Viscosity and density dependence during maximal flow in man.
Staats, B A; Wilson, T A; Lai-Fook, S J; Rodarte, J R; Hyatt, R E
1980-02-01
Maximal expiratory flow curves were obtained from ten healthy subjects white breathing air and three other gas mixtures with different densities and viscosities. From these data, the magnitudes of the dependence of maximal flow on gas density and viscosity were obtained. The scaling laws of fluid mechanics, together with a model for the flow-limiting mechanism, were used to obtain a prediction of the relationship between the density dependence and the viscosity dependence of maximal flow. Although the data for individual subjects were too variable to allow a precise comparison with this prediction, the relationship between the mean density dependence and the mean viscosity dependence of all usbjects agreed with the theoretic prediction. This agreement supports the assumption, which is frequently made, that flow resistance rather than tissue visoelasticity is the dominant contributor to peripheral resistance. Information on the relationships between the pressure drop to the flow-limiting segment and flow, gas density and viscosity, and lung volume were also obtained.
What Do Consumers' Fund Flows Maximize?
Christoffersen, Susan; Evans, Richard; Musto, David K.
2013-01-01
We ask whether mutual funds’ flows reflect the incentives of the brokers intermediating them. The incentives we address are those revealed in statutory filings: the brokers’ shares of sales loads and other revenue, and their affiliation with the fund family. We find significant effects of these p......We ask whether mutual funds’ flows reflect the incentives of the brokers intermediating them. The incentives we address are those revealed in statutory filings: the brokers’ shares of sales loads and other revenue, and their affiliation with the fund family. We find significant effects...... of these payments to brokers on funds’ inflows, particularly when the brokers are not affiliated. Tracking these investments forward, we find load sharing, but not revenue sharing, to predict poor performance, consistent with the different incentives these payments impart. We identify one benefit of captive...
Maximal expiratory flow volume curve in quarry workers.
Subhashini, Arcot Sadagopa; Satchidhanandam, Natesa
2002-01-01
Maximal Expiratory Flow Volume (MEFV) curves were recorded with a computerized Spirometer (Med Spiror). Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volumes (FEV), mean and maximal flow rates were obtained in 25 quarry workers who were free from respiratory disorders and 20 healthy control subjects. All the functional values are lower in quarry workers than in the control subject, the largest reduction in quarry workers with a work duration of over 15 years, especially for FEF75. The effects are probably due to smoking rather than dust exposure.
General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng
2005-01-01
We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....
Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions
Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, Ontario K1N8M2 (Canada); Zyczkowski, Karol [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)
2010-07-09
For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.
Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions
Collins, Benoit; Zyczkowski, Karol
2010-01-01
For any graph consisting of $k$ vertices and $m$ edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of $2m$ subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bi-partite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated to a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by thes...
Maximizing Flow in the Secondary Social Science Classroom.
Enriquez, Nicole Christian
First introduced in the early 1990s, the flow theory of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, giving much attention to motivation and how it relates to learning, has presented a new view for educators to apply in their classrooms. Csikszentmihalyi suggests that the most effective learning in a classroom will happen when students have entered "flow."…
Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize highway capacity
Wang, Qiao-Ming; Jiang, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Bing-Hong
2009-09-01
In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps by using a cellular automata traffic flow model. We investigate how to improve the system capacity by assigning traffic flow to the two ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and different regions are classified. It is shown that in region I, in which both ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the ramps is in congestion, assigning a higher proportion of the demand to the upstream on-ramp could improve the overall flow, which is consistent with previous studies. This is explained through studying the spatiotemporal patterns and analytical investigations. In contrast, optimal assignment has not been observed in other regions. We point out that our result is robust and model independent under certain conditions.
Austin, R E; Aldea, G S; Coggins, D L; Flynn, A E; Hoffman, J I
1990-08-01
We examined the ability of individual regions of the canine left ventricle to increase blood flow relative to baseline rates of perfusion. Regional coronary flow was measured by injecting radioactive microspheres over 90 seconds in seven anesthetized mongrel dogs. Preliminary experiments demonstrated a correlation between the regional distributions of blood flow during asphyxia and pharmacological vasodilatation with adenosine (mean r = 0.75; 192 regions in each of two dogs), both of which resulted in increased coronary flow. Subsequent experiments, during which coronary perfusion pressure was held constant at 80 mm Hg, examined the pattern of blood flow in 384 regions (mean weight, 106 mg) of the left ventricular free wall during resting flow and during maximal coronary flow effected by intracoronary adenosine infusion. We found that resting and maximal flow patterns were completely uncorrelated to each other in a given dog (mean r = 0.06, p = NS; n = 3 dogs). Furthermore, regional coronary reserve, defined as the ratio of maximal to resting flow, ranged from 1.75 (i.e., resting flow was 57% of maximum) to 21.9 (resting flow was 4.5% of maximum). Thus, coronary reserve is spatially heterogeneous and determined by two distinct perfusion patterns: the resting (control) pattern and the maximal perfusion pattern. Normal hearts, therefore, contain small regions that may be relatively more vulnerable to ischemia. This may explain the patchy nature of infarction with hypoxia and at reduced perfusion pressures as well as the difficulty of using global parameters to predict regional ischemia. Despite the wide dispersion of coronary reserve, we found, by autocorrelation analysis, that reserve in neighboring regions (even when separated by a distance of several tissue samples) was significantly correlated. This also applied to patterns of resting myocardial flow. Thus, both resting coronary blood flow and reserve appear to be locally continuous and may define functional
McNeil, Chris J; Allen, Matti D; Olympico, Eric; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Rice, Charles L
2015-09-01
A reduction of blood flow to active muscle will precipitate fatigue, and sustained isometric contractions produce intramuscular and compartmental pressures that can limit flow. The present study explored how blood flow and muscle oxygenation respond to isometric contractions at low, moderate, and maximal intensities. Over two visits, 10 males (26 ± 2 yr; means ± SD) performed 1-min dorsiflexion contractions at 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. Doppler ultrasound of the anterior tibial artery was used to record arterial diameter and mean blood velocity and to calculate absolute blood flow. The tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of tibialis anterior was acquired with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). There was a progressive increase in blood flow at 30% MVC (peak of 289 ± 139% resting value), no change from rest until an increase in the final 10 s of exercise at 60% MVC (peak of 197 ± 102% rest), and an initial decrease (59 ± 30% resting value) followed by a progressive increase at 100% MVC (peak of 355 ± 133% rest). Blood flow was greater at 30 and 100% than 60% MVC during the last 30 s of exercise. TOI was ∼63% at rest and, within 30 s of exercise, reached steady-state values of ∼42%, ∼22%, and ∼22% for 30, 60, and 100% MVC, respectively. Even maximal contraction of the dorsiflexors is unable to cause more than a transient decrease of flow in the anterior tibial artery. Unlike dynamic or intermittent isometric exercise, our results indicate blood flow is not linearly graded with intensity or directly coupled with oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions.
Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S
1982-02-01
Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.
Poker, Gilad; Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir
2014-11-06
Translation is an important stage in gene expression. During this stage, macro-molecules called ribosomes travel along the mRNA strand linking amino acids together in a specific order to create a functioning protein. An important question, related to many biomedical disciplines, is how to maximize protein production. Indeed, translation is known to be one of the most energy-consuming processes in the cell, and it is natural to assume that evolution shaped this process so that it maximizes the protein production rate. If this is indeed so then one can estimate various parameters of the translation machinery by solving an appropriate mathematical optimization problem. The same problem also arises in the context of synthetic biology, namely, re-engineer heterologous genes in order to maximize their translation rate in a host organism. We consider the problem of maximizing the protein production rate using a computational model for translation-elongation called the ribosome flow model (RFM). This model describes the flow of the ribosomes along an mRNA chain of length n using a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations. It also includes n + 1 positive parameters: the ribosomal initiation rate into the mRNA chain, and n elongation rates along the chain sites. We show that the steady-state translation rate in the RFM is a strictly concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of maximizing the translation rate under a suitable constraint always admits a unique solution, and that this solution can be determined using highly efficient algorithms for solving convex optimization problems even for large values of n. Furthermore, our analysis shows that the optimal translation rate can be computed based only on the optimal initiation rate and the elongation rate of the codons near the beginning of the ORF. We discuss some applications of the theoretical results to synthetic biology, molecular evolution, and functional genomics.
Multi-compartment approach to identify minimal flow and maximal recreational use of a lowland river
Pusch, Martin; Lorenz, Stefan
2013-04-01
Most approaches to establish a minimum flow rate for river sections subjected to water abstraction focus on flow requirements of fish and benthic invertebrates. However, artificial reduction of river flow will always affect additional key ecosystem features, as sediment properties and the metabolism of matter in these ecosystems as well, and may even influence adjacent floodplains. Thus, significant effects e.g. on the dissolved oxygen content of river water, on habitat conditions in the benthic zone, and on water levels in the floodplain are to be expected. Thus, we chose a multiple compartment method to identify minimum flow requirements in a lowland River in northern Germany (Spree River), selecting the minimal required flow level out of all compartments studied. Results showed that minimal flow levels necessary to keep key ecosystem features at a 'good' state depended significantly on actual water quality and on river channel morphology. Thereby, water quality of the Spree is potentially influenced by recreational boating activity, which causes mussels to stop filter-feeding, and thus impedes self-purification. Disturbance of mussel feeding was shown to directly depend on boat type and speed, with substantial differences among mussel species. Thus, a maximal recreational boating intensity could be derived that does not significantly affect self purification. We conclude that minimal flow levels should be identified not only based on flow preferences of target species, but also considering channel morphology, ecological functions, and the intensity of other human uses of the river section.
Maximal expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume curves in Parkinson's disease.
Bogaard, J M; Hovestadt, A; Meerwaldt, J; vd Meché, F G; Stigt, J
1989-03-01
In order to investigate the type and degree of upper airway obstruction (UAO) in a group of patients with Parkinson's disease in different stages of the disease, we obtained maximal expiratory and inspiratory flow-volume (MEFV and MIFV) curves and maximal static mouth pressures. The clinical disability was indicated by a Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y) scale, ranging from III to V, and a more continuous Northwestern University Disability Scale (NUDS), ranging from zero to 50. Twelve patients were in H-Y Group III, and eleven and eight were in Groups IV and V, respectively. The pattern of the flow-volume curves was classified as either normal, or with superimposed regular or irregular oscillations (A), or with rounded-off and delayed expiratory peak appearance (B). Mean MEFV curves in Groups III and IV were not appreciably different from reference. In Group V, the mean curve showed a lower peak expiratory flow (PEF) and a more convex tail. Only the effort-dependent variables PEF, peak inspiratory flow (PIF), and maximal mouth pressures at RV and TLC (PmTLC and PmRV) appeared to be significantly correlated with the NUDS index and decreased with increasing clinical disability. The mean values of those variables were also significantly different between the H-Y groups. The number of normal curves decreased from H-Y Group III to Group V. The contribution of A and B curves was relatively equal in the groups, with only a small number of A curves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Traffic Flow by Cellular Automata: the Effect of Maximal Car Velocity
Makowiecki, D S; Makowiec, Danuta; Miklaszewski, Wieslaw
2005-01-01
Effects of large value assigned to the maximal car velocity on the fundamental diagrams in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are studied by extended simulations. The function relating the flow in the congested traffic phase with the car density and deceleration probability is found numerically. Properties of the region of critical changes, so-called jamming transition parameters, are described in details. The basic model, modified by the assumption that for each car an individual velocity limit is assigned, is investigated in the aim to find the best supplementary rule allowing the jammed traffic to move with velocity larger than the slowest driving vehicle.
S. T. Jaya Christa
2006-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimal location and parameters of Unified Power Flow Controllers (UPFCs in electrical power systems, using particle swarm optimization (PSO. The objective is to maximize the transmission system loadability subject to the transmission line capacity limits and specified bus voltage levels. Using the proposed method, the location of UPFCs and their parameters are optimized simultaneously. PSO is used to solve the above non-linear programming problem for better accuracy. The proposed approach is examined and tested on IEEE 30-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system. The results obtained are quite promising for the power system operation environment
Maximizing run time performance of deployed data flow graphs on a multiprocessor architecture
Tobias, Richard J.; Hunt, Peter D.
1993-10-01
This paper discusses a practical solution for supporting the deployment of data flow graphs onto the Loral/Rolm Computer Systems, Inc. vector processing multi-processor architecture. It outlines the support software (both workstation hosted and target system hosted) that is required to design, debug, and maximize deployed data flow graph performance on the multiprocessor architecture. The deployment process guarantees real-time deadlines, minimizes run time scheduling overhead, and minimizes designer partitioning input. It is known that determining effective run time data flow graph node schedules for multi-processor architectures is an NP-complete class of problem not well suited to real-time systems. Loral/Rolm Computer Systems, Inc.'s vector processing toolset recognizes this problem and this paper discusses a prescheduling and pre-assignment approach for partitioning data flow graphs to available hardware resources. In particular the toolset components (which are based upon an enhanced data flow graph language) of workstation pre-assignment, prescheduling, run time gross allocation and local compute element dispatching are discussed in detail.
Balance between noise and information flow maximizes set complexity of network dynamics.
Tuomo Mäki-Marttunen
Full Text Available Boolean networks have been used as a discrete model for several biological systems, including metabolic and genetic regulatory networks. Due to their simplicity they offer a firm foundation for generic studies of physical systems. In this work we show, using a measure of context-dependent information, set complexity, that prior to reaching an attractor, random Boolean networks pass through a transient state characterized by high complexity. We justify this finding with a use of another measure of complexity, namely, the statistical complexity. We show that the networks can be tuned to the regime of maximal complexity by adding a suitable amount of noise to the deterministic Boolean dynamics. In fact, we show that for networks with Poisson degree distributions, all networks ranging from subcritical to slightly supercritical can be tuned with noise to reach maximal set complexity in their dynamics. For networks with a fixed number of inputs this is true for near-to-critical networks. This increase in complexity is obtained at the expense of disruption in information flow. For a large ensemble of networks showing maximal complexity, there exists a balance between noise and contracting dynamics in the state space. In networks that are close to critical the intrinsic noise required for the tuning is smaller and thus also has the smallest effect in terms of the information processing in the system. Our results suggest that the maximization of complexity near to the state transition might be a more general phenomenon in physical systems, and that noise present in a system may in fact be useful in retaining the system in a state with high information content.
Bino, Gilad; Steinfeld, Celine; Kingsford, Richard T
2014-01-01
Global wetland biodiversity loss continues unabated, driven by increased demand for freshwater. A key strategy for conservation management of freshwater systems is to maintain the quantity and quality of the natural water regimes, including the frequency and timing of flows. Formalizing an ecological model depicting the key ecological components and the underlying processes of cause and effect is required for successful conservation management. Models linking hydrology with ecological responses can prove to be an invaluable tool for robust decision-making of environmental flows. Here, we explored alternative water management strategies and identified maximal strategies for successful long-term management of colonial waterbirds in the Macquarie Marshes, Australia. We modeled fluctuations in breeding abundances of 10 colonial waterbird species over the past quarter century (1986-2010). Clear relationships existed between flows and breeding, both in frequencies and total abundances, with a strong linear relationship for flows > 200 GL. Thresholds emerged for triggering breeding events in all 10 species, but these varied among species. Three species displayed a sharp threshold response between 100 GL and 250 GL. These had a breeding probability of 0.5 when flows were > 180 GL and a 0.9 probability of breeding with flows > 350 GL. The remaining species had a probability greater than 0.5 of breeding with flows > 400 GL. Using developed models, we examined the effects of five environmental flow management strategies on the variability of flows and subsequent likelihood of breeding. Management to different target volumes of environmental flows affected overall and specific breeding probabilities. The likelihood of breeding for all 10 colonial waterbirds increased from a regulated historical mean (+/-SD) of 0.36 +/- 0.09 to 0.53 +/- 0.14, an improvement of 47.5% +/- 18.7%. Management of complex ecosystems depends on good understanding of the responses of organisms to the
Maximizing Protein Translation Rate in the Ribosome Flow Model: The Homogeneous Case.
Zarai, Yoram; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir
2014-01-01
Gene translation is the process in which intracellular macro-molecules, called ribosomes, decode genetic information in the mRNA chain into the corresponding proteins. Gene translation includes several steps. During the elongation step, ribosomes move along the mRNA in a sequential manner and link amino-acids together in the corresponding order to produce the proteins. The homogeneous ribosome flow model (HRFM) is a deterministic computational model for translation-elongation under the assumption of constant elongation rates along the mRNA chain. The HRFM is described by a set of n first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations, where n represents the number of sites along the mRNA chain. The HRFM also includes two positive parameters: ribosomal initiation rate and the (constant) elongation rate. In this paper, we show that the steady-state translation rate in the HRFM is a concave function of its parameters. This means that the problem of determining the parameter values that maximize the translation rate is relatively simple. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms and evolution of translation-elongation. We demonstrate this by using the theoretical results to estimate the initiation rate in M. musculus embryonic stem cell. The underlying assumption is that evolution optimized the translation mechanism. For the infinite-dimensional HRFM, we derive a closed-form solution to the problem of determining the initiation and transition rates that maximize the protein translation rate. We show that these expressions provide good approximations for the optimal values in the n-dimensional HRFM already for relatively small values of n. These results may have applications for synthetic biology where an important problem is to re-engineer genomic systems in order to maximize the protein production rate.
Gooya, Ali; Liao, Hongen; Sakuma, Ichiro
2012-09-01
Geometric flux maximizing flow (FLUX) is an active contour based method which evolves an initial surface to maximize the flux of a vector field on the surface. For blood vessel segmentation, the vector field is defined as the vectors specified by vascular edge strengths and orientations. Hence, the segmentation performance depends on the quality of the detected edge vector field. In this paper, we propose a new method for level set based segmentation of blood vessels by generalizing the FLUX on a Riemannian manifold (R-FLUX). We consider a 3D scalar image I(x) as a manifold embedded in the 4D space (x, I(x)) and compute the image metric by pullback from the 4D space, whose metric tensor depends on the vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) tensor. This allows us to devise a non-linear filter which both projects and normalizes the original image gradient vectors under the inverse of local VED tensors. The filtered gradient vectors pertaining to the vessels are less sensitive to the local image contrast and more coherent with the local vessel orientation. The method has been applied to both synthetic and real TOF MRA data sets. Comparisons are made with the FLUX and vesselsness response based segmentations, indicating that the R-FLUX outperforms both methods in terms of leakage minimization and thiner vessel delineation.
Attractors, black objects and holographic RG flows in 5d maximal gauged supergravities
Hristov, Kiril; Rota, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicocca,and INFN, sezione di Milano-Bicocca,I-20126 Milano (Italy)
2014-03-12
We perform a systematic search for static solutions in different sectors of 5d N=8 supergravities with compact and non-compact gauged R-symmetry groups, finding new and listing already known backgrounds. Due to the variety of possible gauge groups and resulting scalar potentials, the maximally symmetric vacua we encounter in these theories can be Minkowski, de Sitter, or anti-de Sitter. There exist BPS and non-BPS near-horizon geometries and full solutions with all these three types of asymptotics, corresponding to black holes, branes, strings, rings, and other black objects with more exotic horizon topologies, supported by U(1) and SU(2) charges. The asymptotically AdS{sub 5} solutions also have a clear holographic interpretation as RG flows of field theories on D3 branes, wrapped on compact 2- and 3-manifolds.
Cerebral blood flow during submaximal and maximal dynamic exercise in humans
Thomas, S N; Schroeder, T; Secher, N H
1989-01-01
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans was measured at rest and during dynamic exercise on a cycle ergometer corresponding to 56% (range 27-85) of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). Exercise bouts were performed by 16 male and female subjects, lasted 15 min each, and were carried out in a semisupine position....... CBF (133Xe clearance) was expressed as the initial slope index (ISI) and as the first compartment flow (F1). CBF at rest [ISI, 58 (range 45-73); F1, 76 (range 55-98) ml.100 g-1.min-1] increased during exercise [ISI to 79 (57-94) and F1 to 118 (75-164) ml.100 g-1.min-1, P less than 0.01]. CBF did...... not differ significantly between work loads from 32 (24-33) to 86% (74-96) of VO2max (n = 10). During exercise, mean arterial pressure increased from 84 (60-100) to 101 (78-124) Torr (P less than 0.01) and PCO2 remained unchanged [5.1 (4.6-5.6) vs. 5.4 (4.4-6.3) kPa, n = 6]. These results demonstrate...
Weston, Melissa C; Nash, Christena K; Homesley, Jerry J; Fritsch, Ingrid
2012-11-01
There is a need for a microfluidic pumping technique that is simple to fabricate, yet robust, compatible with a variety of solvents, and which has easily controlled fluid flow. Redox-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) offers these advantages. However, the presence of high concentrations of redox species, important for inducing sufficient convection at low magnetic fields for hand-held devices, can limit the use of redox-MHD pumping for analytical applications. A new method for redox-MHD pumping is investigated that takes advantage of the large amplitude of the transient portion of the faradaic current response that occurs upon stepping the potential sufficiently past the standard electrode potential, E°, of the pumping redox species at an electrode. This approach increases the velocity of the fluid for a given redox concentration. An electronic switch was implemented between the potentiostat and electrochemical cell to alternately turn on and off different electrodes along the length of the flow path to maximize this transient electronic current and, as a result, the flow speed. Velocities were determined by tracking microbeads in a solution containing electroactive potassium ferrocyanide and potassium ferricyanide, and supporting electrolyte, potassium chloride, in the presence of a magnetic field. Fluid velocities with slight pulsation were obtained with the switch that were 70% faster than the smooth velocities without the switch. This indicates that redox species concentrations can be lowered by a similar amount to achieve a given speed, thereby diminishing interference of the redox species with detection of the analyte in applications of redox-MHD microfluidics for chemical analysis.
Yilmaz, Alper
2015-04-01
It is intended to design compact heat exchangers which can transfer high heat flow for a given volume and temperature difference with high efficiency. This work presents the optimal design of heat exchangers for a given length or hydraulic diameter with a constraint of a certain pressure loss and constant wall temperature. Both volumetric heat transfer and heat transfer efficiency are taken into consideration for the design in laminar or turbulent flow regions. Equations are derived which easily enable optimal design for all shapes of ducts and for all Pr numbers. It is found that optimum conditions for turbulent flow is possible for all duct hydraulic diameters; however, it is possible to have optimum conditions till a certain dimensionless duct hydraulic diameter for laminar flow. Besides maximal volumetric heat flow, heat transfer efficiency should be taken into consideration in turbulent flow for optimum design.
Breburda, C. S.; Griffin, B. P.; Pu, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Cosgrove, D. M. 3rd; Thomas, J. D.
1998-01-01
OBJECTIVES: We sought to validate direct planimetry of mitral regurgitant orifice area from three-dimensional echocardiographic reconstructions. BACKGROUND: Regurgitant orifice area (ROA) is an important measure of the severity of mitral regurgitation (MR) that up to now has been calculated from hemodynamic data rather than measured directly. We hypothesized that improved spatial resolution of the mitral valve (MV) with three-dimensional (3D) echo might allow accurate planimetry of ROA. METHODS: We reconstructed the MV using 3D echo with 3 degrees rotational acquisitions (TomTec) using a transesophageal (TEE) multiplane probe in 15 patients undergoing MV repair (age 59 +/- 11 years). One observer reconstructed the prolapsing mitral leaflet in a left atrial plane parallel to the ROA and planimetered the two-dimensional (2D) projection of the maximal ROA. A second observer, blinded to the results of the first, calculated maximal ROA using the proximal convergence method defined as maximal flow rate (2pi(r2)va, where r is the radius of a color alias contour with velocity va) divided by regurgitant peak velocity (obtained by continuous wave [CW] Doppler) and corrected as necessary for proximal flow constraint. RESULTS: Maximal ROA was 0.79 +/- 0.39 (mean +/- SD) cm2 by 3D and 0.86 +/- 0.42 cm2 by proximal convergence (p = NS). Maximal ROA by 3D echo (y) was highly correlated with the corresponding flow measurement (x) (y = 0.87x + 0.03, r = 0.95, p < 0.001) with close agreement seen (AROA (y - x) = 0.07 +/- 0.12 cm2). CONCLUSIONS: 3D echo imaging of the MV allows direct visualization and planimetry of the ROA in patients with severe MR with good agreement to flow-based proximal convergence measurements.
Kerner, Boris S
2016-01-01
We show that the minimization of travel times in a network as generally accepted in classical traffic and transportation theories deteriorates the traffic system through a considerable increase in the probability of traffic breakdown in the network. We introduce a network characteristic {\\it minimum network capacity} that shows that rather than the minimization of travel times in the network, the minimization of the probability of traffic breakdown in the network maximizes the network throughput at which free flow persists in the whole network.
The Problem of Finding the Maximal Multiple Flow in the Divisible Network and its Special Cases
A. V. Smirnov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the article the problem of ﬁnding the maximal multiple ﬂow in the network of any natural multiplicity k is studied. There are arcs of three types: ordinary arcs, multiple arcs and multi-arcs. Each multiple and multi-arc is a union of k linked arcs, which are adjusted with each other. The network constructing rules are described. The deﬁnitions of a divisible network and some associated subjects are stated. The important property of the divisible network is that every divisible network can be partitioned into k parts, which are adjusted on the linked arcs of each multiple and multi-arc. Each part is the ordinary transportation network. The main results of the article are the following subclasses of the problem of ﬁnding the maximal multiple ﬂow in the divisible network. 1. The divisible networks with the multi-arc constraints. Assume that only one vertex is the ending vertex for a multi-arc in k −1 network parts. In this case the problem can be solved in a polynomial time. 2. The divisible networks with the weak multi-arc constraints. Assume that only one vertex is the ending vertex for a multi-arc in s network parts (1 ≤ s < k − 1 and other parts have at least two such vertices. In that case the multiplicity of the multiple ﬂow problem can be decreased to k − s. 3. The divisible network of the parallel structure. Assume that the divisible network component, which consists of all multiple arcs, can be partitioned into subcomponents, each of them containing exactly one vertex-beginning of a multi-arc. Suppose that intersection of each pair of subcomponents is the only vertex-network source x0. If k = 2, the maximal ﬂow problem can be solved in a polynomial time. If k ≥ 3, the problem is NP-complete. The algorithms for each polynomial subclass are suggested. Also, the multiplicity decreasing algorithm for the divisible network with weak multi-arc constraints is formulated.
Maximizing the power density of aqueous electrochemical flow cells with in operando deposition
Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Ibrahim, Omar A.; Kim, Will H. J.; Kjeang, Erik
2017-01-01
To transition toward sustainable energy systems, next generation power sources must provide high power density at minimum cost. Using inexpensive and environmentally friendly fabrication methods, this work describes a room temperature electrochemical flow cell with a maximum power density of 2.01 W cm-2 or 13.4 W cm-3. In part, this is achieved by minimizing ohmic resistance through decreased electrode spacing, implementation of current collectors and improvement of electrolyte conductivity. The majority of the performance gain is provided by a novel in operando dynamic flowing deposition method for which the cell design has been optimized. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are deposited dynamically at the entrance of and within the carbon paper electrodes during operation of the cell. A natural equilibrium is reached between deposition and detachment of CNTs at which the electrochemical surface area and pore size distribution of the flow-through porous electrodes are greatly enhanced. In this way, the novel deposition method more than doubles the power density of the cell and sets a new performance benchmark for what is practically attainable with aqueous electrochemical flow cells. Overall, it is expected that the design and operation methods illustrated here will enable a wide range of electrochemical flow cell technologies to achieve optimal performance.
Ryo Hase
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a sequential solution method to discover efficient trades in an electricity market model. The market model represents deregulated electricity market consisting of four types of participants: independent power producers, retailers, public utilities, and consumers. Our model is based on graph theory, and the market participants are denoted by a network composes of three types of agents including sellers, buyers, and traders. The market participants have different capacity and demand of electricity from each other, and each electricity trade should satisfy the capacity and demand. Our sequential solution method can discover efficient electricity trades satisfying the constraints regarding capacity and demand by utilizing network flow. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of electricity trades determined by our method by examining social welfare, which is the total of payoffs of all market participants. Furthermore, the simulation results also indicate the allocation of payoff to each market participant.
Luis Fialho
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the implementation of a self-consumption maximization strategy tested in a real-scale Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRFB (5 kW, 60 kWh and Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV demonstrator (6.74 kWp. The tested energy management strategy aims to maximize the consumption of energy generated by a BIPV system through the usage of a battery. Whenever possible, the residual load is either stored in the battery to be used later or is supplied by the energy stored previously. The strategy was tested over seven days in a real-scale VRF battery to assess the validity of this battery to implement BIPV-focused energy management strategies. The results show that it was possible to obtain a self-consumption ratio of 100.0%, and that 75.6% of the energy consumed was provided by PV power. The VRFB was able to perform the strategy, although it was noticed that the available power (either to charge or discharge varied with the state of charge.
Margareta RACOVITA
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This work proposes to solve a problem related to maximizing hotels’ revenues through two methods established in operational research domain. In the first part of the paper, the approach involves formulating the objective function and problem’s constraints, as well as the expansion of the model, taking into consideration clients’ preferences and the opportunities of group reservations. In the second part of the paper, the problem is solved with the help of network flows model, which allows optimum allocation of the rooms in real time. At the end of the paper, there are highlighted the advantages of applying those two mathematic methods within the strategies of performances development within hotel industry.
Osmotically driven flows and maximal transport rates in systems of long, linear porous pipes
Rademaker, Hanna; Bohr, Tomas
2016-01-01
We study the flow of water and solutes in linear cylindrical pipes with semipermeable walls (membranes), driven by concentration differences across the membranes, inspired by the sieve tubes in conifer needles. The aim is to determine the efficiency of such systems. For single pipes, we assume that the velocity at the entrance (the tip of the needle) is zero, and we determine the velocity profile throughout the pipe and the outflow at the end of the pipe, where the pressure is specified. This is done for the particular case where the concentration of the solute is constant inside the pipe, and it is shown that the system has a characteristic length scale $L_{\\text{eff}}$ depending on the pipe radius, the permeability of the wall and the viscosity of the fluid such that pipes with lengths $L \\gg L_{\\text{eff}}$ will contain a stagnant zone from the entrance, where the velocity is very small. The outflow comes from a region of length $L_{\\text{eff}}$ near the end, and the increase of velocity, if the pipe is ma...
Meguro,Tadamichi
1991-02-01
Full Text Available Pulmonary function tests were performed on 252 healthy young subjects free from respiratory and allergic symptoms, and 80 young subjects with past history of nasal allergy (PNA and 10 subjects with past history of bronchial asthma (PBA. All the subjects were non-smokers. Maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV curves were visually classified into five types (A-E. The percent distribution of type A in healthy subjects was significantly higher than in the PNA group, while the total sum of percentage of types B, C, and D in the PNA group was significantly higher than in the healthy subjects. The percent distribution of type E in the PNA group was similar to that in the healthy subjects. The percent distribution of MEFV types were significantly different between healthy males and healthy females. The percent distribution of types A, B and E were the highest in healthy subjects, PNA and PBA groups, respectively. Conclusively, the difference in the percent distributions of MEFV types was recognized among healthy subjects, PNA and PBA groups.
Kerner, Boris S.
2016-09-01
We have revealed general physical conditions for the maximization of the network throughput at which free flow conditions are ensured, i.e., traffic breakdown cannot occur in the whole traffic or transportation network. A physical measure of the network - network capacity is introduced that characterizes general features of the network with respect to the maximization of the network throughput. The network capacity allows us also to make a general proof of the deterioration of traffic system occurring when dynamic traffic assignment is performed in a network based on the classical Wardrop' user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) equilibrium.
Effects of acute inhalation of albuterol on submaximal and maximal VO2 and blood lactate.
Fleck, S J; Lucia, A; Storms, W W; Wallach, J M; Vint, P F; Zimmerman, S D
1993-07-01
The acute effects of inhaled albuterol, a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, on measures of endurance cycling performance and pulmonary function were assessed in 21 competitive road cyclists. A 5 step methacholine challenge revealed all cyclists to be non-asthmatic. Albuterol (A) total dose 360 micrograms or a saline placebo (P) was administered by inhaler, in 4 metered doses of 90 micrograms each, 15 minutes before cycle ergometry exercise. Heart rate, whole blood lactate, perceived exertion and VO2 were determined at the submaximal workloads of 150, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300 watts and at max. Pulmonary function tests determining forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration, forced mid-expiratory flow and maximal voluntary ventilation were performed prior to and 10 minutes after inhalation; and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after termination of the exercise protocol. Heart rate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 200 (150.8 +/- 2.5 vs 146.7 +/- 2.8 beats per minute), 225 (159.7 +/- 2.4 vs 154.6 +/- 2.7 beats per minute) and 250 watts (166.9 +/- 2.4 vs 164.4 +/- 2.6 beats per minute). Whole blood lactate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 275 watts (4.7 +/- 0.3 vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 mmol.l-1). No other significant differences were found between the 2 treatments at any time point. These data indicate that the acute effect of albuterol inhalation at twice the recommended dosage has no positive effect on endurance performance measures or pulmonary function in athletes who are not asthmatic.
Sheri K Palejwala
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The requirement for frequent intraventricular drug delivery in the setting of shunt dependence is particularly challenging in the treatment of central nervous system infection, neoplastic disease, and hemorrhage. This is especially relevant in the pediatric population where both hematogenous malignancy requiring intrathecal drug delivery and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus are more prevalent. Intrathecal and intraventricular chemotherapy agents can be prematurely diverted in these shunt-dependent patients. Case Description: We report the use of a stop-flow programmable shunt valve to maximize delivery of intraventricular chemotherapy in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation who presented with spontaneous intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhages. The patient then developed posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and eventually progressed to shunt dependence but still required frequent intraventricular chemotherapy administration. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt, equipped with a valve that allows for near cessation of cerebrospinal fluid flow (Certas; , Codman, Raynham, MA, and a contralateral Ommaya reservoir were inserted to maximize intraventricular dissemination of chemotherapy. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of a high-resistance programmable valve being used to virtually cease cerebrospinal fluid flow through the distal catheter temporarily in order to maximize intraventricular drug dissemination in a pediatric patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Krishna, Hemanth; Kumar, Hemantha; Gangadharan, Kalluvalappil
2016-06-01
A magneto rheological (MR) fluid damper offers cost effective solution for semiactive vibration control in an automobile suspension. The performance of MR damper is significantly depends on the electromagnetic circuit incorporated into it. The force developed by MR fluid damper is highly influenced by the magnetic flux density induced in the fluid flow gap. In the present work, optimization of electromagnetic circuit of an MR damper is discussed in order to maximize the magnetic flux density. The optimization procedure was proposed by genetic algorithm and design of experiments techniques. The result shows that the fluid flow gap size less than 1.12 mm cause significant increase of magnetic flux density.
Krishna, Hemanth; Kumar, Hemantha; Gangadharan, Kalluvalappil
2017-08-01
A magneto rheological (MR) fluid damper offers cost effective solution for semiactive vibration control in an automobile suspension. The performance of MR damper is significantly depends on the electromagnetic circuit incorporated into it. The force developed by MR fluid damper is highly influenced by the magnetic flux density induced in the fluid flow gap. In the present work, optimization of electromagnetic circuit of an MR damper is discussed in order to maximize the magnetic flux density. The optimization procedure was proposed by genetic algorithm and design of experiments techniques. The result shows that the fluid flow gap size less than 1.12 mm cause significant increase of magnetic flux density.
Brendle, Joerg
2016-01-01
We show that, consistently, there can be maximal subtrees of P (omega) and P (omega) / fin of arbitrary regular uncountable size below the size of the continuum. We also show that there are no maximal subtrees of P (omega) / fin with countable levels. Our results answer several questions of Campero, Cancino, Hrusak, and Miranda.
Chen, Jing; Lin, Lan; Jiang, Rui
2017-01-01
In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between by using a cellular automaton traffic flow model. We investigate how to maximize the system capacity by assigning proper traffic flow to the two on-ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and eight different regions are observed under different conditions. It is shown that in region I, in which both on-ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the upstream on-ramp is in congestion, assigning proper proportion of the demand to two on-ramps could maximize the system capacity. Two critical values of the off-ramp flow ratio poff have been observed. When poff p off , c 2, no demand should be assigned to the upstream on-ramp. An analytical investigation has been performed to calculate the critical values. The analytical results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.
Suresh Chintalapudi Venkata
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper a novel non-linear optimization problem is formulated to maximize the social welfare in restructured environment with generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC. This paper presents a methodology to optimally allocate the reactive power by minimizing voltage deviation at load buses and total transmission power losses so as to maximize the social welfare. The conventional active power generation cost function is modified by combining costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors and total power losses to it. The formulated objectives are optimized individually and simultaneously as multi-objective optimization problem, while satisfying equality, in-equality, practical and device operational constraints. A new optimization method, based on two stage initialization and random distribution processes is proposed to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach on IEEE-30 bus system, and the detailed analysis is carried out.
