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Sample records for maximal electroshock test

  1. [Effect of psychotropic drugs on activity of anticonvulsants in maximal electroshock test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikina, N A; Tregubov, A L; Kotegov, V P

    2010-08-01

    The effect ofpsychotropic drugs on the pharmacological properties of anticonvulsants was studied on white mice under maximal electroshock (ME) test conditions. Changes in the anticonvulsant effect of phenobarbital, diphenin, carbamazepine, hexamidine were traced upon their joint administration with psychotropic drugs, including piracetam, aminalon, amitriptyline, imizine, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate. An important result of research is the fact, that in no one of combinations the basic pharmacological effect of anticonvulsants was decreased. Based on the results of experiments, the most rational combinations of anticonvulsants with psychotropic preparations were revealed as manifested in the ME test. As criterion of rational combination was the increase in the activity of anticonvulsants and reduction of their toxicity in combination or at least invariance of this parameter. Rational combinations include (i) phenobarbital with piracetam, amitriptyline, levomepromazine, and lithium oxybutyrate; (ii) carbamazepine with piracetam; and (iii) hexamidine with amitriptyline, levomepromazine and imizine.

  2. Infusion of opiates into substantia nigra protects against maximal electroshock seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garant, D S; Gale, K

    1985-07-01

    Microinfusion of morphine sulfate (50 nmol), [d-Ala2]-Met-enkephalin (35 nmol) or dynorphin A 1-13 (1 nmol) bilaterally into the substantia nigra significantly attenuated seizures induced by maximal electroshock in rats. This action was accompanied by stereotyped behavioral hyperactivity. These anticonvulsant and behavioral effects were antagonized by systemic naloxone administration; neither effect was observed after intranigral microinjection of dynorphin A 1-17 amide (1 nmol). These results are consistent with a mu opiate receptor-mediated inhibition of substantia nigra efferent neurons, and with the proposal that bilateral inhibition of nigral efferents attenuates seizure propagation. However, intranigral morphine failed to alter the severity of i.v. bicuculline seizures, indicating that opiate-mediated inhibition in substantia nigra is distinct from that produced by gamma-aminobutyric acid.

  3. Effects of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate on the anticonvulsant action of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Wlaz, Aleksandra; Karwan, Slawomir; Florek-Luszczki, Magdalena; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J

    2013-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of WIN 55,212-2 mesylate (WIN - a non-selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist) on the protective action of four second-generation antiepileptic drugs (lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate) in the mouse maximal electroshock seizure model. Tonic hind limb extension (seizure activity) was evoked in adult male albino Swiss mice by a current (sine-wave, 25 mA, 500 V, 50 Hz, 0.2s stimulus duration) delivered via auricular electrodes. Drug-related adverse effects were ascertained by use of the chimney test (evaluating motor performance), the step-through passive avoidance task (assessing long-term memory) and the grip-strength test (evaluating skeletal muscular strength). Total brain concentrations of antiepileptic drugs were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography to ascertain any pharmacokinetic contribution to the observed antiseizure effect. Results indicate that WIN (5mg/kg, i.p.) significantly enhanced the anticonvulsant action of lamotrigine (Poxcarbazepine in the maximal electroshock-induced tonic seizure test in mice. Furthermore, none of the investigated combinations of WIN with antiepileptic drugs were associated with any concurrent adverse effects with regards to motor performance, long-term memory or muscular strength. Pharmacokinetic characterization revealed that WIN had no impact on total brain concentrations of lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, pregabalin and topiramate in mice. These preclinical data would suggest that WIN in combination with lamotrigine, pregabalin and topiramate is associated with beneficial anticonvulsant pharmacodynamic interactions in the maximal electroshock-induced tonic seizure test. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Blockade of T-type calcium channels prevents tonic-clonic seizures in a maximal electroshock seizure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkaki, Sophie; Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Lerat, Benoit; Françon, Dominique; Forichon, Luc; Chemin, Jean; Valjent, Emmanuel; Lerner-Natoli, Mireille; Lory, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    T-type (Cav3) calcium channels play important roles in neuronal excitability, both in normal and pathological activities of the brain. In particular, they contribute to hyper-excitability disorders such as epilepsy. Here we have characterized the anticonvulsant properties of TTA-A2, a selective T-type channel blocker, in mouse. Using the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) as a model of tonic-clonic generalized seizures, we report that mice treated with TTA-A2 (0.3 mg/kg and higher doses) were significantly protected against tonic seizures. Although no major change in Local Field Potential (LFP) pattern was observed during the MES seizure, analysis of the late post-ictal period revealed a significant increase in the delta frequency power in animals treated with TTA-A2. Similar results were obtained for Cav3.1-/- mice, which were less prone to develop tonic seizures in the MES test, but not for Cav3.2-/- mice. Analysis of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) phosphorylation and c-Fos expression revealed a rapid and elevated neuronal activation in the hippocampus following MES clonic seizures, which was unchanged in TTA-A2 treated animals. Overall, our data indicate that TTA-A2 is a potent anticonvulsant and that the Cav3.1 isoform plays a prominent role in mediating TTA-A2 tonic seizure protection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  6. Proconvulsant effects of the ketogenic diet in electroshock-induced seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowska, Iwona; Luszczki, Jarogniew J; Zarnowski, Tomasz; Wlaz, Piotr; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J; Gasior, Maciej

    2017-04-01

    Among non-pharmacological treatments, the ketogenic diet (KD) has the strongest demonstrated evidence of clinical success in drug resistant epilepsy. In an attempt to model the anticonvulsant effects of the KD pre-clinically, the present study assessed the effects of the KD against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. After confirming that exposure to the KD for 2 weeks resulted in stable ketosis and hypoglycemia, mice were exposed to electroshocks of various intensities to establish general seizure susceptibility. When compared to mice fed the standard rodent chow diet (SRCD), we found that mice fed the KD were more sensitive to electroconvulsions as reflected by a significant decrease in seizure threshold (3.86 mA in mice on the KD vs 7.29 mA in mice on the SRCD; P < 0.05) in the maximal electroshock seizure threshold (MEST) test. To examine if this increased seizure sensitivity to electroconvulsions produced by the KD would affect anticonvulsant effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), anticonvulsant potencies of carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA) against maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions were compared in mice fed the KD and SRCD. We found that potencies of all AEDs studied were decreased in mice fed the KD in comparison to those on the SRCD, with decreases in the anticonvulsant potencies ranging from 1.4 fold (PB) to 1.7 fold (PHT). Finally, the lack of differences in brain exposures of the AEDs studied in mice fed the KD and SRCD ruled out a pharmacokinetic nature of the observed findings. Taken together, exposure to the KD in the present study had an overall pro-convulsant effect. Since electroconvulsions require large metabolic reserves to support their rapid spread throughout the brain and consequent generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, this effect may be explained by a high energy state produced by the KD in regards to increased energy storage and utilization.

  7. Electroshock weapons can be lethal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2008-03-01

    Electroshock weapons (EWs)-stun guns, tasers, riot shields-are electroconductive devices designed to safely incapacitate healthy men neuromuscularly, so they are called nonlethal or less-lethal. EW firms seeking large nonmilitary markets targeted law enforcement and corrections personnel, who began using EWs in prisons/jails and on public patrol in 1980 in the USA. This shifted the EW-shocked population from healthy soldiers to a heterogeneous mix of both sexes, ages 6-92, in a wide variety of health conditions! An EW operates by disrupting normal physiological processes, producing transient effects in healthy people. But if a person's health is sufficiently compromised, the margin of safety can be lost, resulting in death or permanent health problems. 325 people have died after EW shock since 1980. Did the EW cause these deaths? Evidence indicates that EWs do play a causal role in most such deaths. EWs can be lethal for people in diabetic shock^1 (hypoglycemia), which may be why Robert Dziekanski-a Polish immigrant to Canada-died so quickly after he was tasered at Vancouver Airport: not having eaten for over 10 hours, he likely was severely hypoglycemic. The EW death rate in North America is 30 times higher than need be, because EW users have not been properly trained to use EWs on a heterogeneous population safely! ^1J. Clinical Engineering 30(3):111(2005).

  8. Waiting for oblivion: women's experiences with electroshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie van Daalen-Smith, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings and analysis stemming from a two-year qualitative study that explored, in their own voices, women's lived experience of electroshock. Feminist standpoint theory frames and provides the moorings for both the validity and methodology of this woman-centered inquiry. In addition, nurses' experiences with and views of ECT are explored and compared to the experiences reported by the women recipients themselves. Vulnerability and disconnection as emergent themes are presented for the nursing profession's sober consideration. The nurses interviewed believed electroshock culminated in a net gain for patients, but for the majority of the women interviewed, electroshock resulted in damage and devastating loss. This article closes with pressing questions for nurses to ask ourselves as we enter the second decade of this new and promising millennium.

  9. Electroshock: a crime against the spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Leonard Roy

    2002-01-01

    Since its introduction in 1938, electroshock (electroconvulsive treatment, ECT) has been to its proponents a blessing and to its critics a curse. The author, himself an insulin coma-electroshock survivor, sides with the critics arguing that ECT is inherently harmful and dehumanizing. To support his views, he cites findings and comments from the professional literature in four areas: brain damage, memory loss, death, and brainwashing. The author also presents seven reasons for the continuing use of ECT, including profitability, value as a reinforcer of the biological model of mental illness, the absence of informed consent, the procedure's function as a "treatment of next resort," government and media support, and the public's failure to hold psychiatrists accountable for their conduct. The author concludes the article with his poem "Aftermath."

  10. A Material History of Electroshock Therapy : Electroshock Technology in Europe until 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzesnitzek, Lara; Lang, Sascha

    2016-09-01

    The article considers the history of electroshock therapy as a history of medical technology, professional cooperation and business competition. A variation of a history from below is intended; though not from the patients' perspective (Porter, Theory Soc 14:175-198, 1985), but with a focus on electrodes, circuitry and patents. Such a 'material history' of electroshock therapy reveals that the technical make-up of electroshock devices and what they were used for was relative to the changing interests of physicians, industrial companies and mental health politics; it makes an intriguing case for the Social Construction of Technology theory (Bijker et al., The social construction of technological systems: new directions in the sociology and history of technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1987).

  11. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  12. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  13. Morphine potentiates seizures induced by GABA antagonists and attenuates seizures induced by electroshock in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, F; Gale, K

    1983-11-25

    In a naloxone-reversible, dose-dependent manner, morphine (10-50 mg/kg i.p.) protected against seizures induced by maximal electroshock and increased the incidence and severity of seizures induced by bicuculline, in rats. Morphine also potentiated seizures induced by isoniazid and by picrotoxin. Thus, opiate activity influences the expression of seizures in contrasting ways depending upon the mode of seizure induction. Since morphine consistently potentiated seizures induced by interference with GABA transmission, it appears that GABAergic systems may be of particular significance for the elucidation of the varied effects of morphine on seizure susceptibility.

  14. Maximal lattice free bodies, test sets and the Frobenius problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Lauritzen, Niels; Roune, Bjarke Hammersholt

    Maximal lattice free bodies are maximal polytopes without interior integral points. Scarf initiated the study of maximal lattice free bodies relative to the facet normals in a fixed matrix. In this paper we give an efficient algorithm for computing the maximal lattice free bodies of an integral m...... method is inspired by the novel algorithm by Einstein, Lichtblau, Strzebonski and Wagon and the Groebner basis approach by Roune....

  15. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  16. Comparison of the sensitivities of the Buehler test and the guinea pig maximization test for predictive testing of contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Vølund, A; Wahlberg, J E

    2001-01-01

    International test guidelines, such as the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline #406, recommend 2 guinea pig methods for testing of the contact allergenic potential of chemicals: the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT) and the Buehler test. Previous comparisons...

  17. Reliability of Maximal Strength Testing in Novice Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2009-01-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is a criterion measure of muscle strength. However, the reliability of 1RM testing in novice subjects has received little attention. Understanding this information is crucial to accurately interpret changes in muscle strength. To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) 1RM in novice subjects. Twenty healthy males (31 plus or minus 5 y, 179.1 plus or minus 6.1 cm, 81.4 plus or minus 10.6 kg) with no weight training experience in the previous six months participated in four 1RM testing sessions, with each session separated by 5-7 days. SQ and HR 1RM were conducted using a smith machine; DL 1RM was assessed using free weights. Session 1 was considered a familiarization and was not included in the statistical analyses. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Tukey fs post-hoc tests were used to detect between-session differences in 1RM (p.0.05). Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). During Session 2, the SQ and DL 1RM (SQ: 90.2 }4.3, DL: 75.9 }3.3 kg) were less than Session 3 (SQ: 95.3 }4.1, DL: 81.5 plus or minus 3.5 kg) and Session 4 (SQ: 96.6 }4.0, DL: 82.4 }3.9 kg), but there were no differences between Session 3 and Session 4. HR 1RM measured during Session 2 (150.1 }3.7 kg) and Session 3 (152.5 }3.9 kg) were not different from one another, but both were less than Session 4 (157.5 }3.8 kg). The reliability (ICC) of 1RM measures for Sessions 2-4 were 0.88, 0.83, and 0.87, for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. When considering only Sessions 3 and 4, the reliability was 0.93, 0.91, and 0.86 for SQ, HR, and DL, respectively. One familiarization session and 2 test sessions (for SQ and DL) were required to obtain excellent reliability (ICC greater than or equal to 0.90) in 1RM values with novice subjects. We were unable to attain this level of reliability following 3 HR testing sessions therefore additional sessions may be required to obtain an

  18. Testing Gravity via Lunar Laser Ranging: Maximizing Data Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas

    We propose to continue leading-edge observations with the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO), in an effort to subject gravity to the most stringent tests yet. APOLLO has delivered a dramatic improvement in the measurement of the lunar orbit: now at the millimeter level. Yet incomplete models are thus far unable to confirm the accuracy. We therefore seek to build a calibration system to ensure that APOLLO meets its millimeter measurement goal. Gravity--the most evident force of nature--is in fact the weakest of the fundamental forces, and consequently the most poorly tested. Einstein’s general relativity, which is currently our best description of gravity, is fundamentally incompatible with quantum mechanics and is likely to be replaced by a more complete theory in the future. A modified theory would predict small deviations in the solar system that could have profound consequences for our understanding of the Universe as a whole. Lunar laser ranging (LLR), in which short laser pulses launched from a telescope are bounced off of reflectors placed on the Moon by U.S. astronauts and Soviet landers, has for decades produced some of the leading tests of gravity by mapping the shape of the lunar orbit to high precision. These include tests of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-ofchange of Newton’s gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse-square law, and many others. Among the attributes that contribute to APOLLO’s superior observations, routine ranging to all five lunar reflectors on timescales of minutes dramatically improves our ability to gauge lunar orientation and body distortion. This information produces insights into the interior structure and dynamics of the Moon, allowing a more precise determination of the path for the Moon’s center of mass, lending to tests of fundamental gravity. Simultaneously, higher precision range measurements, together with data from a superconducting gravimeter at the

  19. The effects of compound 48/80, morphine, and mast cell depletion on electroshock seizure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yillar, D O; Küçükhüseyin, C

    2008-01-01

    The effects of compound 48/80 (C48/80), morphine, and mast cell depletion on maximal electroshock seizure (MES) were studied in Swiss albino mice. An electrical current (60Hz, 0.2 msec) inducing convulsions in 50% of the animals (CC50) was assessed as 46 mA. Compound 48/80 (5 mg/kg) and morphine (100mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously. CC50 was applied separately to electroshock-unexposed animal groups at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after the onset of the experiment. In untreated controls, the percent of seizure induced by CC50 and percent of death among mice having convulsions were 50 and 20, respectively. After C48/80, a significant increase in rates of seizure at 60th and 120th min and death beyond 60th min (p seizure tended to decrease following mast-cell depletion, which was readily reversed by C48/80 at the 60th min (p seizure induced by the application of CC50 in the mast-cell depleted animals (anticonvulsive action) but increased the percent of dying animals by as much as 100% at the 30th and 60th min (p opiate receptors in the brain.

  20. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M

    1990-01-01

    A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...

  1. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake without exercise testing in Korean healthy adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Tae-Won; Park, Shin-Goo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Jung-Man; Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2012-08-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake is generally accepted as the most valid and reliable index of cardiorespiratory fitness and functional aerobic capacity. The exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen uptake is unsuitable for screening tests in public heath examinations, because of the potential risks of exercise exertion and time demands. We designed this study to determine whether work-related physical activity is a potential predictor of maximal oxygen uptake, and to develop a maximal oxygen uptake equation using a non-exercise regression model for the cardiorespiratory fitness test in Korean adult workers. Study subjects were adult workers of small-sized companies in Korea. Subjects with history of disease such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma and angina were excluded. In total, 217 adult subjects (113 men of 21-55 years old and 104 women of 20-64 years old) were included. Self-report questionnaire survey was conducted on study subjects, and maximal oxygen uptake of each subject was measured with the exercise test. The statistical analysis was carried out to develop an equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake. The predictors for estimating maximal oxygen uptake included age, gender, body mass index, smoking, leisure-time physical activity and the factors representing work-related physical activity. The work-related physical activity was identified to be a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake. Moreover, the equation showed high validity according to the statistical analysis. The equation for estimating maximal oxygen uptake developed in the present study could be used as a screening test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in Korean adult workers.

  2. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  3. MAXIMIZING GROWTH AND SEXUAL MATURATION OF SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS IN SUPPORT OF MULTI-GENERATION TEST DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmer, R.L., G.M. Cripe and L.R. Goodman. In press. Maximizing Growth and Sexual Maturation of Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) in Support of Multi-Generation Test Development (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland...

  4. Nickel-sulphate-induced contact dermatitis in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1991-01-01

    Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati...

  5. The value and limitations of rechallenge in the guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Basketter, D A; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1996-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) has played a primary rôle in the evaluation of potential skin contact sensitizers for 25 years. In the OECD Guideline 406 from 1993, it is specifically suggested that equivocal results from the initial challenge in the GPMT should be evaluated further...

  6. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs...

  7. Prediction of maximal lactate steady state in runners with an incremental test on the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leti, Thomas; Mendelson, Monique; Laplaud, David; Flore, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    During a maximal incremental ergocycle test, the power output associated with Respiratory Exchange Ratio equal to 1.00 (RER = 1.00) predicts maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). We hypothesised that these results are transferable for runners on the field. Fourteen runners performed a maximal progressive test, to assess the speed associated with RER = 1.00, and several 30 minutes constant velocity tests to determine the speed at MLSS. We observed that the speeds at RER = 1.00, at the second ventilatory threshold (VT2) and at MLSS did not differ (15.7 ± 1.1 km · h⁻¹, 16.2 ± 1.4 km · h⁻¹, 15.5 ± 1.1 km · h⁻¹ respectively). The speed associated with RER = 1.00 was better correlated with that at MLSS (r = 0.79; p = 0.0008) than that at VT2 (r = 0.73; p = 0.002). Neither the concentration of blood lactate nor the heart rate differed between the speed at RER = 1.00 and that at MLSS from the 10th and the 30th minute of the constant velocity test. Bland and Altman analysis showed a fair agreement between the speed at MLSS and that at RER (0.2 ± 1.4 km · h⁻¹). This study demonstrated that the speed associated with RER = 1.00 determined during maximal progressive track running allows a fair estimation of the speed associated with MLSS, markedly decreasing the burden of numerous invasive tests required to assess it.

  8. The slack test does not assess maximal shortening velocity of muscle fascicle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Robin; Dorel, Sylvain; Nordez, Antoine; Rabita, Giuseppe; Couturier, Antoine; Hauraix, Hugo; Duchateau, Jacques; Guilhem, Gaël

    2018-06-14

    The application of a series of extremely high accelerative motor-driven quick releases while muscles contract isometrically (i.e. slack test) has been proposed to assess unloaded velocity in human muscle. This study aimed to measure gastrocnemius medialis fascicle (V F ) and tendinous tissues shortening velocity during motor-driven quick releases performed at various activation levels to assess the applicability of the slack test method in human. Maximal fascicle shortening velocity and joint velocity recorded during quick releases and during fast contraction without external load (ballistic condition) were compared. Gastrocnemius medialis fascicle behaviour was investigated from 25 participants using high-frame rate ultrasound during quick releases performed at various activation levels (from 0% to 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque) and ballistic contractions. Unloaded joint velocity calculated using the slack test method increased whereas V F decreased with muscle activation level (P≤0.03). Passive and low-level quick releases elicited higher V F values (≥ 41.4±9.7 cm.s -1 ) compared to ballistic condition (36.3±8.7 cm.s -1 ), while quick releases applied at 60% of maximal voluntary isometric torque produced the lowest V F These findings suggest that initial fascicle length, complex fascicle-tendon interactions, unloading reflex and motor-driven movement pattern strongly influence and limit the shortening velocity achieved during the slack test. Furthermore, V F elicited by quick releases is likely to reflect substantial contributions of passive processes. Therefore, the slack test is not appropriate to assess maximal muscle shortening velocity in vivo. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  10. Validation of a Maximal Incremental Skating Test Performed on a Slide Board: Comparison With Treadmill Skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piucco, Tatiane; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Soares, Rogério; Murias, Juan M; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the criterion validity of a maximal incremental skating test performed on a slide board (SB). Twelve subelite speed skaters performed a maximal skating test on a treadmill and on a SB. Gas exchange threshold (GET), respiratory compensation point (RCP), and maximal variables were determined. Oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) (31.0 ± 3.2 and 31.4 ± 4.1 mL·min -1 ·kg -1 ), percentage of maximal [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) (66.3 ± 4 and 67.7 ± 7.1%), HR (153 ± 14 and 150 ±12 bpm), and ventilation (59.8 ± 11.8 and 57.0 ± 10.7 L·min -1 ) at GET, and [Formula: see text] (42.5 ± 4.4 and 42.9 ± 4.8 mL·min -1 ·kg -1 ), percentage of [Formula: see text] (91.1 ± 3.3 and 92.4 ± 2.1%), heart rate (HR) (178 ± 9 and 178 ± 6 bpm), and ventilation (96.5 ± 19.2 and 92.1 ± 12.7 L·min -1 ) at RCP were not different between skating on a treadmill and on a SB. [Formula: see text] (46.7 ± 4.4 vs 46.4 ±6.1 mL·min -1 ·kg -1 ) and maximal HR (195 ± 6 vs 196 ± 10 bpm) were not significantly different and correlated (r = .80 and r = .87, respectively; P  .8) with athletes' best times on 1500 m. The incremental skating test on a SB was capable to distinguish maximal ([Formula: see text] and HR) and submaximal ([Formula: see text], % [Formula: see text], HR, and ventilation) parameters known to determine endurance performance. Therefore, the SB test can be considered as a specific and practical alternative to evaluate speed skaters.

  11. Guinea pig maximization tests with formaldehyde releasers. Results from two laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Boman, A; Hamann, K

    1984-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test was used to evaluate the sensitizing potential of formaldehyde and 6 formaldehyde releasers (Forcide 78, Germall 115, Grotan BK, Grotan OX, KM 200 and Preventol D2). The tests were carried out in 2 laboratories (Copenhagen and Stockholm), and although we intended...... the procedures to be the same, discrepancies were observed, possibly due to the use of different animal strains, test concentrations and vehicles. The sensitizing potential was in general found to be stronger in Stockholm compared to Copenhagen: formaldehyde sensitized 50% of the guinea pigs in Copenhagen and 95...

  12. Maximal exercise testing of men with prostate cancer being treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Bradley A; Galvão, Daniel A; Fatehee, Naeem; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Newton, Robert U

    2014-12-01

    Exercise is being increasingly established as a key adjuvant therapy in clinical oncology. As research has demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise for cancer management, a growing number of patients with cancer are undertaking structured exercise programs. This study aimed to determine the safety and feasibility of formal exercise testing in clinical settings as it is becoming increasingly used as a screening tool and for exercise prescription purposes. One hundred and twelve patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) took part in a physician-supervised multistage maximal stress test (Bruce protocol). Sixty patients had been on ADT for 3 months (chronic). Of these men, 85% were able to meet the criteria for the attainment of V˙O2max, whereas three positive tests (3.2%) were observed. The three participants who recorded a positive stress test underwent further medical examination and were subsequently cleared of clinically significant cardiovascular disease. Apart from the relatively low V˙O2max (24.7 ± 6.0 mL·kg·min, 10th-15th percentile), compared with normative data in healthy age-matched controls, the cardiovascular response to exercise was similar in this cancer population. Moreover, treatment duration did not seem to influence cardiovascular responses to exercise. This early evidence suggests that risk of adverse events during maximal exercise testing is relatively low in this population and certainly no higher than that in ages-matched, apparently healthy individuals. Maximal exercise testing was demonstrated to be feasible and safe, providing a direct assessment of V˙O2max. The relatively low number of positive tests in this study suggests that the risk of adverse events is relatively low in this population and certainly no higher than that in age-matched, apparently healthy individuals.

  13. CISO's guide to penetration testing a framework to plan, manage, and maximize benefits

    CERN Document Server

    Tiller, James S

    2011-01-01

    CISO's Guide to Penetration Testing: A Framework to Plan, Manage, and Maximize Benefits details the methodologies, framework, and unwritten conventions penetration tests should cover to provide the most value to your organization and your customers. Discussing the process from both a consultative and technical perspective, it provides an overview of the common tools and exploits used by attackers along with the rationale for why they are used. From the first meeting to accepting the deliverables and knowing what to do with the results, James Tiller explains what to expect from all phases of th

  14. Brain delivery of valproic acid via intranasal administration of nanostructured lipid carriers: in vivo pharmacodynamic studies using rat electroshock model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Eskandari

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharareh Eskandari1, Jaleh Varshosaz1, Mohsen Minaiyan2, Majid Tabbakhian11Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy and Isfahan Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranAbstract: The treatment of brain disorders is one of the greatest challenges in drug delivery because of a variety of main barriers in effective drug transport and maintaining therapeutic concentrations in the brain for a prolonged period. The objective of this study was delivery of valproic acid (VPA to the brain by intranasal route. For this purpose, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs were prepared by solvent diffusion method followed by ultrasonication and characterized for size, zeta potential, drug-loading percentage, and release. Six groups of rats each containing six animals received drug-loaded NLCs intraperitoneally (IP or intranasally. Brain responses were then examined by using maximal electroshock (MES. The hind limb tonic extension:flexion inhibition ratio was measured at 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 120-minute intervals. The drug concentration was also measured in plasma and brain at the most protective point using gas chromatography method. The particle size of NLCs was 154 ± 16 nm with drug-loading percentage of 47% ± 0.8% and drug release of 75% ± 1.9% after 21 days. In vivo results showed that there was a significant difference between protective effects of NLCs of VPA and control group 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after treatment via intranasal route (P < 0.05. Similar protective effect was observed in rats treated with NLCs of VPA in intranasal route and positive control in IP route (P > 0.05. Results of drug determination in brain and plasma showed that brain:plasma concentration ratio was much higher after intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA than the positive control group (IP route. In conclusion, intranasal administration of NLCs of VPA provided a better protection

  15. Sub-maximal and maximal Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Mohr, Magni; Bendiksen, Mads

    2011-01-01

    to detect test-retest changes and discriminate between performance for different playing standards and positions in elite soccer. Elite (n = 148) and sub-elite male (n = 14) soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IE2 test on several occasions over consecutive seasons. Test-retest coefficient of variation (CV......) in Yo-Yo IE2 test performance and heart rate after 6 min were 3.9% (n = 37) and 1.4% (n = 32), respectively. Elite male senior and youth U19 players Yo-Yo IE2 performances were better (P ......The aims of this study were to (1) determine the reproducibility of sub-maximal and maximal versions of the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 (Yo-Yo IE2 test), (2) assess the relationship between the Yo-Yo IE2 test and match performance and (3) quantify the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo IE2 test...

  16. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  17. The use of serological tests in combination with the intradermal tuberculin test maximizes the detection of tuberculosis infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Javier; Roy, Álvaro; Infantes-Lorenzo, José Antonio; González, Isabel; Venteo, Ángel; Romero, Beatriz; Grau, Anna; Mínguez, Olga; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2018-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats is based mainly on the single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests and, exceptionally, on the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, however they are not perfect in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, various serological assays that provide a potential cost-effective approach for the control of TB are also available or under development, and a variety of results have been reported regarding the ability of these tests to detect infected animals, particularly in the early stages of infection. In the present study, SIT/CIT and IFN-γ tests and three different serological assays were evaluated during two consecutive herd testing events in a recently infected caprine herd (n = 447) with a high prevalence of infection in order to evaluate their performance and provide field data with which to improve the TB control programs in this species. The proportion of infected animals that tested positive among all the infected goats (T+/I+ value) in the last herd testing event ranged from 26.2% (IC95%; 19.3-34.5) to 85.7% (IC95%; 78.5-90.7) using cell-based diagnostic tests. The SIT/SCIT tests detected more infected goats than the IFN-γ test, regardless of the interpretation criteria. The T+/I+ value of serology was 83.2 (IC95%; 75.2-89), although it increased significantly (P test (100%, IC95%; 97-100). In general, a parallel interpretation of intradermal tests with serology maximized the detection of infected goats. These results demonstrate that serological tests are valuable diagnostic tools to maximize the detection of TB infected goats, even in recent outbreaks, accelerating the eradication process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the Danish step test and the watt-max test for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Zacho, Morten; Linneberg, Allan René

    2013-01-01

    . Altogether, 795 eligible participants (response rate 35.8%) performed the watt max and the Danish step test. Correlation and agreement between the two VO(2max) test results was explored by Pearson's rho, Bland-Altman plots, Kappa(w), and gamma coefficients.Results: The correlation between VO(2max) (ml......Introduction: There is a need for simple and feasible methods for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in large study populations, as existing methods for valid estimation of maximal oxygen consumption are generally time consuming and relatively expensive to administer. The Danish step...

  19. Sperm competition leads to functional adaptations in avian testes to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Wistuba, Joachim; Damm, Oliver S; Rivers, James W; Birkhead, Tim R

    2011-05-01

    The outcome of sperm competition (i.e. competition for fertilization between ejaculates from different males) is primarily determined by the relative number and quality of rival sperm. Therefore, the testes are under strong selection to maximize both sperm number and quality, which are likely to result in trade-offs in the process of spermatogenesis (e.g. between the rate of spermatogenesis and sperm length or sperm energetics). Comparative studies have shown positive associations between the level of sperm competition and both relative testis size and the proportion of seminiferous (sperm-producing) tissue within the testes. However, it is unknown how the seminiferous tissue itself or the process of spermatogenesis might evolve in response to sperm competition. Therefore, we quantified the different germ cell types and Sertoli cells (SC) in testes to assess the efficiency of sperm production and its associations with sperm length and mating system across 10 species of New World Blackbirds (Icteridae) that show marked variation in sperm length and sperm competition level. We found that species under strong sperm competition generate more round spermatids (RS)/spermatogonium and have SC that support a greater number of germ cells, both of which are likely to increase the maximum sperm output. However, fewer of the RS appeared to elongate to mature spermatozoa in these species, which might be the result of selection for discarding spermatids with undesirable characteristics as they develop. Our results suggest that, in addition to overall size and gross morphology, testes have also evolved functional adaptations to maximize sperm quantity and quality.

  20. Comparison of Critical Power and W' Derived From 2 or 3 Maximal Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Len Parker; Kordi, Mehdi

    2017-07-01

    Typically, accessing the asymptote (critical power; CP) and curvature constant (W') parameters of the hyperbolic power-duration relationship requires multiple constant-power exhaustive-exercise trials spread over several visits. However, more recently single-visit protocols and personal power meters have been used. This study investigated the practicality of using a 2-trial, single-visit protocol in providing reliable CP and W' estimates. Eight trained cyclists underwent 3- and 12-min maximal-exercise trials in a single session to derive (2-trial) CP and W' estimates. On a separate occasion a 5-min trial was performed, providing a 3rd trial to calculate (3-trial) CP and W'. There were no differences in CP (283 ± 66 vs 282 ± 65 W) or W' (18.72 ± 6.21 vs 18.27 ± 6.29 kJ) obtained from either the 2-trial or 3-trial method, respectively. After 2 familiarization sessions (completing a 3- and a 12-min trial on both occasions), both CP and W' remained reliable over additional separate measurements. The current study demonstrates that after 2 familiarization sessions, reliable CP and W' parameters can be obtained from trained cyclists using only 2 maximal-exercise trials. These results offer practitioners a practical, time-efficient solution for incorporating power-duration testing into applied athlete support.

  1. Acute Changes in Creatine Kinase Serum Levels in Adults Submitted a Static Stretching and Maximal Strength Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Bara Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Strength and flexibility are common components of a training program and their maximal values are obtained through specific tests. However, little information about the damage effect of these training procedures in a skeletal muscle is known. Objective: To verify a serum CK changes 24 h after a sub maximal stretching routine and after the static flexibility and maximal strength tests. Methods: the sample was composed by 14 subjects (man and women, 28 ± 6 yr. physical education students. The volunteers were divided in a control group (CG and experimental group (EG that was submitted in a stretching routine (EG-ST, in a maximal flexibility static test (EG-FLEX and in 1-RM test (EG-1-RM, with one week interval among tests. The anthropometrics characteristics were obtained by digital scale with stadiometer (Filizola, São Paulo, Brasil, 2002. The blood samples were obtained using the IFCC method with reference values 26-155 U/L. The De Lorme and Watkins technique was used to access maximal maximal strength through bench press and leg press. The maximal flexibility test consisted in three 20 seconds sets until the point of maximal discomfort. The stretching was done in normal movement amplitude during 6 secons. Results: The basal and post 24 h CK values in CG and EG (ST; Flex and 1 RM were respectively 195,0 ± 129,5 vs. 202,1 ± 124,2; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 174,7 ± 115,8; 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 226,6 ± 126,7 e 213,3 ± 133,2 vs. 275,9 ± 157,2. It was only observed a significant difference (p = 0,02 in the pre and post values inGE-1RM. Conclusion: only maximal strength dynamic exercise was capable to cause skeletal muscle damage.

  2. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Vernillo, Gianluca; de Morree, Helma M; Bonomi, Alberto G; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Veicsteinas, Arsenio

    2013-09-01

    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the (VO(2max)) provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in several clinical populations, such as patients with coronary artery disease or heart failure. Likewise, VO(2max) assessment can be very important to evaluate fitness in asymptomatic adults. Although direct determination of [VO(2max) is the most accurate method, it requires a maximal level of exertion, which brings a higher risk of adverse events in individuals with an intermediate to high risk of cardiovascular problems. Estimation of VO(2max) during submaximal exercise testing can offer a precious alternative. Over the past decades, many protocols have been developed for this purpose. The present review gives an overview of these submaximal protocols and aims to facilitate appropriate test selection in sports, clinical, and home settings. Several factors must be considered when selecting a protocol: (i) The population being tested and its specific needs in terms of safety, supervision, and accuracy and repeatability of the VO(2max) estimation. (ii) The parameters upon which the prediction is based (e.g. heart rate, power output, rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), as well as the need for additional clinically relevant parameters (e.g. blood pressure, ECG). (iii) The appropriate test modality that should meet the above-mentioned requirements should also be in line with the functional mobility of the target population, and depends on the available equipment. In the sports setting, high repeatability is crucial to track training-induced seasonal changes. In the clinical setting, special attention must be paid to the test modality, because multiple physiological parameters often need to be measured during test execution. When estimating VO(2max), one has

  3. Sequential Design of Experiments to Maximize Learning from Carbon Capture Pilot Plant Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soepyan, Frits B.; Morgan, Joshua C.; Omell, Benjamin P.; Zamarripa-Perez, Miguel A.; Matuszewski, Michael S.; Miller, David C.

    2018-02-06

    Pilot plant test campaigns can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, it is of interest to maximize the amount of learning and the efficiency of the test campaign given the limited number of experiments that can be conducted. This work investigates the use of sequential design of experiments (SDOE) to overcome these challenges by demonstrating its usefulness for a recent solvent-based CO2 capture plant test campaign. Unlike traditional design of experiments methods, SDOE regularly uses information from ongoing experiments to determine the optimum locations in the design space for subsequent runs within the same experiment. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed, including reducing the high computational burden to efficiently update the model, and the need to incorporate the methodology into a computational tool. We address these challenges by applying SDOE in combination with a software tool, the Framework for Optimization, Quantification of Uncertainty and Surrogates (FOQUS) (Miller et al., 2014a, 2016, 2017). The results of applying SDOE on a pilot plant test campaign for CO2 capture suggests that relative to traditional design of experiments methods, SDOE can more effectively reduce the uncertainty of the model, thus decreasing technical risk. Future work includes integrating SDOE into FOQUS and using SDOE to support additional large-scale pilot plant test campaigns.

