In wealthy nations, non-profit drug R&D has been proposed to reduce the prices of medicines. We sought to review the ethical and economic issues concerning non-profit drug R&D companies, and the possible impact that their pricing strategy may have on the innovation efforts from for-profit companies targeting the same segment of the pharmaceutical market. There are two possible approaches to pricing drugs developed by non-profit R&D programs: pricing that maximises profits and "affordable" pricing that reflects the cost of manufacturing and distribution, plus a margin that ensures sustainability of the drug supply. Overall, the non-profits face ethical challenges - due to the lack of resources, they are unable to independently commercialize their products on a large scale; however, the antitrust law does not permit them to impose prices on potential licensees. Also, reduced prices for the innovative products may result in drying the for-profit R&D in the area.

  3. Methodology of Segment Management Reporting on the Profitability of Agricultural Holding Interaction with Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Vasilyevna Glushchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The state program of agricultural development and regulation of agricultural products, raw materials and food in a food embargo on the West European suppliers is aimed at the revitalization of the holding structures. The main purpose of agricultural holdings is to ensure food safety and to maximize the consolidated profit in resource-limited settings. The heterogeneous nature of the needs of customers, leading to different performance of agricultural holding interaction with them has an impact on the formulation and conduct of accounting and requires the formation of an aggregated and relevant information about the profitability of relationships with groups of customers and the long-term development strategy of agroformation interaction with them, so there is a need for research and development methodical bases of formation of the administrative reporting segment that meets the needs of modern practice. The purpose of this study is to develop a method of forming the segment management reporting on the profitability of agricultural holding interaction with customers. As part of the problem research, the authors used different scientific methods, such as analysis, synthesis, observation, group data and logic synthesis. The article discusses the necessity of segmentation agricultural holding customers by the criterion of “cooperation profitability”. The basic problem of generating information about the cost of trading in the accounting information system of agricultural holdings is dealt with; a method of forming the segment management reporting based on the results of the ABC analysis including calculation algorithm functional trade costs (Activity-Based Costing, is developed; rank order of agroholding customers is suggested in accordance with the calculated interval limits for them: Segment A - “highly profitable customers,” B - “problem customers” and C - “low-profit customers”; a set of registers and management accounting

  4. Biomarcadores de estresse em ratos exercitados por natação em intensidades igual e superior à máxima fase estável de lactato Biomarkers of stress in rats exercised in swimming at intensities equal and superior to the maximal estable lactate phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Vinicius Ledesma Contarteze

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O estresse alcançado durante exercício agudo/crônico é relevante, pois altos índices de estresse podem prejudicar o bem-estar dos animais. As concentrações dos hormônios adrenocorticotrófico (ACTH e corticosterona, bem como as concentrações de ácido ascórbico e colesterol das glândulas adrenais são importantes biomarcadores de estresse. OBJETIVO: Analisar a sensibilidade de diferentes biomarcadores de estresse em ratos durante exercício agudo de natação em diferentes intensidades. MÉTODO: Ratos (18 adaptados à natação foram submetidos a três testes de 25 minutos suportando cargas 5,0; 5,5 e 6,0% do peso corporal (PC, para obtenção da máxima fase estável de lactato (MFEL. Em seguida, os animais foram divididos em dois grupos: M (n = 9, sacrificado após 25 minutos de exercício na intensidade de MFEL e S (n = 9, sacrificado após exercício exaustivo, em intensidade 25% superior a MFEL. Para comparações, um grupo controle C (n = 10 foi sacrificado em repouso. RESULTADOS: As concentrações séricas de ACTH e corticosterona foram superiores após exercício em ambas as intensidades comparadas com o grupo controle (P INTRODUCTION: The level of stress during acute/chronic exercise is important, since higher levels of stress may impair animal welfare. The adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH and corticosterone hormone concentrations, as well as cholesterol and ascorbic acid concentrations in adrenal gland, are considered an important stress biomarker. PURPOSE: To analyze the sensitivity of the different biomarkers during acute swimming exercise in different intensities performed by rats. METHODS: Male Wistar adult rats (n = 18 previously adapted to swimming were submitted to three 25 min. swimming tests with loads of 5.0; 5.5 and 6.0% of their body weight (BW, for maximum lactate steady state (MLSS determination. After MLSS attainment, the animals were divided into two groups: M (n = 9 sacrificed shortly after a 25

  5. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  6. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  7. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  8. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  9. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  10. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  11. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  12. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  13. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  14. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  15. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  16. The Persistence of Profits in Azerbaijan's Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Batu TUNAY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the persistence of profits in Azerbaijan's banking sector in the short-run and the long-run is investigated. Although there are a lot of researches done in the case of different countries, enough study has been implemented for the case of Azerbaijan despite of its high speed economic growth. This research analysis continuity of profits by using system panel data method. Obtained results indicate that profits demonstrate no persistence or a little persistence. In this context, existence of competitive powers in the sector can be stated.