K B Athreya
2009-09-01
It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy $\\int fh_id_=_i$ for $i=1,2,\\ldots,\\ldots k$ the maximizer of entropy is an $f_0$ that is proportional to $\\exp(\\sum c_i h_i)$ for some choice of $c_i$. An extension of this to a continuum of constraints and many examples are presented.
Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G
2014-01-01
cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38......Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle...... venous noradrenaline, and falling arterial carbon dioxide tension (P aCO 2) (R(2) ≥ 0.41, P ≤ 0.01) whereas CCA flow and conductance were related to elevated blood temperature. In conclusion, dehydration accelerated the decline in CBF by decreasing P aCO 2 and enhancing vasoconstrictor activity. However...
Clausen, Lasse Røngaard
2015-01-01
analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...... torrefaction benefits most from the integration of electrolysis....
Clausen, Lasse Røngaard
2015-01-01
double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...... analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process...
Cerf, Raphaël
2009-01-01
We consider the standard first passage percolation model in the rescaled graph $\\mathbb{Z}^d/n$ for $d\\geq 2$, and a domain $\\Omega$ of boundary $\\Gamma$ in $\\mathbb{R}^d$. Let $\\Gamma^1$ and $\\Gamma^2$ be two disjoint open subsets of $\\Gamma$, representing the parts of $\\Gamma$ through which some water can enter and escape from $\\Omega$. We investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the flow $\\phi_n$ through a discrete version $\\Omega_n$ of $\\Omega$ between the corresponding discrete sets $\\Gamma^1_n$ and $\\Gamma^2_n$. We prove that under some conditions on the regularity of the domain and on the law of the capacity of the edges, the lower large deviations of $\\phi_n/ n^{d-1}$ below a certain constant are of surface order.
Wei, Shigang; Zhang, Huihui; Wang, Yeqiang; Wang, Lu; Li, Xueyuan; Wang, Yinghua; Zhang, Hanqi; Xu, Xu; Shi, Yuhua
2011-07-22
The ultrasonic nebulization extraction-heating gas flow transfer coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HGFT-HS-SDME) was developed for the extraction of essential oil from Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of the constituents in the essential oil. The contents of the constituents from essential oil obtained by the proposed method were found to be more similar to those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) than those obtained by ultrasonic nebulization extraction coupled with headspace single drop microextraction (UNE-HS-SDME). The heating gas flow was firstly used in the analysis of the essential oil to transfer the analytes from the headspace to the solvent microdrop. The relative standard deviations for determining the five major constituents were in the range from 1.5 to 6.7%. The proposed method is a fast, sensitive, low cost and small sample consumption method for the determination of the volatile and semivolatile constituents in the plant materials.
van Venrooij, Ger E. P. M.; van Melick, Harm H. E.; Eckhardt, Mardy D.; Boon, Tom A.
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVES To investigate the information of voiding data in relation to symptoms and well-being in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and to compare this information with that of prostate volume (Vprostate), maximal free urinary flow rate (
Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Masaki
2016-11-01
Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined using transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a potential predictor of graft failure for aortocoronary artery (AC) bypass grafts in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 114 aortocoronary artery bypass grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 9-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve, to measure max df/dt (9-polynomial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of 5 or a diastolic filling ratio of polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in abnormal TTFM/failing by the CAG group compared with abnormal TTFM/patent by the CAG group (1.08 ± 0.89 vs. 2.05 ± 1.51 ml/s(2), respectively; P polynomial max df/dt in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure for AC bypass grafts, particularly in abnormal TTFM grafts.
Profit maximization mitigates competition
Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit
1996-01-01
We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...
Handa, Takemi; Orihashi, Kazumasa; Nishimori, Hideaki; Fukutomi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kondo, Nobuo; Tashiro, Miwa
2015-04-01
Maximal graft flow acceleration (max df/dt) determined by transit-time flowmetry (TTFM) in the diastolic phase was assessed as a possible predictor of graft failure in coronary artery bypass patients. Max df/dt was retrospectively measured in 57 in situ left internal thoracic artery grafts. TTFM data were fitted to a 5-polynomial curve, which was derived from the first-derivative curve to measure max df/dt (5-polymial max df/dt). Abnormal TTFM was defined as a mean flow of 5 or diastolic filling ratio of polynomial max df/dt between each group pair (P polynomial max df/dt was significantly lower in the Ab-N/F group compared with the other groups (Ab-N/F: 0.89 ± 0.41 vs N/P: 4.74 ± 3.18, N/F: 2.23 ± 0.65, Ab-N/P: 2.70 ± 1.31 ml/s(2), P polynomial max df/dt were, respectively, 72.7 and 80.4% (cut-off value, 1.918 ml/s(2)) for all grafts and 100 and 88.2% (cut-off value, 1.273 ml/s(2)) for abnormal TTFM grafts. The TTFM 5-polymial max df/dt value in the early diastolic phase may be a promising predictor of future graft failure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Maximally incompatible quantum observables
Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)
2014-05-01
The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.
Parker, Andrew M.; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...
Ming Yi WANG; Guo ZHAO
2005-01-01
A right R-module E over a ring R is said to be maximally injective in case for any maximal right ideal m of R, every R-homomorphism f : m → E can be extended to an R-homomorphism f' : R → E. In this paper, we first construct an example to show that maximal injectivity is a proper generalization of injectivity. Then we prove that any right R-module over a left perfect ring R is maximally injective if and only if it is injective. We also give a partial affirmative answer to Faith's conjecture by further investigating the property of maximally injective rings. Finally, we get an approximation to Faith's conjecture, which asserts that every injective right R-module over any left perfect right self-injective ring R is the injective hull of a projective submodule.
Andrew M. Parker
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.
Brüstle, Thomas; Pérotin, Matthieu
2012-01-01
Maximal green sequences are particular sequences of quiver mutations which were introduced by Keller in the context of quantum dilogarithm identities and independently by Cecotti-Cordova-Vafa in the context of supersymmetric gauge theory. Our aim is to initiate a systematic study of these sequences from a combinatorial point of view. Interpreting maximal green sequences as paths in various natural posets arising in representation theory, we prove the finiteness of the number of maximal green sequences for cluster finite quivers, affine quivers and acyclic quivers with at most three vertices. We also give results concerning the possible numbers and lengths of these maximal green sequences. Finally we describe an algorithm for computing maximal green sequences for arbitrary valued quivers which we used to obtain numerous explicit examples that we present.
Rudiger Bubner
1998-12-01
Full Text Available Even though the maxims' theory is not at thecenter of Kant's ethics, it is the unavoidable basis of the categoric imperative's formulation. Kant leanson the transmitted representations of modem moral theory. During the last decades, the notion of maxims has deserved more attention, due to the philosophy of language's debates on rules, and due to action theory's interest in this notion. I here by brietly expound my views in these discussions.
Janusz Brzozowski
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline with...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
Zak, Michail
2008-01-01
A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).
Social group utility maximization
Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
2014-01-01
This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b
Brandes, U; Gaertler, M; Goerke, R; Hoefer, M; Nikoloski, Z; Wagner, D
2006-01-01
Several algorithms have been proposed to compute partitions of networks into communities that score high on a graph clustering index called modularity. While publications on these algorithms typically contain experimental evaluations to emphasize the plausibility of results, none of these algorithms has been shown to actually compute optimal partitions. We here settle the unknown complexity status of modularity maximization by showing that the corresponding decision version is NP-complete in the strong sense. As a consequence, any efficient, i.e. polynomial-time, algorithm is only heuristic and yields suboptimal partitions on many instances.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Linda Lai
2010-01-01
This article presents several studies that replicate and extend previous research on maximizing. A modified scale for measuring individual maximizing tendency is introduced. The scale has adequate psychometric properties and reflects maximizers' aspirations for high standards and their preference for extensive alternative search, but not the decision difficulty aspect included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cogniti...
Polyploidy Induction of Pteroceltis tatarinowii Maxim
Lin ZHANG; Feng WANG; Zhongkui SUN; Cuicui ZHU; Rongwei CHEN
2015-01-01
3%Objective] This study was conducted to obtain tetraploid Pteroceltis tatari-nowi Maxim. with excel ent ornamental traits. [Method] The stem apex growing points of Pteroceltis tatarinowi Maxim. were treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution for different hours to figure out a proper method and obtain poly-ploids. [Result] The most effective induction was obtained by treatment with 0.6%-0.8% colchicine for 72 h with 34.2% mutation rate. Flow cytometry and chromosome observation of the stem apex growing point of P. tatarinowi Maxim. proved that the tetraploid plants were successful y obtained with chromosome number 2n=4x=36. [Conclusion] The result not only fil s the blank of polyploid breeding of P. tatarinowi , but also provides an effective way to broaden the methods of cultivation of fast-growing, high-quality, disease-resilience, new varieties of Pteroceltis.
HEMI: Hyperedge Majority Influence Maximization
Gangal, Varun; Narayanam, Ramasuri
2016-01-01
In this work, we consider the problem of influence maximization on a hypergraph. We first extend the Independent Cascade (IC) model to hypergraphs, and prove that the traditional influence maximization problem remains submodular. We then present a variant of the influence maximization problem (HEMI) where one seeks to maximize the number of hyperedges, a majority of whose nodes are influenced. We prove that HEMI is non-submodular under the diffusion model proposed.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
1985-01-01
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...... with 30% (v/v) ethanol or saline, respectively. Relative viscosity was used as one measure of physical properties of the emulsion. Higher degrees of sensitization (but not rates) were obtained at the 48 h challenge reading with the oil/propylene glycol and oil/saline + ethanol emulsions compared...... to the saline/oil emulsion. Placing of the challenge patches affected the response, as simultaneous chlorocresol challenge on the flank located 2 cm closer to the abdomen than the usual challenge site gave decreased reactions....
MAXIMS VIOLATIONS IN LITERARY WORK
Widya Hanum Sari Pertiwi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This study was qualitative research action that focuses to find out the flouting of Gricean maxims and the functions of the flouting in the tales which are included in collection of children literature entitled My Giant Treasury of Stories and Rhymes. The objective of the study is generally to identify the violation of maxims of quantity, quality, relevance, and manner in the data sources and also to analyze the use of the flouting in the tales which are included in the book. Qualitative design using categorizing strategies, specifically coding strategy, was applied. Thus, the researcher as the instrument in this investigation was selecting the tales, reading them, and gathering every item which reflects the violation of Gricean maxims based on some conditions of flouting maxims. On the basis of the data analysis, it was found that the some utterances in the tales, both narration and conversation, flouting the four maxims of conversation, namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner. The researcher has also found that the flouting of maxims has one basic function that is to encourage the readers’ imagination toward the tales. This one basic function is developed by six others functions: (1 generating specific situation, (2 developing the plot, (3 enlivening the characters’ utterance, (4 implicating message, (5 indirectly characterizing characters, and (6 creating ambiguous setting. Keywords: children literature, tales, flouting maxims
Swanepoel, Konrad J
2011-01-01
A subset of a normed space X is called equilateral if the distance between any two points is the same. Let m(X) be the smallest possible size of an equilateral subset of X maximal with respect to inclusion. We first observe that Petty's construction of a d-dimensional X of any finite dimension d >= 4 with m(X)=4 can be generalised to show that m(X\\oplus_1\\R)=4 for any X of dimension at least 2 which has a smooth point on its unit sphere. By a construction involving Hadamard matrices we then show that both m(\\ell_p) and m(\\ell_p^d) are finite and bounded above by a function of p, for all 1 1 such that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than c from \\ell_p^d. Using Brouwer's fixed-point theorem we show that m(X) <= d+1 for all d-\\dimensional X with Banach-Mazur distance less than 3/2 from \\ell_\\infty^d. A graph-theoretical argument furthermore shows that m(\\ell_\\infty^d)=d+1. The above results lead us to conjecture that m(X) <= 1+\\dim X.
Unified Maximally Natural Supersymmetry
Huang, Junwu
2016-01-01
Maximally Natural Supersymmetry, an unusual weak-scale supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model based upon the inherently higher-dimensional mechanism of Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking (SSSB), possesses remarkably good fine tuning given present LHC limits. Here we construct a version with precision $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ unification: $\\sin^2 \\theta_W(M_Z) \\simeq 0.231$ is predicted to $\\pm 2\\%$ by unifying $SU(2)_{\\rm L} \\times U(1)_{\\rm Y} $ into a 5D $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ theory at a Kaluza-Klein scale of $1/R_5 \\sim 4.4\\,{\\rm TeV}$, where SSSB is simultaneously realised. Full unification with $SU(3)_{\\rm C}$ is accommodated by extending the 5D theory to a $N=4$ supersymmetric $SU(6)$ gauge theory on a 6D rectangular orbifold at $1/R_6 \\sim 40 \\,{\\rm TeV}$. TeV-scale states beyond the SM include exotic charged fermions implied by $SU(3)_{\\rm EW}$ with masses lighter than $\\sim 1.2\\,{\\rm TeV}$, and squarks in the mass range $1.4\\,{\\rm TeV} - 2.3\\,{\\rm TeV}$, providing distinct signature...
Maximal subgroups of finite groups
S. Srinivasan
1990-01-01
Full Text Available In finite groups maximal subgroups play a very important role. Results in the literature show that if the maximal subgroup has a very small index in the whole group then it influences the structure of the group itself. In this paper we study the case when the index of the maximal subgroups of the groups have a special type of relation with the Fitting subgroup of the group.
Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.
2000-01-01
of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...
Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2013-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Maximizing entropy over Markov processes
Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2014-01-01
computation reduces to finding a model of a specification with highest entropy. Entropy maximization for probabilistic process specifications has not been studied before, even though it is well known in Bayesian inference for discrete distributions. We give a characterization of global entropy of a process...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...
Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jon
2010-01-01
Let $w = w(x_1,..., x_n)$ be a word, i.e. an element of the free group $F =$ on $n$ generators $x_1,..., x_n$. The verbal subgroup $w(G)$ of a group $G$ is the subgroup generated by the set $\\{w (g_1,...,g_n)^{\\pm 1} | g_i \\in G, 1\\leq i\\leq n \\}$ of all $w$-values in $G$. We say that a (finite) group $G$ is $w$-maximal if $|G:w(G)|> |H:w(H)|$ for all proper subgroups $H$ of $G$ and that $G$ is hereditarily $w$-maximal if every subgroup of $G$ is $w$-maximal. In this text we study $w$-maximal and hereditarily $w$-maximal (finite) groups.
Consistent 4-form fluxes for maximal supergravity
Godazgar, Hadi; Krueger, Olaf; Nicolai, Hermann
2015-01-01
We derive new ansaetze for the 4-form field strength of D=11 supergravity corresponding to uplifts of four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity. In particular, the ansaetze directly yield the components of the 4-form field strength in terms of the scalars and vectors of the four-dimensional maximal gauged supergravity---in this way they provide an explicit uplift of all four-dimensional consistent truncations of D=11 supergravity. The new ansaetze provide a substantially simpler method for uplifting d=4 flows compared to the previously available method using the 3-form and 6-form potential ansaetze. The ansatz for the Freund-Rubin term allows us to conjecture a `master formula' for the latter in terms of the scalar potential of d=4 gauged supergravity and its first derivative. We also resolve a long-standing puzzle concerning the antisymmetry of the flux obtained from uplift ansaetze.
Maximizing without difficulty: A modified maximizing scale and its correlates
Lai, Linda
2010-01-01
... included in several previous studies. Based on this scale, maximizing is positively correlated with optimism, need for cognition, desire for consistency, risk aversion, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy and perceived workload, whereas...
Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?
Linda Lai
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.
Are maximizers really unhappy? The measurement of maximizing tendency,
Dalia L. Diab
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Recent research suggesting that people who maximize are less happy than those who satisfice has received considerable fanfare. The current study investigates whether this conclusion reflects the construct itself or rather how it is measured. We developed an alternative measure of maximizing tendency that is theory-based, has good psychometric properties, and predicts behavioral outcomes. In contrast to the existing maximization measure, our new measure did not correlate with life (dissatisfaction, nor with most maladaptive personality and decision-making traits. We conclude that the interpretation of maximizers as unhappy may be due to poor measurement of the construct. We present a more reliable and valid measure for future researchers to use.
Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics
S M Roy
2002-08-01
Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2-dimensional phase space, a maximally realistic quantum mechanics can have quantum probabilities of no more than + 1 complete commuting cets (CCS) of observables coexisting as marginals of one positive phase space density. Here I formulate a stationary principle which gives a nonperturbative deﬁnition of a maximally classical as well as maximally realistic phase space density. I show that the maximally classical trajectories are in fact exactly classical in the simple examples of coherent states and bound states of an oscillator and Gaussian free particle states. In contrast, it is known that the de Broglie–Bohm realistic theory gives highly nonclassical trajectories.
Maximizing ROI with yield management
Neil Snyder
2001-01-01
.... the technology is based on the concept of yield management, which aims to sell the right product to the right customer at the right price and the right time therefore maximizing revenue, or yield...
Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?
John List; Charles Mason
2009-01-01
Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...
Gaussian maximally multipartite entangled states
Facchi, Paolo; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio
2009-01-01
We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. These are bosonic multipartite states that are maximally entangled over all possible bipartitions of the system. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect MMESs, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of MMESs and their frustration for n <= 7.
All maximally entangling unitary operators
Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)
2011-11-15
We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.
Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.
A. Garmroodi Asil
2017-09-01
To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.
Algebraic curves of maximal cyclicity
Caubergh, Magdalena; Dumortier, Freddy
2006-01-01
The paper deals with analytic families of planar vector fields, studying methods to detect the cyclicity of a non-isolated closed orbit, i.e. the maximum number of limit cycles that can locally bifurcate from it. It is known that this multi-parameter problem can be reduced to a single-parameter one, in the sense that there exist analytic curves in parameter space along which the maximal cyclicity can be attained. In that case one speaks about a maximal cyclicity curve (mcc) in case only the number is considered and of a maximal multiplicity curve (mmc) in case the multiplicity is also taken into account. In view of obtaining efficient algorithms for detecting the cyclicity, we investigate whether such mcc or mmc can be algebraic or even linear depending on certain general properties of the families or of their associated Bautin ideal. In any case by well chosen examples we show that prudence is appropriate.
BOUNDEDNESS OF MAXIMAL SINGULAR INTEGRALS
CHEN JIECHENG; ZHU XIANGRONG
2005-01-01
The authors study the singular integrals under the Hormander condition and the measure not satisfying the doubling condition. At first, if the corresponding singular integral is bounded from L2 to itseff, it is proved that the maximal singu lar integral is bounded from L∞ to RBMO except that it is infinite μ-a.e. on Rd. A sufficient condition and a necessary condition such that the maximal singular integral is bounded from L2 to itself are also obtained. There is a small gap between the two conditions.
Analysis of the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women.
Lee, Bomjin; Park, Soyun; Han, Dongwook
2016-10-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to find the influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 83 healthy elderly women. The study's methods and purpose were explained and these women agreed to participate. The maximal-effort expiratory capacity was measured using spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy). We measured forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%. [Results] Regarding forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second, it was found that height and age were influential factors. Regarding forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity %, maximal expiratory flow 75%, maximal expiratory flow 50%, and maximal expiratory flow 25%, it was found that only age was an influential factor. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the most influential factors of maximal-effort expiratory capacity of elderly women were age, and the second influential factor was height. We noticed that weight was the least influential factor among them.
Understanding maximal repetitions in strings
Crochemore, Maxime
2008-01-01
The cornerstone of any algorithm computing all repetitions in a string of length n in O(n) time is the fact that the number of runs (or maximal repetitions) is O(n). We give a simple proof of this result. As a consequence of our approach, the stronger result concerning the linearity of the sum of exponents of all runs follows easily.
Note on maximal distance separable codes
YANG Jian-sheng; WANG De-xiu; JIN Qing-fang
2009-01-01
In this paper, the maximal length of maximal distance separable(MDS)codes is studied, and a new upper bound formula of the maximal length of MDS codes is obtained. Especially, the exact values of the maximal length of MDS codes in some parameters are given.
Maximization, learning, and economic behavior.
Erev, Ido; Roth, Alvin E
2014-07-22
The rationality assumption that underlies mainstream economic theory has proved to be a useful approximation, despite the fact that systematic violations to its predictions can be found. That is, the assumption of rational behavior is useful in understanding the ways in which many successful economic institutions function, although it is also true that actual human behavior falls systematically short of perfect rationality. We consider a possible explanation of this apparent inconsistency, suggesting that mechanisms that rest on the rationality assumption are likely to be successful when they create an environment in which the behavior they try to facilitate leads to the best payoff for all agents on average, and most of the time. Review of basic learning research suggests that, under these conditions, people quickly learn to maximize expected return. This review also shows that there are many situations in which experience does not increase maximization. In many cases, experience leads people to underweight rare events. In addition, the current paper suggests that it is convenient to distinguish between two behavioral approaches to improve economic analyses. The first, and more conventional approach among behavioral economists and psychologists interested in judgment and decision making, highlights violations of the rational model and proposes descriptive models that capture these violations. The second approach studies human learning to clarify the conditions under which people quickly learn to maximize expected return. The current review highlights one set of conditions of this type and shows how the understanding of these conditions can facilitate market design.
Maximizing production rates of the Linde Hampson machine
Maytal, B.-Z.
2006-01-01
In contrast to the ideal case of unlimited size recuperator, any real Linde-Hampson machine of finite size recuperator can be optimized to reach the extreme rates of performance. The group of cryocoolers sharing the same size recuperator is optimized in a closed form by determining the corresponding flow rate which maximizes its rate of cold production. For a similar group of liquefiers an optimal flow rate is derived to maximize the rate of production of liquid cryogen. The group of cryocoolers sharing a constant and given flow rate is optimized by shortening the recuperator for reaching a maximum compactness measured by the cooling power per unit size of the recuperator. The optimum conditions are developed for nitrogen and argon. The relevance of this analysis is discussed in the context of practice of fast cooldown Joule-Thomson cryocooling.
Asymptotics of robust utility maximization
Knispel, Thomas
2012-01-01
For a stochastic factor model we maximize the long-term growth rate of robust expected power utility with parameter $\\lambda\\in(0,1)$. Using duality methods the problem is reformulated as an infinite time horizon, risk-sensitive control problem. Our results characterize the optimal growth rate, an optimal long-term trading strategy and an asymptotic worst-case model in terms of an ergodic Bellman equation. With these results we propose a duality approach to a "robust large deviations" criterion for optimal long-term investment.
Multivariate residues and maximal unitarity
Søgaard, Mads; Zhang, Yang
2013-12-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method to amplitude contributions whose cuts define multidimensional algebraic varieties. The technique is valid to all orders and is explicitly demonstrated at three loops in gauge theories with any number of fermions and scalars in the adjoint representation. Deca-cuts realized by replacement of real slice integration contours by higher-dimensional tori encircling the global poles are used to factorize the planar triple box onto a product of trees. We apply computational algebraic geometry and multivariate complex analysis to derive unique projectors for all master integral coefficients and obtain compact analytic formulae in terms of tree-level data.
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...
Maximal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana Sanwong; R.P. Sullivan
2007-01-01
In 1976 Howie proved that a finite congruence-free semigroup is a simple group if it has at least three elements but no zero elementInfinite congruence-free semigroups are far more complicated to describe, but some have been constructed using semigroups of transformations (for example, by Howie in 1981 and by Marques in 1983)Here, forcertain semigroups S of numbers and of transformations, we determine all congruences p on S such that S/p is congruence-free, that is, we describe all maximal congruences on such semigroups S.
Maximizing residual capacity in connection-oriented networks
Krzysztof Walkowiak
2006-07-01
Full Text Available The following problem arises in the study of survivable connection-oriented networks. Given a demand matrix to be routed between nodes, we want to route all demands, so that the residual capacity given by the difference between link capacity and link flow is maximized. Each demand can use only one path. Therefore, the flow is modeled as nonbifurcated multicommodity flow. We call the considered problem nonbifurcated congestion (NBC problem. Solving NBC problem enables robust restoration of failed connections in a case of network failure. We propose a new heuristic algorithm for NBC problem and compare its performance with existing algorithms.
Knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization.
Cacciatore, Stefano; Luchinat, Claudio; Tenori, Leonardo
2014-04-01
Here we describe KODAMA (knowledge discovery by accuracy maximization), an unsupervised and semisupervised learning algorithm that performs feature extraction from noisy and high-dimensional data. Unlike other data mining methods, the peculiarity of KODAMA is that it is driven by an integrated procedure of cross-validation of the results. The discovery of a local manifold's topology is led by a classifier through a Monte Carlo procedure of maximization of cross-validated predictive accuracy. Briefly, our approach differs from previous methods in that it has an integrated procedure of validation of the results. In this way, the method ensures the highest robustness of the obtained solution. This robustness is demonstrated on experimental datasets of gene expression and metabolomics, where KODAMA compares favorably with other existing feature extraction methods. KODAMA is then applied to an astronomical dataset, revealing unexpected features. Interesting and not easily predictable features are also found in the analysis of the State of the Union speeches by American presidents: KODAMA reveals an abrupt linguistic transition sharply separating all post-Reagan from all pre-Reagan speeches. The transition occurs during Reagan's presidency and not from its beginning.
Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery
Jiang, Minghui
2009-01-01
In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...
Maximal right smooth extension chains
Huang, Yun Bao
2010-01-01
If $w=u\\alpha$ for $\\alpha\\in \\Sigma=\\{1,2\\}$ and $u\\in \\Sigma^*$, then $w$ is said to be a \\textit{simple right extension}of $u$ and denoted by $u\\prec w$. Let $k$ be a positive integer and $P^k(\\epsilon)$ denote the set of all $C^\\infty$-words of height $k$. Set $u_{1},\\,u_{2},..., u_{m}\\in P^{k}(\\epsilon)$, if $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec ...\\prec u_{m}$ and there is no element $v$ of $P^{k}(\\epsilon)$ such that $v\\prec u_{1}\\text{or} u_{m}\\prec v$, then $u_{1}\\prec u_{2}\\prec...\\prec u_{m}$ is said to be a \\textit{maximal right smooth extension (MRSE) chains}of height $k$. In this paper, we show that \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ constitutes a partition of smooth words of height $k$ and give the formula of the number of \\textit{MRSE} chains of height $k$ for each positive integer $k$. Moreover, since there exist the minimal height $h_1$ and maximal height $h_2$ of smooth words of length $n$ for each positive integer $n$, we find that \\textit{MRSE} chains of heights $h_1-1$ and $h_2+1$ are good candidates t...
The maximal D = 4 supergravities
Wit, Bernard de [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80.195, NL-3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Samtleben, Henning [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon CEDEX 07 (France); Trigiante, Mario [Dept. of Physics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Turin (Italy)
2007-06-15
All maximal supergravities in four space-time dimensions are presented. The ungauged Lagrangians can be encoded in an E{sub 7(7)}-Sp(56; R)/GL(28) matrix associated with the freedom of performing electric/magnetic duality transformations. The gauging is defined in terms of an embedding tensor {theta} which encodes the subgroup of E{sub 7(7)} that is realized as a local invariance. This embedding tensor may imply the presence of magnetic charges which require corresponding dual gauge fields. The latter can be incorporated by using a recently proposed formulation that involves tensor gauge fields in the adjoint representation of E{sub 7(7)}. In this formulation the results take a universal form irrespective of the electric/magnetic duality basis. We present the general class of supersymmetric and gauge invariant Lagrangians and discuss a number of applications.
Maximizing profit using recommender systems
Das, Aparna; Ricketts, Daniel
2009-01-01
Traditional recommendation systems make recommendations based solely on the customer's past purchases, product ratings and demographic data without considering the profitability the items being recommended. In this work we study the question of how a vendor can directly incorporate the profitability of items into its recommender so as to maximize its expected profit while still providing accurate recommendations. Our approach uses the output of any traditional recommender system and adjust them according to item profitabilities. Our approach is parameterized so the vendor can control how much the recommendation incorporating profits can deviate from the traditional recommendation. We study our approach under two settings and show that it achieves approximately 22% more profit than traditional recommendations.
The maximal D=5 supergravities
de Wit, Bernard; Trigiante, M; Wit, Bernard de; Samtleben, Henning; Trigiante, Mario
2007-01-01
The general Lagrangian for maximal supergravity in five spacetime dimensions is presented with vector potentials in the \\bar{27} and tensor fields in the 27 representation of E_6. This novel tensor-vector system is subject to an intricate set of gauge transformations, describing 3(27-t) massless helicity degrees of freedom for the vector fields and 3t massive spin degrees of freedom for the tensor fields, where the (even) value of t depends on the gauging. The kinetic term of the tensor fields is accompanied by a unique Chern-Simons coupling which involves both vector and tensor fields. The Lagrangians are completely encoded in terms of the embedding tensor which defines the E_6 subgroup that is gauged by the vectors. The embedding tensor is subject to two constraints which ensure the consistency of the combined vector-tensor gauge transformations and the supersymmetry of the full Lagrangian. This new formulation encompasses all possible gaugings.
Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization
Abdallah, A Nait
2012-01-01
Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.
Lifetime maximization routing with network coding in wireless multihop networks
DING LiangHui; WU Ping; WANG Hao; PAN ZhiWen; YOU XiaoHu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we consider the lifetime maximization routing with network coding in wireless mul- tihop networks. We first show that lifetime maximization with network coding is different from pure routing, throughput maximization with network coding and energy minimization with network coding. Then we formulate lifetime maximization problems in three different cases of （i） no network coding, （ii） two-way network coding, and （iii） overhearing network coding. To solve these problems, we use flow augmenting routing （FA） for the first case, and then extend the FA with network coding （FANC） by using energy minimized one-hop network coding. After that, we investigate the influence of parameters of FANC, evaluate the performance of FANC with two-way and overhearing network coding schemes and compare it with that without network coding under two different power control models, namely, protocol and physical ones. The results show that the lifetime can be improved significantly by using network coding, and the performance gain of network coding decreases with the increase of flow asymmetry and the power control ability.
Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R; Secher, N H; González-Alonso, J; Mortensen, S P
2014-01-15
In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax) and remained unchanged until exhaustion. SV initially increased, plateaued and then decreased before exhaustion (P rate pressure product and RAP (P heart can be paced to a higher HR than observed during maximal exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy individuals. A limited left ventricular filling and possibly altered contractility reduce SV during atrial pacing, whereas a plateau in LVFP appears to restrict Q close to VO2 max .
Beeping a Maximal Independent Set
Afek, Yehuda; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian
2012-01-01
We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot, beeping nodes receive no feedback, while silent nodes can only differentiate between none of its neighbors beeping, or at least one of its neighbors beeping. We start by proving a lower bound that shows that in this model, it is not possible to locally converge to an MIS in sub-polynomial time. We then study four different relaxations of the model which allow us to circumvent the lower bound and find an MIS in polylogarithmic time. First, we show that if a polynomial upper bound on the network size is known, it is possi...
Maximal switchability of centralized networks
Vakulenko, Sergei; Morozov, Ivan; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-08-01
We consider continuous time Hopfield-like recurrent networks as dynamical models for gene regulation and neural networks. We are interested in networks that contain n high-degree nodes preferably connected to a large number of N s weakly connected satellites, a property that we call n/N s -centrality. If the hub dynamics is slow, we obtain that the large time network dynamics is completely defined by the hub dynamics. Moreover, such networks are maximally flexible and switchable, in the sense that they can switch from a globally attractive rest state to any structurally stable dynamics when the response time of a special controller hub is changed. In particular, we show that a decrease of the controller hub response time can lead to a sharp variation in the network attractor structure: we can obtain a set of new local attractors, whose number can increase exponentially with N, the total number of nodes of the nework. These new attractors can be periodic or even chaotic. We provide an algorithm, which allows us to design networks with the desired switching properties, or to learn them from time series, by adjusting the interactions between hubs and satellites. Such switchable networks could be used as models for context dependent adaptation in functional genetics or as models for cognitive functions in neuroscience.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans
Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;
2004-01-01
That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean +/-s.e.m.) 24 +/- 2 years, height 180 +/- 2 cm, weight 74 +/- 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake...
D2-brane Chern-Simons theories: F-maximization = a-maximization
Fluder, Martin
2015-01-01
We study a system of N D2-branes probing a generic Calabi-Yau three-fold singularity in the presence of a non-zero quantized Romans mass n. We argue that the low-energy effective N = 2 Chern-Simons quiver gauge theory flows to a superconformal fixed point in the IR, and construct the dual AdS_4 solution in massive IIA supergravity. We compute the free energy F of the gauge theory on S^3 using localization. In the large N limit we find F = c(nN)^{1/3}a^{2/3}, where c is a universal constant and a is the a-function of the "parent" four-dimensional N = 1 theory on N D3-branes probing the same Calabi-Yau singularity. It follows that maximizing F over the space of admissible R-symmetries is equivalent to maximizing a for this class of theories. Moreover, we show that the gauge theory result precisely matches the holographic free energy of the supergravity solution, and provide a similar matching of the VEV of a BPS Wilson loop operator.
Cardiovascular consequences of bed rest: effect on maximal oxygen uptake
Convertino, V. A.
1997-01-01
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced in healthy individuals confined to bed rest, suggesting it is independent of any disease state. The magnitude of reduction in VO2max is dependent on duration of bed rest and the initial level of aerobic fitness (VO2max), but it appears to be independent of age or gender. Bed rest induces an elevated maximal heart rate which, in turn, is associated with decreased cardiac vagal tone, increased sympathetic catecholamine secretion, and greater cardiac beta-receptor sensitivity. Despite the elevation in heart rate, VO2max is reduced primarily from decreased maximal stroke volume and cardiac output. An elevated ejection fraction during exercise following bed rest suggests that the lower stroke volume is not caused by ventricular dysfunction but is primarily the result of decreased venous return associated with lower circulating blood volume, reduced central venous pressure, and higher venous compliance in the lower extremities. VO2max, stroke volume, and cardiac output are further compromised by exercise in the upright posture. The contribution of hypovolemia to reduced cardiac output during exercise following bed rest is supported by the close relationship between the relative magnitude (% delta) and time course of change in blood volume and VO2max during bed rest, and also by the fact that retention of plasma volume is associated with maintenance of VO2max after bed rest. Arteriovenous oxygen difference during maximal exercise is not altered by bed rest, suggesting that peripheral mechanisms may not contribute significantly to the decreased VO2max. However reduction in baseline and maximal muscle blood flow, red blood cell volume, and capillarization in working muscles represent peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to limited oxygen delivery and, subsequently, lowered VO2max. Thus, alterations in cardiac and vascular functions induced by prolonged confinement to bed rest contribute to diminution of maximal oxygen uptake
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
WANG XueJun; HU ShuHe
2009-01-01
In this paper,we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides.The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob's type maximal inequality for demimartingales,strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables.At last,we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Maximal inequalities for demimartingales and their applications
无
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish some maximal inequalities for demimartingales which generalize and improve the results of Christofides. The maximal inequalities for demimartingales are used as key inequalities to establish other results including Doob’s type maximal inequality for demimartingales, strong laws of large numbers and growth rate for demimartingales and associated random variables. At last, we give an equivalent condition of uniform integrability for demisubmartingales.
Task-oriented maximally entangled states
Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B, E-mail: agrawal@iopb.res.i, E-mail: bpradhan@iopb.res.i [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751 005 (India)
2010-06-11
We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.
Inflation in maximal gauged supergravities
Kodama, Hideo [Theory Center, KEK,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Department of Particles and Nuclear Physics,The Graduate University for Advanced Studies,Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Nozawa, Masato [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano, and INFN, Sezione di Milano,Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-05-18
We discuss the dynamics of multiple scalar fields and the possibility of realistic inflation in the maximal gauged supergravity. In this paper, we address this problem in the framework of recently discovered 1-parameter deformation of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) dyonic gaugings, for which the base point of the scalar manifold corresponds to an unstable de Sitter critical point. In the gauge-field frame where the embedding tensor takes the value in the sum of the 36 and 36’ representations of SL(8), we present a scheme that allows us to derive an analytic expression for the scalar potential. With the help of this formalism, we derive the full potential and gauge coupling functions in analytic forms for the SO(3)×SO(3)-invariant subsectors of SO(4,4) and SO(5,3) gaugings, and argue that there exist no new critical points in addition to those discovered so far. For the SO(4,4) gauging, we also study the behavior of 6-dimensional scalar fields in this sector near the Dall’Agata-Inverso de Sitter critical point at which the negative eigenvalue of the scalar mass square with the largest modulus goes to zero as the deformation parameter s approaches a critical value s{sub c}. We find that when the deformation parameter s is taken sufficiently close to the critical value, inflation lasts more than 60 e-folds even if the initial point of the inflaton allows an O(0.1) deviation in Planck units from the Dall’Agata-Inverso critical point. It turns out that the spectral index n{sub s} of the curvature perturbation at the time of the 60 e-folding number is always about 0.96 and within the 1σ range n{sub s}=0.9639±0.0047 obtained by Planck, irrespective of the value of the η parameter at the critical saddle point. The tensor-scalar ratio predicted by this model is around 10{sup −3} and is close to the value in the Starobinsky model.