  4. Usability testing of two e-learning resources: methods to maximize potential for clinician use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Chignell, Mark; Straus, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    Rigorous usability testing of e-learn-ing resources is an important prerequisite to their wide-spread use among clinicians. This study demonstrates the application of an evidence-based approach to usability testing of two stroke-related e-learning resources (StrokEngine). 14 stroke rehabilitation clinicians (occupational therapists and physiotherapists) from Ontario, Canada participated in a 1.5 h in-person testing session. Clinicians navigated StrokEngine in search of information to answer questions on stroke assessment/intervention. Their search patterns were observed and clinicians provided verbal/written feedback about StrokEngine. Content analysis was used to generate themes and categorize them under two broad categories: facilitators and barriers to use. Five key facilitators and three key barriers to Strok-Engine use were identified and related to screen format, layout/organization, ease of navigation, quality of content, likelihood of using StrokEngine in the future, and system dysfunctions. All 14 clinicians were very or extremely satisfied with the layout/organization, quality and clinical relevance of the content, stating that they were likely to use StrokEngine in the future. All identified barriers from this study were addressed with website modifications in order to maximize the usability and navigability of StrokEngine. This rigorous methodology for usability testing can be applied during the design process of any e-learning resource.

  5. Metabolic interpretation of ventilatory parameters during maximal effort test and their applicability to sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Barreto Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available One important tool for producing specifi c and individualized training intensities is to determine ventilatory threshold (VT, respiratory compensation point (RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max by means of maximum effort testing. However, in order to be able to interpret these data in a wide-ranging manner, it is also important to understand the metabolic responses that occur during the test as the systems transporting and utilizing O2 and producing CO2 adjust. This review article presents an overview of the metabolic responses that take place during a hypothetical maximum effort test, and the applicability of the fi gures thus obtained to the training of athletes. ABSTRACT A determinação das velocidades atingidas no limiar ventilatório (LV, ponto de compensação respiratório (PCR e consumo máximo de O2 (VO2max através de um teste de esforço máximo, é uma ferramenta importante para a aplicação de intensidades de treinamento específicas e individualizadas. Mas para poder interpretar os dados de uma forma abrangente, também é importante o entendimento das respostas metabólicas presentes no ajuste dos sistemas de transporte e utilização de O2 e produção de CO2 durante a realização do teste. Esta revisão apresenta um panorama das respostas metabólicas que acontecem durante a realização de um teste de esforço máximo hipotético, e a aplicabilidade dos valores obtidos no treinamento de atletas.

  6. Positive exercise thallium-201 test responses in patients with less than 50% maximal coronary stenosis: angiographic and clinical predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Osbakken, M.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.; Okada, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and causes of abnormal thallium-201 (TI-201) myocardial perfusion studies in the absence of significant coronary artery disease were examined. The study group consisted of 100 consecutive patients undergoing exercise TI-201 testing and coronary angiography who were found to have maximal coronary artery diameter narrowing of less than 50%. Maximal coronary stenosis ranged from 0 to 40%. The independent and relative influences of patient clinical, exercise and angiographic data were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Significant predictors of a positive stress TI-201 test result were: (1) percent maximal coronary stenosis (p less than 0.0005), (2) propranolol use (p less than 0.01), (3) interaction of propranolol use and percent maximal stenosis (p less than 0.005), and (4) stress-induced chest pain (p . 0.05). No other patient variable had a significant influence. Positive TI-201 test results were more common in patients with 21 to 40% maximal stenosis (59%) than in patients with 0 to 20% maximal stenosis (27%) (p less than 0.01). Among patients with 21 to 40% stenosis, a positive test response was more common when 85% of maximal predicted heart rate was achieved (75%) than when it was not (40%) (p less than 0.05). Of 16 nonapical perfusion defects seen in patients with 21 to 40% maximal stenosis, 14 were in the territory that corresponded with such a coronary stenosis. Patients taking propranolol were more likely to have a positive TI-201 test result (45%) than patients not taking propranolol (22%) (p less than 0.05)

  7. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Jürgensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2 prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR, arterial blood pressure (ABP and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax was calculated (210 – age in years (16 and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05 with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79 as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65. The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option.

  8. Video-Based Electroshocking Platform to Identify Lamprey Ammocoete Habitats: Field Validation and New Discoveries in the Columbia River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.

    2017-05-04

    A deep water electroshocking platform (DEP), developed to characterize larval lampreys (ammocoetes) and associated habitat in depths up to 15 m, was recently tested in the field. The DEP samples 0.55 m2∙min-1 without requiring ammocoete transport to the surface. Searches were conducted at a known rearing location (mouth of the Wind River, WA) and at locations on the Cowlitz River, WA, where ammocoetes had not previously been found. At the mouth of the Wind River, video imaged ammocoetes ranged from 50 to 150 mm in water depths between 1.5 m and 4.5 m and were more common in sediments containing organic silt. Ammocoetes (n=137) were detected at 61% of locations sampled (summer) and 50% of the locations sampled (winter). Following the field verification, the DEP was used on the lower 11.7 km of the Cowlitz River, WA. Ammocoetes (n=41) were found with a detection rate of 26% at specific search locations. Cowlitz River sediment containing ammocoetes was also dominated by silt with organic material, often downstream of alluvial bars in water depths from 0.8 to 1.7 m. Test results indicated a high sampling efficiency, favorable detection rates, and little or no impact to ammocoetes and their surrounding benthic environments.

  9. Maximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing in individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment: practice test effects and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Charles; Doré, Jean; Blanchet, Sophie; Brooks, Dina; Richards, Carol L; Martel, Guy; Robitaille, Nancy-Michelle; Maltais, Désirée B

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate, for individuals with chronic stroke with cognitive impairment, (1) the effects of a practice test on peak cardiorespiratory fitness test results; (2) cardiorespiratory fitness test-retest reliability; and (3) the relationship between individual practice test effects and cognitive impairment. Cross-sectional. Rehabilitation center. A convenience sample of 21 persons (men [n=12] and women [n=9]; age range, 48-81y; 44.9±36.2mo poststroke) with cognitive impairments who had sufficient lower limb function to perform the test. Not applicable. Peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)peak, ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Test-retest reliability of Vo(2)peak was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 [ICC2,1]=.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], .86-.98). A paired t test showed that there was no significant difference for the group for Vo(2)peak obtained from 2 symptom-limited cardiorespiratory fitness tests performed 1 week apart on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer (test 2-test 1 difference, -.32ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95% CI, -.69 to 1.33ml·kg(-1)·min(-1); P=.512). Individual test-retest differences in Vo(2)peak were, however, positively related to general cognitive function as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (ρ=.485; Preliably measured in this group without a practice test. General cognitive function, however, may influence the effect of a practice test in that those with lower general cognitive function appear to respond differently to a practice test than those with higher cognitive function. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of dose-responses of contact allergens using the guinea pig maximization test and the local lymph node assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Och, F.M.M. van; Vandebriel, R.J.; Prinsen, M.K.; Jong, W.H. de; Slob, W.; Loveren, H. van

    2001-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) has been used as a method for the prediction of skin sensitizing potential for over 30 years. Besides hazard identification, risk assessment of sensitizing chemicals requires the assessment of potency. For the determination of potency based on lowest effective

  11. Estimation of maximal oxygen uptake via submaximal exercise testing in sports, clinical, and home settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartor, F.; Vernillo, G.; de Morree, H.M.; Bonomi, A.G.; La Torre, A.; Kubis, H.P.; Veicsteinas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system is essential in sports medicine. For athletes, the maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) provides valuable information about their aerobic power. In the clinical setting, the V˙O2max provides important diagnostic and prognostic information

  12. Analysis of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states for bell inequality tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A.; Smirr, J.-L.; Kaiser, F.; Diamanti, E.; Issautier, A.; Alibart, O.; Frey, R.; Zaquine, I.; Tanzilli, S.

    2012-06-01

    When elliptically polarized maximally entangled states are considered, i.e., states having a non random phase factor between the two bipartite polarization components, the standard settings used for optimal violation of Bell inequalities are no longer adapted. One way to retrieve the maximal amount of violation is to compensate for this phase while keeping the standard Bell inequality analysis settings. We propose in this paper a general theoretical approach that allows determining and adjusting the phase of elliptically polarized maximally entangled states in order to optimize the violation of Bell inequalities. The formalism is also applied to several suggested experimental phase compensation schemes. In order to emphasize the simplicity and relevance of our approach, we also describe an experimental implementation using a standard Soleil-Babinet phase compensator. This device is employed to correct the phase that appears in the maximally entangled state generated from a type-II nonlinear photon-pair source after the photons are created and distributed over fiber channels.

  13. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

  14. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Adam L; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J Marie

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ∼12 days, starting at 3-4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz-induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Test-retest reliability of maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M.; Overgaard, Søren

    Abstract : Purpose To evaluate the reliability of single-joint and multi-joint maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe OA. Background Muscle power, taking both strength and velocity into account, is a more functional measure of lower extremity muscle...... and scheduled for unilateral total hip (n=9) or knee (n=11) replacement. Patients underwent a test battery on two occasions separated by approximately one week (range 7 to 11 days). Muscle power was measured using: 1. A linear encoder, unilateral lower limb isolated single-joint dynamic movement, e.g. knee...... flexion 2. A leg extension press, unilateral multi-joint knee and hip extension Functional performance was measured using: 1. 20 m walk usual pace 2. 20 m walk maximal pace 3. 5 times chair stands 4. Maximal number of knee bends/30sec Pain was measured on a VAS prior to and after conducting the entire...

  16. Effects of Increased Respiratory Resistance on Maximal O2 Uptake and Anaerobic Threshold during Incremental Exercise Tests

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Oğuz

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) can be used as an index of measuring aerobic capacity under the condition of increased respiratory resistance. Seven male subjects performed two incremental exercise tests on a cycle ergometer on different days: one control (C) and one breathing through an 8 mm bore diameter respiratory resistance (R). Ventilatory and gas exchange responses were measured with a turbine volume transducer and mass spectrometry, and processed...

  17. Supra maximal bicycle tests do not detect seasonable progress in groups of elite speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Bakker, F.C.; de Groot, G.; de Koning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seven female and eight male elite junior skaters performed cycle ergometer tests at four different times during the 1987/1988 season. The tests consisted of a Wingate-type 30-s sprint test and a 2.5-min supramaximal test. The subjects were tested in February, May and September 1987 and in January

  18. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal LTE radio base station exposure estimation: test and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloock, Leen; Joseph, Wout; Gati, Azeddine; Varsier, Nadège; Flach, Björn; Wiart, Joe; Martens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on downlink band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2×2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders.

  19. Low-cost extrapolation method for maximal lte radio base station exposure estimation: Test and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloock, L.; Joseph, W.; Gati, A.; Varsier, N.; Flach, B.; Wiart, J.; Martens, L.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental validation of a low-cost method for extrapolation and estimation of the maximal electromagnetic-field exposure from long-term evolution (LTE) radio base station installations are presented. No knowledge on down-link band occupation or service characteristics is required for the low-cost method. The method is applicable in situ. It only requires a basic spectrum analyser with appropriate field probes without the need of expensive dedicated LTE decoders. The method is validated both in laboratory and in situ, for a single-input single-output antenna LTE system and a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system, with low deviations in comparison with signals measured using dedicated LTE decoders. (authors)

  20. Optimum sample size allocation to minimize cost or maximize power for the two-sample trimmed mean test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2009-05-01

    When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.

  1. Optimal Test Characteristics for Maximal Anaerobic Work on the Bicycle Ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Victor; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from two separate experiments conducted to ascertain the optimum protocol for a maximum anaerobic work output test on the bicycle ergometer indicated that the test duration needs to be approximately forty seconds and the optimal frictional resistance five to six kilograms. (MB)

  2. The Effect of Instructing Impression Management Behaviors on Maximizing Applicants' Performance in the IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar, Sara; Bagheri, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    Speaking proceeds under the constraint of time. While speaking, speakers are under constant pressure to follow the message being received and to formulate rapid responses to their partners. In the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) Speaking Test, the communicative nature of the interview creates an ideal situation for applicants…

  3. Measurement properties of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests protocols in persons after stroke: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittink, Harriet; Verschuren, Olaf; Terwee, Caroline; de Groot, Janke; Kwakkel, Gert; van de Port, Ingrid

    2017-11-21

    To systematically review and critically appraise the literature on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols for measuring aerobic capacity, VO2max, in persons after stroke. PubMed, Embase and Cinahl were searched from inception up to 15 June 2016. A total of 9 studies were identified reporting on 9 different cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols. VO2max measured with cardiopulmonary exercise test and open spirometry was the construct of interest. The target population was adult persons after stroke. We included all studies that evaluated reliability, measurement error, criterion validity, content validity, hypothesis testing and/or responsiveness of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols. Two researchers independently screened the literature, assessed methodological quality using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist and extracted data on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols. Most studies reported on only one measurement property. Best-evidence synthesis was derived taking into account the methodological quality of the studies, the results and the consistency of the results. No judgement could be made on which protocol is "best" for measuring VO2max in persons after stroke due to lack of high-quality studies on the measurement properties of the cardiopulmonary exercise test.

  4. Evaluation of anaerobic capacity in soccer players using a maximal shuttle run test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p88   The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 300-m shuttle run test predicts anaerobic capacity, expressed as mean power output in the Wingate test, in a group of professional soccer players. Twenty-one soccer players (21 ± 2 years; 76.8 ± 7.0 kg; 179.8 ± 6.7 cm from a first division team of the São Paulo Soccer Federation participated in the study. In the first session, the players were submitted to the Wingate test for the determination of relative peak power output, relative mean power output and fatigue index. In the second session, the players underwent a shuttle run test which consisted of a maximum sprint of 20 m at the highest speed possible until completing a distance of 300 m. The total run time and mean velocity over the 20 m (V20m were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after the 300-m shuttle run test for the determination of lactate concentration ([LAC]. Pearson’s correlation between the Wingate and 300-m shuttle run test variables showed that only relative mean power output was significantly correlated with total run time (r = - 0.75 and V20m (r = 0.72. [LAC] showed a significant increase (p < 0.05 when comparing the values obtained before (2.1 ± 1.0 mM and after (14.3 ± 2.4 mM the shuttle run test. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the 300-m shuttle run test can predict anaerobic capacity in professional soccer players.

  5. Familiarization, validity and smallest detectable difference of the isometric squat test in evaluating maximal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David; Kennedy, Rodney; Wallace, Eric

    2018-02-06

    Isometric multi-joint tests are considered reliable and have strong relationships with 1RM performance. However, limited evidence is available for the isometric squat in terms of effects of familiarization and reliability. This study aimed to assess, the effect of familiarization, stability reliability, determine the smallest detectible difference, and the correlation of the isometric squat test with 1RM squat performance. Thirty-six strength-trained participants volunteered to take part in this study. Following three familiarization sessions, test-retest reliability was evaluated with a 48-hour window between each time point. Isometric squat peak, net and relative force were assessed. Results showed three familiarizations were required, isometric squat had a high level of stability reliability and smallest detectible difference of 11% for peak and relative force. Isometric strength at a knee angle of ninety degrees had a strong significant relationship with 1RM squat performance. In conclusion, the isometric squat is a valid test to assess multi-joint strength and can discriminate between strong and weak 1RM squat performance. Changes greater than 11% in peak and relative isometric squat performance should be considered as meaningful in participants who are familiar with the test.

  6. Probabilistic income-maximizing behavior in regional migration: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, R I; Evans, R D

    1980-01-01

    "This paper provides an empirical test of the hypothesis that migrants consider income risk in their evaluation of the returns to migration in that higher levels of income risk for a given region reduce the rate of net migration into that region." Theoretical approaches to the incorporation of income risk in migration models are first considered, and alternative approaches are then tested using data on white and nonwhite net migration in the United States between 1960 and 1970. The results indicate support for the hypothesis that the extent of net migration is inversely affected by income risk. excerpt

  7. Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Methods for Measurement Development and Maximizing Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodushek, Thomas R; Greher, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    In the first column in this 2-part series, Performance Validity Testing in Neuropsychology: Scientific Basis and Clinical Application-A Brief Review, the authors introduced performance validity tests (PVTs) and their function, provided a justification for why they are necessary, traced their ongoing endorsement by neuropsychological organizations, and described how they are used and interpreted by ever increasing numbers of clinical neuropsychologists. To enhance readers' understanding of these measures, this second column briefly describes common detection strategies used in PVTs as well as the typical methods used to validate new PVTs and determine cut scores for valid/invalid determinations. We provide a discussion of the latest research demonstrating how neuropsychologists can combine multiple PVTs in a single battery to improve sensitivity/specificity to invalid responding. Finally, we discuss future directions for the research and application of PVTs.

  8. A maximal cycle test with good validity and high repeatability in adults of all ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, L; Tolstrup, J S; Larsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    indirectly in both tests and measured directly in one test. Agreement between the direct measurement and the indirect estimate of VO2max and repeatability of the indirect estimates of VO2max were examined by Bland-Altman plots, limits of agreement (LOA) and coefficient of repeatability (CR). The indirect...... method (mean VO2max=3 132 ml · min(-1)) underestimated VO2max as compared to the direct method (mean VO2max=3 190 ml · min(-1)) in men (bias: 58 ml · min(-1) (95% LOA-450 and 565)) and overestimated VO2max in women (mean VO2max=2 328 vs. 2 258 ml · min(-1), bias: - 70 ml · min(-1) (95% LOA-468 and 328...

  9. Peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol vs. maximal oxygen uptake in an incremental testing protocol and their relationship with cross-country mountain biking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebisz, Rafał; Hebisz, Paulina; Zatoń, Marek; Michalik, Kamil

    2017-04-01

    In the literature, the exercise capacity of cyclists is typically assessed using incremental and endurance exercise tests. The aim of the present study was to confirm whether peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ) attained in a sprint interval testing protocol correlates with cycling performance, and whether it corresponds to maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O 2max ) determined by an incremental testing protocol. A sample of 28 trained mountain bike cyclists executed 3 performance tests: (i) incremental testing protocol (ITP) in which the participant cycled to volitional exhaustion, (ii) sprint interval testing protocol (SITP) composed of four 30 s maximal intensity cycling bouts interspersed with 90 s recovery periods, (iii) competition in a simulated mountain biking race. Oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, work, and power output were measured during the ITP and SITP with postexercise blood lactate and hydrogen ion concentrations collected. Race times were recorded. No significant inter-individual differences were observed in regards to any of the ITP-associated variables. However, 9 individuals presented significantly increased oxygen uptake, pulmonary ventilation, and work output in the SITP compared with the remaining cyclists. In addition, in this group of 9 cyclists, oxygen uptake in SITP was significantly higher than in ITP. After the simulated race, this group of 9 cyclists achieved significantly better competition times (99.5 ± 5.2 min) than the other cyclists (110.5 ± 6.7 min). We conclude that mountain bike cyclists who demonstrate higher peak oxygen uptake in a sprint interval testing protocol than maximal oxygen uptake attained in an incremental testing protocol demonstrate superior competitive performance.

  10. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  11. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  12. Beneficial Effects of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on Maximal Sprint Speed during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark ET Willems

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC extract has been shown to enhance high-intensity intermittent treadmill running. We examined the effects of NZBC extract during the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST which involves 5 × 15 min blocks with intermittent 15-m maximal sprints, interspersed by moderate and high-intensity running to simulate team sport activity, and a subsequent run to exhaustion. Thirteen males (age: 22 ± 1 year, V ˙ O 2 max : 50 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1 participated in three indoor sessions (T: 24 ± 3 °C, humidity: 52% ± 9%. In the first session, a multistage fitness test was completed to determine peak running speed and estimate V ˙ O 2 max . Participants consumed NZBC extract in capsules (300 mg·day−1 CurraNZ™ or placebo (PL (300 mg·day−1 microcrystalline cellulose M102 for seven days in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design (wash-out at least seven days. NZBC extract did not affect average 15-m sprint times in each block. NZBC reduced slowing of the fastest sprint between block 1 and 5 (PL: 0.12 ± 0.07 s; NZBC: 0.06 ± 0.12 s; p < 0.05. NZBC extract had no effect on heart rate, vertical jump power, lactate and time to exhaustion (PL: 13.44 ± 8.09 min, NZBC: 15.78 ± 9.40 min, p > 0.05. However, eight participants had higher running times to exhaustion when consuming NZBC extract. New Zealand blackcurrant extract may enhance performance in team sports with repeated maximal sprints.

  13. Investigating the effects of maximal anaerobic fatigue on dynamic postural control using the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Dolan, Kara; Reid, Niamh; Coughlan, Garrett F; Caulfield, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The Y Balance Test is one of the most commonly used dynamic balance assessments, providing an insight into the integration of the sensorimotor subsystems. In recent times, there has been an increase in interest surrounding it's use in various clinical populations demonstrating alterations in motor function. Therefore, it is important to examine the effect physiological influences such as fatigue play in dynamic postural control, and establish a timeframe for its recovery. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty male and female (age 23.75±4.79years, height 174.12±8.45cm, mass 69.32±8.76kg) partaking in competitive sport, completed the Y Balance Test protocol at 0, 10 and 20min, prior to a modified 60s Wingate fatiguing protocol. Post-fatigue assessments were then completed at 0, 10 and 20 min post-fatiguing intervention. Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated excellent intra-session reliability (0.976-0.982) across the three pre-fatigue YBT tests. Post-hoc paired sample t-tests demonstrated that all three reach directions demonstrated statistically significant differences between pre-fatigue and the first post-fatigue measurement (anterior; p=0.019, posteromedial; p=0.019 & posterolateral; p=0.003). The anterior reach direction returned to pre-fatigue levels within 10min (p=0.632). The posteromedial reach direction returned to pre-fatigue levels within 20min (p=0.236), while the posterolateral direction maintained a statistically significant difference at 20min (p=0.023). Maximal anaerobic fatigue has a negative effect on normalised Y balance test scores in all three directions. Following the fatiguing protocol, dynamic postural control returns to pre-fatigue levels for the anterior (20min). Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  15. The local lymph node assay compared with the human maximization test as an indicator of allergic potency in humans using patch test clinic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, Danny; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-01-01

    The human maximization test (HMT) is a method to evaluate potency in humans, while the local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a test method that allows for the measuring of the allergic potency of a substance in a rodent. It has been proposed that an EC3 value (the value obtained by the LLNA test, ie, the concentration of an allergen leading to a 3-fold increase of baseline proliferation rate) would be a reliable indicator for a compound's allergic potency in humans. This paper compares the correlation between the EC3 value of a compound and its allergic occurrence in the general population with the correlation between the HMT of the compound and its allergic occurrence in the general population, to determine the relationship to potency. The correlation values when outliers were removed from the sample were -0.56 and -0.71 for LLNA and HMT, respectively, suggesting that there is a possible 20% error margin in LLNA's ability to predict potency. The data also suggest that other factors (such as exposure) could play up to a 30% role in the determination of allergic occurrence in the general population. The potency assays might be made more clinically relevant for predicting allergic frequencies by including a frequency factor and other factors in its dermatotoxicological interpretation.

  16. The use of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6- to 10-year-old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendiksen, Mads; Ahler, Thomas; Clausen, Helle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We evaluated a sub-maximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo IR1 childrens test (YYIR1C) and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal HR assessments of children aged 6-10. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within one week by 6-7 and 8-9 year olds (grade 0...

  17. Influence of regression model and initial intensity of an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Tucker, Ross; Granados, Cristina; Irazusta, Jon; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gil, Susana María

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the regression model and initial intensity during an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and performance in elite-standard runners. Twenty-three well-trained runners completed a discontinuous incremental running test on a treadmill. Speed started at 9 km · h(-1) and increased by 1.5 km · h(-1) every 4 min until exhaustion, with a minute of recovery for blood collection. Lactate-speed data were fitted by exponential and polynomial models. The lactate threshold was determined for both models, using all the co-ordinates, excluding the first and excluding the first and second points. The exponential lactate threshold was greater than the polynomial equivalent in any co-ordinate condition (P performance and is independent of the initial intensity of the test.

  18. Criterion validity and reliability of a smartphone delivered sub-maximal fitness test for people with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinklov, Cecilie Fau; Thorsen, Ida Kær; Karstoft, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevention of multi-morbidities following non-communicable diseases requires a systematic registration of adverse modifiable risk factors, including low physical fitness. The aim of the study was to establish criterion validity and reliability of a smartphone app (InterWalk) delivered....... The algorithm was validated using leave-one-out cross validation. Test-retest reliability was tested in a subset of participants (N = 10). Results: The overall VO2peak prediction of the algorithm (R2) was 0.60 and 0.45 when the smartphone was placed in the pockets of the pants and jacket, respectively (p ... calorimetry and the acceleration (vector magnitude) from the smartphone was obtained. The vector magnitude was used to predict VO2peak along with the co-variates weight, height and sex. The validity of the algorithm was tested when the smartphone was placed in the right pocket of the pants or jacket...

  19. CATECHOLAMINES AND β2-ADRENOCEPTOR GENE EXPRESSION BEFORE AND AFTER MAXIMAL INCREMENTAL CYCLE TEST IN YOUNG ICE HOCKEY PLAYERS: RELATION TO WORK PERFORMED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Mazurek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations as well as whole blood β2-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2 expression in young ice hockey players before and immediately after exercise in relation to performed work. Nineteen Youth National Team ice hockey players were subjected to the maximal incremental cycloergometer exercise. The test was done in the pre-competitive phase of training. Among many parameters the plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were determined before and after exercise. The average performed work was 3261.3 ± 558.3 J · kg-1 and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max for all players was 53.85 ± 3.91 mL · kg-1 min-1. The geometric mean of the ADRB2 gene expression was statistically significantly different before and after exercise (P ≤ 0.05, while adrenaline and noradrenaline levels in plasma significantly increased after exercise. In the analysed group of athletes we found that initial level of plasma noradrenaline correlated with the performed work (r = - 0.55, P < 0.014 and normalized ADRB2 expression before the exercise correlated with the work done by them (r = 0.48, P<0.039. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the plasma adrenaline or noradrenaline concentrations and ADRB2 gene expression in peripheral blood of the players. The performed work in the maximal incremental exercise test of regularly training young ice hockey players depends on the initial levels of noradrenaline in plasma and ADRB2 mRNA in PBMC.

  20. Skin sensitization potency of isoeugenol and its dimers evaluated by a non-radioisotopic modification of the local lymph node assay and guinea pig maximization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Iida, Kenji; Suzuki, Keiko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke

    2008-05-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is the serious unwanted effect arising from the use of consumer products such as cosmetics. Isoeugenol is a fragrance chemical with spicy, carnation-like scent, is used in many kinds of cosmetics and is a well-known moderate human sensitizer. It was previously reported that the dimerization of eugenol yielded two types of dimer possessing different sensitization potencies. This study reports the differences in skin sensitization potencies for isoeugenol and two types of dimer, beta-O-4-dilignol and dehydrodiisoeugenol (DIEG), as evaluated by the non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (non-RI LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test. In the guinea pig maximization test, isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were classified as extreme, weak and moderate sensitizers, respectively. As for the results of non-RI LLNA, the EC3 for isoeugenol, beta-O-4-dilignol and DIEG were calculated as 12.7%, >30% and 9.4%, respectively. The two types of isoeugenol dimer showed different sensitizing activities similar to the case for eugenol dimers. A reduction of sensitization potency achieved by dimerization may lead to developing safer cosmetic ingredients. Isoeugenol dimers are not currently used for fragrance chemicals. However, the dimerization of isoeugenol may yield a promising candidate as a cosmetic ingredient with low sensitization risk. The data may also provide useful information for the structure-activity relationship (SAR) in skin sensitization. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Residual myocardial ischaemia in first non-Q versus Q wave infarction: maximal exercise testing and ambulatory ST-segment monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    the infarction. The prevalence of exercise-induced ischaemic manifestations in the infarct types was similar: chest pain 14% vs 16% and ST-segment depression 54% vs 54%. The ischaemic threshold did not differ either (heart rate at 1 mm of ST-segment depression 120 +/- 27 vs 119 +/- 25 beats.min-1). During early...... in non-Q wave infarction (51%) as compared to Q wave infarction (31%) (P depression on ambulatory recording and exercise testing significantly predicted the development of future angina pectoris, whereas patients at increased risk for subsequent......In a prospective study of 123 consecutive survivors of a first myocardial infarction (43 non-Q wave, 80 Q wave), we determined the total residual ischaemic burden by use of pre-discharge maximal exercise testing and post-discharge 36 h ambulatory ST-segment monitoring initiated 11 +/- 5 days after...

  2. Non-invasive coronary angiography for patients with acute atypical chest pain discharged after negative screening including maximal negative treadmill stress test. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonello, L; Armero, S; Jacquier, A; Com, O; Sarran, A; Sbragia, P; Panuel, M; Arques, S; Paganelli, F

    2009-05-01

    Among patients admitted in the emergency department for acute atypical chest pain those with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who are mistakenly discharged home have high mortality. A recent retrospective study has demonstrated that multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography could improve triage of these patients. We aimed to prospectively confirm these data on patients with a negative screening including maximal treadmill stress. 30 patients discharged from the emergency department after negative screening for an ACS were included. All patients underwent MSCT angiography of the coronary artery. Patients with coronary atheroma on MSCT had an invasive coronary angiography to confirm these findings. Seven patients (23%) had obstructive coronary artery disease on MSCT. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. In patients with no previously known coronary artery disease admitted to the emergency department with atypical acute chest pain and discharged after negative screening, including maximal treadmill stress test, MSCT coronary angiography is useful for the diagnosis of obstructive coronary artery disease.

  3. The Higher the Insulin Resistance the Lower the Cardiac Output in Men with Type 1 Diabetes During the Maximal Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, Pawel; Naskret, Dariusz; Pilacinski, Stanislaw; Pempera, Maciej; Uruska, Aleksandra; Adamska, Anna; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hemodynamic parameters analyzed in bioimpedance cardiography during maximal exercise in patients with type 1 diabetes differing in insulin resistance. The study group consisted of 40 men with type 1 diabetes. Tissue sensitivity to insulin was assessed on the basis of the glucose disposal rate (GDR) analyzed during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Patients were divided into groups with GDR insulin sensitivity) and GDR ≥4.5 mg/kg/min (G2 group-higher insulin sensitivity). During the exercise test, the heart rate, systolic volume, cardiac output, cardiac index were measured by the impedance meter (PhysioFlow). Compared with the G2 group, the G1 group had a lower cardiac output (CO): during exercise 8.6 (IQR 7.7-10.0) versus 12.8 (IQR 10.8-13.7) L/min; P insulin resistance is associated with cardiac hemodynamic parameters assessed during and after exercise. The higher the insulin resistance the lower the cardiac output during maximal exercise in men with type 1 diabetes.

  4. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  5. Maximal exercise test is a useful method for physical capacity and oxygen consumption determination in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoyen Maria-Cláudia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between speed during maximum exercise test (ET and oxygen consumption (VO2 in control and STZ-diabetic rats, in order to provide a useful method to determine exercise capacity and prescription in researches involving STZ-diabetic rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 10 and diabetic (DG, n = 8. The animals were submitted to ET on treadmill with simultaneous gas analysis through open respirometry system. ET and VO2 were assessed 60 days after diabetes induction (STZ, 50 mg/Kg. Results VO2 maximum was reduced in STZ-diabetic rats (72.5 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1 compared to CG rats (81.1 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1. There were positive correlations between ET speed and VO2 (r = 0.87 for CG and r = 0.8 for DG, as well as between ET speed and VO2 reserve (r = 0.77 for CG and r = 0.7 for DG. Positive correlations were also obtained between measured VO2 and VO2 predicted values (r = 0.81 for CG and r = 0.75 for DG by linear regression equations to CG (VO2 = 1.54 * ET speed + 52.34 and DG (VO2 = 1.16 * ET speed + 51.99. Moreover, we observed that 60% of ET speed corresponded to 72 and 75% of VO2 reserve for CG and DG, respectively. The maximum ET speed was also correlated with VO2 maximum for both groups (CG: r = 0.7 and DG: r = 0.7. Conclusion These results suggest that: a VO2 and VO2 reserve can be estimated using linear regression equations obtained from correlations with ET speed for each studied group; b exercise training can be prescribed based on ET in control and diabetic-STZ rats; c physical capacity can be determined by ET. Therefore, ET, which involves a relatively simple methodology and low cost, can be used as an indicator of cardio-respiratory capacity in future studies that investigate the physiological effect of acute or chronic exercise in control and STZ-diabetic male rats.

  6. Maximal exercise test is a useful method for physical capacity and oxygen consumption determination in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Bruno; Figueroa, Diego M; Mostarda, Cristiano T; Heeren, Marcelo V; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between speed during maximum exercise test (ET) and oxygen consumption (VO2) in control and STZ-diabetic rats, in order to provide a useful method to determine exercise capacity and prescription in researches involving STZ-diabetic rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control (CG, n = 10) and diabetic (DG, n = 8). The animals were submitted to ET on treadmill with simultaneous gas analysis through open respirometry system. ET and VO2 were assessed 60 days after diabetes induction (STZ, 50 mg/Kg). Results VO2 maximum was reduced in STZ-diabetic rats (72.5 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1) compared to CG rats (81.1 ± 1 mL/Kg/min-1). There were positive correlations between ET speed and VO2 (r = 0.87 for CG and r = 0.8 for DG), as well as between ET speed and VO2 reserve (r = 0.77 for CG and r = 0.7 for DG). Positive correlations were also obtained between measured VO2 and VO2 predicted values (r = 0.81 for CG and r = 0.75 for DG) by linear regression equations to CG (VO2 = 1.54 * ET speed + 52.34) and DG (VO2 = 1.16 * ET speed + 51.99). Moreover, we observed that 60% of ET speed corresponded to 72 and 75% of VO2 reserve for CG and DG, respectively. The maximum ET speed was also correlated with VO2 maximum for both groups (CG: r = 0.7 and DG: r = 0.7). Conclusion These results suggest that: a) VO2 and VO2 reserve can be estimated using linear regression equations obtained from correlations with ET speed for each studied group; b) exercise training can be prescribed based on ET in control and diabetic-STZ rats; c) physical capacity can be determined by ET. Therefore, ET, which involves a relatively simple methodology and low cost, can be used as an indicator of cardio-respiratory capacity in future studies that investigate the physiological effect of acute or chronic exercise in control and STZ-diabetic male rats. PMID:18078520

  7. Influence of regression model and incremental test protocol on the relationship between lactate threshold using the maximal-deviation method and performance in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana Andrade; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói De

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the regression model and initial intensity of an incremental test on the relationship between the lactate threshold estimated by the maximal-deviation method and the endurance performance. Sixteen non-competitive, recreational female runners performed a discontinuous incremental treadmill test. The initial speed was set at 7 km · h⁻¹, and increased every 3 min by 1 km · h⁻¹ with a 30-s rest between the stages used for earlobe capillary blood sample collection. Lactate-speed data were fitted by an exponential-plus-constant and a third-order polynomial equation. The lactate threshold was determined for both regression equations, using all the coordinates, excluding the first and excluding the first and second initial points. Mean speed of a 10-km road race was the performance index (3.04 ± 0.22 m · s⁻¹). The exponentially-derived lactate threshold had a higher correlation (0.98 ≤ r ≤ 0.99) and smaller standard error of estimate (SEE) (0.04 ≤ SEE ≤ 0.05 m · s⁻¹) with performance than the polynomially-derived equivalent (0.83 ≤ r ≤ 0.89; 0.10 ≤ SEE ≤ 0.13 m · s⁻¹). The exponential lactate threshold was greater than the polynomial equivalent (P performance index that is independent of the initial intensity of the incremental test and better than the polynomial equivalent.