  17. Gas-processing profit margin series begins in OGJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the bases and methods employed by the WK (Wright, Killen and Co, Houston) profit-margin indicator for U.S. gas-processing plants. Additionally, this article reviews the historical profitability of the gas-processing industry and key factors affecting these trends. Texas was selected as the most representative for the industry, reflecting the wide spectrum of gas-processing plants. The profit performance of Texas' gas plants is of special significance because of the large number of plants and high volume of NGL production in the region

  18. The Profitability – Risk Relationship and Financing Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise financial decision is a rational process for option to the optimal variant related to financing and investments. For the capital investment to be justified, the profitability of the invested money must be at least equal with the profitability of the alternative investment opportunities with the same risk on market. The choosing of a way for financing is determined on the one side by their cost and on the other side by the existent capital structure. In this paper I tried to analyse the profitability – risk relationship in the financing decision for the “NIKOS” Ltd.

  19. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  20. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  1. Analyzing the profit-loss sharing contracts with Markov model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Wahyudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how to use first order Markov chain to build a reliable monitoring system for the profit-loss sharing based contracts (PLS as the mode of financing contracts in Islamic bank with censored continuous-time observations. The paper adopts the longitudinal analysis with the first order Markov chain framework. Laplace transform was used with homogenous continuous time assumption, from discretized generator matrix, to generate the transition matrix. Various metrics, i.e.: eigenvalue and eigenvector were used to test the first order Markov chain assumption. Cox semi parametric model was used also to analyze the momentum and waiting time effect as non-Markov behavior. The result shows that first order Markov chain is powerful as a monitoring tool for Islamic banks. We find that waiting time negatively affected present rating downgrade (upgrade significantly. Likewise, momentum covariate showed negative effect. Finally, the result confirms that different origin rating have different movement behavior. The paper explores the potential of Markov chain framework as a risk management tool for Islamic banks. It provides valuable insight and integrative model for banks to manage their borrower accounts. This model can be developed to be a powerful early warning system to identify which borrower needs to be monitored intensively. Ultimately, this model could potentially increase the efficiency, productivity and competitiveness of Islamic banks in Indonesia. The analysis used only rating data. Further study should be able to give additional information about the determinant factors of rating movement of the borrowers by incorporating various factors such as contract-related factors, bank-related factors, borrower-related factors and macroeconomic factors.

  2. Uncompensated care provided by for-profit, not-for-profit, and government owned hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Bayman, Levent; Popescu, Ioana; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary S; Cai, Xueya; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2010-04-07

    There is growing concern certain not-for-profit hospitals are not providing enough uncompensated care to justify their tax exempt status. Our objective was to compare the amount of uncompensated care provided by not-for-profit (NFP), for-profit (FP) and government owned hospitals. We used 2005 state inpatient data (SID) for 10 states to identify patients hospitalized for three common conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), or childbirth. Uncompensated care was measured as the proportion of each hospital's total admissions for each condition that were classified as being uninsured. Hospitals were categorized as NFP, FP, or government owned based upon data obtained from the American Hospital Association. We used bivariate methods to compare the proportion of uninsured patients admitted to NFP, FP and government hospitals for each diagnosis. We then used generalized linear mixed models to compare the percentage of uninsured in each category of hospital after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of the markets each hospital served. Our cohort consisted of 188,117 patients (1,054 hospitals) hospitalized for AMI, 82,261 patients (245 hospitals) for CABG, and 1,091,220 patients for childbirth (793 hospitals). The percentage of admissions classified as uninsured was lower in NFP hospitals than in FP or government hospitals for AMI (4.6% NFP; 6.0% FP; 9.5% government; P < .001), CABG (2.6% NFP; 3.3% FP; 7.0% government; P < .001), and childbirth (3.1% NFP; 4.2% FP; 11.8% government; P < .001). In adjusted analyses, the mean percentage of AMI patients classified as uninsured was similar in NFP and FP hospitals (4.4% vs. 4.3%; P = 0.71), and higher for government hospitals (6.0%; P < .001 for NFP vs. government). Likewise, results demonstrated similar proportions of uninsured patients in NFP and FP hospitals and higher levels of uninsured in government hospitals for both CABG and childbirth. For the three conditions studied NFP

  3. comparative profitability analysis of selected rainfed and irrigated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    KEYWORDS: Rainfed, irrigated, food crops, profitability, Adamawa, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION .... some or all of three motives (Olayide and Heady, 1982). The major resources .... The third stage was the purposive selection of villages based on ...