Ways to maximize effective collections.
Spears, Tracy L
2009-01-01
Medical practices across the country face a variety of collection challenges, especially when considering the condition of today's economy. It is now more important than ever for a practice to establish proactive collection procedures and learn the keys to minimizing collection problems. This starts with educating patients about your payment terms prior to appointments and educating your staff to be aware of early warning signs when an account could become a problem. Taking steps that lead to quick resolution, while retaining patients, is a vital component to increased cash flow and fewer aging accounts in receivables. Careful review of your practice's policies on billing and collections can lead to a greater knowledge on how healthy the practice really is. This article provides key strategies that will help streamline your billing and collections process and recover money owed to you while maintaining those ever so important patient relationships.
常浩; 荣喜民
2011-01-01
研究完全市场下基于二次效用最大化的带有随机资金流的动态投资组合选择问题,其中假设无风险利率、股票收益率和波动率矩阵都是一致有界随机过程.通过应用线性二次控制方法和向后随机微分方程理论得到了最优投资组合的解析表达式.%This paper is concerned with a dynamic portfolio selection problem with stochastic cash flow in a complete financial market for quadratic utility maximization, in which interest rate, appreciation rates and volatility coefficients are allowed to be uniformly bounded stochastic processes. The optimal portfolio in the explicit forms is constructed via linear quadratic control technique and results from backward stochastic differential equations (BS-Des) theory.
A Data-Based Approach to Social Influence Maximization
Goyal, Amit; Lakshmanan, Laks V S
2011-01-01
Influence maximization is the problem of finding a set of users in a social network, such that by targeting this set, one maximizes the expected spread of influence in the network. Most of the literature on this topic has focused exclusively on the social graph, overlooking historical data, i.e., traces of past action propagations. In this paper, we study influence maximization from a novel data-based perspective. In particular, we introduce a new model, which we call credit distribution, that directly leverages available propagation traces to learn how influence flows in the network and uses this to estimate expected influence spread. Our approach also learns the different levels of influenceability of users, and it is time-aware in the sense that it takes the temporal nature of influence into account. We show that influence maximization under the credit distribution model is NP-hard and that the function that defines expected spread under our model is submodular. Based on these, we develop an approximation ...
Computing Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Stankowicz, James Michael, Jr.
This dissertation reviews work in computing N = 4 super-Yang--Mills (sYM) and N = 8 maximally supersymmetric gravity (mSUGRA) scattering amplitudes in D = 4 spacetime dimensions in novel ways. After a brief introduction and overview in Ch. 1, the various techniques used to construct amplitudes in the remainder of the dissertation are discussed in Ch. 2. This includes several new concepts such as d log and pure integrand bases, as well as how to construct the amplitude using exactly one kinematic point where it vanishes. Also included in this chapter is an outline of the Mathematica package on shell diagrams and numerics.m (osdn) that was developed for the computations herein. The rest of the dissertation is devoted to explicit examples. In Ch. 3, the starting point is tree-level sYM amplitudes that have integral representations with residues that obey amplitude relations. These residues are shown to have corresponding residue numerators that allow a double copy prescription that results in mSUGRA residues. In Ch. 4, the two-loop four-point sYM amplitude is constructed in several ways, showcasing many of the techniques of Ch. 2; this includes an example of how to use osdn. The two-loop five-point amplitude is also presented in a pure integrand representation with comments on how it was constructed from one homogeneous cut of the amplitude. On-going work on the two-loop n-point amplitude is presented at the end of Ch. 4. In Ch. 5, the three-loop four-point amplitude is presented in the d log representation and in the pure integrand representation. In Ch. 6, there are several examples of four- through seven-loop planar diagrams that illustrate how considerations of the singularity structure of the amplitude underpin dual-conformal invariance. Taken with the previous examples, this is additional evidence that the structure known to exist in the planar sector extends to the full theory. At the end of this chapter is a proof that all mSUGRA amplitudes have a pole at
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D; Terra-Cunha, M O
2005-01-01
In this Letter we study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. Our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of monogamy of entanglement. Then we propose a polygamy of entanglement, which express that if a general multipartite state is maximally entangled it is necessarily factorized by any other system.
Sampling and Representation Complexity of Revenue Maximization
Dughmi, Shaddin; Han, Li; Nisan, Noam
2014-01-01
We consider (approximate) revenue maximization in auctions where the distribution on input valuations is given via "black box" access to samples from the distribution. We observe that the number of samples required -- the sample complexity -- is tightly related to the representation complexity of an approximately revenue-maximizing auction. Our main results are upper bounds and an exponential lower bound on these complexities.
Lisonek, Petr
1996-01-01
our classifications confirmthe maximality of previously known sets, the results in E^7 and E^8are new. Their counterpart in dimension larger than 10is a set of unit vectors with only two values of inner products in the Lorentz space R^{d,1}.The maximality of this set again follows from a bound due...
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing b...
Alternative trailer configurations for maximizing payloads
Jason D. Thompson; Dana Mitchell; John Klepac
2017-01-01
In order for harvesting contractors to stay ahead of increasing costs, it is imperative that they employ all options to maximize productivity and efficiency. Transportation can account for half the cost to deliver wood to a mill. Contractors seek to maximize truck payload to increase productivity. The Forest Operations Research Unit, Southern Research Station, USDA...
Cohomology of Weakly Reducible Maximal Triangular Algebras
董浙; 鲁世杰
2000-01-01
In this paper, we introduce the concept of weakly reducible maximal triangular algebras φwhich form a large class of maximal triangular algebras. Let B be a weakly closed algebra containing 5φ, we prove that the cohomology spaces Hn(φ, B) (n≥1) are trivial.
Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.
Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter
2014-06-07
Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maximal Hypersurfaces in Spacetimes with Translational Symmetry
Bulawa, Andrew
2016-01-01
We consider four-dimensional vacuum spacetimes which admit a free isometric spacelike R-action. Taking a quotient with respect to the R-action produces a three-dimensional quotient spacetime. We establish several results regarding maximal hypersurfaces (spacelike hypersurfaces of zero mean curvature) in quotient spacetimes. First, we show that complete noncompact maximal hypersurfaces must either be flat cylinders S^1 x R or conformal to the Euclidean plane. Second, we establish a positive mass theorem for certain maximal hypersurfaces. Finally, while it is meaningful to use a bounded lapse when adopting the maximal hypersurface gauge condition in the four-dimensional (asymptotically flat) setting, it is shown here that nontrivial quotient spacetimes admit the maximal hypersurface gauge only with an unbounded lapse.
Are all maximally entangled states pure?
Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.
2005-10-01
We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.
An ethical justification of profit maximization
Koch, Carsten Allan
2010-01-01
In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...
Robust utility maximization in a discontinuous filtration
Jeanblanc, Monique; Ngoupeyou, Armand
2012-01-01
We study a problem of utility maximization under model uncertainty with information including jumps. We prove first that the value process of the robust stochastic control problem is described by the solution of a quadratic-exponential backward stochastic differential equation with jumps. Then, we establish a dynamic maximum principle for the optimal control of the maximization problem. The characterization of the optimal model and the optimal control (consumption-investment) is given via a forward-backward system which generalizes the result of Duffie and Skiadas (1994) and El Karoui, Peng and Quenez (2001) in the case of maximization of recursive utilities including model with jumps.
HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL
HR Division
2000-01-01
Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...
Maximizing throughput by evaluating critical utilization paths
Weeda, P.J.
1991-01-01
Recently the relationship between batch structure, bottleneck machine and maximum throughput has been explored for serial, convergent and divergent process configurations consisting of two machines and three processes. In three of the seven possible configurations a multiple batch structure maximize
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual ...
Relationship between maximal exercise parameters and individual time trial ... It is widely accepted that the ventilatory threshold (VT) is an important ... This study investigated whether the physiological responses during a 20km time trial (TT) ...
Simple technique for maximal thoracic muscle harvest.
Marshall, M Blair; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John C
2004-04-01
We present a modification of technique for standard muscle flap harvest, the placement of cutaneous traction sutures. This technique allows for maximal dissection of the thoracic muscles even through minimal incisions. Through improved exposure and traction, complete dissection of the muscle bed can be performed and the tissue obtained maximized. Because more muscle bulk is obtained with this technique, the need for a second muscle may be prevented.
MAXIMAL POINTS OF A REGULAR TRUTH FUNCTION
Every canonical linearly separable truth function is a regular function, but not every regular truth function is linearly separable. The most...promising method of determining which of the regular truth functions are linearly separable r quires finding their maximal and minimal points. In this...report is developed a quick, systematic method of finding the maximal points of any regular truth function in terms of its arithmetic invariants. (Author)
Maximal Subgroups of Skew Linear Groups
M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2002-01-01
Let D be an infinite division algebra of finite dimension over its centre Z(D) = F, and n a positive integer. The structure of maximal subgroups of skew linear groups are investigated. In particular, assume N is a normal subgroup of GLn(D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N containing Z(N). It is shown that if M/Z(N) is finite, then N is central.
Additive Approximation Algorithms for Modularity Maximization
Kawase, Yasushi; Matsui, Tomomi; Miyauchi, Atsushi
2016-01-01
The modularity is a quality function in community detection, which was introduced by Newman and Girvan (2004). Community detection in graphs is now often conducted through modularity maximization: given an undirected graph $G=(V,E)$, we are asked to find a partition $\\mathcal{C}$ of $V$ that maximizes the modularity. Although numerous algorithms have been developed to date, most of them have no theoretical approximation guarantee. Recently, to overcome this issue, the design of modularity max...
Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach
M.Rajalakshmi
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.
Natural selection and the maximization of fitness.
Birch, Jonathan
2016-08-01
The notion that natural selection is a process of fitness maximization gets a bad press in population genetics, yet in other areas of biology the view that organisms behave as if attempting to maximize their fitness remains widespread. Here I critically appraise the prospects for reconciliation. I first distinguish four varieties of fitness maximization. I then examine two recent developments that may appear to vindicate at least one of these varieties. The first is the 'new' interpretation of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, on which the theorem is exactly true for any evolving population that satisfies some minimal assumptions. The second is the Formal Darwinism project, which forges links between gene frequency change and optimal strategy choice. In both cases, I argue that the results fail to establish a biologically significant maximization principle. I conclude that it may be a mistake to look for universal maximization principles justified by theory alone. A more promising approach may be to find maximization principles that apply conditionally and to show that the conditions were satisfied in the evolution of particular traits.
Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms
Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais
2002-01-01
In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...
Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements
M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu
2017-04-01
In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.
Quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality
Amaral, Barbara; Cunha, Marcelo Terra; Cabello, Adán
2015-12-01
Contextuality is a fundamental feature of quantum theory and a necessary resource for quantum computation and communication. It is therefore important to investigate how large contextuality can be in quantum theory. Linear contextuality witnesses can be expressed as a sum S of n probabilities, and the independence number α and the Tsirelson-like number ϑ of the corresponding exclusivity graph are, respectively, the maximum of S for noncontextual theories and for the theory under consideration. A theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality if it has scenarios in which ϑ /α approaches n . Here we show that quantum theory allows for absolute maximal contextuality despite what is suggested by the examination of the quantum violations of Bell and noncontextuality inequalities considered in the past. Our proof is not constructive and does not single out explicit scenarios. Nevertheless, we identify scenarios in which quantum theory allows for almost-absolute-maximal contextuality.
The maximal process of nonlinear shot noise
Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph
2009-05-01
In the nonlinear shot noise system-model shots’ statistics are governed by general Poisson processes, and shots’ decay-dynamics are governed by general nonlinear differential equations. In this research we consider a nonlinear shot noise system and explore the process tracking, along time, the system’s maximal shot magnitude. This ‘maximal process’ is a stationary Markov process following a decay-surge evolution; it is highly robust, and it is capable of displaying both a wide spectrum of statistical behaviors and a rich variety of random decay-surge sample-path trajectories. A comprehensive analysis of the maximal process is conducted, including its Markovian structure, its decay-surge structure, and its correlation structure. All results are obtained analytically and in closed-form.
Energy Band Calculations for Maximally Even Superlattices
Krantz, Richard; Byrd, Jason
2007-03-01
Superlattices are multiple-well, semiconductor heterostructures that can be described by one-dimensional potential wells separated by potential barriers. We refer to a distribution of wells and barriers based on the theory of maximally even sets as a maximally even superlattice. The prototypical example of a maximally even set is the distribution of white and black keys on a piano keyboard. Black keys may represent wells and the white keys represent barriers. As the number of wells and barriers increase, efficient and stable methods of calculation are necessary to study these structures. We have implemented a finite-element method using the discrete variable representation (FE-DVR) to calculate E versus k for these superlattices. Use of the FE-DVR method greatly reduces the amount of calculation necessary for the eigenvalue problem.
Absence of parasympathetic reactivation after maximal exercise.
de Oliveira, Tiago Peçanha; de Alvarenga Mattos, Raphael; da Silva, Rhenan Bartels Ferreira; Rezende, Rafael Andrade; de Lima, Jorge Roberto Perrout
2013-03-01
The ability of the human organism to recover its autonomic balance soon after physical exercise cessation has an important impact on the individual's health status. Although the dynamics of heart rate recovery after maximal exercise has been studied, little is known about heart rate variability after this type of exercise. The aim of this study is to analyse the dynamics of heart rate and heart rate variability recovery after maximal exercise in healthy young men. Fifteen healthy male subjects (21·7 ± 3·4 years; 24·0 ± 2·1 kg m(-2) ) participated in the study. The experimental protocol consisted of an incremental maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer, until maximal voluntary exhaustion. After the test, recovery R-R intervals were recorded for 5 min. From the absolute differences between peak heart rate values and the heart rate values at 1 and 5 min of the recovery, the heart rate recovery was calculated. Postexercise heart rate variability was analysed from calculations of the SDNN and RMSSD indexes, in 30-s windows (SDNN(30s) and RMSSD(30s) ) throughout recovery. One and 5 min after maximal exercise cessation, the heart rate recovered 34·7 (±6·6) and 75·5 (±6·1) bpm, respectively. With regard to HRV recovery, while the SDNN(30s) index had a slight increase, RMSSD(30s) index remained totally suppressed throughout the recovery, suggesting an absence of vagal modulation reactivation and, possibly, a discrete sympathetic withdrawal. Therefore, it is possible that the main mechanism associated with the fall of HR after maximal exercise is sympathetic withdrawal or a vagal tone restoration without vagal modulation recovery. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.
Maximizing band gaps in plate structures
Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2006-01-01
Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated...
Maximal and Minimal Congruences on Some Semigroups
Jintana SANWONG; Boorapa SINGHA; R.P.SULLIVAN
2009-01-01
In 2006,Sanwong and Sullivan described the maximal congruences on the semigroup N consisting of all non-negative integers under standard multiplication,and on the semigroup T(X) consisting of all total transformations of an infinite set X under composition. Here,we determine all maximal congruences on the semigroup Zn under multiplication modulo n. And,when Y X,we do the same for the semigroup T(X,Y) consisting of all elements of T(X) whose range is contained in Y. We also characterise the minimal congruences on T(X,Y).
Maximizing oil yields may not optimize economics
1987-03-01
The Los Alamos National Laboratory has used the ASPEN computer code to calculate the economics of different hydroretorting conditions. When the oil yield was maximized and a oil shale plant designed around this process, the costs turned out much higher than expected. However, calculations based on runs of less than maximum yields showed lower cost estimates. It is recommended that future efforts should be concentrated on minimizing production costs rather than maximizing yields. An oil shale plant has been designed around minimum production cost, but has not been able to be tested experimentally.
Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables
Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen
2016-01-01
Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X...
Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy
2014-01-01
We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching;
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...
Gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization
Janečka, Adam
2016-01-01
Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of a dissipation potential, which leads to several advantageous features like Maxwell--Onsager relations, distinguishing between thermodynamic forces and fluxes or geometrical interpretation of the dynamics. Entropy production maximization is a powerful tool for predicting constitutive relations in engineering. In this paper, both approaches are compared and their shortcomings and advantages are discussed.
Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints
Matoussi, Anis, E-mail: anis.matoussi@univ-lemans.fr [Université du Maine, Risk and Insurance institut of Le Mans Laboratoire Manceau de Mathématiques (France); Mezghani, Hanen, E-mail: hanen.mezghani@lamsin.rnu.tn; Mnif, Mohamed, E-mail: mohamed.mnif@enit.rnu.tn [University of Tunis El Manar, Laboratoire de Modélisation Mathématique et Numérique dans les Sciences de l’Ingénieur, ENIT (Tunisia)
2015-04-15
We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle.
Maximizing the Motivated Mind for Emergent Giftedness.
Rea, Dan
2001-01-01
This article explains how the theory of the motivated mind conceptualizes the productive interaction of intelligence, creativity, and achievement motivation and how this theory can help educators to maximize students' emergent potential for giftedness. It discusses the integration of cold-order thinking and hot-chaotic thinking into fluid-adaptive…
The Winning Edge: Maximizing Success in College.
Schmitt, David E.
This book offers college students ideas on how to maximize their success in college by examining the personal management techniques a student needs to succeed. Chapters are as follows: "Getting and Staying Motivated"; "Setting Goals and Tapping Your Resources"; "Conquering Time"; "Think Yourself to College Success"; "Understanding and Remembering…
MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND EQUILIBRIUM OF ABSTRACT ECONOMY
刘心歌; 蔡海涛
2001-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for a new type of preference correspondences which are Qθ-majorized is given. Then some existence theorems of equilibrium for abstract economy and qualitative game in which the constraint or preference correspondences are Qθ-majorized are obtained in locally convex topological vector spaces.
DNA solution of the maximal clique problem.
Ouyang, Q; Kaplan, P D; Liu, S; Libchaber, A
1997-10-17
The maximal clique problem has been solved by means of molecular biology techniques. A pool of DNA molecules corresponding to the total ensemble of six-vertex cliques was built, followed by a series of selection processes. The algorithm is highly parallel and has satisfactory fidelity. This work represents further evidence for the ability of DNA computing to solve NP-complete search problems.
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main
Maximal workload capacity on moving platforms
Heus, R.; Wertheim, A.H.
1996-01-01
Physical tasks on a moving platform required more energy than the same tasks on a non-moving platform. In this study the maximum aerobic performance (defined as V_O2max) of people working on a moving floor was established compared to the maximal aerobic performance on a non-moving floor. The main qu
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing throughput in an automated test system
朱君
2007-01-01
@@ Overview This guide is collection of whitepapers designed to help you develop test systems that lower your cost, increase your test throughput, and can scale with future requirements. This whitepaper provides strategies for maximizing system throughput. To download the complete developers guide (120 pages), visit ni. com/automatedtest.
The gaugings of maximal D=6 supergravity
Bergshoeff, E.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.
2008-01-01
We construct the most general gaugings of the maximal D = 6 supergravity. The theory is ( 2, 2) supersymmetric, and possesses an on-shell SO( 5, 5) duality symmetry which plays a key role in determining its couplings. The field content includes 16 vector fields that carry a chiral spinor representat
WEIGHTED BOUNDEDNESS OF A ROUGH MAXIMAL OPERATOR
无
2000-01-01
In this note the authors give the weighted Lp-boundedness fora class of maximal singular integral operators with rough kernel.The result in this note is an improvement and extension ofthe result obtained by Chen and Lin in 1990.
Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.
Brown, Ronald A.
1992-01-01
Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Testing maximality in muon neutrino flavor mixing
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2003-01-01
The small difference between the survival probabilities of muon neutrino and antineutrino beams, traveling through earth matter in a long baseline experiment such as MINOS, is shown to be an important measure of any possible deviation from maximality in the flavor mixing of those states.
Average utility maximization: A preference foundation
A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)
2014-01-01
textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen
On the Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem
Shinji Yamashita
1982-01-01
Full Text Available The Hardy-Littlewood maximal theorem is extended to functions of class PL in the sense of E. F. Beckenbach and T. Radó, with a more precise expression of the absolute constant in the inequality. As applications we deduce some results on hyperbolic Hardy classes in terms of the non-Euclidean hyperbolic distance in the unit disk.
Maximal Cartel Pricing and Leniency Programs
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2008-01-01
For a general class of oligopoly models with price competition, we analyze the impact of ex-ante leniency programs in antitrust regulation on the endogenous maximal-sustainable cartel price. This impact depends upon industry characteristics including its cartel culture. Our analysis disentangles the
How to Generate Good Profit Maximization Problems
Davis, Lewis
2014-01-01
In this article, the author considers the merits of two classes of profit maximization problems: those involving perfectly competitive firms with quadratic and cubic cost functions. While relatively easy to develop and solve, problems based on quadratic cost functions are too simple to address a number of important issues, such as the use of…
Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization
Ashbaugh, Henry S.
2010-01-01
Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…
Maximally entangled mixed states made easy
Aiello, A; Voigt, D; Woerdman, J P
2006-01-01
We show that, contrarily to a recent claim [M. Ziman and V. Bu\\v{z}ek, Phys. Rev. A. \\textbf{72}, 052325 (2005)], it is possible to achieve maximally entangled mixed states of two qubits from the singlet state via the action of local nonunital quantum channels. Moreover, we present a simple, feasible linear optical implementation of one of such channels.
Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems
Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
2013-01-01
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...
Maximal Heat Generation in Nanoscale Systems
ZHOU Li-Ling; LI Shu-Shen; ZENG Zhao-Yang
2009-01-01
We investigate the heat generation in a nanoscale system coupled to normal leads and find that it is maximal when the average occupation of the electrons in the nanoscale system is 0.5,no matter what mechanism induces the heat generation.
Understanding violations of Gricean maxims in preschoolers and adults.
Okanda, Mako; Asada, Kosuke; Moriguchi, Yusuke; Itakura, Shoji
2015-01-01
This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants' understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity), avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity), be truthful (maxim of quality), be relevant (maxim of relation), avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner), and be polite (maxim of politeness). Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds' understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner), and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults
Mako eOkanda
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.
Maximal heart rate does not limit cardiovascular capacity in healthy humans
Munch, G D W; Svendsen, J H; Damsgaard, R
2014-01-01
In humans, maximal aerobic power (VO2 max ) is associated with a plateau in cardiac output (Q), but the mechanisms regulating the interplay between maximal heart rate (HRmax) and stroke volume (SV) are unclear. To evaluate the effect of tachycardia and elevations in HRmax on cardiovascular function...... and capacity during maximal exercise in healthy humans, 12 young male cyclists performed incremental cycling and one-legged knee-extensor exercise (KEE) to exhaustion with and without right atrial pacing to increase HR. During control cycling, Q and leg blood flow increased up to 85% of maximal workload (WLmax...... and RAP (P exercise, suggesting that HRmax and myocardial work capacity do not limit VO2 max in healthy...
Measurable Maximal Energy and Minimal Time Interval
Dahab, Eiman Abou El
2014-01-01
The possibility of finding the measurable maximal energy and the minimal time interval is discussed in different quantum aspects. It is found that the linear generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) approach gives a non-physical result. Based on large scale Schwarzshild solution, the quadratic GUP approach is utilized. The calculations are performed at the shortest distance, at which the general relativity is assumed to be a good approximation for the quantum gravity and at larger distances, as well. It is found that both maximal energy and minimal time have the order of the Planck time. Then, the uncertainties in both quantities are accordingly bounded. Some physical insights are addressed. Also, the implications on the physics of early Universe and on quantized mass are outlined. The results are related to the existence of finite cosmological constant and minimum mass (mass quanta).
Maximal temperature in a simple thermodynamical system
Dai, De-Chang
2016-01-01
Temperature in a simple thermodynamical system is not limited from above. It is also widely believed that it does not make sense talking about temperatures higher than the Planck temperature in the absence of the full theory of quantum gravity. Here, we demonstrate that there exist a maximal achievable temperature in a system where particles obey the laws of quantum mechanics and classical gravity before we reach the realm of quantum gravity. Namely, if two particles with a given center of mass energy come at the distance shorter than the Schwarzschild diameter apart, according to classical gravity they will form a black hole. It is possible to calculate that a simple thermodynamical system will be dominated by black holes at a critical temperature which is about three times lower than the Planck temperature. That represents the maximal achievable temperature in a simple thermodynamical system.
Hamiltonian formalism and path entropy maximization
Davis, Sergio; González, Diego
2015-10-01
Maximization of the path information entropy is a clear prescription for constructing models in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Here it is shown that, following this prescription under the assumption of arbitrary instantaneous constraints on position and velocity, a Lagrangian emerges which determines the most probable trajectory. Deviations from the probability maximum can be consistently described as slices in time by a Hamiltonian, according to a nonlinear Langevin equation and its associated Fokker-Planck equation. The connections unveiled between the maximization of path entropy and the Langevin/Fokker-Planck equations imply that missing information about the phase space coordinate never decreases in time, a purely information-theoretical version of the second law of thermodynamics. All of these results are independent of any physical assumptions, and thus valid for any generalized coordinate as a function of time, or any other parameter. This reinforces the view that the second law is a fundamental property of plausible inference.
Predicting Contextual Sequences via Submodular Function Maximization
Dey, Debadeepta; Hebert, Martial; Bagnell, J Andrew
2012-01-01
Sequence optimization, where the items in a list are ordered to maximize some reward has many applications such as web advertisement placement, search, and control libraries in robotics. Previous work in sequence optimization produces a static ordering that does not take any features of the item or context of the problem into account. In this work, we propose a general approach to order the items within the sequence based on the context (e.g., perceptual information, environment description, and goals). We take a simple, efficient, reduction-based approach where the choice and order of the items is established by repeatedly learning simple classifiers or regressors for each "slot" in the sequence. Our approach leverages recent work on submodular function maximization to provide a formal regret reduction from submodular sequence optimization to simple cost-sensitive prediction. We apply our contextual sequence prediction algorithm to optimize control libraries and demonstrate results on two robotics problems: ...
Nonlinear trading models through Sharpe Ratio maximization.
Choey, M; Weigend, A S
1997-08-01
While many trading strategies are based on price prediction, traders in financial markets are typically interested in optimizing risk-adjusted performance such as the Sharpe Ratio, rather than the price predictions themselves. This paper introduces an approach which generates a nonlinear strategy that explicitly maximizes the Sharpe Ratio. It is expressed as a neural network model whose output is the position size between a risky and a risk-free asset. The iterative parameter update rules are derived and compared to alternative approaches. The resulting trading strategy is evaluated and analyzed on both computer-generated data and real world data (DAX, the daily German equity index). Trading based on Sharpe Ratio maximization compares favorably to both profit optimization and probability matching (through cross-entropy optimization). The results show that the goal of optimizing out-of-sample risk-adjusted profit can indeed be achieved with this nonlinear approach.
Maximally Symmetric Spacetimes emerging from thermodynamic fluctuations
Bravetti, A; Quevedo, H
2015-01-01
In this work we prove that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of General Relativity emerge from the geometric structure of statistical mechanics and thermodynamic fluctuation theory. To present our argument, we begin by showing that the pseudo-Riemannian structure of the Thermodynamic Phase Space is a solution to the vacuum Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory of gravity with a cosmological constant. Then, we use the geometry of equilibrium thermodynamics to demonstrate that the maximally symmetric vacuum solutions of Einstein's Field Equations -- Minkowski, de-Sitter and Anti-de-Sitter spacetimes -- correspond to thermodynamic fluctuations. Moreover, we argue that these might be the only possible solutions that can be derived in this manner. Thus, the results presented here are the first concrete examples of spacetimes effectively emerging from the thermodynamic limit over an unspecified microscopic theory without any further assumptions.
Modularity maximization using completely positive programming
Yazdanparast, Sakineh; Havens, Timothy C.
2017-04-01
Community detection is one of the most prominent problems of social network analysis. In this paper, a novel method for Modularity Maximization (MM) for community detection is presented which exploits the Alternating Direction Augmented Lagrangian (ADAL) method for maximizing a generalized form of Newman's modularity function. We first transform Newman's modularity function into a quadratic program and then use Completely Positive Programming (CPP) to map the quadratic program to a linear program, which provides the globally optimal maximum modularity partition. In order to solve the proposed CPP problem, a closed form solution using the ADAL merged with a rank minimization approach is proposed. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on several real-world data sets used for benchmarks community detection. Simulation results shows the proposed technique provides outstanding results in terms of modularity value for crisp partitions.
Utility maximization in incomplete markets with default
Lim, Thomas
2008-01-01
We adress the maximization problem of expected utility from terminal wealth. The special feature of this paper is that we consider a financial market where the price process of risky assets can have a default time. Using dynamic programming, we characterize the value function with a backward stochastic differential equation and the optimal portfolio policies. We separately treat the cases of exponential, power and logarithmic utility.
Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm
Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique
2011-01-01
This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...
Revenue Maximizing Head Starts in Contests
Franke, Jörg; Leininger, Wolfgang; Wasser, Cédric
2014-01-01
We characterize revenue maximizing head starts for all-pay auctions and lottery contests with many heterogeneous players. We show that under optimal head starts all-pay auctions revenue-dominate lottery contests for any degree of heterogeneity among players. Moreover, all-pay auctions with optimal head starts induce higher revenue than any multiplicatively biased all-pay auction or lottery contest. While head starts are more effective than multiplicative biases in all-pay auctions, they are l...
Approximate Revenue Maximization in Interdependent Value Settings
Chawla, Shuchi; Fu, Hu; Karlin, Anna
2014-01-01
We study revenue maximization in settings where agents' values are interdependent: each agent receives a signal drawn from a correlated distribution and agents' values are functions of all of the signals. We introduce a variant of the generalized VCG auction with reserve prices and random admission, and show that this auction gives a constant approximation to the optimal expected revenue in matroid environments. Our results do not require any assumptions on the signal distributions, however, ...
IGNACIO SÁNCHEZ D.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available El tiempo inspiratorio previo a la realización de una maniobra espiratoria forzada máxima (FEM es una variable que no ha sido completamente estudiada en Fibrosis Quística (FQ. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la hipótesis que niños con FQ tendrían mayores volúmenes y flujos espiratorios forzados al disminuir la duración del tiempo inspiratorio. Se estudiaron 16 niños con FQ, en etapa estable, sin haber presentado una exacerbación respiratoria en los últimos dos meses, (10 hombres, de edad 11,9 ± 0,7 años (promedio ± ES, con un FEV1 de 62,8 ± 6,4% predicho. Las pruebas de función pulmonar consistieron en la medición de volúmenes pulmonares estáticos y resistencia de la vía aérea, seguido de evaluación dinámica de la función pulmonar. Esta última medición fue precedida de 3 maniobras inspiratorias diferentes en forma aleatoria [inspiración y detención de 0 segundos (M0, 2 segundos (M2 o 5 segundos (M5]. El grupo se dividió en pacientes con hiperinsuflación pulmonar detectada por VR/CPT > 30%, (n = 9 y sin hiperinsuflación pulmonar RV/CPT The time course of the inspiration preceding the maximal forced expiratory maneuver (MFEM has not been studied in cystic fibrosis (CF. We tested the hypothesis that CF children would have significantly higher forced expiratory volumes (FVC and flows with decreasing duration of the inspiratory breathhold. We studied 16 stable CF patients (10 males with no pulmonary exacerbation 2 months prior to the study, aged 11.9 ± 0.7 years (mean ± SEM with a FEV1 of 62.8 ± 6.4% predicted. Pulmonary function tests included static lung volume and airway resistance measurements, followed by dynamic lung function measurements. The latter were preceded by 3 different inspiratory maneuvers in a random order [breathhold of 0 (M0, 2 (M2 or 5 seconds (M5]. Patients were divided by the presence of lung hyperinflation (RV/TLC > 30%, with 9 children with hyperinflation and 7 no
Maximal supersymmetry and B-mode targets
Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm; Yamada, Yusuke
2017-04-01
Extending the work of Ferrara and one of the authors [1], we present dynamical cosmological models of α-attractors with plateau potentials for 3 α = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. These models are motivated by geometric properties of maximally supersymmetric theories: M-theory, superstring theory, and maximal N = 8 supergravity. After a consistent truncation of maximal to minimal supersymmetry in a seven-disk geometry, we perform a two-step procedure: 1) we introduce a superpotential, which stabilizes the moduli of the seven-disk geometry in a supersymmetric minimum, 2) we add a cosmological sector with a nilpotent stabilizer, which breaks supersymmetry spontaneously and leads to a desirable class of cosmological attractor models. These models with n s consistent with observational data, and with tensor-to-scalar ratio r ≈ 10-2 - 10-3, provide natural targets for future B-mode searches. We relate the issue of stability of inflationary trajectories in these models to tessellations of a hyperbolic geometry.
Maximal respiratory pressures among adolescent swimmers.
Rocha Crispino Santos, M A; Pinto, M L; Couto Sant'Anna, C; Bernhoeft, M
2011-01-01
Maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressures (MEP) are useful indices of respiratory muscle strength in athletes. The aims of this study were: to describe the strength of the respiratory muscles of Olympic junior swim team, at baseline and after a standard physical training; and to determine if there is a differential inspiratory and expiratory pressure response to the physical training. A cross-sectional study evaluated 28 international-level swimmers with ages ranging from 15 to 17 years, 19 (61 %) being males. At baseline, MIP was found to be lower in females (P = .001). The mean values reached by males and females were: MIP(cmH2O) = M: 100.4 (± 26.5)/F: 67.8 (± 23.2); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 87.4 (± 20.7)/F: 73.9 (± 17.3). After the physical training they reached: MIP (cmH2O) = M: 95.3 (± 30.3)/F: 71.8 (± 35.6); MEP (cmH2O) = M: 82.8 (± 26.2)/F: 70.4 (± 8.3). No differential pressure responses were observed in either males or females. These results suggest that swimmers can sustain the magnitude of the initial maximal pressures. Other studies should be developed to clarify if MIP and MEP could be used as a marker of an athlete's performance.
Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes
Yourong Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise
Sergi Garcia-Retortillo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC
Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise.
Garcia-Retortillo, Sergi; Javierre, Casimiro; Hristovski, Robert; Ventura, Josep L; Balagué, Natàlia
2017-01-01
Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC) after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC) analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate) was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1) were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), or ventilatory threshold (VT), an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08) was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43) in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT) between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC evaluation in
Postactivation Potentiation Biases Maximal Isometric Strength Assessment
Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation (PAP is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs. The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n=23 performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT, time to achieve it (tPTI, contractile impulse (CI, root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS, and rate of torque development (RTD, in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m, RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s−1versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s−1, and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms. We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Maximizing versus satisficing: happiness is a matter of choice.
Schwartz, Barry; Ward, Andrew; Monterosso, John; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; White, Katherine; Lehman, Darrin R
2002-11-01
Can people feel worse off as the options they face increase? The present studies suggest that some people--maximizers--can. Study 1 reported a Maximization Scale, which measures individual differences in desire to maximize. Seven samples revealed negative correlations between maximization and happiness, optimism, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and positive correlations between maximization and depression, perfectionism, and regret. Study 2 found maximizers less satisfied than nonmaximizers (satisficers) with consumer decisions, and more likely to engage in social comparison. Study 3 found maximizers more adversely affected by upward social comparison. Study 4 found maximizers more sensitive to regret and less satisfied in an ultimatum bargaining game. The interaction between maximizing and choice is discussed in terms of regret, adaptation, and self-blame.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds...... on the numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing...
ON THE SPACES OF THE MAXIMAL POINTS
梁基华; 刘应明
2003-01-01
For a continuous domain D, some characterization that the convex powerdomain CD is adomain hull of Max(CD) is given in terms of compact subsets of D. And in this case, it isproved that the set of the maximal points Max(CD) of CD with the relative Scott topology ishomeomorphic to the set of all Scott compact subsets of Max(D) with the topology induced bythe Hausdorff metric derived from a metric on Max(D) when Max(D) is metrizable.
Understanding of English Contracts though Relation Maxims
XU Chi-ying; JIANG Li-hui
2013-01-01
Contract is the legal evidence of the concerning parties of business. And this lead to its unique characteristics:technical terms, archaism, borrowed words, juxtaposition, and abbreviation. The understanding of contracts is of vital importance for each party, because it concerns the share of interests. In order to avoid ambiguity that some words or sentence in English contracts may lead to, and achieve“best relevance and least effort”of communication, this paper, by applying relation maxim, deeply analyze how to understand English contracts though selection of words, modification, the complexity and simplicity of sentence.