  8. El tratamiento electroconvulsivante en Camagüey hoy Electroshock treatment in Camagüey nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Hernández Figaredo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de que la terapia electroconvulsivante ha sido utilizada ampliamente en el mundo, y de que se ha comprobado su eficacia en determinados trastornos mentales, continúa siendo un tratamiento grandemente cuestionado e incluso rechazado por parte de la población, sobre todo por los propios tributarios del tratamiento. En la búsqueda del comportamiento del empleo de dicha técnica en el Hospital Psiquiátrico Provincial Universitario "Cdte. René Vallejo Ortiz" de Camagüey, se realizó un estudio retrospectivo cuanti-cualitativo en el que se revisaron los registros de series cronológicas del uso de TEC desde el año 2000 hasta el 2007, recogiéndose los aplicados con anestésicos o no. Además se revisaron las hojas de cargo diarias del departamento de TEC durante el año 2007, para obtener las patologías más frecuentemente tratadas con esta técnica, y se obtuvo el criterio de expertos para ponderar dicha terapia. Se apreció un uso racional del TEC, mayormente aplicado con anestésico, y una tendencia a disminuir su indicación en los últimos dos años. En el 2007 se utilizó sobre todo en patologías tales como la esquizofrenia y el trastorno bipolar. La totalidad de los expertos expresó estar a favor de su uso.Although electroshock therapy (EST has been widely used all over the world and its effectiveness in specific mental disorders has been proved, it is still greatly questioned and even rejected by population, especially by those who are subject to treatment. A quantitative qualitative retrospective study has been carried out to do research into the behavior of its use at "Comandante René Vallejo Ortiz" Provincial Psychiatric Hospital. Chronological EST records from 2000 to 2007 have been surveyed and therapies with or without anesthesia included have been counted. Daily records of the EST Department have been as well looked through to know the mostly treated pathologies and the opinion of specialists has been taken into

  9. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  10. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  11. Correlation between plasma endothelin-1 levels and severity of septic liver failure quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test. A prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus F Kaffarnik

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the degree of liver dysfunction, quantified by maximal liver function capacity (LiMAx test and endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 in septic surgical patients.28 septic patients (8 female, 20 male, age range 35-80y were prospectively investigated on a surgical intensive care unit. Liver function, defined by LiMAx test, and measurements of plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6 were carried out within the first 24 hours after onset of septic symptoms, followed by day 2, 5 and 10. Patients were divided into 2 groups (group A: LiMAx ≥100 μg/kg/h, moderate liver dysfunction; group B: LiMAx <100 μg/kg/h, severe liver dysfunction for analysis and investigated regarding the correlation between endothelin-1 and the severity of liver failure, quantified by LiMAx test.Group B showed significant higher results for endothelin-1 than patients in group A (P = 0.01, d5; 0.02, d10. For TNF-α, group B revealed higher results than group A, with a significant difference on day 10 (P = 0.005. IL-6 showed a non-significant trend to higher results in group B. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient revealed a significant correlation between LiMAx and endothelin-1 (-0.434; P <0.001, TNF-α (-0.515; P <0.001 and IL-6 (-0.590; P <0.001.Sepsis-related hepatic dysfunction is associated with elevated plasma levels of endothelin-1, TNF-α and IL-6. Low LiMAx results combined with increased endothelin-1 and TNF-α and a favourable correlation between LiMAx and cytokine values support the findings of a crucial role of Endothelin-1 and TNF-α in development of septic liver failure.

  12. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  13. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  14. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  15. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  16. Modelos para predição da carga máxima no teste clínico de esforço cardiopulmonar Maximal workload prediction models in the clinical cardio-pulmonary effort test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando dos Santos Nogueira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo buscou derivar equações generalizadas para predição da carga máxima para homens e mulheres jovens. MÉTODOS: O método da ergoespirometria direta (Aerosport® TEEM 100, Estados Unidos da América do Norte foi empregado para determinar o VO2máx e a carga máxima (Wmáx, no cicloergômetro (Monark®, Brasil, de 30 homens (25 ± 5 anos, 75,0 ± 10,7 kg; 48,4 ± 8,8 mL . kg -1 . min -1 e 243 ± 51 Watts e 30 mulheres (26 ± 5 anos, 56,7 ± 5,9 kg, 39,8 ± 7,6 mL . kg -1 . min -1 e 172 ± 37 Watts. A idade e a massa corporal foram empregadas como variáveis independentes. Para todos os testes estatísticos aceitou-se o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: This study sought to derive generalized equations for predicting maximal workload for young men and women. METHODS: Direct ergospirometry (Aerosport® TEEM 100, USA was used to determine VO2máx and the maximal work load (Wmax on the cycle ergometer test (Monark®, Brazil of thirty men (25 ± 5 years, 75.0 ± 10.7 kg; 48.4 ± 8.8 mL . kg -1 . min -1 and 243 ± 51 Watts and thirty women (26 ± 5 years, 56.7 ± 5.9 kg, 39.8 ± 7.6 mL . kg -1 . min -1 and 172 ± 37 Watts. Age and body mass were used as independent variables. For all statistic tests, a p < 0.05 significance level was adopted. RESULTS: In the multiple linear adjustment, the maximal workload was explained by age and body mass as 54% (r = 0.73 for men, and as 76% (r = 0.87 for women, with standard errors of 0.66 W . kg -1 and 25 Watts. The proposed equations were cross-validated using another sample with similar age and VO2máx characteristics comprised of fifteen men and fifteen women. The intraclass correlation between the predicted Wmax values and those measures by ergospirometry were 0.70 and 0.69, with standard errors of 28.4 and 15.8 Watts, respectively, for men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study exhibits valid generalized equations for determining the maximal cycle ergonometer workload for men and

  17. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  18. Understanding Violations of Gricean Maxims in Preschoolers and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mako eOkanda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study used a revised Conversational Violations Test to examine Gricean maxim violations in 4- to 6-year-old Japanese children and adults. Participants’ understanding of the following maxims was assessed: be informative (first maxim of quantity, avoid redundancy (second maxim of quantity, be truthful (maxim of quality, be relevant (maxim of relation, avoid ambiguity (second maxim of manner, and be polite (maxim of politeness. Sensitivity to violations of Gricean maxims increased with age: 4-year-olds’ understanding of maxims was near chance, 5-year-olds understood some maxims (first maxim of quantity and maxims of quality, relation, and manner, and 6-year-olds and adults understood all maxims. Preschoolers acquired the maxim of relation first and had the greatest difficulty understanding the second maxim of quantity. Children and adults differed in their comprehension of the maxim of politeness. The development of the pragmatic understanding of Gricean maxims and implications for the construction of developmental tasks from early childhood to adulthood are discussed.

  19. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  20. Identification and preclinical testing of novel antiepileptic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, B S

    1997-01-01

    Procedures for identifying novel antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are changing and need to change more. Widespread reliance on two primary screens has led to the identification of novel compounds that resemble either phenytoin (suppressing high-frequency repetitive firing in cultured neurons and prolonging inactivation of voltage-dependent sodium channels identified by the maximal electroshock test) or benzodiazepines (potentiating the inhibitory effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), identified by the threshold pentylenetetrazol test). Advances in molecular neurobiology have identified specific molecular targets (subunits of ion channels, neurotransmitter receptors, and transporters) and have made them available in a form permitting high-throughput screening. AEDs can be designed to interact with specific sites on the target molecules. Alternatively, the molecular screens can be used to identify active components in natural products, including folk remedies. Preclinical in vivo screens can be improved by using animals with genetic or acquired epilepsies that have similar modifications in the properties of the target molecules as do human epilepsy syndromes. Future work is likely to define molecular targets for AEDs that will block or reverse chronic epileptogenesis.

  1. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  2. Sponsorship for the Sustainability of Historical-Architectural Heritage: Application of a Model’s Original Test Finalized to Maximize the Profitability of Private Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Dolores

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with private sponsorship as a tool for the redevelopment of Italy’s vast wealth of historical-architectural public heritage sites. Italian law provides for the stipulation of sponsorship agreements by and between public sector agencies or entities (which need financial resources to restore or re-qualify property and private sector investors (which guarantee the capital sought by the public sector in exchange for significant returns on their investments raising various economic issues, particularly in connection with the profitability thresholds for private sector investors in return for the public sector’s use of their financial resources. In this paper, the authors focus on how private sector investors determine how much of their businesses turnover constitutes the optimal percentage level of overall income that may be invested in sponsorships to maximize business profitability. For this purpose, a model based on past works on the subject (Bucci et al., 2003 has been chosen by the authors. Such model gives a solution for verifying a sponsorship’s profitability. This model is static and is applicable to single-product companies that invest in sponsorships, under the theories of monopolistic competition and of Cobb-Douglas production function. Our objectives are to present this model, explaining in detail the mathematical steps, simplifying the model where possible in order to reduce the levels of complexity in its application, and finally to apply it to real case scenarios of cultural sponsorships.

  3. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  4. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  5. The use of Yo-Yo IR1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6-10 yr old school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    ; grade 2, n=16) and six weeks apart by 9-10 year olds (grade 3, n=49). Grade (G) 0-2's also performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT). G2's had a better (pSD) vs 536±218 m) and Andersen test performance (10%; 1050±71 vs 955±56 m) than G0's. For G0-2's YYIR1C......-10 year old children. Additionally, submaximal YYIR1C testing can be used for frequent non-exhaustive fitness assessments....

  6. Comparison of the skin sensitizing potential of unsaturated compounds as assessed by the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, R; Hollnagel, H M; Hareng, L; Eigler, D; Lee, M S; Griem, P; Dreessen, B; Kleber, M; Albrecht, A; Garcia, C; Wendel, A

    2008-06-01

    The skin sensitization potential of eight unsaturated and one saturated lipid (bio)chemicals was tested in both the LLNA and the GPMT to address the hypothesis that chemicals with unsaturated carbon-carbon double bonds may result in a higher number of unspecific (false positive) results in the LLNA compared to the GPMT. Seven substances (oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, undecylenic acid, maleic acid, squalene and octinol) gave clear positive results in the LLNA (stimulation index (SI)> or = 3) and thus would require labelling as skin sensitizer. Fumaric acid and succinic acid gave clearly negative results. In the GPMT, besides some sporadic skin reactions, reproducible skin reactions indicating an allergic response were found in a few animals for four test substances. Based on the GPMT results, only undecylenic acid would have to be classified and labelled as a skin sensitizer according to the European Dangerous Substance Directive (67/548/EEC) (results for linoleic acid were inconclusive), while the other seven test substances would not require labelling. Possible mechanisms for unspecific skin cell stimulation and lymph node responses are discussed. In conclusion, the suitability of the LLNA for unsaturated compounds bearing structural similarity to the tested substances should be carefully considered and the GPMT should remain available as an accepted test method for skin sensitization hazard identification.

  7. Allergenicity evaluation of p-chloro-m-cresol and p-chloro-m-xylenol by non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay and multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    p-Chloro-m-cresol (PCMC) and p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. For risk assessment of skin sensitizers, information on dose-response profiles in the induction and elicitation phases and cross-reactivity with analogous chemicals are important. In the non-radioactive local lymph-node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine instead of 3 H-methyl thymidine, significant effect on lymph node cell proliferation was detected at 10% PCMC and 25% PCMX, while in the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) at least one animal tested in the group was sensitized at a 5 ppm induction dose of either chemical. When mean skin reaction score in an animal group maximally sensitized with each allergen with the GPMT was plotted against log challenge concentration, linear regression lines with high correlations were obtained in both cases. The calculated elicitation threshold was lower for PCMC than PCMX. The area under the linear regression line between the threshold point and 1% of the elicitation concentration, another index of relative elicitation potency, was also greater for PCMC. Bidirectional cross-reactivity between PCMX and PCMC was detected in the GPMT. PCMC was thus identified in both LLNA and GPMT as a stronger sensitizer than PCMX in both the induction and elicitation phases. These results suggest that the non-radioactive LLNA is a simple and useful method for evaluating allergenicity in the induction phase, while the GPMT using a maximally sensitized animal group is more suitable for assessing the dose-response profile and cross-reactivity in the elicitation phase

  8. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  9. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  10. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  11. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  12. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  13. Cardiorespiratory Coordination in Repeated Maximal Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Garcia-Retortillo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in cardiorespiratory coordination (CRC after training with no differences in performance and physiological variables have recently been reported using a principal component analysis approach. However, no research has yet evaluated the short-term effects of exercise on CRC. The aim of this study was to delineate the behavior of CRC under different physiological initial conditions produced by repeated maximal exercises. Fifteen participants performed 2 consecutive graded and maximal cycling tests. Test 1 was performed without any previous exercise, and Test 2 6 min after Test 1. Both tests started at 0 W and the workload was increased by 25 W/min in males and 20 W/min in females, until they were not able to maintain the prescribed cycling frequency of 70 rpm for more than 5 consecutive seconds. A principal component (PC analysis of selected cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variables (expired fraction of O2, expired fraction of CO2, ventilation, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate was performed to evaluate the CRC defined by the number of PCs in both tests. In order to quantify the degree of coordination, the information entropy was calculated and the eigenvalues of the first PC (PC1 were compared between tests. Although no significant differences were found between the tests with respect to the performed maximal workload (Wmax, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max, or ventilatory threshold (VT, an increase in the number of PCs and/or a decrease of eigenvalues of PC1 (t = 2.95; p = 0.01; d = 1.08 was found in Test 2 compared to Test 1. Moreover, entropy was significantly higher (Z = 2.33; p = 0.02; d = 1.43 in the last test. In conclusion, despite the fact that no significant differences were observed in the conventionally explored maximal performance and physiological variables (Wmax, VO2 max, and VT between tests, a reduction of CRC was observed in Test 2. These results emphasize the interest of CRC

  14. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  15. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  16. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  17. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  18. Skin sensitization potency and cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine and its derivatives evaluated by non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay and guinea-pig maximization test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru

    2009-04-01

    p-Phenylenediamine (PPD)-related chemicals have been used as antioxidants in rubber products, and many cases of contact dermatitis caused by these chemicals have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate relative sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity among PPD derivatives. Five PPD derivatives, p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMBPPD), N-(1-methylheptyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (MHPPD), and the core chemical PPD were evaluated for their sensitizing potency and cross-reactivity using the non-radioactive murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT). PPD and all the derivatives were identified as primary sensitizers in both tests. The order of potency in the LLNA was as follows: IPPD and PADPA > PPD > DMBPPD and MHPPD > DPPD. In the GPMT, all six groups of animals sensitized with one of these chemicals cross-reacted to four other derivatives. Specifically, the five groups that have a common basic PADPA structure, that is PADPA, DPPD, IPPD, DMBPPD, and MHPPD, all reacted to each other at almost the same scores, while none of them reacted to PPD. The cross-reactivity profile found in the study was to some extent different from that in previous human data, where distinction between cross-reaction and concomitant primary sensitization is not always clear.

  19. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  20. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  1. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  2. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-07-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (microg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r=0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r=0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA.

  3. Quantitative comparison of the results obtained by the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay for various biocides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Noda, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    We compared the results of the multiple-dose guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) and the non-radioactive murine local lymph-node assay (LLNA) for various biocides. Thirteen out of 17 positive biocides in the GPMT gave positive results in the LLNA. In the GPMT, the minimum first induction doses ranged over four orders (0.00005-0.5%), while elicitation-threshold doses, which were evaluated using an optimally sensitized group of animals in the multiple-dose studies, ranged over five orders (0.00006-2.8%). In the LLNA, minimum induction doses ranged over more than three orders (0.01-30%). With respect to 13 biocides that were positive in both the GPMT and the LLNA, results were quantitatively compared. When compared after conversion to corresponding area doses (μg/cm), the minimum doses required to elicit skin reaction in guinea pigs were always lower than that for induction in mice with all biocides. Correlation between minimum induction doses from the GPMT and the LLNA seemed poor (r = 0.57), while that between minimum induction doses in the LLNA and elicitation-threshold doses in the GPMT was relatively good (r = 0.73). The results suggest the possibility to estimate human elicitation-threshold doses, which are definitely lacking in the process of risk assessment for skin-sensitizers, from the data of the LLNA

  4. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  5. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  6. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  7. Reliability of maximal isometric knee strength testing with modified hand-held dynamometry in patients awaiting total knee arthroplasty: useful in research and individual patient settings? A reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblbauer Ian FH

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA often experience strength deficits both pre- and post-operatively. As these deficits may have a direct impact on functional recovery, strength assessment should be performed in this patient population. For these assessments, reliable measurements should be used. This study aimed to determine the inter- and intrarater reliability of hand-held dynamometry (HHD in measuring isometric knee strength in patients awaiting TKA. Methods To determine interrater reliability, 32 patients (81.3% female were assessed by two examiners. Patients were assessed consecutively by both examiners on the same individual test dates. To determine intrarater reliability, a subgroup (n = 13 was again assessed by the examiners within four weeks of the initial testing procedure. Maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength were tested using a modified Citec hand-held dynamometer. Both the affected and unaffected knee were tested. Reliability was assessed using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. In addition, the Standard Error of Measurement (SEM and the Smallest Detectable Difference (SDD were used to determine reliability. Results In both the affected and unaffected knee, the inter- and intrarater reliability were good for knee flexors (ICC range 0.76-0.94 and excellent for knee extensors (ICC range 0.92-0.97. However, measurement error was high, displaying SDD ranges between 21.7% and 36.2% for interrater reliability and between 19.0% and 57.5% for intrarater reliability. Overall, measurement error was higher for the knee flexors than for the knee extensors. Conclusions Modified HHD appears to be a reliable strength measure, producing good to excellent ICC values for both inter- and intrarater reliability in a group of TKA patients. High SEM and SDD values, however, indicate high measurement error for individual measures. This study demonstrates that a modified HHD is appropriate to

  8. Maximal frustration as an immunological principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, F Vistulo; Mostardinha, P

    2009-03-06

    A fundamental problem in immunology is that of understanding how the immune system selects promptly which cells to kill without harming the body. This problem poses an apparent paradox. Strong reactivity against pathogens seems incompatible with perfect tolerance towards self. We propose a different view on cellular reactivity to overcome this paradox: effector functions should be seen as the outcome of cellular decisions which can be in conflict with other cells' decisions. We argue that if cellular systems are frustrated, then extensive cross-reactivity among the elements in the system can decrease the reactivity of the system as a whole and induce perfect tolerance. Using numerical and mathematical analyses, we discuss two simple models that perform optimal pathogenic detection with no autoimmunity if cells are maximally frustrated. This study strongly suggests that a principle of maximal frustration could be used to build artificial immune systems. It would be interesting to test this principle in the real adaptive immune system.

  9. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  10. É possível determinar a economia de corrida através do teste progressivo até a exaustão? Is possible to predict running economy using maximal incremental exercise test?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Cássio de Moraes Bertuzzi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a possibilidade de se estimar a economia de corrida (EC a partir do coeficiente angular gerado pela relação VO2 vs. intensidade de testes progressivos até a exaustão (EC INCLINA. Para tanto, 16 corredores de provas de longa duração (idade 32 ± 7 anos, massa corporal 70,0 ± 6,7 kg, estatura 173,3 ± 5,0 cm, O2máx 57,9 ± 5,8 ml·kg-1·min-1 foram submetidos a um teste incremental e a dois testes de cargas constantes (12 km·h-1 e a intensidade de 90% do segundo limiar ventilatório para a mensuração da EC. Foram detectadas correlações fracas entre o EC INCLINA e a EC estabelecida a 12 km·h-1 (r = 0,49; p = 0,054 e na intensidade de 90% do segundo limiar ventilatório (r = 0,55; p = 0,027. Além disso, o EC INCLINA também estava negativamente correlacionado com a concentração sanguínea de lactato (r = -0,75; p = 0,001 e a razão de troca respiratória (r = -0,80; p The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between running economy (RE and the slope of the regression line obtained as the individual relationship between oxygen uptake and the corresponding intensity in the incremental test (EC INCLINA. Sixteen recreational long-distance runners (age 32 ± 7 years, body mass 70,0 ± 6.7 kg, height 173.3 ± 5.0 cm, VO2max 57.9 ± 5.8 ml·kg-1·min-1 performed a progressive incremental test and two submaximal workload tests (at 12 km·h-1 and 90% second ventilatory threshold to determine the RE. There was significant correlation between EC INCLINA and RE measured at 12 km·h-1 (r = 0.49; p = 0.054 and at 90% second ventilatory threshold (r = 0.55; p = 0.027. In addition, EC INCLINA also was negatively correlated with peak blood lactate (r = -0.75; p = 0.001 and peak respiratory exchange rate (r = -0.80; p < 0.001. These findings suggest that EC INCLINA would be an alternative parameter employed to determine the endurance performance in recreational long

  11. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  12. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  13. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  14. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  15. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  16. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  17. Can monkeys make investments based on maximized pay-off?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize benefits but it is not known if they adjust their investment according to expected pay-offs. We investigated whether monkeys can use different investment strategies in an exchange task. We tested eight capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella and thirteen macaques (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca tonkeana in an experiment where they could adapt their investment to the food amounts proposed by two different experimenters. One, the doubling partner, returned a reward that was twice the amount given by the subject, whereas the other, the fixed partner, always returned a constant amount regardless of the amount given. To maximize pay-offs, subjects should invest a maximal amount with the first partner and a minimal amount with the second. When tested with the fixed partner only, one third of monkeys learned to remove a maximal amount of food for immediate consumption before investing a minimal one. With both partners, most subjects failed to maximize pay-offs by using different decision rules with each partner' quality. A single Tonkean macaque succeeded in investing a maximal amount to one experimenter and a minimal amount to the other. The fact that only one of over 21 subjects learned to maximize benefits in adapting investment according to experimenters' quality indicates that such a task is difficult for monkeys, albeit not impossible.

  18. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  19. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  20. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  1. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  2. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  3. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  5. MAXIMIZING THE BENEFITS OF ERP SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André da Conceição Menezes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems have been consolidated in companies with different sizes and sectors, allowing their real benefits to be definitively evaluated. In this study, several interactions have been studied in different phases, such as the strategic priorities and strategic planning defined as ERP Strategy; business processes review and the ERP selection in the pre-implementation phase, the project management and ERP adaptation in the implementation phase, as well as the ERP revision and integration efforts in the post-implementation phase. Through rigorous use of case study methodology, this research led to developing and to testing a framework for maximizing the benefits of the ERP systems, and seeks to contribute for the generation of ERP initiatives to optimize their performance.

  6. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion SPECT images in combination with the maximal heart rate at exercise testing in Japanese patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. A sub-analysis of J-ACCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Kenji; Usami, Satoru; Yasuno, Shinji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Yamashina, Akira; Nishiyama, Osamu; Yamazaki, Takuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether a combination of summed stress scores (SSS) using exercise myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (Ex-SPECT) and maximal heart rate accurately predicts cardiac events through a sub-analysis of J-ACCESS (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT) which was conducted to evaluate the prognosis of Japanese patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. In J-ACCESS, 2,373 patients with suspected coronary artery disease not receiving beta-blocker treatment underwent Ex-SPECT. These patients were categorized into the following four groups: Group A [achieved target heart rate (THR) and SSS<4: n=631], B (did not achieve THR and SSS<4: n=612), C (achieved THR and SSS≥4: n=570), and D (did not achieve THR and SSS≥4: n=560). We evaluated the incidence rate of cardiac events including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and heart failure requiring hospital admission during a 3-year period. In Group A, B, C, and D, 9 of 631 (1.4%), 15 of 612 (2.4%), 23 of 570 (4.0%) and 30 of 560 (5.4%) patients experienced cardiac events, respectively. Although the hazard ratio of the SSS≥4 was 2.45 (p<0.001) and that of the attained THR was 0.69 (p=0.10) in the multiple Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the cardiac events rate was lower in the order of A, B, C, and D (p<0.001). The combination of SSS using Ex-SPECT and the maximal heart rate is a useful predictor of cardiac events in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. (author)

  7. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  8. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  9. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  10. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  12. Impact of training status on maximal oxygen uptake criteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak treadmill running speed was significantly faster and total test time significantly longer in the trained group. In contrast, peak lactate, although maximal for both groups, was significantly higher in the untrained group (13.5 mmol.l-1 compared with 10.3 mmol.l-1). The other responses were not different between the groups ...

  13. Evaluating the sensitization potential of surfactants: integrating data from the local lymph node assay, guinea pig maximization test, and in vitro methods in a weight-of-evidence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Nicholas; Cagen, Stuart; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Certa, Hans; Eigler, Dorothea; Emter, Roger; Faulhammer, Frank; Garcia, Christine; Graham, Cynthia; Haux, Carl; Kolle, Susanne N; Kreiling, Reinhard; Natsch, Andreas; Mehling, Annette

    2011-08-01

    An integral part of hazard and safety assessments is the estimation of a chemical's potential to cause skin sensitization. Currently, only animal tests (OECD 406 and 429) are accepted in a regulatory context. Nonanimal test methods are being developed and formally validated. In order to gain more insight into the responses induced by eight exemplary surfactants, a battery of in vivo and in vitro tests were conducted using the same batch of chemicals. In general, the surfactants were negative in the GPMT, KeratinoSens and hCLAT assays and none formed covalent adducts with test peptides. In contrast, all but one was positive in the LLNA. Most were rated as being irritants by the EpiSkin assay with the additional endpoint, IL1-alpha. The weight of evidence based on this comprehensive testing indicates that, with one exception, they are non-sensitizing skin irritants, confirming that the LLNA tends to overestimate the sensitization potential of surfactants. As results obtained from LLNAs are considered as the gold standard for the development of new nonanimal alternative test methods, results such as these highlight the necessity to carefully evaluate the applicability domains of test methods in order to develop reliable nonanimal alternative testing strategies for sensitization testing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Maximally Entangled Multipartite States: A Brief Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez, M; Wintrowicz, I; Życzkowski, K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of identifying maximally entangled quantum states of a composite quantum systems is analyzed. We review some states of multipartite systems distinguished with respect to certain measures of quantum entanglement. Numerical results obtained for 4-qubit pure states illustrate the fact that the notion of maximally entangled state depends on the measure used. (paper)

  15. Utility maximization and mode of payment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, R.H.; Ridder, G.; Heijmans, R.D.H.; Pollock, D.S.G.; Satorra, A.

    2000-01-01

    The implications of stochastic utility maximization in a model of choice of payment are examined. Three types of compatibility with utility maximization are distinguished: global compatibility, local compatibility on an interval, and local compatibility on a finite set of points. Keywords:

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility and Profit Maximizing Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Becchetti, Leonardo; Giallonardo, Luisa; Tessitore, Maria Elisabetta

    2005-01-01

    We examine the behavior of a profit maximizing monopolist in a horizontal differentiation model in which consumers differ in their degree of social responsibility (SR) and consumers SR is dynamically influenced by habit persistence. The model outlines parametric conditions under which (consumer driven) corporate social responsibility is an optimal choice compatible with profit maximizing behavior.

  17. Inclusive fitness maximization: An axiomatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John A; Bossert, Walter

    2014-06-07

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of quasi-inclusive fitness maximization can be derived from axioms on an individual׳s 'as if preferences' (binary choices) for the case in which phenotypic effects are additive. Our results help integrate evolutionary theory and rational choice theory, help draw out the behavioural implications of inclusive fitness maximization, and point to a possible way in which evolution could lead organisms to implement it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximal Entanglement in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Cervera-Lierta, José I. Latorre, Juan Rojo, Luca Rottoli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze how maximal entanglement is generated at the fundamental level in QED by studying correlations between helicity states in tree-level scattering processes at high energy. We demonstrate that two mechanisms for the generation of maximal entanglement are at work: i $s$-channel processes where the virtual photon carries equal overlaps of the helicities of the final state particles, and ii the indistinguishable superposition between $t$- and $u$-channels. We then study whether requiring maximal entanglement constrains the coupling structure of QED and the weak interactions. In the case of photon-electron interactions unconstrained by gauge symmetry, we show how this requirement allows reproducing QED. For $Z$-mediated weak scattering, the maximal entanglement principle leads to non-trivial predictions for the value of the weak mixing angle $\\theta_W$. Our results are a first step towards understanding the connections between maximal entanglement and the fundamental symmetries of high-energy physics.

  19. Maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses during deepwater running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Kanitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n1p41   Aquatic exercises provide numerous benefits to the health of their practitioners. To secure these benefits, it is essential to have proper prescriptions to the needs of each individual and, therefore, it is important to study the cardiorespiratory responses of different activities in this environment. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses at the anaerobic threshold (AT between maximal deep-water running (DWR and maximal treadmill running (TMR. In addition, two methods of determining the AT (the heart rate deflection point [HRDP] and ventilatory method [VM] are compared in the two evaluated protocols. Twelve young women performed the two maximal protocols. Two-factor ANOVA for repeated measures with a post-hoc Bonferroni test was used (α < 0.05. Significantly higher values of maximal heart rate (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 and maximal oxygen uptake (TMR: 33.7 ± 3.9; DWR: 22.5 ± 4.1 ml.kg−1.min−1 in TMR compared to the DWR were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the methods for determining the AT (TMR: VM: 28.1 ± 5.3, HRDP: 26.6 ± 5.5 ml.kg−1.min−1; DWR: VM: 18.7 ± 4.8, HRDP: 17.8 ± 4.8 ml.kg−1.min−1. The results indicate that a specific maximal test for the trained modality should be conducted and the HRDP can be used as a simple and practical method of determining the AT, based on which the training intensity can be determined

  20. Maximizing your return on people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Laurie; McMurrer, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    Though most traditional HR performance metrics don't predict organizational performance, alternatives simply have not existed--until now. During the past ten years, researchers Laurie Bassi and Daniel McMurrer have worked to develop a system that allows executives to assess human capital management (HCM) and to use those metrics both to predict organizational performance and to guide organizations' investments in people. The new framework is based on a core set of HCM drivers that fall into five major categories: leadership practices, employee engagement, knowledge accessibility, workforce optimization, and organizational learning capacity. By employing rigorously designed surveys to score a company on the range of HCM practices across the five categories, it's possible to benchmark organizational HCM capabilities, identify HCM strengths and weaknesses, and link improvements or back-sliding in specific HCM practices with improvements or shortcomings in organizational performance. The process requires determining a "maturity" score for each practice, based on a scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Over time, evolving maturity scores from multiple surveys can reveal progress in each of the HCM practices and help a company decide where to focus improvement efforts that will have a direct impact on performance. The authors draw from their work with American Standard, South Carolina's Beaufort County School District, and a bevy of financial firms to show how improving HCM scores led to increased sales, safety, academic test scores, and stock returns. Bassi and McMurrer urge HR departments to move beyond the usual metrics and begin using HCM measurement tools to gauge how well people are managed and developed throughout the organization. In this new role, according to the authors, HR can take on strategic responsibility and ensure that superior human capital management becomes central to the organization's culture.

  1. Bipartite Bell Inequality and Maximal Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Fei Shaoming; Li-Jost Xian-Qing

    2011-01-01

    We present new bell inequalities for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum systems. The maximal violation of the inequalities is computed. The Bell inequality is capable of detecting quantum entanglement of both pure and mixed quantum states more effectively. (general)

  2. HEALTH INSURANCE: CONTRIBUTIONS AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMAL

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Affected by both the salary adjustment index on 1.1.2000 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maximal, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maximal and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2000.Reimbursement maximalThe revised reimbursement maximal will appear on the leaflet summarising the benefits for the year 2000, which will soon be available from the divisional secretariats and from the AUSTRIA office at CERN.Fixed contributionsThe fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions):voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with complete coverage:815,- (was 803,- in 1999)voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced coverage:407,- (was 402,- in 1999)voluntarily insured no longer dependent child:326,- (was 321...

  3. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  4. Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maximizing Function through Intelligent Robot Actuator Control Successful missions to Mars and beyond will only be possible with the support of high-performance...

  5. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  6. A definition of maximal CP-violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, M.

    1985-01-01

    The unitary matrix of quark flavour mixing is parametrized in a general way, permitting a mathematically natural definition of maximal CP violation. Present data turn out to violate this definition by 2-3 standard deviations. (orig.)

  7. A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Ross, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)

  8. Maximal supergravities and the E10 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinschmidt, Axel; Nicolai, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    The maximal rank hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra e 10 has been conjectured to play a prominent role in the unification of duality symmetries in string and M theory. We review some recent developments supporting this conjecture

  9. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano; Pascazio, Saverio

    2009-12-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7 .

  10. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n≤7.

  11. Neutrino mass textures with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Ichiro; Kitabayashi, Teruyuki; Yasue, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    We show three types of neutrino mass textures, which give maximal CP violation as well as maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing. These textures are described by six real mass parameters: one specified by two complex flavor neutrino masses and two constrained ones and the others specified by three complex flavor neutrino masses. In each texture, we calculate mixing angles and masses, which are consistent with observed data, as well as Majorana CP phases

  12. Why firms should not always maximize profits

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstad, Ivar

    2006-01-01

    Though corporate social responsibility (CSR) is on the agenda of most major corporations, corporate executives still largely support the view that corporations should maximize the returns to their owners. There are two lines of defence for this position. One is the Friedmanian view that maximizing owner returns is the corporate social responsibility of corporations. The other is a position voiced by many executives, that CSR and profits go together. This paper argues that the first position i...

  13. Maximally Informative Observables and Categorical Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiang, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the problem of perception in the framework of information theory, and prove that categorical perception is equivalent to the existence of an observable that has the maximum possible information on the target of perception. We call such an observable maximally informative. Regardless whether categorical perception is real, maximally informative observables can form the basis of a theory of perception. We conclude with the implications of such a theory for the problem of speech per...

  14. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating stakeholder-owner. Maximization of shareholder value is a special case of owner-maximization, and only under quite re-strictive assumptions shareholder maximization is larger or equal to stakeholder-owner...

  15. Effect of Maximal Versus Supra-Maximal Exhausting Race on Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Activity and Muscle-Damage Biomarkers in Long-Distance and Middle-Distance Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Said; Lamya, Ncir; Hamda, Mansour

    2016-03-01

    Exhausting physical exercise increases lipid peroxidation and causes important muscle damages. The human body tries to mitigate these adverse effects by mobilizing its antioxidant defenses. This study aims to investigate the effect of a maximal versus supra-maximal race sustained until exhaustion on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and muscle-damage biomarkers in trained (i.e. long-distance and middle-distance runners) and sedentary subjects. The study has been carried out on 8 middle-distance runners (MDR), 9 long-distance runners (LDR), and 8 sedentary subjects (SS). Each subject has undergone two exhaustive running tests, the first one is an incremental event (VAMEVAL test), the second one is a constant supra-maximal intensity test (limited-time test). Blood samples were collected at rest and immediately after each test. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations was observed in SS and MDR after the VAMEVAL test and in LDR after the Limited-Time test. A significant difference was also observed between LDR and the other two groups after the VAMEVAL test, and between LDR and MDR after the Limited-Time test. Significant modifications, notably, in myoglobin, CK, LDH, IL-6, TNF-α, and TAS were likewise noted but depending on the race-type and the sportive specialty. Maximal and supra-maximal races induce a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cause non-negligible inflammation and muscle damage. These effects were relatively related to the physical exercise type and the sportive specialty.

  16. Vacua of maximal gauged D=3 supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbacher, T; Nicolai, H; Samtleben, H

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the scalar potentials of maximal gauged three-dimensional supergravities which reveal a surprisingly rich structure. In contrast to maximal supergravities in dimensions D≥4, all these theories possess a maximally supersymmetric (N=16) ground state with negative cosmological constant Λ 2 gauged theory, whose maximally supersymmetric groundstate has Λ = 0. We compute the mass spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around these vacua and identify the unitary irreducible representations of the relevant background (super)isometry groups to which they belong. In addition, we find several stationary points which are not maximally supersymmetric, and determine their complete mass spectra as well. In particular, we show that there are analogues of all stationary points found in higher dimensions, among them are de Sitter (dS) vacua in the theories with noncompact gauge groups SO(5, 3) 2 and SO(4, 4) 2 , as well as anti-de Sitter (AdS) vacua in the compact gauged theory preserving 1/4 and 1/8 of the supersymmetries. All the dS vacua have tachyonic instabilities, whereas there do exist nonsupersymmetric AdS vacua which are stable, again in contrast to the D≥4 theories

  17. An information maximization model of eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Laura Walker; Coughlan, James; Verghese, Preeti; Malik, Jitendra

    2005-01-01

    We propose a sequential information maximization model as a general strategy for programming eye movements. The model reconstructs high-resolution visual information from a sequence of fixations, taking into account the fall-off in resolution from the fovea to the periphery. From this framework we get a simple rule for predicting fixation sequences: after each fixation, fixate next at the location that minimizes uncertainty (maximizes information) about the stimulus. By comparing our model performance to human eye movement data and to predictions from a saliency and random model, we demonstrate that our model is best at predicting fixation locations. Modeling additional biological constraints will improve the prediction of fixation sequences. Our results suggest that information maximization is a useful principle for programming eye movements.

  18. Utility Maximization in Nonconvex Wireless Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brehmer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    This monograph formulates a framework for modeling and solving utility maximization problems in nonconvex wireless systems. First, a model for utility optimization in wireless systems is defined. The model is general enough to encompass a wide array of system configurations and performance objectives. Based on the general model, a set of methods for solving utility maximization problems is developed. The development is based on a careful examination of the properties that are required for the application of each method. The focus is on problems whose initial formulation does not allow for a solution by standard convex methods. Solution approaches that take into account the nonconvexities inherent to wireless systems are discussed in detail. The monograph concludes with two case studies that demonstrate the application of the proposed framework to utility maximization in multi-antenna broadcast channels.

  19. LOAD THAT MAXIMIZES POWER OUTPUT IN COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Jimenez-Reyes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: One of the main problems faced by strength and conditioning coaches is the issue of how to objectively quantify and monitor the actual training load undertaken by athletes in order to maximize performance. It is well known that performance of explosive sports activities is largely determined by mechanical power. Objective: This study analysed the height at which maximal power output is generated and the corresponding load with which is achieved in a group of male-trained track and field athletes in the test of countermovement jump (CMJ with extra loads (CMJEL. Methods: Fifty national level male athletes in sprinting and jumping performed a CMJ test with increasing loads up to a height of 16 cm. The relative load that maximized the mechanical power output (Pmax was determined using a force platform and lineal encoder synchronization and estimating the power by peak power, average power and flight time in CMJ. Results: The load at which the power output no longer existed was at a height of 19.9 ± 2.35, referring to a 99.1 ± 1% of the maximum power output. The load that maximizes power output in all cases has been the load with which an athlete jump a height of approximately 20 cm. Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of considering the height achieved in CMJ with extra load instead of power because maximum power is always attained with the same height. We advise for the preferential use of the height achieved in CMJEL test, since it seems to be a valid indicative of an individual's actual neuromuscular potential providing a valid information for coaches and trainers when assessing the performance status of our athletes and to quantify and monitor training loads, measuring only the height of the jump in the exercise of CMJEL.