  4. Comparative Analysis of Profitability of Layers Production in Esan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    KEY WORDS: Day old Chicks, Gross Margin, old layers, Point of lay, Profitability, Rate of return, Viability. ABSTRACT: This ... People depend on poultry for food and poultry farming serves as an additional ..... Wholesales Marketing of Tomato.

  5. Piggerywaste management and profitability of pig farming in Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Piggery waste management systems in the study area were identified and described, the farm profitability ... Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, operating net returns and benefit cost ratio.

  6. Statistical analysis of the count and profitability of air conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, El Houssainy A; Mohamed, Salah M; Abd Elmegaly, Alaa A

    2018-08-01

    This article presents the statistical analysis of the number and profitability of air conditioners in an Egyptian company. Checking the same distribution for each categorical variable has been made using Kruskal-Wallis test.

  7. Grants Management Guidance for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to provide non-profit grant recipients with information to ensure that their organizations remain in compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Office of Management (OMB) cost principles, and the terms and conditions.

  8. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  9. The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Statements of Accounting Standards and Ribh (Profit) in an ... the years on Islamic finance and interest-based economic-system has been concerned ... However, Islamic accounting uses both historical cost concept and current ...

  10. The Determinants of Bank Profitability: The Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Nessibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones.  Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.

  11. A study on relationship between working capital and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between working capital management and profitability of accepted corporations in Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2008-2012. The study selected 66 firms as a statistical sample based on Cochran formula and simple random selection. In this study, variables including the average period of collecting accordance, periods of circulation of inventories, the average period of debt payment, and cycle of cash conversion on the factories operating profits are studied. The research method is applied and collection of data is solidarity, the Pierson and Regression solidarity are used. Results show that variables of capital investment management and profitability were in opposite direction. If the period of collecting accordance, period of debt payment, period of circulation of inventories and the cycle of cash conversion increase, it decreases the period profitability and the manager can decrease the period of debt payment, period of cash conversion to the least amount of positive value for affiliate.

  12. Liquidity risk and profitability: An assessment of Nigerian banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Management Review ... The paper examines liquidity risk and profitability from the Nigerian banking sector perspective. ... financial system, which in turn would assist financial institutions to evaluate ...

  13. Research Ethics and Commercial Drug Development: When Integrity Threatens Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This case, based on personal experiences and on those found in the literature, highlights the delicate tension faced by drug development companies having to balance research integrity and their profitability.

  14. Finance and marketing: birth of a profitable relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommelt, J J; Scheuerman, J L; Fillmore, J H

    1987-12-01

    As competition increases, the finance and marketing departments must work together to increase market share and improve the bottom line. If financial managers understand the functions of the marketing department, they can create a mutually beneficial and profitable relationship.

  15. Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profitability Analysis of Rice Processing and Marketing in Kano State, Nigeria. ... added to the commodity at each stage in the study area and determine the most efficient services produce. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  16. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  17. Management and socio-economic determinants of profitability in dog ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , especially fresh graduates of veterinary medicine. This study attempted to determine factors associated with making profits in dog breeding business in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to ...

  18. Social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thy

    2016-01-01

    The thesis presents about social media in general and social media for non-profit organizations in Vietnam in particular. The writer wanted to explore the disadvantages that non-profits in Vietnam face when using social media and search for recommendations which helps them to use it more efficiently. In the theoretic part, core concepts related to social media were introduced, namely, definition of social media, its types, the popular platforms, situation of social media in Vietnam, pros...

  19. PROFITABILITY RATIO AS A TOOL FOR BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2016-01-01

    The current study evaluates the potential of the profitability ratio in predicting corporate bankruptcy. The research is focused on Romanian companies, with the targeted event being represented by the manifestation of bankruptcy 2 years after the date of the financial statements of reference. All tests were conducted over 2 paired samples of 1176 Romanian companies. The methodology employed in evaluating the potential of the profitability ratio was based on the Area Under the ROC Curve (0.663...

  20. Fission profits of thorium: Distribution in charge and mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarnieri, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is presented the improvement of a semi-empiric model to describe behavior fo the 235 U + thermal neutrons system. The model is applied to fission of the 232 Th case reproducing the distribution of mass profits of fission products from the behavior of independent profits of fragments related the mass and charge, and the emission of prompt neutrons per fragment. (M.C.K.) [pt