Maximizing results in reconstruction of cheek defects.
Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P
2009-07-01
The face is exceedingly important, as it is the medium through which individuals interact with the rest of society. Reconstruction of cheek defects after trauma or surgery is a continuing challenge for surgeons who wish to reliably restore facial function and appearance. Important in aesthetic facial reconstruction are the aesthetic unit principles, by which the face can be divided in central facial units (nose, lips, eyelids) and peripheral facial units (cheeks, forehead, chin). This article summarizes established options for reconstruction of cheek defects and provides an overview of several modifications as well as tips and tricks to avoid complications and maximize aesthetic results.
Maximizing policy learning in international committees
Nedergaard, Peter
2007-01-01
, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...
Maximal subbundles, quot schemes, and curve counting
Gillam, W D
2011-01-01
Let $E$ be a rank 2, degree $d$ vector bundle over a genus $g$ curve $C$. The loci of stable pairs on $E$ in class $2[C]$ fixed by the scaling action are expressed as products of $\\Quot$ schemes. Using virtual localization, the stable pairs invariants of $E$ are related to the virtual intersection theory of $\\Quot E$. The latter theory is extensively discussed for an $E$ of arbitrary rank; the tautological ring of $\\Quot E$ is defined and is computed on the locus parameterizing rank one subsheaves. In case $E$ has rank 2, $d$ and $g$ have opposite parity, and $E$ is sufficiently generic, it is known that $E$ has exactly $2^g$ line subbundles of maximal degree. Doubling the zero section along such a subbundle gives a curve in the total space of $E$ in class $2[C]$. We relate this count of maximal subbundles with stable pairs/Donaldson-Thomas theory on the total space of $E$. This endows the residue invariants of $E$ with enumerative significance: they actually \\emph{count} curves in $E$.
Maximal coherence in a generic basis
Yao, Yao; Dong, G. H.; Ge, Li; Li, Mo; Sun, C. P.
2016-12-01
Since quantum coherence is an undoubted characteristic trait of quantum physics, the quantification and application of quantum coherence has been one of the long-standing central topics in quantum information science. Within the framework of a resource theory of quantum coherence proposed recently, a fiducial basis should be preselected for characterizing the quantum coherence in specific circumstances, namely, the quantum coherence is a basis-dependent quantity. Therefore, a natural question is raised: what are the maximum and minimum coherences contained in a certain quantum state with respect to a generic basis? While the minimum case is trivial, it is not so intuitive to verify in which basis the quantum coherence is maximal. Based on the coherence measure of relative entropy, we indicate the particular basis in which the quantum coherence is maximal for a given state, where the Fourier matrix (or more generally, complex Hadamard matrices) plays a critical role in determining the basis. Intriguingly, though we can prove that the basis associated with the Fourier matrix is a stationary point for optimizing the l1 norm of coherence, numerical simulation shows that it is not a global optimal choice.
Symmetry and approximability of submodular maximization problems
Vondrak, Jan
2011-01-01
A number of recent results on optimization problems involving submodular functions have made use of the multilinear relaxation of the problem. These results hold typically in the value oracle model, where the objective function is accessible via a black box returning f(S) for a given S. We present a general approach to deriving inapproximability results in the value oracle model, based on the notion of symmetry gap. Our main result is that for any fixed instance that exhibits a certain symmetry gap in its multilinear relaxation, there is a naturally related class of instances for which a better approximation factor than the symmetry gap would require exponentially many oracle queries. This unifies several known hardness results for submodular maximization, and implies several new ones. In particular, we prove that there is no constant-factor approximation for the problem of maximizing a non-negative submodular function over the bases of a matroid. We also provide a closely matching approximation algorithm for...
Multiple Sink Positioning and Routing to Maximize the Lifetime of Sensor Networks
Kim, Haeyong; Kwon, Taekyoung; Mah, Pyeongsoo
In wireless sensor networks, the sensor nodes collect data, which are routed to a sink node. Most of the existing proposals address the routing problem to maximize network lifetime in the case of a single sink node. In this paper, we extend this problem into the case of multiple sink nodes. To maximize network lifetime, we consider the two problems: (i) how to position multiple sink nodes in the area, and (ii) how to route traffic flows from sensor nodes to sink nodes. In this paper, the solutions to these problems are formulated into a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. However, it is computationally difficult to solve the MILP formulation as the size of sensor network grows because MILP is NP-hard. Thus, we propose a heuristic algorithm, which produces a solution in polynomial time. From our experiments, we found out that the proposed heuristic algorithm provides a near-optimal solution for maximizing network lifetime in dense sensor networks.
Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem
Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt
Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....
Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials
Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram;
2010-01-01
Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly...... variable. Generation of trial databases and/or biobanks originating in large randomized clinical trials has successfully increased the knowledge obtained from those trials. At the 10th Cardiovascular Trialist Workshop, possibilities and pitfalls in designing and accessing clinical trial databases were......, in particular with respect to collaboration with the trial sponsor and to analytic pitfalls. The advantages of creating screening databases in conjunction with a given clinical trial are described; and finally, the potential for posttrial database studies to become a platform for training young scientists...
Characterizing maximally singular phase-space distributions
Sperling, J.
2016-07-01
Phase-space distributions are widely applied in quantum optics to access the nonclassical features of radiations fields. In particular, the inability to interpret the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution in terms of a classical probability density is the fundamental benchmark for quantum light. However, this phase-space distribution cannot be directly reconstructed for arbitrary states, because of its singular behavior. In this work, we perform a characterization of the Glauber-Sudarshan representation in terms of distribution theory. We address important features of such distributions: (i) the maximal degree of their singularities is studied, (ii) the ambiguity of representation is shown, and (iii) their dual space for nonclassicality tests is specified. In this view, we reconsider the methods for regularizing the Glauber-Sudarshan distribution for verifying its nonclassicality. This treatment is supported with comprehensive examples and counterexamples.
Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2000-01-01
Topology optimization is used to optimize the eigenvalues of plates. The results are intended especially for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) but call be seen as more general. The problem is not formulated as a case of reinforcement of an existing structure, so there is a problem related...... to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...... is a practical MEMS application; a probe used in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). For the AFM probe the optimization is complicated by a constraint on the stiffness and constraints on higher order eigenvalues....
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André da Conceição Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS
Paulo André Da Conceiçao Menezes
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.
Reflection Quasilattices and the Maximal Quasilattice
Boyle, Latham
2016-01-01
We introduce the concept of a {\\it reflection quasilattice}, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e. Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we prove that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. We further show that, unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. W...
Distributed Maximality based CTL Model Checking
Djamel Eddine Saidouni
2010-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate an approach to perform a distributed CTL Model checker algorithm on a network of workstations using Kleen three value logic, the state spaces is partitioned among the network nodes, We represent the incomplete state spaces as a Maximality labeled Transition System MLTS which are able to express true concurrency. we execute in parallel the same algorithm in each node, for a certain property on an incomplete MLTS , this last compute the set of states which satisfy or which if they fail are assigned the value .The third value mean unknown whether true or false because the partial state space lacks sufficient information needed for a precise answer concerning the complete state space .To solve this problem each node exchange the information needed to conclude the result about the complete state space. The experimental version of the algorithm is currently being implemented using the functional programming language Erlang.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K
2016-01-01
Investigating relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising of anti-symmetric couplings in one layer, depicting predator-prey relation, and symmetric couplings in the other, depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relation, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue. We find that the correlated multiplexity emerges as evolution progresses. The evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the inter-link coupling strength. Furthermore, the inter-layer coupling strength governs the evolution of disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering star like networks in both the layers. The model and tools used here are useful for understanding the principles governing the stability as well as importance of such patterns in ...
Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces
Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B
2011-01-01
The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...
Greedy Maximal Scheduling in Wireless Networks
Li, Qiao
2010-01-01
In this paper we consider greedy scheduling algorithms in wireless networks, i.e., the schedules are computed by adding links greedily based on some priority vector. Two special cases are considered: 1) Longest Queue First (LQF) scheduling, where the priorities are computed using queue lengths, and 2) Static Priority (SP) scheduling, where the priorities are pre-assigned. We first propose a closed-form lower bound stability region for LQF scheduling, and discuss the tightness result in some scenarios. We then propose an lower bound stability region for SP scheduling with multiple priority vectors, as well as a heuristic priority assignment algorithm, which is related to the well-known Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The performance gain of the proposed heuristic algorithm is finally confirmed by simulations.
Dispatch Scheduling to Maximize Exoplanet Detection
Johnson, Samson; McCrady, Nate; MINERVA
2016-01-01
MINERVA is a dedicated exoplanet detection telescope array using radial velocity measurements of nearby stars to detect planets. MINERVA will be a completely robotic facility, with a goal of maximizing the number of exoplanets detected. MINERVA requires a unique application of queue scheduling due to its automated nature and the requirement of high cadence observations. A dispatch scheduling algorithm is employed to create a dynamic and flexible selector of targets to observe, in which stars are chosen by assigning values through a weighting function. I designed and have begun testing a simulation which implements the functions of a dispatch scheduler and records observations based on target selections through the same principles that will be used at the commissioned site. These results will be used in a larger simulation that incorporates weather, planet occurrence statistics, and stellar noise to test the planet detection capabilities of MINERVA. This will be used to heuristically determine an optimal observing strategy for the MINERVA project.
A New Biflavone from Selaginella pulvinata Maxim
XU Kang-Ping; XU Zhi; DENG Yin-Hua; LI Fu-Shuang; ZHOU Ying-Jun; HU Gao-Yun; TAN Gui-Shan
2003-01-01
@@ Selaginella pulvinata Maxim. distributes all over the country of China and is used for the treatment for haemor rhage. [1] We studied on the chemical constituents of S. pulvinata in order to find the active compounds. Dried stems and leaves of S. pulvinata (6.5 kg) were extracted with 70% ethanol twice. The extract was evaporated under vacuum and than suspended in water, extracted with petroleum and EtOAc sequentially. The EtOAc extract was chromatographed on silica gel, eluted with CHCl3-MeOH. As a result, a novel biflavone, named pulvinatabiflavone, was obtained from fractions 75 ～ 78. Its structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 5,5″, 4′″ trihydroxy-7,7″-dimethoxy-[4′-O-6″]-biflavone (compound 1).
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2015-10-15
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange
Hay, Michael J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2015-01-01
Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.
Maximizing ammonium nitrogen removal from solution using different zeolites.
Penn, Chad J; Warren, Jason G; Smith, Savannah
2010-01-01
Zeolite minerals are ideal for removing ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) from animal wastes, leachates, and industrial effluents. The objectives of this study were to compare NH4+ removal and kinetics among several commercially available zeolites under various conditions and determine if calorimetry could provide information regarding kinetics of NH4+ removal. Ammonium sorption onto potassium (K) saturated zeolites was compared using synthetic vs. natural swine effluent and with either traditional batch-shaken system or a "tea bag" approach in which zeolites were contained in a mesh sack and suspended in a solution of swine effluent. Ammonium sorption was measured at four retention times using a flow-through system, and the resulting heat response was measured using isothermal calorimetry. Ammonium removal was not significantly different in synthetic vs. natural swine effluent. Ammonium removal was lower in batch-stirred compared to batch-shaken systems, suggesting that diffusion between particles was rate-limiting in the former system. Flow-through cells possessing contact times > 100 s displayed greater NH4+ sorption than batch systems, suggesting that maintaining high NH4+ concentration in solution, removal of exchange products, and sufficient reaction time are critical to maximizing NH4+ removal by zeolites. Within 100 s after NH4+ addition, endothermic heat responses indicated that NH4(+)-K+ exchange had peaked; this was followed by significant heat rate reduction for 50 min. This confirmed findings of an initial fast NH4(+)-K+ exchange followed by a slower one and suggests the 100-s period of rapid reaction is an indicator of the minimum flow through retention time required to optimize NH4+ sorption to zeolites used in this study.
Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.
Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam
2009-07-01
Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.
Wyse, Adam E.; Babcock, Ben
2016-01-01
A common suggestion made in the psychometric literature for fixed-length classification tests is that one should design tests so that they have maximum information at the cut score. Designing tests in this way is believed to maximize the classification accuracy and consistency of the assessment. This article uses simulated examples to illustrate…
From entropy-maximization to equality-maximization: Gauss, Laplace, Pareto, and Subbotin
Eliazar, Iddo
2014-12-01
The entropy-maximization paradigm of statistical physics is well known to generate the omnipresent Gauss law. In this paper we establish an analogous socioeconomic model which maximizes social equality, rather than physical disorder, in the context of the distributions of income and wealth in human societies. We show that-on a logarithmic scale-the Laplace law is the socioeconomic equality-maximizing counterpart of the physical entropy-maximizing Gauss law, and that this law manifests an optimized balance between two opposing forces: (i) the rich and powerful, striving to amass ever more wealth, and thus to increase social inequality; and (ii) the masses, struggling to form more egalitarian societies, and thus to increase social equality. Our results lead from log-Gauss statistics to log-Laplace statistics, yield Paretian power-law tails of income and wealth distributions, and show how the emergence of a middle-class depends on the underlying levels of socioeconomic inequality and variability. Also, in the context of asset-prices with Laplace-distributed returns, our results imply that financial markets generate an optimized balance between risk and predictability.
THE EFFECTS MAXIMAL AND SUB MAXIMAL AEROBIC EXERCISE ON THE BRONCHOSPASM INDICES IN NON ATHLETIC
Amir GANJİ
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a transient airway obstruction that occurs during and after the exercise. Exercise-induced bronchospasm is observed in healthy individuals as well as the asthmatic and allergic rhinitis patients. Research question: The study compared the effects of one session of submaximal aerobic exercise and a maximal one on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in non-athletic students. Type of study: An experimental study, using human subjects, was designed. Methods: 20 non-athletic male students participated in two sessions of aerobic exercise. The prevalence of EIB was investigated among them. The criteria for assessing exercise-induced bronchospasm were ≥10% fall in FEV1, ≥15% fall in FEF25-75%, or ≥25% fall in PEFR. Results: The results revealed that the maximal exercise did not affect FEF25-75% and PEF, but it led to a meaningful reduction in FEV1. Contrarily, the submaximal exercise affected none of these indices. That is, in both protocols the same result was obtained for PEF and FEF25-75. Moreover, the prevalence of EIB was 15% in the submaximal exercise and 20% in the maximal one. Actually, this difference was significant. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that in contrast to the subjects who performed submaximal exercise, those who participated in the maximal protocol showed more changes in the pulmonary function indices and the prevalence of EIB was greater among them.
Maximal elements of non necessarily acyclic binary relations
Josep Enric Peris Ferrando; Begoña Subiza Martínez
1992-01-01
The existence of maximal elements for binary preference relations is analyzed without imposing transitivity or convexity conditions. From each preference relation a new acyclic relation is defined in such a way that some maximal elements of this new relation characterize maximal elements of the original one. The result covers the case whereby the relation is acyclic.
Maximization of instantaneous wind penetration using particle ...
user
harmonics, high transmission and distribution losses, over loading and increased power oscillation. The problem is .... and turbulence components. The turbine .... The velocity (position change) of the ith particle is denoted as ... Step 3: Calculate the base case power flow with the wind farm connected at the identified bus.
Maximization Paradox: Result of Believing in an Objective Best.
Luan, Mo; Li, Hong
2017-05-01
The results from four studies provide reliable evidence of how beliefs in an objective best influence the decision process and subjective feelings. A belief in an objective best serves as the fundamental mechanism connecting the concept of maximizing and the maximization paradox (i.e., expending great effort but feeling bad when making decisions, Study 1), and randomly chosen decision makers operate similar to maximizers once they are manipulated to believe that the best is objective (Studies 2A, 2B, and 3). In addition, the effect of a belief in an objective best on the maximization paradox is moderated by the presence of a dominant option (Study 3). The findings of this research contribute to the maximization literature by demonstrating that believing in an objective best leads to the maximization paradox. The maximization paradox is indeed the result of believing in an objective best.
Micropropagation of Lysionotus pauciflorus Maxim. (Gesneriaceae).
Godo, Toshinari; Lu, Yuanxue; Mii, Masahiro
2010-01-01
Numerous shoots were directly regenerated from the leaf explants of Lysionotus pauciflorus on the MS medium containing 0.5-2 microM NAA with or without 1 microM BA. The calli were induced from the leaves on MS medium supplemented with 2 microM 2, 4-D. The calli proliferated about four times in fresh weight in the liquid medium of the same composition as the callus induction medium after 4 weeks of culture on a rotary shaker at 100 rpm. Shoots were induced from these calli on the regeneration medium amended with 32 microM BA or 0.5 microM zeatin. Regenerated shoots rooted easily on (1/2) MS medium without any plant growth regulators. Most of the regenerants from callus were diploid, whereas eight of 66 acclimatized plantlets were tetraploid determined by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of calli also revealed tetraploidy.
EXPLANATORY VARIANCE IN MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE
Jacalyn J. Robert McComb
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a prediction equation that could be used to estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max from a submaximal water running protocol. Thirty-two volunteers (n =19 males, n = 13 females, ages 18 - 24 years, underwent the following testing procedures: (a a 7-site skin fold assessment; (b a land VO2max running treadmill test; and (c a 6 min water running test. For the water running submaximal protocol, the participants were fitted with an Aqua Jogger Classic Uni-Sex Belt and a Polar Heart Rate Monitor; the participants' head, shoulders, hips and feet were vertically aligned, using a modified running/bicycle motion. A regression model was used to predict VO2max. The criterion variable, VO2max, was measured using open-circuit calorimetry utilizing the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Predictor variables included in the model were percent body fat (% BF, height, weight, gender, and heart rate following a 6 min water running protocol. Percent body fat accounted for 76% (r = -0.87, SEE = 3.27 of the variance in VO2max. No other variables significantly contributed to the explained variance in VO2max. The equation for the estimation of VO2max is as follows: VO2max ml.kg-1·min-1 = 56.14 - 0.92 (% BF.
Reflection quasilattices and the maximal quasilattice
Boyle, Latham; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2016-08-01
We introduce the concept of a reflection quasilattice, the quasiperiodic generalization of a Bravais lattice with irreducible reflection symmetry. Among their applications, reflection quasilattices are the reciprocal (i.e., Bragg diffraction) lattices for quasicrystals and quasicrystal tilings, such as Penrose tilings, with irreducible reflection symmetry and discrete scale invariance. In a follow-up paper, we will show that reflection quasilattices can be used to generate tilings in real space with properties analogous to those in Penrose tilings, but with different symmetries and in various dimensions. Here we explain that reflection quasilattices only exist in dimensions two, three, and four, and we prove that there is a unique reflection quasilattice in dimension four: the "maximal reflection quasilattice" in terms of dimensionality and symmetry. Unlike crystallographic Bravais lattices, all reflection quasilattices are invariant under rescaling by certain discrete scale factors. We tabulate the complete set of scale factors for all reflection quasilattices in dimension d >2 , and for all those with quadratic irrational scale factors in d =2 .
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko
2014-03-01
Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Network channel allocation and revenue maximization
Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki
2002-09-01
This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.
Evolution of correlated multiplexity through stability maximization
Dwivedi, Sanjiv K.; Jalan, Sarika
2017-02-01
Investigating the relation between various structural patterns found in real-world networks and the stability of underlying systems is crucial to understand the importance and evolutionary origin of such patterns. We evolve multiplex networks, comprising antisymmetric couplings in one layer depicting predator-prey relationship and symmetric couplings in the other depicting mutualistic (or competitive) relationship, based on stability maximization through the largest eigenvalue of the corresponding adjacency matrices. We find that there is an emergence of the correlated multiplexity between the mirror nodes as the evolution progresses. Importantly, evolved values of the correlated multiplexity exhibit a dependence on the interlayer coupling strength. Additionally, the interlayer coupling strength governs the evolution of the disassortativity property in the individual layers. We provide analytical understanding to these findings by considering starlike networks representing both the layers. The framework discussed here is useful for understanding principles governing the stability as well as the importance of various patterns in the underlying networks of real-world systems ranging from the brain to ecology which consist of multiple types of interaction behavior.
Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.
Armin Töpfer
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.
Maximal respiratory pressure in healthy Japanese children
Tagami, Miki; Okuno, Yukako; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Kawamura, Kenta; Shoji, Ryosuke; Tomita, Kazuhide
2017-01-01
[Purpose] Normal values for respiratory muscle pressures during development in Japanese children have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate respiratory muscle pressures in Japanese children aged 3–12 years. [Subjects and Methods] We measured respiratory muscle pressure values using a manovacuometer without a nose clip, with subjects in a sitting position. Data were collected for ages 3–6 (Group I: 68 subjects), 7–9 (Group II: 86 subjects), and 10–12 (Group III: 64 subjects) years. [Results] The values for respiratory muscle pressures in children were significantly higher with age in both sexes, and were higher in boys than in girls. Correlation coefficients were significant at values of 0.279 to 0.471 for each gender relationship between maximal respiratory pressure and age, height, and weight, respectively. [Conclusion] In this study, we showed pediatric respiratory muscle pressure reference value for each age. In the present study, values for respiratory muscle pressures were lower than Brazilian studies. This suggests that differences in respiratory muscle pressures vary with ethnicity. PMID:28356644
Maximizing exosome colloidal stability following electroporation.
Hood, Joshua L; Scott, Michael J; Wickline, Samuel A
2014-03-01
Development of exosome-based semisynthetic nanovesicles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes requires novel approaches to load exosomes with cargo. Electroporation has previously been used to load exosomes with RNA. However, investigations into exosome colloidal stability following electroporation have not been considered. Herein, we report the development of a unique trehalose pulse media (TPM) that minimizes exosome aggregation following electroporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and RNA absorbance were employed to determine the extent of exosome aggregation and electroextraction post electroporation in TPM compared to common PBS pulse media or sucrose pulse media (SPM). Use of TPM to disaggregate melanoma exosomes post electroporation was dependent on both exosome concentration and electric field strength. TPM maximized exosome dispersal post electroporation for both homogenous B16 melanoma and heterogeneous human serum-derived populations of exosomes. Moreover, TPM enabled heavy cargo loading of melanoma exosomes with 5nm superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION5) while maintaining original exosome size and minimizing exosome aggregation as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy. Loading exosomes with SPION5 increased exosome density on sucrose gradients. This provides a simple, label-free means of enriching exogenously modified exosomes and introduces the potential for MRI-driven theranostic exosome investigations in vivo.
Managing the innovation supply chain to maximize personalized medicine.
Waldman, S A; Terzic, A
2014-02-01
Personalized medicine epitomizes an evolving model of care tailored to the individual patient. This emerging paradigm harnesses radical technological advances to define each patient's molecular characteristics and decipher his or her unique pathophysiological processes. Translated into individualized algorithms, personalized medicine aims to predict, prevent, and cure disease without producing therapeutic adverse events. Although the transformative power of personalized medicine is generally recognized by physicians, patients, and payers, the complexity of translating discoveries into new modalities that transform health care is less appreciated. We often consider the flow of innovation and technology along a continuum of discovery, development, regulation, and application bridging the bench with the bedside. However, this process also can be viewed through a complementary prism, as a necessary supply chain of services and providers, each making essential contributions to the development of the final product to maximize value to consumers. Considering personalized medicine in this context of supply chain management highlights essential points of vulnerability and/or scalability that can ultimately constrain translation of the biological revolution or potentiate it into individualized diagnostics and therapeutics for optimized value creation and delivery.
Calbet, J A L; Lundby, C; Sander, M
2006-01-01
During maximal whole body exercise VO2 peak is limited by O2 delivery. In turn, it is though that blood flow at near-maximal exercise must be restrained by the sympathetic nervous system to maintain mean arterial pressure. To determine whether enhancing vasodilation across the leg results in higher...... O2 delivery and leg VO2 during near-maximal and maximal exercise in humans, seven men performed two maximal incremental exercise tests on the cycle ergometer. In random order, one test was performed with and one without (control exercise) infusion of ATP (8 mg in 1 ml of isotonic saline solution......) into the right femoral artery at a rate of 80 microg.kg body mass-1.min-1. During near-maximal exercise (92% of VO2 peak), the infusion of ATP increased leg vascular conductance (+43%, P...
Catalan Number and Enumeration of Maximal Outerplanar Graphs
无
2000-01-01
Catalan number is an important class of combinatorial numbers. The maximal outerplanar graphs are important in graph theory. In this paper some formulas to enumerate the numbers of maximal outerplanar graphs by means of the compressing graph and group theory method are given first. Then the relationships between Catalan numbers and the numbers of labeled and unlabeled maximal outerplanar graphs are presented. The computed results verified these formulas.
Maximality-Based Structural Operational Semantics for Petri Nets
Saīdouni, Djamel Eddine; Belala, Nabil; Bouneb, Messaouda
2009-03-01
The goal of this work is to exploit an implementable model, namely the maximality-based labeled transition system, which permits to express true-concurrency in a natural way without splitting actions on their start and end events. One can do this by giving a maximality-based structural operational semantics for the model of Place/Transition Petri nets in terms of maximality-based labeled transition systems structures.
Relative advantage, queue jumping, and welfare maximizing wealth distribution
2006-01-01
Suppose individuals get utilities from the total amount of wealth they hold and from their wealth relative to those immediately below them. This paper studies the distribution of wealth that maximizes an additive welfare function made up of these utilities. It interprets wealth distribution in a control theory framework to show that the welfare maximizing distribution may have unexpected properties. In some circumstances it requires that inequality be maximized at the poorest and richest ends...
Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes
Parker, Andrew M.; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff
2007-01-01
Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...
Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games
Mančinska, Laura
2015-01-01
A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...
Sums of magnetic eigenvalues are maximal on rotationally symmetric domains
Laugesen, Richard S; Roy, Arindam
2011-01-01
The sum of the first n energy levels of the planar Laplacian with constant magnetic field of given total flux is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, under normalization of the ratio (moment of inertia)/(area)^3 on the domain. The result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions, with an analogue for Robin (or de Gennes) boundary conditions too. The square similarly maximizes the eigenvalue sum among parallelograms, and the disk maximizes among ellipses. More generally, a domain with rotational symmetry will maximize the magnetic eigenvalue sum among all linear images of that domain. These results are new even for the ground state energy (n=1).
Sums of Laplace eigenvalues - rotationally symmetric maximizers in the plane
Laugesen, R S
2010-01-01
The sum of the first $n \\geq 1$ eigenvalues of the Laplacian is shown to be maximal among triangles for the equilateral triangle, maximal among parallelograms for the square, and maximal among ellipses for the disk, provided the ratio $\\text{(area)}^3/\\text{(moment of inertia)}$ for the domain is fixed. This result holds for both Dirichlet and Neumann eigenvalues, and similar conclusions are derived for Robin boundary conditions and Schr\\"odinger eigenvalues of potentials that grow at infinity. A key ingredient in the method is the tight frame property of the roots of unity. For general convex plane domains, the disk is conjectured to maximize sums of Neumann eigenvalues.
Trend of maximal inspiratory pressure in mechanically ventilated patients: predictors
Pedro Caruso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is known that mechanical ventilation and many of its features may affect the evolution of inspiratory muscle strength during ventilation. However, this evolution has not been described, nor have its predictors been studied. In addition, a probable parallel between inspiratory and limb muscle strength evolution has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To describe the variation over time of maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and its predictors. We also studied the possible relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and limb muscle strength. METHODS: A prospective observational study was performed in consecutive patients submitted to mechanical ventilation for > 72 hours. The maximal inspiratory pressure trend was evaluated by the linear regression of the daily maximal inspiratory pressure and a logistic regression analysis was used to look for independent maximal inspiratory pressure trend predictors. Limb muscle strength was evaluated using the Medical Research Council score. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen patients were studied, forty-four of whom (37.9% presented a decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure over time. The members of the group in which maximal inspiratory pressure decreased underwent deeper sedation, spent less time in pressure support ventilation and were extubated less frequently. The only independent predictor of the maximal inspiratory pressure trend was the level of sedation (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.003 - 2.408; p = 0.049. There was no relationship between the maximal inspiratory pressure trend and limb muscle strength. CONCLUSIONS: Around forty percent of the mechanically ventilated patients had a decreased maximal inspiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation, which was independently associated with deeper levels of sedation. There was no relationship between the evolution of maximal inspiratory pressure and the muscular strength of the limb.
Colliander, E. B.; Dudley, G. A.; Tesch, P. A.
1988-01-01
Force output and fatigue and recovery patterns were studied during intermittent short-term exercise. 27 men performed three bouts of 30 maximal unilateral knee extensions on 2 different occasions. Blood flow was maintained or occluded during recovery periods (60 s). Blood flow was restricted by inflating a pneumatic cuff placed around the proximal thigh. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were analyzed for identification of fast twitch (FT) and slow twitch (ST) fibers and relative FT area. Peak torque decreased during each bout of exercise and more when blood flow was restricted during recovery. Initial peak torque (IPT) and average peak torque (APT) decreased over the three exercise bouts. This response was 3 fold greater without than with blood flow during recovery. IPT and APT decreased more in individuals with mainly FT fibers than in those with mainly ST fibers. It is suggested that performance during repeated bouts of maximal concentric contractions differs between individuals with different fiber type composition. Specifically, in high intensity, intermittent exercise with emphasis on anaerobic energy release a high FT composition may not necessarily be advantageous for performance.
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
An Overview of Maximal Unitarity at Two Loops
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.
2012-01-01
We discuss the extension of the maximal-unitarity method to two loops, focusing on the example of the planar double box. Maximal cuts are reinterpreted as contour integrals, with the choice of contour fixed by the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish on it. The resulting formulae, like their one-loop counterparts, can be applied either analytically or numerically.
The Negative Consequences of Maximizing in Friendship Selection.
Newman, David B; Schug, Joanna; Yuki, Masaki; Yamada, Junko; Nezlek, John B
2017-02-27
Previous studies have shown that the maximizing orientation, reflecting a motivation to select the best option among a given set of choices, is associated with various negative psychological outcomes. In the present studies, we examined whether these relationships extend to friendship selection and how the number of options for friends moderated these effects. Across 5 studies, maximizing in selecting friends was negatively related to life satisfaction, positive affect, and self-esteem, and was positively related to negative affect and regret. In Study 1, a maximizing in selecting friends scale was created, and regret mediated the relationships between maximizing and well-being. In a naturalistic setting in Studies 2a and 2b, the tendency to maximize among those who participated in the fraternity and sorority recruitment process was negatively related to satisfaction with their selection, and positively related to regret and negative affect. In Study 3, daily levels of maximizing were negatively related to daily well-being, and these relationships were mediated by daily regret. In Study 4, we extended the findings to samples from the U.S. and Japan. When participants who tended to maximize were faced with many choices, operationalized as the daily number of friends met (Study 3) and relational mobility (Study 4), the opportunities to regret a decision increased and further diminished well-being. These findings imply that, paradoxically, attempts to maximize when selecting potential friends is detrimental to one's well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass s
Utility maximization under solvency constraints and unhedgeable risks
T. Kleinow; A. Pelsser
2008-01-01
We consider the utility maximization problem for an investor who faces a solvency or risk constraint in addition to a budget constraint. The investor wishes to maximize her expected utility from terminal wealth subject to a bound on her expected solvency at maturity. We measure solvency using a solv
Detrimental Relations of Maximization with Academic and Career Attitudes
Dahling, Jason J.; Thompson, Mindi N.
2013-01-01
Maximization refers to a decision-making style that involves seeking the single best option when making a choice, which is generally dysfunctional because people are limited in their ability to rationally evaluate all options and identify the single best outcome. The vocational consequences of maximization are examined in two samples, college…
On a discrete version of Tanaka's theorem for maximal functions
Bober, Jonathan; Hughes, Kevin; Pierce, Lillian B
2010-01-01
In this paper we prove a discrete version of Tanaka's Theorem \\cite{Ta} for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator in dimension $n=1$, both in the non-centered and centered cases. For the discrete non-centered maximal operator $\\wM $ we prove that, given a function $f: \\Z \\to \\R$ of bounded variation,
Haemodynamics during maximal exercise after coronary bypass surgery
P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); M.F. Rousseau (Francois); J. Cosyns; R. Ponlot; L.A. Brasseur; J-M.R. Detry (Jean-Marie)
1978-01-01
textabstractFifty patients underwent an objective measurement of physical working capacity by means of a multistage test of maximally tolerated exertion before and after coronary bypass surgery; 29 patients also had haemodynamic measurements during maximal exercise before and after coronary bypass
A Class of Maximal Functions with Oscillating Kernels
Ahmad AL-SALMAN
2007-01-01
The author studies the Lp mapping properties of a class of maximal functions that are related to oscillatory singular integral operators. Lp estimates, as well as the corresponding weighted estimates of such maximal functions, are obtained. Moreover, several applications of our results are highlighted.
ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
Yulan Jiao
2010-01-01
In this paper,some mapping properties are considered for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator whose kernel satisfies certain minimum regularity condition.It is proved that certain uniform local estimate for doubly truncated operators implies the LP(Rn)(1
maximal operator.
Maximally Flat Waveforms Operation of Class-F Power Amplifiers
V. Krizhanovski
2001-04-01
Full Text Available The requirements to output network's impedance on higher harmoniccomponents and appropriate input driving for formation maximally flatwaveforms of drain current and voltage were presented. Using suchwaveforms allows obtaining maximal efficiency and output powercapability of class-F power amplifiers.
Entanglement of Superpositions of Orthogonal Maximally Entangled States
ZHANG Dao-Hua; ZHOU Duan-Lu; FAN Heng
2010-01-01
@@ We study the entanglement properties of the superposed state of orthogonal maximally entangled states.It is shown that the superposed state is maximally entangled and the superposed state is separable.The relation between the superposed state and the mutually unbiased state is discussed.
CHROMATIC NUMBER OF SQUARE OF MAXIMAL OUTERPLANAR GRAPHS
Luo Xiaofang
2007-01-01
Let χ(G2) denote the chromatic number of the square of a maximal outerplanar graph G and Q denote a maximal outerplanar graph obtained by adding three chords and χ(G2) = Δ + 2 if and only if G is Q, where Δ represents the maximum degree of G.
SAR image target segmentation based on entropy maximization and morphology
柏正尧; 刘洲峰; 何佩琨
2004-01-01
Entropy maximization thresholding is a simple, effective image segmentation method. The relation between the histogram entropy and the gray level of an image is analyzed. An approach, which speeds the computation of optimal threshold based on entropy maximization, is proposed. The suggested method has been applied to the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image targets segmentation. Mathematical morphology works well in reducing the residual noise.
Effect of Age and Other Factors on Maximal Heart Rate.
Londeree, Ben R.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.
1982-01-01
To reduce confusion regarding reported effects of age on maximal exercise heart rate, a comprehensive review of the relevant English literature was conducted. Data on maximal heart rate after exercising with a bicycle, a treadmill, and after swimming were analyzed with regard to physical fitness and to age, sex, and racial differences. (Authors/PP)
On the maximal efficiency of the collisional Penrose process
Leiderschneider, Elly
2015-01-01
The center of mass (CM) energy in a collisional Penrose process - a collision taking place within the ergosphere of a Kerr black hole - can diverge under suitable extreme conditions (maximal Kerr, near horizon collision and suitable impact parameters). We present an analytic expression for the CM energy, refining expressions given in the literature. Even though the CM energy diverges, we show that the maximal energy attained by a particle that escapes the black hole's gravitational pull and reaches infinity is modest. We obtain an analytic expression for the energy of an escaping particle resulting from a collisional Penrose process, and apply it to derive the maximal energy and the maximal efficiency for several physical scenarios: pair annihilation, Compton scattering, and the elastic scattering of two massive particles. In all physically reasonable cases (in which the incident particles initially fall from infinity towards the black hole) the maximal energy (and the corresponding efficiency) are only one o...
Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives
Lundby, Carsten; Sander, Mikael; van Hall, Gerrit
2006-01-01
values obtained at sea level, the former values were almost completely restored to sea level values. This would suggest that the major determinant V(o2max)for not to increase with acclimatization is the observed reduction in maximal leg blood flow and O(2) conductance.......The tight relation between arterial oxygen content and maximum oxygen uptake (Vv(o2max)within a given person at sea level is diminished with altitude acclimatization. An explanation often suggested for this mismatch is impairment of the muscle O(2) extraction capacity with chronic hypoxia...... O(2) extraction at maximal exercise was 90.0+/-1.0% in the Danish lowlanders at sea level, and remained close to this value in all situations. In contrast to this, fractional arterial O(2) extraction was 83.2+/-2.8% in the high altitude natives, and did not change with the induction of normoxia...