  20. Maximizing band gaps in plate structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Søren; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    periodic plate using Bloch theory, which conveniently reduces the maximization problem to that of a single base cell. Secondly, we construct a finite periodic plate using a number of the optimized base cells in a postprocessed version. The dynamic properties of the finite plate are investigated......Band gaps, i.e., frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate, can be found in elastic structures for which there is a certain periodic modulation of the material properties or structure. In this paper, we maximize the band gap size for bending waves in a Mindlin plate. We analyze an infinite...... theoretically and experimentally and the issue of finite size effects is addressed....

  1. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  2. Learning curves for mutual information maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanczik, R.

    2003-01-01

    An unsupervised learning procedure based on maximizing the mutual information between the outputs of two networks receiving different but statistically dependent inputs is analyzed [S. Becker and G. Hinton, Nature (London) 355, 161 (1992)]. For a generic data model, I show that in the large sample limit the structure in the data is recognized by mutual information maximization. For a more restricted model, where the networks are similar to perceptrons, I calculate the learning curves for zero-temperature Gibbs learning. These show that convergence can be rather slow, and a way of regularizing the procedure is considered

  3. Finding Maximal Pairs with Bounded Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Lyngsø, Rune B.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    1999-01-01

    . In this paper we present methods for finding all maximal pairs under various constraints on the gap. In a string of length n we can find all maximal pairs with gap in an upper and lower bounded interval in time O(n log n+z) where z is the number of reported pairs. If the upper bound is removed the time reduces...... to O(n+z). Since a tandem repeat is a pair where the gap is zero, our methods can be seen as a generalization of finding tandem repeats. The running time of our methods equals the running time of well known methods for finding tandem repeats....

  4. Effect of sonic driving on maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilla, L.R.; Hatcher, Stefanie

    2000-07-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate antecedent binaural stimulation (ABS) on maximal aerobic physical performance. Twenty-two healthy, physically active subjects, 21-34 years, randomly received one of two preparations for each session: 15 min of quiet (BLANK) or percussive sonic driving at 200+ beats per minute (bpm) using a recorded compact disc (FSS, Mill Valley, CA) with headphones (ABS). Baseline HR, blood pressure (BP), and breathing frequency (f(br)) were obtained. During each condition, HR and f(br) were recorded at 3-min intervals. The graded maximal treadmill testing was administered immediately postpreparation session on separate days, with at least 48 h rest between sessions. There were significant differences in the antecedent period means between the two conditions, ABS (HR: 70.2 +/- 10.7 bpm; f(br): 18.5 +/- 3.3 br min(-1); BP: 134.5/87.9 +/- 13.6/9.2 mm Hg) and BLANK (HR: 64.6 +/- 7.9; f(br): 14.3 +/- 2.9; BP: 126.7/80.3 +/- 12.1/8.6). Differences were noted for each 3-min interval and pre- postantecedent period. The maximal graded exercise test (GXT) results showed that there was a small but significant (P 0.05). There may be a latency to ABS related to entrainment or imagery-enhanced warm-up. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:558-565, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Maximizing the Range of a Projectile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses solutions to the problem of maximizing the range of a projectile. Presents three references that solve the problem with and without the use of calculus. Offers a fourth solution suitable for introductory physics courses that relies more on trigonometry and the geometry of the problem. (MDH)

  6. Robust Utility Maximization Under Convex Portfolio Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoussi, Anis; Mezghani, Hanen; Mnif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We study a robust maximization problem from terminal wealth and consumption under a convex constraints on the portfolio. We state the existence and the uniqueness of the consumption–investment strategy by studying the associated quadratic backward stochastic differential equation. We characterize the optimal control by using the duality method and deriving a dynamic maximum principle

  7. Ehrenfest's Lottery--Time and Entropy Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2010-01-01

    Successful teaching of the Second Law of Thermodynamics suffers from limited simple examples linking equilibrium to entropy maximization. I describe a thought experiment connecting entropy to a lottery that mixes marbles amongst a collection of urns. This mixing obeys diffusion-like dynamics. Equilibrium is achieved when the marble distribution is…

  8. Reserve design to maximize species persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Haight; Laurel E. Travis

    2008-01-01

    We develop a reserve design strategy to maximize the probability of species persistence predicted by a stochastic, individual-based, metapopulation model. Because the population model does not fit exact optimization procedures, our strategy involves deriving promising solutions from theory, obtaining promising solutions from a simulation optimization heuristic, and...

  9. Maximal indecomposable past sets and event horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolak, A.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of maximal indecomposable past sets MIPs is demonstrated using the Kuratowski-Zorn lemma. A criterion for the existence of an absolute event horizon in space-time is given in terms of MIPs and a relation to black hole event horizon is shown. (author)

  10. Maximization of eigenvalues using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    to localized modes in low density areas. The topology optimization problem is formulated using the SIMP method. Special attention is paid to a numerical method for removing localized eigenmodes in low density areas. The method is applied to numerical examples of maximizing the first eigenfrequency, One example...

  11. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  12. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  13. Maximizing scientific knowledge from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Atar, Dan; Pitt, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    Trialists have an ethical and financial responsibility to plan and conduct clinical trials in a manner that will maximize the scientific knowledge gained from the trial. However, the amount of scientific information generated by randomized clinical trials in cardiovascular medicine is highly vari...

  14. A Model of College Tuition Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, Donald I.; Lichtenstein, Larry; Zaporowski, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a series of models for optimal tuition pricing for private colleges and universities. The university is assumed to be a profit maximizing, price discriminating monopolist. The enrollment decision of student's is stochastic in nature. The university offers an effective tuition rate, comprised of stipulated tuition less financial…

  15. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  16. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  17. Evaluation of anticonvulsant effects of methanolic extract of Olax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticonvulsant activity of MEOS was evaluated in chicks using maximal electroshock test, and in mice using pentylenetetrazole and strychnine-induced seizure models at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose of MEOS was estimated to be 3800 mg/kg body weight in mice. MEOS at doses ...

  18. Gamma loop contributing to maximal voluntary contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagbarth, K E; Kunesch, E J; Nordin, M; Schmidt, R; Wallin, E U

    1986-01-01

    A local anaesthetic drug was injected around the peroneal nerve in healthy subjects in order to investigate whether the resulting loss in foot dorsiflexion power in part depended on a gamma-fibre block preventing 'internal' activation of spindle end-organs and thereby depriving the alpha-motoneurones of an excitatory spindle inflow during contraction. The motor outcome of maximal dorsiflexion efforts was assessed by measuring firing rates of individual motor units in the anterior tibial (t.a.) muscle, mean voltage e.m.g. from the pretibial muscles, dorsiflexion force and range of voluntary foot dorsiflexion movements. The tests were performed with and without peripheral conditioning stimuli, such as agonist or antagonist muscle vibration or imposed stretch of the contracting muscles. As compared to control values of t.a. motor unit firing rates in maximal isometric voluntary contractions, the firing rates were lower and more irregular during maximal dorsiflexion efforts performed during subtotal peroneal nerve blocks. During the development of paresis a gradual reduction of motor unit firing rates was observed before the units ceased responding to the voluntary commands. This change in motor unit behaviour was accompanied by a reduction of the mean voltage e.m.g. activity in the pretibial muscles. At a given stage of anaesthesia the e.m.g. responses to maximal voluntary efforts were more affected than the responses evoked by electric nerve stimuli delivered proximal to the block, indicating that impaired impulse transmission in alpha motor fibres was not the sole cause of the paresis. The inability to generate high and regular motor unit firing rates during peroneal nerve blocks was accentuated by vibration applied over the antagonistic calf muscles. By contrast, in eight out of ten experiments agonist stretch or vibration caused an enhancement of motor unit firing during the maximal force tasks. The reverse effects of agonist and antagonist vibration on the

  19. Planning Routes Across Economic Terrains: Maximizing Utility, Following Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Maddula, Soumya V.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2010-01-01

    We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value). We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics) for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes. PMID:21833269

  20. PLANNING ROUTES ACROSS ECONOMIC TERRAINS: MAXIMIZING UTILITY, FOLLOWING HEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang eZhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We designed an economic task to investigate human planning of routes in landscapes where travel in different kinds of terrain incurs different costs. Participants moved their finger across a touch screen from a starting point to a destination. The screen was divided into distinct kinds of terrain and travel within each kind of terrain imposed a cost proportional to distance traveled. We varied costs and spatial configurations of terrains and participants received fixed bonuses minus the total cost of the routes they chose. We first compared performance to a model maximizing gain. All but one of 12 participants failed to adopt least-cost routes and their failure to do so reduced their winnings by about 30% (median value. We tested in detail whether participants’ choices of routes satisfied three necessary conditions (heuristics for a route to maximize gain. We report failures of one heuristic for 7 out of 12 participants. Last of all, we modeled human performance with the assumption that participants assign subjective utilities to costs and maximize utility. For 7 out 12 participants, the fitted utility function was an accelerating power function of actual cost and for the remaining 5, a decelerating power function. We discuss connections between utility aggregation in route planning and decision under risk. Our task could be adapted to investigate human strategy and optimality of route planning in full-scale landscapes.

  1. An efficient community detection algorithm using greedy surprise maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yawen; Jia, Caiyan; Yu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Community detection is an important and crucial problem in complex network analysis. Although classical modularity function optimization approaches are widely used for identifying communities, the modularity function (Q) suffers from its resolution limit. Recently, the surprise function (S) was experimentally proved to be better than the Q function. However, up until now, there has been no algorithm available to perform searches to directly determine the maximal surprise values. In this paper, considering the superiority of the S function over the Q function, we propose an efficient community detection algorithm called AGSO (algorithm based on greedy surprise optimization) and its improved version FAGSO (fast-AGSO), which are based on greedy surprise optimization and do not suffer from the resolution limit. In addition, (F)AGSO does not need the number of communities K to be specified in advance. Tests on experimental networks show that (F)AGSO is able to detect optimal partitions in both simple and even more complex networks. Moreover, algorithms based on surprise maximization perform better than those algorithms based on modularity maximization, including Blondel–Guillaume–Lambiotte–Lefebvre (BGLL), Clauset–Newman–Moore (CNM) and the other state-of-the-art algorithms such as Infomap, order statistics local optimization method (OSLOM) and label propagation algorithm (LPA). (paper)

  2. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  3. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  4. Derivative pricing based on local utility maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Kallsen

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a new approach to contingent claim valuation in general incomplete market models. We determine the neutral derivative price which occurs if investors maximize their local utility and if derivative demand and supply are balanced. We also introduce the sensitivity process of a contingent claim. This process quantifies the reliability of the neutral derivative price and it can be used to construct price bounds. Moreover, it allows to calibrate market models in order to be co...

  5. Control of Shareholders’ Wealth Maximization in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Oladipupo; C. O. Okafor

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on who controls shareholder’s wealth maximization and how does this affect firm’s performance in publicly quoted non-financial companies in Nigeria. The shareholder fund was the dependent while explanatory variables were firm size (proxied by log of turnover), retained earning (representing management control) and dividend payment (representing measure of shareholders control). The data used for this study were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange [NSE] fact book an...

  6. Definable maximal discrete sets in forcing extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag; Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    Let  be a Σ11 binary relation, and recall that a set A is -discrete if no two elements of A are related by . We show that in the Sacks and Miller forcing extensions of L there is a Δ12 maximal -discrete set. We use this to answer in the negative the main question posed in [5] by showing...

  7. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  8. Single maximal versus combination punch kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Barry A; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of punch type (Jab, Cross, Lead Hook and Reverse Hook) and punch modality (Single maximal, 'In-synch' and 'Out of synch' combination) on punch speed and delivery time. Ten competition-standard volunteers performed punches with markers placed on their anatomical landmarks for 3D motion capture with an eight-camera optoelectronic system. Speed and duration between key moments were computed. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch types (F(2,18,84.87) = 105.76, p = 0.001) with Lead and Reverse Hooks developing greater speed than Jab and Cross. There were significant differences in contact speed between punch modalities (F(2,64,102.87) = 23.52, p = 0.001) with the Single maximal (M+/- SD: 9.26 +/- 2.09 m/s) higher than 'Out of synch' (7.49 +/- 2.32 m/s), 'In-synch' left (8.01 +/- 2.35 m/s) or right lead (7.97 +/- 2.53 m/s). Delivery times were significantly lower for Jab and Cross than Hook. Times were significantly lower 'In-synch' than a Single maximal or 'Out of synch' combination mode. It is concluded that a defender may have more evasion-time than previously reported. This research could be of use to performers and coaches when considering training preparations.

  9. Formation Control for the MAXIM Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquette, Richard J.; Leitner, Jesse; Gendreau, Keith; Sanner, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the next twenty years, a wave of change is occurring in the space-based scientific remote sensing community. While the fundamental limits in the spatial and angular resolution achievable in spacecraft have been reached, based on today s technology, an expansive new technology base has appeared over the past decade in the area of Distributed Space Systems (DSS). A key subset of the DSS technology area is that which covers precision formation flying of space vehicles. Through precision formation flying, the baselines, previously defined by the largest monolithic structure which could fit in the largest launch vehicle fairing, are now virtually unlimited. Several missions including the Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), and the Stellar Imager will drive the formation flying challenges to achieve unprecedented baselines for high resolution, extended-scene, interferometry in the ultraviolet and X-ray regimes. This paper focuses on establishing the feasibility for the formation control of the MAXIM mission. MAXIM formation flying requirements are on the order of microns, while Stellar Imager mission requirements are on the order of nanometers. This paper specifically addresses: (1) high-level science requirements for these missions and how they evolve into engineering requirements; and (2) the development of linearized equations of relative motion for a formation operating in an n-body gravitational field. Linearized equations of motion provide the ground work for linear formation control designs.

  10. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  11. Five aspects of maximizing objectivity from perceptual evaluations of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volk, Christer Peter; Bech, Søren; Pedersen, Torben H.

    2015-01-01

    of data from the listening evaluations. This paper addresses the following subset of aspects for increasing the objectivity of data from listening tests: The choice of perceptual attributes, relevance of perceptual attributes, choice of loudness equalisation strategy, optimum listening room specifications......A literature study was conducted focusing on maximizing objectivity of results from listening evaluations aimed at establishing the relationship between physical and perceptual measurements of loudspeakers. The purpose of the study was to identify and examine factors influencing the objectivity......, as well as loudspeaker listening in-situ vs. listening to recordings of loudspeakers over headphones....

  12. Alternative approaches to maximally supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broedel, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    The central objective of this work is the exploration and application of alternative possibilities to describe maximally supersymmetric field theories in four dimensions: N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and N=8 supergravity. While twistor string theory has been proven very useful in the context of N=4 SYM, no analogous formulation for N=8 supergravity is available. In addition to the part describing N=4 SYM theory, twistor string theory contains vertex operators corresponding to the states of N=4 conformal supergravity. Those vertex operators have to be altered in order to describe (non-conformal) Einstein supergravity. A modified version of the known open twistor string theory, including a term which breaks the conformal symmetry for the gravitational vertex operators, has been proposed recently. In a first part of the thesis structural aspects and consistency of the modified theory are discussed. Unfortunately, the majority of amplitudes can not be constructed, which can be traced back to the fact that the dimension of the moduli space of algebraic curves in twistor space is reduced in an inconsistent manner. The issue of a possible finiteness of N=8 supergravity is closely related to the question of the existence of valid counterterms in the perturbation expansion of the theory. In particular, the coefficient in front of the so-called R 4 counterterm candidate has been shown to vanish by explicit calculation. This behavior points into the direction of a symmetry not taken into account, for which the hidden on-shell E 7(7) symmetry is the prime candidate. The validity of the so-called double-soft scalar limit relation is a necessary condition for a theory exhibiting E 7(7) symmetry. By calculating the double-soft scalar limit for amplitudes derived from an N=8 supergravity action modified by an additional R 4 counterterm, one can test for possible constraints originating in the E 7(7) symmetry. In a second part of the thesis, the appropriate amplitudes are calculated

  13. Análise de variáveis fisiológicas de adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico de asma leve intermitente ou leve persistente quando submetidos a hipóxia aguda e teste de esforço máximo Analysis of physiological variables during acute hypoxia and maximal stress test in adolescents clinically diagnosed with mild intermittent or mild persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Maldonado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar variáveis fisiológicas de adolescentes com diagnóstico clínico de asma quando submetidos a teste de hipóxia aguda e de esforço máximo. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo transversal composto por 48 adolescentes (12-14 anos, divididos em três grupos: 12 no grupo asma leve intermitente (ALI, 12 no grupo asma leve persistente (ALP e 24 no grupo controle. Todos foram submetidos a teste de hipóxia aguda e a teste de esforço máximo. Características antropométricas foram coletadas, e variáveis funcionais foram determinadas antes e após o teste de esforço máximo. Em condições de hipóxia aguda, foram registrados o tempo de descida e o tempo de recuperação de SpO2 durante repouso. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas variáveis antropométricas nem nas variáveis ventilatórias durante o teste de esforço entre os grupos. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas na pressão de oxigênio com 50% de saturação da hemoglobina antes do teste e na PaO2 antes do teste entre os grupos ALP e controle (p = 0,0279 e p = 0,0116, respectivamente, assim como na tensão de extração de oxigênio antes do teste entre os grupos ALI e ALP (p = 0,0419. Não houve diferenças significativas nos tempos de SpO2 em quaisquer das condições estudadas. O consumo de oxigênio e a eficiência da respiração foram semelhantes entre os grupos. O uso de um broncodilatador não trouxe vantagens nos resultados no teste de hipóxia. Não foram encontradas correlações entre o teste de hipóxia e as variáveis fisiológicas. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos achados sugerem que os adolescentes com asma leve persistente têm uma melhor capacidade de adaptação à hipóxia comparado aos com outros tipos de asma.OBJECTIVE: To analyze adolescents clinically diagnosed with asthma, in terms of the physiological changes occurring during acute hypoxia and during a maximal stress test. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cross

  14. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  15. Gain maximization in a probabilistic entanglement protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lorenzo, Antonio; Esteves de Queiroz, Johnny Hebert

    Entanglement is a resource. We can therefore define gain as a monotonic function of entanglement G (E) . If a pair with entanglement E is produced with probability P, the net gain is N = PG (E) - (1 - P) C , where C is the cost of a failed attempt. We study a protocol where a pair of quantum systems is produced in a maximally entangled state ρm with probability Pm, while it is produced in a partially entangled state ρp with the complementary probability 1 -Pm . We mix a fraction w of the partially entangled pairs with the maximally entangled ones, i.e. we take the state to be ρ = (ρm + wUlocρpUloc+) / (1 + w) , where Uloc is an appropriate unitary local operation designed to maximize the entanglement of ρ. This procedure on one hand reduces the entanglement E, and hence the gain, but on the other hand it increases the probability of success to P =Pm + w (1 -Pm) , therefore the net gain N may increase. There may be hence, a priori, an optimal value for w, the fraction of failed attempts that we mix in. We show that, in the hypothesis of a linear gain G (E) = E , even assuming a vanishing cost C -> 0 , the net gain N is increasing with w, therefore the best strategy is to always mix the partially entangled states. Work supported by CNPq, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, proc. 311288/2014-6, and by FAPEMIG, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais, proc. IC-FAPEMIG2016-0269 and PPM-00607-16.

  16. Maximizing percentage depletion in solid minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Grove, H.D.; McGrath, M.

    1982-01-01

    This article develops a strategy for maximizing percentage depletion deductions when extracting uranium or other solid minerals. The goal is to avoid losing percentage depletion deductions by staying below the 50% limitation on taxable income from the property. The article is divided into two major sections. The first section is comprised of depletion calculations that illustrate the problem and corresponding solutions. The last section deals with the feasibility of applying the strategy and complying with the Internal Revenue Code and appropriate regulations. Three separate strategies or appropriate situations are developed and illustrated. 13 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  17. What currency do bumble bees maximize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L Charlton

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In modelling bumble bee foraging, net rate of energetic intake has been suggested as the appropriate currency. The foraging behaviour of honey bees is better predicted by using efficiency, the ratio of energetic gain to expenditure, as the currency. We re-analyse several studies of bumble bee foraging and show that efficiency is as good a currency as net rate in terms of predicting behaviour. We suggest that future studies of the foraging of bumble bees should be designed to distinguish between net rate and efficiency maximizing behaviour in an attempt to discover which is the more appropriate currency.

  18. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  19. Pouliot type duality via a-maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Teruhiko; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Tachikawa, Yuji; Yagi, Futoshi

    2006-01-01

    We study four-dimensional N=1Spin(10) gauge theory with a single spinor and N Q vectors at the superconformal fixed point via the electric-magnetic duality and a-maximization. When gauge invariant chiral primary operators hit the unitarity bounds, we find that the theory with no superpotential is identical to the one with some superpotential at the infrared fixed point. The auxiliary field method in the electric theory offers a satisfying description of the infrared fixed point, which is consistent with the better picture in the magnetic theory. In particular, it gives a clear description of the emergence of new massless degrees of freedom in the electric theory

  20. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  1. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  2. Salinity effect on the maximal growth temperature of some bacteria isolated from marine enviroments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, S O; Morita, R Y

    1968-01-01

    Salinity of the growth medium was found to have a marked effect on the maximal growth temperature of four bacteria isolated from marine sources. Vibrio marinus MP-1 had a maximal growth temperature of 21.2 C at a salinity of 35% and a maximal growth temperature of 10.5 C at a salinity of 7%, the lowest salinity at which it would grow. This effect was shown to be due to the presence of various cations in the medium. The order of effectiveness of cations in restoring the normal maximal growth temperature, when added to dilute seawater, was Na(+) > Li(+) > Mg(++) > K(+) > Rb(+) > NH(4) (+). The anions tested, with the exception of SO(4)=, had no marked effect on the maximal growth temperature response. In a completely defined medium, the highest maximal growth temperature was 20.0 C at 0.40 m NaCl. A decrease in the maximal growth temperature was observed at both low and high concentrations of NaCl.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: BROME AGRI SALES, LTD., MAXIMIZER SEPARATOR, MODEL MAX 1016 - 03/01/WQPC-SWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Brome Agri Sales Ltd. Maximizer Separator, Model MAX 1016 (Maximizer) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The Maximizer is an inclined screen solids separator that can be used to s...

  4. Shareholder, stakeholder-owner or broad stakeholder maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With reference to the discussion about shareholder versus stakeholder maximization it is argued that the normal type of maximization is in fact stakeholder-owner maxi-mization. This means maximization of the sum of the value of the shares and stake-holder benefits belonging to the dominating...... including the shareholders of a company. Although it may be the ultimate goal for Corporate Social Responsibility to achieve this kind of maximization, broad stakeholder maximization is quite difficult to give a precise definition. There is no one-dimensional measure to add different stakeholder benefits...... not traded on the mar-ket, and therefore there is no possibility for practical application. Broad stakeholder maximization instead in practical applications becomes satisfying certain stakeholder demands, so that the practical application will be stakeholder-owner maximization un-der constraints defined...

  5. Maximizing Lumen Gain With Directional Atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Gregory A; Winscott, John G

    2016-08-01

    To describe the use of a low-pressure balloon inflation (LPBI) technique to delineate intraluminal plaque and guide directional atherectomy in order to maximize lumen gain and achieve procedure success. The technique is illustrated in a 77-year-old man with claudication who underwent superficial femoral artery revascularization using a HawkOne directional atherectomy catheter. A standard angioplasty balloon was inflated to 1 to 2 atm during live fluoroscopy to create a 3-dimensional "lumenogram" of the target lesion. Directional atherectomy was performed only where plaque impinged on the balloon at a specific fluoroscopic orientation. The results of the LPBI technique were corroborated with multimodality diagnostic imaging, including digital subtraction angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and intra-arterial pressure measurements. With the LPBI technique, directional atherectomy can routinely achieve <10% residual stenosis, as illustrated in this case, thereby broadly supporting a no-stent approach to lower extremity endovascular revascularization. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  7. Distributed-Memory Fast Maximal Independent Set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanewala Appuhamilage, Thejaka Amila J.; Zalewski, Marcin J.; Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2017-09-13

    The Maximal Independent Set (MIS) graph problem arises in many applications such as computer vision, information theory, molecular biology, and process scheduling. The growing scale of MIS problems suggests the use of distributed-memory hardware as a cost-effective approach to providing necessary compute and memory resources. Luby proposed four randomized algorithms to solve the MIS problem. All those algorithms are designed focusing on shared-memory machines and are analyzed using the PRAM model. These algorithms do not have direct efficient distributed-memory implementations. In this paper, we extend two of Luby’s seminal MIS algorithms, “Luby(A)” and “Luby(B),” to distributed-memory execution, and we evaluate their performance. We compare our results with the “Filtered MIS” implementation in the Combinatorial BLAS library for two types of synthetic graph inputs.

  8. Quench dynamics of topological maximally entangled states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Chiang; Jhu, Yi-Hao; Chen, Pochung; Mou, Chung-Yu

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the quench dynamics of the one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES) for systems with topologically nontrivial phases. By using dimerized chains as an example, it is demonstrated that the evolution of OPES for the quenched bipartite systems is governed by an effective Hamiltonian which is characterized by a pseudospin in a time-dependent pseudomagnetic field S(k,t). The existence and evolution of the topological maximally entangled states (tMESs) are determined by the winding number of S(k,t) in the k-space. In particular, the tMESs survive only if nontrivial Berry phases are induced by the winding of S(k,t). In the infinite-time limit the equilibrium OPES can be determined by an effective time-independent pseudomagnetic field Seff(k). Furthermore, when tMESs are unstable, they are destroyed by quasiparticles within a characteristic timescale in proportion to the system size.

  9. Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

    2011-08-21

    We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.

  10. Maximal energy extraction under discrete diffusive exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M. J., E-mail: hay@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Schiff, J. [Department of Mathematics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900 (Israel); Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Waves propagating through a bounded plasma can rearrange the densities of states in the six-dimensional velocity-configuration phase space. Depending on the rearrangement, the wave energy can either increase or decrease, with the difference taken up by the total plasma energy. In the case where the rearrangement is diffusive, only certain plasma states can be reached. It turns out that the set of reachable states through such diffusive rearrangements has been described in very different contexts. Building upon those descriptions, and making use of the fact that the plasma energy is a linear functional of the state densities, the maximal extractable energy under diffusive rearrangement can then be addressed through linear programming.

  11. Maximizing profitability in a hospital outpatient pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J A; Kilarski, J W; Malatestinic, W N; Rudy, T A

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the strategies employed to increase the profitability of an existing ambulatory pharmacy operated by the hospital. Methods to generate new revenue including implementation of a home parenteral therapy program, a home enteral therapy program, a durable medical equipment service, and home care disposable sales are described. Programs to maximize existing revenue sources such as increasing the capture rate on discharge prescriptions, increasing "walk-in" prescription traffic and increasing HMO prescription volumes are discussed. A method utilized to reduce drug expenditures is also presented. By minimizing expenses and increasing the revenues for the ambulatory pharmacy operation, net profit increased from +26,000 to over +140,000 in one year.

  12. Maximizing the benefits of a dewatering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.; Iverson, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The use of dewatering systems in the mining, industrial sludge and sewage waste treatment industries is discussed, also describing some of the problems that have been encountered while using drilling fluid dewatering technology. The technology is an acceptable drilling waste handling alternative but it has had problems associated with recycled fluid incompatibility, high chemical costs and system inefficiencies. This paper discussed the following five action areas that can maximize the benefits and help reduce costs of a dewatering project: (1) co-ordinate all services, (2) choose equipment that fits the drilling program, (3) match the chemical treatment with the drilling fluid types, (4) determine recycled fluid compatibility requirements, and (5) determine the disposal requirements before project start-up. 2 refs., 5 figs

  13. Mixtures of maximally entangled pure states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, M.M., E-mail: mflores@nip.up.edu.ph; Galapon, E.A., E-mail: eric.galapon@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    We study the conditions when mixtures of maximally entangled pure states remain entangled. We found that the resulting mixed state remains entangled when the number of entangled pure states to be mixed is less than or equal to the dimension of the pure states. For the latter case of mixing a number of pure states equal to their dimension, we found that the mixed state is entangled provided that the entangled pure states to be mixed are not equally weighted. We also found that one can restrict the set of pure states that one can mix from in order to ensure that the resulting mixed state is genuinely entangled. Also, we demonstrate how these results could be applied as a way to detect entanglement in mixtures of the entangled pure states with noise.

  14. Maximally reliable Markov chains under energy constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escola, Sean; Eisele, Michael; Miller, Kenneth; Paninski, Liam

    2009-07-01

    Signal-to-noise ratios in physical systems can be significantly degraded if the outputs of the systems are highly variable. Biological processes for which highly stereotyped signal generations are necessary features appear to have reduced their signal variabilities by employing multiple processing steps. To better understand why this multistep cascade structure might be desirable, we prove that the reliability of a signal generated by a multistate system with no memory (i.e., a Markov chain) is maximal if and only if the system topology is such that the process steps irreversibly through each state, with transition rates chosen such that an equal fraction of the total signal is generated in each state. Furthermore, our result indicates that by increasing the number of states, it is possible to arbitrarily increase the reliability of the system. In a physical system, however, an energy cost is associated with maintaining irreversible transitions, and this cost increases with the number of such transitions (i.e., the number of states). Thus, an infinite-length chain, which would be perfectly reliable, is infeasible. To model the effects of energy demands on the maximally reliable solution, we numerically optimize the topology under two distinct energy functions that penalize either irreversible transitions or incommunicability between states, respectively. In both cases, the solutions are essentially irreversible linear chains, but with upper bounds on the number of states set by the amount of available energy. We therefore conclude that a physical system for which signal reliability is important should employ a linear architecture, with the number of states (and thus the reliability) determined by the intrinsic energy constraints of the system.

  15. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  16. Relations of morphological characteristics and maximal oxygen consumption of fourth grade pupils based on gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On a sample of 71 respondents, 37 boys and 34 girls, age of fourth grade elementary school, accordingly 9 years +/- 6 months, it is assessed correlation and prediction of maximal oxygen consumption based measures of morphological range. Maximum oxygen consumption was measured by indirect method, using a field test of maximal multiple load of feedback running at 20 meters. Range of morphology was analyzed based on 5 measures of longitudinal dimensionality, 4 measures of volume and body mass and 3 measures of transversal dimensionality. Results of correlation analysis showed that in both sexes there was no statistically significant correlation between results of maximal oxygen consumption and measures of longitudinal dimensionality, while regression analysis confirmed that there was no statistically significant prediction of maximum oxygen consumption based on measures of longitudinal dimensionality. While the correlation analysis deduced that part of volume measures and body mass and transversal dimensionality have statistically significant correlation only with female respondents with results of maximal oxygen consumption. Regression analysis showed statistically significant prediction of maximal oxygen consumption based on part of volume measures and body mass and transversal dimensionality. It is determined that female respondents with larger volumes of the thigh and lower leg, accordingly with smaller diameters of knee joint and ankle joint most likely will achieve better results in applied test, and therefore higher maximal oxygen consumption.

  17. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods: Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed ...

  18. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Automatic physical inference with information maximizing neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    Compressing large data sets to a manageable number of summaries that are informative about the underlying parameters vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference. When only simulations are available, these summaries are typically chosen heuristically, so they may inadvertently miss important information. We introduce a simulation-based machine learning technique that trains artificial neural networks to find nonlinear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). In test cases where the posterior can be derived exactly, likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces nearly exact posteriors, showing that these summaries are good approximations to sufficient statistics. In a series of numerical examples of increasing complexity and astrophysical relevance we show that IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, nonlinear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima. We anticipate that the automatic physical inference method described in this paper will be essential to obtain both accurate and precise cosmological parameter estimates from complex and large astronomical data sets, including those from LSST and Euclid.

  20. Maximizing mutagenesis with solubilized CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Alexa; Lindsay, Helen; Felker, Anastasia; Hess, Christopher; Anders, Carolin; Chiavacci, Elena; Zaugg, Jonas; Weber, Lukas M; Catena, Raul; Jinek, Martin; Robinson, Mark D; Mosimann, Christian

    2016-06-01

    CRISPR-Cas9 enables efficient sequence-specific mutagenesis for creating somatic or germline mutants of model organisms. Key constraints in vivo remain the expression and delivery of active Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) with minimal toxicity, variable mutagenesis efficiencies depending on targeting sequence, and high mutation mosaicism. Here, we apply in vitro assembled, fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs in solubilizing salt solution to achieve maximal mutagenesis efficiency in zebrafish embryos. MiSeq-based sequence analysis of targeted loci in individual embryos using CrispRVariants, a customized software tool for mutagenesis quantification and visualization, reveals efficient bi-allelic mutagenesis that reaches saturation at several tested gene loci. Such virtually complete mutagenesis exposes loss-of-function phenotypes for candidate genes in somatic mutant embryos for subsequent generation of stable germline mutants. We further show that targeting of non-coding elements in gene regulatory regions using saturating mutagenesis uncovers functional control elements in transgenic reporters and endogenous genes in injected embryos. Our results establish that optimally solubilized, in vitro assembled fluorescent Cas9-sgRNA RNPs provide a reproducible reagent for direct and scalable loss-of-function studies and applications beyond zebrafish experiments that require maximal DNA cutting efficiency in vivo. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  2. Task complexity and maximal isometric strength gains through motor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951

  3. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  4. Crossover and maximal fat-oxidation points in sedentary healthy subjects: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmada, N; Marzouki, H; Haboubi, M; Tabka, Z; Shephard, R J; Bouhlel, E

    2012-02-01

    Our study aimed to assess the influence of protocol on the crossover point and maximal fat-oxidation (LIPOX(max)) values in sedentary, but otherwise healthy, young men. Maximal oxygen intake was assessed in 23 subjects, using a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test. Twelve sedentary males (aged 20.5±1.0 years) whose directly measured maximal aerobic power (MAP) values were lower than their theoretical maximal values (tMAP) were selected from this group. These individuals performed, in random sequence, three submaximal graded exercise tests, separated by three-day intervals; work rates were based on the tMAP in one test and on MAP in the remaining two. The third test was used to assess the reliability of data. Heart rate, respiratory parameters, blood lactate, the crossover point and LIPOX(max) values were measured during each of these tests. The crossover point and LIPOX(max) values were significantly lower when the testing protocol was based on tMAP rather than on MAP (PtMAP at 30, 40, 50 and 60% of maximal aerobic power (PtMAP rather than MAP (P<0.001). During the first 5 min of recovery, EPOC(5 min) and blood lactate were significantly correlated (r=0.89; P<0.001). Our data show that, to assess the crossover point and LIPOX(max) values for research purposes, the protocol must be based on the measured MAP rather than on a theoretical value. Such a determination should improve individualization of training for initially sedentary subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. A Note of Caution on Maximizing Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Neapolitan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Principle of Maximum Entropy is often used to update probabilities due to evidence instead of performing Bayesian updating using Bayes’ Theorem, and its use often has efficacious results. However, in some circumstances the results seem unacceptable and unintuitive. This paper discusses some of these cases, and discusses how to identify some of the situations in which this principle should not be used. The paper starts by reviewing three approaches to probability, namely the classical approach, the limiting frequency approach, and the Bayesian approach. It then introduces maximum entropy and shows its relationship to the three approaches. Next, through examples, it shows that maximizing entropy sometimes can stand in direct opposition to Bayesian updating based on reasonable prior beliefs. The paper concludes that if we take the Bayesian approach that probability is about reasonable belief based on all available information, then we can resolve the conflict between the maximum entropy approach and the Bayesian approach that is demonstrated in the examples.

  6. Optimal topologies for maximizing network transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhao; Wu, Jiajing; Rong, Zhihai; Tse, Chi K.

    2018-04-01

    It has been widely demonstrated that the structure of a network is a major factor that affects its traffic dynamics. In this work, we try to identify the optimal topologies for maximizing the network transmission capacity, as well as to build a clear relationship between structural features of a network and the transmission performance in terms of traffic delivery. We propose an approach for designing optimal network topologies against traffic congestion by link rewiring and apply them on the Barabási-Albert scale-free, static scale-free and Internet Autonomous System-level networks. Furthermore, we analyze the optimized networks using complex network parameters that characterize the structure of networks, and our simulation results suggest that an optimal network for traffic transmission is more likely to have a core-periphery structure. However, assortative mixing and the rich-club phenomenon may have negative impacts on network performance. Based on the observations of the optimized networks, we propose an efficient method to improve the transmission capacity of large-scale networks.

  7. New features of the maximal abelian projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornyakov, V.G.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Syritsyn, S.N.; Schierholz, G.; Suzuki, T.

    2005-12-01

    After fixing the Maximal Abelian gauge in SU(2) lattice gauge theory we decompose the nonabelian gauge field into the so called monopole field and the modified nonabelian field with monopoles removed. We then calculate respective static potentials and find that the potential due to the modified nonabelian field is nonconfining while, as is well known, the monopole field potential is linear. Furthermore, we show that the sum of these potentials approximates the nonabelian static potential with 5% or higher precision at all distances considered. We conclude that at large distances the monopole field potential describes the classical energy of the hadronic string while the modified nonabelian field potential describes the string fluctuations. Similar decomposition was observed to work for the adjoint static potential. A check was also made of the center projection in the direct center gauge. Two static potentials, determined by projected Z 2 and by modified nonabelian field without Z 2 component were calculated. It was found that their sum is a substantially worse approximation of the SU(2) static potential than that found in the monopole case. It is further demonstrated that similar decomposition can be made for the flux tube action/energy density. (orig.)

  8. Beyond "utilitarianism": maximizing the clinical impact of moral judgment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The use of hypothetical moral dilemmas--which pit utilitarian considerations of welfare maximization against emotionally aversive "personal" harms--has become a widespread approach for studying the neuropsychological correlates of moral judgment in healthy subjects, as well as in clinical populations with social, cognitive, and affective deficits. In this article, we propose that a refinement of the standard stimulus set could provide an opportunity to more precisely identify the psychological factors underlying performance on this task, and thereby enhance the utility of this paradigm for clinical research. To test this proposal, we performed a re-analysis of previously published moral judgment data from two clinical populations: neurological patients with prefrontal brain damage and psychopathic criminals. The results provide intriguing preliminary support for further development of this assessment paradigm.

  9. Oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins from Lysimachia fortunei Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Lin; Yang, Zi-Ni; He, Cui; Liao, Hai-Bing; Wang, Heng-Shan; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Liang, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Six previously undescribed oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, fortunosides A-F, together with six known ones, were isolated from the aerial parts of Lysimachia fortunei Maxim. Their structures were established by spectroscopic data analyses (1D, 2D-NMR and HRESIMS) and chemical methods. All isolated triterpenoid saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human liver cancer cell lines (SMMC-7721, Hep3B, HuH7, and SK-Hep-1). Three saponins with the aglycone protoprimulagenin A exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against all of the tested human cancer cell lines, with IC 50 values ranging from 4.76 to 15.12 μM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comportamento cardiorrespiratório em crianças saudáveis durante o exercício progressivo máximo Comportamiento cardiorrespiratorio en niños saludables durante el ejercicio progresivo máximo Cardiorespiratory responses during progressive maximal exercise test in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Marcelo Leite do Prado

    2010-04-01

    sugieren que los niños tienen menor eficiencia cardiovascular y respiratoria. Con todo, los niños presentaron mayor eficiencia metabólica durante la prueba de esfuerzo. En resumen, a pesar de las diferencias observadas, los niños mostraron niveles similares de capacidad de esfuerzo, al compararlos con los adultos.BACKGROUND: Little is known about cardiorespiratory and metabolic response in healthy children during progressive maximal exercise test. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children show different responses in cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters during progressive maximal exercise test when compared with adults. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy children (gender, 15M/10F; age, 10.2 ± 0.2 and 20 healthy adults (gender, 11M/9F; age, 27.5 ± 0.4 underwent a progressive treadmill cardiopulmonary test until exhaustion to determine the maximal aerobic capacity and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT. RESULTS: The peak workload (5.9±0.1 vs 5.6±0.1 mph, respectively; p>0.05, exercise time (9.8±0.4 vs 10.2±0.4 min, respectively; p>0.05, and relative aerobic fitness (VO2peak, 39.4±2.1 vs 39.1±2.0 ml.kg-1.min-1, respectively; p>0.05 were similar in children and adults. At ventilatory anaerobic threshold, the heart rate, VO2 ml.kg-1.min-1, respiratory rate (RR, functional estimate of dead space (VD/VT, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VE/VO2 and end-tidal pressure for oxygen (PETO2 were higher in children, while tidal volume (VT, O2 pulse and end-tidal pressure for carbon dioxide (PETCO2 were lower. At peak of exercise, children showed higher RR and VD/VT. However, O2 pulse, VT, pulmonary ventilation, PETCO2 and respiratory exchange ratio were lower in children than adults. CONCLUSION: Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during progressive exercise test are different in children as compared to adults. Specifically, these differences suggest that children have lower cardiovascular and ventilatory efficiency. However, children showed higher metabolic

  11. Value maximizing maintenance policies under general repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    One class of maintenance optimization problems considers the notion of general repair maintenance policies where systems are repaired or replaced on failure. In each case the optimality is based on minimizing the total maintenance cost of the system. These cost-centric optimizations ignore the value dimension of maintenance and can lead to maintenance strategies that do not maximize system value. This paper applies these ideas to the general repair optimization problem using a semi-Markov decision process, discounted cash flow techniques, and dynamic programming to identify the value-optimal actions for any given time and system condition. The impact of several parameters on maintenance strategy, such as operating cost and revenue, system failure characteristics, repair and replacement costs, and the planning time horizon, is explored. This approach provides a quantitative basis on which to base maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. These decisions are different from those suggested by traditional cost-based approaches. The results show (1) how the optimal action for a given time and condition changes as replacement and repair costs change, and identifies the point at which these costs become too high for profitable system operation; (2) that for shorter planning horizons it is better to repair, since there is no time to reap the benefits of increased operating profit and reliability; (3) how the value-optimal maintenance policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics, and hence whether it is worthwhile to invest in higher reliability; and (4) the impact of the repair level on the optimal maintenance policy. -- Highlights: •Provides a quantitative basis for maintenance strategy decisions that contribute to system value. •Shows how the optimal action for a given condition changes as replacement and repair costs change. •Shows how the optimal policy is affected by the system's failure characteristics. •Shows when it is

  12. The Measurement of Maximal (Anaerobic Power Output on a Cycle Ergometer: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak Driss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic power ( assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips, methodological (protocols and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue limiting in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions… are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.

  13. POLITENESS MAXIM OF MAIN CHARACTER IN SECRET FORGIVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Ayu Isnu Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maxim of Politeness is an interesting subject to be discussed, since politeness has been criticized from our childhood. We are obliques to be polite to anyone either in speaking or in acting. Somehow we are manage to show politeness in our spoken expression though our intention might be not so polite. For example we must appriciate others opinion although we feel objection toward the opinion. In this article the analysis of politeness is based on maxim proposes by Leech. He proposed six types of politeness maxim. The discussion shows that the main character (Kristen and Kami use all types of maxim in their conversation. The most commonly used are approbation maxim and agreement maxim

  14. Energy-driven scheduling algorithm for nanosatellite energy harvesting maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slongo, L. K.; Martínez, S. V.; Eiterer, B. V. B.; Pereira, T. G.; Bezerra, E. A.; Paiva, K. V.

    2018-06-01

    The number of tasks that a satellite may execute in orbit is strongly related to the amount of energy its Electrical Power System (EPS) is able to harvest and to store. The manner the stored energy is distributed within the satellite has also a great impact on the CubeSat's overall efficiency. Most CubeSat's EPS do not prioritize energy constraints in their formulation. Unlike that, this work proposes an innovative energy-driven scheduling algorithm based on energy harvesting maximization policy. The energy harvesting circuit is mathematically modeled and the solar panel I-V curves are presented for different temperature and irradiance levels. Considering the models and simulations, the scheduling algorithm is designed to keep solar panels working close to their maximum power point by triggering tasks in the appropriate form. Tasks execution affects battery voltage, which is coupled to the solar panels through a protection circuit. A software based Perturb and Observe strategy allows defining the tasks to be triggered. The scheduling algorithm is tested in FloripaSat, which is an 1U CubeSat. A test apparatus is proposed to emulate solar irradiance variation, considering the satellite movement around the Earth. Tests have been conducted to show that the scheduling algorithm improves the CubeSat energy harvesting capability by 4.48% in a three orbit experiment and up to 8.46% in a single orbit cycle in comparison with the CubeSat operating without the scheduling algorithm.

  15. Maximizers versus satisficers: Decision-making styles, competence, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wändi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al.\\ (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decision...

  16. Maximizing Statistical Power When Verifying Probabilistic Forecasts of Hydrometeorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChant, C. M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrometeorological events (i.e. floods, droughts, precipitation) are increasingly being forecasted probabilistically, owing to the uncertainties in the underlying causes of the phenomenon. In these forecasts, the probability of the event, over some lead time, is estimated based on some model simulations or predictive indicators. By issuing probabilistic forecasts, agencies may communicate the uncertainty in the event occurring. Assuming that the assigned probability of the event is correct, which is referred to as a reliable forecast, the end user may perform some risk management based on the potential damages resulting from the event. Alternatively, an unreliable forecast may give false impressions of the actual risk, leading to improper decision making when protecting resources from extreme events. Due to this requisite for reliable forecasts to perform effective risk management, this study takes a renewed look at reliability assessment in event forecasts. Illustrative experiments will be presented, showing deficiencies in the commonly available approaches (Brier Score, Reliability Diagram). Overall, it is shown that the conventional reliability assessment techniques do not maximize the ability to distinguish between a reliable and unreliable forecast. In this regard, a theoretical formulation of the probabilistic event forecast verification framework will be presented. From this analysis, hypothesis testing with the Poisson-Binomial distribution is the most exact model available for the verification framework, and therefore maximizes one's ability to distinguish between a reliable and unreliable forecast. Application of this verification system was also examined within a real forecasting case study, highlighting the additional statistical power provided with the use of the Poisson-Binomial distribution.

  17. Comparison of three protocols for measuring the maximal respiratory pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria B. Sclauser Pessoa

    Full Text Available Introduction To avoid the selection of submaximal efforts during the assessment of maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, some reproducibility criteria have been suggested. Criteria that stand out are those proposed by the American Thoracic Society (ATS and European Respiratory Society (ERS and by the Brazilian Thoracic Association (BTA. However, no studies were found that compared these criteria or assessed the combination of both protocols. Objectives To assess the pressure values selected and the number of maneuvers required to achieve maximum performance using the reproducibility criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, the BTA and the present study. Materials and method 113 healthy subjects (43.04 ± 16.94 years from both genders were assessed according to the criteria proposed by the ATS/ERS, BTA and the present study. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis, followed by ANOVA for repeated measures and post hoc LSD or by Friedman test and post hoc Wilcoxon, according to the data distribution. Results The criterion proposed by the present study resulted in a significantly higher number of maneuvers (MIP and MEP – median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 5[5-6], 4[3-5] and 3[3-4] for the present study criterion, BTA and ATS/ERS, respectively; p < 0.01 and higher pressure values (MIP – mean and 95% confidence interval: 103[91.43-103.72], 100[97.19-108.83] and 97.6[94.06-105.95]; MEP: median and 25%-75% interquartile range: 124.2[101.4-165.9], 123.3[95.4-153.8] and 118.4[95.5-152.7]; p < 0.05. Conclusion The proposed criterion resulted in the selection of pressure values closer to the individual’s maximal capacity. This new criterion should be considered in future studies concerning MIP and MEP measurements.

  18. Natural maximal νμ-ντ mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1999-01-01

    The naturalness of maximal mixing between myon- and tau-neutrinos is investigated. A spontaneously broken nonabelian generation symmetry can explain a small parameter which governs the deviation from maximal mixing. In many cases all three neutrino masses are almost degenerate. Maximal ν μ -ν τ -mixing suggests that the leading contribution to the light neutrino masses arises from the expectation value of a heavy weak triplet rather than from the seesaw mechanism. In this scenario the deviation from maximal mixing is predicted to be less than about 1%. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. On the way towards a generalized entropy maximization procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagci, G. Baris; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2009-01-01

    We propose a generalized entropy maximization procedure, which takes into account the generalized averaging procedures and information gain definitions underlying the generalized entropies. This novel generalized procedure is then applied to Renyi and Tsallis entropies. The generalized entropy maximization procedure for Renyi entropies results in the exponential stationary distribution asymptotically for q element of (0,1] in contrast to the stationary distribution of the inverse power law obtained through the ordinary entropy maximization procedure. Another result of the generalized entropy maximization procedure is that one can naturally obtain all the possible stationary distributions associated with the Tsallis entropies by employing either ordinary or q-generalized Fourier transforms in the averaging procedure.

  20. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  1. Quasideterministic generation of maximally entangled states of two mesoscopic atomic ensembles by adiabatic quantum feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David

    2005-01-01

    We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses

  2. Recovery Responses to Maximal Exercise in Healthy-Weight Children and Children with Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Elizabeth A.; Black, W. Scott; Bailey, Alison L.; Lennie, Terry A.; Sims, Wilma J.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heart rate recovery (HRRec) and oxygen consumption recovery (VO2 recovery) between young healthy-weight children and children with obesity following a maximal volitional graded exercise test (GXTmax). Method: Twenty healthy-weight children and 13 children with obesity completed body…

  3. Effects of maximal atorvastatin and rosuvastatin treatment on markers of glucose homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies show that statin therapy, while effective at lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), may be associated with an increased risk of diabetes. To test the effects of maximal dosages of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin (80mg/day and 40mg/day, respectively) we obtained frozen serum ...

  4. The Effects of Rear-Wheel Camber on Maximal Effort Mobility Performance in Wheelchair Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, B.; van der Woude, L.; Tolfrey, K.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V.

    This study examined the effect of rear-wheel camber on maximal effort wheelchair mobility performance. 14 highly trained wheelchair court sport athletes performed a battery of field tests in 4 standardised camber settings (15°, 18°, 20°, 24°) with performance analysed using a velocometer. 20 m

  5. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    KAUST Repository

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia

  6. Potential benefits of maximal exercise just prior to return from weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance of a single maximal bout of exercise during weightlessness within hours of return to earth would enhance recovery of aerobic fitness and physical work capacities under a 1G environment. Ten healthy men were subjected to a 10-d bedrest period in the 6-deg headdown position. A graded maximal supine cycle ergometer test was performed before and at the end of bedrest to simulate exercise during weightlessness. Following 3 h of resumption of the upright posture, a second maximal exercise test was performed on a treadmill to measure work capacity under conditions of 1G. Compared to before bedrest, peak oxygen consumption, V(O2), decreased by 8.7 percent and peak heart rate (HR) increased by 5.6 percent in the supine cycle test at the end of bedrest. However, there were no significant changes in peak V(O2) and peak HR in the upright treadmill test following bedrest. These data suggest that one bout of maximal leg exercise prior to return from 10 d of weightlessness may be adequate to restore preflight aerobic fitness and physical work capacity.

  7. Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic effect of Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuansheng; Cheng, Delin; Wang, Linbo; Li, Shuhong; Wang, Yuepeng; Li, Kejuan; Yang, Yingnan; Zhang, Zhenya

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of ethanol extract from Actinidia kolomikta (Maxim. etRur.) Maxim. root (AKE).An in vitro evaluation was performed by using rat intestinal α-glucosidase (maltase and sucrase), the key enzymes linked with type 2 diabetes. And an in vivo evaluation was also performed by loading maltose, sucrose, glucose to normal rats. As a result, AKE showed concentration-dependent inhibition effects on rat intestinal maltase and rat intestinal sucrase with IC(50) values of 1.83 and 1.03mg/mL, respectively. In normal rats, after loaded with maltose, sucrose and glucose, administration of AKE significantly reduced postprandial hyperglycemia, which is similar to acarbose used as an anti-diabetic drug. High contents of total phenolics (80.49 ± 0.05mg GAE/g extract) and total flavonoids (430.69 ± 0.91mg RE/g extract) were detected in AKE. In conclusion, AKE possessed anti-hyperglycemic effects and the possible mechanisms were associated with its inhibition on α-glucosidase and the improvement on insulin release and/or insulin sensitivity as well. The anti-hyperglycemic activity possessed by AKE maybe attributable to its high contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  8. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  9. Freqüência cardíaca máxima em testes de exercício em esteira rolante e em cicloergômetro de membros inferiores Maximal heart rate in exercise tests on treadmill and in a cycloergometer of lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gil Soares de Araújo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar, retrospectivamente, os valores de freqüência cardíaca máxima (FCM e o descenso da freqüência cardíaca no primeiro minuto da recuperação (dFC, obtidos em teste de exercício (TE realizados em dois ergômetros e momentos distintos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta indivíduos (29 a 80 anos de idade, submetidos a TE cardiopulmonar em ciclo de membros inferiores (CMI em nosso laboratório e que possuíam TE prévio (até 36 meses em esteira (EST em outros laboratórios, nas condições idênticas de medicações de ação cronotrópica negativa. RESULTADOS: FCM foi semelhante no CMI: 156±3 e EST: 154±2 bpm (p=0,125, enquanto o dFC foi maior em CMI: 33±2, EST: 26±3 bpm (média ± erro padrão da média (pOBJECTIVE: To compare, retrospectively, the values of maximum heart rate (MHR and the decrease of the heart rate at the first minute of recovery, which were obtained in an exercise test (ET performed in two different ergometers and at different moments. METHODS: Sixty individuals (from 29 to 80 years old, submitted to cardiopulmonary ET in a cycle of lower limbs (CLL in our laboratory and who had previous ET (up to 36 months in a treadmill (TRM in other laboratories, under identical conditions of medications of negative chronotropic action. RESULTS: MHR was similar in CLL: 156±3 and TRM: 154±2 bpm (p=0.125, whereas dHR was higher in CLL: 33±2, EST: 26±3 bpm (mean ± standard error of the mean (p<0.001. In hemodynamic variables studied, the systolic blood pressure and the double product were higher in the ET-CLL (p<0.001. The electrocardiogram (ECG was similar in both ETs, except due to more frequent supraventricular arrhythmias in CLL. CONCLUSION: a With some diligence from the examiner and previous knowledge of MHR in a previous ET it is possible to obtain high levels of MHR in an ET-CLL; b interrupting the MHR-based ET forecast through equations tends to lead to sub-maximum efforts; c dHR differs in active and passive

  10. Kinetic theory in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    A vanishing directional derivative of a scalar field along particle trajectories in maximal acceleration invariant phase space is identical in form to the ordinary covariant Vlasov equation in curved spacetime in the presence of both gravitational and nongravitational forces. A natural foundation is thereby provided for a covariant kinetic theory of particles in maximal-acceleration invariant phase space. (orig.)

  11. IIB solutions with N>28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2007-01-01

    We show that all IIB supergravity backgrounds which admit more than 28 Killing spinors are maximally supersymmetric. In particular, we find that for all N>28 backgrounds the supercovariant curvature vanishes, and that the quotients of maximally supersymmetric backgrounds either preserve all 32 or N<29 supersymmetries

  12. Muscle mitochondrial capacity exceeds maximal oxygen delivery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Gnaiger, Erich; Calbet, Jose A L

    2011-01-01

    Across a wide range of species and body mass a close matching exists between maximal conductive oxygen delivery and mitochondrial respiratory rate. In this study we investigated in humans how closely in-vivo maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) is matched to state 3 muscle mitochondrial respira...

  13. Pace's Maxims for Homegrown Library Projects. Coming Full Circle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Andrew K.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses six maxims by which to run library automation. The following maxims are discussed: (1) Solve only known problems; (2) Avoid changing data to fix display problems; (3) Aut viam inveniam aut faciam; (4) If you cannot make it yourself, buy something; (5) Kill the alligator closest to the boat; and (6) Just because yours is…

  14. Reliability of surface electromyography activity of gluteal and hamstring muscles during sub-maximal and maximal voluntary isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Melanie D; Aldabe, Daniela; Adhia, Divya; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2018-04-01

    Normalizing to a reference signal is essential when analysing and comparing electromyography signals across or within individuals. However, studies have shown that MVC testing may not be as reliable in persons with acute and chronic pain. The purpose of this study was to compare the test-retest reliability of the muscle activity in the biceps femoris and gluteus maximus between a novel sub-MVC and standard MVC protocols. This study utilized a single individual repeated measures design with 12 participants performing multiple trials of both the sub-MVC and MVC tasks on two separate days. The participant position in the prone leg raise task was standardised with an ultrasonic sensor to improve task precession between trials/days. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the maximal muscle activity was examined using ICC and SEM. Day-to-day and trial-to-trial reliability of the EMG activity in the BF and GM were high (0.70-0.89) to very high (≥0.90) for both test procedures. %SEM was <5-10% for both tests on a given day but higher in the day-to-day comparisons. The lower amplitude of the sub-MVC is a likely contributor to increased %SEM (8-13%) in the day-to-day comparison. The findings show that the sub-MVC modified prone double leg raise results in GM and BF EMG measures similar in reliability and precision to the standard MVC tasks. Therefore, the modified prone double leg raise may be a useful substitute for traditional MVC testing for normalizing EMG signals of the BF and GM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using Maximal Isometric Force to Determine the Optimal Load for Measuring Dynamic Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Barry A.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bentley, Jason R.; Nash, Roxanne E.; Sinka, Joseph; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2009-01-01

    Maximal power output occurs when subjects perform ballistic exercises using loads of 30-50% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM). However, performing 1-RM testing prior to power measurement requires considerable time, especially when testing involves multiple exercises. Maximal isometric force (MIF), which requires substantially less time to measure than 1-RM, might be an acceptable alternative for determining the optimal load for power testing. PURPOSE: To determine the optimal load based on MIF for maximizing dynamic power output during leg press and bench press exercises. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (12 men and 8 women; mean +/- SD age: 31+/-6 y; body mass: 72 +/- 15 kg) performed isometric leg press and bench press movements, during which MIF was measured using force plates. Subsequently, subjects performed ballistic leg press and bench press exercises using loads corresponding to 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% of MIF presented in randomized order. Maximal instantaneous power was calculated during the ballistic exercise tests using force plates and position transducers. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Fisher LSD post hoc tests were used to determine the load(s) that elicited maximal power output. RESULTS: For the leg press power test, six subjects were unable to be tested at 20% and 30% MIF because these loads were less than the lightest possible load (i.e., the weight of the unloaded leg press sled assembly [31.4 kg]). For the bench press power test, five subjects were unable to be tested at 20% MIF because these loads were less than the weight of the unloaded aluminum bar (i.e., 11.4 kg). Therefore, these loads were excluded from analysis. A trend (p = 0.07) for a main effect of load existed for the leg press exercise, indicating that the 40% MIF load tended to elicit greater power output than the 60% MIF load (effect size = 0.38). A significant (p . 0.05) main effect of load existed for the bench press exercise; post hoc analysis indicated that the effect of

  16. Bilateral Cochlear Implants: Maximizing Expected Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Kate E; Blum, Nathan J; Waryasz, Stephanie A; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Sonia is a 4 years 1 month-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had bilateral cochlear implants at 2 years 7 months years of age. She is referred to Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by her speech/language pathologist because of concerns that her language skills are not progressing as expected after the cochlear implant. At the time of the implant, she communicated using approximately 20 signs and 1 spoken word (mama). At the time of the evaluation (18 months after the implant) she had approximately 70 spoken words (English and Spanish) and innumerable signs that she used to communicate. She could follow 1-step directions in English but had more difficulty after 2-step directions.Sonia was born in Puerto Rico at 40 weeks gestation after an uncomplicated pregnancy. She failed her newborn hearing test and was given hearing aids that did not seem to help.At age 2 years, Sonia, her mother, and younger sister moved to the United States where she was diagnosed with bilateral severe-to-profound hearing loss. Genetic testing led to a diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome (group of genetic conditions that can cause hearing loss and changes in coloring [pigmentation] of the hair, skin, and eyes). She received bilateral cochlear implants 6 months later.Sonia's mother is primarily Spanish-speaking and mostly communicates with her in Spanish or with gestures but has recently begun to learn American Sign Language (ASL). In a preschool program at a specialized school for the deaf, Sonia is learning both English and ASL. Sonia seems to prefer to use ASL to communicate.Sonia receives speech and language therapy (SLT) 3 times per week (90 minutes total) individually in school and once per week within a group. She is also receiving outpatient SLT once per week. Therapy sessions are completed in English, with the aid of an ASL interpreter. Sonia's language scores remain low, with her receptive skills in the first percentile, and her

  17. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lencse-Mucha Judit

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4. Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.

  18. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874

  19. The Effects of Maximal Intensity Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Roy David

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High intensity physical exercise has previously been found to lead to a decline in cognitive performance of adults. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal intensity exercise on cognitive performance of children. Using a repeated-measures design, 20 children and adolescents aged 8-17 years completed a battery of tests measuring memory and attention. Forward and Backward Digit Span tests, the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST were performed at baseline, immediately after, and one hour after a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. Forward and Backward Digit Span scores significantly improved post-recovery compared with baseline measurements. There was a significant decrease in RAVLT scores post-exercise, which returned to baseline values after recovery. The DSST test scores were mildly elevated from post-exercise to after recovery. Maximal intensity exercise in children and adolescents may result in both beneficial and detrimental cognitive effects, including transient impairment in verbal learning. Cognitive functions applying short term memory improve following a recovery period. Parents, educators and coaches should consider these changes in memory and attention following high-intensity exercise activities in children.

  20. Inquiry in bibliography some of the bustan`s maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajjad rahmatian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sa`di is on of those poets who`s has placed a special position to preaching and guiding the people and among his works, allocated throughout the text of bustan to advice and maxim on legal and ethical various subjects. Surely, sa`di on the way of to compose this work and expression of its moral point, direct or indirect have been affected by some previous sources and possibly using their content. The main purpose of this article is that the pay review of basis and sources of bustan`s maxims and show that sa`di when expression the maxims of this work has been affected by which of the texts and works. For this purpose is tried to with search and research on the resources that have been allocated more or less to the aphorisms, to discover and extract traces of influence sa`di from their moral and didactic content. From the most important the finding of this study can be mentioned that indirect effect of some pahlavi books of maxim (like maxims of azarbad marespandan and bozorgmehr book of maxim and also noted sa`di directly influenced of moral and ethical works of poets and writers before him, and of this, sa`di`s influence from abo- shakur balkhi maxims, ferdowsi and keikavus is remarkable and noteworthy.

  1. Parton Distributions based on a Maximally Consistent Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The choice of data that enters a global QCD analysis can have a substantial impact on the resulting parton distributions and their predictions for collider observables. One of the main reasons for this has to do with the possible presence of inconsistencies, either internal within an experiment or external between different experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the global fit, different definitions of a conservative PDF set, that is, a PDF set based on a maximally consistent dataset, have been introduced. However, these approaches are typically affected by theory biases in the selection of the dataset. In this contribution, after a brief overview of recent NNPDF developments, we propose a new, fully objective, definition of a conservative PDF set, based on the Bayesian reweighting approach. Using the new NNPDF3.0 framework, we produce various conservative sets, which turn out to be mutually in agreement within the respective PDF uncertainties, as well as with the global fit. We explore some of their implications for LHC phenomenology, finding also good consistency with the global fit result. These results provide a non-trivial validation test of the new NNPDF3.0 fitting methodology, and indicate that possible inconsistencies in the fitted dataset do not affect substantially the global fit PDFs.

  2. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Anesthetic constituents of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.: A pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Rong; Cui, Mei-Yu; Zhang, Qi-Li; Zhang, Mei-Yan; Yu, Yu-Ming; Zhou, Xian-Ying; Yu, Zhi-Guo; Zhao, Yun-Li

    2016-07-01

    A sensitive and selective ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of hydroxy-α-sanshool, hydroxy-β-sanshool, and hydroxy-γ-sanshool in rat plasma after the subcutaneous and intravenous administration of an extract of the pericarp of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. Piperine was used as the internal standard. The analytes were extracted from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and separated on a Thermo Hypersil GOLD C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.9 μm) with a gradient elution system at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/0.05% formic acid in water and the total analysis time was 4 min. Positive electrospray ionization was performed using multiple reaction monitoring mode for the analytes. The calibration curves of the three analytes were linear over the tested concentration range. The intra- and interday precision was no more than 13.6%. Extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability were satisfactory in rat plasma. The developed and validated method was suitable for the quantification of hydroxy-α-sanshool, hydroxy-β-sanshool, and hydroxy-γ-sanshool and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of these analytes after subcutaneous and intravenous administration to rats. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Gravitational collapse of charged dust shell and maximal slicing condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    1980-01-01

    The maximal slicing condition is a good time coordinate condition qualitatively when pursuing the gravitational collapse by the numerical calculation. The analytic solution of the gravitational collapse under the maximal slicing condition is given in the case of a spherical charged dust shell and the behavior of time slices with this coordinate condition is investigated. It is concluded that under the maximal slicing condition we can pursue the gravitational collapse until the radius of the shell decreases to about 0.7 x (the radius of the event horizon). (author)

  5. Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \

  6. Breakdown of maximality conjecture in continuous phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukamel, D.; Jaric, M.V.

    1983-04-01

    A Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model associated with a single irreducible representation which exhibits an ordered phase whose symmetry group is not a maximal isotropy subgroup of the symmetry group of the disordered phase is constructed. This example disproves the maximality conjecture suggested in numerous previous studies. Below the (continuous) transition, the order parameter points along a direction which varies with the temperature and with the other parameters which define the model. An extension of the maximality conjecture to reducible representations was postulated in the context of Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. Our model can also be extended to provide a counter example in these cases. (author)

  7. Analysis of calculating methods for failure distribution function based on maximal entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Chunying; Lin Yuangen; Jiang Meng; Wu Changli

    2009-01-01

    The computation of invalidation distribution functions of electronic devices when exposed in gamma rays is discussed here. First, the possible devices failure distribution models are determined through the tests of statistical hypotheses using the test data. The results show that: the devices' failure distribution can obey multi-distributions when the test data is few. In order to decide the optimum failure distribution model, the maximal entropy principle is used and the elementary failure models are determined. Then, the Bootstrap estimation method is used to simulate the intervals estimation of the mean and the standard deviation. On the basis of this, the maximal entropy principle is used again and the simulated annealing method is applied to find the optimum values of the mean and the standard deviation. Accordingly, the electronic devices' optimum failure distributions are finally determined and the survival probabilities are calculated. (authors)

  8. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reference Values for Maximal Inspiratory Pressure: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MB Sclauser Pessoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP is the most commonly used measure to evaluate inspiratory muscle strength. Normative values for MIP vary significantly among studies, which may reflect differences in participant demographics and technique of MIP measurement.

  10. Classification of conformal representations induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrev, V. K., E-mail: dobrev@inrne.bas.bg [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators on the example of representations of the conformal algebra induced from the maximal cuspidal parabolic.

  11. Maximizing Your Investment in Building Automation System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, Charles

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how organizational issues and system standardization can be important factors that determine an institution's ability to fully exploit contemporary building automation systems (BAS). Further presented is management strategy for maximizing BAS investments. (GR)

  12. Eccentric exercise decreases maximal insulin action in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, Svend; Daugaard, J R; Kristiansen, S

    1996-01-01

    subjects participated in two euglycaemic clamps, performed in random order. One clamp was preceded 2 days earlier by one-legged eccentric exercise (post-eccentric exercise clamp (PEC)) and one was without the prior exercise (control clamp (CC)). 2. During PEC the maximal insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...... for all three clamp steps used (P maximal activity of glycogen synthase was identical in the two thighs for all clamp steps. 3. The glucose infusion rate (GIR......) necessary to maintain euglycaemia during maximal insulin stimulation was lower during PEC compared with CC (15.7%, 81.3 +/- 3.2 vs. 96.4 +/- 8.8 mumol kg-1 min-1, P maximal...

  13. Maximal slicing of D-dimensional spherically symmetric vacuum spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Ken-ichi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yoshino, Hirotaka; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We study the foliation of a D-dimensional spherically symmetric black-hole spacetime with D≥5 by two kinds of one-parameter families of maximal hypersurfaces: a reflection-symmetric foliation with respect to the wormhole slot and a stationary foliation that has an infinitely long trumpetlike shape. As in the four-dimensional case, the foliations by the maximal hypersurfaces avoid the singularity irrespective of the dimensionality. This indicates that the maximal slicing condition will be useful for simulating higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes in numerical relativity. For the case of D=5, we present analytic solutions of the intrinsic metric, the extrinsic curvature, the lapse function, and the shift vector for the foliation by the stationary maximal hypersurfaces. These data will be useful for checking five-dimensional numerical-relativity codes based on the moving puncture approach.

  14. ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs and Urban Micro Enterprises : Maximizing Opportunities for Economic Development ... the use of ICTs in micro enterprises and their role in reducing poverty. ... in its approach to technological connectivity but bottom-up in relation to.

  15. Real-time topic-aware influence maximization using preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lin, Tian; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Influence maximization is the task of finding a set of seed nodes in a social network such that the influence spread of these seed nodes based on certain influence diffusion model is maximized. Topic-aware influence diffusion models have been recently proposed to address the issue that influence between a pair of users are often topic-dependent and information, ideas, innovations etc. being propagated in networks are typically mixtures of topics. In this paper, we focus on the topic-aware influence maximization task. In particular, we study preprocessing methods to avoid redoing influence maximization for each mixture from scratch. We explore two preprocessing algorithms with theoretical justifications. Our empirical results on data obtained in a couple of existing studies demonstrate that one of our algorithms stands out as a strong candidate providing microsecond online response time and competitive influence spread, with reasonable preprocessing effort.

  16. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  17. Nonadditive entropy maximization is inconsistent with Bayesian updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressé, Steve

    2014-11-01

    The maximum entropy method—used to infer probabilistic models from data—is a special case of Bayes's model inference prescription which, in turn, is grounded in basic propositional logic. By contrast to the maximum entropy method, the compatibility of nonadditive entropy maximization with Bayes's model inference prescription has never been established. Here we demonstrate that nonadditive entropy maximization is incompatible with Bayesian updating and discuss the immediate implications of this finding. We focus our attention on special cases as illustrations.

  18. Sex differences in autonomic function following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability, (BPV) and heart rate recovery (HRR) are measures that provide insight regarding autonomic function. Maximal exercise can affect autonomic function, and it is unknown if there are sex differences in autonomic recovery following exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine sex differences in several measures of autonomic function and the response following maximal exercise. Seventy-one (31 males and 40 females) healthy, nonsmoking, sedentary normotensive subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 underwent measurements of HRV and BPV at rest and following a maximal exercise bout. HRR was measured at minute one and two following maximal exercise. Males have significantly greater HRR following maximal exercise at both minute one and two; however, the significance between sexes was eliminated when controlling for VO2 peak. Males had significantly higher resting BPV-low-frequency (LF) values compared to females and did not significantly change following exercise, whereas females had significantly increased BPV-LF values following acute maximal exercise. Although males and females exhibited a significant decrease in both HRV-LF and HRV-high frequency (HF) with exercise, females had significantly higher HRV-HF values following exercise. Males had a significantly higher HRV-LF/HF ratio at rest; however, both males and females significantly increased their HRV-LF/HF ratio following exercise. Pre-menopausal females exhibit a cardioprotective autonomic profile compared to age-matched males due to lower resting sympathetic activity and faster vagal reactivation following maximal exercise. Acute maximal exercise is a sufficient autonomic stressor to demonstrate sex differences in the critical post-exercise recovery period.

  19. Power Converters Maximize Outputs Of Solar Cell Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Martin E.; Jermakian, Joel B.

    1993-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled dc-to-dc power converters devised to maximize power transferred from solar photovoltaic strings to storage batteries and other electrical loads. Converters help in utilizing large solar photovoltaic arrays most effectively with respect to cost, size, and weight. Main points of invention are: single controller used to control and optimize any number of "dumb" tracker units and strings independently; power maximized out of converters; and controller in system is microprocessor.

  20. Maximally flat radiation patterns of a circular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1989-08-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problems of maximizing the area utilization coefficient and of obtaining the best approximation (on the average) of a sectorial Pi-shaped radiation pattern of an antenna with a circular aperture when Butterworth conditions are imposed on the approximating pattern with the aim of flattening it. Constraints on the choice of admissible minimum and maximum antenna dimensions are determined which make possible the synthesis of maximally flat patterns with small sidelobes.

  1. Design of optimal linear antennas with maximally flat radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problem of maximizing the aperture area utilization coefficient and obtaining the best approximation in the mean of the sectorial U-shaped radiation pattern of a linear antenna, when Butterworth flattening constraints are imposed on the approximating pattern. Constraints are established on the choice of the smallest and large antenna dimensions that make it possible to obtain maximally flat patterns, having a low sidelobe level and free from pulsations within the main lobe.

  2. No Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein Effect in Maximal Mixing

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, P. F.; Perkins, D. H.; Scott, W. G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the possible influence of the MSW effect on the expectations for the solar neutrino experiments in the maximal mixing scenario suggested by the atmospheric neutrino data. A direct numerical calculation of matter induced effects in the Sun shows that the naive vacuum predictions are left completely undisturbed in the particular case of maximal mixing, so that the MSW effect turns out to be unobservable. We give a qualitative explanation of this result.