Berthon, P; Fellmann, N
2002-09-01
The maximal aerobic velocity concept developed since eighties is considered as either the minimal velocity which elicits the maximal aerobic consumption or as the "velocity associated to maximal oxygen consumption". Different methods for measuring maximal aerobic velocity on treadmill in laboratory conditions have been elaborated, but all these specific protocols measure V(amax) either during a maximal oxygen consumption test or with an association of such a test. An inaccurate method presents a certain number of problems in the subsequent use of the results, for example in the elaboration of training programs, in the study of repeatability or in the determination of individual limit time. This study analyzes 14 different methods to understand their interests and limits in view to propose a general methodology for measuring V(amax). In brief, the test should be progressive and maximal without any rest period and of 17 to 20 min total duration. It should begin with a five min warm-up at 60-70% of the maximal aerobic power of the subjects. The beginning of the trial should be fixed so that four or five steps have to be run. The duration of the steps should be three min with a 1% slope and an increasing speed of 1.5 km x h(-1) until complete exhaustion. The last steps could be reduced at two min for a 1 km x h(-1) increment. The maximal aerobic velocity is adjusted in relation to duration of the last step.
Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim
sajjad rahmatian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.
Maximal strength training improves cycling economy in competitive cyclists.
Sunde, Arnstein; Støren, Oyvind; Bjerkaas, Marius; Larsen, Morten H; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan
2010-08-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of maximal strength training on cycling economy (CE) at 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max), work efficiency in cycling at 70% Vo2max, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power. Responses in 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and rate of force development (RFD) in half-squats, Vo2max, CE, work efficiency, and time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power were examined. Sixteen competitive road cyclists (12 men and 4 women) were randomly assigned into either an intervention or a control group. Thirteen (10 men and 3 women) cyclists completed the study. The intervention group (7 men and 1 woman) performed half-squats, 4 sets of 4 repetitions maximum, 3 times per week for 8 weeks, as a supplement to their normal endurance training. The control group continued their normal endurance training during the same period. The intervention manifested significant (p < 0.05) improvements in 1RM (14.2%), RFD (16.7%), CE (4.8%), work efficiency (4.7%), and time to exhaustion at pre-intervention maximal aerobic power (17.2%). No changes were found in Vo2max or body weight. The control group exhibited an improvement in work efficiency (1.4%), but this improvement was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller than that in the intervention group. No changes from pre- to postvalues in any of the other parameters were apparent in the control group. In conclusion, maximal strength training for 8 weeks improved CE and efficiency and increased time to exhaustion at maximal aerobic power among competitive road cyclists, without change in maximal oxygen uptake, cadence, or body weight. Based on the results from the present study, we advise cyclists to include maximal strength training in their training programs.
The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra
Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA
2006-01-01
We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.
Maximal regularity of second order delay equations in Banach spaces
无
2010-01-01
We give necessary and sufficient conditions of Lp-maximal regularity(resp.B sp ,q-maximal regularity or F sp ,q-maximal regularity) for the second order delay equations:u″(t)=Au(t) + Gu’t + F u t + f(t), t ∈ [0, 2π] with periodic boundary conditions u(0)=u(2π), u′(0)=u′(2π), where A is a closed operator in a Banach space X,F and G are delay operators on Lp([-2π, 0];X)(resp.Bsp ,q([2π, 0];X) or Fsp,q([-2π, 0;X])).
Building hospital TQM teams: effective polarity analysis and maximization.
Hurst, J B
1996-09-01
Building and maintaining teams require careful attention to and maximization of such polar opposites (¿polarities¿) as individual and team, directive and participatory leadership, task and process, and stability and change. Analyzing systematic elements of any polarity and listing blocks, supports, and flexible ways to maximize it will prevent the negative consequences that occur when treating a polarity like a solvable problem. Flexible, well-timed shifts from pole to pole result in the maximization of upside and minimization of downside consequences.
People believe each other to be selfish hedonic maximizers.
De Vito, Stefania; Bonnefon, Jean-François
2014-10-01
Current computational models of theory of mind typically assume that humans believe each other to selfishly maximize utility, for a conception of utility that makes it indistinguishable from personal gains. We argue that this conception is at odds with established facts about human altruism, as well as the altruism that humans expect from each other. We report two experiments showing that people expect other agents to selfishly maximize their pleasure, even when these other agents behave altruistically. Accordingly, defining utility as pleasure permits us to reconcile the assumption that humans expect each other to selfishly maximize utility with the fact that humans expect each other to behave altruistically.
Lp Estimates of Rough Maximal Functions Along Surfaces with Applications
Ahmad AL-SALMAN; Abdulla M. JARRAH
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the Lp mapping properties of certain class of maximal oscillatory singular integral operators. We prove a general theorem for a class of maximal functions along surfaces. As a consequence of such theorem, we establish the Lp boundedness of various maximal oscillatory singular integrals provided that their kernels belong to the natural space L log L(Sn−1). Moreover, we highlight some additional results concerning operators with kernels in certain block spaces. The results in this paper substantially improve previously known results.
Maximally entangled state can be a mixed state
Li, Zong-Guo; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Liu, W M
2009-01-01
We present mixed maximally entangled states in d\\otimes d' (d'\\geq 2d) spaces. This result is beyond the generally accepted fact that all maximally entangled states are pure. These states possess important properties of the pure maximally entangled states in $d\\otimes d$ systems, for example, they can be used as a resource for faithful teleportation, their local distinguishability property is also the same as the pure states case. On the other hand, one advantage of these mixed maximally entangled states is that the decoherence induced by certain noisy quantum channel does not destroy their entanglement. Thus one party of these mixed states can be sent through this channel to arbitrary distance while still keeping them as a valuable resource for quantum information processing. We also propose a scheme to prepare these states and confirm their advantage in NMR physical system.
Groups Satisfying the Maximal Condition on Non-modular Subgroups
Maria De Falco; Carmela Musella
2005-01-01
In this paper, (generalized) soluble groups for which the set of non-modular subgroups verifies the maximal condition and groups for which the set of non-permutable subgroups satisfies the same property are classified.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-01-01
.... Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs...
Maximal entanglement versus entropy for mixed quantum states
Wei, T C; Goldbart, P M; Kwiat, P G; Munro, W J; Verstraete, F; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Nemoto, Kae; Goldbart, Paul M.; Kwiat, Paul G.; Munro, William J.; Verstraete, Frank
2003-01-01
Maximally entangled mixed states are those states that, for a given mixedness, achieve the greatest possible entanglement. For two-qubit systems and for various combinations of entanglement and mixedness measures, the form of the corresponding maximally entangled mixed states is determined primarily analytically. As measures of entanglement, we consider entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, and negativity; as measures of mixedness, we consider linear and von Neumann entropies. We show that the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can vary with the combination of (entanglement and mixedness) measures chosen. Moreover, for certain combinations, the forms of the maximally entangled mixed states can change discontinuously at a specific value of the entropy.
Carnot cycle at finite power: attainability of maximal efficiency.
Allahverdyan, Armen E; Hovhannisyan, Karen V; Melkikh, Alexey V; Gevorkian, Sasun G
2013-08-01
We want to understand whether and to what extent the maximal (Carnot) efficiency for heat engines can be reached at a finite power. To this end we generalize the Carnot cycle so that it is not restricted to slow processes. We show that for realistic (i.e., not purposefully designed) engine-bath interactions, the work-optimal engine performing the generalized cycle close to the maximal efficiency has a long cycle time and hence vanishing power. This aspect is shown to relate to the theory of computational complexity. A physical manifestation of the same effect is Levinthal's paradox in the protein folding problem. The resolution of this paradox for realistic proteins allows to construct engines that can extract at a finite power 40% of the maximally possible work reaching 90% of the maximal efficiency. For purposefully designed engine-bath interactions, the Carnot efficiency is achievable at a large power.
Maximal induced paths and minimal percolating sets in hypercubes
Anil M. Shende
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For a graph $G$, the \\emph{$r$-bootstrap percolation} process can be described as follows: Start with an initial set $A$ of "infected'' vertices. Infect any vertex with at least $r$ infected neighbours, and continue this process until no new vertices can be infected. $A$ is said to \\emph{percolate in $G$} if eventually all the vertices of $G$ are infected. $A$ is a \\emph{minimal percolating set} in $G$ if $A$ percolates in $G$ and no proper subset of $A$ percolates in $G$. An induced path, $P$, in a hypercube $Q_n$ is maximal if no induced path in $Q_n$ properly contains $P$. Induced paths in hypercubes are also called snakes. We study the relationship between maximal snakes and minimal percolating sets (under 2-bootstrap percolation in hypercubes. In particular, we show that every maximal snake contains a minimal percolating set, and that every minimal percolating set is contained in a maximal snake.
Sensitivity to conversational maxims in deaf and hearing children.
Surian, Luca; Tedoldi, Mariantonia; Siegal, Michael
2010-09-01
We investigated whether access to a sign language affects the development of pragmatic competence in three groups of deaf children aged 6 to 11 years: native signers from deaf families receiving bimodal/bilingual instruction, native signers from deaf families receiving oralist instruction and late signers from hearing families receiving oralist instruction. The performance of these children was compared to a group of hearing children aged 6 to 7 years on a test designed to assess sensitivity to violations of conversational maxims. Native signers with bimodal/bilingual instruction were as able as the hearing children to detect violations that concern truthfulness (Maxim of Quality) and relevance (Maxim of Relation). On items involving these maxims, they outperformed both the late signers and native signers attending oralist schools. These results dovetail with previous findings on mindreading in deaf children and underscore the role of early conversational experience and instructional setting in the development of pragmatics.
Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic
Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)
2017-03-15
In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.
A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.
Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh
2015-02-01
A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.
IMRank: Influence Maximization via Finding Self-Consistent Ranking
Cheng, Suqi; Shen, Hua-Wei; Huang, Junming; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi
2014-01-01
Influence maximization, fundamental for word-of-mouth marketing and viral marketing, aims to find a set of seed nodes maximizing influence spread on social network. Early methods mainly fall into two paradigms with certain benefits and drawbacks: (1)Greedy algorithms, selecting seed nodes one by one, give a guaranteed accuracy relying on the accurate approximation of influence spread with high computational cost; (2)Heuristic algorithms, estimating influence spread using efficient heuristics,...
Probing the deviation from maximal mixing of atmospheric neutrinos
Choubey, S; Choubey, Sandhya; Roy, Probir
2006-01-01
Pioneering atmospheric muon neutrino experiments have demonstrated the near-maximal magnitude of the flavor mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. But the precise value of the deviation $D \\equiv 1/2 - \\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ from maximality (if nonzero) needs to be known, being of great interest -- especially to builders of neutrino mass and mixing models. We quantitatively investigate in a three generation framework the feasibility of determining $D$ in a statistically significant manner from studies of the atmospheric $\
Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization
Mygind, Niels
2004-01-01
including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... by other stakeholders' interests. These constraints vary for dif-ferent stakeholder owners and new standards for Corporate Social Responsibility and more active political consumers will strengthen these constraints....
Maximal speed of particles in super-Lévy process
LIN Zheng-yan; CHENG Zong-mao
2008-01-01
We introduce a super-Lévy process and study maximal speed of all particles process is a measure on the set of paths.We study the maximal speed of all particles during a given time period,which turns out to be a function of the packing dimension of the time period.We calculate the Hausdorff dimension of the set of a-fast patlls in the support and the range of the historical super-lévy process.
Evolution of Shanghai STOCK Market Based on Maximal Spanning Trees
Yang, Chunxia; Shen, Ying; Xia, Bingying
2013-01-01
In this paper, using a moving window to scan through every stock price time series over a period from 2 January 2001 to 11 March 2011 and mutual information to measure the statistical interdependence between stock prices, we construct a corresponding weighted network for 501 Shanghai stocks in every given window. Next, we extract its maximal spanning tree and understand the structure variation of Shanghai stock market by analyzing the average path length, the influence of the center node and the p-value for every maximal spanning tree. A further analysis of the structure properties of maximal spanning trees over different periods of Shanghai stock market is carried out. All the obtained results indicate that the periods around 8 August 2005, 17 October 2007 and 25 December 2008 are turning points of Shanghai stock market, at turning points, the topology structure of the maximal spanning tree changes obviously: the degree of separation between nodes increases; the structure becomes looser; the influence of the center node gets smaller, and the degree distribution of the maximal spanning tree is no longer a power-law distribution. Lastly, we give an analysis of the variations of the single-step and multi-step survival ratios for all maximal spanning trees and find that two stocks are closely bonded and hard to be broken in a short term, on the contrary, no pair of stocks remains closely bonded for a long time.
Maximal respiratory static pressures in patients with different stages of COPD severity
Ricci Alberto
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we analyzed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP values in a stable COPD population compared with normal subjects. We evaluated the possible correlation between functional maximal respiratory static pressures and functional and anthropometric parameters at different stages of COPD. Furthermore, we considered the possible correlation between airway obstruction and MIP and MEP values. Subject and methods 110 patients with stable COPD and 21 age-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Patients were subdivided according to GOLD guidelines: 31 mild, 39 moderate and 28 severe. Results Both MIP and MEP were lower in patients with severe airway impairment than in normal subjects. Moreover, we found a correlation between respiratory muscle function and some functional and anthropometric parameters: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second, FVC (forced vital capacity, PEF (peak expiratory flow, TLC (total lung capacity and height. MIP and MEP values were lower in patients with severe impairment than in patients with a slight reduction of FEV1. Conclusion The measurement of MIP and MEP indicates the state of respiratory muscles, thus providing clinicians with a further and helpful tool in monitoring the evolution of COPD.
Optimal Operation of Network-Connected Combined Heat and Powers for Customer Profit Maximization
Da Xie
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Network-connected combined heat and powers (CHPs, owned by a community, can export surplus heat and electricity to corresponding heat and electric networks after community loads are satisfied. This paper proposes a new optimization model for network-connected CHP operation. Both CHPs’ overall efficiency and heat to electricity ratio (HTER are assumed to vary with loading levels. Based on different energy flow scenarios where heat and electricity are exported to the network from the community or imported, four profit models are established accordingly. They reflect the different relationships between CHP energy supply and community load demand across time. A discrete optimization model is then developed to maximize the profit for the community. The models are derived from the intervals determined by the daily operation modes of CHP and real-time buying and selling prices of heat, electricity and natural gas. By demonstrating the proposed models on a 1 MW network-connected CHP, results show that the community profits are maximized in energy markets. Thus, the proposed optimization approach can help customers to devise optimal CHP operating strategies for maximizing benefits.
Tsiliyannis, Christos Aristeides
2013-09-01
Hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) differ substantially from thermal power facilities, since instead of maximizing energy production with the minimum amount of fuel, they aim at maximizing throughput. Variations in quantity or composition of received waste loads may significantly diminish HWI throughput (the decisive profit factor), from its nominal design value. A novel formulation of combustion balance is presented, based on linear operators, which isolates the wastefeed vector from the invariant combustion stoichiometry kernel. Explicit expressions for the throughput are obtained, in terms of incinerator temperature, fluegas heat recuperation ratio and design parameters, for an arbitrary number of wastes, based on fundamental principles (mass and enthalpy balances). The impact of waste variations, of recuperation ratio and of furnace temperature is explicitly determined. It is shown that in the presence of waste uncertainty, the throughput may be a decreasing or increasing function of incinerator temperature and recuperation ratio, depending on the sign of a dimensionless parameter related only to the uncertain wastes. The dimensionless parameter is proposed as a sharp a' priori waste 'fingerprint', determining the necessary increase or decrease of manipulated variables (recuperation ratio, excess air, auxiliary fuel feed rate, auxiliary air flow) in order to balance the HWI and maximize throughput under uncertainty in received wastes. A 10-step procedure is proposed for direct application subject to process capacity constraints. The results may be useful for efficient HWI operation and for preparing hazardous waste blends.
New checks and subtleties for AdS/CFT and a-maximization
Bertolini, M; Cotrone, A L
2004-01-01
We provide a cross-check of AdS/CFT and a-charge maximization for a four dimensional $N$=1 SCFT with irrational R-charges. The gauge theory is the low energy effective theory of N D3-branes at the tip of the complex cone over the first del Pezzo surface. By carefully taking into account the subtle issue of flavor symmetry breaking at the fixed point, we show, using a-maximization, that this theory has in fact irrational central charge and R-charges. Our results perfectly match with those inherited from the recently discovered supergravity dual background. Along analogous lines, we make novel predictions for the still unknown AdS dual of the quiver gauge theory for the second del Pezzo surface. This should flow to a SCFT with irrational charges, too. All of our results differ from previous findings in the literature and outline interesting subtleties in a-maximization and AdS/CFT techniques overlooked in the past.
New checks and subtleties for AdS/CFT and a-maximization
Bertolini, M.; Bigazzi, F.; Cotrone, A. L.
2004-12-01
We provide a cross-check of AdS/CFT and a-charge maximization for a four dimensional N=1 SCFT with irrational R-charges. The gauge theory is the low energy effective theory of N D3-branes at the tip of the complex cone over the first del Pezzo surface. By carefully taking into account the subtle issue of flavor symmetry breaking at the fixed point, we show, using a-maximization, that this theory has in fact irrational central charge and R-charges. Our results perfectly match with those inherited from the recently discovered supergravity dual background. Along analogous lines, we make novel predictions for the still unknown AdS dual of the quiver theory for the second del Pezzo surface. This should flow to a SCFT with irrational charges, too. All of our results differ from previous findings in the literature and outline interesting subtleties in a-maximization and AdS/CFT techniques overlooked in the past.
Maurice Schiff
1995-03-01
Full Text Available The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models. The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977. In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both countries improve their welfare relative to Nash equilibrium, and in the symmetric case, the follower's welfare is higher than that of the leader; (ii the revenue-maximizing Nash tax is larger than the optimum tax for each country; and (iii welfare may be higher in the revenue-maximizing Nash equilibrium than in the welfare-maximizing Nash equilibrium, a result which cannot arise in two-country models.
Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look.
Davydov, M; Krikorian, A D
2000-10-01
The adaptogen concept is examined from an historical, biological, chemical, pharmacological and medical perspective using a wide variety of primary and secondary literature. The definition of an adaptogen first proposed by Soviet scientists in the late 1950s, namely that an adaptogen is any substance that exerts effects on both sick and healthy individuals by 'correcting' any dysfunction(s) without producing unwanted side effects, was used as a point of departure. We attempted to identify critically what an adaptogen supposedly does and to determine whether the word embodies in and of itself any concept(s) acceptable to western conventional (allopathic) medicine. Special attention was paid to the reported pharmacological effects of the 'adaptogen-containing plant' Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae), referred to by some as 'Siberian ginseng', and to its secondary chemical composition. We conclude that so far as specific pharmacological activities are concerned there are a number of valid arguments for equating the action of so-called adaptogens with those of medicinal agents that have activities as anti-oxidants, and/or anti-cancerogenic, immunomodulatory and hypocholesteroletic as well as hypoglycemic and choleretic action. However, 'adaptogens' and 'anti-oxidants' etc. also show significant dissimilarities and these are discussed. Significantly, the classical definition of an adaptogen has much in common with views currently being invoked to describe and explain the 'placebo effect'. Nevertheless, the chemistry of the secondary compounds of Eleutherococcus isolated thus far and their pharmacological effects support our hypothesis that the reported beneficial effects of adaptogens derive from their capacity to exert protective and/or inhibitory action against free radicals. An inventory of the secondary substances contained in Eleutherococcus discloses a potential for a wide range of activities reported from work on cultured cell lines
Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K
2017-05-10
Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles.(1) We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (pincrease in TTT (pincrease in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.
UMR: A utility-maximizing routing algorithm for delay-sensitive service in LEO satellite networks
Lu Yong
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper develops a routing algorithm for delay-sensitive packet transmission in a low earth orbit multi-hop satellite network consists of micro-satellites. The micro-satellite low earth orbit (MS-LEO network endures unstable link connection and frequent link congestion due to the uneven user distribution and the link capacity variations. The proposed routing algorithm, referred to as the utility maximizing routing (UMR algorithm, improve the network utility of the MS-LEO network for carrying flows with strict end-to-end delay bound requirement. In UMR, first, a link state parameter is defined to capture the link reliability on continuing to keep the end-to-end delay into constraint; then, on the basis of this parameter, a routing metric is formulated and a routing scheme is designed for balancing the reliability in delay bound guarantee among paths and building a path maximizing the network utility expectation. While the UMR algorithm has many advantages, it may result in a higher blocking rate of new calls. This phenomenon is discussed and a weight factor is introduced into UMR to provide a flexible performance option for network operator. A set of simulations are conducted to verify the good performance of UMR, in terms of balancing the traffic distribution on inter-satellite links, reducing the flow interruption rate, and improving the network utility.
The Automorphism Groups of a Family of Maximal Curves
Guralnick, Robert; Pries, Rachel
2011-01-01
The Hasse Weil bound restricts the number of points of a curve which are defined over a finite field; if the number of points meets this bound, the curve is called maximal. Giulietti and Korchmaros introduced a curve C_3 which is maximal over F_{q^6} and determined its automorphism group. Garcia, Guneri, and Stichtenoth generalized this construction to a family of curves C_n, indexed by an odd integer n greater than or equal to 3, such that C_n is maximal over F_{q^{2n}}. In this paper, we determine the automorphism group Aut(C_n) when n > 3; in contrast with the case n=3, it fixes the point at infinity on C_n. The proof requires a new structural result about automorphism groups of curves in characteristic p such that each Sylow p-subgroup has exactly one fixed point. MSC:11G20, 14H37.
Online Learning of Assignments that Maximize Submodular Functions
Golovin, Daniel; Streeter, Matthew
2009-01-01
Which ads should we display in sponsored search in order to maximize our revenue? How should we dynamically rank information sources to maximize value of information? These applications exhibit strong diminishing returns: Selection of redundant ads and information sources decreases their marginal utility. We show that these and other problems can be formalized as repeatedly selecting an assignment of items to positions to maximize a sequence of monotone submodular functions that arrive one by one. We present an efficient algorithm for this general problem and analyze it in the no-regret model. Our algorithm possesses strong theoretical guarantees, such as a performance ratio that converges to the optimal constant of 1-1/e. We empirically evaluate our algorithm on two real-world online optimization problems on the web: ad allocation with submodular utilities, and dynamically ranking blogs to detect information cascades.
Optimal bounded control for maximizing reliability of Duhem hysteretic systems
Ming XU; Xiaoling JIN; Yong WANG; Zhilong HUANG
2015-01-01
The optimal bounded control of stochastic-excited systems with Duhem hysteretic components for maximizing system reliability is investigated. The Duhem hysteretic force is transformed to energy-depending damping and stiffness by the energy dissipation balance technique. The controlled system is transformed to the equivalent non-hysteretic system. Stochastic averaging is then implemented to obtain the Itˆo stochastic equation associated with the total energy of the vibrating system, appropriate for eval-uating system responses. Dynamical programming equations for maximizing system re-liability are formulated by the dynamical programming principle. The optimal bounded control is derived from the maximization condition in the dynamical programming equa-tion. Finally, the conditional reliability function and mean time of first-passage failure of the optimal Duhem systems are numerically solved from the Kolmogorov equations. The proposed procedure is illustrated with a representative example.
Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans
Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S
1996-01-01
1. Unaccustomed eccentric exercise decreases whole-body insulin action in humans. To study the effects of one-legged eccentric exercise on insulin action in muscle and systemically, the euglycaemic clamp technique combined with arterial and bilateral femoral venous catheterization was used. Seven...... subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P eccentric exercise, muscle and whole-body insulin action is impaired at maximal...
Cross-Order Integral Relations from Maximal Cuts
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J.; Søgaard, Mads
2015-01-01
We study the ABDK relation using maximal cuts of one- and two-loop integrals with up to five external legs. We show how to find a special combination of integrals that allows the relation to exist, and how to reconstruct the terms with one-loop integrals squared. The reconstruction relies on the observation that integrals across different loop orders can have support on the same generalized unitarity cuts and can share global poles. We discuss the appearance of nonhomologous integration contours in multivariate residues. Their origin can be understood in simple terms, and their existence enables us to distinguish contributions from different integrals. Our analysis suggests that maximal and near-maximal cuts can be used to infer the existence of integral identities more generally.
Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models
Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.
1987-01-01
The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem.
The F-Theorem and F-Maximization
Pufu, Silviu S
2016-01-01
This contribution contains a review of the role of the three-sphere free energy F in recent developments related to the F-theorem and F-maximization. The F-theorem states that for any Lorentz-invariant RG trajectory connecting a conformal field theory CFT_UV in the ultraviolet to a conformal field theory CFT_IR, the F-coefficient decreases: F_UV > F_IR. I provide many examples of CFTs where one can compute F, approximately or exactly, and discuss various checks of the F-theorem. F-maximization is the principle that in an N=2 SCFT, viewed as the deep IR limit of an RG trajectory preserving N=2 supersymmetry, the superconformal R-symmetry maximizes F within the set of all R-symmetries preserved by the RG trajectory. I review the derivation of this result and provide examples.
Maximal supports and Schur-positivity among connected skew shapes
McNamara, Peter R W
2011-01-01
The Schur-positivity order on skew shapes is defined by B \\leq A if the difference s_A - s_B is Schur-positive. It is an open problem to determine those connected skew shapes that are maximal with respect to this ordering. A strong sufficient condition for the Schur-positivity of s_A - s_B is that the support of B is contained in that of A, where the support of B is defined to be the set of partitions lambda for which s_lambda appears in the Schur expansion of s_B. We show that to determine the maximal connected skew shapes in the Schur-positivity order and this support containment order, it suffices to consider a special class of ribbon shapes. We explicitly determine the support for these ribbon shapes, thereby determining the maximal connected skew shapes in the support containment order.
Kakeya sets and directional maximal operators in the plane
Bateman, Michael
2009-01-01
We completely characterize the boundedness of planar directional maximal operators on $L^p$ . More precisely, if $\\Omega$ is a set of directions, we show that $M_{\\Omega}$ , the maximal operator associated to line segments in the directions $\\Omega$ , is unbounded on $L^p$ for all $p \\lt \\infty$ precisely when $\\Omega$ admits Kakeya-type sets. In fact, we show that if $\\Omega$ does not admit Kakeya sets, then $\\Omega$ is a generalized lacunary set, and hence, $M_{\\Omega}$ is bounded on $L^p$ ...
Maximal slicings in spherical symmetry: local existence and construction
Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio; 10.1063/1.3658864
2011-01-01
We show that any spherically symmetric spacetime locally admits a maximal spacelike slicing and we give a procedure allowing its construction. The construction procedure that we have designed is based on purely geometrical arguments and, in practice, leads to solve a decoupled system of first order quasi-linear partial differential equations. We have explicitly built up maximal foliations in Minkowski and Friedmann spacetimes. Our approach admits further generalizations and efficient computational implementation. As by product, we suggest some applications of our work in the task of calibrating Numerical Relativity complex codes, usually written in Cartesian coordinates.
How High Might the Revenue-maximizing Tax Rate Be?
Usher, Dan
2014-01-01
Through tax evasion, through the labour-leisure choice or in other ways, taxpayers reduce the tax base in response to an increase in the tax rate. The process is commonly-believed to generate a humped Laffer curve with a revenue-maximizing tax rate well short of 100%. That need not be so. In the â€œnew tax responsiveness literatureâ€ , the revenue-maximizing tax rate is inferred from the observed â€œelasticity of taxable incomeâ€ . It is shown in this article 1) that the inference is unwarran...
Maximizing opto‐mechanical interaction using topology optimization
Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole
2011-01-01
This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization is perfo......This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization...
Constraining Torsion in Maximally symmetric (sub)spaces
Sur, Sourav
2013-01-01
We look into the general aspects of space-time symmetries in presence of torsion, and how the latter is affected by such symmetries. Focusing in particular to space-times which either exhibit maximal symmetry on their own, or could be decomposed to maximally symmetric subspaces, we work out the constraints on torsion in two different theoretical schemes. We show that at least for a completely antisymmetric torsion tensor (for e.g. the one motivated from string theory), an equivalence is set between these two schemes, as the non-vanishing independent torsion tensor components turn out to be the same.
Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces
Yan, Dongming
2012-01-01
In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.
Gap processing for adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling
Yan, Dongming
2013-09-01
In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.
Approximation algorithms for indefinite complex quadratic maximization problems
无
2010-01-01
In this paper,we consider the following indefinite complex quadratic maximization problem: maximize zHQz,subject to zk ∈ C and zkm = 1,k = 1,...,n,where Q is a Hermitian matrix with trQ = 0,z ∈ Cn is the decision vector,and m 3.An (1/log n) approximation algorithm is presented for such problem.Furthermore,we consider the above problem where the objective matrix Q is in bilinear form,in which case a 0.7118 cos mπ 2approximation algorithm can be constructed.In the context of quadratic optimization,various extensions and connections of the model are discussed.
Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM
Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2012-05-15
A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.
Greedy SINR Maximization in Collaborative Multibase Wireless Systems
Popescu Otilia
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We present a codeword adaptation algorithm for collaborative multibase wireless systems. The system is modeled with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO in which information is transmitted using multicode CDMA, and codewords are adapted based on greedy maximization of the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio. The procedure monotonically increases the sum capacity and, when repeated iteratively for all codewords in the system, converges to a fixed point. Fixed-point properties and a connection with sum capacity maximization, along with a discussion of simulations that corroborate the basic analytic results, are included in the paper.
Weighted Inequalities for the Generalized Maximal Operator in Martingale Spaces
Wei CHEN; Peide LIU
2011-01-01
The generalized maximal operator M in martingale spaces is considered.For 1 ＜ p ≤ q ＜ ∞,the authors give a necessary and sufficient condition on the pair (（μ),v)for M to be a bounded operator from martingale space LP(v) into Lq(（μ）) or weak-Lq(（μ）),where （μ） is a measure on Ω× N and v a weight on Ω.Moreover,the similar inequalities for usual maximal operator are discussed.
Simulating Entangling Unitary Operator Using Non-maximally Entangled States
LI Chun-Xian; WANG Cheng-Zhi; NIE Liu-Ying; LI Jiang-Fan
2009-01-01
We use non-maximally entangled states (NMESs) to simulate an entangling unitary operator (EUO) w/th a certain probability. Given entanglement resources, the probability of the success we achieve is a decreasing function of the parameters of the EUO. Given an EUO, for certain entanglement resources the result is optimal, i.e., the probability obtains a maximal value, and for optimal result higher parameters of the EUO match more amount of entanglement resources. The probability of the success we achieve is higher than the known results under some condition.
Has the Brain Maximized its Information Storage Capacity?
Stepanyants, A L
2003-01-01
Learning and memory may rely on the ability of neuronal circuits to reorganize by dendritic spine remodeling. We have looked for geometrical parameters of cortical circuits, which maximize information storage capacity associated with this mechanism. In particular, we calculated optimal volume fractions of various neuropil components. The optimal axonal and dendritic volume fractions are not significantly different from anatomical measurements in the mouse and rat neocortex, and the rat hippocampus. This has led us to propose that the maximization of information storage capacity associated with dendritic spine remodeling may have been an important driving force in the evolution of the cortex.
Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces
Guo, Jianwei
2015-02-01
Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.
2010-04-01
... Employment and Training Administration Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor...). Information shows that Maxim Integrated Products was formerly known as Dallas Semiconductor. Some workers... insurance (UI) tax accounts under the names Maxim Integrated Products, Inc. and Dallas...
Kamenetzky, S A
1993-06-01
In the face of decreasing reimbursement and increasing expenses, careful cash flow management has assumed an increasingly important role in developing and maintaining a successful ophthalmology practice. Funds must be collected as promptly and efficiently as possible, and retained and invested until needed by the practice to pay expenses. Office collection techniques and suggestions for dealing with third-party payers are presented. Managed care contracting and the inherent risks involved are discussed. Advice on accounts payable management is provided, and suggestions for investment of idle funds are outlined. This information should allow the formulation of a practical plan to maximize profitability in each ophthalmology practice.
Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength
Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B
1993-01-01
The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects on...
Octonionization of three player, two strategy maximally entangled quantum games
Ahmed, Aden; Bleiler, Steve; Khan, Faisal Shah
2008-01-01
We develop an octonionic representation of the payoff function for three player, two strategy, maximally entangled quantum games in order to obtain computationally friendly version of this function. This computational capability is then exploited to analyze and potentially classify the Nash equilibria in the quantum games.
Neuromuscular fatigue after maximal exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis.
Vallier, J M; Gruet, M; Mely, L; Pensini, M; Brisswalter, J
2011-04-01
The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), despite their ventilatory limitation, would develop neuromuscular fatigue of quadriceps muscles following a maximal cycling exercise. Eleven adults with CF (age=26.8±6.9years; forced expiratory volume in 1s=54.1±12.8% predicted) and 11 age-matched healthy subjects performed a maximal incremental cycle test with respiratory gas exchange measurements. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis muscle were recorded before and after exercise. Neural and contractile properties of the quadriceps were also investigated using femoral nerve electrical stimulation. Patients had lower exercise capacity, peak oxygen uptake and MVC than controls. MVC fell significantly postexercise in both groups (CF: -20±10%, controls: -19±6%; ppattern (-38.4±14.4%, -42.1±14.7% and -15±20.4%) but the statistical significance was not reached for the maximal rate of twitch torque relaxation. In conclusion, CF patients demonstrated lower limb fatigue following symptom-limited cycle exercise, which was comparable to that exhibited by healthy controls. This fatigue may be due to contractile impairments and not to transmission failure. Further studies should be conducted in a larger sample to confirm these preliminary results.
Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication
Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko
2014-01-01
In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization al...
Joint Iterative Carrier Synchronization and Signal Detection Employing Expectation Maximization
Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel
2014-01-01
In this paper, joint estimation of carrier frequency, phase, signal means and noise variance, in a maximum likelihood sense, is performed iteratively by employing expectation maximization. The parameter estimation is soft decision driven and allows joint carrier synchronization and data detection...
Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue
Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van
2013-01-01
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-e
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval
Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria
2011-01-01
useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.
Optimal technique for maximal forward rotating vaults in men's gymnastics.
Hiley, Michael J; Jackson, Monique I; Yeadon, Maurice R
2015-08-01
In vaulting a gymnast must generate sufficient linear and angular momentum during the approach and table contact to complete the rotational requirements in the post-flight phase. This study investigated the optimization of table touchdown conditions and table contact technique for the maximization of rotation potential for forwards rotating vaults. A planar seven-segment torque-driven computer simulation model of the contact phase in vaulting was evaluated by varying joint torque activation time histories to match three performances of a handspring double somersault vault by an elite gymnast. The closest matching simulation was used as a starting point to maximize post-flight rotation potential (the product of angular momentum and flight time) for a forwards rotating vault. It was found that the maximized rotation potential was sufficient to produce a handspring double piked somersault vault. The corresponding optimal touchdown configuration exhibited hip flexion in contrast to the hyperextended configuration required for maximal height. Increasing touchdown velocity and angular momentum lead to additional post-flight rotation potential. By increasing the horizontal velocity at table touchdown, within limits obtained from recorded performances, the handspring double somersault tucked with one and a half twists, and the handspring triple somersault tucked became theoretically possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Two-Loop Maximal Unitarity with External Masses
Johansson, Henrik; Larsen, Kasper J
2013-01-01
We extend the maximal unitarity method at two loops to double-box basis integrals with up to three external massive legs. We use consistency equations based on the requirement that integrals of total derivatives vanish. We obtain unique formulae for the coefficients of the master double-box integrals. These formulae can be used either analytically or numerically.
The influence of body position on maximal performance in cycling.
Welbergen, E; Clijsen, L P
1990-01-01
Six healthy male subjects performed a 3-min supramaximal test in four different cycling positions: two with different trunk angles and two with different saddle-tube angles. Maximal power output and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) were measured. Maximal power output was significantly higher in a standard sitting (SS, 381 W, SD 49) upright position compared to all other positions: standard racing (SR, 364 W, SD 49), recumbent backwards (RB, 355 W, SD 44) and recumbent forwards (RF, 341 W, SD 54). Although VO2max was also highest in SS (4.31 l.min-1, SD 0.5) upright position, the differences in VO2max were not significant (SR, 4.2 l.min-1, SD 0.53; RB, 4.17 l.min-1, SD 0.58; RF, 4.11 l.min-1, SD 0.66). It is concluded that (supra)maximal tests on a cycle ergometer should be performed in a sitting upright position and not in a racing position. In some cases when cycling on the road, higher speeds can be attained when sitting upright. This is especially true when cycling uphill when high power must be generated to overcome gravity but the road speed, and hence the power required to overcome air resistance, is relatively low.