  3. A fractional optimal control problem for maximizing advertising efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Bykadorov; Andrea Ellero; Stefania Funari; Elena Moretti

    2007-01-01

    We propose an optimal control problem to model the dynamics of the communication activity of a firm with the aim of maximizing its efficiency. We assume that the advertising effort undertaken by the firm contributes to increase the firm's goodwill and that the goodwill affects the firm's sales. The aim is to find the advertising policies in order to maximize the firm's efficiency index which is computed as the ratio between "outputs" and "inputs" properly weighted; the outputs are represented...

  4. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  5. On Maximally Dissipative Shock Waves in Nonlinear Elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, James K.

    2010-01-01

    Shock waves in nonlinearly elastic solids are, in general, dissipative. We study the following question: among all plane shock waves that can propagate with a given speed in a given one-dimensional nonlinearly elastic bar, which one—if any—maximizes the rate of dissipation? We find that the answer to this question depends strongly on the qualitative nature of the stress-strain relation characteristic of the given material. When maximally dissipative shocks do occur, they propagate according t...

  6. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  7. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  8. Softly Broken Lepton Numbers: an Approach to Maximal Neutrino Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss models where the U(1) symmetries of lepton numbers are responsible for maximal neutrino mixing. We pay particular attention to an extension of the Standard Model (SM) with three right-handed neutrino singlets in which we require that the three lepton numbers L e , L μ , and L τ be separately conserved in the Yukawa couplings, but assume that they are softly broken by the Majorana mass matrix M R of the neutrino singlets. In this framework, where lepton-number breaking occurs at a scale much higher than the electroweak scale, deviations from family lepton number conservation are calculable, i.e., finite, and lepton mixing stems exclusively from M R . We show that in this framework either maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing or maximal solar neutrino mixing or both can be imposed by invoking symmetries. In this way those maximal mixings are stable against radiative corrections. The model which achieves maximal (or nearly maximal) solar neutrino mixing assumes that there are two different scales in M R and that the lepton number (dash)L=L e -L μ -L τ 1 is conserved in between them. We work out the difference between this model and the conventional scenario where (approximate) (dash)L invariance is imposed directly on the mass matrix of the light neutrinos. (author)

  9. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  10. Improving the Accuracy of Predicting Maximal Oxygen Consumption (VO2pk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan E.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Feiveson, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Maximal oxygen (VO2pk) is the maximum amount of oxygen that the body can use during intense exercise and is used for benchmarking endurance exercise capacity. The most accurate method to determineVO2pk requires continuous measurements of ventilation and gas exchange during an exercise test to maximal effort, which necessitates expensive equipment, a trained staff, and time to set-up the equipment. For astronauts, accurate VO2pk measures are important to assess mission critical task performance capabilities and to prescribe exercise intensities to optimize performance. Currently, astronauts perform submaximal exercise tests during flight to predict VO2pk; however, while submaximal VO2pk prediction equations provide reliable estimates of mean VO2pk for populations, they can be unacceptably inaccurate for a given individual. The error in current predictions and logistical limitations of measuring VO2pk, particularly during spaceflight, highlights the need for improved estimation methods.

  11. Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees of prokaryotes using maximal common intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mahdi; Marashi, Sayed-Amir; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems in bioinformatics is phylogenetic tree reconstruction, which can be used for classifying living organisms into different taxonomic clades. The classical approach to this problem is based on a marker such as 16S ribosomal RNA. Since evolutionary events like genomic rearrangements are not included in reconstructions of phylogenetic trees based on single genes, much effort has been made to find other characteristics for phylogenetic reconstruction in recent years. With the increasing availability of completely sequenced genomes, gene order can be considered as a new solution for this problem. In the present work, we applied maximal common intervals (MCIs) in two or more genomes to infer their distance and to reconstruct their evolutionary relationship. Additionally, measures based on uncommon segments (UCS's), i.e., those genomic segments which are not detected as part of any of the MCIs, are also used for phylogenetic tree reconstruction. We applied these two types of measures for reconstructing the phylogenetic tree of 63 prokaryotes with known COG (clusters of orthologous groups) families. Similarity between the MCI-based (resp. UCS-based) reconstructed phylogenetic trees and the phylogenetic tree obtained from NCBI taxonomy browser is as high as 93.1% (resp. 94.9%). We show that in the case of this diverse dataset of prokaryotes, tree reconstruction based on MCI and UCS outperforms most of the currently available methods based on gene orders, including breakpoint distance and DCJ. We additionally tested our new measures on a dataset of 13 closely-related bacteria from the genus Prochlorococcus. In this case, distances like rearrangement distance, breakpoint distance and DCJ proved to be useful, while our new measures are still appropriate for phylogenetic reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Maximizing gain in high-throughput screening using conformal prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Fredrik; Afzal, Avid M; Norinder, Ulf; Bender, Andreas

    2018-02-21

    Iterative screening has emerged as a promising approach to increase the efficiency of screening campaigns compared to traditional high throughput approaches. By learning from a subset of the compound library, inferences on what compounds to screen next can be made by predictive models, resulting in more efficient screening. One way to evaluate screening is to consider the cost of screening compared to the gain associated with finding an active compound. In this work, we introduce a conformal predictor coupled with a gain-cost function with the aim to maximise gain in iterative screening. Using this setup we were able to show that by evaluating the predictions on the training data, very accurate predictions on what settings will produce the highest gain on the test data can be made. We evaluate the approach on 12 bioactivity datasets from PubChem training the models using 20% of the data. Depending on the settings of the gain-cost function, the settings generating the maximum gain were accurately identified in 8-10 out of the 12 datasets. Broadly, our approach can predict what strategy generates the highest gain based on the results of the cost-gain evaluation: to screen the compounds predicted to be active, to screen all the remaining data, or not to screen any additional compounds. When the algorithm indicates that the predicted active compounds should be screened, our approach also indicates what confidence level to apply in order to maximize gain. Hence, our approach facilitates decision-making and allocation of the resources where they deliver the most value by indicating in advance the likely outcome of a screening campaign.

  13. Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A

    2016-08-01

    We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.

  14. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  15. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  16. Quantization with maximally degenerate Poisson brackets: the harmonic oscillator!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutku, Yavuz

    2003-01-01

    Nambu's construction of multi-linear brackets for super-integrable systems can be thought of as degenerate Poisson brackets with a maximal set of Casimirs in their kernel. By introducing privileged coordinates in phase space these degenerate Poisson brackets are brought to the form of Heisenberg's equations. We propose a definition for constructing quantum operators for classical functions, which enables us to turn the maximally degenerate Poisson brackets into operators. They pose a set of eigenvalue problems for a new state vector. The requirement of the single-valuedness of this eigenfunction leads to quantization. The example of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate this general procedure for quantizing a class of maximally super-integrable systems

  17. Quantum speedup in solving the maximal-clique problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Weng-Long; Yu, Qi; Li, Zhaokai; Chen, Jiahui; Peng, Xinhua; Feng, Mang

    2018-03-01

    The maximal-clique problem, to find the maximally sized clique in a given graph, is classically an NP-complete computational problem, which has potential applications ranging from electrical engineering, computational chemistry, and bioinformatics to social networks. Here we develop a quantum algorithm to solve the maximal-clique problem for any graph G with n vertices with quadratic speedup over its classical counterparts, where the time and spatial complexities are reduced to, respectively, O (√{2n}) and O (n2) . With respect to oracle-related quantum algorithms for the NP-complete problems, we identify our algorithm as optimal. To justify the feasibility of the proposed quantum algorithm, we successfully solve a typical clique problem for a graph G with two vertices and one edge by carrying out a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment involving four qubits.

  18. Cycle length maximization in PWRs using empirical core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okafor, K.C.; Aldemir, T.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of maximizing cycle length in nuclear reactors through optimal fuel and poison management has been addressed by many investigators. An often-used neutronic modeling technique is to find correlations between the state and control variables to describe the response of the core to changes in the control variables. In this study, a set of linear correlations, generated by two-dimensional diffusion-depletion calculations, is used to find the enrichment distribution that maximizes cycle length for the initial core of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). These correlations (a) incorporate the effect of composition changes in all the control zones on a given fuel assembly and (b) are valid for a given range of control variables. The advantage of using such correlations is that the cycle length maximization problem can be reduced to a linear programming problem

  19. Maximization of regional probabilities using Optimal Surface Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arias Lorza, Andres M.; Van Engelen, Arna; Petersen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We present a segmentation method that maximizes regional probabilities enclosed by coupled surfaces using an Optimal Surface Graph (OSG) cut approach. This OSG cut determines the globally optimal solution given a graph constructed around an initial surface. While most methods for vessel...... wall segmentation only use edge information, we show that maximizing regional probabilities using an OSG improves the segmentation results. We applied this to automatically segment the vessel wall of the carotid artery in magnetic resonance images. Methods: First, voxel-wise regional probability maps...... were obtained using a Support Vector Machine classifier trained on local image features. Then, the OSG segments the regions which maximizes the regional probabilities considering smoothness and topological constraints. Results: The method was evaluated on 49 carotid arteries from 30 subjects...

  20. El culto de Maximón en Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Pédron‑Colombani, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    Este artículo se enfoca en la figura de Maximón, deidad sincrética de Guatemala, en un contexto de desplazamiento de la religión católica popular por parte de las iglesias protestantes. Esta divinidad híbrida a la cual se agregan santos católicos como Judas Iscariote o el dios maya Mam, permite la apropiación de Maximón por segmentos diferenciados de la población (tanto indígena como mestiza). Permite igualmente ser símbolo de protestas sociales enmascaradas cuando se asocia Maximón con figur...

  1. Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.

  2. Effect of Ramadan observance on maximal muscular performance of trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Hatem; Shephard, Roy J; Gmada, Nebil; Aouichaoui, Chirine; Peres, Gilbert; Tabka, Zouhair; Bouhlel, Ezdine

    2013-05-01

    To assess the influence of Ramadan fasting on maximal performance of moderately trained young men using various tests of muscle performance. Comparison of Ramadan fasting (n = 10) versus control group (n = 10) over 3 test sessions, before Ramadan (B), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (R-1), and during the fourth week of Ramadan (R-4). At each 2-day test session, 4 tests were performed in the same order: measurement of vertical jump height (VJH) and a force-velocity test using the arms on day 1, and measurement of handgrip force (HGF), and a force-velocity test using the legs on day 2. Twenty trained men. Maximal power of the arms and of the legs (force-velocity testing), vertical jump performance, HGF, anthropometric data, dietary intake, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Two-way analyses of variance (group × time) showed Ramadan fasters with decreased maximal anaerobic power of the arms (Wmax-A) and legs (Wmax-L) at R-1, with a partial return of arm data to initial values at R-4. Vertical jump height and HGF remained unchanged throughout. Other changes in Ramadan observers were a decreased energy intake and a decrease of plasma volume at R-1. These results suggest that Ramadan observance initially had detrimental effects on Wmax-A, and Wmax-L, with a tendency to recovery by week 4 of Ramadan. Reductions of total energy intake and intramuscular glycogen may contribute to the reduced Wmax-A and Wmax-L during Ramadan fasting.

  3. CNS activity of leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dattatraya Ghule

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study central nervous system activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Calotropis gigantea (C. gigantea (Asclepiadaceae, such as anticonvulsant, sedative and muscle relaxation activity. Methods: The ethanolic extract of C. gigantea administered orally in experimental animals at different doses 100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight. The anticonvulsant properties were studied on maximal electroshock test and strychnine-induced convulsions model. Sedative property studied using actophotometer and skeletal muscle relaxant property studied using rota rod. Results: This extract protected rats against maximal electroshock induced seizures, but had no or a moderate effect only against strychnine-induced seizures. Locomotor activity in mice found to be decreased and motor coordination was also decreased. The acute toxicity study revealed safely of the extract up to a dose of 2 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: With these effects, the leaves of C. gigantea possess anticonvulsant sedative and muscle relaxant effect that might explain its use as a traditional medicine.

  4. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence D Hurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5 project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds, as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased

  5. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    KAUST Repository

    Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-12-18

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  6. A maximal incremental effort alters tear osmolarity depending on the fitness level in military helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Jiménez, Raimundo; Madinabeitia, Iker; Masiulis, Nerijus; Cárdenas, David

    2017-10-01

    Fitness level modulates the physiological responses to exercise for a variety of indices. While intense bouts of exercise have been demonstrated to increase tear osmolarity (Tosm), it is not known if fitness level can affect the Tosm response to acute exercise. This study aims to compare the effect of a maximal incremental test on Tosm between trained and untrained military helicopter pilots. Nineteen military helicopter pilots (ten trained and nine untrained) performed a maximal incremental test on a treadmill. A tear sample was collected before and after physical effort to determine the exercise-induced changes on Tosm. The Bayesian statistical analysis demonstrated that Tosm significantly increased from 303.72 ± 6.76 to 310.56 ± 8.80 mmol/L after performance of a maximal incremental test. However, while the untrained group showed an acute Tosm rise (12.33 mmol/L of increment), the trained group experienced a stable Tosm physical effort (1.45 mmol/L). There was a significant positive linear association between fat indices and Tosm changes (correlation coefficients [r] range: 0.77-0.89), whereas the Tosm changes displayed a negative relationship with the cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2 max; r = -0.75) and performance parameters (r = -0.75 for velocity, and r = -0.67 for time to exhaustion). The findings from this study provide evidence that fitness level is a major determinant of Tosm response to maximal incremental physical effort, showing a fairly linear association with several indices related to fitness level. High fitness level seems to be beneficial to avoid Tosm changes as consequence of intense exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Jia, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  8. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2013-10-17

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  9. On Maximal Non-Disjoint Families of Subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zuev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies maximal non-disjoint families of subsets of a finite set. Non-disjointness means that any two subsets of a family have a nonempty intersection. The maximality is expressed by the fact that adding a new subset to the family cannot increase its power without violating a non-disjointness condition. Studying the properties of such families is an important section of the extreme theory of sets. Along with purely combinatorial interest, the problems considered here play an important role in informatics, anti-noise coding, and cryptography.In 1961 this problem saw the light of day in the Erdos, Ko and Rado paper, which established a maximum power of the non-disjoint family of subsets of equal power. In 1974 the Erdos and Claytman publication estimated the number of maximal non-disjoint families of subsets without involving the equality of their power. These authors failed to establish an asymptotics of the logarithm of the number of such families when the power of a basic finite set tends to infinity. However, they suggested such an asymptotics as a hypothesis. A.D. Korshunov in two publications in 2003 and 2005 established the asymptotics for the number of non-disjoint families of the subsets of arbitrary powers without maximality condition of these families.The basis for the approach used in the paper to study the families of subsets is their description in the language of Boolean functions. A one-to-one correspondence between a family of subsets and a Boolean function is established by the fact that the characteristic vectors of subsets of a family are considered to be the unit sets of a Boolean function. The main theoretical result of the paper is that the maximal non-disjoint families are in one-to-one correspondence with the monotonic self-dual Boolean functions. When estimating the number of maximal non-disjoint families, this allowed us to use the result of A.A. Sapozhenko, who established the asymptotics of the number of the

  10. Gap processing for adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii. First, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets. This analysis is the basis for maximal and adaptive sampling in Euclidean space and on manifolds. Second, we propose efficient algorithms and data structures to detect gaps and update gaps when disks are inserted, deleted, moved, or when their radii are changed.We build on the concepts of regular triangulations and the power diagram. Third, we show how our analysis contributes to the state-of-the-art in surface remeshing. © 2013 ACM.

  11. Efficient maximal Poisson-disk sampling and remeshing on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Poisson-disk sampling is one of the fundamental research problems in computer graphics that has many applications. In this paper, we study the problem of maximal Poisson-disk sampling on mesh surfaces. We present a simple approach that generalizes the 2D maximal sampling framework to surfaces. The key observation is to use a subdivided mesh as the sampling domain for conflict checking and void detection. Our approach improves the state-of-the-art approach in efficiency, quality and the memory consumption.

  12. Identities on maximal subgroups of GLn(D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, D.; Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    2002-04-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GL n (D), n≥1 such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M] is a PI-algebra, then [D:F] n (D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite. (author)

  13. Instantons and Gribov copies in the maximally Abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckmann, F.; Heinzl, T.; Wipf, A.; Tok, T.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate the Faddeev-Popov operator corresponding to the maximally Abelian gauge for gauge group SU(N). Specializing to SU(2) we look for explicit zero modes of this operator. Within an illuminating toy model (Yang-Mills mechanics) the problem can be completely solved and understood. In the field theory case we are able to find an analytic expression for a normalizable zero mode in the background of a single 't Hooft instanton. Accordingly, such an instanton corresponds to a horizon configuration in the maximally Abelian gauge. Possible physical implications are discussed

  14. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Rådegran, G

    2003-01-01

    To unravel the mechanisms by which maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is reduced with severe acute hypoxia in humans, nine Danish lowlanders performed incremental cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion, while breathing room air (normoxia) or 10.5% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, approximately 5,300 m above sea......: 1) reduction of PiO2, 2) impairment of pulmonary gas exchange, and 3) reduction of maximal cardiac output and peak leg blood flow, each explaining about one-third of the loss in VO2 max....

  15. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita

    2012-05-01

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  16. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which is the key ingredient of the adaptive maximal Poisson-disk sampling framework. Moreover, we adapt the presented sampling framework for remeshing applications. Several novel and efficient operators are developed for improving the sampling/meshing quality over the state-of-theart. © 2012 ACM.

  17. Maximization of Tsallis entropy in the combinatorial formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Hiroki

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the mathematical reformulation for maximization of Tsallis entropy S q in the combinatorial sense. More concretely, we generalize the original derivation of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law to Tsallis statistics by means of the corresponding generalized multinomial coefficient. Our results reveal that maximization of S 2-q under the usual expectation or S q under q-average using the escort expectation are naturally derived from the combinatorial formulations for Tsallis statistics with respective combinatorial dualities, that is, one for additive duality and the other for multiplicative duality.

  18. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2012-05-15

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  19. The Large Margin Mechanism for Differentially Private Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Hsu, Daniel; Song, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    A basic problem in the design of privacy-preserving algorithms is the private maximization problem: the goal is to pick an item from a universe that (approximately) maximizes a data-dependent function, all under the constraint of differential privacy. This problem has been used as a sub-routine in many privacy-preserving algorithms for statistics and machine-learning. Previous algorithms for this problem are either range-dependent---i.e., their utility diminishes with the size of the universe...

  20. Intracyclic Velocity Variation of the Center of Mass and Hip in Breaststroke Swimming With Maximal Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Koulexidis, Stylianos; Gketzenis, Panagiotis; Tzouras, Grigoris

    2018-03-01

    Gourgoulis, V, Koulexidis, S, Gketzenis, P, and Tzouras, G. Intra-cyclic velocity variation of the center of mass and hip in breaststroke swimming with maximal intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 830-840, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the center of mass (CM) and hip (HIP) intracyclic velocity variation in breaststroke swimming using 3-dimensional kinematic analysis. Nine male breaststrokes, of moderate performance level, swam 25-m breaststroke with maximal intensity, and their movements were recorded, both under and above the water surface, using 8 digital cameras. Their CM and HIP velocities and their intracyclic variations were estimated after manual digitization of 28 selected points on the body in a complete arm and leg breaststroke cycle. Paired sample t-tests or Wilcoxon tests, when the assumption of normality was broken, were used for statistical analyses. In both, CM and HIP velocity-time curves, the results revealed a similar pattern of 2 clear peaks associated with the leg and arm propulsive phases and 2 minimal velocities that corresponded to the arm and leg recovery phase and the lag time between the leg and arm propulsive phases, respectively. However, despite this similar general pattern, the HIP minimum resultant velocity was significantly lower, whereas its maximal value was significantly greater, than the corresponding CM values. Consequently, the HIP intracyclic swimming velocity fluctuation significantly overestimates the actual variation of the swimmer's velocity in breaststroke swimming.

  1. The Impact of Firefighter Personal Protective Equipment and Treadmill Protocol on Maximal Oxygen Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Bakri, Ilham; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Son, Su-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE) on the determination of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) while using two different treadmill protocols: a progressive incline protocol (PIP) and a progressive speed protocol (PSP), with three clothing conditions (Light-light clothing; Boots-PPE with rubber boots; Shoes-PPE with running shoes). Bruce protocol with Light was performed for a reference test. Results showed there was no difference in VO2max between Bruce Light, PIP Light, and PSP Light. However, VO2max was reduced in Boots and Shoes with shortened maximal performance time (7 and 6 min reduced for PIP Boots and Shoes, respectively; 11 and 9 min reduced for PSP Boots and Shoes, respectively), whereas the increasing rate of VO2 in Boots and Shoes during submaximal exercise was greater compared with Light. Wearing firefighter boots compared with wearing running shoes also significantly affected submaximal VO2 but not VO2max. These results suggest that firefighters’ maximal performance determined from a typical VO2max test without wearing PPE may overestimate the actual performance capability of firefighters wearing PPE. PMID:23668854

  2. Pushbutton psychiatry: a history of electroshock in America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kneeland, Timothy W; Warren, Carol A. B

    2002-01-01

    ...), or Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), developed during the 1930s in Europe, is an established procedure in contemporary American psychiatry. But it is also extremely controversial, as demonstrated by the diverse (and telling) titles of the many books and articles about ECT since the 1930s- such as The Miracle of Shock (Peck, 1974), Shock Tre...

  3. CFTR Genotype and Maximal Exercise Capacity in Cystic Fibrosis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Gallati, Sabina; Schneiderman, Jane E; Braun, Julia; Stevens, Daniel; Hulzebos, Erik Hj; Takken, Tim; Boas, Steven R; Urquhart, Don S; Lands, Larry C; Tejero, Sergio; Sovtic, Aleksandar; Dwyer, Tiffany; Petrovic, Milos; Harris, Ryan A; Karila, Chantal; Savi, Daniela; Usemann, Jakob; Mei-Zahav, Meir; Hatziagorou, Elpis; Ratjen, Felix; Kriemler, Susi

    2018-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells. Variations of CFTR dysfunction among patients with cystic fibrosis may be an important determinant of maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis. Previous studies on the relationship between CFTR genotype and maximal exercise capacity are scarce and contradictory. This study was designed to explore factors influencing maximal exercise capacity, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (V.O2peak), with a specific focus on CFTR genotype in children and adults with cystic fibrosis. In an international, multicenter, cross-sectional study, we collected data on CFTR genotype and cardiopulmonary exercise tests in patients with cystic fibrosis who were ages 8 years and older. CFTR mutations were classified into functional classes I–V. The final analysis included 726 patients (45% females; age range, 8–61 yr; forced expiratory volume in 1 s, 16 to 123% predicted) from 17 cystic fibrosis centers in North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia, all of whom had both valid maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests and complete CFTR genotype data. Overall, patients exhibited exercise intolerance (V.O2peak, 77.3 ± 19.1% predicted), but values were comparable among different CFTR classes. We did not detect an association between CFTR genotype functional classes I–III and either V.O2peak (percent predicted) (adjusted β = −0.95; 95% CI, −4.18 to 2.29; P = 0.57) or maximum work rate (Wattmax) (adjusted β = −1.38; 95% CI, −5.04 to 2.27; P = 0.46) compared with classes IV–V. Those with at least one copy of a F508del-CFTR mutation and one copy of a class V mutation had a significantly lower V.O2peak (β = −8.24%; 95% CI, −14.53 to −2.99; P = 0.003) and lower Wattmax (adjusted β = −7.59%; 95% CI, −14.21 to −0.95; P = 0.025) than those with two copies of a class II mutation. On the basis of linear regression analysis adjusted for

  4. MAXIMIZING HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION FROM RESERVOIRS:THE CASE STUDY OF MARKABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is a form of renewable energy that is clean and cheap. Under uncertain climatic conditions, maximization of hydropower production becomes a challenging task.Stochastic Dynamic programming (SDP) is a promising optimization algorithm that is usedfor complex non-linear reservoir operational policies and strategies.In this research, a combined simulation-SDPoptimization model isdeveloped andverified for maximizing large-scale hydropower production in a monthly time step. The model isdeveloped to generate optimal operational policies for the Qarawn reservoir in Lebanon and test these policies in real time conditions. The model isused to derive operational regimes for the Qarawn reservoirunder varying flows using transitional probability matrices. Simulating the derived rules and the generated operational policies proved effective in maximizingthe hydropower production from the Markaba power plant. The model could be successfully applied to other hydropower dams in the region. (author)

  5. Lithium-thionyl chloride battery design concepts for maximized power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.

    The need for primary batteries configured to deliver maximized power has been asserted by many different procuring activities. Battery Engineering Inc. has developed some specific design concepts and mastered some specialized techniques utilized in the production of this type of power source. The batteries have been successfully bench tested during the course of virtually all of these programs, with ultimate success coming in the form of two successful test launches under the USAF Plasma Effects Decoy Program. This paper briefly discusses some of these design concepts and the rationale behind them.

  6. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. E-mail: huahuiyan@163.com; duzr@hnu.edu.cn. MS received 3 September 2012; revised 20 December 2012. Abstract. A saddle solution is called maximal saddle solution if its absolute value is not smaller than those absolute values ...

  7. Quantitative approaches for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    An effective direct marketing campaign aims at selecting those targets, offer and communication elements - at the right time - that maximize the net profits. The list of individuals to be mailed, i.e. the targets, is considered to be the most important component. Therefore, a large amount of direct

  8. An optimal thermal condition for maximal chlorophyll extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jia-Jia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes an environmentally friendly process for chlorophyll extraction from bamboo leaves. Shaking water bath and ultrasound cleaner are adopted in this technology, and the influence of temperature of the water bath and ultrasonic cleaner is evaluated. Results indicated that there is an optimal condition for maximal yield of chlorophyll.

  9. Maximal multiplier operators in Lp(·)(Rn) spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gogatishvili, Amiran; Kopaliani, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2016), s. 86-97 ISSN 0007-4497 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14743S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : spherical maximal function * variable Lebesque spaces * boundedness result Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007449715000329

  10. Half-maximal supersymmetry from exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, Emanuel [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    We study D ≥ 4-dimensional half-maximal flux backgrounds using exceptional field theory. We define the relevant generalised structures and also find the integrability conditions which give warped half-maximal Minkowski{sub D} and AdS{sub D} vacua. We then show how to obtain consistent truncations of type II / 11-dimensional SUGRA which break half the supersymmetry. Such truncations can be defined on backgrounds admitting exceptional generalised SO(d - 1 - N) structures, where d = 11 - D, and N is the number of vector multiplets obtained in the lower-dimensional theory. Our procedure yields the most general embedding tensors satisfying the linear constraint of half-maximal gauged SUGRA. We use this to prove that all D ≥ 4 half-maximal warped AdS{sub D} and Minkowski{sub D} vacua of type II / 11-dimensional SUGRA admit a consistent truncation keeping only the gravitational supermultiplet. We also show to obtain heterotic double field theory from exceptional field theory and comment on the M-theory / heterotic duality. In five dimensions, we find a new SO(5, N) double field theory with a (6 + N)-dimensional extended space. Its section condition has one solution corresponding to 10-dimensional N = 1 supergravity and another yielding six-dimensional N = (2, 0) SUGRA. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-10-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  12. Local Hamiltonians for maximally multipartite-entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.; Pepe, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMESs) as nondegenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMESs as eigenstates.

  13. Submaximal exercise capacity and maximal power output in polio subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.; Sargeant, A. J.; de Visser, M.; Lankhorst, G. J.; de Jong, B. A.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the submaximal exercise capacity of polio subjects with postpoliomyelitis syndrome (PPS) and without (non-PPS) with that of healthy control subjects, to investigate the relationship of this capacity with maximal short-term power and quadriceps strength, and to evaluate

  14. Maximal Regularity of the Discrete Harmonic Oscillator Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a representation of the solution for the best approximation of the harmonic oscillator equation formulated in a general Banach space setting, and a characterization of lp-maximal regularity—or well posedness—solely in terms of R-boundedness properties of the resolvent operator involved in the equation.

  15. Maximizing car insurance online sales by developing superior webshop

    OpenAIRE

    Pylväs, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis work was to investigate what kind of webshop and what kind of improvements would increase customer satisfaction and maximize car insurance online sales by volume and by value. Main measure for this is the conversion rate, percentage of the potential buyers entering the site who actually make a purchase.

  16. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  17. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. A tri-atom W state can be generated by adjusting the interaction times between ...

  18. Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M. T. E.; Zwarts, M. J.; Leer, J. W. H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-efficacy

  19. The Boundary Crossing Theorem and the Maximal Stability Interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge-Antonio López-Renteria

    2011-01-01

    useful tools in the study of the stability of family of polynomials. Although both of these theorem seem intuitively obvious, they can be used for proving important results. In this paper, we give generalizations of these two theorems and we apply such generalizations for finding the maximal stability interval.

  20. An application of the maximal independent set algorithm to course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we demonstrated one of the many applications of the Maximal Independent Set Algorithm in the area of course allocation. A program was developed in Pascal and used in implementing a modified version of the algorithm to assign teaching courses to available lecturers in any academic environment and it ...

  1. Modifying Softball for Maximizing Learning Outcomes in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Ali; Ward, Phillip; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Sutherland, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Softball is taught in many physical education programs throughout the United States. This article describes modifications that maximize learning outcomes and that address the National Standards and safety recommendations. The modifications focus on tasks and equipment, developmentally appropriate motor-skill acquisition, increasing number of…

  2. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  3. Extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum maxim seed oil reduces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-hyperlipidaemic effect of extract of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. seed oil (EZSO) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. Methods: Following feeding with HFD for 30 days, hyperlipidemic hamsters were intragastrically treated with EZSO for 60 days. Serum levels of ...

  4. Dynamical generation of maximally entangled states in two identical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2011-01-01

    The generation of entanglement between two identical coupled cavities, each containing a single three-level atom, is studied when the cavities exchange two coherent photons and are in the N=2,4 manifolds, where N represents the maximum number of photons possible in either cavity. The atom-photon state of each cavity is described by a qutrit for N=2 and a five-dimensional qudit for N=4. However, the conservation of the total value of N for the interacting two-cavity system limits the total number of states to only 4 states for N=2 and 8 states for N=4, rather than the usual 9 for two qutrits and 25 for two five-dimensional qudits. In the N=2 manifold, two-qutrit states dynamically generate four maximally entangled Bell states from initially unentangled states. In the N=4 manifold, two-qudit states dynamically generate maximally entangled states involving three or four states. The generation of these maximally entangled states occurs rather rapidly for large hopping strengths. The cavities function as a storage of periodically generated maximally entangled states.

  5. MAXIMIZING OPTO-ELASTIC INTERACTION USING TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    . Secondly, there is the photo-elastic effect which changes the refractive index through Pockel's coefficients as the material is strained. For the case of transverse electric modes, we study how the two effects change the material distribution which maximizes the change in the optical transmission...

  6. Influence of Lumber Volume Maximization in Sawing Hardwood Sawlogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip H. Steele; Francis G. Wagner; Lalit Kumar; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    The Best Opening Face (BOF) technology for volume maximization during sawing has been rapidly adopted by softwood sawmills. Application of this technology in hardwood sawmills has been limited because of their emphasis on sawing for the highest possible grade of lumber. The reason for this emphasis is that there is a relatively large difference in price between the...

  7. Should I Stay or Should I Go? Maximizers versus Satisficers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy; King, Stephanie L.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, university students were presented a scenario in which a married couple was struggling in their marriage. These students were asked how likely it is that they would stay in a difficult marriage like the one described in the scenario. Each student also completed Schwartz's (2004) Maximization Scale. High scorers on this scale…

  8. Transformation of bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present two schemes for transforming bipartite non-maximally entangled states into a W state in cavity QED system, by using highly detuned interactions and the resonant interactions between ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  9. Adaptive maximal poisson-disk sampling on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Dongming; Wonka, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the generation of maximal Poisson-disk sets with varying radii on surfaces. Based on the concepts of power diagram and regular triangulation, we present a geometric analysis of gaps in such disk sets on surfaces, which

  10. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  11. Throughput maximization of parcel sorter systems by scheduling inbound containers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneyah, S.W.A.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.; Fikse, K.; Clausen, Uwe; ten Hompel, Michael; Meier, J. Fabian

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the inbound container scheduling problem for automated sorter systems in express parcel sorting. The purpose is to analyze which container scheduling approaches maximize the throughput of sorter systems. We build on existing literature, particularly on the dynamic load balancing

  12. Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prediction of maximal heart rate: comparison using a novel and conventional equation. LR Keytel, E Mukwevho, MA Will, M Lambert. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance Vol. 11(3) 2005: 269-277. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  13. Aspects of multiuser MIMO for cell throughput maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauch, Gerhard; Tejera, Pedro; Guthy, Christian

    2007-01-01

    We consider a multiuser MIMO downlink scenario where the resources in time, frequency and space are allocated such that the total cell throughput is maximized. This is achieved by exploiting multiuser diversity, i.e. the physical resources are allocated to the user with the highest SNR. We assume...

  14. PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES, INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS FOR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, RICHARD L.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS IN STIMULATING JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT THINKING, UNDERSTANDING, AND DECISION MAKING AS ASSOCIATED WITH PROFIT-MAXIMIZING PRINCIPLES OF FARM OPERATION FOR USE IN FARM MANAGEMENT. IT WAS DEVELOPED UNDER A U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION GRANT BY TEACHER-EDUCATORS, A FARM…

  15. How Managerial Ownership Affects Profit Maximization in Newspaper Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busterna, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Explores whether different levels of a manager's ownership of a newspaper affects the manager's profit maximizing attitudes and behavior. Finds that owner-managers tend to place less emphasis on profits than non-owner-controlled newspapers, contrary to economic theory and empirical evidence from other industries. (RS)

  16. A note on a profit maximizing location model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a locational model with a profit-maximizing objective. The model can be illustrated by the following situation. There is a set of potential customers in a given region. A firm enters the market and wants to sell a certain product to this set of customers. The

  17. The Profit-Maximizing Firm: Old Wine in New Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Explains and illustrates a simplified use of graphical analysis for analyzing the profit-maximizing firm. Believes that graphical analysis helps college students gain a deeper understanding of marginalism and an increased ability to formulate economic problems in marginalist terms. (DB)

  18. Discussion on: "Profit Maximization of a Power Plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma (fhv. Kristoffersen), Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Kragelund et al. provides an interesting contribution to operations scheduling in liberalized electricity markets. They address the problem of profit maximization for a power plant participating in the electricity market. In particular, given that the plant has already been dispatched in a day...

  19. A decision theoretic framework for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, L.; van der Scheer, H.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Montgomery, A.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing a firm involved in direct marketing is the selection of addresses from a mailing list. When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually,

  20. Maximizing profits associated with abandonment decisions and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Economic strategies which are designed to maximize profits associated with abandonment decisions and options focus on: extending field life; offsetting of economic risks onto a third party; reuse of facilities and infrastructure; expansion of associated secondary processing and distribution capabilities and usage; and the sale of abandonment units to a third party

  1. Mentoring as Professional Development for Novice Entrepreneurs: Maximizing the Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jean, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Mentoring can be seen as relevant if not essential in the continuing professional development of entrepreneurs. In the present study, we seek to understand how to maximize the learning that occurs through the mentoring process. To achieve this, we consider various elements that the literature suggested are associated with successful mentoring and…

  2. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  3. Off-shell representations of maximally-extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    A general theorem on the necessity of off-shell central charges in representations of maximally-extended supersymmetry (number of spinor charges - 4 x largest spin) is presented. A procedure for building larger and higher-N representations is also explored; a (noninteracting) N=8, maximum spin 2, off-shell representation is achieved. Difficulties in adding interactions for this representation are discussed

  4. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  5. Stewart's maxims: eight "do's" for successfully communicating silviculture to policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. E. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Technical specialists may experience difficulties in presenting information to non-technical policymakers and having that information used. Eight maxims are discussed that should help the silviculturist successfully provide technical information to non-technical audiences so that it will be considered in the formulation of policy.

  6. The Bianchi classification of maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Gran, Ulf; Linares, Román; Nielsen, Mikkel; Ortín, Tomás; Roest, Diederik

    2003-01-01

    We perform the generalized dimensional reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds as classified by Bianchi. Thus, we construct 11 different maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities, two of which have an additional parameter. One class of group manifolds (class B) leads to

  7. The Bianchi classification of maximal D=8 gauged supergravities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Gran, U; Linares, R; Nielsen, M; Ortin, T; Roest, D

    2003-01-01

    We perform the generalized dimensional reduction of D = 11 supergravity over three-dimensional group manifolds as classified by Bianchi. Thus, we construct 11 different maximal D = 8 gauged supergravities, two of which have an additional parameter. One class of group manifolds (class B) leads to

  8. Hard-type nonlocality proof for two maximally entangled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalamidas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present, for the first time, a Hardy-type proof of nonlocality for two maximally entangled particles in a four-dimensional total Hilbert space. Furthermore, the violation of local realistic predictions occurs for 25 % of trials, exceeding the 9 % maximum obtained by Hardy for nonmaximally entangled states. (author)

  9. Maximal Sharing in the Lambda Calculus with Letrec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabmayer, C.A.; Rochel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing sharing in programs is desirable to compactify the code, and to avoid duplication of reduction work at run-time, thereby speeding up execution. We show how a maximal degree of sharing can be obtained for programs expressed as terms in the lambda calculus with letrec. We introduce a notion

  10. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  11. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  12. Oxidative stress and nitrite dynamics under maximal load in elite athletes: relation to sport type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubrilo, Dejan; Djordjevic, Dusica; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Dragan; Blagojevic, Dusko; Spasic, Mihajlo; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2011-09-01

    Maximal workload in elite athletes induces increased generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) and oxidative stress, but the dynamics of RONS production are not fully explored. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of long-term engagement in sports with different energy requirements (aerobic, anaerobic, and aerobic/anaerobic) on oxidative stress parameters during progressive exercise test. Concentrations of lactates, nitric oxide (NO) measured through stabile end product-nitrites (NO(2) (-)), superoxide anion radical (O(2) (•-)), and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) as index of lipid peroxidation were determined in rest, after maximal workload, and at 4 and 10th min of recovery in blood plasma of top level competitors in rowing, cycling, and taekwondo. Results showed that sportmen had similar concentrations of lactates and O(2) (•-) in rest. Nitrite concentrations in rest were the lowest in taekwondo fighters, while rowers had the highest levels among examined groups. The order of magnitude for TBARS level in the rest was bicycling > taekwondo > rowing. During exercise at maximal intensity, the concentration of lactate significantly elevated to similar levels in all tested sportsmen and they were persistently elevated during recovery period of 4 and 10 min. There were no significant changes in O(2) (•-), nitrite, and TBARS levels neither at the maximum intensity of exercise nor during the recovery period comparing to the rest period in examined individuals. Our results showed that long term different training strategies establish different basal nitrites and lipid peroxidation levels in sportmen. However, progressive exercise does not influence basal nitrite and oxidative stress parameters level neither at maximal load nor during the first 10 min of recovery in sportmen studied.

  13. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandanell, Sune; Præst, Charlotte Boslev; Søndergård, Stine Dam; Skovborg, Camilla; Dela, Flemming; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2017-04-01

    Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) and the exercise intensity that elicits MFO (Fat Max ) are commonly determined by indirect calorimetry during graded exercise tests in both obese and normal-weight individuals. However, no protocol has been validated in individuals with obesity. Thus, the aims were to develop a graded exercise protocol for determination of Fat Max in individuals with obesity, and to test validity and inter-method reliability. Fat oxidation was assessed over a range of exercise intensities in 16 individuals (age: 28 (26-29) years; body mass index: 36 (35-38) kg·m -2 ; 95% confidence interval) on a cycle ergometer. The graded exercise protocol was validated against a short continuous exercise (SCE) protocol, in which Fat Max was determined from fat oxidation at rest and during 10 min of continuous exercise at 35%, 50%, and 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. Intraclass and Pearson correlation coefficients between the protocols were 0.75 and 0.72 and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) was 5 (3-7)%. A Bland-Altman plot revealed a bias of -3% points of maximal oxygen uptake (limits of agreement: -12 to 7). A tendency towards a systematic difference (p = 0.06) was observed, where Fat Max occurred at 42 (40-44)% and 45 (43-47)% of maximal oxygen uptake with the graded and the SCE protocol, respectively. In conclusion, there was a high-excellent correlation and a low CV between the 2 protocols, suggesting that the graded exercise protocol has a high inter-method reliability. However, considerable intra-individual variation and a trend towards systematic difference between the protocols reveal that further optimization of the graded exercise protocol is needed to improve validity.

  14. Maximal isometric strength of the cervical musculature in 100 healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Bülow, P M

    1999-01-01

    A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.......A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature....

  15. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  16. The effect of caffeine on maximal oxygen uptake and vertical jump performance in male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Hargreaves, Jill M; Clarke, Jenny C; Dale, Darren L; Blackwell, Gavin J

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated whether performance enhancement from caffeine described by other researchers transfers to male basketball players. The effects of caffeine ingestion were studied in a maximal-effort test on a treadmill that was followed by a vertical-jump test. Five elite-level male basketball players completed a graded treadmill test that measured maximal oxygen uptake, blood lactate profiles, respiratory exchange ratio, and rating of perceived exertion at each 3-minute stage. After a 15-minute warm-down, the subjects performed 10 vertical rebound jumps. Each subject completed the test twice--once with a 3 mg·kg(-1) of body weight dose of caffeine and once with a placebo, with the dosage administered 60 minutes before commencement of exercise. The test was thus administered according to a double-blind protocol. No substantial trends were found between caffeine and control trials, regardless of trial order. The study showed that the specified dosage had negligible effects on the players' power and endurance performance and had no efficacy as an ergogenic aid for male basketball players.

  17. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisong Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to

  18. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  19. Dual Competing Photovoltaic Supply Chains: A Social Welfare Maximization Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhisong; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan

    2017-11-20

    In the past decades, the inappropriate subsidy policies in many nations have caused problems such as serious oversupply, fierce competition and subpar social welfare in the photovoltaic (PV) industry in many nations. There is a clear shortage in the PV industry literature regarding how dual supply chains compete and the key decision issues regarding the competition between dual PV supply chains. It is critical to develop effective subsidy policies for the competing PV supply chains to achieve social welfare maximization. This study has explored the dual PV supply chain competition under the Bertrand competition assumption by three game-theoretical modeling scenarios (or supply chain strategies) considering either the public subsidy or no subsidy from a social welfare maximization perspective. A numerical analysis complemented by two sensitivity analyses provides a better understanding of the pricing and quantity decision dynamics in the dual supply chains under three different supply chain strategies and the corresponding outcomes regarding the total supply chain profits, the social welfare and the required total subsidies. The key findings disclose that if there are public subsidies, the dual PV supply chains have the strongest intention to pursue the decentralized strategy to achieve their maximal returns rather than the centralized strategy that would achieve the maximal social welfare; however, the government would need to pay for the maximal subsidy budget. Thus, the best option for the government would be to encourage the dual PV supply chains to adopt a centralized strategy since this will not only maximize the social welfare but also, at the same time, minimize the public subsidy. With a smart subsidy policy, the PV industry can make the best use of the subsidy budget and grow in a sustainable way to support the highly demanded solar power generation in many countries trying very hard to increase the proportion of their clean energy to combat the global

  20. Effects on muscle strength, maximal jump height, flexibility and postural sway after soccer and Zumba exercise among female hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barene, Svein; Holtermann, Andreas; Oseland, Harald

    2016-01-01

    -63 were cluster-randomised to a soccer group, a Zumba group or a control group. Training was conducted outside working hours as two to three 1-h weekly sessions the first 3 months and once a week the last 6 months. Tests were conducted at baseline, after 3 and 9 months. The soccer group improved maximal...... lean mass (0.4 kg; P

  1. Influence of variable resistance loading on subsequent free weight maximal back squat performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Minas A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Giakas, Giannis; Kay, Anthony D

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the potentiating effects of variable resistance (VR) exercise during a warm-up on subsequent free-weight resistance (FWR) maximal squat performance. In the first session, 16 recreationally active men (age = 26.0 ± 7.8 years; height = 1.7 ± 0.2 m; mass = 82.6 ± 12.7 kg) were familiarized with the experimental protocols and tested for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squat lift. The subjects then visited the laboratory on 2 further occasions under either control or experimental conditions. During these conditions, 2 sets of 3 repetitions of either FWR (control) or VR (experimental) squat lifts at 85% of 1RM were performed; during the experimental condition, 35% of the load was generated from band tension. After a 5-minute rest, 1RM, 3D knee joint kinematics, and vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and semitendinosus electromyogram (EMG) signals were recorded simultaneously. No subject increased 1RM after FWR, however, 13 of 16 (81%) subjects increased 1RM after VR (mean = 7.7%; p 0.05) or EMG amplitudes (mean = 5.9%; p > 0.05) occurred. Preconditioning using VR significantly increased 1RM without detectable changes in knee extensor muscle activity or knee flexion angle, although eccentric and concentric velocities were reduced. Thus, VR seems to potentiate the neuromuscular system to enhance subsequent maximal lifting performance. Athletes could thus use VR during warm-up routines to maximize squat performance.

  2. Maximal exercise increases mucosal associated invariant T cell frequency and number in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Erik D; Danson, Eli; Nguyen-Robertson, Catriona V; Fyfe, Jackson J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bartlett, David B; Sakkal, Samy

    2017-11-01

    Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have properties of the innate and acquired immune systems. While the response to vigorous exercise has been established for most leukocytes, MAIT cells have not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if MAIT cell lymphocytosis occurs with acute maximal aerobic exercise and if this response is influenced by exercise duration, cardiovascular fitness, or body composition. Twenty healthy young males with moderate fitness levels performed an extended graded exercise test until volitional fatigue. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from venous blood obtained prior and immediately after exercise and were labeled to identify specific T cell populations using flow cytometry. The percentage of MAIT cells relative to total T cells significantly increased from 3.0 to 3.8% and absolute MAIT cell counts increased by 2.2-fold following maximal exercise. MAIT cell subpopulation proportions were unchanged with exercise. Within cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), MAIT cells consisted of 8% of these cells and this remained constant after exercise. MAIT cell counts and changes with exercise were not affected by body composition, VO 2peak , or exercise duration. Maximal exercise doubled MAIT cell numbers and showed preferential mobilization within total T cells but the response was not influenced by fitness levels, exercise duration, or body composition. These results suggest that acute exercise could be used to offset MAIT cell deficiencies observed with certain pathologies. MAIT cells also make up a substantial proportion of CTLs, which may have implications for cytotoxicity assays using these cells.

  3. Short Communication: Comparison of Maxim and Sedia Limiting Antigen Assay Performance for Measuring HIV Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlusser, Katherine E; Konikoff, Jacob; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Morrison, Charles; Chipato, Tsungai; Chen, Pai-Lien; Munjoma, Marshall; Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0.93 for the optical density (OD) and 0.86 for the normalized OD. As the difference was more pronounced for the normalized OD, the difference in assays can be attributed to the calibrators. The mean duration of recent infection (MDRI), the average time individuals infected 1,000 copies/ml. The MDRI was 137 days for Sedia and 157 days for Maxim, with a difference of 20 days (95% CI 11-30). The MDRIs decreased to 102 and 120 days with the inclusion of a viral load cutoff of >1,000 copies/ml. These results imply that use of the Sedia LAg-Avidity will result in estimates of incidence ∼13% lower than those using the Maxim LAg-Avidity.

  4. Survival associated pathway identification with group Lp penalized global AUC maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhenqiu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been demonstrated that genes in a cell do not act independently. They interact with one another to complete certain biological processes or to implement certain molecular functions. How to incorporate biological pathways or functional groups into the model and identify survival associated gene pathways is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a novel iterative gradient based method for survival analysis with group Lp penalized global AUC summary maximization. Unlike LASSO, Lp (p 1. We first extend Lp for individual gene identification to group Lp penalty for pathway selection, and then develop a novel iterative gradient algorithm for penalized global AUC summary maximization (IGGAUCS. This method incorporates the genetic pathways into global AUC summary maximization and identifies survival associated pathways instead of individual genes. The tuning parameters are determined using 10-fold cross validation with training data only. The prediction performance is evaluated using test data. We apply the proposed method to survival outcome analysis with gene expression profile and identify multiple pathways simultaneously. Experimental results with simulation and gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed procedures can be used for identifying important biological pathways that are related to survival phenotype and for building a parsimonious model for predicting the survival times.

  5. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  6. On the maximal noise for stochastic and QCD travelling waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, Robi

    2008-01-01

    Using the relation of a set of nonlinear Langevin equations to reaction-diffusion processes, we note the existence of a maximal strength of the noise for the stochastic travelling wave solutions of these equations. Its determination is obtained using the field-theoretical analysis of branching-annihilation random walks near the directed percolation transition. We study its consequence for the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. For the related Langevin equation modeling the quantum chromodynamic nonlinear evolution of gluon density with rapidity, the physical maximal-noise limit may appear before the directed percolation transition, due to a shift in the travelling-wave speed. In this regime, an exact solution is known from a coalescence process. Universality and other open problems and applications are discussed in the outlook

  7. Magellan Project: Evolving enhanced operations efficiency to maximize science value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Allan R.; Neuman, James C.; Mckinney, J. Franklin

    1994-01-01

    Magellan has been one of NASA's most successful spacecraft, returning more science data than all planetary spacecraft combined. The Magellan Spacecraft Team (SCT) has maximized the science return with innovative operational techniques to overcome anomalies and to perform activities for which the spacecraft was not designed. Commanding the spacecraft was originally time consuming because the standard development process was envisioned as manual tasks. The Program understood that reducing mission operations costs were essential for an extended mission. Management created an environment which encouraged automation of routine tasks, allowing staff reduction while maximizing the science data returned. Data analysis and trending, command preparation, and command reviews are some of the tasks that were automated. The SCT has accommodated personnel reductions by improving operations efficiency while returning the maximum science data possible.

  8. Efficient Conservation in a Utility-Maximization Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank W. Davis

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Systematic planning for biodiversity conservation is being conducted at scales ranging from global to national to regional. The prevailing planning paradigm is to identify the minimum land allocations needed to reach specified conservation targets or maximize the amount of conservation accomplished under an area or budget constraint. We propose a more general formulation for setting conservation priorities that involves goal setting, assessing the current conservation system, developing a scenario of future biodiversity given the current conservation system, and allocating available conservation funds to alter that scenario so as to maximize future biodiversity. Under this new formulation for setting conservation priorities, the value of a site depends on resource quality, threats to resource quality, and costs. This planning approach is designed to support collaborative processes and negotiation among competing interest groups. We demonstrate these ideas with a case study of the Sierra Nevada bioregion of California.

  9. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during short-duration maximal-intensity intermittent cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael; Moir, Gavin L

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of fatigue measures, as derived from 4 separate formulae, during tests of repeat sprint ability. On separate days over a 3-week period, 2 groups of 7 recreationally active men completed 6 trials of 1 of 2 maximal (20 x 5 seconds) intermittent cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 or 30 seconds). All trials were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer, and fatigue scores were derived from measures of mean power output for each sprint. Apart from formula 1, which calculated fatigue from the percentage difference in mean power output between the first and last sprint, all remaining formulae produced fatigue scores that showed a reasonably good level of test-retest reliability in both intermittent test protocols (intraclass correlation range: 0.78-0.86; 95% likely range of true values: 0.54-0.97). Although between-protocol differences in the magnitude of the fatigue scores suggested good construct validity, within-protocol differences highlighted limitations with each formula. Overall, the results support the use of the percentage decrement score as the most valid and reliable measure of fatigue during brief maximal intermittent work.

  11. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  12. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  13. Speeding Up Maximal Causality Reduction with Static Dependency Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiyou; Huang, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Stateless Model Checking (SMC) offers a powerful approach to verifying multithreaded programs but suffers from the state-space explosion problem caused by the huge thread interleaving space. The pioneering reduction technique Partial Order Reduction (POR) mitigates this problem by pruning equivalent interleavings from the state space. However, limited by the happens-before relation, POR still explores redundant executions. The recent advance, Maximal Causality Reduction (MCR), shows a promisi...

  14. Planning for partnerships: Maximizing surge capacity resources through service learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Lavonne M; Reams, Paula K; Canclini, Sharon B

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks and natural or human-caused disasters can strain the community's surge capacity through sudden demand on healthcare activities. Collaborative partnerships between communities and schools of nursing have the potential to maximize resource availability to meet community needs following a disaster. This article explores how communities can work with schools of nursing to enhance surge capacity through systems thinking, integrated planning, and cooperative efforts.

  15. Applications of expectation maximization algorithm for coherent optical communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, L.; Oliveira, J.; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    In this invited paper, we present powerful statistical signal processing methods, used by machine learning community, and link them to current problems in optical communication. In particular, we will look into iterative maximum likelihood parameter estimation based on expectation maximization...... algorithm and its application in coherent optical communication systems for linear and nonlinear impairment mitigation. Furthermore, the estimated parameters are used to build the probabilistic model of the system for the synthetic impairment generation....

  16. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  17. Finite translation surfaces with maximal number of translations

    OpenAIRE

    Schlage-Puchta, Jan-Christoph; Weitze-Schmithuesen, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The natural automorphism group of a translation surface is its group of translations. For finite translation surfaces of genus g > 1 the order of this group is naturally bounded in terms of g due to a Riemann-Hurwitz formula argument. In analogy with classical Hurwitz surfaces, we call surfaces which achieve the maximal bound Hurwitz translation surfaces. We study for which g there exist Hurwitz translation surfaces of genus g.

  18. Crystallographic cut that maximizes of the birefringence in photorefractive crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda-Parada, Jorge Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The electro-optical birefringence effect depends on the crystal type, cut crystal, applied electric field and the incidence direction of light on the principal crystal faces. It is presented a study of maximizing the birefringence in photorefractive crystals of cubic crystallographic symmetry, in terms of these three parameters. General analytical expressions for the birefringence were obtained, from which birefringence can be established for any type of cut. A new crystallographic cut was en...

  19. Maximal reductions in the Baker-Hausdorff formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsrud, M.

    1992-05-01

    A preliminary expression for the Baker-Hausdorff formula is found up to ninth order, i.e. a series expansion of z in terms of multiple commutators, where e x =e x e y with x and y non-commuting, up to ninth degree in x,y. By means of complete sets of linear relations between multiple commutators, maximal reduction of the number of different multiple commutators in the series is obtained. 4 refs

  20. Competitive prices as profit-maximizing cartel prices

    OpenAIRE

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.I.; Wen, Q.

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper has resulted in a publication in Economics Letters, 114, 39-42. Even under antitrust enforcement, firms may still form a cartel in an infinitely-repeated oligopoly model when the discount factor is sufficiently close to one. We present a linear oligopoly model where the profit-maximizing cartel price converges to the competitive equilibrium price as the discount factor goes to one. We then identify a set of necessary conditions for this seemingly counter-intuitive result.

  1. On Throughput Maximization in Constant Travel-Time Robotic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Milind Dawande; Chelliah Sriskandarajah; Suresh Sethi

    2002-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling operations in bufferless robotic cells that produce identical parts. The objective is to find a cyclic sequence of robot moves that minimizes the long-run average time to produce a part or, equivalently, maximizes the throughput rate. The robot can be moved in simple cycles that produce one unit or, in more complicated cycles, that produce multiple units. Because one-unit cycles are the easiest to understand, implement, and control, they are widely used i...

  2. Minimal and Maximal Operator Space Structures on Banach Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    P., Vinod Kumar; Balasubramani, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a Banach space $X$, there are many operator space structures possible on $X$, which all have $X$ as their first matrix level. Blecher and Paulsen identified two extreme operator space structures on $X$, namely $Min(X)$ and $Max(X)$ which represents respectively, the smallest and the largest operator space structures admissible on $X$. In this note, we consider the subspace and the quotient space structure of minimal and maximal operator spaces.

  3. On the maximal dimension of a completely entangled subspace for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    dim S = d1d2 ...dk − (d1 +···+ dk) + k − 1, where E is the collection of all completely entangled subspaces. When H1 = H2 and k = 2 an explicit orthonormal basis of a maximal completely entangled subspace of H1 ⊗ H2 is given. We also introduce a more delicate notion of a perfectly entangled subspace for a multipartite ...

  4. High-dose inhaled terbutaline increases muscle strength and enhances maximal sprint performance in trained men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-01-01

    ) participated in a double-blinded randomized crossover study. After administration of inhaled terbutaline (30 × 0.5 mg) or placebo, subjects' maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) of m.quadriceps was measured. After MVC, subjects performed a 30-s Wingate test. Sixty minutes following the Wingate test......, subjects exercised for 10 min at 80 % of [Formula: see text] and completed a 100-kcal time trial. Aerobic contribution was determined during the Wingate test by indirect calorimetry. Furthermore, plasma terbutaline, lactate, glucose, and K(+) were measured. RESULTS: Inhalation of 15 mg terbutaline resulted...... = 0.019) and 3.3 ± 1.0 % (P = 0.009) higher for terbutaline than placebo. Net accumulation of plasma lactate was higher (P = 0.003) for terbutaline than placebo during the Wingate test, whereas [Formula: see text] above baseline was unchanged by terbutaline (P = 0.882). Time-trial performance...

  5. Polarity related influence maximization in signed social networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Li

    Full Text Available Influence maximization in social networks has been widely studied motivated by applications like spread of ideas or innovations in a network and viral marketing of products. Current studies focus almost exclusively on unsigned social networks containing only positive relationships (e.g. friend or trust between users. Influence maximization in signed social networks containing both positive relationships and negative relationships (e.g. foe or distrust between users is still a challenging problem that has not been studied. Thus, in this paper, we propose the polarity-related influence maximization (PRIM problem which aims to find the seed node set with maximum positive influence or maximum negative influence in signed social networks. To address the PRIM problem, we first extend the standard Independent Cascade (IC model to the signed social networks and propose a Polarity-related Independent Cascade (named IC-P diffusion model. We prove that the influence function of the PRIM problem under the IC-P model is monotonic and submodular Thus, a greedy algorithm can be used to achieve an approximation ratio of 1-1/e for solving the PRIM problem in signed social networks. Experimental results on two signed social network datasets, Epinions and Slashdot, validate that our approximation algorithm for solving the PRIM problem outperforms state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  7. Improved Algorithms OF CELF and CELF++ for Influence Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaguo Lv

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the wide application in some fields, such as viral marketing, sales promotion etc, influence maximization has been the most important and extensively studied problem in social network. However, the most classical KK-Greedy algorithm for influence maximization is inefficient. Two major sources of the algorithm’s inefficiency were analyzed in this paper. With the analysis of algorithms CELF and CELF++, all nodes in the influenced set of u would never bring any marginal gain when a new seed u was produced. Through this optimization strategy, a lot of redundant nodes will be removed from the candidate nodes. Basing on the strategy, two improved algorithms of Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++ were proposed in this study. To evaluate the two algorithms, the two algorithms with their benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++ were conducted on some real world datasets. To estimate the algorithms, influence degree and running time were employed to measure the performance and efficiency respectively. Experimental results showed that, compared with benchmark algorithms of CELF and CELF++, matching effects and higher efficiency were achieved by the new algorithms Lv_CELF and Lv_CELF++. Solutions with the proposed optimization strategy can be useful for the decisionmaking problems under the scenarios related to the influence maximization problem.

  8. Formation Control of the MAXIM L2 Libration Orbit Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Hartman, Kate; Howell, Kathleen; Marchand, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The Micro-Arcsecond X-ray Imaging Mission (MAXIM), a proposed concept for the Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Black Hole Imager mission, is designed to make a ten million-fold improvement in X-ray image clarity of celestial objects by providing better than 0.1 micro-arcsecond imaging. Currently the mission architecture comprises 25 spacecraft, 24 as optics modules and one as the detector, which will form sparse sub-apertures of a grazing incidence X-ray interferometer covering the 0.3-10 keV bandpass. This formation must allow for long duration continuous science observations and also for reconfiguration that permits re-pointing of the formation. To achieve these mission goals, the formation is required to cooperatively point at desired targets. Once pointed, the individual elements of the MAXIM formation must remain stable, maintaining their relative positions and attitudes below a critical threshold. These pointing and formation stability requirements impact the control and design of the formation. In this paper, we provide analysis of control efforts that are dependent upon the stability and the configuration and dimensions of the MAXIM formation. We emphasize the utilization of natural motions in the Lagrangian regions to minimize the control efforts and we address continuous control via input feedback linearization (IFL). Results provide control cost, configuration options, and capabilities as guidelines for the development of this complex mission.

  9. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  10. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  11. Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement is preserved with lifelong endurance training and is the main determinant of maximal cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A

    2015-01-01

    subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac MR. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using dye dilution technique. RESULTS: Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups......BACKGROUND: Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine...... groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2 = ) 0.61, P groups. However, how longitudinal pumping...

  12. Pilocarpine iontophoresis test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif; Nielsen, B

    1995-01-01

    The pilocarpine iontophoresis test (P-test) is used as a predictor of the capacity to produce sweat. Therefore, we studied the reproducibility of this test in 12 normal subjects on 10 consecutive days. Furthermore, we determined whether the P-test reflects whole-body and regional sweat secretion...... during exercise in the heat. Finally, we determined whether the P-test stimulates the eccrine sweat glands to maximal sweat secretion. Six growth hormone-deficient (GHD) patients who are known to have decreased sweating, and 11 healthy control subjects were studied. To induce maximal sweat secretion......, the patients exercised on a bicycle ergometer at a workload corresponding to 40% of their maximal aerobic power (VO2max). The 11 healthy subjects exercised at a workload of 150 W. All subjects exercised for 60 min in ambient air at 35 degrees C, with 50% relative humidity. The P-test showed a mean day...

  13. Effects of volume-based overload plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.

  14. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination.......05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate...

  15. Descriptive Analysis on Flouting and Hedging of Conversational Maxims in the “Post Grad” Movie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiti Rokhmania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on analyzing flouting and hedging of conversational maxim of utterances used by the main characters in “Post Grad” movie. Conversational maxims are the rules of cooperative principle categorized into four categories; Maxim of Quality, Maxim of Quantity, Maxim of Relevance, and Maxim of Manner. If these maxims are used in conversations, the conversations can go smoothly. However, people often break the maxims overtly (flouting maxim and sometimes break the maxims secretly (hedging maxims when they make a conversation. This research is conducted using descriptive qualitative method based on the theory known as Grice’s Maxims. The data are in form of utterances used by the characters in “Post Grad” movie. The data analysis reveals some finding covering the formulated research question. The maxims are flouted when the speaker breaks some conversational maxims when using the utterances in the form of rhetorical strategies, such as tautology, metaphor, hyperbole, irony, and rhetorical question. On the other hand, conversational maxims are also hedged when the information is not totally accurate or unclearly stated but seems informative, well-founded, and relevant.

  16. Patient-specific rhytidectomy: finding the angle of maximal rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, Andrew A; Ransom, Evan R

    2012-09-01

    Rhytidectomy is fundamentally an operation of tissue release and resuspension, although the manner and direction of suspension are subject to perpetual debate. The authors describe a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy and quantify the resulting angle and its relationship to patient age. Patients were prospectively enrolled; demographic data, history, and operative details were recorded. Rhytidectomies were performed by the senior author (AAJ). After complete elevation, the face-lift flap was rotated in a medially-based arc (0-90°) while attention was given to the submental area, jawline, and midface. The angle of maximal rejuvenation for each hemiface was identified as described, and the flap was resuspended. During redraping, measurements of vertical and horizontal skin excess were recorded in situ. The resulting angle of lift was then calculated for each hemiface using trigonometry. Symmetry between sides was determined, and the effect of patient age on this angle was assessed. Three hundred hemifaces were operated (147 women; 3 men). Mean age was 60 years (range, 37-80 years). Mean resulting angle for the cohort was 60° from horizontal (range, 46-77°). This was inversely correlated with patient age (r = -.3). Younger patients (<50 years, 64°) had a significantly more vertical angle than older patients (≥70 years, 56°; P < .0002). No significant intersubject difference was found between hemifaces (P = .53). The authors present a method for identifying the angle of maximal rejuvenation during rhytidectomy. This angle was more superior than posterior in all cases and is intimately related to patient age. Lasting results demand a detailed anatomical understanding and strict attention to the direction and degree of laxity.

  17. Dopaminergic balance between reward maximization and policy complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama eParush

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous reinforcement-learning models of the basal ganglia network have highlighted the role of dopamine in encoding the mismatch between prediction and reality. Far less attention has been paid to the computational goals and algorithms of the main-axis (actor. Here, we construct a top-down model of the basal ganglia with emphasis on the role of dopamine as both a reinforcement learning signal and as a pseudo-temperature signal controlling the general level of basal ganglia excitability and motor vigilance of the acting agent. We argue that the basal ganglia endow the thalamic-cortical networks with the optimal dynamic tradeoff between two constraints: minimizing the policy complexity (cost and maximizing the expected future reward (gain. We show that this multi-dimensional optimization processes results in an experience-modulated version of the softmax behavioral policy. Thus, as in classical softmax behavioral policies, probability of actions are selected according to their estimated values and the pseudo-temperature, but in addition also vary according to the frequency of previous choices of these actions. We conclude that the computational goal of the basal ganglia is not to maximize cumulative (positive and negative reward. Rather, the basal ganglia aim at optimization of independent gain and cost functions. Unlike previously suggested single-variable maximization processes, this multi-dimensional optimization process leads naturally to a softmax-like behavioral policy. We suggest that beyond its role in the modulation of the efficacy of the cortico-striatal synapses, dopamine directly affects striatal excitability and thus provides a pseudo-temperature signal that modulates the trade-off between gain and cost. The resulting experience and dopamine modulated softmax policy can then serve as a theoretical framework to account for the broad range of behaviors and clinical states governed by the basal ganglia and dopamine systems.

  18. Weak incidence algebra and maximal ring of quotients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjeet Singh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X, X′ be two locally finite, preordered sets and let R be any indecomposable commutative ring. The incidence algebra I(X,R, in a sense, represents X, because of the well-known result that if the rings I(X,R and I(X′,R are isomorphic, then X and X′ are isomorphic. In this paper, we consider a preordered set X that need not be locally finite but has the property that each of its equivalence classes of equivalent elements is finite. Define I*(X,R to be the set of all those functions f:X×X→R such that f(x,y=0, whenever x⩽̸y and the set Sf of ordered pairs (x,y with xmaximal right (left ring of quotients of I*(X,R is discussed. It is shown that the results proved can give a large class of rings whose maximal right ring of quotients need not be isomorphic to its maximal left ring of quotients.

  19. Maximizing opto‐mechanical interaction using topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    is performed on a periodic cell and the periodic modeling of the optical and mechanical fields have been carried out using transverse electric Bloch waves and homogenization theory in a plane stress setting, respectively. Two coupling effects are included being the photoelastic effect and the geometric effect......This paper studies topology optimization of a coupled opto‐mechanical problem with the goal of finding the material layout which maximizes the optical modulation, i.e. the difference between the optical response for the mechanically deformed and undeformed configuration. The optimization...

  20. Software development with C++ maximizing reuse with object technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Software Development with C++: Maximizing Reuse with Object Technology is about software development and object-oriented technology (OT), with applications implemented in C++. The basis for any software development project of complex systems is the process, rather than an individual method, which simply supports the overall process. This book is not intended as a general, all-encompassing treatise on OT. The intent is to provide practical information that is directly applicable to a development project. Explicit guidelines are offered for the infusion of OT into the various development phases.

  1. Maximal lens bounds on QSO-galaxy association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovner, I.

    1989-01-01

    The maximal possible enhancement of QSO number counts that can be produced by any ensemble of lenses which conserve brightness and in which the magnification probability is negligibly correlated with the intrinsic QSO flux is obtained. Under the assumption of the Boyle et al. (1988) number-magnitude relation for the QSOs unaffected by lenses, the theory is applied to the QSO-galaxy association sample of Webster et al. (1988). The results suggest that the background QSOs of Webster et al. may be appreciably affected by lensing. 17 refs

  2. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer.

  4. Maximal respiratory pressures and pulmonary function in male runners.

    OpenAIRE

    Cordain, L; Glisan, B J; Latin, R W; Tucker, A; Stager, J M

    1987-01-01

    To determine the effects of long term exercise on respiratory muscle strength, maximal inspiratory (Pl max) and expiratory (PE max) pressures, pulmonary volumes and capacities and anthropometric parameters were measured in a group of 101 male runners aged 16 to 58 years. The runners exhibited significantly (p less than 0.05) lower PE max (202 +/- 41 cm H2O and significantly greater residual lung volumes (RV) (2.08 +/- 0.49 L) than predicted values for normal subjects of similar height and age...

  5. Maximal heat loading of electrostatic deflector's septum at the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanov, A.; Borissenko, A.

    2002-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector is used for extraction of accelerated particles at the isochronous cyclotron U-150 (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakhstan). Efficiency of beam extraction depends on a set of factors. Decisive is heat state of the septum and essentially beam extraction is limited by beam power dissipation on the deflector. Due to the works carried on for radioisotope production, determination of septum's maximal heat loading, optimization of the septum's geometry represent the interest. Maximum heat loading of deflector's septum and it's dependence on septum's geometry and thermal-physical properties of septum's material are presented in the paper as result of numerical calculation. The obtained results are discussed

  6. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....... of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory...

  7. A New Tetrahydrofuran Lignan Diglycoside from Viola tianshanica Maxim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A new lignan glycoside, tianshanoside A (1, together with a known phenylpropanoid glycoside, syringin (2 and two known lignan glycosides, picraquassioside C (3, and aketrilignoside B (4, were isolated from the whole plant of Viola tianshanica Maxim. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and ROESY and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. The three lignans 1, 3, and 4 did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity against human gastric cancer Ags cells or HepG2 liver cancer cells. This is the first report of the isolation of a lignan skeleton from the genus Viola L.

  8. Distortion of maximal elevator activity by unilateral premature tooth contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Møller, Eigild

    1980-01-01

    In four subjects the electrical activity in the anterior and posterior temporal and masseter muscles during maximal bite was recorded bilaterally with and without premature unilateral contact. Muscle activity was measured as the average level and the peak of the mean voltage with layers of strips...... of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 2.0 mm, placed between first molars either on the left or the right side, and compared with the level of activity with undistrubed occlusion. Unilateral premature contact caused a significant asymmetry of action in all muscles under study with stronger activity ipsilaterally...

  9. The one-sided Ap conditions and local maximal operator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernardis, A.L.; Gogatishvili, Amiran; Martin-Reyes, F. J.; Ortega Salvador, P.; Pick, L.

    Roč. 55, č. 1 ( 2012 ), s. 79-104 ISSN 0013-0915 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/08/0383; GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : one-sided Ap conditions * one-sided local maximal operator * quasi-Banach function spaces * variable-exponent Lebesgue spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8477114&fulltextType=RA&fileId=S0013091510000635

  10. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P. [Paris XI Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma Tor Vergata Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (IT)] (and others)

    2009-12-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N{sub f}=2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280

  11. Light meson physics from maximally twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, R.; Boucaud, P.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of light meson physics using maximally twisted mass fermions for N f =2 mass-degenerate quark flavours. By employing four values of the lattice spacing, spatial lattice extents ranging from 2.0 fm to 2.5 fm and pseudo scalar masses in the range 280 PS < or similar 650 MeV we control the major systematic effects of our calculation. This enables us to confront our data with chiral perturbation theory and extract low energy constants of the effective chiral Lagrangian and derived quantities, such as the light quark mass, with high precision. (orig.)

  12. Maximal entanglement of two spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Michael W.; Yamashita, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Starting with two weakly-coupled anti-ferromagnetic spinor condensates, we show that by changing the sign of the coefficient of the spin interaction, $U_{2}$, via an optically-induced Feshbach resonance one can create an entangled state consisting of two anti-correlated ferromagnetic condensates. This state is maximally entangled and a generalization of the Bell state from two anti-correlated spin-1/2 particles to two anti-correlated spin$-N/2$ atomic samples, where $N$ is the total number of...

  13. Economic strategies to maximize profits from satellite field developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antia, D.D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The main strategies that can be used to maximize profits from integrated satellite field developments are: (1) restructuring the cost, production and revenue profile of the satellite field; and (2) increasing the volume of oil/gas processed, and available for future use, by the central processing and distribution facility through: (a) using a combined strategy of low tariffs, volume discount, and netback agreements; (b) using reusable facilities, shared facilities, extended reach wells, contractor finance, partnering agreements, netback agreements, oil/gas price swaps; and (c) improving development, discovery and exploration efficiency

  14. Monopsony in the labor market: Profit vs. Wage maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Đorđe, Olgin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the efficiency of profit- and wage-maximizing (PM and WM monopsony in the labor market. We show that, both locally and globally, a PM monopsony may well be dominated by its WM twin, where the local and global dominance are defined with respect to a single (inverse labor supply function and a single family of such functions. This family is always divided in the two disjoint (subfamilies of the PM and WM dominance. We also analyze some major factors that explain the size of these (subfamilies. .

  15. Growth-Maximizing Public Debt under Changing Demographics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokan, Nikola; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.; Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops an overlapping-generations model to study the growth-maximizing level of public debt under conditions of demograhic change. It is shown that the optimal debt level depends on a positive marginal productivity of public capital. In general, it also depends on the demographic par...... will have to adjust its fiscal plans to accommodate those changes, most likely downward, if growth is to be preserved. An advantage of this model is that it allows us to determine in advance the way in which fiscal policies need to adjust as demographic parameters change....