A Revenue Maximization Approach for Provisioning Services in Clouds
Li Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available With the increased reliability, security, and reduced cost of cloud services, more and more users are attracted to having their jobs and applications outsourced into IAAS data centers. For a cloud provider, deciding how to provision services to clients is far from trivial. The objective of this decision is maximizing the provider’s revenue, while fulfilling its IAAS resource constraints. The above problem is defined as IAAS cloud provider revenue maximization (ICPRM problem in this paper. We formulate a service provision approach to help a cloud provider to determine which combination of clients to admit and in what Quality-of-Service (QoS levels and to maximize provider’s revenue given its available resources. We show that the overall problem is a nondeterministic polynomial- (NP- hard one and develop metaheuristic solutions based on the genetic algorithm to achieve revenue maximization. The experimental simulations and numerical results show that the proposed approach is both effective and efficient in solving ICPRM problems.
Teacher Praise: Maximizing the Motivational Impact. Teaching Strategies.
McVey, Mary D.
2001-01-01
Recognizes the influence of praise on human behavior, and provides specific suggestions on how to maximize the positive effects of praise when intended as positive reinforcement. Examines contingency, specificity, and selectivity aspects of praise. Cautions teachers to avoid the controlling effects of praise and the possibility that praise may…
Maximizing Access, Equity, and Inclusion in General and Special Education
Obiakor, Festus E.
2011-01-01
The goal of any educational program is to help its students to maximize their fullest potential in inclusive environments. For many students with disabilities, having an inclusive environment seems to be an ideal policy. Ironically, this policy continues to be debatable and controversial. Sometimes, the controversy or debate dominates the real…
How to Maximize Learning for Gifted Math Students
Chamberlin, Scott A.
2008-01-01
Having a gifted math or science student in the family or classroom is a fascination as well as a significant challenge and responsibility for many parents and teachers. In order to help maximize student learning, several questions need to be asked. What should be the role of technology? How well do traditional schools serve gifted students? What…
Curriculum and Testing Strategies to Maximize Special Education STAAR Achievement
Johnson, William L.; Johnson, Annabel M.; Johnson, Jared W.
2015-01-01
This document is from a presentation at the 2015 annual conference of the Science Teachers Association of Texas (STAT). The two sessions (each listed as feature sessions at the state conference) examined classroom strategies the presenter used in his chemistry classes to maximize Texas end-of-course chemistry test scores for his special population…
Simplicity and maximal commutative subalgebras of twisted generalized Weyl algebras
Hartwig, J.T.; Öinert, Per Johan
2013-01-01
conditions for certain TGWAs to be simple, in the case when R is commutative. We illustrate our theorems by considering some special classes of TGWAs and providing concrete examples. We also discuss how simplicity of a TGWA is related to the maximal commutativity of R and the (non-)existence of non...
The Long Conversation Maximizing Business Value from Information Technology Investment
Lorenzo, Oswaldo; González, Gastón; Ramdani, Boumediene
2011-01-01
For many years companies have been investing in enterprise systems and IT initiatives but they are now struggling to achieve the desired results. It takes a long time to make the best of your enterprise systems so businesses must stop looking for the next technology 'silver bullet' and instead maximize the value of existing IT investments.
5D Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills on the Lattice
Joseph, Anosh
2016-01-01
We provide details of the lattice construction of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The lattice theory is supersymmetric, gauge invariant and free from spectrum doublers. Such a supersymmetric lattice formulation is interesting as it can be used for non-perturbative explorations of the five-dimensional theory, which has a known gravitational dual.
Entropy Maximization and the Spatial Distribution of Species
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.
2010-01-01
Entropy maximization (EM, also known as MaxEnt) is a general inference procedure that originated in statistical mechanics. It has been applied recently to predict ecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions and species-area relationships. It is well known in physics that the EM resu
AN EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR MAXIMAL ELEMENTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Hou Jicheng; He Wei
2007-01-01
An existence theorem of maximal elements for an L*-majorized correspondence de-fined on a non-paracompact H-space is established. As applications of the result, an equilibrium existence theorem for a non-paracompact generalized game in H-spaces with infinitely many players and with L*-majorized correspondences is given.
Successive superalgebraic truncations from the four-dimensional maximal supergravity
Kim, C H; Kim, K Y; Kim, Y; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Young Jai; Kim, Kee Yong; Kim, Yongduk
1994-01-01
We study the four-dimensional {\\it N}=8 maximal supergravity in the context of Lie superalgebra SU(8/1). All possible successive superalgebraic truncations from four-dimensional {\\it N}=8 theory to {\\it N}=7, 6, \\cdots, 1 supergravity theories are systematically realized as sub-superalgebra chains of SU(8/1) by using the Kac-Dynkin weight techniques.
Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation
Airton Castro
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.
Statistical mechanics of influence maximization with thermal noise
Lynn, Christopher W.; Lee, Daniel D.
2017-03-01
The problem of optimally distributing a budget of influence among individuals in a social network, known as influence maximization, has typically been studied in the context of contagion models and deterministic processes, which fail to capture stochastic interactions inherent in real-world settings. Here, we show that by introducing thermal noise into influence models, the dynamics exactly resemble spins in a heterogeneous Ising system. In this way, influence maximization in the presence of thermal noise has a natural physical interpretation as maximizing the magnetization of an Ising system given a budget of external magnetic field. Using this statistical mechanical formulation, we demonstrate analytically that for small external-field budgets, the optimal influence solutions exhibit a highly non-trivial temperature dependence, focusing on high-degree hub nodes at high temperatures and on easily influenced peripheral nodes at low temperatures. For the general problem, we present a projected gradient ascent algorithm that uses the magnetic susceptibility to calculate locally optimal external-field distributions. We apply our algorithm to synthetic and real-world networks, demonstrating that our analytic results generalize qualitatively. Our work establishes a fruitful connection with statistical mechanics and demonstrates that influence maximization depends crucially on the temperature of the system, a fact that has not been appreciated by existing research.
Determinants of maximally attained level of pulmonary function
Wang, XB; Mensinga, TT; Schouten, JP; Rijcken, B; Weiss, ST
2004-01-01
This study investigated the determinants of sex-specific maximally attained levels of FEV1, VC, and the ratio of FEV1 to VC. Subjects were between the ages of 15 and 35 years (1,818 males and 1,732 females), participating in the Vlagtwedde/Vlaardingen study in The Netherlands. The subjects were foll
Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education
Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue
2014-01-01
Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…
Should I Stay or Should I Go? Maximizers versus Satisficers
Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy; King, Stephanie L.
2008-01-01
In the present study, university students were presented a scenario in which a married couple was struggling in their marriage. These students were asked how likely it is that they would stay in a difficult marriage like the one described in the scenario. Each student also completed Schwartz's (2004) Maximization Scale. High scorers on this scale…
Nursing Students' Awareness and Intentional Maximization of Their Learning Styles
Mayfield, Linda Riggs
2012-01-01
This small, descriptive, pilot study addressed survey data from four levels of nursing students who had been taught to maximize their learning styles in a first-semester freshman success skills course. Bandura's Agency Theory supports the design. The hypothesis was that without reinforcing instruction, the students' recall and application of that…
The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2009-01-01
We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely car
Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States
Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2002-01-01
The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...
Optoelectronic plethysmography compared to spirometry during maximal exercise.
Layton, Aimee M; Moran, Sienna L; Garber, Carol Ewing; Armstrong, Hilary F; Basner, Robert C; Thomashow, Byron M; Bartels, Matthew N
2013-01-15
The purpose of this study was to compare simultaneous measurements of tidal volume (Vt) by optoelectronic plethysmography (OEP) and spirometry during a maximal cycling exercise test to quantify possible differences between methods. Vt measured simultaneously by OEP and spirometry was collected during a maximal exercise test in thirty healthy participants. The two methods were compared by linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis at submaximal and maximal exercise. The average difference between the two methods and the mean percentage discrepancy were calculated. Submaximal exercise (SM) and maximal exercise (M) Vt measured by OEP and spirometry had very good correlation, SM R=0.963 (pspirometry. OEP could measure exercise Vt as much as 0.188 L above and -0.017 L below that of spirometry. The discrepancy between measurements was -2.0 ± 7.2% at SM and -2.4 ± 3.9% at M. In conclusion, Vt measurements at during exercise by OEP and spirometry are closely correlated and the difference between measurements was insignificant.
Entropy Maximization and the Spatial Distribution of Species
Haegeman, Bart; Etienne, Rampal S.
Entropy maximization (EM, also known as MaxEnt) is a general inference procedure that originated in statistical mechanics. It has been applied recently to predict ecological patterns, such as species abundance distributions and species-area relationships. It is well known in physics that the EM
On Maximal Subgroups of a Finite Solvable Group
Gritsuk, D V
2011-01-01
The following result is received: Let $H$ be a non-normal maximal subgroup of a finite solvable group $G$ and let $q \\in \\pi(F(H/\\mathrm{Core}_GH))$, then $G$ has a Sylow $q$-subgroup $Q$ such that $N_{G}(Q) \\subseteq H$.
The Effects of Leniency on Maximal Cartel Pricing
Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.
2009-01-01
We analyze maximal cartel prices in infnitely-repeated oligopoly models under leniency where fines are linked to illegal gains, as often outlined in existing antitrust regulation, and detection probabilities depend on the degree of collusion. We introduce cartel culture that describes how likely
Emotional Control and Instructional Effectiveness: Maximizing a Timeout
Andrews, Staci R.
2015-01-01
This article provides recommendations for best practices for basketball coaches to maximize the instructional effectiveness of a timeout during competition. Practical applications are derived from research findings linking emotional intelligence to effective coaching behaviors. Additionally, recommendations are based on the implications of the…
Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing
van der Scheer, H.R.
1998-01-01
An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct
The Bianchi classification of maximal D=8 gauged supergravities
Bergshoeff, E; Gran, U; Linares, R; Nielsen, M; Ortin, T; Roest, D
2004-01-01
We construct maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities by the reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds. Such manifolds have been classified by Bianchi. We divide the corresponding gauged supergravities into two classes: class A (with a Lagrangian) and class B (without a Lagr
The Bianchi classification of maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities
Bergshoeff, E.; Gran, U.; Linares, R.; Nielsen, M.; Ortín, T.; Roest, D.
2004-01-01
We construct maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities by the reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds. Such manifolds have been classified by Bianchi. We divide the corresponding gauged supergravities into two classes: class A (with a Lagrangian) and class B (without a Lagr
Minimal fusion systems with a unique maximal parabolic
Henke, Ellen
2011-01-01
We define minimal fusion systems in a way that every non-solvable fusion system has a section which is minimal. Minimal fusion systems can also be seen as analogs of Thompson's N-groups. In this paper, we consider a minimal fusion system F on a finite p-group S that has a unique maximal p-local s...
Neural network approach for solving the maximal common subgraph problem.
Shoukry, A; Aboutabl, M
1996-01-01
A new formulation of the maximal common subgraph problem (MCSP), that is implemented using a two-stage Hopfield neural network, is given. Relative merits of this proposed formulation, with respect to current neural network-based solutions as well as classical sequential-search-based solutions, are discussed.
Maximally parallel attribute on P Systems:Properties and applications
Chunyi Huang; Xiaoju Dong
2008-01-01
In this paper,we investigate the maximally parallel attribute of P Systems.Some properties of P Systems are introduced,which are the filter property and the enumeration property.The two properties are applied to solving the sorting problem and the Hamilton cycle problem.respectively.
Maximal isometric strength of the cervical musculature in 100 healthy volunteers
Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Bülow, P M
1999-01-01
A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.......A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature....
Solving the influence maximization problem reveals regulatory organization of the yeast cell cycle.
David L Gibbs
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The Influence Maximization Problem (IMP aims to discover the set of nodes with the greatest influence on network dynamics. The problem has previously been applied in epidemiology and social network analysis. Here, we demonstrate the application to cell cycle regulatory network analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fundamentally, gene regulation is linked to the flow of information. Therefore, our implementation of the IMP was framed as an information theoretic problem using network diffusion. Utilizing more than 26,000 regulatory edges from YeastMine, gene expression dynamics were encoded as edge weights using time lagged transfer entropy, a method for quantifying information transfer between variables. By picking a set of source nodes, a diffusion process covers a portion of the network. The size of the network cover relates to the influence of the source nodes. The set of nodes that maximizes influence is the solution to the IMP. By solving the IMP over different numbers of source nodes, an influence ranking on genes was produced. The influence ranking was compared to other metrics of network centrality. Although the top genes from each centrality ranking contained well-known cell cycle regulators, there was little agreement and no clear winner. However, it was found that influential genes tend to directly regulate or sit upstream of genes ranked by other centrality measures. The influential nodes act as critical sources of information flow, potentially having a large impact on the state of the network. Biological events that affect influential nodes and thereby affect information flow could have a strong effect on network dynamics, potentially leading to disease. Code and data can be found at: https://github.com/gibbsdavidl/miergolf.
Solving the influence maximization problem reveals regulatory organization of the yeast cell cycle
Shmulevich, Ilya
2017-01-01
The Influence Maximization Problem (IMP) aims to discover the set of nodes with the greatest influence on network dynamics. The problem has previously been applied in epidemiology and social network analysis. Here, we demonstrate the application to cell cycle regulatory network analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fundamentally, gene regulation is linked to the flow of information. Therefore, our implementation of the IMP was framed as an information theoretic problem using network diffusion. Utilizing more than 26,000 regulatory edges from YeastMine, gene expression dynamics were encoded as edge weights using time lagged transfer entropy, a method for quantifying information transfer between variables. By picking a set of source nodes, a diffusion process covers a portion of the network. The size of the network cover relates to the influence of the source nodes. The set of nodes that maximizes influence is the solution to the IMP. By solving the IMP over different numbers of source nodes, an influence ranking on genes was produced. The influence ranking was compared to other metrics of network centrality. Although the top genes from each centrality ranking contained well-known cell cycle regulators, there was little agreement and no clear winner. However, it was found that influential genes tend to directly regulate or sit upstream of genes ranked by other centrality measures. The influential nodes act as critical sources of information flow, potentially having a large impact on the state of the network. Biological events that affect influential nodes and thereby affect information flow could have a strong effect on network dynamics, potentially leading to disease. Code and data can be found at: https://github.com/gibbsdavidl/miergolf. PMID:28628618
Cohen, Sarah P; Orenstein, David M
2014-12-01
Disease progression in cystic fibrosis (CF) is marked by worsening exercise tolerance. Further, maximal exercise capacity (VO2 peak) correlates with survival in CF, but maximal tests are uncomfortable and resource-intensive. A three-minute step test (STEP) has been validated in CF. Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise correlates with all-cause mortality in adult non-CF populations. We compared HR recovery after the three-minute step test with VO2 peak in children with CF. Twenty-four children with CF performed STEP and a maximal exercise test. Correlation between the tests was assessed. Maximum HR on STEP was lower than on the maximal test (140 vs. 190, p<0.01). Peak HR during STEP correlated inversely with VO2 peak. In subjects with mild lung disease, faster HR recovery after STEP correlated with higher VO2 peak. The three-minute step test is a feasible submaximal test in this patient population. HR during and after a three-minute step test may reflect VO2 peak in children with CF. Copyright © 2014 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate increases maximal oxygen uptake in adult humans.
Richards, Jennifer C; Lonac, Mark C; Johnson, Tyler K; Schweder, Melani M; Bell, Christopher
2010-04-01
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, increases endurance performance in animals and promotes fat oxidation during cycle ergometer exercise in adult humans. We have investigated the hypothesis that short-term consumption of EGCG delays the onset of the ventilatory threshold (VT) and increases maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). In this randomized, repeated-measures, double-blind study, 19 healthy adults (11 males and 8 females, age = 26 ± 2 yr (mean ± SE)) received seven placebo or seven EGCG (135-mg) pills. Forty-eight hours before data collection, participants began consuming three pills per day; the last pill was taken 2 h before exercise testing. VT and VO2max were determined from breath-by-breath indirect calorimetry data collected during continuous incremental stationary cycle ergometer exercise (20-35 W·min(-1)), from rest until volitional fatigue. Each condition/exercise test was separated by a minimum of 14 d. Compared with placebo, short-term EGCG consumption increased VO2max (3.123 ± 0.187 vs 3.259 ± 0.196 L·min(-1), P = 0.04). Maximal work rate (301 ± 15 vs 301 ± 16 W, P = 0.98), maximal RER (1.21 ± 0.01 vs 1.22 ± 0.02, P = 0.27), and maximal HR were unaffected (180 ± 3 vs 180 ± 3 beats·min(-1), P = 0.87). In a subset of subjects (n = 11), maximal cardiac output (determined via open-circuit acetylene breathing) was also unaffected by EGCG (29.6 ± 2.2 vs 30.2 ± 1.4 L·min(-1), P = 0.70). Contrary to our hypothesis, EGCG decreased VO2 at VT (1.57 ± 0.11 vs 1.48 ± 0.10 L·min(-1)), but this change was not significant (P = 0.06). Short-term consumption of EGCG increased VO2max without affecting maximal cardiac output, suggesting that EGCG may increase arterial-venous oxygen difference.
Jung, Halim; Jung, SangWoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...
Ogawa, Takeshi; Calbet, Jose A L; Honda, Yasushi; Fujii, Naoto; Nishiyasu, Takeshi
2010-11-01
To test the hypothesis that maximal exercise pulmonary ventilation (VE max) is a limiting factor affecting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in moderate hypobaric hypoxia (H), we examined the effect of breathing a helium-oxygen gas mixture (He-O(2); 20.9% O(2)), which would reduce air density and would be expected to increase VE max. Fourteen healthy young male subjects performed incremental treadmill running tests to exhaustion in normobaric normoxia (N; sea level) and in H (atmospheric pressure equivalent to 2,500 m above sea level). These exercise tests were carried out under three conditions [H with He-O(2), H with normal air and N] in random order. VO2 max and arterial oxy-hemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)) were, respectively, 15.2, 7.5 and 4.0% higher (all p max, 171.9 ± 16.1 vs. 150.1 ± 16.9 L/min; VO2 max, 52.50 ± 9.13 vs. 48.72 ± 5.35 mL/kg/min; arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), 79 ± 3 vs. 76 ± 3%). There was a linear relationship between the increment in VE max and the increment in VO2 max in H (r = 0.77; p VO2 max, both groups showed increased VE max and SaO(2) in H with He-O(2), but VO2 max was increased only in the high VO2 max group. These findings suggest that in acute moderate hypobaric hypoxia, air-flow resistance can be a limiting factor affecting VE max; consequently, VO2 max is limited in part by VE max especially in subjects with high VO2 max.
Maximally entangled mixed states for qubit-qutrit systems
Mendonça, Paulo E. M. F.; Marchiolli, Marcelo A.; Hedemann, Samuel R.
2017-02-01
We consider the problems of maximizing the entanglement negativity of X-form qubit-qutrit density matrices with (i) a fixed spectrum and (ii) a fixed purity. In the first case, the problem is solved in full generality whereas, in the latter, partial solutions are obtained by imposing extra spectral constraints such as rank deficiency and degeneracy, which enable a semidefinite programming treatment for the optimization problem at hand. Despite the technically motivated assumptions, we provide strong numerical evidence that threefold degenerate X states of purity P reach the highest entanglement negativity accessible to arbitrary qubit-qutrit density matrices of the same purity, hence characterizing a sparse family of likely qubit-qutrit maximally entangled mixed states.
Document Classification Using Expectation Maximization with Semi Supervised Learning
Nigam, Bhawna; Salve, Sonal; Vamney, Swati
2011-01-01
As the amount of online document increases, the demand for document classification to aid the analysis and management of document is increasing. Text is cheap, but information, in the form of knowing what classes a document belongs to, is expensive. The main purpose of this paper is to explain the expectation maximization technique of data mining to classify the document and to learn how to improve the accuracy while using semi-supervised approach. Expectation maximization algorithm is applied with both supervised and semi-supervised approach. It is found that semi-supervised approach is more accurate and effective. The main advantage of semi supervised approach is "Dynamically Generation of New Class". The algorithm first trains a classifier using the labeled document and probabilistically classifies the unlabeled documents. The car dataset for the evaluation purpose is collected from UCI repository dataset in which some changes have been done from our side.
Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework
Frank W. Davis
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.
Origin of Constrained Maximal CP Violation in Flavor Symmetry
He, Hong-Jian; Xu, Xun-Jie
2015-01-01
Current data from neutrino oscillation experiments are in good agreement with $\\delta=-\\pi/2$ and $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$. We define the notion of "constrained maximal CP violation" for these features and study their origin in flavor symmetry models. We give various parametrization-independent definitions of constrained maximal CP violation and present a theorem on how it can be generated. This theorem takes advantage of residual symmetries in the neutrino and charged lepton mass matrices, and states that, up to a few exceptions, $\\delta=\\pm\\pi/2$ and $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$ are generated when those symmetries are real. The often considered $\\mu$-$\\tau$ reflection symmetry, as well as specific discrete subgroups of $O(3)$, are special case of our theorem.
Maximizing Cloud Providers Revenues via Energy Aware Allocation Policies
Mazzucco, Michele; Deters, Ralph
2011-01-01
Cloud providers, like Amazon, offer their data centers' computational and storage capacities for lease to paying customers. High electricity consumption, associated with running a data center, not only reflects on its carbon footprint, but also increases the costs of running the data center itself. This paper addresses the problem of maximizing the revenues of Cloud providers by trimming down their electricity costs. As a solution allocation policies which are based on the dynamic powering servers on and off are introduced and evaluated. The policies aim at satisfying the conflicting goals of maximizing the users' experience while minimizing the amount of consumed electricity. The results of numerical experiments and simulations are described, showing that the proposed scheme performs well under different traffic conditions.
String partition functions in Rindler space and maximal acceleration
Mertens, Thomas G; Zakharov, Valentin I
2015-01-01
We revisit non-interacting string partition functions in Rindler space by summing over fields in the spectrum. Using recent results of JHEP 1505 (2015) 106, this construction, first done by Emparan, can be put on much firmer ground. For open strings, we demonstrate that surface contributions to the higher spin fields correspond to open strings piercing the Rindler origin, unifying the higher spin surface contributions in string language. We generalize the construction of these partition functions to type II and heterotic superstrings and demonstrate modular invariance for the resulting partition functions. Also, explicit signs of spacetime supersymmetry are visible. All of these exhibit an IR divergence that can be interpreted as a maximal acceleration with $T_{\\text{crit}} = T_{H}/\\pi$ close to the black hole horizon. Ultimately, these partition functions are not physical, and divergences here should not be viewed as a failure of string theory: maximal acceleration is a feature of a faulty treatment of the h...
Neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic resistance loadings.
Walker, Simon; Davis, Lisa; Avela, Janne; Häkkinen, Keijo
2012-06-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute neuromuscular fatigue during dynamic maximal strength and hypertrophic loadings, known to cause different adaptations underlying strength gain during training. Thirteen healthy, untrained males performed two leg press loadings, one week apart, consisting of 15 sets of 1 repetition maximum (MAX) and 5 sets of 10 repetition maximums (HYP). Concentric load and muscle activity, electromyography (EMG) amplitude and median frequency, was assessed throughout each set. Additionally, maximal bilateral isometric force and muscle activity was assessed pre-, mid-, and up to 30 min post-loading. Concentric load during MAX was decreased after set 10 (Pmuscle activity during HYP loading. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integral circulant graphs of prime power order with maximal energy
Sander, Jürgen W; 10.1016/j.laa.2011.05.039
2011-01-01
The energy of a graph is the sum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. We study the energy of integral circulant graphs, also called gcd graphs, which can be characterized by their vertex count n and a set D of divisors of n in such a way that they have vertex set Zn and edge set {{a, b} : a, b in Zn; gcd(a - b, n) in D}. Using tools from convex optimization, we study the maximal energy among all integral circulant graphs of prime power order ps and varying divisor sets D. Our main result states that this maximal energy approximately lies between s(p - 1)p^(s-1) and twice this value. We construct suitable divisor sets for which the energy lies in this interval. We also characterize hyperenergetic integral circulant graphs of prime power order and exhibit an interesting topological property of their divisor sets.
Resistance maximization principle for defending networks against virus attack
Li, Angsheng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Pan, Yicheng
2017-01-01
We investigate the defending of networks against virus attack. We define the resistance of a network to be the maximum number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible from random walk, from which random walk cannot escape. We show that for any network G, R(G) =H1(G) -H2(G) , where R(G) is the resistance of G, H1(G) and H2(G) are the one- and two-dimensional structural information of G, respectively, and that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attack. By using the theory, we investigate the defending of real world networks and of the networks generated by the preferential attachment and the security models. We show that there exist networks that are defensible by a small number of controllers from cascading failure of any virus attack. Our theory demonstrates that resistance maximization is the principle for defending networks against virus attacks.
WEIGHTED INEQUALITIES FOR THE GEOMETRIC MAXIMAL OPERATOR ON MARTINGALE SPACES
无
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors introduce two operators-geometrical maximal operator Mo and the closely related limiting operator M*O, then they give sufficient conditions under which the equality MO = M*O holds, and characterize the equivalent relations between the weak or strong type weighted inequality and the property of W∞-weight or W*∞-weight for the geometrical maximal operator in the case of two-weight condition. What should be mentioned is that the new operator-the geometrical minimal operator is equal to the limitation of the minimal operator sequence, and the results for the minimal operator proved in [12] makes the proof elegant and evident.
Maximal-acceleration phase space relativity from Clifford algebras
Castro, C
2002-01-01
We present a new physical model that links the maximum speed of light with the minimal Planck scale into a maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in the spacetime tangent bundle and in phase spaces (cotangent bundle). Crucial in order to establish this link is the use of Clifford algebras in phase spaces. The maximal proper-acceleration bound is a = c^2/ \\Lambda in full agreement with the old predictions of Caianiello, the Finslerian geometry point of view of Brandt and more recent results in the literature. We present the reasons why an Extended Scale Relativity based on Clifford spaces is physically more appealing than those based on kappa-deformed Poincare algebras and the inhomogeneous quantum groups operating in quantum Minkowski spacetimes. The main reason being that the Planck scale should not be taken as a deformation parameter to construct quantum algebras but should exist already as the minimum scale in Clifford spaces.
Identities on Maximal Subgroups of GLn(D)
D. Kiani; M. Mahdavi-Hezavehi
2005-01-01
Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GLn(D) (n ≥ 1) such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M]is a PI-algebra, then [D: F] ＜∞. When D is non-commutative and F is infinite, it is also proved that if M satisfies a group identity and F[M] is algebraic over F, then we have either M = K* where K is a field and [D: F] ＜∞, or M is absolutely irreducible. For a finite dimensional division algebra D, assume that N is a subnormal subgroup of GLn(D)and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite.
Dynamically Disordered Quantum Walk as a Maximal Entanglement Generator
Vieira, Rafael; Amorim, Edgard P. M.; Rigolin, Gustavo
2013-11-01
We show that the entanglement between the internal (spin) and external (position) degrees of freedom of a qubit in a random (dynamically disordered) one-dimensional discrete time quantum random walk (QRW) achieves its maximal possible value asymptotically in the number of steps, outperforming the entanglement attained by using ordered QRW. The disorder is modeled by introducing an extra random aspect to QRW, a classical coin that randomly dictates which quantum coin drives the system’s time evolution. We also show that maximal entanglement is achieved independently of the initial state of the walker, study the number of steps the system must move to be within a small fixed neighborhood of its asymptotic limit, and propose two experiments where these ideas can be tested.
Maximal injective and mixing masas in group factors
Jolissaint, Paul
2010-01-01
We present families of pairs of finite von Neumann algebras $A\\subset M$ where $A$ is a maximal injective masa in the type $\\mathrm{II}_1$ factor $M$ with separable predual. Our results make use of the strong mixing and the asymptotic orthogonality properties of $A$ in $M$ and are borrowed from ideas of S. Popa who proved that if $G$ is a non abelian free group and if $a$ is one of its generators, then the von Neumann algebra generated by $a$ is maximal injective in the factor $L(G)$. Our results apply to pairs $H
Minimal length, maximal momentum and thermodynamics of black body radiation
Shababi, Homa
2013-01-01
In this paper we study thermodynamics of black body radiation in the presence of quantum gravitational effects through a Generalized Uncertainty Principle that admits both a minimal measurable length and a maximal momentum. We focus on quantum gravity induced modifications of thermodynamical quantities in this framework. Some important issues such as the generalized Planck distribution, Wien s law and Dulong Petit law are studied in this setup with details.
Oncoplastic Breast Reduction: Maximizing Aesthetics and Surgical Margins
Michelle Milee Chang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Oncoplastic breast reduction combines oncologically sound concepts of cancer removal with aesthetically maximized approaches for breast reduction. Numerous incision patterns and types of pedicles can be used for purposes of oncoplastic reduction, each tailored for size and location of tumor. A team approach between reconstructive and breast surgeons produces positive long-term oncologic results as well as satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes, rendering oncoplastic breast reduction a favorable treatment option for certain patients with breast cancer.
Maximal Subsemigroups of Finite Transformation Semigroups K(n, r)
Hao Bo YANG; Xiu Liang YANG
2004-01-01
Let Tn be the full transformation semigroup on the n-element set Xn. For an arbitrary integer r such that 2 ≤ r ≤ n - 1, we completely describe the maximal subsemigroups of the semigroup K(n, r) = {α∈ Tn: |im α| ≤ r}. We also formulate the cardinal number of such subsemigroups which is an answer to Problem 46 of Tetrad in 1969, concerning the number of subsemigroups of Tn.
LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP
Pedro Jimenez-Reyes
2016-02-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.
Cereal Crop Farm Planning for Profit Maximization in Afghanistan
Ahmadzai, Najeebullah; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke
2016-01-01
Cereal crops are the major component of agriculture sector in Afghanistan by generating income and providing food dietary of subsistence to the farm family. The sector which is dominated by small scale farmer across the country is facing numerous problems such as inefficient use of resources, poor production technology, low labor productivity and high production costs. This study was carried out to maximize farm income by optimization resource allocation and developing an optimal farm plan fo...
Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors
2005-08-01
Emmons, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, Arkansas 72205 REPORT DATE: August 2005 TYPE OF REPORT...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Maximizing Immune Response to Carbohydrate Antigens on Breast Tumors 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-01-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM...binding affinities of peptide and carbohyd- Hollingsworth, M. A. 1997. Oligosaccharides expressed on MUCl rate with I-A’ will be illuminating. However
Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans
Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L
2011-01-01
Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial...... respiration. High resolution respirometry was used to quantify mitochondrial respiration from the biopsies of arm and leg muscles while in-vivo arm and leg VO(2) were determined by the Fick method during leg cycling and arm cranking. We hypothesized that muscle mitochondrial respiratory rate exceeds...... that of systemic oxygen delivery. The state 3 mitochondrial respiration of the deltoid muscle (4.3±0.4 mmol o(2)kg(-1) min(-1)) was similar to the in-vivo VO(2) during maximal arm cranking (4.7±0.5 mmol O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) with 6 kg muscle. In contrast, the mitochondrial state 3 of the quadriceps was 6.9±0.5 mmol...
Computing a Clique Tree with the Algorithm Maximal Label Search
Anne Berry
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The algorithm MLS (Maximal Label Search is a graph search algorithm that generalizes the algorithms Maximum Cardinality Search (MCS, Lexicographic Breadth-First Search (LexBFS, Lexicographic Depth-First Search (LexDFS and Maximal Neighborhood Search (MNS. On a chordal graph, MLS computes a PEO (perfect elimination ordering of the graph. We show how the algorithm MLS can be modified to compute a PMO (perfect moplex ordering, as well as a clique tree and the minimal separators of a chordal graph. We give a necessary and sufficient condition on the labeling structure of MLS for the beginning of a new clique in the clique tree to be detected by a condition on labels. MLS is also used to compute a clique tree of the complement graph, and new cliques in the complement graph can be detected by a condition on labels for any labeling structure. We provide a linear time algorithm computing a PMO and the corresponding generators of the maximal cliques and minimal separators of the complement graph. On a non-chordal graph, the algorithm MLSM, a graph search algorithm computing an MEO and a minimal triangulation of the graph, is used to compute an atom tree of the clique minimal separator decomposition of any graph.
Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate
A. Khodayari
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.
The Parallel Maximal Cliques Algorithm for Protein Sequence Clustering
Khalid Jaber
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: Protein sequence clustering is a method used to discover relations between proteins. This method groups the proteins based on their common features. It is a core process in protein sequence classification. Graph theory has been used in protein sequence clustering as a means of partitioning the data into groups, where each group constitutes a cluster. Mohseni-Zadeh introduced a maximal cliques algorithm for protein clustering. Approach: In this study we adapted the maximal cliques algorithm of Mohseni-Zadeh to find cliques in protein sequences and we then parallelized the algorithm to improve computation times and allowed large protein databases to be processed. We used the N-Gram Hirschberg approach proposed by Abdul Rashid to calculate the distance between protein sequences. The task farming parallel program model was used to parallelize the enhanced cliques algorithm. Results: Our parallel maximal cliques algorithm was implemented on the stealth cluster using the C programming language and a hybrid approach that includes both the Message Passing Interface (MPI library and POSIX threads (PThread to accelerate protein sequence clustering. Conclusion: Our results showed a good speedup over sequential algorithms for cliques in protein sequences.
Dynamics of hydrogen-like atom bounded by maximal acceleration
Friedman, Yaakov
2012-01-01
The existence of a maximal acceleration for massive objects was conjectured by Caianiello 30 years ago based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relations. Many consequences of this hypothesis have been studied, but until now, there has been no evidence that boundedness of the acceleration may lead to quantum behavior. In previous research, we predicted the existence of a universal maximal acceleration and developed a new dynamics for which all admissible solutions have an acceleration bounded by the maximal one. Based on W. K\\"{u}ndig's experiment, as reanalyzed by Kholmetskii et al, we estimated its value to be of the order $10^{19}m/s^2$. We present here a solution of our dynamical equation for a classical hydrogen-like atom and show that this dynamics leads to some aspects of quantum behavior. We show that the position of an electron in a hydrogen-like atom can be described only probabilistically. We also show that in this model, the notion of "center of mass" must be modified. This modification supports the no...
Budget Allocation for Maximizing Viral Advertising in Social Networks
Bo-Lei Zhang; Zhu-Zhong Qian; Wen-Zhong Li; Bin Tang; Xiaoming Fu
2016-01-01
Viral advertising in social networks has arisen as one of the most promising ways to increase brand awareness and product sales. By distributing a limited budget, we can incentivize a set of users as initial adopters so that the advertising can start from the initial adopters and spread via social links to become viral. Despite extensive researches in how to target the most influential users, a key issue is often neglected: how to incentivize the initial adopters. In the problem of influence maximization, the assumption is that each user has a fixed cost for being initial adopters, while in practice, user decisions for accepting the budget to be initial adopters are often probabilistic rather than deterministic. In this paper, we study optimal budget allocation in social networks to maximize the spread of viral advertising. In particular, a concave probability model is introduced to characterize each user’s utility for being an initial adopter. Under this model, we show that it is NP-hard to find an optimal budget allocation for maximizing the spread of viral advertising. We then present a novel discrete greedy algorithm with near optimal performance, and further propose scaling-up techniques to improve the time-eﬃciency of our algorithm. Extensive experiments on real-world social graphs are implemented to validate the effectiveness of our algorithm in practice. The results show that our algorithm can outperform other intuitive heuristics significantly in almost all cases.
Reference values of maximal oxygen uptake for polish rowers.
Klusiewicz, Andrzej; Starczewski, Michał; Ładyga, Maria; Długołęcka, Barbara; Braksator, Wojciech; Mamcarz, Artur; Sitkowski, Dariusz
2014-12-09
The aim of this study was to characterize changes in maximal oxygen uptake over several years and to elaborate current reference values of this index based on determinations carried out in large and representative groups of top Polish rowers. For this study 81 female and 159 male rowers from the sub-junior to senior categories were recruited from the Polish National Team and its direct backup. All the subjects performed an incremental exercise test on a rowing ergometer. During the test maximal oxygen uptake was measured with the BxB method. The calculated reference values for elite Polish junior and U23 rowers allowed to evaluate the athletes' fitness level against the respective reference group and may aid the coach in controlling the training process. Mean values of VO2max achieved by members of the top Polish rowing crews who over the last five years competed in the Olympic Games or World Championships were also presented. The results of the research on the "trainability" of the maximal oxygen uptake may lead to a conclusion that the growth rate of the index is larger in case of high-level athletes and that the index (in absolute values) increases significantly between the age of 19-22 years (U23 category).
Improved Algorithms OF CELF and CELF++ for Influence Maximization
Jiaguo Lv
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the wide application in some fields, such as viral marketing, sales promotion etc, influence maximization has been the most important and extensively studied problem in social network. However, the most classical KK-Greedy algorithm for influence maximization is inefficient. Two major sources of the algorithm’s inefficiency were analyzed in this paper. With the analysis of algorithms CELF and CELF++, all nodes in the influenced set of u would never bring any marginal gain when a new seed u was produced. Through this optimization strategy, a lot of redundant nodes will be removed from the candidate nodes. Basing on the strategy, two improved algorithms of Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++ were proposed in this study. To evaluate the two algorithms, the two algorithms with their benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++ were conducted on some real world datasets. To estimate the algorithms, influence degree and running time were employed to measure the performance and efficiency respectively. Experimental results showed that, compared with benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++, matching effects and higher efficiency were achieved by the new algorithms Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++. Solutions with the proposed optimization strategy can be useful for the decisionmaking problems under the scenarios related to the influence maximization problem.
Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.
Dong Li
Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Maximal mixing as a `sum' of small mixings
Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Mehta, Poonam; Vempati, Sudhir K
2009-01-01
In models with two sources of neutrino masses, we look at the possibility of generating maximal/large mixing angles in the total mass matrix, where both the sources have only small mixing angles. We show that in the two generation case, maximal mixing can naturally arise only when the total neutrino mass matrix has a quasi-degenerate pattern. The best way to demonstrate this is by decomposing the quasi-degenerate spectrum in to hierarchial and inverse-hierarchial mass matrices, both with small mixing. Such a decomposition of the quasi-degenerate spectra is in fact very general and can be done irrespective of the mixing present in the mass matrices. With three generations, and two sources, we show that only one or all the three small mixing angles in the total neutrino mass matrix can be converted to maximal/large mixing angles. The decomposition of the degenerate pattern in this case is best realised in to sub-matrices whose dominant eigenvalues have an alternating pattern. On the other hand, it is possible t...
Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.
Li, Dong; Xu, Zhi-Ming; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Gupta, Anika; Sycara, Katia; Li, Sheng
2014-01-01
Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust) between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust) between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM) problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC) model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P) diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.
Luthy, Sarah K; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Weiner, Daniel J
2011-06-01
High-frequency chest compression (HFCC) is a therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that the resonant frequency (f(res)), as measured by impulse oscillometry, could be used to determine what HFCC vest settings produce maximal airflow or volume in pediatric CF patients. In 45 subjects, we studied: f(res), HFCC vest frequencies that subjects used (f(used)), and the HFCC vest frequencies that generated the greatest volume (f(vol)) and airflow (f(flow)) changes as measured by pneumotachometer. Median f(used) for 32 subjects was 14 Hz (range, 6-30). The rank order of the three most common f(used) was 15 Hz (28%) and 12 Hz (21%); three frequencies tied for third: 10, 11, and 14 Hz (5% each). Median f(res) for 43 subjects was 20.30 Hz (range, 7.85-33.65). Nineteen subjects underwent vest-tuning to determine f(vol) and f(flow). Median f(vol) was 8 Hz (range, 6-30). The rank order of the three most common f(vol) was: 8 Hz (42%), 6 Hz (32%), and 10 Hz (21%). Median f(flow) was 26 Hz (range, 8-30). The rank order of the three most common f(flow) was: 30 Hz (26%) and 28 Hz (21%); three frequencies tied for third: 8, 14, and 18 Hz (11% each). There was no correlation between f(used) and f(flow) (r(2) = -0.12) or f(vol) (r(2) = 0.031). There was no correlation between f(res) and f(flow) (r(2) = 0.19) or f(vol) (r(2) = 0.023). Multivariable analysis showed no independent variables were predictive of f(flow) or f(vol). Vest-tuning may be required to optimize clinical utility of HFCC. Multiple HFCC frequencies may need to be used to incorporate f(flow) and f(vol).
Distributive Network Utility Maximization (NUM) over Time-Varying Fading Channels
Chen, Junting; Lau, Vincent K N
2011-01-01
Distributed network utility maximization (NUM) has received an increasing intensity of interest over the past few years. Distributed solutions (e.g., the primal-dual gradient method) have been intensively investigated under fading channels. As such distributed solutions involve iterative updating and explicit message passing, it is unrealistic to assume that the wireless channel remains unchanged during the iterations. Unfortunately, the behavior of those distributed solutions under time-varying channels is in general unknown. In this paper, we shall investigate the convergence behavior and tracking errors of the iterative primal-dual scaled gradient algorithm (PDSGA) with dynamic scaling matrices (DSC) for solving distributive NUM problems under time-varying fading channels. We shall also study a specific application example, namely the multi-commodity flow control and multi-carrier power allocation problem in multi-hop ad hoc networks. Our analysis shows that the PDSGA converges to a limit region rather tha...
Kordík J.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to find an optimal nozzle size of an axisymmetric synthetic jet actuator based on a loudspeaker. The desirable maximized output quantities are: volumetric flow, momentum flux, and kinetic energy flux. To evaluate these quantities velocity profiles were measured using a hot-wire probe at the actuator nozzle exit. Six different nozzle diameters and three supplied real power levels were tested to find the maxima of the quantities. The actuator operated always at resonance during experiments. It was found out that the momentum flux and the kinetic energy flux reach distinguishable local maxima at particular diameters of the nozzle. Besides, the maxima of the particular quantities do not coincide and the best nozzle size slightly increases with the supplied real power to the actuator.
The Convergence Scheme on Network Utility Maximization in Wireless Multicast Networks
Y. Chen
2013-08-01
Full Text Available With the ever-increasing wireless data application recently, considerable efforts have been focused on the designof distributed explicit rate scheme based on Network Utility Maximization (NUM or wireless multi-hop meshnetworks. This paper describes a novel wireless multi-hop multicast flow control scheme for wireless meshnetworks via 802.11, which is based on the distributed self-turning Optimal Proportional plus Second-orderDifferential (OPSD controller. The control scheme, which is located at the sources in the wireless multicastnetworks, can ensure short convergence time by regulating the transmission rate. We further analyze thetheoretical aspects of the proposed algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposedscheme in terms of fast response time, low packet loss and error ration.
Subacute effects of a maximal exercise bout on endothelium-mediated vasodilation in healthy subjects
K. Bousquet-Santos
2005-04-01
Full Text Available We evaluated vascular reactivity after a maximal exercise test in order to determine whether the effect of exercise on the circulation persists even after interruption of the exercise. Eleven healthy sedentary volunteers (six women, age 28 ± 5 years were evaluated before and after (10, 60, and 120 min a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. Forearm blood flow (FBF was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography before and during reactive hyperemia (RH. Baseline FBF, analyzed by the area under the curve, increased only at 10 min after exercise (P = 0.01. FBF in response to RH increased both at 10 and 60 min vs baseline (P = 0.004. Total excess flow for RH above baseline showed that vascular reactivity was increased up to 60 min after exercise (mean ± SEM, before: 526.4 ± 48.8; 10 min: 1053.0 ± 168.2; 60 min: 659.4 ± 44.1 ml 100 ml-1 min-1 . s; P = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively, vs before exercise. The changes in FBF were due to increased vascular conductance since mean arterial blood pressure did not change. In a time control group (N = 5, 34 ± 3 years, three women that did not exercise, FBF and RH did not change significantly (P = 0.07 and 0.7, respectively. These results suggest that the increased vascular reactivity caused by chronic exercise may result, at least in part, from a summation of the subacute effects of successive exercise bouts.
Maurice Schiff; Arvind Panagariya
1995-01-01
The traditional literature derives optimum and revenue-maximizing export taxes within two-country models. with one exporter and one importer (Johnson 1950-51, Tower 1977). In reality, most products, including primary products. are exported by several countries. In this paper, we present a theory of trade taxes in a three-country framework. This enables us to deal with strategic interactions among exporting countries. We show that (i) if one of the countries is a Stackelberg leader, both count...
Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie
Nastiti Rokhmania
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.
Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor C
2016-01-01
This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) performed before maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) would attenuate muscle damage of the knee extensors. Untrained men were placed to an experimental group that performed 6 sets of 10 MVIC at 90° knee flexion 2 weeks before 6 sets of 10 MaxEC or a control group that performed MaxEC only (n = 13/group). Changes in muscle damage markers were assessed before to 5 days after each exercise. Small but significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion (ROM) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were evident at immediately to 2 days post-MVIC (p < 0.05), but other variables (e.g. thigh girth, myoglobin concentration, B-mode echo intensity) did not change significantly. Changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (p < 0.05) by 45% (soreness)-67% (CK) for the experimental than the control group. These results suggest that MVIC conferred potent protective effect against MaxEC-induced muscle damage.
Ibai eGarcia-Tabar
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2 and carbon dioxide (FCO2 of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001 in FO2 and FCO2 of -0.18% and -0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptake values were 5-6% lower (P < 0.001 whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8-9% higher (P < 0.001. The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 minutes of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise.
XU Jin
2016-01-01
A maximal planar graph is called the recursive maximal planar graph if it can be obtained from 4 K by embedding a 3-degree vertex in some triangular face continuously. The uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture states that a planar graph is uniquely 4-colorable if and only if it is a recursive maximal planar graph. This conjecture, which has 43 years of history, is a very influential conjecture in graph coloring theory after the Four-Color Conjecture. In this paper, the structures and properties of dumbbell maximal planar graphs and recursive maximal planar graphs are studied, and an idea of proving the uniquely 4-colorable maximal planar graph conjecture is proposed based on the extending-contracting operation proposed in this series of article (2).
Flow Computations on Imprecise Terrains
Driemel, Anne; Löffler, Maarten
2011-01-01
We study the computation of the flow of water on imprecise terrains. We consider two approaches to modeling flow on a terrain: one where water flows across the surface of a polyhedral terrain in the direction of steepest descent, and one where water only flows along the edges of a predefined graph, for example a grid or a triangulation. In both cases each vertex has an imprecise elevation, given by an interval of possible values, while its (x,y)-coordinates are fixed. For the first model, we show that the problem of deciding whether one vertex may be contained in the watershed of another is NP-hard. In contrast, for the second model we give a simple O(n log n) time algorithm to compute the minimal and the maximal watershed of a vertex, where n is the number of edges of the graph. On a grid model, we can compute the same in O(n) time.
Merzkirch, Wolfgang
1974-01-01
Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha
Low-frequency fatigue at maximal and submaximal muscle contractions
R.R. Baptista
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Skeletal muscle force production following repetitive contractions is preferentially reduced when muscle is evaluated with low-frequency stimulation. This selective impairment in force generation is called low-frequency fatigue (LFF and could be dependent on the contraction type. The purpose of this study was to compare LFF after concentric and eccentric maximal and submaximal contractions of knee extensor muscles. Ten healthy male subjects (age: 23.6 ± 4.2 years; weight: 73.8 ± 7.7 kg; height: 1.79 ± 0.05 m executed maximal voluntary contractions that were measured before a fatigue test (pre-exercise, immediately after (after-exercise and after 1 h of recovery (after-recovery. The fatigue test consisted of 60 maximal (100% or submaximal (40% dynamic concentric or eccentric knee extensions at an angular velocity of 60°/s. The isometric torque produced by low- (20 Hz and high- (100 Hz frequency stimulation was also measured at these times and the 20:100 Hz ratio was calculated to assess LFF. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Newman-Keuls post hoc test was used to determine significant (P < 0.05 differences. LFF was evident after-recovery in all trials except following submaximal eccentric contractions. LFF was not evident after-exercise, regardless of exercise intensity or contraction type. Our results suggest that low-frequency fatigue was evident after submaximal concentric but not submaximal eccentric contractions and was more pronounced after 1-h of recovery.
Maximal suppression of renin-angiotensin system in nonproliferative glomerulonephritis.
Iodice, Carmela; Balletta, Mario M; Minutolo, Roberto; Giannattasio, Paolo; Tuccillo, Stefano; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; D'Amora, Maurizio; Rinaldi, Giorgio; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca
2003-06-01
Elimination of residual proteinuria is the novel target in renoprotection; nevertheless, whether a greater suppression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) effectively improves the antiproteinuric response in patients with moderate proteinuria remains ill-defined. We evaluated the effects of maximizing RAS suppression on quantitative and qualitative proteinuria in ten patients with stable nonnephrotic proteinuria (2.55 +/- 0.94 g/24 hours) due to primary nonproliferative glomerulonephritis (NPGN), and normal values of creatinine clearance (103 +/- 17 mL/min). The study was divided in three consecutive phases: (1) four subsequent 1-month periods of ramipril at the dose of 2.5, 5.0, 10, and 20 mg/day; (2) 2 months of ramipril 20 mg/day + irbesartan 300 mg/day; and (3) 2 months of irbesartan 300 mg/day alone. Maximizing RAS suppression was not coupled with any major effect on renal function and blood pressure; conversely, a significant decrement in hemoglobin levels, of 0.8 g/dL on average, was observed during up-titration of ramipril dose. The 2.5 mg dose of ramipril significantly decreased proteinuria by 29%. Similar changes were detected after irbesartan alone (-28%). The antiproteinuric effect was not improved either by the higher ramipril doses (-30% after the 20 mg dose) or after combined treatment (-33%). The reduction of proteinuria led to amelioration of the markers of tubular damage, as testified by the significant decrement of alpha 1 microglobulin (alpha 1m) excretion and of the tubular component of proteinuria at sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In nonnephrotic NPGN patients, standard doses of either ramipril or irbesartan lead to significant reduction of residual proteinuria and amelioration of the qualitative features suggestive of tubular damage. The enhancement of RAS suppression up to the maximal degree does not improve the antiproteinuric response and is coupled with a decrement of hemoglobin levels.
Weak incidence algebra and maximal ring of quotients
Surjeet Singh
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Let X, X′ be two locally finite, preordered sets and let R be any indecomposable commutative ring. The incidence algebra I(X,R, in a sense, represents X, because of the well-known result that if the rings I(X,R and I(X′,R are isomorphic, then X and X′ are isomorphic. In this paper, we consider a preordered set X that need not be locally finite but has the property that each of its equivalence classes of equivalent elements is finite. Define I*(X,R to be the set of all those functions f:X×X→R such that f(x,y=0, whenever x⩽̸y and the set Sf of ordered pairs (x,y with x
Dopaminergic balance between reward maximization and policy complexity
Naama eParush
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Previous reinforcement-learning models of the basal ganglia network have highlighted the role of dopamine in encoding the mismatch between prediction and reality. Far less attention has been paid to the computational goals and algorithms of the main-axis (actor. Here, we construct a top-down model of the basal ganglia with emphasis on the role of dopamine as both a reinforcement learning signal and as a pseudo-temperature signal controlling the general level of basal ganglia excitability and motor vigilance of the acting agent. We argue that the basal ganglia endow the thalamic-cortical networks with the optimal dynamic tradeoff between two constraints: minimizing the policy complexity (cost and maximizing the expected future reward (gain. We show that this multi-dimensional optimization processes results in an experience-modulated version of the softmax behavioral policy. Thus, as in classical softmax behavioral policies, probability of actions are selected according to their estimated values and the pseudo-temperature, but in addition also vary according to the frequency of previous choices of these actions. We conclude that the computational goal of the basal ganglia is not to maximize cumulative (positive and negative reward. Rather, the basal ganglia aim at optimization of independent gain and cost functions. Unlike previously suggested single-variable maximization processes, this multi-dimensional optimization process leads naturally to a softmax-like behavioral policy. We suggest that beyond its role in the modulation of the efficacy of the cortico-striatal synapses, dopamine directly affects striatal excitability and thus provides a pseudo-temperature signal that modulates the trade-off between gain and cost. The resulting experience and dopamine modulated softmax policy can then serve as a theoretical framework to account for the broad range of behaviors and clinical states governed by the basal ganglia and dopamine systems.
Finding the Maximizers of the Information Divergence from an Exponential Family
Rauh, Johannes
2009-01-01
This paper investigates maximizers of the information divergence from an exponential family $E$. It is shown that the $rI$-projection of a maximizer $P$ to $E$ is a convex combination of $P$ and a probability measure $P_-$ with disjoint support and the same value of the sufficient statistics $A$. This observation can be used to transform the original problem of maximizing $D(\\cdot||E)$ over the set of all probability measures into the maximization of a function $\\Dbar$ over a convex subset of $\\ker A$. The global maximizers of both problems correspond to each other. Furthermore, finding all local maximizers of $\\Dbar$ yields all local maximizers of $D(\\cdot||E)$. This paper also proposes two algorithms to find the maximizers of $\\Dbar$ and applies them to two examples, where the maximizers of $D(\\cdot||E)$ were not known before.
STABLE AND UNSTABLE IDEAL PLANE FLOWS
无
2002-01-01
The authors investigate the stability of a steady ideal plane flow in an arbitrary domain in terms of the L2 norm of the vorticity. Linear stability implies nonlinear instability provided the growth rate of the linearized system exceeds the Liapunov exponent of the flow. In contrast,a maximizer of the entropy subject to constant energy and mass is stable. This implies the stability of certain solutions of the mean field equation.
Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology
Nielsen, Kjell
2014-01-01
Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.
Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia
Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Rådegran, G
2003-01-01
To unravel the mechanisms by which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is reduced with severe acute hypoxia in humans, nine Danish lowlanders performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion, while breathing room air (normoxia) or 10.5% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, approximately 5,300 m above sea...... level). With hypoxia, exercise PaO2 dropped to 31-34 mmHg and arterial O2 content (CaO2) was reduced by 35% (P ..., as reflected by the higher alveolar-arterial O2 difference in hypoxia (P stroke VOlume (P
Austere Submanifolds of Dimension Four: Examples and Maximal Types
Ionel, Marianty
2009-01-01
Austere submanifolds in Euclidean space were introduced by Harvey and Lawson in connection with their study of calibrated geometries. The algebraic possibilities for second fundamental forms of 4-dimensional austere submanifolds were classified by Bryant, into three types which we label A, B, and C. In this paper, we show that type A submanifolds correspond exactly to real Kahler submanifolds, we construct new examples of such submanifolds in R^6 and R^10, and we obtain classification results on submanifolds of types B and C with maximal second fundamental forms.
Stationary Scalar Clouds Around Maximally Rotating Linear Dilaton Black Holes
Sakalli, I
2016-01-01
We investigate the wave dynamics of a charged massive scalar field propagating in a maximally rotating (extremal) linear dilaton black hole geometry. We prove the existence of a discrete and infinite family of resonances describing non-decaying (stationary) scalar configurations (clouds) enclosing these rapidly rotating black holes. The results obtained signal the potential stationary scalar field distributions (dark matter) around the extremal linear dilaton black holes. In particular, we analytically compute the effective height of those clouds above the center of the black hole.
Amplification of maximally-path-entangled number states
Agarwal, G. S.; Chaturvedi, S.; Rai, Amit
2010-04-01
We examine the behavior of a non-Gaussian state like the maximally path-entangled number state commonly known as a N00N state under phase-insensitive amplification. We derive an analytical result for the density matrix of the N00N state for arbitrary gain of the amplifier. We consider cases of both symmetric and antisymmetric amplification of the two modes of the N00N state. We quantitatively evaluate the loss of entanglement by the amplifier in terms of the logarithmic negativity parameter. We find that N00N states are more robust than their Gaussian counterparts.
Generation of maximally entangled states of qudits using twin photons
Neves, L; Gómez, J G A; Monken, C H; Saavedra, C; Pádua, S; Neves, Leonardo
2004-01-01
We report an experiment to generate maximally entangled states of D-dimensional quantum systems, qudits, by using transverse spatial correlations of two parametric down-converted photons. Apertures with D-slits in the arms of the twin fotons define the qudit space. By manipulating the pump beam correctly the twin photons will pass only by symmetrically opposite slits, generating entangled states between these differents paths. Experimental results for qudits with D=4 and D=8 are shown. We demonstrate that the generated states are entangled states.
Image fusion based on expectation maximization algorithm and steerable pyramid
Gang Liu(刘刚); Zhongliang Jing(敬忠良); Shaoyuan Sun(孙韶媛); Jianxun Li(李建勋); Zhenhua Li(李振华); Henry Leung
2004-01-01
In this paper, a novel image fusion method based on the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and steerable pyramid is proposed. The registered images are first decomposed by using steerable pyramid.The EM algorithm is used to fuse the image components in the low frequency band. The selection method involving the informative importance measure is applied to those in the high frequency band. The final fused image is then computed by taking the inverse transform on the composite coefficient representations.Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms conventional image fusion methods.
AN ENDPOINT ESTIMATE FOR MAXIMAL MULTILINEAR SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS
无
2007-01-01
A weak type endpoint estimate for the maximal multilinear singular integral operator T*Af(x)=supε＞0|(f)(x-y)＞ε (Ω(x-y)/(|x-y|(n+1)))(A(x)-A(y)-▽A(y)(x-y))f(y)dy| is established, where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one, and A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). A regularity condition on Ω which implies an LlogL type estimate of T*A is given.
A new solution for maximal clique problem based sticker model.
Darehmiraki, Majid
2009-02-01
In this paper, we use stickers to construct a solution space of DNA for the maximal clique problem (MCP). Simultaneously, we also apply the DNA operation in the sticker-based model to develop a DNA algorithm. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the MCP is resolved with biological operations in the sticker-based model for the solution space of the sticker. Moreover, this work presents clear evidence of the ability of DNA computing to solve the NP-complete problem. The potential of DNA computing for the MCP is promising given the operational time complexity of O(nxk).
Alzheimer's disease care management plan: maximizing patient care.
Treinkman, Anna
2005-03-01
Nurse practitioners have the potential to significantly impact the care of patients with dementia. Healthcare providers can now offer patients medications that will control symptoms and prolong functioning. As a result of ongoing contact with patients, NPs play an important role in assessing and screening patients for AD and educating the patients, families, and caregivers about the disease. Alzheimer's disease is a chronic, progressive illness that requires long-term management. Nurse practitioners should be familiar with available medications and appreciate the need to individualize therapy to maximize efficacy and minimize potential adverse drug reactions.
About non-maximality of the action functional
W. Freire
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In this work first we review some cases where the action exhibits a minimal or a saddle-point criticality for velocity-independent potentials (V(x, t and maximum when the potential is velocity-dependent (V(x,ẋ,t. In the following we will use the functional (“directional” derivative of second order to present a mathematically rigorous proof of the non-maximality of the classical functional action for potentials V(x, t velocity-independent.
Remote State Preparation via a Non-Maximally Entangled Channel
郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We investigate remote state preparation (RSP) via a non-maximally entangled channel for three cases: a general qubit; a special ensemble of qubits (qubit states on the equator of the Bloch sphere); and an asymptotic limit of N copies ofa general state. The results show that the classical communication cost of RSP for the two latter cases can be less than that of teleportation, but for the first case, in a restricted setting, the classical communication cost is equal to that of teleportation. Whether or not this is the case for a more general setting is still an open question.
Gribov ambiguities at the Landau -- maximal Abelian interpolating gauge
Pereira, A D
2014-01-01
In a previous work, we presented a new method to account for the Gribov ambiguities in non-Abelian gauge theories. The method consists on the introduction of an extra constraint which directly eliminates the infinitesimal Gribov copies without the usual geometric approach. Such strategy allows to treat gauges with non-hermitian Faddeev-Popov operator. In this work, we apply this method to a gauge which interpolates among the Landau and maximal Abelian gauges. The result is a local and power counting renormalizable action, free of infinitesimal Gribov copies. Moreover, the interpolating tree-level gluon propagator is derived.
Synthetic-aperture radar autofocus by maximizing sharpness.
Fienup, J R
2000-02-15
To focus a synthetic-aperture radar image that is suffering from phase errors, a phase-error estimate is found that, when it is applied, maximizes the sharpness of the image. Closed-form expressions are derived for the gradients of a sharpness metric with respect to phase-error parameters, including both a point-by-point (nonparametric) phase function and coefficients of a polynomial expansion. Use of these expressions allows for a highly efficient gradient-search algorithm for high-order phase errors. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated with an example.
Light Meson Physics from Maximally Twisted Mass Lattice QCD
Baron, R; Dimopoulos, P; Farchioni, F; Frezzotti, R; Gimenez, V; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Lubicz, V; Michael, C; Muenster, G; Palao, D; Rossi, G C; Scorzato, L; Shindler, A; Simula, S; Sudmann, T; Urbach, C; Wenger, U
2009-01-01
We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for two mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 MeV to 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision.
Yangian symmetry of the Y=0 maximal giant graviton
MacKay, Niall
2010-01-01
We study the remnants of Yangian symmetry of AdS/CFT magnons reflecting from boundaries with no degrees of freedom. We present the generalized twisted boundary Yangian of open strings ending on boundaries which preserve only a subalgebra h of the bulk algebra g, where (g,h) is a symmetric pair. This is realized by open strings ending on the D3 brane known as the Y=0 maximal giant graviton in AdS_5 x S^5. We also consider the Yangian symmetry of the boundary which preserves an su(1|2) subalgebra only.
Maximizing LSST's Scientific Return: Ensuring Participation from Smaller Institutions
Liu, Charles T; Pepper, Joshua; Rutkowski, Michael; Norman, Dara; Cruz, Kelle; Bochanski, John; Lee, Hyun-chul; Isler, Jedidah; Gizis, John; Smith, J Allyn; Moustakas, John; Wehner, Elizabeth; Alfred, Marcus; McGruder, Charles; Hoffman, Jennifer L; Kwitter, Karen; Carini, Michael; Bary, Jeff; Covey, Kevin R; Finn, Rose; Penprase, Brian; Gelderman, Richard; Schuler, Simon
2014-01-01
The remarkable scientific return and legacy of LSST, in the era that it will define, will not only be realized in the breakthrough science that will be achieved with catalog data. This Big Data survey will shape the way the entire astronomical community advances -- or fails to embrace -- new ways of approaching astronomical research and data. In this white paper, we address the NRC template questions 4,5,6,8 and 9, with a focus on the unique challenges for smaller, and often under-resourced, institutions, including institutions dedicated to underserved minority populations, in the efficient and effective use of LSST data products to maximize LSST's scientific return.
Maximal air bubble entrainment at liquid drop impact
Bouwhuis, Wilco; Tran, Tuan; Keij, Diederik L; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; van der Meer, Devaraj; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef
2012-01-01
At impact of a liquid drop on a solid surface an air bubble can be entrapped. Here we show that two competing effects minimize the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: For large drop impact velocity and large droplets the inertia of the liquid flattens the entrained bubble, whereas for small impact velocity and small droplets capillary forces minimize the entrained bubble. However, we demonstrate experimentally, theoretically, and numerically that in between there is an optimum, leading to maximal air bubble entrapment. Our results have a strong bearing on various applications in printing technology, microelectronics, immersion lithography, diagnostics, or agriculture.
Maximizing the Spread of Cascades Using Network Design
Sheldon, Daniel; Elmachtoub, Adam N; Finseth, Ryan; Sabharwal, Ashish; Conrad, Jon; Gomes, Carla P; Shmoys, David; Allen, William; Amundsen, Ole; Vaughan, William
2012-01-01
We introduce a new optimization framework to maximize the expected spread of cascades in networks. Our model allows a rich set of actions that directly manipulate cascade dy- namics by adding nodes or edges to the net- work. Our motivating application is one in spatial conservation planning, where a cas- cade models the dispersal of wild animals through a fragmented landscape. We propose a mixed integer programming (MIP) formu- lation that combines elements from network design and stochastic optimization. Our ap- proach results in solutions with stochastic op- timality guarantees and points to conserva- tion strategies that are fundamentally dier- ent from naive approaches.
Online Scheduling of Bounded Length Jobs to Maximize Throughput
Durr, Christoph; Thang, Nguyen Kim
2009-01-01
We consider an online scheduling problem, that is motivated by online auction for regularily produced goods that cannot be stored, and have to be sold immediatly to some customers. More formally we consider the online problem of scheduling with preemptions, where each job j is revealed at release time r_j, has processing time p_j, deadline d_j and weight w_j. The goal is to maximize the total weight of all jobs completed on time. We show that if all jobs have processing time not more than k, then the determinstic competitive ratio of this problem is Theta(k/log k).
A New Tetrahydrofuran Lignan Diglycoside from Viola tianshanica Maxim
Yan Qin
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A new lignan glycoside, tianshanoside A (1, together with a known phenylpropanoid glycoside, syringin (2 and two known lignan glycosides, picraquassioside C (3, and aketrilignoside B (4, were isolated from the whole plant of Viola tianshanica Maxim. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. The three lignans 1, 3, and 4 did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer Ags cells or HepG2 liver cancer cells. This is the first report of the isolation of a lignan skeleton from the genus Viola L.
Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.
Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M
2017-01-01
Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sum-Rate Maximization of Coordinated Direct and Relay Systems
Sun, Fan; Popovski, Petar; Thai, Chan
2012-01-01
Joint processing of multiple communication flows in wireless systems has given rise to a number of novel transmission techniques, notably the two-way relaying based on wireless network coding. Recently, a related set of techniques has emerged, termed coordinated direct and relay (CDR) transmissions......, where the constellation of traffic flows is more general than the two-way. Regardless of the actual traffic flows, in a CDR scheme the relay has a central role in managing the interference and boosting the overall system performance. In this paper we investigate the novel transmission modes, based...
Koulouris, N G; Rapakoulias, P; Rassidakis, A; Dimitroulis, J; Gaga, M; Milic-Emili, J; Jordanoglou, J
1997-10-01
In normal subjects and patients with airway obstruction, flows during a forced vital capacity (FVC) manoeuvre are higher after a fast inspiration without an end-inspiratory pause (manoeuvre 1) as compared to a slow inspiration with an end-expiratory pause of approximately 5 s (manoeuvre 2). In this study, we investigated the influence of these manoeuvres on maximal expiratory volume-time and flow-volume curves in patients with restrictive lung disease. Eleven patients with restrictive lung disease were studied. Their average (+/-SD) lung function test results were: FVC=55+/-12% predicted value, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 52+/-20% pred, FEV1/FVC 85+/-6%, total lung capacity 55+/-8% pred, and carbon monoxide transfer factor 47+/-18% pred. The patients performed the two FVC manoeuvres in random order. We compared the ensuing spirograms and maximal expiratory flow-volume curves from which peak expiratory flow, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, maximal mid-expiratory flow, and maximal flows were computed. All spirometric indices were significantly higher with manoeuvre 1 than 2. Maximal expiratory flows at the same lung volume were also significantly higher with manoeuvre 1 than 2, in all patients. Routine spirometric indices, obtained during a forced vital capacity manoeuvre depend on the time course of the preceding inspiration in patients with restrictive lung disease. Therefore, the forced vital capacity manoeuvre should be standardized if used in clinical, epidemiological and research studies.
Maximally Supersymmetric Planar Yang-Mills Amplitudes at Five Loops
Bern, Z; Johansson, H; Kosower, D A
2007-01-01
We present an ansatz for the planar five-loop four-point amplitude in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of loop integrals. This ansatz exploits the recently observed correspondence between integrals with simple conformal properties and those found in the four-point amplitudes of the theory through four loops. We explain how to identify all such integrals systematically. We make use of generalized unitarity in both four and D dimensions to determine the coefficients of each of these integrals in the amplitude. Maximal cuts, in which we cut all propagators of a given integral, are an especially effective means for determining these coefficients. The set of integrals and coefficients determined here will be useful for computing the five-loop cusp anomalous dimension of the theory which is of interest for non-trivial checks of the AdS/CFT duality conjecture. It will also be useful for checking a conjecture that the amplitudes have an iterative structure allowing for their all-loop resummation, w...
Influence Maximization in Social Networks: Towards an Optimal Algorithmic Solution
Borgs, Christian; Chayes, Jennifer; Lucier, Brendan
2012-01-01
Diffusion is a fundamental graph process, underpinning such phenomena as epidemic disease contagion and the spread of innovation by word-of-mouth. We address the algorithmic problem of finding a set of k initial seed nodes in a network so that the expected size of the resulting cascade is maximized, under the standard independent cascade model of network diffusion. Our main result is an algorithm for the influence maximization problem that obtains the near-optimal approximation factor of (1 - 1/e - epsilon), for any epsilon > 0, in time O((m+n)log(n) / epsilon^3) where n and m are the number of vertices and edges in the network. Our algorithm is nearly runtime-optimal (up to a logarithmic factor) as we establish a lower bound of Omega(m+n) on the runtime required to obtain a constant approximation. Our method also allows a provable tradeoff between solution quality and runtime: we obtain an O(1/beta)-approximation in time O(n log^3(n) * a(G) / beta) for any beta > 1, where a(G) denotes the arboricity of the d...
Maximizing Information Diffusion in the Cyber-physical Integrated Network
Hongliang Lu
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, our living environment has been embedded with smart objects, such as smart sensors, smart watches and smart phones. They make cyberspace and physical space integrated by their abundant abilities of sensing, communication and computation, forming a cyber-physical integrated network. In order to maximize information diffusion in such a network, a group of objects are selected as the forwarding points. To optimize the selection, a minimum connected dominating set (CDS strategy is adopted. However, existing approaches focus on minimizing the size of the CDS, neglecting an important factor: the weight of links. In this paper, we propose a distributed maximizing the probability of information diffusion (DMPID algorithm in the cyber-physical integrated network. Unlike previous approaches that only consider the size of CDS selection, DMPID also considers the information spread probability that depends on the weight of links. To weaken the effects of excessively-weighted links, we also present an optimization strategy that can properly balance the two factors. The results of extensive simulation show that DMPID can nearly double the information diffusion probability, while keeping a reasonable size of selection with low overhead in different distributed networks.
Maximizing antimalarial efficacy and the importance of dosing strategies.
Beeson, James G; Boeuf, Philippe; Fowkes, Freya J I
2015-05-09
Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the cornerstone for the treatment of malaria. However, confirmed resistance to artemisinins in South-East Asia, and reports of reduced efficacy of ACTs raise major concerns for malaria treatment and control. Without new drugs to replace artemisinins, it is essential to define dosing strategies that maximize therapeutic efficacy, limit the spread of resistance, and preserve the clinical value of ACTs. It is important to determine the extent to which reduced efficacy of ACTs reflects true resistance versus sub-optimal dosing, and quantify other factors that determine treatment failure. Pooled analyses of individual patient data from multiple clinical trials, by investigators in the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, have shown high overall efficacy for three widely used ACTs, artemether-lumefantrine, artesunate-amodiaquine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Analyses also highlight that suboptimal dosing leads to increased risk of treatment failure, especially among children. In the most recent study, an analysis of clinical trials of artesunate-amodiaquine, widely used among children in Africa, revealed a superior efficacy for fixed-dose combination tablets compared to loose non-fixed dose combinations. This highlights the benefits of fixed-dose combinations as a practical strategy for ensuring optimal antimalarial dosing and maximizing efficacy. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/66.
Entropic anomaly and maximal efficiency of microscopic heat engines.
Bo, Stefano; Celani, Antonio
2013-05-01
The efficiency of microscopic heat engines in a thermally heterogenous environment is considered. We show that-as a consequence of the recently discovered entropic anomaly-quasistatic engines, whose efficiency is maximal in a fluid at uniform temperature, have in fact vanishing efficiency in the presence of temperature gradients. For slow cycles the efficiency falls off as the inverse of the period. The maximum efficiency is reached at a finite value of the cycle period that is inversely proportional to the square root of the gradient intensity. The relative loss in maximal efficiency with respect to the thermally homogeneous case grows as the square root of the gradient. As an illustration of these general results, we construct an explicit, analytically solvable example of a Carnot stochastic engine. In this thought experiment, a Brownian particle is confined by a harmonic trap and immersed in a fluid with a linear temperature profile. This example may serve as a template for the design of real experiments in which the effect of the entropic anomaly can be measured.
THE MAXIMAL OPERATOR ON Hp(T×T)
无
2000-01-01
The two-dimensional classical Hardy space H,(T ×T) on the bidisc are introduced, and it is shoum that the maximal operator of the (C,a,ββ) means of a divtribation is bounded from the space Hp(T×T) to Lp(T2)(1/(a+ 1), 1/(ββ+1)＜p≤∞), and is of weak type (H#1 (T×T) ,L1 (T2)), where the Hardy space H#1 (T×T) is defined by the hybrid maximal function. As a consequence we obtain that the ( C,a,β) means of a function f ∈ H#1 (T×T) LlogL(T2) convergs a.e. to the function in question. Moreover, we prove that the (C,a,β)means are uniformly bounded on the spaces Hp(T×T) whenver 1/(a+ 1),1/(β+ 1)＜p＜∞. Thus, in case f∈Hp(T×T), the (C,a,β) means convergs to f ia Hp(T×T) norm whenever (1/ (a+1) , 1/ (β+1)＜ p＜∞). The same results are proved for the conjugate (C,a,β) means, too.
A New Algorithm to Optimize Maximal Information Coefficient.
Yuan Chen
Full Text Available The maximal information coefficient (MIC captures dependences between paired variables, including both functional and non-functional relationships. In this paper, we develop a new method, ChiMIC, to calculate the MIC values. The ChiMIC algorithm uses the chi-square test to terminate grid optimization and then removes the restriction of maximal grid size limitation of original ApproxMaxMI algorithm. Computational experiments show that ChiMIC algorithm can maintain same MIC values for noiseless functional relationships, but gives much smaller MIC values for independent variables. For noise functional relationship, the ChiMIC algorithm can reach the optimal partition much faster. Furthermore, the MCN values based on MIC calculated by ChiMIC can capture the complexity of functional relationships in a better way, and the statistical powers of MIC calculated by ChiMIC are higher than those calculated by ApproxMaxMI. Moreover, the computational costs of ChiMIC are much less than those of ApproxMaxMI. We apply the MIC values tofeature selection and obtain better classification accuracy using features selected by the MIC values from ChiMIC.
Partial AUC maximization for essential gene prediction using genetic algorithms.
Hwang, Kyu-Baek; Ha, Beom-Yong; Ju, Sanghun; Kim, Sangsoo
2013-01-01
Identifying genes indispensable for an organism's life and their characteristics is one of the central questions in current biological research, and hence it would be helpful to develop computational approaches towards the prediction of essential genes. The performance of a predictor is usually measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We propose a novel method by implementing genetic algorithms to maximize the partial AUC that is restricted to a specific interval of lower false positive rate (FPR), the region relevant to follow-up experimental validation. Our predictor uses various features based on sequence information, protein-protein interaction network topology, and gene expression profiles. A feature selection wrapper was developed to alleviate the over-fitting problem and to weigh each feature's relevance to prediction. We evaluated our method using the proteome of budding yeast. Our implementation of genetic algorithms maximizing the partial AUC below 0.05 or 0.10 of FPR outperformed other popular classification methods.
Biomechanical characteristics of handballing maximally in Australian football.
Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare
2014-11-01
The handball pass is influential in Australian football, and achieving higher ball speeds in flight is an advantage in increasing distance and reducing the chance of interceptions. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive kinematic data and identify key technical aspects of maximal handball performance. Three-dimensional full body kinematic data from 19 professional Australian football players performing handball pass for maximal speed were collected, and the hand speed at ball contact was used to determine performance. Sixty-four kinematic parameters initially obtained were reduced to 15, and then grouped into like components through a two-stage supervised principal components analysis procedure. These components were then entered into a multiple regression analysis, which indicated that greater hand speed was associated with greater shoulder angular velocity and separation angle between the shoulders and pelvis at ball contact, as well as an earlier time of maximum upper-trunk rotation velocity. These data suggested that in order to increase the speed of the handball pass in Australian football, strategies like increased shoulder angular velocity, increased separation angle at ball contact, and earlier achievement of upper-trunk rotation speed might be beneficial.
Acute Hematological Responses to a Maximal Incremental Treadmill Test
Filipe Dinato de Lima
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The present study aimed to study acute hematologic responses in individuals undergoing a cardiopulmonary maximum incremental treadmill test without inclination. Were analyzed 23 individuals, 12 men and 11 women, with a mean age of 30.2 (± 8.4 years, mean weight of 68.1 (± 18.1 kg, mean height of 170.2 (± 9.8 cm, and mean BMI of 23.2 (±3.7 kg/m², physically active, with a minimum practice of 3.5 hours per week of exercise for at least 6 months. The subjects were submitted to a maximal incremental treadmill test, with venous blood collection for analysis before and immediately after completion of the test. Was used Wilcoxon test for analysis of pre and post test variables. Was adopted p < 0.05 as significance level. There was a significant increase in leukocyte count (69.23%; p = 0.005, lymphocytes (17.56%; p = 0.043, monocytes (85.41%; p = 0.012 and granulocytes (28.21%; p = 0.011. It was also observed a significant increase in erythrocytes (3,42%; p = 0,042, hematocrit (5.39%; p = 0.038 and hemoglobin (5.58%; p = 0.013. With this study, was concluded that performing a maximal test of treadmill running can significantly raise blood levels of leukocytes and respective sub-populations, as well as red blood cells and hemoglobin.
Hybrid PSO-MOBA for Profit Maximization in Cloud Computing
Dr. Salu George
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Cloud service provider, infrastructure vendor and clients/Cloud user’s are main actors in any cloud enterprise like Amazon web service’s cloud or Google’s cloud. Now these enterprises take care in infrastructure deployment and cloud services management (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS. Cloud user ‘s need to provide correct amount of services needed and characteristic of workload in order to avoid over – provisioning of resources and it’s the important pricing factor. Cloud service provider need to manage the resources and as well as optimize the resources to maximize the profit. To manage the profit we consider the M/M/m queuing model which manages the queue of job and provide average execution time. Resource Scheduling is one of the main concerns in profit maximization for which we take HYBRID PSO-MOBA as it resolves the global convergence problem, faster convergence, less parameter to tune, easier searching in very large problem spaces and locating the right resource. In HYBRID PSO-MOBA we are combining the features of PSO and MOBA to achieve the benefits of both PSO and MOBA and have greater compatibility.
The maximal energy of classes of integral circulant graphs
Sander, Jürgen W
2012-01-01
The energy of a graph is the sum of the moduli of the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. We study the energy of integral circulant graphs, also called gcd graphs, which can be characterized by their vertex count $n$ and a set $\\cal D$ of divisors of $n$ in such a way that they have vertex set $\\mathbb{Z}_n$ and edge set ${{a,b}: a,b\\in\\mathbb{Z}_n, \\gcd(a-b,n)\\in {\\cal D}}$. For a fixed prime power $n=p^s$ and a fixed divisor set size $|{\\cal D}| =r$, we analyze the maximal energy among all matching integral circulant graphs. Let $p^{a_1} < p^{a_2} < ... < p^{a_r}$ be the elements of ${\\cal D}$. It turns out that the differences $d_i=a_{i+1}-a_{i}$ between the exponents of an energy maximal divisor set must satisfy certain balance conditions: (i) either all $d_i$ equal $q:=\\frac{s-1}{r-1}$, or at most the two differences $[q]$ and $[q+1]$ may occur; %(for a certain $d$ depending on $r$ and $s$) (ii) there are rules governing the sequence $d_1,...,d_{r-1}$ of consecutive differences. For particular ...
Maximizing Information Diffusion in the Cyber-physical Integrated Network.
Lu, Hongliang; Lv, Shaohe; Jiao, Xianlong; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Juan
2015-11-11
Nowadays, our living environment has been embedded with smart objects, such as smart sensors, smart watches and smart phones. They make cyberspace and physical space integrated by their abundant abilities of sensing, communication and computation, forming a cyber-physical integrated network. In order to maximize information diffusion in such a network, a group of objects are selected as the forwarding points. To optimize the selection, a minimum connected dominating set (CDS) strategy is adopted. However, existing approaches focus on minimizing the size of the CDS, neglecting an important factor: the weight of links. In this paper, we propose a distributed maximizing the probability of information diffusion (DMPID) algorithm in the cyber-physical integrated network. Unlike previous approaches that only consider the size of CDS selection, DMPID also considers the information spread probability that depends on the weight of links. To weaken the effects of excessively-weighted links, we also present an optimization strategy that can properly balance the two factors. The results of extensive simulation show that DMPID can nearly double the information diffusion probability, while keeping a reasonable size of selection with low overhead in different distributed networks.
A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings
Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore
2015-11-01
Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density “random-close packing” polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.
Mining Maximal Frequent Patterns in a Unidirectional FP-tree
SONG Jing-jing; LIU Rui-xin; WANG Yan; JIANG Bao-qing
2006-01-01
Becausemining complete set of frequent patterns from dense database could be impractical, an interesting alternative has been proposed recently. Instead of mining the complete set of frequent patterns, the new model only finds out the maximal frequent patterns, which can generate all frequent patterns. FP-growth algorithm is one of the most efficient frequent-pattern mining methods published so far. However,because FP-tree and conditional FP-trees must be two-way traversable, a great deal memory is needed in process of mining. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm Unid_FP-Max for mining maximal frequent patterns based on unidirectional FP-tree. Because of generation method of unidirectional FP-tree and conditional unidirectional FP-trees, the algorithm reduces the space consumption to the fullest extent. With the development of two techniques:single path pruning and header table pruning which can cut down many conditional unidirectional FP-trees generated recursively in mining process, Unid_ FP-Max further lowers the expense of time and space.
On the Furthest Hyperplane Problem and Maximal Margin Clustering
Liberty, Edo; Weinstein, Omri
2011-01-01
This paper introduces the Furthest Hyperplane Problem (FHP). Given a set of $n$ points in $\\R^d$, the objective is to produce the hyperplane (through the origin) which maximizes the separation margin, that is, the minimal distance between the hyperplane and an input point. We prove that FHP is NP-hard to approximate to within some small (multiplicative) constant, by presenting a gap preserving reduction from a particular version of the PCP theorem. We also present an algorithm which runs in time $O(n^{\\tilde{O}(1/\\theta^2)})$ where $\\theta$ is the optimal margin. It is based on a dimension reduction technique combined with an $\\eps$-net argument in the reduced dimension. As a consequence, we obtain the first polynomial time algorithm for Maximal Margin Clustering (MMC), which is the unsupervised counterpart of Support Vector Machines (SVM), for the case where the margin is a constant factor of the point cloud diameter. Indeed, this is our main motivation. Our algorithm's running time dependance on the margin ...
Maximizing switching current of superconductor nanowires via improved impedance matching
Zhang, Labao; Yan, Xiachao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Chen, Jian; Kang, Lin; Wu, Peiheng
2017-02-01
The temporary resistance triggered by phase slips will result in the switching of a superconductor nanowire to a permanent normal state, decreasing the switching current. In this letter, we propose an improved impedance matching circuit that releases the transition triggered by phase slips to the load resistor through the radio frequency (RF) port of a bias tee. The transportation properties with different load resistors indicate that the switching current decreases due to the reflection caused by impedance mismatching, and it is maximized by optimized impedance matching. Compared to the same setup without the impedance matching circuit, the switching current was increased from 8.0 μA to 12.2 μA in a niobium nitride nanowire after releasing the temporary transition triggered by phase slips. The leakage process with impedance matching outputs a voltage pulse, which enables the user to directly register the transition triggered by phase slips. The technique for maximizing the switching current has a potential practical application in superconductor devices, and the technique for counting phase slips may be applied to explore the behavior of phase slips.
Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.
Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian
2016-06-01
CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo.
Reliability and validity of the maximal anaerobic running test.
Nummela, A; Alberts, M; Rijntjes, R P; Luhtanen, P; Rusko, H
1996-07-01
Physically active men (n = 13) twice performed the Maximal Anaerobic Running Test (MART) on a treadmill and once the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) on a cycle ergometer. The MART consisted of n 20-s runs with 100-s recovery between the runs. The speed of the first run was 14.6 km.h-1 and the inclination 4 degrees. Thereafter, the speed was increased by 1.37 km.h-1 every run until exhaustion. During all tests oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath and blood samples were taken from the fingertip 40s after each run to determine the lactate concentration (BLa). Power at submaximal BLa levels and maximal power (P5mM, P10mM and Pmax, respectively) were calculated and P was expressed as the oxygen demand of running according to the American College of Sports Medicine equation. In the MART the Pmax was 108 ml.kg-1.min-1 and peak BLa was 15.6 mM. The reliability for the power indices in the MART were as follows: r = 0.92 (p cycle ergometer test measure slightly different qualities.
Maximizing Photoluminescence Extraction in Silicon Photonic Crystal Slabs.
Mahdavi, Ali; Sarau, George; Xavier, Jolly; Paraïso, Taofiq K; Christiansen, Silke; Vollmer, Frank
2016-04-26
Photonic crystal modes can be tailored for increasing light matter interactions and light extraction efficiencies. These PhC properties have been explored for improving the device performance of LEDs, solar cells and precision biosensors. Tuning the extended band structure of 2D PhC provides a means for increasing light extraction throughout a planar device. This requires careful design and fabrication of PhC with a desirable mode structure overlapping with the spectral region of emission. We show a method for predicting and maximizing light extraction from 2D photonic crystal slabs, exemplified by maximizing silicon photoluminescence (PL). Systematically varying the lattice constant and filling factor, we predict the increases in PL intensity from band structure calculations and confirm predictions in micro-PL experiments. With the near optimal design parameters of PhC, we demonstrate more than 500-fold increase in PL intensity, measured near band edge of silicon at room temperature, an enhancement by an order of magnitude more than what has been reported.
Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing
Ecio de Farias Costa
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.
Transformation of Commercial Flows into Physical Flows of Electricity – Flow Based Method
M. Adamec
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We are witnesses of large – scale electricity transport between European countries under the umbrella of the UCTE organization. This is due to the inabilyof generators to satisfy the growing consumption in some regions. In this content, we distinguish between two types of flow. The first type is physical flow, which causes costs in the transmission grid, whilst the second type is commercial flow, which provides revenues for the market participants. The old methods for allocating transfer capacity fail to take this duality into account. The old methods that allocate transmission border capacity to “virtual” commercial flows which, in fact, will not flow over this border, do not lead to optimal allocation. Some flows are uselessly rejected and conversely, some accepted flows can cause congestion on another border. The Flow Based Allocation method (FBA is a method which aims to solve this problem.Another goal of FBA is to ensure sustainable development of expansion of transmission capacity. Transmission capacity is important, because it represents a way to establish better transmission system stability, and it provides a distribution channel for electricity to customers abroad. For optimal development, it is necessary to ensure the right division of revenue allocation among the market participants.This paper contains a brief description of the FBA method. Problems of revenue maximization and optimal revenue distribution are mentioned.
Tao, R.; Tang, H.
Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.
Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?
Carminatti, Lorival J; Possamai, Carlos A P; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F; de Lucas, Ricardo D; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G A
2013-01-01
The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h(-1)) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l(-1)). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key pointsT-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests.T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness.In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol.
K Sumathi; S Kannan; K Nagarajan
2013-01-01
.... In this paper, an efficient method for discovering the maximal frequent itemsets is proposed. This method employs Association array technique and depth first search technique to mine Maximal Frequent Itemset...
A maximal cycle test with good validity and high repeatability in adults of all ages
Eriksen, L; Tolstrup, J S; Larsen, Steen
2014-01-01
In 11 680 individuals (18-85 years) maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was estimated indirectly in a maximal cycle test using a prediction model developed in a young population (15-28 years). A subsample of 182 individuals (23-77 years) underwent 2 maximal cycle tests with VO2max estimated...... we suggest a new prediction model of VO2max. The maximal cycle test was highly repeatable....
Nonlinear Impairment Compensation Using Expectation Maximization for PDM 16-QAM Systems
Zibar, Darko; Winther, Ole; Franceschi, Niccolo
2012-01-01
We show experimentally that by using non-linear signal processing based algorithm, expectation maximization, nonlinear system tolerance can be increased by 2 dB. Expectation maximization is also effective in combating I/Q modulator nonlinearities and laser linewidth.......We show experimentally that by using non-linear signal processing based algorithm, expectation maximization, nonlinear system tolerance can be increased by 2 dB. Expectation maximization is also effective in combating I/Q modulator nonlinearities and laser linewidth....
Image Segmentation by Discounted Cumulative Ranking on Maximal Cliques
Carreira, Joao; Sminchisescu, Cristian
2010-01-01
We propose a mid-level image segmentation framework that combines multiple figure-ground hypothesis (FG) constrained at different locations and scales, into interpretations that tile the entire image. The problem is cast as optimization over sets of maximal cliques sampled from the graph connecting non-overlapping, putative figure-ground segment hypotheses. Potential functions over cliques combine unary Gestalt-based figure quality scores and pairwise compatibilities among spatially neighboring segments, constrained by T-junctions and the boundary interface statistics resulting from projections of real 3d scenes. Learning the model parameters is formulated as rank optimization, alternating between sampling image tilings and optimizing their potential function parameters. State of the art results are reported on both the Berkeley and the VOC2009 segmentation dataset, where a 28% improvement was achieved.
Designing lattice structures with maximal nearest-neighbor entanglement
Navarro-Munoz, J C; Lopez-Sandoval, R [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion CientIfica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San Jose 2055, 78216 San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Garcia, M E [Theoretische Physik, FB 18, Universitaet Kassel and Center for Interdisciplinary Nanostructure Science and Technology (CINSaT), Heinrich-Plett-Str.40, 34132 Kassel (Germany)
2009-08-07
In this paper, we study the numerical optimization of nearest-neighbor concurrence of bipartite one- and two-dimensional lattices, as well as non-bipartite two-dimensional lattices. These systems are described in the framework of a tight-binding Hamiltonian while the optimization of concurrence was performed using genetic algorithms. Our results show that the concurrence of the optimized lattice structures is considerably higher than that of non-optimized systems. In the case of one-dimensional chains, the concurrence increases dramatically when the system begins to dimerize, i.e., it undergoes a structural phase transition (Peierls distortion). This result is consistent with the idea that entanglement is maximal or shows a singularity near quantum phase transitions. Moreover, the optimization of concurrence in two-dimensional bipartite and non-bipartite lattices is achieved when the structures break into smaller subsystems, which are arranged in geometrically distinguishable configurations.
Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.
Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael
2014-01-01
The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.
Optimal deployment of resources for maximizing impact in spreading processes.
Lokhov, Andrey Y; Saad, David
2017-09-26
The effective use of limited resources for controlling spreading processes on networks is of prime significance in diverse contexts, ranging from the identification of "influential spreaders" for maximizing information dissemination and targeted interventions in regulatory networks, to the development of mitigation policies for infectious diseases and financial contagion in economic systems. Solutions for these optimization tasks that are based purely on topological arguments are not fully satisfactory; in realistic settings, the problem is often characterized by heterogeneous interactions and requires interventions in a dynamic fashion over a finite time window via a restricted set of controllable nodes. The optimal distribution of available resources hence results from an interplay between network topology and spreading dynamics. We show how these problems can be addressed as particular instances of a universal analytical framework based on a scalable dynamic message-passing approach and demonstrate the efficacy of the method on a variety of real-world examples.
Maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing in an SU(5) model
Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.
2003-05-01
We show that maximal atmospheric and large solar neutrino mixing can be implemented in SU(5) gauge theories, by making use of the U(1) F symmetry associated with a suitably defined family number F, together with a Z2 symmetry which does not commute with F. U(1) F is softly broken by the mass terms of the right-handed neutrino singlets, which are responsible for the seesaw mechanism; in additio n, U(1) F is also spontaneously broken at the electroweak scale. In our scenario, lepton mixing stems exclusively from the right-handed-neutrino Majorana mass matrix, whereas the CKM matrix originates solely in the up-type-quark sector. We show that, despite the non-supersymmetric character of our model, unification of the gauge couplings can be achieved at a scale 1016 GeV particula r solution to this problem which yields results almost identical to the ones of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.
Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs
Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); Olive, Keith A. [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Velasco-Sevilla, L. [University of Bergen, Department of Physics and Technology, PO Box 7803, Bergen (Norway)
2016-10-15
We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses m{sub 0} specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses m{sub 1/2}, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalisation between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to m{sub 1/2} and generation independent. In this case, the input scalar masses m{sub 0} may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxSFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity. (orig.)
Increasing the revenue from lignocellulosic biomass: Maximizing feedstock utilization.
Alonso, David Martin; Hakim, Sikander H; Zhou, Shengfei; Won, Wangyun; Hosseinaei, Omid; Tao, Jingming; Garcia-Negron, Valerie; Motagamwala, Ali Hussain; Mellmer, Max A; Huang, Kefeng; Houtman, Carl J; Labbé, Nicole; Harper, David P; Maravelias, Christos; Runge, Troy; Dumesic, James A
2017-05-01
The production of renewable chemicals and biofuels must be cost- and performance- competitive with petroleum-derived equivalents to be widely accepted by markets and society. We propose a biomass conversion strategy that maximizes the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass (up to 80% of the biomass to useful products) into high-value products that can be commercialized, providing the opportunity for successful translation to an economically viable commercial process. Our fractionation method preserves the value of all three primary components: (i) cellulose, which is converted into dissolving pulp for fibers and chemicals production; (ii) hemicellulose, which is converted into furfural (a building block chemical); and (iii) lignin, which is converted into carbon products (carbon foam, fibers, or battery anodes), together producing revenues of more than $500 per dry metric ton of biomass. Once de-risked, our technology can be extended to produce other renewable chemicals and biofuels.
Maximal sfermion flavour violation in super-GUTs
AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556; Velasco-Sevilla, Liliana
2016-01-01
We consider supersymmetric grand unified theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar masses $m_0$ specified above the GUT scale (super-GUTs) and patterns of Yukawa couplings motivated by upper limits on flavour-changing interactions beyond the Standard Model. If the scalar masses are smaller than the gaugino masses $m_{1/2}$, as is expected in no-scale models, the dominant effects of renormalization between the input scale and the GUT scale are generally expected to be those due to the gauge couplings, which are proportional to $m_{1/2}$ and generation-independent. In this case, the input scalar masses $m_0$ may violate flavour maximally, a scenario we call MaxFV, and there is no supersymmetric flavour problem. We illustrate this possibility within various specific super-GUT scenarios that are deformations of no-scale gravity.
Optimal Deployment of Resources for Maximizing Impact in Spreading Processes
Lokhov, Andrey Y
2016-01-01
The effective use of limited resources for controlling spreading processes on networks is of prime significance in diverse contexts, ranging from the identification of "influential spreaders" for maximizing information dissemination and targeted interventions in regulatory networks, to the development of mitigation policies for infectious diseases and financial contagion in economic systems. Solutions for these optimization tasks that are based purely on topological arguments are not fully satisfactory; in realistic settings the problem is often characterized by heterogeneous interactions and requires interventions over a finite time window via a restricted set of controllable nodes. The optimal distribution of available resources hence results from an interplay between network topology and spreading dynamics. We show how these problems can be addressed as particular instances of a universal analytical framework based on a scalable dynamic message-passing approach and demonstrate the efficacy of the method on...
Outage Constrained Secrecy Rate Maximization Using Cooperative Jamming
Luo, Shuangyu; Petropulu, Athina
2012-01-01
We consider a Gaussian MISO wiretap channel, where a multi-antenna source communicates with a single-antenna destination in the presence of a single-antenna eavesdropper. The communication is assisted by multi-antenna helpers that act as jammers to the eavesdropper. Each helper independently transmits noise which lies in the null space of the channel to the destination, thus creates no interference to the destination. Under the assumption that there is eavesdropper channel uncertainty, we derive the optimal covariance matrix for the source signal so that the secrecy rate is maximized subject to probability of outage and power constraints. Assuming that the eavesdropper channels follow zero-mean Gaussian model with known covariances, we derive the outage probability in a closed form. Simulation results in support of the analysis are provided.
Maximized ExoEarth Candidate Yields for Starshades
Stark, Christopher C; Lisman, Doug; Cady, Eric; Savransky, Dmitry; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi M
2016-01-01
The design and scale of a future mission to directly image and characterize potentially Earth-like planets will be impacted, to some degree, by the expected yield of such planets. Recent efforts to increase the estimated yields, by creating observation plans optimized for the detection and characterization of Earth-twins, have focused solely on coronagraphic instruments; starshade-based missions could benefit from a similar analysis. Here we explore how to prioritize observations for a starshade given the limiting resources of both fuel and time, present analytic expressions to estimate fuel use, and provide efficient numerical techniques for maximizing the yield of starshades. We implemented these techniques to create an approximate design reference mission code for starshades and used this code to investigate how exoEarth candidate yield responds to changes in mission, instrument, and astrophysical parameters for missions with a single starshade. We find that a starshade mission operates most efficiently so...
An Efficient Algorithm for Mining Maximal Frequent Item Sets
A. M.J.M.Z. Rahman
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Problem Statement: In today's life, the mining of frequent patterns is a basic problem in data mining applications. The algorithms which are used to generate these frequent patterns must perform efficiently. The objective was to propose an effective algorithm which generates frequent patterns in less time. Approach: We proposed an algorithm which was based on hashing technique and combines a vertical tidset representation of the database with effective pruning mechanisms. It removes all the non-maximal frequent item-sets to get exact set of MFI directly. It worked efficiently when the number of item-sets and tid-sets is more. Results: The performance of our algorithm had been compared with recently developed MAFIA algorithm and the results show how our algorithm gives better performance. Conclusions: Hence, the proposed algorithm performs effectively and generates frequent patterns faster.
Connecting unextendible maximally entangled base with partial Hadamard matrices
Wang, Yan-Ling; Li, Mao-Sheng; Fei, Shao-Ming; Zheng, Zhu-Jun
2017-03-01
We study the unextendible maximally entangled bases (UMEB) in Cdbigotimes Cd and connect the problem to the partial Hadamard matrices. We show that for a given special UMEB in Cdbigotimes Cd, there is a partial Hadamard matrix which cannot be extended to a Hadamard matrix in Cd. As a corollary, any (d-1)× d partial Hadamard matrix can be extended to a Hadamard matrix, which answers a conjecture about d=5. We obtain that for any d there is a UMEB except for d=p {or} 2p, where p≡ 3mod 4 and p is a prime. The existence of different kinds of constructions of UMEBs in C^{nd}bigotimes C^{nd} for any nin N and d=3× 5 × 7 is also discussed.
Algorithms for k-Colouring and Finding Maximal Independent Sets
Byskov, Jesper Makholm
2003-01-01
In this extended abstract, we construct algorithms that decide for a graph with n vertices whether there exists a 4-, 5- or 6-colouring of the vertices running in time O(1.7504n), O(2.1592 n) and O(2.3289n), respectively, using polynomial space. For 6- or 7-colouring we construct algorithms running...... in time (9(2.2680 n) and O(2.4023n), respectively, using exponential space. To do this, we prove that the number of maximal independent sets of size at most k (k-MIS's) in a graph is at most (d -1)dk - n am-(d -1)k for any d > 4. Eppstein shows the same bound for d = 4....
Slow-roll inflationary scenario in the maximally extended background
Asgari, Ali A.; Abbassi, Amir H. [Tarbiat Modares University, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-15
During the inflationary epoch, the geometry of the universe may be described by a quasi-de Sitter space. On the other hand, the maximally extended de Sitter metric in the comoving coordinates accords with a special FLRW model with positive spatial curvature; therefore, the focus of the present paper is on the positively curved inflationary paradigm, for which we first of all derive the power spectra of comoving curvature perturbation and primordial gravitational waves in a positively curved FLRW universe according to the slowly rolling inflationary scenario. It can be shown that the curvature spectral index in this model automatically has a small negative running parameter, compatible with observational measurements. Afterwards, by taking into account the curvature factor, it investigates the relative amplitude of the scalar and tensor perturbations, clarifying that the tensor-scalar ratio for this model, against the spatially flat one, directly depends on the wavelength of the perturbative modes. (orig.)
Slow-roll inflationary scenario in the maximally extended background
Asgari, Ali A.; Abbassi, Amir H., E-mail: ahabbasi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14155-4838, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-21
During the inflationary epoch, the geometry of the universe may be described by a quasi-de Sitter space. On the other hand, the maximally extended de Sitter metric in the comoving coordinates accords with a special FLRW model with positive spatial curvature; therefore, the focus of the present paper is on the positively curved inflationary paradigm, for which we first of all derive the power spectra of comoving curvature perturbation and primordial gravitational waves in a positively curved FLRW universe according to the slowly rolling inflationary scenario. It can be shown that the curvature spectral index in this model automatically has a small negative running parameter, compatible with observational measurements. Afterwards, by taking into account the curvature factor, it investigates the relative amplitude of the scalar and tensor perturbations, clarifying that the tensor–scalar ratio for this model, against the spatially flat one, directly depends on the wavelength of the perturbative modes.
KATTS: a framework for maximizing NCLEX-RN performance.
McDowell, Betsy M
2008-04-01
A key indicator of the quality of a nursing education program is the performance of its graduates as first-time takers of the NCLEX-RN. As a result, nursing schools are open to strategies that strengthen the performance of their graduates on the examination. The Knowledge base, Anxiety control, Test-Taking Skills (KATTS) framework focuses on the three components of achieving a maximum score on an examination. In KATTS, all three components must be present and in proper balance to maximize a test taker's score. By strengthening not just one but all of these components, graduates can improve their overall test scores significantly. Suggested strategies for strengthening each component of KATTS are provided. This framework has been used successfully in designing remedial tutoring programs and in assisting first-time NCLEX test takers in preparing for the licensing examination.
Maximizing sparse matrix vector product performance in MIMD computers
McLay, R.T.; Kohli, H.S.; Swift, S.L.; Carey, G.F.
1994-12-31
A considerable component of the computational effort involved in conjugate gradient solution of structured sparse matrix systems is expended during the Matrix-Vector Product (MVP), and hence it is the focus of most efforts at improving performance. Such efforts are hindered on MIMD machines due to constraints on memory, cache and speed of memory-cpu data transfer. This paper describes a strategy for maximizing the performance of the local computations associated with the MVP. The method focuses on single stride memory access, and the efficient use of cache by pre-loading it with data that is re-used while bypassing it for other data. The algorithm is designed to behave optimally for varying grid sizes and number of unknowns per gridpoint. Results from an assembly language implementation of the strategy on the iPSC/860 show a significant improvement over the performance using FORTRAN.
Community Detection via Maximization of Modularity and Its Variants
Chen, Mingming; Szymanski, Boleslaw K
2015-01-01
In this paper, we first discuss the definition of modularity (Q) used as a metric for community quality and then we review the modularity maximization approaches which were used for community detection in the last decade. Then, we discuss two opposite yet coexisting problems of modularity optimization: in some cases, it tends to favor small communities over large ones while in others, large communities over small ones (so called the resolution limit problem). Next, we overview several community quality metrics proposed to solve the resolution limit problem and discuss Modularity Density (Qds) which simultaneously avoids the two problems of modularity. Finally, we introduce two novel fine-tuned community detection algorithms that iteratively attempt to improve the community quality measurements by splitting and merging the given network community structure. The first of them, referred to as Fine-tuned Q, is based on modularity (Q) while the second one is based on Modularity Density (Qds) and denoted as Fine-tu...
Parallel Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Large Databases
HUANG Hao; SONG Han-tao; LU Yu-chang
2006-01-01
A new parallel expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm is proposed for large databases. The purpose of the algorithm is to accelerate the operation of the EM algorithm. As a well-known algorithm for estimation in generic statistical problems, the EM algorithm has been widely used in many domains. But it often requires significant computational resources. So it is needed to develop more elaborate methods to adapt the databases to a large number of records or large dimensionality. The parallel EM algorithm is based on partial E-steps which has the standard convergence guarantee of EM. The algorithm utilizes fully the advantage of parallel computation. It was confirmed that the algorithm obtains about 2.6 speedups in contrast with the standard EM algorithm through its application to large databases. The running time will decrease near linearly when the number of processors increasing.
Decade of the Brain 1990--2000: Maximizing human potential
1991-04-01
The US Decade of the Brain offers scientists throughout the Federal Government a unique opportunity to advance and apply scientific knowledge about the brain and nervous system. During the next 10 years, scientists hope to maximize human potential through studies of human behavior, senses and communication, learning and memory, genetic/chemical alterations, and environmental interactions. Progress in these areas should lead to reductions in mortality from brain and nervous system disorders and to improvements in the quality of life. This report identifies nine research areas that could form the basis of an integrated program in the brain and behavioral sciences. A chart summarizing the Federal activities in these nine areas may be found at the back of the report. In addition, three areas that span the nine research areas -- basic research, technology and international activities -- are considered.
Heterocyst placement strategies to maximize growth of cyanobacterial filaments
Brown, Aidan I
2012-01-01
Under conditions of limited fixed-nitrogen, some filamentous cyanobacteria develop a regular pattern of heterocyst cells that fix nitrogen for the remaining vegetative cells. We examine three different heterocyst placement strategies by quantitatively modelling filament growth while varying both external fixed-nitrogen and leakage from the filament. We find that there is an optimum heterocyst frequency which maximizes the growth rate of the filament; the optimum frequency decreases as the external fixed-nitrogen concentration increases but increases as the leakage increases. In the presence of leakage, filaments implementing a local heterocyst placement strategy grow significantly faster than filaments implementing random heterocyst placement strategies. With no extracellular fixed-nitrogen, consistent with recent experimental studies of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, the modelled heterocyst spacing distribution using our local heterocyst placement strategy is qualitatively similar to experimentally observed patterns...
Open Maximal Mucosa-Sparing Functional Total Laryngectomy
Pavel Dulguerov
2017-10-01
Full Text Available BackgroundTotal laryngectomy after (chemoradiotherapy is associated with a high incidence of fistula and therefore flaps are advocated. The description of a transoral robotic total laryngectomy prompted us to develop similar minimally invasive open approaches for functional total laryngectomy.MethodsA retrospective study of consecutive unselected patients with a dysfunctional larynx after (chemoradiation that underwent open maximal mucosal-sparing functional total laryngectomy (MMSTL between 2014 and 2016 is presented. The surgical technique is described, and the complications and functional outcome are reviewed.ResultsThe cohorts included 10 patients who underwent open MMSTL. No pedicled flap was used. Only one postoperative fistula was noted (10%. All patients resumed oral diet and experienced a functional tracheo-esophageal voice.ConclusionMMSTL could be used to perform functional total laryngectomy without a robot and with minimal incidence of complications.
Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation
Deguchi, Shinichi; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2016-01-01
We apply a generalized Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed $SU(2)$ Yang-Mills (YM) theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA) gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev-Popov (FP) effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.
Entangled states close to the maximally mixed state
Hildebrand, Roland
2009-01-01
We give improved upper bounds on the radius of the largest ball of separable states of an m-qubit system around the maximally mixed state. The ratio between the upper bound and the best known lower bound (Hildebrand, quant.ph/0601201) thus shrinks to a constant c = \\sqrt{34/27} ~ 1.122, as opposed to a term of order \\sqrt{m\\log m} for the best upper bound known previously (Aubrun and Szarek, quant.ph/0503221). We give concrete examples of separable states on the boundary to entanglement which realize these upper bounds. As a by-product, we compute the radii of the largest balls that fit into the projective tensor product of four unit balls in R^3 and in the projective tensor product of an arbitrary number of unit balls in R^n for n = 2,4,8.
Discussion on: "Profit maximization of a power plant"
Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik
2012-01-01
Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day......-ahead market, the aim is to schedule production throughout an operation day while complying with the day-ahead commitments, referred to in the paper as tracking a predefined production reference. The authors refer to Fig. 2 for an example of a production reference plan for a power plant of DONG Energy. A minor...... with the balancing mechanisms in most electricity markets, since no (or only very small) deviations are acceptable....
The performance of modularity maximization in practical contexts
Good, Benjamin H; Clauset, Aaron
2009-01-01
Although widely used in practice, the behavior and accuracy of the popular module identification technique called modularity maximization is not well understood. Here, we present a broad and systematic characterization of its performance in practical situations. First, we generalize and clarify the recently identified resolution limit phenomenon. Second, we show that the modularity function Q exhibits extreme degeneracies: that is, the modularity landscape admits an exponential number of distinct high-scoring solutions and does not typically exhibit a clear global maximum. Third, we derive the limiting behavior of the maximum modularity Q_max for infinitely modular networks, showing that it depends strongly on the size of the network and the number of module-like subgraphs it contains. Finally, using three real-world examples of metabolic networks, we show that the degenerate solutions can fundamentally disagree on the composition of even the largest modules. Together, these results significantly extend and c...
Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling
Guo, Jianwei
2016-02-15
In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate 3D-conforming tetrahedral meshes from closed 2-manifold surfaces. Our approach is inspired by recent work on maximal Poisson-disk sampling (MPS), which can generate well-distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform or adaptive sampling, respectively. We also propose an efficient optimization strategy to protect the domain boundaries and to remove slivers to improve the meshing quality. We present various experimental results to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of our proposed approach. We demonstrate that the performance and quality (e.g., minimal dihedral angle) of our approach are superior to current state-of-the-art optimization-based approaches.
Maximally informative dimensions Analyzing neural responses to natural signals
Sharpee, T; Bialek, W; Sharpee, Tatyana; Rust, Nicole C.; Bialek, William
2002-01-01
We propose a method that would allow for a rigorous statistical analysis of neural responses to natural stimuli, which are non-Gaussian and exhibit strong correlations. We have in mind a model in which neurons are selective for a small number of stimulus dimensions out of the high dimensional stimulus space, but within this subspace the responses can be arbitrarily nonlinear. Existing analysis methods are based on correlation functions between stimuli and responses, but these methods are guaranteed to work only in the case of Gaussian stimulus ensembles. As an alternative to correlation functions, we maximize the mutual information between the neural responses and projections of the stimulus onto low dimensional subspaces. The procedure can be done iteratively by increasing the dimensionality of this subspace. Those dimensions that allow the recovery of all of the information between spikes and the full unprojected stimuli describe the relevant subspace. If the dimensionality of the relevant subspace indeed i...