  16. Maximizing the return on taxpayers' investments in fundamental biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2015-05-01

    The National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) at the U.S. National Institutes of Health has an annual budget of more than $2.3 billion. The institute uses these funds to support fundamental biomedical research and training at universities, medical schools, and other institutions across the country. My job as director of NIGMS is to work to maximize the scientific returns on the taxpayers' investments. I describe how we are optimizing our investment strategies and funding mechanisms, and how, in the process, we hope to create a more efficient and sustainable biomedical research enterprise.

  17. Fatigue reduces the complexity of knee extensor torque fluctuations during maximal and submaximal intermittent isometric contractions in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations. PMID:25664928

  18. Forced vital capacity and not central chemoreflex predicts maximal hyperoxic breath-hold duration in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Barak, Otto F; Hoiland, Ryan L; Drvis, Ivan; Bailey, Damian M; Dujic, Zeljko; Mijacika, Tanja; Santoro, Antoinette; DeMasi, Daniel K; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-08-01

    The determining mechanisms of a maximal hyperoxic apnea duration in elite apneists have remained unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that maximal hyperoxic apnea duration in elite apneists is related to forced vital capacity (FVC) but not the central chemoreflex (for CO 2 ). Eleven elite apneists performed a maximal dry static-apnea with prior hyperoxic (100% oxygen) pre-breathing, and a central chemoreflex test via a hyperoxic re-breathing technique (hyperoxic-hypercapnic ventilatory response: HCVR); expressed as the increase in ventilation (pneumotachometry) per increase in arterial CO 2 tension (PaCO 2 ; radial artery). FVC was assessed using standard spirometry. Maximal apnea duration ranged from 807 to 1262s (mean=1034s). Average HCVR was 2.0±1.2Lmin -1 mmHg -1 PaCO 2 . The hyperoxic apnea duration was related to the FVC (r 2 =0.45, p0.05). These findings were interpreted to suggest that during a hyperoxic apnea, a larger initial lung volume prolongs the time before reaching intolerable discomfort associated with pending lung squeeze, while CO 2 sensitivity has little impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On the configuration of supercapacitors for maximizing electrochemical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jintao; Zhao, X S

    2012-05-01

    Supercapacitors, which are attracting rapidly growing interest from both academia and industry, are important energy-storage devices for acquiring sustainable energy. Recent years have seen a number of significant breakthroughs in the research and development of supercapacitors. The emergence of innovative electrode materials (e.g., graphene) has clearly provided great opportunities for advancing the science in the field of electrochemical energy storage. Conversely, smart configurations of electrode materials and new designs of supercapacitor devices have, in many cases, boosted the electrochemical performance of the materials. We attempt to summarize recent research progress towards the design and configuration of electrode materials to maximize supercapacitor performance in terms of energy density, power density, and cycle stability. With a brief description of the structure, energy-storage mechanism, and electrode configuration of supercapacitor devices, the design and configuration of symmetric supercapacitors are discussed, followed by that of asymmetric and hybrid supercapacitors. Emphasis is placed on the rational design and configuration of supercapacitor electrodes to maximize the electrochemical performance of the device. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. On Maximizing the Throughput of Packet Transmission under Energy Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Dai, Guangli; Li, Yan; Shan, Feng

    2018-06-23

    More and more Internet of Things (IoT) wireless devices have been providing ubiquitous services over the recent years. Since most of these devices are powered by batteries, a fundamental trade-off to be addressed is the depleted energy and the achieved data throughput in wireless data transmission. By exploiting the rate-adaptive capacities of wireless devices, most existing works on energy-efficient data transmission try to design rate-adaptive transmission policies to maximize the amount of transmitted data bits under the energy constraints of devices. Such solutions, however, cannot apply to scenarios where data packets have respective deadlines and only integrally transmitted data packets contribute. Thus, this paper introduces a notion of weighted throughput, which measures how much total value of data packets are successfully and integrally transmitted before their own deadlines. By designing efficient rate-adaptive transmission policies, this paper aims to make the best use of the energy and maximize the weighted throughput. What is more challenging but with practical significance, we consider the fading effect of wireless channels in both offline and online scenarios. In the offline scenario, we develop an optimal algorithm that computes the optimal solution in pseudo-polynomial time, which is the best possible solution as the problem undertaken is NP-hard. In the online scenario, we propose an efficient heuristic algorithm based on optimal properties derived for the optimal offline solution. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Strategies for maximizing clinical effectiveness in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rajiv; Targum, Steven D; Nasrallah, Henry A; Ross, Ruth

    2006-11-01

    The ultimate clinical objective in the treatment of schizophrenia is to enable affected individuals to lead maximally productive and personally meaningful lives. As with other chronic diseases that lack a definitive cure, the individual's service/recovery plan must include treatment interventions directed towards decreasing manifestations of the illness, rehabilitative services directed towards enhancing adaptive skills, and social support mobilization aimed at optimizing function and quality of life. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for considering approaches for maximizing the effectiveness of the array of treatments and other services towards promoting recovery of persons with schizophrenia. We discuss pharmacological, psychological, and social strategies that decrease the burden of the disease of schizophrenia on affected individuals and their families while adding the least possible burden of treatment. In view of the multitude of treatments necessary to optimize outcomes for individuals with schizophrenia, effective coordination of these services is essential. In addition to providing best possible clinical assessment and pharmacological treatment, the psychiatrist must function as an effective leader of the treatment team. To do so, however, the psychiatrist must be knowledgeable about the range of available services, must have skills in clinical-administrative leadership, and must accept the responsibility of coordinating the planning and delivery of this multidimensional array of treatments and services. Finally, the effectiveness of providing optimal individualized treatment/rehabilitation is best gauged by measuring progress on multiple effectiveness domains. Approaches for efficient and reliable assessment are discussed.

  2. Maximizing Macromolecule Crystal Size for Neutron Diffraction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, R. A.; Kephart, R.; Leardi, R.; Myles, D. A.; Snell, E. H.; vanderWoerd, M.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A challenge in neutron diffraction experiments is growing large (greater than 1 cu mm) macromolecule crystals. In taking up this challenge we have used statistical experiment design techniques to quickly identify crystallization conditions under which the largest crystals grow. These techniques provide the maximum information for minimal experimental effort, allowing optimal screening of crystallization variables in a simple experimental matrix, using the minimum amount of sample. Analysis of the results quickly tells the investigator what conditions are the most important for the crystallization. These can then be used to maximize the crystallization results in terms of reducing crystal numbers and providing large crystals of suitable habit. We have used these techniques to grow large crystals of Glucose isomerase. Glucose isomerase is an industrial enzyme used extensively in the food industry for the conversion of glucose to fructose. The aim of this study is the elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism at the molecular level. The accurate determination of hydrogen positions, which is critical for this, is a requirement that neutron diffraction is uniquely suited for. Preliminary neutron diffraction experiments with these crystals conducted at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) reveal diffraction to beyond 2.5 angstrom. Macromolecular crystal growth is a process involving many parameters, and statistical experimental design is naturally suited to this field. These techniques are sample independent and provide an experimental strategy to maximize crystal volume and habit for neutron diffraction studies.

  3. Biomechanical characteristics of handballing maximally in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrington, Lucy; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2014-11-01

    The handball pass is influential in Australian football, and achieving higher ball speeds in flight is an advantage in increasing distance and reducing the chance of interceptions. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptive kinematic data and identify key technical aspects of maximal handball performance. Three-dimensional full body kinematic data from 19 professional Australian football players performing handball pass for maximal speed were collected, and the hand speed at ball contact was used to determine performance. Sixty-four kinematic parameters initially obtained were reduced to 15, and then grouped into like components through a two-stage supervised principal components analysis procedure. These components were then entered into a multiple regression analysis, which indicated that greater hand speed was associated with greater shoulder angular velocity and separation angle between the shoulders and pelvis at ball contact, as well as an earlier time of maximum upper-trunk rotation velocity. These data suggested that in order to increase the speed of the handball pass in Australian football, strategies like increased shoulder angular velocity, increased separation angle at ball contact, and earlier achievement of upper-trunk rotation speed might be beneficial.

  4. Synthesis of magnetic systems producing field with maximal scalar characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevets, Nickolay I.

    2005-01-01

    A method of synthesis of the magnetic systems (MSs) consisting of uniformly magnetized blocks is proposed. This method allows to synthesize MSs providing maximum value of any magnetic field scalar characteristic. In particular, it is possible to synthesize the MSs providing the maximum of a field projection on a given vector, a gradient of a field modulus and a gradient of a field energy on a given directing vector, a field magnitude, a magnetic flux through a given surface, a scalar product of a field or a force by a directing function given in some area of space, etc. The synthesized MSs provide maximal efficiency of permanent magnets utilization. The usage of the proposed method of MSs synthesis allows to change a procedure of projecting in principal, namely, to execute it according to the following scheme: (a) to choose the sizes, a form and a number of blocks of a system proceeding from technological (economical) reasons; (b) using the proposed synthesis method, to find an orientation of site magnetization providing maximum possible effect of magnet utilization in a system obtained in (a). Such approach considerably reduces a time of MSs projecting and guarantees maximal possible efficiency of magnets utilization. Besides it provides absolute assurance in 'ideality' of a MS design and allows to obtain an exact estimate of the limit parameters of a field in a working area of a projected MS. The method is applicable to a system containing the components from soft magnetic material with linear magnetic properties

  5. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  6. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Epimedium brevicornu Maxim Ethanol Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Meng, Ning; Chang, Bingquan; Quan, Xianghua; Yuan, RuiYing; Li, Bin

    2018-04-05

    Epimedium brevicornu Maxim has been used as a traditional herbal drug in China. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of E. brevicornu Maxim ethanol extract (EBME) were investigated in RAW264.7 macrophages and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that EBME attenuated inflammation by decreasing the production of several proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2, in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. EBME increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The inhibitory effects of EBME on LPS-stimulated NO and PGE 2 expression were partially reversed by HO-1 inhibitor. EBME also elicited an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced peritonitis. Therefore, EBME exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Quantum coherence generating power, maximally abelian subalgebras, and Grassmannian geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We establish a direct connection between the power of a unitary map in d-dimensions (d algebra). This set can be seen as a topologically non-trivial subset of the Grassmannian over linear operators. The natural distance over the Grassmannian induces a metric structure on Md, which quantifies the lack of commutativity between the pairs of subalgebras. Given a maximally abelian subalgebra, one can define, on physical grounds, an associated measure of quantum coherence. We show that the average quantum coherence generated by a unitary map acting on a uniform ensemble of quantum states in the algebra (the so-called coherence generating power of the map) is proportional to the distance between a pair of maximally abelian subalgebras in Md connected by the unitary transformation itself. By embedding the Grassmannian into a projective space, one can pull-back the standard Fubini-Study metric on Md and define in this way novel geometrical measures of quantum coherence generating power. We also briefly discuss the associated differential metric structures.

  8. Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to maximize network lifetime and balance energy consumption when sink nodes can move, maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks with mobile sink nodes (MLMS is researched. The movement path selection method of sink nodes is proposed. Modified subtractive clustering method, k-means method, and nearest neighbor interpolation method are used to obtain the movement paths. The lifetime optimization model is established under flow constraint, energy consumption constraint, link transmission constraint, and other constraints. The model is solved from the perspective of static and mobile data gathering of sink nodes. Subgradient method is used to solve the lifetime optimization model when one sink node stays at one anchor location. Geometric method is used to evaluate the amount of gathering data when sink nodes are moving. Finally, all sensor nodes transmit data according to the optimal data transmission scheme. Sink nodes gather the data along the shortest movement paths. Simulation results show that MLMS can prolong network lifetime, balance node energy consumption, and reduce data gathering latency under appropriate parameters. Under certain conditions, it outperforms Ratio_w, TPGF, RCC, and GRND.

  9. Theoretical maximal storage of hydrogen in zeolitic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitillo, Jenny G; Ricchiardi, Gabriele; Spoto, Giuseppe; Zecchina, Adriano

    2005-12-07

    Physisorption and encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in tailored microporous materials are two of the options for hydrogen storage. Among these materials, zeolites have been widely investigated. In these materials, the attained storage capacities vary widely with structure and composition, leading to the expectation that materials with improved binding sites, together with lighter frameworks, may represent efficient storage materials. In this work, we address the problem of the determination of the maximum amount of molecular hydrogen which could, in principle, be stored in a given zeolitic framework, as limited by the size, structure and flexibility of its pore system. To this end, the progressive filling with H2 of 12 purely siliceous models of common zeolite frameworks has been simulated by means of classical molecular mechanics. By monitoring the variation of cell parameters upon progressive filling of the pores, conclusions are drawn regarding the maximum storage capacity of each framework and, more generally, on framework flexibility. The flexible non-pentasils RHO, FAU, KFI, LTA and CHA display the highest maximal capacities, ranging between 2.86-2.65 mass%, well below the targets set for automotive applications but still in an interesting range. The predicted maximal storage capacities correlate well with experimental results obtained at low temperature. The technique is easily extendable to any other microporous structure, and it can provide a method for the screening of hypothetical new materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  10. Quantum effects in non-maximally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    Non-Maximally symmetric spaces provide a more general background to explore the relation between the geometry of the manifold and the quantum fields defined in the manifold than those with maximally symmetric spaces. A static Taub universe is used to study the effect of curvature anisotropy on the spontaneous symmetry breaking of a self-interacting scalar field. The one-loop effective potential on a λphi 4 field with arbitrary coupling xi is computed by zeta function regularization. For massless minimal coupled scalar fields, first order phase transitions can occur. Keeping the shape invariant but decreasing the curvature radius of the universe induces symmetry breaking. If the curvature radius is held constant, increasing deformation can restore the symmetry. Studies on the higher-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theories are also focused on the deformation effect. Using the dimensional regularization, the effective potential of the free scalar fields in M 4 x T/sup N/ and M 4 x (Taub) 3 spaces are obtained. The stability criterions for the static solutions of the self-consistent Einstein equations are derived. Stable solutions of the M 4 x S/sup N/ topology do not exist. With the Taub space as the internal space, the gauge coupling constants of SU(2), and U(1) can be determined geometrically. The weak angle is therefore predicted by geometry in this model

  11. a Threshold-Free Filtering Algorithm for Airborne LIDAR Point Clouds Based on Expectation-Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Z.; Cheng, P.; Ziggah, Y. Y.; Nie, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Filtering is a key step for most applications of airborne LiDAR point clouds. Although lots of filtering algorithms have been put forward in recent years, most of them suffer from parameters setting or thresholds adjusting, which will be time-consuming and reduce the degree of automation of the algorithm. To overcome this problem, this paper proposed a threshold-free filtering algorithm based on expectation-maximization. The proposed algorithm is developed based on an assumption that point clouds are seen as a mixture of Gaussian models. The separation of ground points and non-ground points from point clouds can be replaced as a separation of a mixed Gaussian model. Expectation-maximization (EM) is applied for realizing the separation. EM is used to calculate maximum likelihood estimates of the mixture parameters. Using the estimated parameters, the likelihoods of each point belonging to ground or object can be computed. After several iterations, point clouds can be labelled as the component with a larger likelihood. Furthermore, intensity information was also utilized to optimize the filtering results acquired using the EM method. The proposed algorithm was tested using two different datasets used in practice. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can filter non-ground points effectively. To quantitatively evaluate the proposed method, this paper adopted the dataset provided by the ISPRS for the test. The proposed algorithm can obtain a 4.48 % total error which is much lower than most of the eight classical filtering algorithms reported by the ISPRS.

  12. Maximizing the Impact of e-Therapy and Serious Gaming: Time for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theresa M; de Beurs, Derek; Khazaal, Yasser; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Aschieri, Filippo; Bavin, Lynda M; Kleiboer, Annet; Merry, Sally; Lau, Ho Ming; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs, and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS) was formed. In this perspectives' paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions toward the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: (1) increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modularization; (2) Increased emphasis on engagement utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology; (3) Increased collaboration in program development, testing, and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach; and (4) Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement, and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers, and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  13. Maximizing the impact of e-therapy and serious gaming: Time for a paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Fleming

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS was formed. In this perspectives paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions towards the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: 1. Increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modulariziation. 2. Increased emphasis on engagement; utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology. 3. Increased collaboration in program development, testing and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach. 4. Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  14. Appropriate slice location to assess maximal cross-sectional area of individual rotator cuff muscles in normal adults and athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Dohi, Michiko; Okuwaki, Toru; Tawara, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    We investigated appropriate slice locations for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging evaluation of the maximal cross-sectional area (CSA) of individual rotator cuff (RC) muscles in normal adults and athletes. We used a 1.5-tesla MR system with body-array and spine coils to obtain oblique sagittal T 1 -weighted shoulder images of 29 normal adults (16 men, 13 women); 6 national-level competitive swimmers (4 men, 2 women); 10 collegiate-level female badminton players; and 7 collegiate-level male rowers. We calculated the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis CSAs at the 0-1 locations on the scapula (dividing scapula width into 11 locations), 0 representing the medial border of the scapula and 1, the glenoid fossa surface. We evaluated the differences in CSAs at relative locations on the scapula for each muscle in normal adults, swimmers, badminton players, and rowers using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (P<0.05). The supraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.7 for all groups. The infraspinatus CSAs were maximal at 0.5 for normal men and women and badminton players, 0.4- and 0.5 locations for swimmers, and 0.4 for rowers. The teres minor CSAs were maximal at 0.9 for all groups except the swimmers (1 location). The subscapularis CSAs were maximal at 0.7 in men, swimmers, and badminton players and 0.6 in women and rowers. The appropriate slice locations for evaluating maximal CSAs are slightly lateral to the center of the scapula for the supraspinatus and subscapularis, at approximately the center of the scapula for the infraspinatus, and near the glenoid fossa for the teres minor. These slice locations should be clinically useful for morphological and/or function-related assessments of shoulder RC muscles. (author)

  15. Lactate minimum in a ramp protocol and its validity to estimate the maximal lactate steady state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Pardono

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n2p174   The objectives of this study were to evaluate the validity of the lactate minimum (LM using a ramp protocol for the determination of LM intensity (LMI, and to estimate the exercise intensity corresponding to maximal blood lactate steady state (MLSS. In addition, the possibility of determining aerobic and anaerobic fitness was investigated. Fourteen male cyclists of regional level performed one LM protocol on a cycle ergometer (Excalibur–Lode consisting of an incremental test at an initial workload of 75 Watts, with increments of 1 Watt every 6 seconds. Hyperlactatemia was induced by a 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAT (Monark–834E at a workload corresponding to 8.57% of the volunteer’s body weight. Peak power (11.5±2 Watts/kg, mean power output (9.8±1.7 Watts/kg, fatigue index (33.7±2.3% and lactate 7 min after WAT (10.5±2.3 mmol/L were determined. The incremental test identified LMI (207.8±17.7 Watts and its respective blood lactate concentration (2.9±0.7 mmol/L, heart rate (153.6±10.6 bpm, and also maximal aerobic power (305.2±31.0 Watts. MLSS intensity was identified by 2 to 4 constant exercise tests (207.8±17.7 Watts, with no difference compared to LMI and good agreement between the two parameters. The LM test using a ramp protocol seems to be a valid method for the identification of LMI and estimation of MLSS intensity in regional cyclists. In addition, both anaerobic and aerobic fitness parameters were identified during a single session.

  16. Do Maximal Roller Skiing Speed and Double Poling Performance Predict Youth Cross-Country Skiing Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m and longer durations (575 m. Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km. The main findings of the current study were: 1 Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys’, but not to girls’ PXC; 2 Significant moderate to acceptable correlations between girls’ and boys’ short duration maximal roller skiing speed (double poling, V2 skating, leg skating and PXC were found; 3 Boys’ PXC was best predicted by double poling test performance on flat and uphill, while girls’ performance was mainly predicted by uphill double poling test performance; 4 When controlling for maturity offset, boys’ PXC was still highly associated with the roller skiing tests. The use of simple non-invasive roller skiing tests for determination of PXC represents practicable support for ski clubs, schools or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent.

  17. Pump speed modulations and sub-maximal exercise tolerance in left ventricular assist device recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette Holme; Houston, Brian; Russell, Stuart D

    2017-01-01

    of the 2 sub-maximal tests was determined by randomization. Both patient and physician were blinded to the sequence. Exercise duration, oxygen consumption (VO2) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE), using the Borg scale (score 6 to 20), were recorded. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (all with a HeartMate II...... ventricular assist device) completed 57 exercise tests. Baseline pump speed was 9,326 ± 378 rpm. At AT, workload was 63 ± 26 W (25 to 115 W) and VO2 was 79 ± 14% of maximum. Exercise duration improved by 106 ± 217 seconds (~13%) in Speedinc compared with Speedbase (837 ± 358 vs 942 ± 359 seconds; p = 0...

  18. Time Series Modeling of Nano-Gold Immunochromatographic Assay via Expectation Maximization Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nianyin; Wang, Zidong; Li, Yurong; Du, Min; Cao, Jie; Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm is applied to the modeling of the nano-gold immunochromatographic assay (nano-GICA) via available time series of the measured signal intensities of the test and control lines. The model for the nano-GICA is developed as the stochastic dynamic model that consists of a first-order autoregressive stochastic dynamic process and a noisy measurement. By using the EM algorithm, the model parameters, the actual signal intensities of the test and control lines, as well as the noise intensity can be identified simultaneously. Three different time series data sets concerning the target concentrations are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced algorithm. Several indices are also proposed to evaluate the inferred models. It is shown that the model fits the data very well.

  19. Relationship between traditional and ballistic squat exercise with vertical jumping and maximal sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Bernardo; García, Inmaculada; Requena, Francisco; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez-Sáez; Cronin, John B

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the magnitude of the relationship between vertical jumping and maximal sprinting at different distances with performance in the traditional and ballistic concentric squat exercise in well-trained sprinters. Twenty-one men performed 2 types of barbell squats (ballistic and traditional) across different loads with the aim of determining the maximal peak and average power outputs and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) values. Moreover, vertical jumping (countermovement jump test [CMJ]) and maximal sprints over 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 m were also assessed. In respect to 1RM in traditional squat, (a) no significant correlation was found with CMJ performance; (b) positive strong relationships (p ballistic and traditional squat exercises (r = 0.53-0.90); (c) negative significant correlations (r = -0.49 to -0.59, p ballistic or traditional squat exercises. Sprint time at 20 m was only related to ballistic and traditional squat performance when power values were expressed in relative terms. Moderate significant correlations (r = -0.39 to -0.56, p ballistic and traditional squat exercises. Sprint times at 60 and 80 m were mainly related to ballistic squat power outputs. Although correlations can only give insights into associations and not into cause and effect, from this investigation, it can be seen that traditional squat strength has little in common with CMJ performance and that relative 1RM and power outputs for both squat exercises are statistically correlated to most sprint distances underlying the importance of strength and power to sprinting.

  20. Optimal Halbach permanent magnet designs for maximally pulling and pushing nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, A.; Nemirovski, A.; Shapiro, B.

    2012-01-01

    Optimization methods are presented to design Halbach arrays to maximize the forces applied on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. In magnetic drug targeting, where magnets are used to focus therapeutic nanoparticles to disease locations, the sharp fall off of magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets has limited the depth of targeting. Creating stronger forces at a depth by optimally designed Halbach arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients, e.g. patients with deeper tumors. The presented optimization methods are based on semi-definite quadratic programming, yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2 and 3-dimensions, for maximal pull or push magnetic forces (stronger pull forces can collect nanoparticles against blood forces in deeper vessels; push forces can be used to inject particles into precise locations, e.g. into the inner ear). These Halbach designs, here tested in simulations of Maxwell's equations, significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. For example, a 3-dimensional 36 element 2000 cm 3 volume optimal Halbach design yields a 5× greater force at a 10 cm depth compared to a uniformly magnetized magnet of the same size and strength. The designed arrays should be feasible to construct, as they have a similar strength (≤1 T), size (≤2000 cm 3 ), and number of elements (≤36) as previously demonstrated arrays, and retain good performance for reasonable manufacturing errors (element magnetization direction errors ≤5°), thus yielding practical designs to improve magnetic drug targeting treatment depths. - Highlights: ► Optimization methods presented to design Halbach arrays for drug targeting. ► The goal is to maximize forces on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. ► The presented methods yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2D and 3D. ► These designs significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. ► These

  1. Maximal exercise electrocardiography responses and coronary heart disease mortality among men with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, G William; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Lavie, Carl J; Hand, Gregory A; Blair, Steven N

    2008-05-27

    An abnormal ECG during maximal exercise testing has been shown to be a powerful predictor of future coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in asymptomatic men. However, little is known about the relationship between exercise ECG responses and CHD risk in men with diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between exercise ECG responses and mortality in 2854 men with documented diabetes mellitus (mean age 49.5 years) who completed a maximal treadmill exercise test during the period from 1974 to 2001 and who were without a previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) event at baseline. Mortality due to all causes, CHD, and CVD were the main outcome measures across categories of exercise ECG responses, with stratification by cardiorespiratory fitness, quantified as treadmill test duration. During an average follow-up of 16 years, 441 deaths (210 CVD and 133 CHD) were identified. Across normal, equivocal, and abnormal exercise ECG groups, age- and examination year-adjusted CHD mortality rates per 10 000 person-years were 23.0, 48.6, and 69.0, respectively (P(trend)<0.001). After further adjustment for fasting plasma glucose level, smoking, body mass index, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, family history of CVD or diabetes mellitus, abnormal resting ECG responses, and cardiorespiratory fitness, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.00 (referent), 1.68 (1.01 to 2.77), and 2.21 (1.41 to 3.46; P(trend)<0.001). Similar patterns of associations were noted between exercise ECG testing and both CVD and all-cause mortality risk. Among men with diabetes mellitus, equivocal and abnormal exercise ECG responses were associated with higher risk of all-cause, CVD, and CHD mortality.

  2. M-Theory and Maximally Supersymmetric Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this informal review for non-specalists we discuss the construction of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories that arise on the worldvolumes branes in String Theory and M-Theory. Particular focus is made on the relatively recent construction of M2-brane worldvolume theories. In a formal sense, the existence of these quantum field theories can be viewed as predictions of M-Theory. Their construction is therefore a reinforcement of the ideas underlying String Theory and M-Theory. We also briefly discuss the six-dimensional conformal field theory that is expected to arise on M5-branes. The construction of this theory is not only an important open problem for M-Theory but also a significant challenge to our current understanding of quantum field theory more generally.

  3. LikelihoodLib - Fitting, Function Maximization, and Numerical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, I B

    2001-01-01

    A new class library is designed for function maximization, minimization, solution of equations and for other problems related to mathematical analysis of multi-parameter functions by numerical iterative methods. When we search the maximum or another special point of a function, we may change and fit all parameters simultaneously, sequentially, recursively, or by any combination of these methods. The discussion is focused on the first the most complicated method, although the others are also supported by the library. For this method we apply: control of precision by interval computations; the calculation of derivatives either by differential arithmetic, or by the method of finite differences with the step lengths which provide suppression of the influence of numerical noise; possible synchronization of the subjective function calls with minimization of the number of iterations; competitive application of various methods for step calculation, and converging to the solution by many trajectories.

  4. Random graph states, maximal flow and Fuss-Catalan distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, BenoIt; Nechita, Ion; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2010-01-01

    For any graph consisting of k vertices and m edges we construct an ensemble of random pure quantum states which describe a system composed of 2m subsystems. Each edge of the graph represents a bipartite, maximally entangled state. Each vertex represents a random unitary matrix generated according to the Haar measure, which describes the coupling between subsystems. Dividing all subsystems into two parts, one may study entanglement with respect to this partition. A general technique to derive an expression for the average entanglement entropy of random pure states associated with a given graph is presented. Our technique relies on Weingarten calculus and flow problems. We analyze the statistical properties of spectra of such random density matrices and show for which cases they are described by the free Poissonian (Marchenko-Pastur) distribution. We derive a discrete family of generalized, Fuss-Catalan distributions and explicitly construct graphs which lead to ensembles of random states characterized by these novel distributions of eigenvalues.

  5. Preliminary accelerator plans for maximizing the integrated LHC luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ruggiero, F; Ostojic, R; Scandale, Walter; Shaposhnikova, Elena; Wenninger, J

    2006-01-01

    A working group on "Proton Accelerators for the Future" (PAF) has been created in May 2005 by the CERN direction to elaborate a baseline scenario of the possible development and upgrade of the present Proton Accelerator Complex. This report is the result of the investigation conducted until the end of 2005, in close connection with the working group on "Physics Opportunities with Future Proton Accelerators" (POFPA) and is consistent with their recommendations. Focused on the goal of maximizing the integrated luminosity for the LHC experiments, a scenario of evolution is proposed, subject to further refinement using the future experience of commissioning and running-in the collider and its injector complex. The actions to be taken in terms of consolidation, R & D and improvement are outlined. The benefits for other types of physics are mentioned and will be investigated in more detail in the future.

  6. Techniques to maximize software reliability in radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Piercey, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Microprocessor system failures due to memory corruption by single event upsets (SEUs) and/or latch-up in RAM or ROM memory are common in environments where there is high radiation flux. Traditional methods to harden microcomputer systems against SEUs and memory latch-up have usually involved expensive large scale hardware redundancy. Such systems offer higher reliability, but they tend to be more complex and non-standard. At the Space Astronomy Laboratory the authors have developed general programming techniques for producing software which is resistant to such memory failures. These techniques, which may be applied to standard off-the-shelf hardware, as well as custom designs, include an implementation of Maximally Redundant Software (MRS) model, error detection algorithms and memory verification and management

  7. Maximizing entropy of image models for 2-D constrained coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Danieli, Matteo; Burini, Nino

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers estimating and maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2-D) fields with application to 2-D constrained coding. We consider Markov random fields (MRF), which have a non-causal description, and the special case of Pickard random fields (PRF). The PRF are 2-D causal finite...... context models, which define stationary probability distributions on finite rectangles and thus allow for calculation of the entropy. We consider two binary constraints and revisit the hard square constraint given by forbidding neighboring 1s and provide novel results for the constraint that no uniform 2...... £ 2 squares contains all 0s or all 1s. The maximum values of the entropy for the constraints are estimated and binary PRF satisfying the constraint are characterized and optimized w.r.t. the entropy. The maximum binary PRF entropy is 0.839 bits/symbol for the no uniform squares constraint. The entropy...

  8. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory......We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....

  9. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."

  10. Tetrahedral meshing via maximal Poisson-disk sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to generate 3D-conforming tetrahedral meshes from closed 2-manifold surfaces. Our approach is inspired by recent work on maximal Poisson-disk sampling (MPS), which can generate well-distributed point sets in arbitrary domains. We first perform MPS on the boundary of the input domain, we then sample the interior of the domain, and we finally extract the tetrahedral mesh from the samples by using 3D Delaunay or regular triangulation for uniform or adaptive sampling, respectively. We also propose an efficient optimization strategy to protect the domain boundaries and to remove slivers to improve the meshing quality. We present various experimental results to illustrate the efficiency and the robustness of our proposed approach. We demonstrate that the performance and quality (e.g., minimal dihedral angle) of our approach are superior to current state-of-the-art optimization-based approaches.

  11. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbert, Florian; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  12. Maximal network reliability for a stochastic power transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Many studies regarded a power transmission network as a binary-state network and constructed it with several arcs and vertices to evaluate network reliability. In practice, the power transmission network should be stochastic because each arc (transmission line) combined with several physical lines is multistate. Network reliability is the probability that the network can transmit d units of electric power from a power plant (source) to a high voltage substation at a specific area (sink). This study focuses on searching for the optimal transmission line assignment to the power transmission network such that network reliability is maximized. A genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products is developed to solve this assignment problem. A real power transmission network is adopted to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method while comparing with the random solution generation approach.

  13. Maximal Abelian gauge and a generalized BRST transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Deguchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We apply a generalized Becchi–Rouet–Stora–Tyutin (BRST formulation to establish a connection between the gauge-fixed SU(2 Yang–Mills (YM theories formulated in the Lorenz gauge and in the Maximal Abelian (MA gauge. It is shown that the generating functional corresponding to the Faddeev–Popov (FP effective action in the MA gauge can be obtained from that in the Lorenz gauge by carrying out an appropriate finite and field-dependent BRST (FFBRST transformation. In this procedure, the FP effective action in the MA gauge is found from that in the Lorenz gauge by incorporating the contribution of non-trivial Jacobian due to the FFBRST transformation of the path integral measure. The present FFBRST formulation might be useful to see how Abelian dominance in the MA gauge is realized in the Lorenz gauge.

  14. Applications of maximally concentrating optics for solar energy collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gallagher, J.; Winston, R.

    1985-11-01

    A new family of optical concentrators based on a general nonimaging design principle for maximizing the geometric concentration, C, for radiation within a given acceptance half angle ±θα has been developed. The maximum limit exceeds by factors of 2 to 10 that attainable by systems using focusing optics. The wide acceptance angles permitted using these techniques have several unique advantages for solar concentrators including the elimination of the diurnal tracking requirement at intermediate concentrations (up to ˜10x), collection of circumsolar and some diffuse radiation, and relaxed tolerances. Because of these advantages, these types of concentrators have applications in solar energy wherever concentration is desired, e.g. for a wide variety of both thermal and photovoltaic uses. The basic principles of nonimaging optical design are reviewed. Selected configurations for thermal collector applications are discussed and the use of nonimaging elements as secondary concentrators is illustrated in the context of higher concentration applications.

  15. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  16. Sum-Rate Maximization of Coordinated Direct and Relay Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Fan; Popovski, Petar; Thai, Chan

    2012-01-01

    Joint processing of multiple communication flows in wireless systems has given rise to a number of novel transmission techniques, notably the two-way relaying based on wireless network coding. Recently, a related set of techniques has emerged, termed coordinated direct and relay (CDR) transmissions......, where the constellation of traffic flows is more general than the two-way. Regardless of the actual traffic flows, in a CDR scheme the relay has a central role in managing the interference and boosting the overall system performance. In this paper we investigate the novel transmission modes, based...... on amplify-and-forward, that arise when the relay is equipped with multiple antennas and can use beamforming. We focus on one representative traffic type, with one uplink and one downlink users and consider the achievable sum-rate maximization relay beamforming. The beamforming criterion leads to a non...

  17. Damped oscillatory integrals and boundedness problem for maximal operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikromov, Isroil A.

    2003-06-01

    We consider a real-analytic hypersurface S in IR n+1 with surface measure dσ, ψ is a compactly supported non-negative smooth cut-off function, and we let dμ q be the surface measure with dμ q ψvertical barΛ(X)vertical bar q dσ, where Λ(X) is a damping factor defined by the matrix of a second fundamental form of the surface. We show that if S is a real analytic hypersurface, then μ-circumflex q (ξ) decays as O(vertical barξvertical bar -(1/2+ε) ), where ε > 0, provided q > 3/2. We also consider applications involving maximal operators associated to averages of functions over hypersurfaces. (author)

  18. Low-energy restoration of parity and maximal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.; Sarkar, U.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal symmetry of fermions of one generation, SU(16), which includes the left-right-symmetric Pati-Salam group, SU(4)/sub c/ x SU(2) /sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/, as a subgroup, allows the possibility of a low-energy (M/sub R/approx.100 GeV) breaking of the left-right symmetry. It is known that such a low-energy restoration of parity can be consistent with weak-interaction phenomenology. We examine different chains of descent of SU(16) that admit a low value of M/sub R/ and determine the other intermediate symmetry-breaking mass scales associated with each of these chains. These additional mass scales provide an alternative to the ''great desert'' expected in some grand unifying models. The contributions of the Higgs fields in the renormalization-group equations are retained and are found to be important

  19. Maximization of fructose esters synthesis by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair Sampaio; Peres, António M; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of fructose fatty acid ester was performed in organic solvent media, using a purified lipase from Candida antartica B immobilized in acrylic resin. Response surface methodology with a central composite rotatable design based on five levels was implemented to optimize three experimental operating conditions (temperature, agitation and reaction time). A statistical significant cubic model was established. Temperature and reaction time were found to be the most significant parameters. The optimum operational conditions for maximizing the synthesis of fructose esters were 57.1°C, 100 rpm and 37.8 h. The model was validated in the identified optimal conditions to check its adequacy and accuracy, and an experimental esterification percentage of 88.4% (±0.3%) was obtained. These results showed that an improvement of the enzymatic synthesis of fructose esters was obtained under the optimized conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximizing omnidirectional light harvesting in metal oxide hyperbranched array architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Rao, Hua-Shang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-05-01

    The scrupulous design of nanoarchitectures and smart hybridization of specific active materials are closely related to the overall photovoltaic performance of an anode electrode. Here we present a solution-based strategy for the fabrication of well-aligned metal oxide-based nanowire-nanosheet-nanorod hyperbranched arrays on transparent conducting oxide substrates. For these hyperbranched arrays, we observe a twofold increment in dye adsorption and enhanced light trapping and scattering capability compared with the pristine titanium dioxide nanowires, and thus a power conversion efficiency of 9.09% is achieved. Our growth approach presents a strategy to broaden the photoresponse and maximize the light-harvesting efficiency of arrays architectures, and may lead to applications for energy conversion and storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing.