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Sample records for maximal alkaloid production

  1. Genetic transformation of the endangered Tibetan medicinal plant Przewalskia tangutica Maxim and alkaloid production profiling revealed by HPLC.

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    Lei, Tianxiang; Wang, Huan; Li, Songling; Shen, Jianwei; Chen, Shilong; Cai, Xiaojian; Zhou, Dangwei

    2018-03-01

    To achieve a high yield of tropane alkaloids (TA) and exploit the alpine plant sustainably, an optimized protocol for induction and establishment of hairy roots culture of Prezwalskia tangutica Maxim was developed through selection of appropriate Agrobacterium strain and the explant type. The hypocotyl is more readily facile to induce the HR than the cotyledon is when infected with the three different agrobacterium strains. MUS440 has an efficiency (of up to 20%), whereas the ATCC10060 (A4) can induce HR on both types of explants with the highest frequency (33.33%), root length (21.17 ± 2.84 cm), and root number (10.83 ± 1.43) per explant than the other strains. The highest HR production resulted from using hypocotyl as explants. Independent transformed HR was able to grow vigorously and to propagate on a no-hormone 1/2MS liquid medium. The presence of pRi rol B gene in transformation of HR was confirmed by PCR amplification. In the liquid medium, the HR growth curve appeared to be "S" shaped, and ADB had increased to 4.633 g/l. Moreover, HPLC analysis showed that HR lines have an extraordinary ability to produce atropine (229.88 mg/100 g), anisodine (4.09 mg/100 g), anisodamine (12.85 mg/100 g), and scopolamine (10.69 mg/100 g), which were all more significant than the control roots. In conclusion, our study optimized the culture condition and established a feasible genetics reactor for P. tangutica green exploration and biological study in the alpine region.

  2. Importance of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Bee Products

    OpenAIRE

    OZANSOY, GÖRKEM; KÜPLÜLÜ, ÖZLEM

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidinealkaloids are one of the groups of harmful chemicals of plants, which arenatural toxins. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids found in about 3% of all floweringplants of widespread geographical distribution are known as one of thecomponents of the hepatotoxic group of plant origin and referred as hepatotoxicpyrrolizidine alkaloids. According to researches, bee products is regarded asone of the main food sources in the exposure of people to pyrrolizidinealkaloids. Consumption of pyrrolizidine ...

  3. Alkaloids from Juglans Mandshurica maxim induce distinctive cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

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    Lou, Li-Li; Cheng, Zhuo-Yang; Guo, Rui; Yao, Guo-Dong; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this work was to further investigate the anticancer potential of Juglans mandshurica Maxim, including the separation of active constituents and their anti-proliferative effects with underlying mechanism of action. Five alkaloids (1-5) were isolated from the bark of J. mandshurica. Among them, 1 showed the highest cytotoxic activities against Hep3B and HepG2 cells with an IC50 values of 61.80 and 56.24 μM, respectively. Therefore, the cellular mechanism involved 1 was subsequently studied. Our results showed that 1 markedly caused apoptosis and autophagy, but without cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, only autophagic cell death was induced in 1-treated Hep3B cells. It is concluded that the isolated alkaloids exerted a certain anti-hepatoma potential, and our results may provide a basis for the further investigation of the alkaloids extracted from J. mandshurica.

  4. Potential of solid state fermentation for production of ergot alkaloids

    OpenAIRE

    Trejo Hernandez, M.R.; Raimbault, Maurice; Roussos, Sevastianos; Lonsane, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Production of total ergot alkaloids by #Claviceps fusiformis$ in solid state fermentation was 3.9 times higher compared to that in submerged fermentation. Production was equal in the case of #Claviceps purpurea$ but the spectra of alkaloids were advantageous with the use of solid state fermentation. The data establish potential of solid state fermentation which was not explored earlier for production of ergot alkaloids. (Résumé d'auteur)

  5. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in commercial comfrey products (Symphytum sp.).

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    Betz, J M; Eppley, R M; Taylor, W C; Andrzejewski, D

    1994-05-01

    The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum sp.) and the widespread use of decoctions of this plant as a beverage (herbal tea) are of increasing concern. A method for the extraction and solid-phase concentration and capillary gas chromatographic determination of these alkaloids and their N-oxides in botanical materials has been developed and was applied to eleven comfrey-containing products purchased from retail health-food outlets in the Washington, DC, area during May-June 1989. Nine of the 11 products were found to contain measurable quantities of one or more of the alkaloids, in ranges from 0.1 to 400.0 ppm. Products containing comfrey leaf in combination with one or more other ingredients were found to contain the lowest alkaloid levels. Highest levels were found in bulk comfrey root, followed by bulk comfrey leaf. The species of the bulk material was verified by thin-layer chromatography and other means.

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors of indolinone alkaloids and phenolic derivatives from Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim.

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    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Jang Hoon; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to search for potential therapeutic agents by identifying novel inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) from natural plants using an in silico approach. We found that an ethanolic extract from the roots of Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim. significantly inhibited sEH in vitro. In a phytochemical investigation using assay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of C. dahurica, we isolated two new indolinone alkaloids (5 and 6) and five related constituents (1-4, and 7) and established their structures based on an extensive analysis using 1D and 2D NMR, and MS methods. All of the isolated compounds inhibited sEH enzymatic activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC 50 values ranging from 0.8±0.0 to 2.8±0.4μM. A kinetic analysis of compounds 1-7 revealed that compound 2 was non-competitive; 1, 3, and 7 were mixed-type; and 4-6 were competitive inhibitors. Molecular docking was employed to further elucidate their receptor-ligand binding characteristics. These results demonstrated that compounds from C. dahurica are potential sEH inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous determination of the content of isoquinoline alkaloids in Dicranostigma leptopodum (Maxim) Fedde and the effective fractionation of the alkaloids by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

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    Chen, Yali; Li, Min; Liu, Jianjun; Yan, Qian; Zhong, Mei; Liu, Junxi; Di, Duolong; Liu, Jinxia

    2015-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was developed for the simultaneous determination of eight isoquinoline alkaloids in methanol extracts of Dicranostigma leptopodum (Maxim) Fedde and the effective fractionation of the alkaloids of D. leptopodum by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The chromatographic conditions were optimized on a SinoChrom ODS-BP column to obtain a good separation of the four types of alkaloid analytes, including two aporphines (isocorydine, corydine), two protopines (protopine and allocryptopine), a morphine (sinoacutine), and three quaternary protoberberine alkaloids (berberrubine, 5-hydroxycoptisine, and berberine). The separation of these alkaloids was significantly affected by the composition of the mobile phase, and particularly by its pH value. Acetonitrile (A) and 0.2% phosphoric acid solution adjusted to pH 6.32 with triethylamine (B) were selected as the mobile phase with a gradient elution. With this method, a new quaternary protoberberine alkaloid was isolated and the two structural isomers (isocorydine and corydine) were baseline separated. The appropriate harvest period for D. leptopodum was also recommended based on our analysis. The method for the effective fraction of the alkaloids of D. leptopodum was optimized under this method with regard to the varying significant pharmacological activities of the alkaloids. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Gradient Dynamics and Entropy Production Maximization

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    Janečka, Adam; Pavelka, Michal

    2018-01-01

    We compare two methods for modeling dissipative processes, namely gradient dynamics and entropy production maximization. Both methods require similar physical inputs-how energy (or entropy) is stored and how it is dissipated. Gradient dynamics describes irreversible evolution by means of dissipation potential and entropy, it automatically satisfies Onsager reciprocal relations as well as their nonlinear generalization (Maxwell-Onsager relations), and it has statistical interpretation. Entropy production maximization is based on knowledge of free energy (or another thermodynamic potential) and entropy production. It also leads to the linear Onsager reciprocal relations and it has proven successful in thermodynamics of complex materials. Both methods are thermodynamically sound as they ensure approach to equilibrium, and we compare them and discuss their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, conditions under which the two approaches coincide and are capable of providing the same constitutive relations are identified. Besides, a commonly used but not often mentioned step in the entropy production maximization is pinpointed and the condition of incompressibility is incorporated into gradient dynamics.

  9. Effects of Supplementation of Alkaloid and Non Alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus Leaves on Egg Production and Lipid Profil in Layer Chicken

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    U Santoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves on productive performance and the contents of lipid fractions in layer chickens. Forty two layer chickens aged 30 weeks were distributed to seven treatment groups. Each treatment group contained six layer chickens maintained in an individual cage, respectively. The present experiment used completely randomized experimental design. The seven treatment groups were as follows: 1 Control, layer chickens were fed diet without supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid extracted from Sauropus androgynus (P0; 2 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P1; 3 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P2; 4 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg non alkaloid/kg diet (P3; 5 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P4; 6 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 60 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P5; 7 Layer chickens were fed diet contained 90 mg alkaloid/kg diet (P6. Layer chickens were fed experimental diet with 2,750 kcal/kg Metabolizable Energy (ME and 16.0% protein. Diet and drinking water were fed ad libitum. Experimental results showed that supplementation of alkaloid or non alkaloid from Sauropus androgynus leaves significantly affected productive performance in layer chickens. It appear that non alkaloid supplementation had no advantage in improving productive performance, whereas supplementation of 30 mg alkaloid/kg diet might have advantages in improving productive performance as indicated by better egg production and lower feed conversion ratio. Treatment had no effect on glucose and triglyceride concentration in serum, but it affected total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL+VLDL-cholesterol and atherogenic index in serum. Cholesterol concentration in serum was significantly increased in P4 and P6, whereas HDL-cholesterol concentration was

  10. Two Alkaloids from Bulbs of Lycoris sanguinea MAXIM. Suppress PEPCK Expression by Inhibiting the Phosphorylation of CREB.

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    Yun, Young Sook; Tajima, Miki; Takahashi, Shigeru; Takahashi, Yuji; Umemura, Mariko; Nakano, Haruo; Park, Hyun Sun; Inoue, Hideshi

    2016-10-01

    In the fasting state, gluconeogenesis is upregulated by glucagon. Glucagon stimulates cyclic adenosine monophosphate production, which induces the expression of key enzymes for gluconeogenesis, such as cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C), which are involved in gluconeogenesis through the protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. Using a luciferase reporter gene assay, a methanol extract of the bulbs of Lycoris sanguinea M AXIM. var. kiushiana Makino was found to suppress cAMP-enhanced PEPCK-C promoter activity. In addition, two alkaloids, lycoricidine and lycoricidinol, in the extract were identified as active constituents. In forskolin-stimulated human hepatoma cells, these alkaloids suppressed the expression of a reporter gene under the control of cAMP response element and also prevented increases in the endogenous levels of phosphorylated CREB and PEPCK mRNA expression. These results suggest that lycoricidine and lycoricidinol suppress PEPCK-C expression by inhibiting the phosphorylation of CREB and may thus have the potential to prevent excessive gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  12. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  13. Risk assessment on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

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    Allgaier, Clemens; Franz, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are common plantal toxins directed against insect herbivores. Unsaturated PAs are known to be hepatotoxic. Many of the PAs are in addition mutagenic and some may possibly be carcinogenic for humans. The risk of an exposure to PAs associated with their occurrence in herbal medicinal products and in foodstuff is under current discussion. The present risk assessment for herbal medicinal products containing PAs is based on a margin of safety derivation for foodstuff indicating that a life-long exposure to maximally 0.007 μg/kg bw/day is not expected to be associated with safety concerns. This approach offers a possibility to estimate the potential risk of PA-containing herbal medicinal products irrespective of the route of administration. It assumes PA levels in the final herbal medicinal product below 0.01 ppm and considers for dermal administration a 100% skin penetration of the PAs reflecting a worst-case scenario. As a result, the calculated margins of safety show a potential exposure using herbal medicinal products 70-, 45.5-, and 19.3-fold lower on a one-day base and 608-, 396-, and 168- fold lower on a one-year base for adults, children aged 12 years, and children aged 4 years, respectively, than the thresholds considered acceptable for foodstuff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: Part 1--biological basis of maximal power production.

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    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-01-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances, the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1 focuses on the factors that affect maximal power production, while part 2, which will follow in a forthcoming edition of Sports Medicine, explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability of the neuromuscular system to generate maximal power is affected by a range of interrelated factors. Maximal muscular power is defined and limited by the force-velocity relationship and affected by the length-tension relationship. The ability to generate maximal power is influenced by the type of muscle action involved and, in particular, the time available to develop force, storage and utilization of elastic energy, interactions of contractile and elastic elements, potentiation of contractile and elastic filaments as well as stretch reflexes. Furthermore, maximal power production is influenced by morphological factors including fibre type contribution to whole muscle area, muscle architectural features and tendon properties as well as neural factors including motor unit recruitment, firing frequency, synchronization and inter-muscular coordination. In addition, acute changes in the muscle environment (i.e. alterations resulting from fatigue, changes in hormone milieu and muscle temperature) impact the ability to generate maximal power. Resistance training has been shown to impact each of these neuromuscular factors in quite specific ways. Therefore, an understanding of the biological basis of maximal power production is essential for developing training programmes that effectively enhance maximal power production in the human.

  15. How polyamine synthesis inhibitors and cinnamic acid affect tropane alkaloid production.

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    Marconi, Patricia L; Alvarez, María A; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra I

    2007-01-01

    Hairy roots of Brugmansia candida produce the tropane alkaloids scopolamine and hyoscyamine. In an attempt to divert the carbon flux from competing pathways and thus enhance productivity, the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors cyclohexylamine (CHA) and methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone (MGBG) and the phenylalanine-ammonia-lyase inhibitor cinnamic acid were used. CHA decreased the specific productivity of both alkaloids but increased significantly the release of scopolamine (approx 500%) when it was added in the mid-exponential phase. However, when CHA was added for only 48 h during the exponential phase, the specific productivity of both alkaloids increased (approx 200%), favoring scopolamine. Treatment with MGBG was detrimental to growth but promoted release into the medium of both alkaloids. However, when it was added for 48 h during the exponential phase, MGBG increased the specific productivity (approx 200%) and release (250- 1800%) of both alkaloids. Cinnamic acid alone also favored release but not specific productivity. When a combination of CHA or MGBG with cinnamic acid was used, the results obtained were approximately the same as with each polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor alone, although to a lesser extent. Regarding root morphology, CHA inhibited growth of primary roots and ramification. However, it had a positive effect on elongation of lateral roots.

  16. Oxidative stress and production of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids: biotechnological implications.

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    Matsuura, Hélio Nitta; Rau, Mariana Ritter; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2014-02-01

    Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) encompass plant natural products with important pharmacological relevance. They include the anti-tumoral MIAs found in Catharanthus roseus and Camptotheca acuminata. The often low yields of bioactive alkaloids in plants has prompted research to identify the factors regulating MIA production. Oxidative stress is a general response associated with biotic and abiotic stresses leading to several secondary responses, including elicitation of MIA production. These changes in secondary metabolism may take place directly or via second messengers, such as Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). H2O2 is the main ROS that participates in MIA biosynthesis. This review analyzes the links between oxidative stress, elicitation of bioactive MIA production and their potential roles in antioxidant defense, as well as exploring the implications to developing biotechnological strategies relevant for alkaloid supply.

  17. Maximizing remanufacturing profit using product acquisition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.D.R. Guide Jr (Daniel); R.H. Teunter (Ruud); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe profitability of remanufacturing depends on the quantity and quality of product returns and on the demand for remanufactured products. The quantity and quality of product returns can be influenced by varying quality dependent acquisition prices, i.e., by using product acquisition

  18. Phytotoxicity Assessment of Certain Phytochemical Products Containing Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

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    Cristina Șeremet Oana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tussilago farfara (coltsfoot, Petasites hybridus (common butterbur, Senecio vernalis (eastern groundsel and Symphytum officinale (comfrey are species traditionally used in phytotherapy that besides the therapeutic compounds contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The aim of the paper is to determine the total PAs content and the phytotoxicity of the above species. Material and methods: The quantitative determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is based on the stoichiometric reaction of protonated alkaloids with methyl orange. In acidic conditions the dye is released from the complex and its color is assessed spectrophotometrically using a linear regression curve of senecionine as a standard. The phytotoxicity was assessed by Triticum bioassay that studies the effect of the extracts (0.001-5.00%, w/v upon root elongation (inhibitory concentration - IC50 and on the karyokinetic film. Results: The highest amount of total PAs was found in Senecio vernalis (654.8 ± 35.96 μg/g dry plant and the lowest in Petasites hybridus. The lowest IC50 was found for Tussilago farfara followed by Petasites hybridus, Senecio vernalis, and Symphytum officinale. The results were supported by microscopic examination. Conclusions: The results of the spectrophotometric assay are consistent with the ones found in the literature. All extracts inhibited the elongation of the main root of wheat caryopses, however, no correlation between phytotoxicity and the PAs concentration could be emphasized

  19. Effects of alkaloid extracts of mesquite pod on the products of in vitro rumen fermentation.

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    de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; Moreira, Jeruzia Vitória; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; Batista, Ronan; de Paula, Vanderlúcia Fonseca; Oliveira, Brena Santos; de Jesus Dos Santos, Edileusa

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of alkaloid extracts of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) D.C. pods obtained by two extraction methods as compared with sodium monensin on the gas production kinetic, mitigation of methane, and rumen fermentation products using wheat bran or Tifton 85 hay as substrates, by the semi-automatic in vitro gas production technique. A completely randomized design was adopted, and two natural additives were tested made from mesquite pod (alkaloid extract I and alkaloid extract II) at three levels (3.9, 7.9, and 12 μg), sodium monensin 5 μM (positive control), and no inclusion of additives (negative control). The volume of gases produced by the degradation of the fibrous fraction of wheat bran was influenced by the concentration of the extract I added to the medium, and the amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were equal to monensin at the lowest value. The degradation rate of the fibrous carbohydrates with additive extract I at 12 μg was lower in relation to monensin. When Tifton 85 hay was utilized, alkaloid extract I provided a shorter colonization time as compared with monensin at the added amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg and higher production of gases from the fibrous fraction but without interfering with the total volume of gases produced during 96 h of fermentation of carbohydrates. In the periods of 12 and 24 h of incubation, utilizing alkaloid extract I, the mean values of methane production with wheat bran and Tifton 85 hay were lower than monensin (p < 0.05) when the respective amounts of 7.9 and 12 μg were added. Alkaloid extract I has similar potential to sodium in reducing production of total gases, methane, and the acetate/propionate ratio.

  20. Developing maximal neuromuscular power: part 2 - training considerations for improving maximal power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    This series of reviews focuses on the most important neuromuscular function in many sport performances: the ability to generate maximal muscular power. Part 1, published in an earlier issue of Sports Medicine, focused on the factors that affect maximal power production while part 2 explores the practical application of these findings by reviewing the scientific literature relevant to the development of training programmes that most effectively enhance maximal power production. The ability to generate maximal power during complex motor skills is of paramount importance to successful athletic performance across many sports. A crucial issue faced by scientists and coaches is the development of effective and efficient training programmes that improve maximal power production in dynamic, multi-joint movements. Such training is referred to as 'power training' for the purposes of this review. Although further research is required in order to gain a deeper understanding of the optimal training techniques for maximizing power in complex, sports-specific movements and the precise mechanisms underlying adaptation, several key conclusions can be drawn from this review. First, a fundamental relationship exists between strength and power, which dictates that an individual cannot possess a high level of power without first being relatively strong. Thus, enhancing and maintaining maximal strength is essential when considering the long-term development of power. Second, consideration of movement pattern, load and velocity specificity is essential when designing power training programmes. Ballistic, plyometric and weightlifting exercises can be used effectively as primary exercises within a power training programme that enhances maximal power. The loads applied to these exercises will depend on the specific requirements of each particular sport and the type of movement being trained. The use of ballistic exercises with loads ranging from 0% to 50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and

  1. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H.; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Mol, Hans G.J.; Nijs, de Monique

    2018-01-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with

  2. Tropane and nicotine alkaloid biosynthesis-novel approaches towards biotechnological production of plant-derived pharmaceuticals.

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    Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2007-08-01

    Many plants belonging to the Solanaceae family have been used as a source of pharmaceuticals for centuries because of their active principles, tropane and nicotine alkaloids. Tropane alkaloids, atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine, are among the oldest drugs in medicine. On the other hand nicotine, the addictive agent in tobacco, has only recently gained attention as a backbone for novel potential alkaloids to be used for certain neurological diseases. The biotechnological production of alkaloids utilizing plant cells as hosts would be an attractive option. However, to date very little success in this field has been gained because of the lack of understanding how these compounds are synthesized in a plant cell. Metabolic engineering attempts have already shown that when the rate-limiting steps of the biosynthetic pathway are completely known and the respective genes cloned, the exact regulation towards desired medicinal products will be possible in the near future. The new functional genomics tools, which combine transcriptome and metabolome data, will create a platform to better understand a whole system and to engineer the complex plant biosynthetic pathways. With the help of this technology, it is not only possible to produce known plant metabolites more effectively but also to make arrays of new compounds in plants and cell cultures.

  3. Application of Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Technique to Determine Ergot Alkaloids in Grain Products

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    Krystyna Szymczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-based method to determine six ergot alkaloids and their isomers is presented. The samples were cleaned on neutral alumina-based solid-phase extraction cartridges. The following method parameters were obtained (depending on the analyte and spiking level: method recovery from 63.0 to 104.6 %, relative standard deviation below 18 %, linear range from 1 to 325 μg/kg, linear correlation coefficient not less than 0.98. The developed analytical procedure was applied to determine the levels of ergot alkaloids in 65 samples of selected rye-based food products (flour– 34 samples, bran – 12 samples, rye – 18 samples, flakes – 1 sample. Measurable levels of alkaloids were found in majority of the analysed samples, particularly in rye flour. Additionally, alkaloids were determined in ergot sclerotia isolated from rye grains. Total content was nearly 0.01 % (97.9 mg/kg. However, the alkaloid profi le was dominated by ergocristine at 45.6 % (44.7 mg/kg, an alkaloid not commonly found in the tested food products. Ergocorninine at 0.2 % (0.2 mg/kg was the least abundant alkaloid.

  4. Application of Liquid Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Technique to Determine Ergot Alkaloids in Grain Products.

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    Bryła, Marcin; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Roszko, Marek

    2015-03-01

    A liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry-based method to determine six ergot alkaloids and their isomers is presented. The samples were cleaned on neutral alumina-based solid-phase extraction cartridges. The following method parameters were obtained (depending on the analyte and spiking level): method recovery from 63.0 to 104.6%, relative standard deviation below 18%, linear range from 1 to 325 µg/kg, linear correlation coefficient not less than 0.98. The developed analytical procedure was applied to determine the levels of ergot alkaloids in 65 samples of selected rye-based food products (flour - 34 samples, bran - 12 samples, rye - 18 samples, flakes - 1 sample). Measurable levels of alkaloids were found in majority of the analysed samples, particularly in rye flour. Additionally, alkaloids were determined in ergot sclerotia isolated from rye grains. Total content was nearly 0.01% (97.9 mg/kg). However, the alkaloid profile was dominated by ergocristine at 45.6% (44.7 mg/kg), an alkaloid not commonly found in the tested food products. Ergocorninine at 0.2% (0.2 mg/kg) was the least abundant alkaloid.

  5. Screening of penicillium species and optimisation of culture conditions for the production of ergot alkaloids using surface culture fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The present study deals with the screening of fungal species and suitable fermentation medium for the production of ergot alkaloids. Various species of genus Penicillium were grown on different fermentation media by employing surface culture fermentation technique to achieve the most suitable medium and the best Penicillium sp. The results showed that medium M5 gave maximum yield with Penicillium commune. Different culture conditions such as effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources, their concentration levels, different pH values and sizes of inoculum on the production of ergot alkaloids were also studied to improve the yield. Maximum production of ergot alkaloids (4.32 mg/L) was achieved with 15 mL spore suspension at pH 5 in fermentation medium containing 35% (w/v) sucrose. All these results indicate that culture conditions are very much crucial to improve the yield of ergot alkaloids produced by Penicillium commune through surface culture process. (author)

  6. Radiolytically degraded sodium alginate enhances plant growth, physiological activities and alkaloids production in Catharanthus roseus L.

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    M. Naeem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don (Family Apocynaceae is a medicinal plant that produces indole alkaloids used in cancer chemotherapy. The anticancerous alkaloids, viz. vinblastine and vincristine, are mainly present in the leaves of C. roseus. High demand and low yield of these alkaloids in the plant has led to explore the alternative means for their production. Gamma irradiated sodium alginate (ISA has proved as a plant growth promoting substance for various medicinal and agricultural crops. A pot culture experiment was carried out to explore the effect of ISA on plant growth, physiological activities and production of anticancer alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine in C. roseus at 120 and 150 days after planting (DAP. Foliar application of ISA (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L−1 significantly improved the performance of C. roseus. 80 mg L−1 of ISA enhanced the leaf-yield by 25.3 and 30.2% and the herbage-yield by 29.4 and 34.4% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, as compared to the control. The spray treatment of ISA at 80 mg L−1 improved the yield of vinblastine by 66.7 and 71.4% and of vincristine by 67.6 and 75.6% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively, in comparison to the control. As compared to control, the application of ISA at 80 mg L−1 resulted in the maximum swell in the content and yield of vindoline, increasing them by 18.9 and 20.8% and by 81.8 and 87.2% at 120 and 150 DAP, respectively.

  7. Geographic variation in alkaloid production in Conium maculatum populations experiencing differential herbivory by Agonopterix alstroemeriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Eva; Berhow, Mark A; Vaughn, Steven F; Berenbaum, May R

    2005-08-01

    Conium maculatum, a Eurasian weed naturalized in North America, contains high concentrations of piperidine alkaloids that act as chemical defenses against herbivores. C. maculatum was largely free from herbivory in the United States, until approximately 30 yr ago, when it was reassociated via accidental introduction with a monophagous European herbivore, the oecophorid caterpillar Agonopterix alstroemeriana. At present, A. alstroemeriana is found in a continuum of reassociation time and intensities with C. maculatum across the continent; in the Pacific Northwest, A. alstroemeriana can cause severe damage, resulting in some cases in complete defoliation. Studies in biological control and invasion biology have yet to determine whether plants reassociated with a significant herbivore from the area of indigeneity increase their chemical defense investment in areas of introduction. In this study, we compared three locations in the United States (New York, Washington, and Illinois) where C. maculatum experiences different levels of herbivory by A. alstroemeriana to determine the association between the intensity of the interaction, as measured by damage, and chemical defense production. Total alkaloid production in C. maculatum was positively correlated with A. alstroemeriana herbivory levels: plants from New York and Washington, with higher herbivory levels, invested two and four times more N to alkaloid synthesis than did plants from Illinois. Individual plants with lower concentrations of alkaloids from a single location in Illinois experienced more damage by A. alstroemeriana, indicative of a preference on the part of the insect for plants with less chemical defense. These results suggest that A. alstroemeriana may act either as a selective agent or inducing agent for C. maculatum and increase its toxicity in its introduced range.

  8. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Hairy root biotechnology of Rauwolfia serpentina: a potent approach for the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shakti; Goel, Manoj K; Srivastava, Vikas; Rahman, Laiq Ur

    2015-02-01

    Hairy root cultures of Rauwolfia serpentina induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes have been investigated extensively for the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids. Various biotechnological developments, such as scaling up in bioreactors, pathway engineering etc., have been explored to improve their metabolite production potential. These hairy roots are competent for regenerating into complete plants and show survival and unaltered biosynthetic potential during storage at low temperature. This review provides a comprehensive account of the hairy root cultures of R. serpentina, their biosynthetic potential and various biotechnological methods used to explore the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids. The review also indicates how biotechnological endeavors might improve the future progress of research for production of alkaloids using Rauwolfia hairy roots.

  11. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  12. Alkaloids from Prosopis juliflora leaves induce glial activation, cytotoxicity and stimulate NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A M M; Silva, A R; Pinheiro, A M; Freitas, S R V B; Silva, V D A; Souza, C S; Hughes, J B; El-Bachá, R S; Costa, M F D; Velozo, E S; Tardy, M; Costa, S L

    2007-04-01

    Prosopis juliflora is used for feeding cattle and humans. Intoxication with the plant has been reported, and is characterized by neuromuscular alterations and gliosis. Total alkaloidal extract (TAE) was obtained using acid/basic-modified extraction and was fractionated. TAE and seven alkaloidal fractions, at concentrations ranging 0.03-30 microg/ml, were tested for 24h on astrocyte primary cultures derived from the cortex of newborn Wistar rats. The MTT test and the measure of LDH activity on the culture medium, revealed that TAE and fractions F29/30, F31/33, F32 and F34/35 were cytotoxic to astrocytes. The EC(50) values for the most toxic compounds, TAE, F31/33 and F32 were 2.87 2.82 and 3.01 microg/ml, respectively. Morphological changes and glial cells activation were investigated through Rosenfeld's staining, by immunocytochemistry for the protein OX-42, specific of activated microglia, by immunocytochemistry and western immunoblot for GFAP, the marker of reactive and mature astrocytes, and by the production of nitric oxide (NO). We observed that astrocytes exposed to 3 microg/ml TAE, F29/30 or F31/33 developed compact cell body with many processes overexpressing GFAP. Treatment with 30 microg/ml TAE and fractions, induced cytotoxicity characterized by a strong cell body contraction, very thin and long processes and condensed chromatin. We also observed that when compared with the control (+/-1.34%), the proportion of OX-42 positive cells was increased in cultures treated with 30 microg/ml TAE or F29/30, F31/33, F32 and F34/35, with values raging from 7.27% to 28.74%. Moreover, incubation with 3 microg/ml F32, 30 microg/ml TAE, F29/30, F31/33 or F34/35 induced accumulation of nitrite in culture medium indicating induction of NO production. Taken together these results show that TAE and fractionated alkaloids from P. juliflora act directly on glial cells, inducing activation and/or cytotoxicity, stimulating NO production, and may have an impact on neuronal

  13. 75 FR 16514 - Maxim Integrated Products, Formerly Known as Dallas Semiconductor, Dallas, TX; Amended...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,291] Maxim Integrated Products... Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 8th, 2009, applicable to workers of Maxim Integrated Products.... The workers produced integrated circuits (analog and mixed signal). Information shows that Maxim...

  14. Influence of grass pellet production on pyrrolizidine alkaloids occurring in Senecio aquaticus-infested grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Christoph; Ostertag, Johannes; Meyer, Karsten; Gehring, Klaus; Thyssen, Stefan; Gareis, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    1,2-Dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and their N-oxides (PANO) exhibit acute and chronic toxic effects on the liver and other organs and therefore are a hazard for animal and human health. In certain regions of Germany, an increasing spread of Senecio spp. (ragwort) on grassland and farmland areas has been observed during the last years leading to a PA/PANO-contamination of feed and food of animal and plant origin. This project was carried out to elucidate whether the process of grass pellet production applying hot air drying influences the content of PA and PANO. Samples of hay (n = 22) and grass pellets (n = 28) originated from naturally infested grassland (around 10% and 30% dominance of Senecio aquaticus) and from a trial plot with around 50% dominance. Grass pellets were prepared from grass originating from exactly the same plots as the hay samples. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for PA/PANO typically produced by this weed. The results of the study revealed that PA/PANO levels (predominantly sum of senecionine, seneciphylline, erucifoline and their N-oxides) in hay ranged between 2.1 and 12.6 mg kg -1 dry matter in samples with 10% and 30% dominance of S. aquaticus, respectively. Samples from the trial plot (50% dominance) had levels of up to 52.9 mg kg -1 . Notably, the hot air drying process during the production of grass pellets did not lead to a reduction of PA/PANO levels. Instead, the levels in grass pellets with 10% and 30% S. aquaticus ranged from 3.1 to 55.1 mg kg -1 . Grass pellets from the trial plot contained up to 96.8 mg kg -1 . In conclusion, hot air drying and grass pellet production did not affect PA/PANO contents in plant material and therefore, heat-dried products cannot be regarded as safe in view of the toxic potential of 1,2-dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

  15. Effects of combination treatment of 60Co γ-rays irradiation and no on alkaloid production and plbs growth of hybrid dendrobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Qing; Cai Yongping; Lin Yi; Lu Ruihong

    2010-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co γ-rays irradiation, SNP (sodium nitroprusside, used as the donor) alone and their combination treatments on the alkaloids production and protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) growth were investigated in suspension cultures of Hybrid dendrobium. The results showed that either 60 Co γ-rays or SNP, and their combined treatments could enhance the accumulation of alkaloids, but restricted the PLBs growth, especially the combined treatments had the accumulative effect on the alkaloids production. The alkaloids content achieved 0.0676% with the optimum combined treatment of 0.1 mmol/L sodium nitroprusside and 10 Gy 60 Co γ-rays irradiation. The alkaloids production of unit medium was 6.35-fold higher than that in untreated PLBs cultures and was significantly different from the treatment of 60 Co γ-rays or SNP at P < 0.01 level. Both Nw-Nitro-L-arginine methl ester hydrochloride and carboxy 2-phenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide inhibitors could inhibit the accumulation of alkaloids. With the combined treatment, the activities of POD, SOD and CAT were changed, which perhaps mediated the alkaloids production and PLBs growth. (authors)

  16. Isolation of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids from Macleaya microcarpa (MAXIM.) FEDDE: Comparison of maceration, Soxhlet extraction and pressurized liquid extraction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, J.; Pěnčíková, K.; Gregorová, J.; Hohnová, Barbora; Šťavíková, Lenka; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal; Táborská, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 5 (2012), s. 477-482 ISSN 0958-0344 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids * extraction methods * Macleaya microcarpa Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.480, year: 2012

  17. Chemical analysis reveals the botanical origin of shatavari products and confirms the absence of alkaloid asparagamine A in Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Yukie; Maruyama, Takuro; Wakana, Daigo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Shatavari-a famous Ayurveda materia medica used mainly as a tonic for women-is distributed in health food products all over the world. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India identifies the botanical origin of shatavari as the tuberous root of Asparagus racemosus. We recently investigated by DNA analysis the botanical origin of shatavari products on the Japanese market. The results suggested that their botanical origin was Asparagus; however, species identification was difficult. In this study, we analyzed steroidal saponins, including those specific to this plant, in these products and confirmed their origin as A. racemosus. Next, alkaloid analyses of an authentic A. racemosus plant and these products were performed, because several papers have reported the isolation of a pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloid, asparagamine A, from this plant. Our results suggest that neither plant material nor products contained asparagamine A. It has been pointed out that Stemona plants are sometimes mistaken for shatavari, because their tuberous roots have a similar shape to that of A. racemosus, and pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloids are thought to be Stemona-specific. These data strongly suggest that A. racemosus does not contain asparagamine A, and that previous isolation of asparagamine A from materials claimed as originating from A. racemosus was likely caused by misidentification of Stemona plants as A. racemosus.

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis, Rhizogenesis, and Morphinan Alkaloids Production in Two Species of Opium Poppy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Abdelmajid Kassem

    2001-01-01

    Morphine was only detected in aerial parts of Papaver somniferum album. Codeine and thebaine were detected in the rhizogenous but no embryonic callus. These results suggest that root organogenesis is causally related to alkaloid biosynthesis.

  19. Strategies for engineering plant natural products: the iridoid-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2012-01-01

    The manipulation of pathways to make unnatural variants of natural compounds, a process often termed combinatorial biosynthesis, has been robustly successful in prokaryotic systems. The development of approaches to generate new-to-nature compounds from plant-based pathways is, in comparison, much less advanced. Success will depend on the specific chemistry of the pathway, as well as on the suitability of the plant system for transformation and genetic manipulation. As plant pathways are elucidated, and can be heterologously expressed in hosts that are more amenable to genetic manipulation, biosynthetic production of new-to-nature compounds from plant pathways will become more widespread. In this chapter, some of the key strategies that have been developed for metabolic engineering of plant pathways, namely directed biosynthesis, mutasynthesis, and pathway incorporation of engineered enzymes are highlighted. The iridoid-derived monoterpene indole alkaloids from C. roseus, which are the focus of this chapter, provide an excellent system for developing these strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P K H; Mulder, Patrick P J; Spanjer, Martien; de Stoppelaar, Joyce; Mol, Hans G J; de Nijs, Monique

    2018-03-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with acetonitrile/water/formic acid, ten-fold dilution and analysis by LC-MS/MS using a pH 10 carbonate buffer. The method was applied for the analysis of 41 samples collected in 2015 in the Netherlands and Germany. All samples contained morphine ranging from 0.2 to 240mg/kg. The levels of codeine and thebaine ranged from below LOQ to 348mg/kg and from below LOQ to 106mg/kg, respectively. Sixty percent of the samples exceeded the guidance reference value of 4mg/kg of morphine set by BfR in Germany, whereas 25% of the samples did not comply with the limits set for morphine, codeine, thebaine and noscapine by Hungarian legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of genes involved in terpenoid índole alkaloid production in Catharanthus roseus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Rocha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G Don is a medicinal plant that produces a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, some of which display pharmacological activity. C. roseus plants and cell cultures have been used to elucidate the TIAs biosynthetic pathway. A considerable number or enzymes have also been characterised, and their respective genes cloned. TIAs production in C. roseus plant and cell cultures is highly regulated at transcriptional-, develop-mental-, and environmental-level. Studies into TIAs biosynthetic gene regulation have been carried out using cell cultures. However, regulation in plants is almost unknown. Here, biosynthetic genes idc, strl, d4h and dat expres-sion levels are qualitatively examined in a developmental series of C. roseus seedlings. The effect of water- and light-stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJa and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA elicitation is also examined. Comparison between seedlings and cell cultures strongly suggests that TIAs biosynthetic gene transcriptional regulation is different in C.roseus plants and cell cultures.

  2. Safety assessment of food and herbal products containing hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids: interlaboratory consistency and the importance of N-oxide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Colegate, Steven M; Edgar, John A

    2008-01-01

    Two recent mass spectrometry-based reports concerning Senecio scandens yielded remarkably dissimilar pyrrolizidine alkaloid constituents. In both studies, and in a related analysis of Senecio scandens and Tussilago farfara using micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the presence of hazardous N-oxides of the alkaloids was either not considered or was inadequately considered. This raises concerns about the effectiveness of the methodologies used in these, and similar, studies in assessing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and the safety of food, food supplements and medicines for human use. To highlight essential analytical requirements for confident assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products for human use. Direct infusion-ESI MS and HPLC-ESI MS were used to analyse samples derived from liquid-liquid partitioning experiments and from strong cation exchange, solid-phase extraction of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides. A simple solvent partitioning experiment using pure senecionine and senecionine-N-oxide, two constituents reported in one of the mass spectrometry-based studies of S. scandens, clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of the reported method to detect and quantitate hazardous pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide components. A preliminary LCMS analysis of commercially-prepared extracts of comfrey roots (Symphytum officinale and S. uplandicum s. l.) was used as a model to highlight the analytical importance of N-oxides in the safety assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing medicinal herbs. This study highlighted significant differences in the reported identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from the same plant species, and clearly demonstrated the inadequacy of some procedures to include N-oxides in the assessment of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related safety of food and herbal products.

  3. Marine Natural Product Bis-indole Alkaloid Caulerpin: Chemistry and Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai

    2017-09-27

    Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Liparis nervosa with inhibitory activities against LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuai; Zhou, Xian-li; Wang, Cui-juan; Wang, You-song; Xiao, Feng; Shan, Lian-hai; Guo, Zhi-yun; Weng, Jie

    2013-09-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids were isolated from the whole herb of Liparis nervosa together with two previously known ones. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical reactions. The cytotoxicity of the isolates was evaluated against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 human cancer cell lines; however, no significant growth inhibition was observed. All compounds were evaluated for the inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and most significantly inhibited NO production with IC50 values in the range of 2.16-38.25 μM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved NGL recovery designs maximize operating flexibility and product recoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, J.D.; Hudson, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the historically cyclical nature in the market for ethane and propane has demonstrated the need for flexible natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery plants. NEwly developed and patented processes are now available which can provide ultra-high recovery of ethane (95%+) when demand for ethane is high and provide essentially complete ethane rejection without the normally concomitant reduction in propane recovery. This provides plant operators the flexibility to respond more readily to NGL market conditions, thus maximizing plant operating profits. The new process designs provide this flexibility without increasing utility requirements. In fact, utility consumption is often lower when compared to conventional designs. This same process technology can also be easily retrofit into existing plants with relatively quick payout of the modifications from both recovery and efficiency improvements

  6. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  7. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2014-12-01

    This review covers pyrrolizidine alkaloids isolated from natural sources. Topics include: aspects of structure, isolation, and biological/pharmacological studies; total syntheses of necic acids, necine bases and closely-related non-natural analogues.

  8. Genetic variation of alkaloid production in Conium maculatum after reassociation with the specialist moth Agonopterix alstroemeriana

    OpenAIRE

    Castells Caballé, Eva; Berenbaum, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Conium maculatum, a Eurasian weed naturalized in North America, contains high concentrations of piperidine alkaloids. In the United States, C. maculatum was largely free from herbivory until approximately 30 years ago, when it was re-associated via accidental introduction with a monophagous European herbivore, the oecophorid caterpillar Agonopterix alstroemeriana. At present, A. alstroemeriana is found in a continuum of re-association time and intensities with C. maculatum across the continen...

  9. Screening and optimization of some inorganic salts for the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium species using surface culture fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Memuna Ghafoor; Nadeem, Muhammad; Baig, Shahjehan; Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Atta, Saira; Ghafoor, Gul Zareen

    2016-03-01

    The present study deals with the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum, using surface culture fermentation process. Impact of various inorganic salts was tested on the production of ergot alkaloids during the optimization studies of fermentation medium such as impact of various concentration levels of succinic acid, ammonium chloride, MgSO4, FeSO4, ZnSO4, pH and the effect of various incubation time periods was also determined on the production of ergot alkaloids from Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum. Highest yield of ergot alkaloids was obtained when Penicillium commune and Penicillium citrinum that were grown on optimum levels of ingredients such as 2 g succinic acid, 1.5 and 2 g NH4Cl, 1.5 g MgSO4, 1 g FeSO4, 1 and 1.5 g ZnSO4 after 21 days of incubation time period using pH 5 at 25(°)C incubation temperature in the fermentation medium. Ergot alkaloids were determined using Spectrophotometry and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) techniques.

  10. Maximizing productivity of horizontal drilling and completion techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services Company, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    There are currently 160 active drilling rigs in the Barnett shale play, and small early developments have now become large-scale operations. This presentation outlined methods currently used to improve the productivity of directional drilling and completion techniques in gas shale plays. Horizontal completions are used to control height growth and increase contact areas. A typical horizontal well casing program was described along with details of cement liner treatment programs. Charts of optimum and non-optimum azimuth wells were included. Increased reservoir contact has been achieved by using limited-entry designs and acid stages with ball-sealers and abrasive jet-cutters. Pump rates have been increased during various stages, and larger fluid and sand volumes were used. A mineralogy comparison was provided, as well as details of the general design criteria for vertical wells in the region. It was concluded that drilling in the Barnett shale play has been successful as a result of using 3-dimensional seismic mapping as well as by initiating multiple, simultaneous fracs. The presentation also included charts of the Arkoma-Woodford play, the Arkoma-Fayetteville play, and the Delaware Basin. tabs., figs.

  11. Evaluation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana SR1) hairy roots for the production of geraniol, the first committed step in terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritala, A.; Dong, L.; Imseng, N.; Seppanen-Laakso, T.; Vasilev, N.; Krol, van der A.R.; Rischer, H.; Maaheimo, H.; Virkki, A.; Brandli, J.; Schillberg, S.; Eibl, R.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Oksman-Caldentey, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    The terpenoid indole alkaloids are one of the major classes of plant-derived natural products and are well known for their many applications in the pharmaceutical, fragrance and cosmetics industries. Hairy root cultures are useful for the production of plant secondary metabolites because of their

  12. Biosynthetic Pathways of Ergot Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gerhards

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are nitrogen-containing natural products belonging to indole alkaloids. The best known producers are fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, e.g., Claviceps, Epichloë, Penicillium and Aspergillus species. According to their structures, ergot alkaloids can be divided into three groups: clavines, lysergic acid amides and peptides (ergopeptines. All of them share the first biosynthetic steps, which lead to the formation of the tetracyclic ergoline ring system (except the simplest, tricyclic compound: chanoclavine. Different modifications on the ergoline ring by specific enzymes result in an abundance of bioactive natural products, which are used as pharmaceutical drugs or precursors thereof. From the 1950s through to recent years, most of the biosynthetic pathways have been elucidated. Gene clusters from several ergot alkaloid producers have been identified by genome mining and the functions of many of those genes have been demonstrated by knock-out experiments or biochemical investigations of the overproduced enzymes.

  13. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  14. MAXIMIZING HYDROPOWER PRODUCTION FROM RESERVOIRS:THE CASE STUDY OF MARKABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar, H.

    2014-01-01

    Hydropower is a form of renewable energy that is clean and cheap. Under uncertain climatic conditions, maximization of hydropower production becomes a challenging task.Stochastic Dynamic programming (SDP) is a promising optimization algorithm that is usedfor complex non-linear reservoir operational policies and strategies.In this research, a combined simulation-SDPoptimization model isdeveloped andverified for maximizing large-scale hydropower production in a monthly time step. The model isdeveloped to generate optimal operational policies for the Qarawn reservoir in Lebanon and test these policies in real time conditions. The model isused to derive operational regimes for the Qarawn reservoirunder varying flows using transitional probability matrices. Simulating the derived rules and the generated operational policies proved effective in maximizingthe hydropower production from the Markaba power plant. The model could be successfully applied to other hydropower dams in the region. (author)

  15. Differences and implications in biogeochemistry from maximizing entropy production locally versus globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Vallino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we investigate the use of the maximum entropy production (MEP principle for modeling biogeochemical processes that are catalyzed by living systems. Because of novelties introduced by the MEP approach, many questions need to be answered and techniques developed in the application of MEP to describe biological systems that are responsible for energy and mass transformations on a planetary scale. In previous work we introduce the importance of integrating entropy production over time to distinguish abiotic from biotic processes under transient conditions. Here we investigate the ramifications of modeling biological systems involving one or more spatial dimensions. When modeling systems over space, entropy production can be maximized either locally at each point in space asynchronously or globally over the system domain synchronously. We use a simple two-box model inspired by two-layer ocean models to illustrate the differences in local versus global entropy maximization. Synthesis and oxidation of biological structure is modeled using two autocatalytic reactions that account for changes in community kinetics using a single parameter each. Our results show that entropy production can be increased if maximized over the system domain rather than locally, which has important implications regarding how biological systems organize and supports the hypothesis for multiple levels of selection and cooperation in biology for the dissipation of free energy.

  16. Alkaloids from Delphinium pentagynum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Jesús G; Ruiz, Juan García; Herz, Werner

    2004-07-01

    Aerial parts of a collection of Delphinium pentagynum Lam. from Niebla, Southern Spain, furnished one diterpene alkaloid, 2-dehydrodeacetylheterophylloidine, two norditerpene alkaloids, 14-demethyl-14-isobutyrylanhweidelphinine and 14-demethyl-14-acetylanhweidelphinine, the known alkaloids 14-deacetylnudicauline, methyllycaconitine, 14-deacetyl-14-isobutyrylnudicauline, 14-acetylbrowniine, browniine, delcosine, lycoctonine, 18-methoxygadesine, neoline, karakoline and the aporphine alkaloid magnoflorine. Structures of the alkaloids were established by MS, 1D and 2-D NMR techniques.

  17. Decision analysis for conservation breeding: Maximizing production for reintroduction of whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Des H.V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Gibson, Keith; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Maguire, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Captive breeding is key to management of severely endangered species, but maximizing captive production can be challenging because of poor knowledge of species breeding biology and the complexity of evaluating different management options. In the face of uncertainty and complexity, decision-analytic approaches can be used to identify optimal management options for maximizing captive production. Building decision-analytic models requires iterations of model conception, data analysis, model building and evaluation, identification of remaining uncertainty, further research and monitoring to reduce uncertainty, and integration of new data into the model. We initiated such a process to maximize captive production of the whooping crane (Grus americana), the world's most endangered crane, which is managed through captive breeding and reintroduction. We collected 15 years of captive breeding data from 3 institutions and used Bayesian analysis and model selection to identify predictors of whooping crane hatching success. The strongest predictor, and that with clear management relevance, was incubation environment. The incubation period of whooping crane eggs is split across two environments: crane nests and artificial incubators. Although artificial incubators are useful for allowing breeding pairs to produce multiple clutches, our results indicate that crane incubation is most effective at promoting hatching success. Hatching probability increased the longer an egg spent in a crane nest, from 40% hatching probability for eggs receiving 1 day of crane incubation to 95% for those receiving 30 days (time incubated in each environment varied independently of total incubation period). Because birds will lay fewer eggs when they are incubating longer, a tradeoff exists between the number of clutches produced and egg hatching probability. We developed a decision-analytic model that estimated 16 to be the optimal number of days of crane incubation needed to maximize the number of

  18. Plant-Derived Antimalarial Agents: New Leads and Efficient Phytomedicines. Part II. Non-Alkaloidal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaíde Braga de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is still the most destructive and dangerous parasitic infection in many tropical and subtropical countries. The burden of this disease is getting worse, mainly due to the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against the widely available antimalarial drugs. There is an urgent need for new, more affordable and accessible antimalarial agents possessing original modes of action. Natural products have played a dominant role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs to treat human diseases, and this fact anticipates that new antimalarial leads may certainly emerge from tropical plant sources. This present review covers most of the recently-published non-alkaloidal natural compounds from plants with antiplasmodial and antimalarial properties, belonging to the classes of terpenes, limonoids, flavonoids, chromones, xanthones, anthraquinones, miscellaneous and related compounds, besides the majority of papers describing antiplasmodial crude extracts published in the last five years not reviewed before. In addition, some perspectives and remarks on the development of new drugs and phytomedicines for malaria are succinctly discussed.

  19. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  20. Alkaloids from the leaves of Uncaria rhynchophylla and their inhibitory activity on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dan; Ma, Bin; Wu, Chunfu; Yang, Jingyu; Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Suiku; Wu, Lijun; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2008-07-01

    Two new isomeric alkaloids, 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinic acid B (1) and 18,19-dehydrocorynoxinic acid (2), were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of the leaves of Uncaria rhynchophylla, together with four known rhynchophylline-type alkaloids, corynoxeine (3), isocorynoxeine (4), rhynchophylline (5), and isorhynchophylline (6), and an indole alkaloid glucoside, vincoside lactam (7). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, HREIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD experiments. The activity assay showed that compounds 3-6, with a C-16 carboxylic ester group, and 7 exhibited inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO release in primary cultured rat cortical microglia (IC 50: 13.7-19.0 microM). However, only weak inhibitory activity was observed for compounds 1 and 2, with a C-16 carboxylic acid group (IC 50: >100 microM).

  1. Maximizing Efficiency in Two-step Solar-thermochemical Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermanoski, I. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Widespread solar fuel production depends on its economic viability, largely driven by the solar-to-fuel conversion efficiency. In this paper, the material and energy requirements in two-step solar-thermochemical cycles are considered.The need for advanced redox active materials is demonstrated, by considering the oxide mass flow requirements at a large scale. Two approaches are also identified for maximizing the efficiency: optimizing reaction temperatures, and minimizing the pressure in the thermal reduction step by staged thermal reduction. The results show that each approach individually, and especially the two in conjunction, result in significant efficiency gains.

  2. A study of the optimum draft of multiple resonance power buoys for maximizing electric power production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To maximize electric power production using wave energy extractions from resonance power buoys, the maximum motion displacement spectra of the buoys can primarily be obtained under a given wave condition. In this study, wave spectra observed in shoaling water were formulated. Target resonance frequencies were established from the arithmetic means of modal frequency bands and the peak frequencies. The motion characteristics of the circular cylindrical power buoys with corresponding drafts were then calculated using numerical models without considering PTO damping force. Results showed that the heave motions of the power buoys in shoaling waters with insufficient drafts produced greater amplification effects than those in deep seas with sufficient drafts.

  3. Maximization of beta-galactosidase production: a simultaneous investigation of agitation and aeration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fernanda Germano; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; de Medeiros Burkert, Janaína Fernandes; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the agitation and aeration effects in the maximization of the beta-galactosidase production from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 were investigated simultaneously, in relation to the volumetric enzyme activity and the productivity, as well as the analysis of the lactose consumption and production of glucose, and galactose of this process. Agitation and aeration effects were studied in a 2 L batch stirred reactor. A central composite design (2(2) trials plus three central points) was carried out. Agitation speed varied from 200 to 500 rpm and aeration rate from 0.5 to 1.5 vvm. It has been shown in this study that the volumetric enzyme production was strongly influenced by mixing conditions, while aeration was shown to be less significant. Linear models for activity and productivity due to agitation and aeration were obtained. The favorable condition was 500 rpm and 1.5 vvm, which lead to the best production of 17 U mL(-1) for enzymatic activity, 1.2 U mL(-1) h(-1) for productivity in 14 h of process, a cellular concentration of 11 mg mL(-1), and a 167.2 h(-1) volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient.

  4. Engineering an enantioselective amine oxidase for the synthesis of pharmaceutical building blocks and alkaloid natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Diego; Green, Anthony P; Pontini, Marta; Willies, Simon C; Rowles, Ian; Frank, Annika; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J

    2013-07-24

    The development of cost-effective and sustainable catalytic methods for the production of enantiomerically pure chiral amines is a key challenge facing the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries. This challenge is highlighted by the estimate that 40-45% of drug candidates contain a chiral amine, fueling a demand for broadly applicable synthetic methods that deliver target structures in high yield and enantiomeric excess. Herein we describe the development and application of a "toolbox" of monoamine oxidase variants from Aspergillus niger (MAO-N) which display remarkable substrate scope and tolerance for sterically demanding motifs, including a new variant, which exhibits high activity and enantioselectivity toward substrates containing the aminodiphenylmethane (benzhydrylamine) template. By combining rational structure-guided engineering with high-throughput screening, it has been possible to expand the substrate scope of MAO-N to accommodate amine substrates containing bulky aryl substituents. These engineered MAO-N biocatalysts have been applied in deracemization reactions for the efficient asymmetric synthesis of the generic active pharmaceutical ingredients Solifenacin and Levocetirizine as well as the natural products (R)-coniine, (R)-eleagnine, and (R)-leptaflorine. We also report a novel MAO-N mediated asymmetric oxidative Pictet-Spengler approach to the synthesis of (R)-harmicine.

  5. Utah ITS/CVO business plan : using technology to maximize highway safety and improve government and industry productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This plan was produced to maximize highway safety and increase government and industry productivity through the application of Intelligent Transportation System/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS/CVO) technologies to support regulatory and enforcemen...

  6. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  8. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  9. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Gao

    Full Text Available The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w, forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml, digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min, digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim. Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of

  10. Evaluation of processing technology for Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengqin; Yang, Fuyu; Zhou, He; Sun, Qizhong; Zhang, Yunwei; Brown, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The effects of dilute H2SO4 concentration, forage:sulfuric acid ratio, digestion time, and digestion temperature were evaluated to determine effects on ethanol yield of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai. Twenty single factor experiments were conducted to evaluate H2SO4 concentration (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%, w/w), forage:sulfuric acid ratio (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12, and 1:14, g/ml), digestion time (15, 30, 45, 60, and 90, min), digestion temperature (80, 100, 110, 120, and 125 °C) for 3 replicates of the 5 levels of each factor. Based on results of the single factor experiments, an incomplete factorial was designed to evaluate ethanol yield from the best combinations of single factors. Finally, the best combination was tested by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation experiment in selected combinations according to pretreatment results. Percentage cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents of forage residue after pretreatment, and glucose and xylose concentrations of the filtrate were analyzed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, and percentage crystallinity was observed in untreated grass and pretreated residue. In addition, the solid residues were then hydrolysed and fermented by cellulase and yeast, the concentrations of glucose and ethanol being monitored for 96 h. Results showed that the order of the effect of main effect factors was as follows: digestion temperature > dilute H2SO4 concentration > digestion time > forage:sulfuric acid ratio. The best process parameters evaluated were sulfuric acid concentration of 1.5%, forage:sulfuric acid ratio of 1:6, digestion time of 15 min, and digestion temperature of 120°C. With this combination of factors, 80% of the cellulose was hydrolysed in 96 h, and 78% converted to ethanol. The findings identified that hemicelluloses were the key deconstruction barrier for pretreatment of Triarrhena sacchariflora (Maxim.) Nakai for ethanol production. The results of this research provide evidence of appropriate

  11. A cyclotron isotope production facility designed to maximize production and minimize radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, W.J.; Stevenson, N.R.; Szlavik, F.F.

    1993-01-01

    Continuing increases in requirements from the nuclear medicine industry for cyclotron isotopes is increasing the demands being put on an aging stock of machines. In addition, with the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP publication in place, strict dose limits will be required and this will have an effect on the way these machines are being operated. Recent advances in cyclotron design combined with lessons learned from two decades of commercial production mean that new facilities can result in a substantial charge on target, low personnel dose, and minimal residual activation. An optimal facility would utilize a well engineered variable energy/high current H - cyclotron design, multiple beam extraction, and individual target caves. Materials would be selected to minimize activation and absorb neutrons. Equipment would be designed to minimize maintenance activities performed in high radiation fields. (orig.)

  12. Theoretical modeling for optimizing horizontal production well placement in thermal recovery environments to maximize recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Determination of optimum values for maximizing the profit in bread production: Daily bakery Sdn Bhd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Nora; Sim, Raymond

    2015-02-01

    An integer programming problem is a mathematical optimization or feasibility program in which some or all of the variables are restricted to be integers. In many settings the term refers to integer linear programming (ILP), in which the objective function and the constraints (other than the integer constraints) are linear. An ILP has many applications in industrial production, including job-shop modelling. A possible objective is to maximize the total production, without exceeding the available resources. In some cases, this can be expressed in terms of a linear program, but variables must be constrained to be integer. It concerned with the optimization of a linear function while satisfying a set of linear equality and inequality constraints and restrictions. It has been used to solve optimization problem in many industries area such as banking, nutrition, agriculture, and bakery and so on. The main purpose of this study is to formulate the best combination of all ingredients in producing different type of bread in Daily Bakery in order to gain maximum profit. This study also focuses on the sensitivity analysis due to changing of the profit and the cost of each ingredient. The optimum result obtained from QM software is RM 65,377.29 per day. This study will be benefited for Daily Bakery and also other similar industries. By formulating a combination of all ingredients make up, they can easily know their total profit in producing bread everyday.

  14. RIA for indol alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arens, H.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of RIAs for indol alkaloids (ajmaline, ergotamine, ergocristine, ergometrine, and lysergic acid) is described, and applications for this RIA and the RIA for raubasine and serpentine are mentioned. The indol alkaloide RIAs are shown to be suitable both for alkaloid distribution measurements in Catharantus and Rauwolfia plants and C. purpurea sclerotia as well as for the selection of high-efficiency strains and the optimisation of cultures of plant tissues and saprophytic fungi. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in commercial comfrey-containing products and botanical materials by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Gratz, Samuel R; Wolnik, Karen A

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and their N-oxides are found in several plant families throughout the world. PAs are potentially toxic to the liver and/or lungs in humans and may cause acute liver failure, cirrhosis, pneumonitis, or pulmonary hypertension. PAs are also carcinogenic to animals, and they have been linked to the development of hepatocellular and skin squamous cell carcinomas as well as liver angiosarcomas. According to experimental studies, the quantity of PAs in some herbal teas and dietary supplements is sufficient to be carcinogenic in exposed individuals. A method for the extraction and identification of PAs and their N-oxides in botanical materials and commercial comfrey-containing products has been developed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Following optimization of the extraction procedure and the chromatographic conditions, the method was applied to the analysis of 10 herbal remedies. All of the products that were labeled to contain comfrey were found to contain measurable quantities of PAs.

  16. A Simplified Procedure for Indole Alkaloid Extraction from Catharanthus roseus Combined with a Semi-synthetic Production Process for Vinblastine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Riekkola

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Dried leaves of Catharanthus roseus were extracted with aqueous acidic 0.1 M solution of HCl. Alkaloid-embonate complexes were obtained as precipitates by treating the extract with an alkaline (NaOH solution of embonic acid (4,4-methylene-bis-3-hydroxynaphtalenecarboxylic acid. The precipitate mainly consisted of catharanthine and vindoline embonates and it was directly used as the starting material for a semi-synthesis of the anti-cancer bisindole alkaloid vinblastine. The coupling reaction involved oxidation of catharanthine in aqueous acidic medium by singlet oxygen (1O2, continuously produced in situ by the reaction between H2O2 with NaClO. An excess of NaBH4 was used for the reduction step. Analysis of the reaction mixture indicated a maximum yield of 20% for vinblastine at pH 8.3, based on the initial amount of catharanthine concentration. Direct-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion mode was used for the identification of vinblastine. The mass spectra of vinblastine were dominated by the corresponding protonated molecular ion [M+H]+ at m/z 811 and the characteristic fragment ions matched with those of the standard compound.

  17. Alkaloids in the pharmaceutical industry: Structure, isolation and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Milan

    2003-01-01

    glaucine as hydrochloride bases and salts were presented in more details. Data from leading world pharmacopoeias (Ph. Eur. Ill/s 2000, DAB 1996, USP 23, JP XIII, BP 1993, Ph. Jug. IV were used in the study of application of the pure alkaloids in pharmaceutical forms with predetermined doses. A comparative study of these data shows that a great number of preparations are produced worldwide based on alkaloids and alkaloids with modified structure. These medicines have found use in modern therapeutic practice in many countries. Most products are produced on the basis of caffeine, theophylline, ephedrine, atropine, scopolamine, reserpine and pilocarpine.

  18. Maximization of bremsstrahlung and K-series production efficiencies in flash x-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krehl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, x-ray output of flash x-ray tubes was maximized empirically by changing the electrode geometry and varying the capacitance of the pulse generator. With the advent of high-voltage, low-impedance transmission lines, short-duration, high-current pulses could be generated with ease. An appropriate line scaling should assure that dose maximization is not reached at the expense of pulse prolongation which would reduce stop motion capability, but rather that dose rate should be maximized. Additionally, anode evaporation in the arc phase should be minimized to enhance tube life

  19. New Perspectives in the Chemistry of Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids ?

    OpenAIRE

    Plodek, Alois; Bracher, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from marine organisms are a rich source of novel leads for drug development. Among these natural products, polycyclic aromatic alkaloids of the pyridoacridine type have attracted the highest attention as lead compounds for the development of novel anti-cancer and anti-infective drugs. Numerous sophisticated total syntheses of pyridoacridine alkaloids have been worked out, and many of them have also been extended to the synthesis of libraries of analogues of the alkaloids...

  20. Productive Agglomerations of Suppliers in the Automotive Industry: A Way to Maximize Competitiveness in Supply Chain Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Guarnieri

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify how the automotive industries maximize the competitiveness in supply chain management through the constitution of entrepreneurial productive agglomerations of suppliers. For this purpose, an applied research was carried out, and the technical procedure utilized was bibliographic review based in some researches about Brazilian industrial condominiums. Thus, through the constitution of entrepreneurial agglomerations of suppliers in automotive industry it is possible to obtain logistic advantages in the transporting, stocking and warehousing activities. Besides, it is possible to maximize the supply chain management competitiveness through the establishment of trust and lasting relationships between the components of the whole chain.

  1. New Perspectives in the Chemistry of Marine Pyridoacridine Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Plodek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolites from marine organisms are a rich source of novel leads for drug development. Among these natural products, polycyclic aromatic alkaloids of the pyridoacridine type have attracted the highest attention as lead compounds for the development of novel anti-cancer and anti-infective drugs. Numerous sophisticated total syntheses of pyridoacridine alkaloids have been worked out, and many of them have also been extended to the synthesis of libraries of analogues of the alkaloids. This review summarizes the progress in the chemistry of pyridoacridine alkaloids that was made in the last one-and-a-half decades.

  2. Maximizing the productivity of the microalgae Scenedesmus AMDD cultivated in a continuous photobioreactor using an online flow rate control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Patrick J; MacQuarrie, Scott P; Choi, Jerome; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2017-01-01

    In this study, production of the microalga Scenedesmus AMDD in a 300 L continuous flow photobioreactor was maximized using an online flow (dilution rate) control algorithm. To enable online control, biomass concentration was estimated in real time by measuring chlorophyll-related culture fluorescence. A simple microalgae growth model was developed and used to solve the optimization problem aimed at maximizing the photobioreactor productivity. When optimally controlled, Scenedesmus AMDD culture demonstrated an average volumetric biomass productivity of 0.11 g L -1  d -1 over a 25 day cultivation period, equivalent to a 70 % performance improvement compared to the same photobioreactor operated as a turbidostat. The proposed approach for optimizing photobioreactor flow can be adapted to a broad range of microalgae cultivation systems.

  3. Genotoxic effect of alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. P. Henriques

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase use of alkaloids in general medical practice in recent years, it is of interest to determine genotoxic, mutagenic and recombinogenic response to different groups of alkaloids in prokaryotic and eucaryotic organisms. Reserpine, boldine and chelerythrine did not show genotoxicity response in the SOS-Chromotest whereas skimmianine showed genotixicity in the presence of a metabolic activation mixture. Voacristine isolated fromthe leaves of Ervatamia coronaria shows in vivo cytostatic and mutagenic effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hapioids cells. The Rauwolfia alkaloid (reserpine was not able to induce reverse mutation and recombinational mitotic events (crossing-over and gene conversion in yeast diploid strain XS2316.

  4. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography–Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo eNakabayashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis. To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled 13C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs. The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis.

  5. Boosting Sensitivity in Liquid Chromatography–Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance–Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Product Ion Analysis of Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Mariko; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-01-01

    In metabolomics, the analysis of product ions in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is noteworthy to chemically assign structural information. However, the development of relevant analytical methods are less advanced. Here, we developed a method to boost sensitivity in liquid chromatography–Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance–tandem mass spectrometry analysis (MS/MS boost analysis). To verify the MS/MS boost analysis, both quercetin and uniformly labeled 13C quercetin were analyzed, revealing that the origin of the product ions is not the instrument, but the analyzed compounds resulting in sensitive product ions. Next, we applied this method to the analysis of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). The comparative analyses of MIAs having indole basic skeleton (ajmalicine, catharanthine, hirsuteine, and hirsutine) and oxindole skeleton (formosanine, isoformosanine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, and mitraphylline) identified 86 and 73 common monoisotopic ions, respectively. The comparative analyses of the three pairs of stereoisomers showed more than 170 common monoisotopic ions in each pair. This method was also applied to the targeted analysis of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus and Uncaria rhynchophylla to profile indole and oxindole compounds using the product ions. This analysis is suitable for chemically assigning features of the metabolite groups, which contributes to targeted metabolome analysis. PMID:26734034

  6. Effect of Chromium on Antioxidant Potential of Catharanthus roseus Varieties and Production of Their Anticancer Alkaloids: Vincristine and Vinblastine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pramod Kumar; Khatoon, Sayyada

    2014-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don, a medicinal plant, has a very important place in the traditional as well as modern pharmaceutical industry. Two common varieties of this plant rosea and alba are named so because of pink and white coloured flowers, respectively. This plant comprises of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids and two of them, vincristine and vinblastine, are common anticancer drugs. The effect of chromium (Cr) on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components and on secondary metabolites vincristine and vinblastine was studied under pot culture conditions of both varieties of C. roseus. Antioxidant responses of these varieties were analyzed under 0, 10, 50, and 100 μM chromium (Cr) level in order to investigate the plant's protective mechanisms against Cr induced oxidative stress. The results indicated that Cr affects all the studied parameters and decreases growth performance. However, vincristine and vinblastine contents were increased under Cr stress. Results are quite encouraging, as this plant shows good antioxidant potential and increased the level of active constituents under Cr stress. PMID:24734252

  7. Effect of Chromium on Antioxidant Potential of Catharanthus roseus Varieties and Production of Their Anticancer Alkaloids: Vincristine and Vinblastine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Rai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don, a medicinal plant, has a very important place in the traditional as well as modern pharmaceutical industry. Two common varieties of this plant rosea and alba are named so because of pink and white coloured flowers, respectively. This plant comprises of about 130 terpenoid indole alkaloids and two of them, vincristine and vinblastine, are common anticancer drugs. The effect of chromium (Cr on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant components and on secondary metabolites vincristine and vinblastine was studied under pot culture conditions of both varieties of C. roseus. Antioxidant responses of these varieties were analyzed under 0, 10, 50, and 100 μM chromium (Cr level in order to investigate the plant’s protective mechanisms against Cr induced oxidative stress. The results indicated that Cr affects all the studied parameters and decreases growth performance. However, vincristine and vinblastine contents were increased under Cr stress. Results are quite encouraging, as this plant shows good antioxidant potential and increased the level of active constituents under Cr stress.

  8. Novel Euglenoid Derived Alkaloid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Disclosed herein is a purified toxin isolated from Euglena sanguinea. More specifically the toxin, termed euglenophycin, is an alkaloid having herbicidal and...

  9. Automatic optimization of core loading patterns to maximize cycle energy production within operational constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, G.H.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to automatically determine the core loading pattern which minimizes fuel cycle costs for a pressurized water reactor. Equating fuel cycle cost minimization with core reactivity maximization, the objective is to determine the loading pattern which maximizes core reactivity at end-of-cycle while satisfying the power peaking constraint throughout the cycle and region average discharge burnup limit. The method utilizes a two-dimensional, coarse mesh, finite difference scheme to evaluate core reactivity and fluxes for an initial reference loading pattern as a function of cycle burnup. First order perturbation theory is applied to determine the effects of assembly shuffling on reactivity, power distribution, and end-of-cycle burnup

  10. Long-term stability in biomass and production of terpene indole alkaloids by hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina and cost approximation to endorse commercial realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Kaur, Ranjeet; Singh, Sailendra; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2014-07-01

    The effect of 6 years of cultivation and use of table-sugar (TS) on the biomass/terpene alkaloid productivities and rol gene expression were studied in a hairy root (HR) clone of Rauvolfia serpentina. The media cost could be reduced >94 % by replacing sucrose (SUC) with TS—an unexplored avenue for HR cultivation. The overall productivities increased over long-term cultivation with sugar proving superior to SUC for biomass (24.4 ± 2.11 g/l DW after 40 days to 17.31 % higher) and reserpine (0.094 ± 0.008 % DW after 60 days to 193.8 % more) production. The latter however revealed comparatively better yields concerning ajmaline (0.507 ± 0.048 % DW after 60 days to 61.98 % higher) and yohimbine (0.628 ± 0.062 % DW after 60 days to 38.32 % higher), respectively. PCR amplification of rol genes confirmed long-term expression stability.

  11. A monopoly pricing model for diffusion maximization based on heterogeneous nodes and negative network externalities (Case study: A novel product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghdas Badiee

    2018-10-01

    Full Text Available Social networks can provide sellers across the world with invaluable information about the structure of possible influences among different members of a network, whether positive or negative, and can be used to maximize diffusion in the network. Here, a novel mathematical monopoly product pricing model is introduced for maximization of market share in noncompetitive environment. In the proposed model, a customer’s decision to buy a product is not only based on the price, quality and need time for the product but also on the positive and negative influences of his/her neighbors. Therefore, customers are considered heterogeneous and a referral bonus is granted to every customer whose neighbors also buy the product. Here, the degree of influence is directly related to the intensity of the customers’ relationships. Finally, using the proposed model for a real case study, the optimal policy for product sales that is the ratio of product sale price in comparison with its cost and also the optimal amounts of referral bonus per customer is achieved.

  12. Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Peter; Jørgensen, Betina; Lange, L.

    2007-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary for photo......Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary...

  13. The expanding universe of alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, V; Laflamme, P

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of many of the major gene families responsible for the generation of central intermediates and for their decoration, together with the development of large genomics and proteomics databases, has revolutionized our capability to identify exotic and interesting natural-product pathways. Over the next few years, these tools will facilitate dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biosynthesis of alkaloids, which will far surpass that which we have learned in the past 50 years. These tools will also be exploited for the rapid characterization of regulatory genes, which control the development of specialized cell factories for alkaloid biosynthesis.

  14. Maximal conservation and minimal usage of blood products in open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, P E; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; McMillan, J; Smith, B F; Stirling, G R

    1980-05-01

    Open heart surgery has previously been associated with the use of large volumes of blood products. This paper describes methods of blood conservation and a simple method of intraoperative autotransfusion that together have resulted in minimal blood product usage in elective open heart surgery cases. This has reduced our dependence on blood bank supplies for the performance of elective open heart surgery.

  15. Genome-Based Studies of Marine Microorganisms to Maximize the Diversity of Natural Products Discovery for Medical Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Qing Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms are rich source for natural products which play important roles in pharmaceutical industry. Over the past decade, genome-based studies of marine microorganisms have unveiled the tremendous diversity of the producers of natural products and also contributed to the efficiency of harness the strain diversity and chemical diversity, as well as the genetic diversity of marine microorganisms for the rapid discovery and generation of new natural products. In the meantime, genomic information retrieved from marine symbiotic microorganisms can also be employed for the discovery of new medical molecules from yet-unculturable microorganisms. In this paper, the recent progress in the genomic research of marine microorganisms is reviewed; new tools of genome mining as well as the advance in the activation of orphan pathways and metagenomic studies are summarized. Genome-based research of marine microorganisms will maximize the biodiscovery process and solve the problems of supply and sustainability of drug molecules for medical treatments.

  16. Long-term agricultural management maximizing hay production can significantly reduce belowground C storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sochorová, L.; Jansa, J.; Verbruggen, E.; Hejcman, M.; Schellberg, J.; Kiers, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Liming and fertilization of grasslands have been used for centuries to sustain hay production. Besides improving hay yields, these practices induce compositional shifts in plant and soil microbial communities, including symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. However, in spite of increasing

  17. Maximizing port and transportation system productivity by exploring alternative port operation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Seaports are a critical transportation component that supports the nations economy. Many U.S. : ports are now experiencing significant truck congestion at the gate, which decreases the productivity of : ports and truck fleets (e.g. truck wait time...

  18. Maximizing Product Innovation through Adaptive Application of User-Centered Methods for Defining Customer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonje Overvik Olsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing deep understanding of customers is a prerequisite to improve success rates of innovations under today’s transient business conditions. This paper summarizes methods and tools to increase customer understanding in new product development. A case study of developing an office chair was conducted, utilizing four such methods (web based survey, interview, observation and workshops to provide directions for later application. Results indicate that methods revealing emotionally-related customer information (workshops and observation are resource-intensive and provide less amount of information directly applicable to the product development team. The opposite is the case for methods providing more functionally-related information (web based survey and interview. The overall conclusion is that the latter methods are more suitable for product improvements, while the former may provide valuable information for creating more differentiated products.

  19. Maximizing the use of EO products: how to leverage the potential of open geospatial service architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usländer, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The demand for the rapid provision of EO products with well-defined characteristics in terms of temporal, spatial, image-specific and thematic criteria is increasing. Examples are products to support near real-time damage assessment after a natural disaster event, e.g. an earthquake. However, beyond the organizational and economic questions, there are technological and systemic barriers to enable a comfortable search, order, delivery or even combination of EO products. Most portals of space agencies and EO product providers require sophisticated satellite and product knowledge and, even worse, are all different and not interoperable. This paper gives an overview about the use cases and the architectural solutions that aim at an open and flexible EO mission infrastructure with application-oriented user interfaces and well-defined service interfaces based upon open standards. It presents corresponding international initiatives such as INSPIRE (Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community), GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and HMA (Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility) and their associated infrastructure approaches. The paper presents a corresponding analysis and design methodology and two examples how such architectures are already successfully used in early warning systems for geo-hazards and toolsets for environmentallyinduced health risks. Finally, the paper concludes with an outlook how these ideas relate to the vision of the Future Internet.

  20. Applying the energy productivity index that considers maximized energy reduction on SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Under the trend of global energy prices continuously going up, this paper considers the concept of maximized energy reduction to model the energy productivity index by decomposing it into energy technical change and energy efficiency change. The paper takes the eight SADC (Southern Africa Development Community ) members as an example to estimate their energy efficiency, energy productivity change, energy technical change, energy efficiency change, and rebound effect on energy use, as well as to test the Jevons Paradox. The time period of the data spans 2005 to 2009. The empirical result shows large energy performance differences among the eight SADC members. Not one country among the eight members is an energy technology innovator. After calculating the rebound effect and testing the Jevons Paradox, the result shows that there seems to be no obvious Jevons Paradox in this economic region. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the concept of maximized energy reduction. • The method is applied towards the Southern Africa Development Community members. • This paper also investigates the rebound effect of energy use. • We offer suggestions on energy use and CO 2 emission reductions.

  1. Application of metabolic controls for the maximization of lipid production in semicontinuous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyang; Liu, Nian; Qiao, Kangjian; Vogg, Sebastian; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2017-07-03

    Acetic acid can be generated through syngas fermentation, lignocellulosic biomass degradation, and organic waste anaerobic digestion. Microbial conversion of acetate into triacylglycerols for biofuel production has many advantages, including low-cost or even negative-cost feedstock and environmental benefits. The main issue stems from the dilute nature of acetate produced in such systems, which is costly to be processed on an industrial scale. To tackle this problem, we established an efficient bioprocess for converting dilute acetate into lipids, using the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica in a semicontinuous system. The implemented design used low-strength acetic acid in both salt and acid forms as carbon substrate and a cross-filtration module for cell recycling. Feed controls for acetic acid and nitrogen based on metabolic models and online measurement of the respiratory quotient were used. The optimized process was able to sustain high-density cell culture using acetic acid of only 3% and achieved a lipid titer, yield, and productivity of 115 g/L, 0.16 g/g, and 0.8 g⋅L -1 ⋅h -1 , respectively. No carbon substrate was detected in the effluent stream, indicating complete utilization of acetate. These results represent a more than twofold increase in lipid production metrics compared with the current best-performing results using concentrated acetic acid as carbon feed.

  2. Maximizing Production Capacity from an Ultrafiltration Process at the Hanford Department of Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, Henry C.; Holton, Langdon K.; Demick, Laurence E.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy has contracted Bechtel National, Inc. to design, construct and commission a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to treat radioactive slurry currently stored in underground waste storage tanks. A critical element of the waste treatment capacity for the WTP is the proper operation of an ultrafiltration process (UFP). The UFP separates supernate solution from radioactive solids. The solution and solid phases are separately immobilized. An oversight review of the UFP design and operation has identified several methods to improve the capacity of the ultrafiltration process, which will also improve the capacity of the WTP. Areas explored were the basis of design, an analysis of the WTP capacity, process chemistry within the UFP, and UFP process control. This article discusses some of the findings of this oversight review in terms of sodium and solid production, which supports the treatment of low activity waste (LAW) associated with the facility, and solid production, which supports the treatment of high level waste (HLW) associated with the facility

  3. Genetic variation of piperidine alkaloids in Pinus ponderosa: a common garden study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Elizabeth A; Kelsey, Rick G; St Clair, J Bradley

    2009-02-01

    Previous measurements of conifer alkaloids have revealed significant variation attributable to many sources, environmental and genetic. The present study takes a complementary and intensive, common garden approach to examine genetic variation in Pinus ponderosa var. ponderosa alkaloid production. Additionally, this study investigates the potential trade-off between seedling growth and alkaloid production, and associations between topographic/climatic variables and alkaloid production. Piperidine alkaloids were quantified in foliage of 501 nursery seedlings grown from seed sources in west-central Washington, Oregon and California, roughly covering the western half of the native range of ponderosa pine. A nested mixed model was used to test differences among broad-scale regions and among families within regions. Alkaloid concentrations were regressed on seedling growth measurements to test metabolite allocation theory. Likewise, climate characteristics at the seed sources were also considered as explanatory variables. Quantitative variation from seedling to seedling was high, and regional variation exceeded variation among families. Regions along the western margin of the species range exhibited the highest alkaloid concentrations, while those further east had relatively low alkaloid levels. Qualitative variation in alkaloid profiles was low. All measures of seedling growth related negatively to alkaloid concentrations on a natural log scale; however, coefficients of determination were low. At best, annual height increment explained 19.4 % of the variation in ln(total alkaloids). Among the climate variables, temperature range showed a negative, linear association that explained 41.8 % of the variation. Given the wide geographic scope of the seed sources and the uniformity of resources in the seedlings' environment, observed differences in alkaloid concentrations are evidence for genetic regulation of alkaloid secondary metabolism in ponderosa pine. The theoretical

  4. Maximization of Intracellular Lipase Production in a Lipase-Overproducing Mutant Derivative of Rhizopus oligosporus DGM 31: A Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation and maximization of lipase production in a mutant derivative of R. oligosporus has been investigated using different substrates, inoculum sizes, pH of the medium, temperature, and nitrogen sources in shake flask experiments and batch fermentation in a fermentor. The production of intracellular lipase was improved 3 times following medium optimization involving one-at-a-time approach and aeration in the fermentor. Interestingly, intracellular lipase was poorly induced by oils, instead its production was induced by sugars, mainly starch, lactose, sucrose, xylose, glucose and glycerol. Dependent variables studied were cell mass, lipase activity, lipase yield, lipase specific and volumetric rate of formation. It was confirmed that lipase production in the derepressed mutant is sufficiently uncoupled from catabolite repression. The results of average specific productivities at various temperatures worked out according to the Arrhenius equation revealed that mutation decreased the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy demand in the inactivation equilibrium during product formation, suggesting that mutation made the metabolic network of the organism thermally more stable. The highest magnitudes of volumetric productivity (QP=490 IU/(L·h and other product attributes of lipase formation occurring on optimized medium in the fermentor are greater than the values reported by other workers. The purified enzyme is monomeric in nature and exhibits stability up to 80 °C and pH=6.0–8.0. Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of catalysis at 50 °C, and magnitudes of Gibbs free energy for substrate binding, transition state stabilization and melting point indicated that this lipase is highly thermostable.

  5. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  6. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  7. A new strain of Claviceps purpurea accumulating tetracyclic clavine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, B; Erge, D; Maier, W; Gröger, D

    1982-05-01

    A new strain of Claviceps was isolated from a blokked mutant of Claviceps purpurea. This strain accumulates substantial amounts of clavine alkaloids (2 g/l). The alkaloid fraction is composed of chanoclavine-I ( approximately 10%) and a mixture of agroclavine/elymoclavine (90%). Most suitable for alkaloid production in submerged culture is an ammoncitrate/sucrose medium. The genealogy of the new strain, designated Pepty 695/ch-I is the following one: Pepty 695/S (ergotoxine producer) --> Pepty 695/ch (secoergoline producer) --> Pepty 695/ch-I (tetracyclic clavine producer).

  8. Application of response surface methodology to maximize the productivity of scalable automated human embryonic stem cell manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Elizabeth; Hourd, Paul; Guijarro-Leach, Juan; Rayment, Erin; Williams, David J; Thomas, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Commercial regenerative medicine will require large quantities of clinical-specification human cells. The cost and quality of manufacture is notoriously difficult to control due to highly complex processes with poorly defined tolerances. As a step to overcome this, we aimed to demonstrate the use of 'quality-by-design' tools to define the operating space for economic passage of a scalable human embryonic stem cell production method with minimal cell loss. Design of experiments response surface methodology was applied to generate empirical models to predict optimal operating conditions for a unit of manufacture of a previously developed automatable and scalable human embryonic stem cell production method. Two models were defined to predict cell yield and cell recovery rate postpassage, in terms of the predictor variables of media volume, cell seeding density, media exchange and length of passage. Predicted operating conditions for maximized productivity were successfully validated. Such 'quality-by-design' type approaches to process design and optimization will be essential to reduce the risk of product failure and patient harm, and to build regulatory confidence in cell therapy manufacturing processes.

  9. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  10. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  11. A Market-oriented Approach To Maximizing Product Benefits: Cases in U.S. Forest Products Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay S. Reddy; Robert J. Bush; Ronen Roudik

    1996-01-01

    Conjoint analysis, a decompositional customer preference modelling technique, has seen little application to forest products. However, the technique provides useful information for marketing decisions by quantifying consumer preference functions for multiattribute product alternatives. The results of a conjoint analysis include the contribution of each attribute and...

  12. Design concept for maximized use of recycled scrap in the production of storage packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounin, D.; Kleinkroeger, W.; Schreiber, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the decommissioning of nuclear plants large quantities of radioactively contaminated waste metal have to be disposed of. An economic alternative to final storage is the recycling of the scrap metal in the production of transport and storage containers for low and medium active waste made of nodular graphite ductile cast iron. In the particular case of the CARLA plant operated by Siempelkamp, scrap metal with an activity of up to 200 Bq/g is accepted for processing. This covers the vast majority of the metals of a plant to be decommissioned. The composition of the waste metals varies greatly, depending on the different origins like structural or stainless steels After solidification of the high-carbon, high-silicon cast iron melt, the carbon has formed nodular graphite particles embedded in the metal matrix. Nodular cast iron has high strength and elongation. A further advantage of this material are its good radiation shielding properties. Fracture toughness is an important material property in the design of containers for final storage. In the particular case of containers that have to meet the specifications for final storage these must withstand accident loadings from a height of up 5 m at temperatures of -20 C without crack initiation. Containers for final storage do not have the benefit of impact limiters. The fracture toughness of cast iron depends primarily on the microstructure of the metal matrix. A ferritic microstructure has a higher fracture toughness than a pearlitic microstructure. Carbides in the matrix lead to further embrittlement. The metals to be recycled in the decommissioning of a nuclear installation have marked contents of elements like manganese (Mn) in structural steels, chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and molybdenum (Mo) in stainless steels and copper (Cu) in special steels. These elements lead to a pearlitic microstructure and to carbides, even at low contents in the melt. With a rising content of pearlite and carbides, the tensile and yield

  13. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  14. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E.; Subramanian, Manny

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301 125 I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT images

  15. Bioactive alkaloids from marine sponges

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Majik, M.S.

    lines while kuanoniamine C was less potent but showed high selectivity toward the estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line (Kijjoa et. al., 2007). Recently, Davis’s and coworkers, reported two new cytotoxici- ty peridoacridine alkaloids viz... 10 sponge, Trachycladus laevispirulifer. Excitingly, it displayed promising selective cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines. 12.3.1. BISINDOLE ALKALOIDS Bis-indole alkaloids, consisting of two indole moieties...

  16. Model-based intensification of a fed-batch microbial process for the maximization of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penloglou, Giannis; Vasileiadou, Athina; Chatzidoukas, Christos; Kiparissides, Costas

    2017-08-01

    An integrated metabolic-polymerization-macroscopic model, describing the microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Azohydromonas lata bacteria, was developed and validated using a comprehensive series of experimental measurements. The model accounted for biomass growth, biopolymer accumulation, carbon and nitrogen sources utilization, oxygen mass transfer and uptake rates and average molecular weights of the accumulated PHB, produced under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions. Model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The validated model was subsequently utilized to calculate optimal operating conditions and feeding policies for maximizing PHB productivity for desired PHB molecular properties. More specifically, two optimal fed-batch strategies were calculated and experimentally tested: (1) a nitrogen-limited fed-batch policy and (2) a nitrogen sufficient one. The calculated optimal operating policies resulted in a maximum PHB content (94% g/g) in the cultivated bacteria and a biopolymer productivity of 4.2 g/(l h), respectively. Moreover, it was demonstrated that different PHB grades with weight average molecular weights of up to 1513 kg/mol could be produced via the optimal selection of bioprocess operating conditions.

  17. Application of electron ionization mass spectrometry for mulungu alkaloid analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, Luis Guilherme Pereira; Guaratini, Thais; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Bizaro, Aline Cavalli; Silva, Denise Brentan da

    2012-01-01

    Erythrina verna is a medicinal plant used to calm agitation popularly known as mulungu. We purchased the barks of E. verna from a commercial producer and analyzed the alkaloid fraction of the bark by CG-MS and HRESI-MS. Five erythrinian alkaloids were identified: erysotrine, erythratidine, erythratidinone, epimer, and 11-hydroxyeritratidinone. Here we report the compound 11-hydroxyeritratidinone for the first time as a natural product. (author)

  18. Maximization of cell growth and lipid production of freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris by enrichment technique for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y K; Ho, Y H; Ho, K C; Leung, H M; Yung, K K L

    2017-04-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated under limitation and starvation and under controlled conditions using different concentrations of nitrate (NaNO 3 ) and phosphate (K 2 HPO 4 and KH 2 PO 4 ) chemicals in modified Bold basal medium (BBM). The biomass and lipid production responses to different media were examined in terms of optical density, cell density, dry biomass, and lipid productivity. In the 12-day batch culture period, the highest biomass productivity obtained was 72.083 mg L -1  day -1 under BBM - N control P limited condition. The highest lipid content, lipid concentration, and lipid productivity obtained were 53.202 %, 287.291 mg/L, and 23.449 mg L -1  day -1 under BBM - N Control P Deprivation condition, respectively. Nitrogen had a major effect in the biomass concentration of C. vulgaris, while no significant effect was found for phosphorus. Nitrogen and phosphorus starvation was found to be the strategy affecting the lipid accumulation and affected the lipid composition of C. vulgaris cultures.

  19. Inhibitive action of alkaloids and non alkaloid fractions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 2.0 MHCl solution by non-alkaloidal and alkaloidal fractions of the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus (NAEPA and AEPA respectively) was studied using gravimetric and gasometric techniques at 303 and 323 K. The results revealed that the extracts functioned as good corrosion inhibitors.

  20. Four alkaloids from Annona cherimola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Chang, F R; Pan, W B; Wu, Y C

    2001-04-01

    Four alkaloids, annocherine A, annocherine B, cherianoine, and romucosine H, along with one known alkaloid, artabonatine B, were isolated from the MeOH extract of the stems of Annona cherimola. Their structures were identified on the basis of both analysis of their spectral data and from chemical evidence.

  1. Alkaloids from Isopyrum thalictroides L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istatkova, Ralitsa; Philipov, Stefan

    2004-06-01

    Two new aporphine-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids thaliphine and isothaliphine with a new type of ether bridge were isolated from the roots and rhyzomes of Isopyrum thalictroides L. (Ranunculaceae). Their structures were established by physical and spectral analysis. The known alkaloid N-methylglaucine was isolated for the first time from a plant of the family Ranunculaceae.

  2. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Yoon [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Department of Microbial Ecology, Wageningen (Netherlands); Park, Chi Kyu [Hamyang-gun Agricultural Development & Technology Center, Hamyang 676-806 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Pil Joo, E-mail: pjkim@gnu.ac.kr [Division of Applied Life Science (BK 21 Program), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH{sub 4}), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH{sub 4} production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH{sub 4} production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH{sub 4} production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH{sub 4} dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and K{sub 2}O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt{sup −1} on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH{sub 4} productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH{sub 4} productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH{sub 4} production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH{sub 4} production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well

  3. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH_4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH_4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH_4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH_4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH_4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH_4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P_2O_5, and K_2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt"−"1 on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH_4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH_4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH_4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH_4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198–205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and

  4. Molecular docking study of Papaver alkaloids to some alkaloid receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nofallah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: More than 40 different alkaloids have been obtained from opium the most important of which are morphine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine and tabaine. Opioid alkaloids produce analgesia by affecting areas of the brain that have peptides with pharmacological pseudo-opioid properties. These alkaloids show important effects on some intracellular peptides like mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Therefore, studying the effects of these alkaloids on different receptors is essential. Methods: Molecular docking is a well-known method in exploring the protein-ligand interactions. In this research, five important alkaloids were docked to crystal structure of human mu opioid receptor (4DKL, human delta opioid receptor (4EJ4 and human kappa opioid receptor (4DJH which were retrieved from protein databank. The 3D-structures of alkaloids were drawn by chembiooffice2010 and minimized with hyperchem package and submitted to molecular docking utilizing autodock-vina. Flexibility of the proteins was considered. The docking studies were performed to compare the affinity of these five alkaloids to the mentioned receptors. Results: We computationally docked each alkaloid compound onto each receptor structure and estimated their binding affinity based on dock scores. Dock score is a criteria including binding energy which utilized here for prediction and comparison of the binding affinities. Binding interactions of the docked alkaloids in receptor pockets were also visually inspected and compared. Conclusion: In this approach, using docking study as a computational method provided a valuable insight of opioid receptor pocket structures which would be essential to design more efficient drugs in pain managements and addiction treatments.

  5. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammad Israr; Kim, Pil Joo

    2015-12-15

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of cover crop biomass may vary at different growing stages. Therefore, nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential might be controlled by selecting the optimum harvesting stage. To investigate the effect of rye harvesting stage on nutrient productivity and CH4 production potential, rye was harvested at different growing stages, from the flowering stage to the maturing stage, for seven weeks. The chemical composition and biomass productivity of rye were investigated. CH4 production was measured by laboratory incubation, and CH4 production potential was estimated to determine the real impact on CH4 dynamics in rice soils. Rye biomass increased with plant maturation, but nutrient productivities such as N (nitrogen), P2O5, and K2O were maximized at the flowering stage. The contents of cellulose and lignin increased significantly as plants matured, but the total N, labile organic carbon (C), and hot and cold water-extractable organic C clearly decreased. Soils were mixed with 0.3% (wt wt(-1) on dry weight) air-dried biomass and incubated to measure the maximum CH4 productivity at 30 °C under flooded conditions. Maximum CH4 productivity was significantly correlated with increasing labile organic C and protein content, but it was negatively correlated with total organic C, cellulose, and lignin content. CH4 production potentials were significantly increased up to the pre-maturing stage (220 DAS) and remained unchanged thereafter. As a result, CH4 production potential per N productivity was the lowest at the late flowering stage (198-205 DAS), which could be the best harvesting stage as well as the most promising stage for increasing nutrient production and decreasing GHG

  6. Drug development against tuberculosis: Impact of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shardendu K; Tripathi, Garima; Kishore, Navneet; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Archana; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2017-09-08

    Despite of the advances made in the treatment and management, tuberculosis (TB) still remains one of main public health problem. The contrary effects of first and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs have generated extended research interest in natural products in the hope of devising new antitubercular leads. Interestingly, plethoras of natural products have been discovered to exhibit activity towards various resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Extensive applications of alkaloids in the field of therapeutics is well-established and nowday's researches being pursued to develop new potent drugs from natural sources for tuberculosis. Alkaloids are categorized in quite a few groups according to their structures and isolation from both terrestrial and marine sources. These new drugs might be a watershed in the battle against tuberculosis. This review summarizes alkaloids, which were found active against Mycobacteria since last ten years with special attention on the study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and mode of action with their impact in drug discovery and development against tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetics, Genomics and Evolution of Ergot Alkaloid Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. Young

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The ergot alkaloid biosynthesis system has become an excellent model to study evolutionary diversification of specialized (secondary metabolites. This is a very diverse class of alkaloids with various neurotropic activities, produced by fungi in several orders of the phylum Ascomycota, including plant pathogens and protective plant symbionts in the family Clavicipitaceae. Results of comparative genomics and phylogenomic analyses reveal multiple examples of three evolutionary processes that have generated ergot-alkaloid diversity: gene gains, gene losses, and gene sequence changes that have led to altered substrates or product specificities of the enzymes that they encode (neofunctionalization. The chromosome ends appear to be particularly effective engines for gene gains, losses and rearrangements, but not necessarily for neofunctionalization. Changes in gene expression could lead to accumulation of various pathway intermediates and affect levels of different ergot alkaloids. Genetic alterations associated with interspecific hybrids of Epichloë species suggest that such variation is also selectively favored. The huge structural diversity of ergot alkaloids probably represents adaptations to a wide variety of ecological situations by affecting the biological spectra and mechanisms of defense against herbivores, as evidenced by the diverse pharmacological effects of ergot alkaloids used in medicine.

  8. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  9. [A method for the determination of ergot alkaloids in food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, C; Baltes, W; Krönert, W; Weber, R

    1988-02-01

    A suitable method has been developed for the routine analysis of the ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergometrinine, ergosine, ergosinine, ergotamine, ergotaminine, ergocornine, ergocorninine, alpha-ergocryptine, alpha-ergocryptinine, beta-ergocryptine, beta-ergocryptinine, ergocristine and ergocristinine in cereal products. The method consists of food extraction, cleaning of the crude extract by a modified form of the Extrelut method, and identification and quantitative determination of the alkaloids by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results are confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Market investigations have shown contaminations in ecological as well as in conventional products, with rye products mainly being contaminated. Within the EEC, a maximum value of 0.05% ergot respectively a total alkaloid content of 1 mg/kg in cereals used for food production is prescribed. This value was not exceeded in any of the investigated samples.

  10. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.; Iyer, S.S.; Badheka, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2- 14 C, benzoic acid-1- 14 C, benzoic acid-ring 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C and cinnamic acid-2- 14 C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  11. Dryland Agrivoltaics: A novel approach to collocating food production and solar renewable energy to maximize food production, water savings, and energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, G.; Escobedo, E. B.; Smith, J.; Raub, H.; Jimenez, J. R.; Sutter, L., Jr.; Barnett-Moreno, I.; Blackett, D. T.; Thompson, M. S.; Minor, R. L.; Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional understanding of land use asserts an inherent "zero-sum-game" of competition between renewable energy and agricultural food production. This discourse is so fundamentally entrenched that it drives most current policy around conservation practices, land and water allotments for agriculture, and permitting for large-scale renewable energy installations. We are investigating a novel approach to solve a problem key to our environment and economy in drylands by creating a hybrid of collocated "green" agriculture and "grey" solar photovoltaic (PV) infrastructure to maximize agricultural production while improving renewable energy production. We are monitoring atmospheric microclimatic conditions, soil moisture, plant ecophysiological function, and biomass production within both this novel "agrivoltaics" ecosystem and in traditional PV installations and agricultural settings (control plot) to quantify tradeoffs associated with this approach. We have found that levels of soil moisture remained higher after each irrigation event within the soils under the agrivoltaics installation than the traditional agricultural setting due to the shading provided by the PV panels overhead. We initiated a drought treatment, which underscored the water-savings under the agrivoltaics installation and increased water use efficiency in this system. We hypothesized that we will see more temperature and drought stresses on photosynthetic capacity and water use efficiency in the control plants relative to the agrivoltaic installation, and we found that several food crops either experienced significantly more production within the agrivoltaics area, whereas others resulted in nearly equal production but at significant water savings. Combined with localized cooling of the PV panels resulting from the transpiration from the vegetative "understory", we are finding a win-win-win at the food-water-energy nexus. photo credit: Bob Demers/UANews

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium megalanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, M; Gonzalez-Coloma, A; Gutierrez, C; Cabrera, R; Henriquez, J; Villarroel, L

    1998-11-01

    Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, megalanthonine (1) and lycopsamine (2), have been isolated from Heliotropium megalanthum. The structure of the novel compound 1 was determined by spectroscopic methods. The insecticidal, antifeedant, and antifungal effects of compounds 1 and 2 have been evaluated.

  13. Product Allocation of Generic Advertising Funds: A Sales Maximization Approach with an Application to Milk and Cheese in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Kinnucan, Henry W.

    1986-01-01

    With the passage of the Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983, dairy farmer investment in product research, advertising and promotion in the United States increases from $60 million to $200 million annually. A key decision faced by the Boards managing these funds is how best to allocate advertising funds among the various dairy products. In this paper an economic model is developed that shows the allocation of funds to fluid milk and cheese that would maximize sales in a given market. the ...

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joao Sammy N.; Machado, Luciana L.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Overk, Cassia R.; Ping Yao; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Helindicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. (author)

  15. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    OpenAIRE

    Souza,João Sammy N.; Machado,Luciana L.; Pessoa,Otília D. L.; Braz-Filho,Raimundo; Overk,Cassia R.; Yao,Ping; Cordell,Geoffrey A.; Lemos,Telma L. G.

    2005-01-01

    Helindicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. Um novo alcaló...

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium indicum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Joao Sammy N.; Machado, Luciana L.; Pessoa, Otilia D.L.; Lemos, Telma L.G. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: tlemos@dqoi.ufc.br; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Overk, Cassia R.; Ping Yao; Cordell, Geoffrey A. [University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States). College of Pharmacy. Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy

    2005-11-15

    ndicine (1), a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid with unusual structural features, together with the known lycopsamine (2), were isolated from the roots of Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae). The structures were established by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR methods (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HREIMS. This is the first report of a lactone pyrrolizidine alkaloid in the genus Heliotropium. Compounds 1 and 2 were assayed for antioxidant activity and showed moderate activity. (author)

  17. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppré, Michael; Colegate, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    pathways or for large-scale production of specific alkaloids. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The role of biocatalysis in the asymmetric synthesis of alkaloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrittwieser, J.H.; Resch, V.

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are not only one of the most intensively studied classes of natural products, their wide spectrum of pharmacological activities also makes them indispensable drug ingredients in both traditional and modern medicine. Among the methods for their production, biotechnological approaches are

  19. Alkaloid-derived molecules in low rank Argonne premium coals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winans, R. E.; Tomczyk, N. A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2000-11-30

    Molecules that are probably derived from alkaloids have been found in the extracts of the subbituminous and lignite Argonne Premium Coals. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) have been used to characterize pyridine and supercritical extracts. The supercritical extraction used an approach that has been successful for extracting alkaloids from natural products. The first indication that there might be these natural products in coals was the large number of molecules found containing multiple nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms. These molecules are much less abundant in bituminous coals and absent in the higher rank coals.

  20. Manzamine alkaloids: isolation, cytotoxicity, antimalarial activity and SAR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Penta; Ganguly, Swastika; Murugesan, Sankaranarayanan

    2014-11-01

    The infectious disease Malaria is caused by different species of the genus Plasmodium. Resistance to quinoline antimalarial drugs and decreased susceptibility to artemisinin-based combination therapy have increased the need for novel antimalarial agents. Historically, natural products have been used for the treatment of infectious diseases. Identification of natural products and their semi-synthetic derivatives with potent antimalarial activity is an important method for developing novel antimalarial agents. Manzamine alkaloids are a unique group of β-carboline alkaloids isolated from various species of marine sponge displaying potent antimalarial activity against drug-sensitive and -resistant strains of Plasmodium. In this review, we demonstrate antimalarial potency, cytotoxicity and antimalarial SAR of manzamine alkaloids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maximal Bell's inequality violation for non-maximal entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Khanna, F.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.

    2004-01-01

    Bell's inequality violation (BIQV) for correlations of polarization is studied for a product state of two two-mode squeezed vacuum (TMSV) states. The violation allowed is shown to attain its maximal limit for all values of the squeezing parameter, ζ. We show via an explicit example that a state whose entanglement is not maximal allow maximal BIQV. The Wigner function of the state is non-negative and the average value of either polarization is nil

  2. Selective reduction of peptidic ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvak, L.; Stuchlík, J.; Schreiberová, M.; Sedmera, Petr; Havlíček, Vladimír; Flieger, Miroslav; Čejka, J.; Kratochvíl, B.; Jegorov, A.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 65, - (2000), s. 1762-1776 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : indole alkaloids * ergot alkaloids * ergopeptides Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.960, year: 2000

  3. ALKALOIDAL COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY STUDIES OF THREE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mattock's test for unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (hepatotoxic) revealed that only C. retusa contained these alkaloids amongst the three species. This indicated that this is a potentially toxic specie. The alkaloids of C. retusa were toxic to albino (Wistar) rats. Marked microscopic lesions were found, principally in the liver.

  4. Representing a Model Using Data Mining Approach for Maximizing Profit with Considering Product Assortment and Space Allocation Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoochehr Ansari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice of which products to stock among numerous competing products and how much space to allocate to those products are central decisions for retailers. This study aimed to apply data mining approach so that, we got needed information from large datasets of sale transactions to find the relations between products and to make product assortments. Thus, we represented a model for product assortment and space allocation. Research population was transactional data of a store, the sample included transactional data of one-month period in the time series. Data were collected in October and November, 2015 from Shaghayegh store. 525 transactions with regard to 79 different products were analyzed. Based on the result 10 product assortments formed although some products were allocated to more than 1 product category. By solving profit equation and finding volume increase indices we allocated spaces for each product assortment.

  5. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Maximize the operating profit of a SWRO-PRO integrated process for optimal water production and energy recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2016-03-28

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption and the operating expenditure of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, a simple analytical PRO model is developed to predict the PRO performance as the dilution of draw solutions occurs. The model can predict the PRO performance with a high accuracy without carrying out complicated integrations and experiments. The operating profit of SWRO-PRO is also studied by calculating the profit generated for every m3 of seawater entering the process because maximizing the operating profit is the uttermost objective of the SWRO-PRO process. Based on the PRO analytical model, the operating profit and the dynamics of the SWRO-PRO process, a strategy has been proposed to maximize the operating profit of the SWRO-PRO process while maintaining the highest power density of the PRO membranes. This study proves that integration of SWRO with PRO can (1) push the SWRO to a higher recovery and maintain its high profitability, (2) effectively reduce the specific energy consumption of desalination by up to 35% and (3) increase the operating profit up to 100%. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Alkaloids from Mongolian species Berberis sibirica Pall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istatkova, R.; Philipov, S.; Tuleva, P.; Amgalan, A.; Samdan, J.; Dangaa, S.

    2007-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Berberis sibirica Pall. 6 isoquinoline alkaloids of protoberberine, protopine, benzphenanthridine and proaporphine type were isolated. The known alkaloids (-)-tetrahydropseudocoptisine, pseudoprotopine, (+)-chelidonine and (+)-glaziovine are new for the family Berberidaceae. From the roots of B. sibirica 10 isoquinoline alkaloids of protoberberine, benzylisoquinoline, bisbenzylisoquinoline, aporphine-benzylisoquinoline and proaporphine-benzylisoquinoline type were isolated. 1,10-Di-O-methylpakistanine has been reported for the first time as a natural alkaloid. The known alkaloids (-)-isothalidezine and (+)-armepavine have been found for the first time in the family Berberidaceae. All structures were determined by physical and spectral data. (authors)

  8. Lycopodium alkaloids from Palhinhaea cernua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fu-Wei [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luo, Ji-Feng; Wang, Yue-Hu, E-mail: wangyuehu@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei [Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Natural Products, Guizhou Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Liu, Fang [College of Landscape and Horticulture, Yunnan Agricultural University (China); Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, (China)

    2012-07-01

    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, acetyllycoposerramine M and palcernine A were isolated from whole plant extracts of Palhinhaea cernua L. together with ten previously identified compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the Flack parameter. (author)

  9. O hydrogen bonds in alkaloids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An overview of general classification scheme, medicinal importance and crystal structure analysis with emphasis on the role of hydrogen bonding in some alkaloids is presented in this paper. The article is based on a general kind of survey while crystallographic analysis and role of hydrogen bonding are limited to only ...

  10. Cinchona alkaloids in asymmetric organocatalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelli, T.; Hiemstra, H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the applications of cinchona alkaloids as asymmetric catalysts. In the last few years, characterized by the resurgence of interest in asymmetric organocatalysis, cinchona derivatives have been shown to catalyze an outstanding array of chemical reactions, often with remarkable

  11. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg -1 . The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg -1 respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg -1 ), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg -1 ), a tarragon (3300 µg kg -1 ) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg -1 ). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  12. Alkaloids from sponge, scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie; Kremb, Stephan; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-viral compounds with low cytotoxicity are identified from screening of products found in Red Sea sponges, including the sponge Stylissa carteri. The identified compounds can be brominated pyrrole-2- aminoimidazole alkaloids and derivatives

  13. Cost of production. Maximize profitability in the manufacture of solar modules; Maximizar la rentabilidad en la fabricacion de modulos solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, G. R.

    2011-07-01

    Plus the cost of photovoltaic energy production, parity with the network also consider the total investment made to generate a certain amount of energy. Some factors to consider include production, labor, initial cost of system components, installation, operation and maintenance. (Author)

  14. Neurotoxic Alkaloids: Saxitoxin and Its Analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troco K. Mihali

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and its 57 analogs are a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs. PSTs are the causative agents of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP and are mostly associated with marine dinoflagellates (eukaryotes and freshwater cyanobacteria (prokaryotes, which form extensive blooms around the world. PST producing dinoflagellates belong to the genera Alexandrium, Gymnodinium and Pyrodinium whilst production has been identified in several cyanobacterial genera including Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, Aphanizomenon Planktothrix and Lyngbya. STX and its analogs can be structurally classified into several classes such as non-sulfated, mono-sulfated, di-sulfated, decarbamoylated and the recently discovered hydrophobic analogs—each with varying levels of toxicity. Biotransformation of the PSTs into other PST analogs has been identified within marine invertebrates, humans and bacteria. An improved understanding of PST transformation into less toxic analogs and degradation, both chemically or enzymatically, will be important for the development of methods for the detoxification of contaminated water supplies and of shellfish destined for consumption. Some PSTs also have demonstrated pharmaceutical potential as a long-term anesthetic in the treatment of anal fissures and for chronic tension-type headache. The recent elucidation of the saxitoxin biosynthetic gene cluster in cyanobacteria and the identification of new PST analogs will present opportunities to further explore the pharmaceutical potential of these intriguing alkaloids.

  15. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    This project used the cyanobacterial species Synechocystis PCC 6803 to pursue two lines of inquiry, with each line addressing one of the two main factors affecting hydrogen (H2) production in Synechocystis PCC 6803: NADPH availability and O2 sensitivity. H2 production in Synechocystis PCC 6803 requires a very high NADPH:NADP+ ratio, that is, the NADP pool must be highly reduced, which can be problematic because several metabolic pathways potentially can act to raise or lower NADPH levels. Also, though the [NiFe]-hydrogenase in PCC 6803 is constitutively expressed, it is reversibly inactivated at very low O2 concentrations. Largely because of this O2 sensitivity and the requirement for high NADPH levels, a major portion of overall H2 production occurs under anoxic conditions in the dark, supported by breakdown of glycogen or other organic substrates accumulated during photosynthesis. Also, other factors, such as N or S limitation, pH changes, presence of other substances, or deletion of particular respiratory components, can affect light or dark H2 production. Therefore, in the first line of inquiry, under a number of culture conditions with wild type (WT) Synechocystis PCC 6803 cells and a mutant with impaired type I NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDH-1) function, we used H2 production profiling and metabolic flux analysis, with and without specific inhibitors, to examine systematically the pathways involved in light and dark H2 production. Results from this work provided rational bases for metabolic engineering to maximize photobiological H2 production on a 24-hour basis. In the second line of inquiry, we used site-directed mutagenesis to create mutants with hydrogenase enzymes exhibiting greater O2 tolerance. The research addressed the following four tasks: 1. Evaluate the effects of various culture conditions (N, S, or P limitation; light/dark; pH; exogenous organic carbon) on H2 production profiles of WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 2. Conduct metabolic flux analyses for

  17. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from the Leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Le Son; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; To, Dao Cuong; Nguyen, Van Thu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-01-01

    A novel pyrrolizidine alkaloids, madhumidine A (1), and two known alkaloids, lindelofidine benzoic acid ester (2) and minalobine B (3) were isolated from the leaves of Madhuca pasquieri (Dubard) H. J. LAM. The chemical structures of these alkaloids were established mainly by NMR techniques and mass spectrometry. Their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated against lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in macrophage RAW264.7 cell. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of all isolated compounds was tested against a panel of cancer cell lines.

  18. Continuous hydrogen and methane production from Agave tequilana bagasse hydrolysate by sequential process to maximize energy recovery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel Corona, Virginia; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2018-02-01

    Continuous H 2 and CH 4 production in a two-stage process to increase energy recovery from agave bagasse enzymatic-hydrolysate was studied. In the first stage, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) and stirring speed on volumetric hydrogen production rate (VHPR) was evaluated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR); by controlling the homoacetogenesis with the agitation speed and maintaining an OLR of 44 g COD/L-d, it was possible to reach a VHPR of 6 L H 2 /L-d, equivalent to 1.34 kJ/g bagasse. In the second stage, the effluent from CSTR was used as substrate to feed a UASB reactor for CH 4 production. Volumetric methane production rate (VMPR) of 6.4 L CH 4 /L-d was achieved with a high OLR (20 g COD/L-d) and short hydraulic retention time (HRT, 14 h), producing 225 mL CH 4 /g-bagasse equivalent to 7.88 kJ/g bagasse. The two-stage continuous process significantly increased energy conversion efficiency (56%) compared to one-stage hydrogen production (8.2%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maximizing light olefins production in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) units; Maximizacao de olefinas leves em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fluido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenta, Ricardo D.M.; Pinho, Andrea de Rezende [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process is widely spread over the ten PETROBRAS refineries in its thirteen industrial units. The importance of the FCC process resides on its high gasoline output, being the main supplier of this important product to the system. Additionally, FCC process is the main source of light hydrocarbons in the LPG range, including light olefins. The increasing demand for ethylene, propylene and butylenes was encouraging to concentrate the research efforts on studies about alternatives for the traditional FCC process. In the present work, the proposals from main licensors (UOP, KBR, Stone and Webster) for a light-olefins-driven FCC process (Petrochemical FCC) will be compared. Furthermore, the catalytic route for light olefins production in FCC units is also described. An additive based on ZSM- 5 zeolite, which is produced following a PETROBRAS proprietary technology, is being largely applied into the catalyst inventories of all FCC units. An analysis of different scenarios was performed to estimate the maximum potential of light olefins production from the highest possible ZSM-5 additive usage. More specifically for the case of ethylene, which production is also boosted by the same type of additive, studies are being conducted with the objective of recovering it from a C2 stream using specific units to do the splitting (UPGR). The search for increasing light olefins production in the refining processes is in line with PETROBRAS strategic plan which targeted for the company a more intense activity in the Brazilian petrochemical market (author)

  20. Colonial Agro-Industrialism : Science, Industry and the State in the Dutch Golden Alkaloid Age, 1850-1950

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roersch van der Hoogte, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about what I call the Dutch Golden Alkaloid Age between roughly the 1850s and 1950s. I follow the historical trajectory of the production and distribution of the anti-febrifuge cinchona bark tree (Cinchona officinalis Lin.) and its most powerful and therapeutically applied alkaloid in

  1. Maximizing biofuel production in a thermochemical biorefinery by adding electrolytic hydrogen and by integrating torrefaction with entrained flow gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    double the biofuel production per biomass input by converting almost all of the carbon in the biomass feed to carbon stored in the biofuel product. Water or steam electrolysis can supply the hydrogen to the biorefinery and also the oxygen for the gasifier. This paper presents the design and thermodynamic...... analysis of two biorefineries integrating water electrolysis for the production of methanol. In both plants, torrefied woody biomass is supplied to an entrained flow gasifier, but in one of the plants, the torrefaction process occurs on-site, as it is integrated with the entrained flow gasification process....... The analysis shows that the biorefinery with integrated torrefaction has a higher biomass to methanol energy ratio (136% vs. 101%) as well as higher total energy efficiency (62% vs. 56%). By comparing with two identical biorefineries without electrolysis, it is concluded that the biorefinery with integrated...

  2. Maximizing the Production of Biogas in an Instructional Manipulative Designed to Teach Energy Concepts to High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Shakira Renee

    In an effort to stress the benefits of the application of renewable energy to the next generation of science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics (STEAM) professionals, instructional modules on energy and biogas were integrated into a summer camp curriculum that challenged students to apply STEAM concepts in the design and development of chain reaction machines. Each module comprised an interactive presentations and a hands-on component where students operated a manipulative relevant to the content. During summer 2013, this camp was implemented at two high schools in Arizona and one in Trinidad and Tobago. Assessments showed that the overall modules were effective in helping students learn and retain the information presented on energy and biogas production. To improve future implementations of these modules, specifically the module on biogas production, the anaerobic digester was redesigned. In addition, a designed experiment was conducted to determine how to optimize the influent and operational environment that is available in an average high school classroom to generate maximum biogas yield. Eight plug-flow anaerobic digesters made of PVC piping and fixtures were used in a 2x3 factorial design assessing: co-digestion (20mL or 50mL) used cooking oil, temperature (25°C or 40°C), and addition of inoculum (0mL or 200mL). Biogas production was captured at two intervals over a 30-day period, and the experiments were replicated three times. Results showed that temperature at 40°C significantly increased biogas production and should be used over 25°C when using anaerobic digesters. Other factors that may potentially increase biogas production are combination of temperature at 40°C and 50mL of used cooking oil. In the future, the improvements made in the design of the anaerobic digester, and the applications of the finding from the experimental design, are expected to lead to an improved manipulative for teaching students about biogas production.

  3. Detection of Total Ergot Alkaloids in Cereal Flour and in Bread by a Generic Enzyme Immunoassay Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Madeleine; Curtui, Valeriu; Usleber, Ewald

    2018-05-01

    Four sets of polyclonal antibodies against ergot alkaloids ergometrine, ergotamine, α-ergocryptine, and ergocornine were produced and characterized in a competitive direct or indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Standard curve LODs were 0.03 ng/mL (ergometrine EIA) to 2.0 ng/mL (ergocornine EIA). Three EIAs were highly specific, whereas the ergometrine EIA had a broad specificity pattern and reacted, albeit weakly, with all seven major ergot alkaloids and their epimeric forms. Using the ergometrine EIA, a generic test system was established in which total ergot alkaloids are quantified by a standard curve for a toxin mixture composed of three alkaloids that matched the ergot alkaloid composition in naturally contaminated rye and wheat products. Sample extraction with acetonitrile-phosphate-buffered saline at pH 6.0 without further cleanup was sufficient for EIA analysis. The LODs for total ergot alkaloids were 20 ng/g in rye and wheat flour and 14 ng/g in bread. Recoveries were 85-110% (RSDs of 0.1-11.7%) at a concentration range of 50-1000 ng/g. The total ergot alkaloid EIA was validated by comparison with HPLC-fluorescence detection. Although some under- and overestimation by the total ergot alkaloid EIA was observed, it was suitable for the reliable identification of positive samples at 10-20 ng/g and for the determination of total ergot alkaloids in a concentration range between 100 and 1000 ng/g.

  4. The maximization of the productivity of aquatic plants for use in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. G.

    Lemna minor (common duckweed) and a Wolffia sp. were grown in submerged growth systems. Submerged growth increased the productivity/unit volume (P/UV) of the organisms and may allow these plants to be used in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS).

  5. Maximizing the peak production rate in off-line comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeltink, S.; Dolman, S.; Ursem, M.; Swart, R.; McLeod, F.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an optimization strategy to obtain the best possible performance in the shortest analysis time—called the peak production rate—for comprehensive off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography. The demands on column technology (particle size and column length) and LC conditions

  6. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine “asmachilca”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M.; Boppré, Michael; Monzón, Julio; Betz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    -oxide content in the botanical components of asmachilca varied from 0.4 – 0.9% (w/dw, dry weight) based on equivalents of lycopsamine. The mean pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a hot water infusion of a commercial asmachilca herbal tea bag was 2.2 ± 0.5 mg lycopsamine equivalents. Morphological and chemical evidence showed that asmachilca is prepared from different plant species. Conclusions All asmachilca samples and the herbal tea infusions contained toxicologically-relevant concentrations of pro-toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid esters and, therefore, present a risk to the health of humans. This raises questions concerning the ongoing unrestricted availability of such products on the Peruvian and international market. In addition to medical surveys of consumers of asmachilca, in the context of chronic disease potentially associated with ingestion of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids, the botanical origins of asmachilca preparations require detailed elucidation. PMID:26087231

  7. Alkaloids from Boophone haemanthoides (Amaryllidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nair, J. J.; Rárová, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Bastida, J.; van Staden, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 12 (2013), s. 1705-1710 ISSN 1934-578X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Alkaloid * Amaryllidaceae * Boophone haemanthoides Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000328588200011

  8. Maximizing and customer loyalty: Are maximizers less loyal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite their efforts to choose the best of all available solutions, maximizers seem to be more inclined than satisficers to regret their choices and to experience post-decisional dissonance. Maximizers may therefore be expected to change their decisions more frequently and hence exhibit lower customer loyalty to providers of products and services compared to satisficers. Findings from the study reported here (N = 1978 support this prediction. Maximizers reported significantly higher intentions to switch to another service provider (television provider than satisficers. Maximizers' intentions to switch appear to be intensified and mediated by higher proneness to regret, increased desire to discuss relevant choices with others, higher levels of perceived knowledge of alternatives, and higher ego involvement in the end product, compared to satisficers. Opportunities for future research are suggested.

  9. Carry-over of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from feed to milk in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, L A P; Mulder, P P J; Zeilmaker, M J; van den Top, H J; Remmelink, G J; Brandon, E F A; Klijnstra, M; Meijer, G A L; Schothorst, R; Van Egmond, H P

    2011-03-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are toxins present in many plants belonging to the families of Asteraceae, Boraginaceae and Fabaceae. Particularly notorious are pyrrolizidine alkaloids present in ragwort species (Senecio), which are held responsible for hepatic disease in horses and cows and may lead to the death of the affected animals. In addition, these compounds may be transferred to edible products of animal origin and as such be a threat for the health of consumers. To investigate the possible transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from contaminated feed to milk, cows were put on a ration for 3 weeks with increasing amounts (50-200 g day(-1)) of dried ragwort. Milk was collected and sampled twice a day; faeces and urine twice a week. For milk, a dose-related appearance of pyrrolizidine alkaloids was found. Jacoline was the major component in milk despite being a minor component in the ragwort material. Practically no N-oxides were observed in milk, notwithstanding the fact that they constituted over 80% of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in ragwort. The overall carry-over of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids was estimated to be only around 0.1%, but for jacoline 4%. Notwithstanding the low overall carry-over, this may be relevant for consumer health considering the genotoxic and carcinogenic properties demonstrated for some of these compounds. Analysis of the faeces and urine samples indicated that substantial metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is taking place. The toxicity and potential transfer of metabolites to milk is unknown and remains to be investigated.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio sp from Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Vasquez, Liliana; Reina Artiles, Matias; Gonzalez Coloma, Azucena; Cabrera Perez, Raimundo; Ruiz Mesia, Lastenia

    2011-01-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic) were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon), F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt) and F. solani (Mart), no significant activity being observed. (author)

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio sp from Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Vasquez, Liliana; Reina Artiles, Matias [Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez Coloma, Azucena [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Cabrera Perez, Raimundo [Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Tenerife (Spain). Unidad de Fitopatologia, Facultad de Biologia; Ruiz Mesia, Lastenia [Universidad Nacional de la Amazonia Peruana (LIPNAA-UNAP), AA.HH. Nuevo San Lorenzo, San Juan, Iquitos (Peru). Lab. de Investigacion en Productos Naturales Antiparasitarios de la Amazonia

    2011-07-01

    Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic) were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon), F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt) and F. solani (Mart), no significant activity being observed. (author)

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of senecio sp from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ruiz Vásquez and Matías Reina Artiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Six pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs (two saturated macrocyclic, three unsaturated macrocyclic and one unsaturated seco-macrocyclic were isolated from native Peruvian Senecio species. The structures of these alkaloids were established by a complete NMR spectroscopic analysis, chemical transformations and comparison of their NMR data with those published for similar alkaloids. Three PAs were then tested for antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme, F. (Sheldon, F. oxysporum fs. lycopersici (Scheldt and F. solani (Mart, no significant activity being observed.

  13. Light intensity as major factor to maximize biomass and lipid productivity of Ettlia sp. in CO2-controlled photoautotrophic chemostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seong-Hyun; Ha, Ji-San; Yoo, Chan; Srivastava, Ankita; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Cho, Dae-Hyun; La, Hyun-Joon; Han, Myung-Soo; Oh, Hee-Mock

    2017-11-01

    The optimal culture conditions are critical factors for high microalgal biomass and lipid productivity. To optimize the photoautotrophic culture conditions, combination of the pH (regulated by CO 2 supply), dilution rate, and light intensity was systematically investigated for Ettlia sp. YC001 cultivation in a chemostat during 143days. The biomass productivity increased with the increase in dilution rate and light intensity, but decreased with increasing pH. The average lipid content was 19.8% and statistically non-variable among the tested conditions. The highest biomass and lipid productivities were 1.48gL -1 d -1 and 291.4mgL -1 d -1 with a pH of 6.5, dilution rate of 0.78d -1 , and light intensity of 1500μmolphotonsm -2 s -1 . With a sufficient supply of CO 2 and nutrients, the light intensity was the main determinant of the photosynthetic rate. Therefore, the surface-to-volume ratio of a photobioreactor should enable efficient light distribution to enhance microalgal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation of the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in cell culture by fourier transformation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Grote, Anna-Karina; Kleigrewe, Karin; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-07-27

    Ergot alkaloids are known toxic secondary metabolites of the fungus Claviceps purpurea occurring in various grains, especially rye products. The liver is responsible for converting the ergot alkaloids into metabolites; however, the toxic impact of these end products of metabolism is still unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the metabolism of ergot alkaloids in colon and liver cell lines (HT-29, HepG2), as well as in human primary renal cells (RPTEC). It was shown that cells in vitro are able to metabolize ergot alkaloids, forming a variety of metabolic compounds. Significant differences between the used cell types could be identified, and a suitable model system was established using HT-29 cells, performing an intensive metabolism to hydroxylated metabolites. The formed substances were analyzed by coupling of high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and Fourier transformation mass spectrometry (HPLC-FLD-FTMS) as a powerful tool to identify known and unknown metabolites.

  15. Catharanthus alkaloids XXXII: isolation of alkaloids from Catharanthus trichophyllus roots and structure elucidation of cathaphylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, G A; Farnsworth, N R

    1976-03-01

    Further examination of the cytotoxic alkaloid fractions of Catharanthus trichophyllus roots afforded nine alkaloids. Two of these alkaloids, lochnericine and horhammericine, are responsible for part of the cytotoxic activity. The structure elucidation of cathaphylline, a new beta-anilino acrylate derivative, is described.

  16. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Hiras, Jennifer; Deng, Kai; Bowen, Benjamin; Simmons, Blake A; Adams, Paul D; Singer, Steven W; Northen, Trent R

    2013-01-01

    Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS)-based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45°C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45°C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60°C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45°C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  17. High throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry screening of microbial growth conditions for maximal β-glucosidase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang eCheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of biofuels via enzymatic hydrolysis of complex plant polysaccharides is a subject of intense global interest. Microbial communities are known to express a wide range of enzymes necessary for the saccharification of lignocellulosic feedstocks and serve as a powerful reservoir for enzyme discovery. However, the growth temperature and conditions that yield high cellulase activity vary widely, and the throughput to identify optimal conditions has been limited by the slow handling and conventional analysis. A rapid method that uses small volumes of isolate culture to resolve specific enzyme activity is needed. In this work, a high throughput nanostructure-initiator mass spectrometry (NIMS based approach was developed for screening a thermophilic cellulolytic actinomycete, Thermobispora bispora, for β-glucosidase production under various growth conditions. Media that produced high β-glucosidase activity were found to be I/S + glucose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, Medium 84 + rolled oats, and M9TE + MCC at 45 °C. Supernatants of cell cultures grown in M9TE + 1% MCC cleaved 2.5 times more substrate at 45 °C than at all other temperatures. While T. bispora is reported to grow optimally at 60 °C in Medium 84 + rolled oats and M9TE + 1% MCC, approximately 40% more conversion was observed at 45 °C. This high throughput NIMS approach may provide an important tool in discovery and characterization of enzymes from environmental microbes for industrial and biofuel applications.

  18. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    We consider oligopolistic markets in which the notion of shareholders' utility is well-defined and compare the Bertrand-Nash equilibria in case of utility maximization with those under the usual profit maximization hypothesis. Our main result states that profit maximization leads to less price...... competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...... of profits among consumers fully into account and partial equilibrium analysis suffices...

  19. Alkaloids as taxonomic markers in some species of Magnolia L. and Liriodendron L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Furmanowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Magnoliaceae cultivated in Poland were investigated: Liriodendron tulipifera L. and 6 species of magnolia: Magnolia acuminata L., M. denudata Desr., M. kobus DC., M. obovata Thunb., M. salicifolia Maxim. and M. tripetala L. For alkaloid detection in the leaves thin-,layer chromatography was used. In Liriodendron tulipifera L. and in all the Magnolia species liriodenine which exhibits cytostatic activity was detected. The extract of Liriodendron tulipifera L. leaves showed, beside liriodenine other spots on the chromatogram than did the magnolias. Alkaloids can be utilized in the chemotaxonomy of Magnoliaceae as a diagnostic trait. The results of the investigations indicate a certain distinctiveness of M. acuminata L., in agreement with those obtained by way of numerical taxonomy. Most similar as regards alkaloid content in leaves are M. obovata Thunb. and M. tripetala L.

  20. Biohydrogen from thermophilic co-fermentation of swine manure with fruit and vegetable waste: maximizing stable production without pH control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenca, A; Schievano, A; Perazzolo, F; Adani, F; Oberti, R

    2011-09-01

    Hydrogen production by dark fermentation may suffer of inhibition or instability due to pH deviations from optimality. The co-fermentation of promptly degradable feedstock with alkali-rich materials, such as livestock wastes, may represent a feasible and easy to implement approach to avoid external adjustments of pH. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio of fruit-vegetable waste with swine manure with the aim of maximizing biohydrogen production while obtaining process stability through the endogenous alkalinity of manure. Fruit-vegetable/swine manure ratio of 35/65 and HRT of 2d resulted to give the highest production rate of 3.27 ± 0.51 L(H2)L(-1)d(-1), with a corresponding hydrogen yield of 126 ± 22 mL(H2)g(-1)(VS-added) and H2 content in the biogas of 42 ± 5%. At these operating conditions the process exhibited also one of the highest measured stability, with daily productions deviating for less than 14% from the average. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal oxygen feeding policy to maximize the production of Maleic anhydride in unsteady state fixed bed catalytic reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different oxygen feeding scenarios in a fixed bed reactor for the production of Maleic anhydride (MA is studied. Two reactor configurations were examined. In the first configuration, a cross flow reactor (CFR with 4 discrete feeding points is considered. Another configuration is the conventional packed-bed reactor (PBR with a single feed. Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (NLMPC was used as optimal controller to operate the CFR in dynamic mode and to optimize the multiple feed dosages in order to enhance the MA yield. The simulation results indicated that different combinations of the four feed ratios can operate the reactor at the best value for the yield provided the first feeding point is kept as low as possible. For the packed bed reactor configuration, a single oxygen feed is considered and is optimized transiently by NLMPC. The simulation outcomes showed that the reactor performance in terms of the produced MA mole fraction can also be enhanced to the same magnitude obtained by CFR configuration. This improvement requires decreasing the oxygen ratio in the reactor single feed by 70%.

  2. Bioactivity of essential oil from Artemisia stolonifera (Maxim.) Komar. and its main compounds against two stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Wang, Ying; Wang, Cheng-Fang; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Su, Yang; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia stolonifera, a perennial herb, is widely distrbuted in China. The aim of this study was to analyze the essential oil from the aerial parts of Artemisia stolonifera, as well as to evaluate the bioactivity of the oil and its main constituents. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry that allowed characterizing 22 compounds. The main components were eucalyptol (32.93%), β-pinene (8.18%), camphor (6.12%) and terpinen-4-ol (6.11%), and obtained from the essential oil after a further isolation. During the contact toxicity tests, the essential oil (LD50 = 8.60 μg/adult) exhibited stronger toxicity against Tribolium castaneum adults than those isolated constituents, however, camphor and terpinen-4-ol showed 1 and 2 times toxicity against Lasioderma serricorne adults than the essential oil (LD50 = 12.68 μg/adult) with LD50 values of 11.30 and 5.42 μg/adult, respectively. In the fumigant toxicity tests, especially on Tribolium castaneum, the essential oil (LC50 = 1.86 mg/L air) showed almost the same level toxicity as positive control, methyl bromide (LC50 = 1.75 mg/L air). Moreover, the essential oil and its four isolated constituents also exhibited strong repellency against two stored-product insects.

  3. Distinct sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids from in Salvadoran and Peruvian Celastraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Oliver; Núñez, Marvin J; Perestelo, Nayra R; Reyes, Carolina P; Torres-Romero, David; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2017-10-01

    As part of a bioprospecting program aimed at the discovery of undescribed natural products from Salvadoran and Peruvian flora, the phytochemical investigations of four Celastraceae species, Celastrus vulcanicola, Maytenus segoviarum, Maytenus jeslkii, and Maytenus cuzcoina, were performed. The current study reports the isolation and structural characterization of five previously undescribed macrolide sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloids, named vulcanicoline-A, cuzcoinine, vulcanicoline-B, jelskiine, and vulcanicoline-C, along with sixteen known alkaloids. The structures of the alkaloids were established by spectrometric and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY experiments. The absolute configurations of alkaloids were proposed based on optical rotation sign, and biogenetic considerations. This study represents the first phytochemical analysis of Maytenus segoviarum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium crassifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsam, H; Yassa, N; Sarkhail, P; Shafiee, A

    2000-05-01

    Heliotropium crassifolium Boiss, (Boraginaceae) from a population of Ilam, western region of Iran was studied for pyrrolizidine alklaoids (PAs). Four alkaloids have been identified: europine 1, europine N-oxide 2 and a new pyrrolizidine alkaloids ilamine 3 and its N-oxide 4, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by IR, 1H-NMR and EIMS data.

  5. Two New Acridone Alkaloids from Glycosmis macrantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdah Md Akim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extraction and chromatographic separation of the extracts of dried stem barks of Glycosmis macrantha lead to isolation of two new acridone alkaloids, macranthanine (1 and 7-hydroxynoracronycine (2, and a known acridone, atalaphyllidine (3. The structures of these alkaloids were determined by detailed spectral analysis and also by comparison with reported data.

  6. Tropane alkaloids in food: poisoning incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.P.; Noordam, M.Y.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of wild and cultured plants produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic to humans and animals. The present study aims to provide insight into the routes of (un)intentional poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids. Poisonings of humans by tropane alkaloids occur as unintended

  7. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Toigo, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.toigo@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Ziman, Mario, E-mail: ziman@savba.sk [RCQI, Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanická 68a, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  8. Maximally incompatible quantum observables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Schultz, Jussi; Toigo, Alessandro; Ziman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The existence of maximally incompatible quantum observables in the sense of a minimal joint measurability region is investigated. Employing the universal quantum cloning device it is argued that only infinite dimensional quantum systems can accommodate maximal incompatibility. It is then shown that two of the most common pairs of complementary observables (position and momentum; number and phase) are maximally incompatible.

  9. Biogenetically inspired synthesis and skeletal diversification of indole alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Haruki; Oikawa, Hideaki; Oguri, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    To access architecturally complex natural products, chemists usually devise a customized synthetic strategy for constructing a single target skeleton. In contrast, biosynthetic assembly lines often employ divergent intramolecular cyclizations of a polyunsaturated common intermediate to produce diverse arrays of scaffolds. With the aim of integrating such biogenetic strategies, we show the development of an artificial divergent assembly line generating unprecedented numbers of scaffold variations of terpenoid indole alkaloids. This approach not only allows practical access to multipotent intermediates, but also enables systematic diversification of skeletal, stereochemical and functional group properties without structural simplification of naturally occurring alkaloids. Three distinct modes of [4+2] cyclizations and two types of redox-mediated annulations provided divergent access to five skeletally distinct scaffolds involving iboga-, aspidosperma-, andranginine- and ngouniensine-type skeletons and a non-natural variant within six to nine steps from tryptamine. The efficiency of our approach was demonstrated by successful total syntheses of (±)-vincadifformine, (±)-andranginine and (-)-catharanthine.

  10. A Submarine Journey: The Pyrrole-Imidazole Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scolaro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In his most celebrated tale “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, Oscar Wilde stated that “those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril”. This sentence could be a prophetical warning for the practitioner who voluntarily challenges himself with trying to synthesize marine sponge-deriving pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids. This now nearly triple-digit membered community has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years, both in terms of new representatives and topological complexity − from simple, achiral oroidin to the breathtaking 12-ring stylissadines A and B, each possessing 16 stereocenters. While the biosynthesis and the role in the sponge economy of most of these alkaloids still lies in the realm of speculations, significant biological activities for some of them have clearly emerged. This review will account for the progress in achieving the total synthesis of the more biologically enticing members of this class of natural products.

  11. Macrophage activating activity of pyrrole alkaloids from Morus alba fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Jo, Yang Hee; Lee, Sang Hoon; Han, Sang-Bae; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2013-01-09

    The fruits of Morus alba have been traditionally used as a tonic to enhance immune responses. The macrophage activating constituents of Morus alba fruits were purified using various column chromatography techniques. The structures of isolated compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation such as 1D and 2D NMR analysis. The macrophage activating activities of isolated compounds were evaluated by measuring the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-12 in RAW 264.7 cells. The phagocytic activity was also evaluated. Five pyrrole alkaloids, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde (1), 2-formyl-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (2), 2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (3), 2-formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrole-1-butanoic acid (4) and Morrole A (5) were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba. Morrole A (5) is first reported in nature and other pyrrole alkaloids (1-4) are first reported from Morus species. Among the isolated compounds, compounds 3 and 4 significantly activated macrophage activity by the enhancement of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-12 production, and the stimulation of phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Pyrrole alkaloids, including a new compound, were isolated from Morus alba fruits. These compounds activated macrophage activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing the harvesting stage of rye as a green manure to maximize nutrient production and to minimize methane production in mono-rice paddies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Sang Yun; Park, Chi Kyu; Gwon, Hyo Suk; Khan, Muhammed Israr; Kim, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Rye (Secale cerealis) has been widely cultivated to improve soil quality in temperate paddies. However, its biomass incorporation can significantly increase greenhouse gas emissions, particularly the emission of methane (CH4), during rice cultivation. The chemical composition and productivity of

  13. Aptamer-Based Molecular Recognition of Lysergamine, Metergoline and Small Ergot Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Robbens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Claviceps, which infect cereal crops and grasses. The uptake of ergot alkaloid contaminated cereal products can be lethal to humans and animals. For food safety assessment, analytical techniques are currently used to determine the presence of ergot alkaloids in food and feed samples. However, the number of samples which can be analyzed is limited, due to the cost of the equipment and the need for skilled personnel. In order to compensate for the lack of rapid tests for the detection of ergot alkaloids, the aim of this study was to develop a specific recognition element for ergot alkaloids, which could be further applied to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of these toxins. As recognition elements, single-stranded DNA ligands were selected by using an iterative selection procedure named SELEX, i.e., Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment. After several selection cycles, the resulting aptamers were cloned and sequenced. A surface plasmon resonance analysis enabled determination of the dissociation constants of the complexes of aptamers and lysergamine. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar range were obtained with three selected aptamers. One of the selected aptamers, having a dissociation constant of 44 nM, was linked to gold nanoparticles and it was possible to produce a colorimetric reaction in the presence of lysergamine. This system could also be applied to small ergot alkaloids in an ergot contaminated flour sample.

  14. Alkaloids as important scaffolds in therapeutic drugs for the treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittakoop, Prasat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloid molecules can act, depending on a type of amine functionality present in alkalods, as either hydrogenacceptor or hydrogen-donor for hydrogen bonding that is critically important for the interaction (binding) between targets (enzymes, proteins and receptors) and drugs (ligands). Because of this unique property, alkaloid scaffolds are therefore present in several drugs and lead compounds. This review highlights alkaloid scaffolds in drugs, particularly those recently approved in 2012; it also covers the scaffolds in leads and drug candidates which are in clinical trials and preclinical pipeline. The review focuses on three therapeutic areas including treatments of cancer, tuberculosis, and tobacco cessation. Alkaloid scaffolds in drugs and leads are inspired by those of naturally occurring alkaloids, and these scaffolds include pyridine, piperidine, quinoline, quinolinone, quinazoline, isoquinoline, indole, indolinone, isoindole, isoxazole, imidazole, indazole, thiazole, pyrazole, oxazolidinone, oxadiazole, and benzazepine. In addition to medicinal chemistry aspects, natural products possessing an individual alkaloid scaffold, as well as the mechanism of action of drugs and leads, are also discussed in this review.

  15. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S.; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B.; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI 50 values lower than 20.0 μmol L - 1 (10.5and 16.2μmolL -1 , respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  16. Aporphine and tetrahydroprotoberberine alkaloids from the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Emmanoel Vilaca; Cruz, Pedro Ernesto O. da, E-mail: emmanoelvc@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Marques, Francisco A.; Barison, Andersson; Maia, Beatriz Helena L.N.S. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Departamento de Quimica; Pinheiro, Maria Lucia B. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T.G.; Marchetti, Gabriela M.; Carvalho, Joao Ernesto de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Divisao de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    2013-05-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Guatteria friesiana (Annonaceae) afforded three new isoquinoline alkaloids, 13-hydroxy-discretinine, 6,6a-dehydroguatteriopsiscine and 9-dehydroxy-1-methoxy-dihydroguattouregidine. Eight known alkaloids were also isolated, 13-hydroxy-2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine, guatteriopsiscine, lysicamine, liriodenine, atherospermidine, lanuginosine, 7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine and palmatine. 13-Hydroxy- 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxyprotoberberine was only obtained by synthesis and is being reported as a natural product for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were established by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometric (MS) data, as well as by comparison with data reported in the literature. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the major alkaloids was evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines. All of the alkaloids evaluated were determined to be inactive based on National Cancer Institute (NCI/USA) criteria. However, the alkaloid palmatine exhibited a cytostatic effect on MCF-7 (breast) and U251 (glioma) human tumor cell lines, with GI{sub 50} values lower than 20.0 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu mol L{sup -}1 (10.5and 16.2 Greek-Small-Letter-Mu molL{sup -1}, respectively), suggesting a selective cytotoxic action (author)

  17. Racemic alkaloids from the fungus Ganoderma cochlear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Long; Dou, Man; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Seven pairs of new alkaloid enantiomers, ganocochlearines C-I (1, 3-8), and three pairs of known alkaloids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. The chemical structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 3-10 were assigned by ECD calculations. Biological activities of these isolates against renal fibrosis were accessed in rat normal or diseased renal interstitial fibroblast cells. Importantly, the plausible biosynthetic pathway for this class of alkaloids was originally proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  19. OVIPOSITION AND OVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF ALKALOIDAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1000 ppm concentration and ovicidal activity at 25-100 ppm concentration against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Water treated with alkaloidal extract at 1000ppm received significantly more egg rafts of vector mosquitoes ...

  20. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  1. Maximizers versus satisficers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew M. Parker; Wandi Bruine de Bruin; Baruch Fischhoff

    2007-01-01

    Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007). Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002), we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions...

  2. Maximal combustion temperature estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golodova, E; Shchepakina, E

    2006-01-01

    This work is concerned with the phenomenon of delayed loss of stability and the estimation of the maximal temperature of safe combustion. Using the qualitative theory of singular perturbations and canard techniques we determine the maximal temperature on the trajectories located in the transition region between the slow combustion regime and the explosive one. This approach is used to estimate the maximal temperature of safe combustion in multi-phase combustion models

  3. NOVEL ALKALOID FROM Rauvolfia capixabae(APOCYNACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanamar Almeida Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new sarpagine-type alkaloid, Na-methylrauflorine (1, was isolated from Rauvolfia capixabaetogether with isoreserpiline (2,Nb-oxide-isoreserpiline (3, ajmalicine (4, perakine (5 and vinorine (6 alkaloids. These compounds were characterized based on their spectral data basis, mainly one- (1H, 13C, APT and two-dimensional(1H-1H-COSY, 1H-1H-NOESY, HMQC and HMBC NMR, and mass spectra, also involving comparison with data from the literature.

  4. Some contributions to the application of LC-NMR, LC-MS, and LC-CD to the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloids using callus cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, K; Moriyasu, M; Wiegrebe, W

    2012-07-01

    Hyphenated spectroscopic techniques in combination with a special extraction and work-up of plant calli cultures of Berberidaceae, Fumariaceae, and Papaveraceae families, e.g., enabled us to get deeper insight into the sequential biochemical conversions of precursors into simple isoquinoline- and protoberberine-alkaloids and their follow-up-products with different skeletons. Some new alkaloids of these types have been found.

  5. Visual identification of alkaloids in some medicinal plants: common alkaloid reagents versus bromocresol green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa F, Esfahani HR, Gamooshi RA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: Alkaloids are a group of nitrogenous compounds with potential effects on the physiological behavior of human and animals. Some of these compounds are considered important drugs in modern medicine, such as atropine and morphine. Plants are considered the most important source of alkaloids. Therefore, investigating the presence of alkaloids in different plants is very important. Usually, alkaloids in plants are identified by methods such as those of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer, among others, which require milligrams of alkaloids for identification. In the present study, a fast and sensitive procedure for detecting of alkaloids in plants is presented.   "n"nMethods: Twelve dried plants samples were investigated for the presence alkaloids. After extracting the total alkaloid into methanol using a Soxhlet extractor, a few milligrams of the extract was transferred to a separatory funnel, buffered to pH 4.7, the bromocresol green (BCG solution (10-4 M was added, mixed and extracted with CHCl3 until a yellow color was observed in the CHCl3 layer, indicating the presence of the alkaloid. The crude extracts were also investigated by the standard methods of Dragendorf, Wagner and Meyer for the presence of alkaloids.   "n"nResults: Investigation of the 12 plant samples for the presence of alkaloids by the standard reagents of Dragendorf, Wagner, and Meyer showed that only Camelia sinensis (flowers, Echium amoenum Fisch & Mey (flowers, and Stachys (aerial parts are devoid

  6. Maximally multipartite entangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Parisi, Giorgio; Pascazio, Saverio

    2008-06-01

    We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.

  7. Towards a Molecular Understanding of the Biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids in Support of Their Expanding Medical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Takos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloids characteristically produced by the subfamily Amaryllidoideae of the Amaryllidaceae, bulbous plant species that include well know genera such as Narcissus (daffodils and Galanthus (snowdrops, are a source of new pharmaceutical compounds. Presently, only the Amaryllidaceae alkaloid galanthamine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, is produced commercially as a drug from cultivated plants. However, several Amaryllidaceae alkaloids have shown great promise as anti-cancer drugs, but their further clinical development is restricted by their limited commercial availability. Amaryllidaceae species have a long history of cultivation and breeding as ornamental bulbs, and phytochemical research has focussed on the diversity in alkaloid content and composition. In contrast to the available pharmacological and phytochemical data, ecological, physiological and molecular aspects of the Amaryllidaceae and their alkaloids are much less explored and the identity of the alkaloid biosynthetic genes is presently unknown. An improved molecular understanding of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis would greatly benefit the rational design of breeding programs to produce cultivars optimised for the production of pharmaceutical compounds and enable biotechnology based approaches.

  8. Maximizers versus satisficers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Parker

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research suggests that people reporting a stronger desire to maximize obtain worse life outcomes (Bruine de Bruin et al., 2007. Here, we examine whether this finding may be explained by the decision-making styles of self-reported maximizers. Expanding on Schwartz et al. (2002, we find that self-reported maximizers are more likely to show problematic decision-making styles, as evidenced by self-reports of less behavioral coping, greater dependence on others when making decisions, more avoidance of decision making, and greater tendency to experience regret. Contrary to predictions, self-reported maximizers were more likely to report spontaneous decision making. However, the relationship between self-reported maximizing and worse life outcomes is largely unaffected by controls for measures of other decision-making styles, decision-making competence, and demographic variables.

  9. Classification of Opium by UPLC-Q-TOF Analysis of Principal and Minor Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuimei; Hua, Zhendong; Bai, Yanping

    2016-11-01

    Opium is the raw material for the production of heroin, and the characterization of opium seizures through laboratory analysis is a valuable tool for law enforcement agencies to trace clandestine opium production and trafficking. In this work, a method for opium profiling based on the relative content of five principal and 14 minor opium alkaloids was developed and validated. UPLC-Q-TOF was adopted in alkaloid analysis for its high selectivity and sensitivity, which facilitated the sample preparation and testing. The authentic sample set consisted of 100 "Myanmar" and 45 "Afghanistan" opium seizures; based on the data set of the 19 alkaloid variables in them, a partial least squares discriminant analysis classification model was successfully achieved. Minor alkaloids were found to be vitally important for opium profiling, although combined use of both principal and minor alkaloids resulted in the best geographical classification result. The developed method realized a simple and accurate way to differentiate opium from Myanmar and Afghanistan, which may find wide application in forensic laboratories. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxicity, Cytotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan L. Stegelmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA-producing plants have a worldwide distribution amongst flowering plants and commonly cause poisoning of livestock, wildlife, and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of DHPA metabolism, toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions, and routes of exposure, and pathogenesis of acute poisoning. Intoxication is generally caused by contaminated grains, feed, flour, and breads that result in acute, high-dose, short-duration poisoning. Acute poisoning produces hepatic necrosis that is usually confirmed histologically, epidemiologically, and chemically. Less is known about chronic poisoning that may result when plant populations are sporadic, used as tisanes or herbal preparations, or when DHPAs contaminate milk, honey, pollen, or other animal-derived products. Such subclinical exposures may contribute to the development of chronic disease in humans or may be cumulative and probably slowly progress until liver failure. Recent work using rodent models suggest increased neoplastic incidence even with very low DHPA doses of short durations. These concerns have moved some governments to prohibit or limit human exposure to DHPAs. The purpose of this review is to summarize some recent DHPA research, including in vitro and in vivo DHPA toxicity and carcinogenicity reports, and the implications of these findings with respect to diagnosis and prognosis for human and animal health.

  11. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  12. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine.

  13. Benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Guillaume A W; Facchini, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants and remains the only commercial source for the narcotic analgesics morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic derivatives such as oxycodone and naltrexone. The plant also produces several other benzylisoquinoline alkaloids with potent pharmacological properties including the vasodilator papaverine, the cough suppressant and potential anticancer drug noscapine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. Opium poppy has served as a model system to investigate the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants. The application of biochemical and functional genomics has resulted in a recent surge in the discovery of biosynthetic genes involved in the formation of major benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in opium poppy. The availability of extensive biochemical genetic tools and information pertaining to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism is facilitating the study of a wide range of phenomena including the structural biology of novel catalysts, the genomic organization of biosynthetic genes, the cellular and sub-cellular localization of biosynthetic enzymes and a variety of biotechnological applications. In this review, we highlight recent developments and summarize the frontiers of knowledge regarding the biochemistry, cellular biology and biotechnology of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

  14. Alkaloids as Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors in Anticancer Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Farooq, Umar; Khan, Sehroon

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and anticancer drug discovery is a very hot area of research at present. There are various factors which control and affect cancer, out of which enzymes like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) play a vital role in the growth of tumor cells. Inhibition of this enzyme is a very useful target for the prevention of various types of cancers. Alkaloids are a diverse group of naturally occurring compounds which have shown great COX-2 inhibitory activity both in vitro and in vivo. In this mini-review, we have discussed different alkaloids with COX-2 inhibitory activities and anticancer potential which may act as leads in modern anticancer drug discovery. Different classes of alkaloids including isoquinoline alkaloids, indole alkaloids, piperidine alkaloids, quinazoline alkaloids, and various miscellaneous alkaloids obtained from natural sources have been discussed in detail in this review. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Structure, Biosynthesis, and Occurrence of Bacterial Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Olivia; Challinor, Victoria L; Tobias, Nicholas J; Adihou, Hélène; Grün, Peter; Pöschel, Laura; Richter, Christian; Schwalbe, Harald; Bode, Helge B

    2015-10-19

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are widespread plant natural products with potent toxicity and bioactivity. Herein, the identification of bacterial PAs from entomopathogenic bacteria using differential analysis by 2D NMR spectroscopy (DANS) and mass spectrometry is described. Their biosynthesis was elucidated to involve a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase. The occurrence of these biosynthesis gene clusters in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria indicates an important biological function in bacteria. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Curare Alkaloids: Constituents of a Matis Dart Poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malca Garcia, Gonzalo R; Hennig, Lothar; Shelukhina, Irina V; Kudryavtsev, Denis S; Bussmann, Rainer W; Tsetlin, Victor I; Giannis, Athanassios

    2015-11-25

    A phytochemical study of dart and arrow poison from the Matis tribe led to the identification of D-(-)-quinic acid, L-malic acid, ethyldimethylamine, magnoflorine, and five new bisbenzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids (BBIQAs), 1-5. D-Tubocurarine could not be identified among these products. BBIQA (3) contains a unique linkage at C-8 and C-11'. All structures were characterized by a combination of NMR and HRESIMS data. The effects of Matis poison and individual BBIQAs (1-3) on rat muscle nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes have been investigated using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique.

  17. Anticancer and reversing multidrug resistance activities of natural isoquinoline alkaloids and their structure-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Zhi-Xing; Huang, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xue-Yi; Liu, Jing-Hong; Cao, Hua-Liang; Xiang, Feng; Cheng, Pi; Zeng, Jian-Guo

    2017-09-20

    The severe anticancer situation as well as the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cells has created an urgent need for the development of novel anticancer drugs with different mechanisms of action. A large number of natural alkaloids, such as paclitaxel, vinblastine and camptothecin have already been successfully developed into chemotherapy agents. Following the success of these natural products, in this review, twenty-six types of isoquinoline alkaloid (a total of 379 alkaloids), including benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline, aporphine, oxoaporphine, isooxoaporphine, dimeric aporphine, bisbenzylisoquinoline, tetrahydroprotoberberine, protoberberine, protopine, dihydrobenzophenanthridine, benzophenanthridine, benzophenanthridine dimer, ipecac, simple isoquinoline, pavine, montanine, erythrina, chelidonine, tropoloisoquinoline, azafluoranthene, phthalideisoquinoline, naphthylisoquinoline, lycorine, crinane, narciclasine, and phenanthridone, were summarized based on their cytotoxic and MDR reversing activities against various cancer cells. Additionally, the structure-activity relationships of different types of isoquinoline alkaloid were also discussed. Interestingly, some aporphine, oxoaporphine, isooxoaporphine, bisbenzylisoquinoline, and protoberberine alkaloids display more potent anticancer activities or anti-MDR effects than positive control against the tested cancer cells and are regarded as attractive targets for discovery new anticancer drugs or lead compounds. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Capillary-HPLC with tandem mass spectrometry in analysis of alkaloid dyestuffs - a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Damian; Lech, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Maciej

    2018-05-01

    Development of the identification method of alkaloid compounds in Amur cork tree as well as not examined so far Oregon grape and European Barberry shrubs are presented. The novel approach to separation of alkaloids was applied and the capillary-high-performance liquid chromatography (capillary-HPLC) system was used, which has never previously been reported for alkaloid-based dyestuffs analysis. Its optimization was conducted with three different stationary phases (unmodified octadecylsilane-bonded silica, octadecylsilane modified with polar groups and silica-bonded pentaflourophenyls) as well as with different solvent buffers. Detection of the isolated compounds was carried out using diode-array detector (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI MS/MS). The working parameters of ESI were optimized, whereas the multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) parameters of MS/MS detection were chosen based on the product ion spectra of the quasi-molecular ions. Calibration curve of berberine has been estimated (y = 1712091x + 4785.03 with the correlation coefficient 0.9999). Limit of detection and limit of quantification were calculated to be 3.2 and 9.7 ng/mL, respectively. Numerous alkaloids (i.e., berberine, jatrorrhizine and magnoflorine, as well as phellodendrine, menisperine and berbamine) were identified in the extracts from alkaloid plants and silk and wool fibers dyed with these dyestuffs, among them their markers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Gene Clusters for Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in the Grass-Endophytic Fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum

    OpenAIRE

    Spiering, Martin J.; Moon, Christina D.; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2005-01-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same ...

  20. Tyrosine aminotransferase contributes to benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in opium poppy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J

    2011-11-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and L-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for L-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent K(m) values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of L-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde.

  1. Study on synthesis and properties of nanoparticles loaded with amaryllidaceous alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Lihong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the most common disease among the elderly people and a major social and medical problem. Amaryllidaceous alkaloids, acting as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, represent a potential treatment of AD. However, they also have some deficiencies, such as extensive toxicity and widespread side effects. In order to improve the bioavailability and reduce the toxic and side effects, brain targeting of amaryllidaceous alkaloids was enhanced by considering low density lipoprotein (LDL receptors of blood-brain barrier (BBB endothelial cells as therapeutic targets. Amaryllidaceous alkaloids were highly selectively and quantitatively riveted to the surface of low density lipoproteins by using a new method - mild click chemistry. The structure of products has been characterized by NMR, FT-IR, and other methods. In addition, drug loading rate, encapsulation rate, and drug release by the nanoparticles were determined to assess the quality of the nanoparticles.

  2. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  3. Two New Alkaloids from Narcissus serotinus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Viladomat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Amaryllidaceae family is well known for the presence of an exclusive group of alkaloids with a wide range of biological activities. Narcissus serotinus L. is a plant belonging to this family and its geographical distribution is mainly located along the Mediterranean coast. In the present work, specimens collected near Casablanca (Morocco were used to study the alkaloid content of this species. Starting with 350 g of the whole plant we used standard extraction and purification procedures to obtain fractions and compounds for GC-MS and NMR analysis. As well as five known alkaloids, we isolated two new compounds: 1-O-(3´-acetoxybutanoyllycorine and narseronine. The latter has been previously published, but with an erroneous structure.

  4. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabon, Ludy Cristina; Cuca, Luis Enrique, E-mail: lcpabonb@unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Bogota (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) were isolated and characterized as (S)-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1), (S)-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2), (S)-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3) and (S)-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4); alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well. (author)

  5. Aporphine alkaloids from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy Cristina Pabon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four aporphine alkaloids from the wood of Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae were isolated and characterized as (S-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (1, (S-N-ethoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (2, (S-N-formyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (3 and (S-N-methoxycarbonyl-3-methoxy-nordomesticine (4; alkaloids 2-4 are being report for the first time. The structure the isolated compounds were determined based on their spectral data and by comparison of their spectral data with values described in literature. The alkaloid fraction and compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and also compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis as well.

  6. THE ALKALOID CYTISINE IN THE CELL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazaliev A.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are vegetative establishments of complex and original structure with nitrous heterocycles in the basis. For a long time they drew researchers’ attention because of their unique and specific physiological effect on alive organisms. Not all the representatives of the globe’s flora contain these unique substances. Alkaloid cytisine is to be found mainly in the plants of the fabaceous family - Fabaceae. For the cytisine production the seeds of Thermopsis lanceolata R.Br (T. lanceolata R.Br and Cytisus laburnum (C. laburnum are used as a raw material. The object of the research is T. lanceolata cell culture. Sterile sprouts are used at the first stage of the experiment. Callus genesis is accompanied with dedifferentiation. It leads to the cellular organization simplification. Based on an important property of a plant cell, such as totipotency, there appears the formation of the “de novo” biosynthetic device. The cultivation algorithm consists of two basic stages: (i the cultivation conditions optimization of callus with a high level of the primary metabolites biosynthesis (Aspartat – lysine; (ii the research of cultivation chemical and physical factors influence on the secondary metabolite (cytisine biosynthesis and accumulation. During the cultivation the Murashige and Skoog classical recipe of nutrient medium will be used. Optimization of the cultivation conditions will concern the phytohormones, macro- and micronutrients content, as the purpose of optimization is the production of the determined high-level competence embriogenical callus. The main problem is genetic heterogeneity of a cellular population and instability of morpho-physiological processes. The correct management of higher plants cells population is possible at the synchronization of a cellular cycle phases. The references analysis has shown that it is almost impossible to synchronize cellular cycles in the culture of plant tissue. The application of chemical

  7. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G.; Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O.; Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Delprete, Piero G.

    2012-01-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-β-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC 50 values of 16.0 and 40.7 μg per mL, respectively. (author)

  8. Non-coding RNA/microRNA-modulatory dietary factors and natural products for improved cancer therapy and prevention: Alkaloids, organosulfur compounds, aliphatic carboxylic acids and water-soluble vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Biersack

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding small RNA molecules, the microRNAs (miRNAs, contribute decisively to the epigenetic regulation processes in cancer cells. Problematic pathogenic properties of cancer cells and the response of cancers towards anticancer drugs are highly influenced by miRNAs. Both increased drug activity and formation of tumor resistance are regulated by miRNAs. Further to this, the survival and proliferation of cancer cells and the formation of metastases is based on the modulated expression of certain miRNAs. In particular, drug-resistant cancer stem-like cells (CSCs depend on the presence and absence of specific miRNAs. Fortunately, several small molecule natural compounds were discovered that target miRNAs involved in the modulation of tumor aggressiveness and drug resistance. This review gives an overview of the effects of a selection of naturally occurring small molecules (alkaloids, organosulfur compounds, aliphatic carboxylic acids and water-soluble vitamins on miRNAs that are closely tangled with cancer diseases. Keywords: MiRNA, Alkaloids, Organosulfur compounds, Aliphatic carboxylic acids, Water-soluble vitamins, Anticancer drugs

  9. 3H-labelling of belladonna alkaloids by catalysed exchange with microwave excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liming; Zheng Dongzhu; Yuan Jianmin; Jiang Xiaoma; Zhao Xialing

    1992-01-01

    The specific activities of the 3 H-labelled belladonna alkaloids obtained by catalysed exchange method with microwave excitation were 16-32 TBq/mol. More than 90% labelled positions of these 3 H-tracers were on phenyl rings. The radiochemical purity and chemical purity of crude products were both in 75-80%

  10. A Palladium-Catalyzed Vinylcyclopropane (3 + 2) Cycloaddition Approach to the Melodinus Alkaloids

    KAUST Repository

    Goldberg, Alexander F. G.

    2011-08-19

    A palladium-catalyzed (3+2) cycloaddition of a vinylcyclopropane and a β-nitrostyrene is employed to rapidly assemble the cyclopentane core of the Melodinus alkaloids. The ABCD ring system of the natural product family is prepared in six steps from commercially available materials.

  11. The biology and chemistry of the zoanthamine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behenna, Douglas C; Stockdill, Jennifer L; Stoltz, Brian M

    2008-01-01

    Marine natural products have long played an important role in natural products chemistry and drug discovery. Mirroring the rich variety and complicated interactions of the marine environment, the substances isolated from sea creatures tend to be incredibly diverse in both molecular structure and biological activity. The natural products isolated from the polyps of marine zoanthids are no exception. The zoanthamine alkaloids, the first of which were isolated over 20 years ago, are of particular interest to the synthetic community because they feature a novel structural framework and exhibit a broad range of biological activities. In this Review, we summarize the major contributions to understanding the zoanthamine natural products with regard to their isolation and structure determination, as well as studies on their biological activity and total synthesis.

  12. Belladonna Alkaloid Combinations and Phenobarbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnatal® Elixir (as a combination product containing Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, Scopolamine) ... PB Hyos® Elixir (as a combination product containing Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, Scopolamine)

  13. Amides and an alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Tetsuo; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-08-01

    A total of 16 phenolic compounds, including one new and five known N-cinnamoyl phenylethylamides, one new pyrrole alkaloid named portulacaldehyde, five phenylpropanoid acids and amides, and derivatives of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid, were isolated and identified from a polar fraction of an extract of Portulaca oleracea. Their structures were determined through spectroscopic analyses.

  14. Semisynthetic dimers of antiparkinsonic ergot alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Weignerová, Lenka; Kuzma, Marek; Jegorov, A.; Sedmera, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2001), s. 1045-1056 ISSN 0385-5414 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : ergot alkaloids * antiparkinsonic activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.970, year: 2001

  15. Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehyro-pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants compose about 5% of the world’s flowering plants and they commonly poison livestock, wildlife and humans. Previous work has produced considerable understanding of PA toxicity, species susceptibility, conditions and routes of exposure, toxin metab...

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids: occurrence, biology, and chemical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jeremy; Stevens, Kiri

    2017-01-04

    Covering: 2013 up to the end of 2015This review covers the isolation and structure of new pyrrolizidines; pyrrolizidine biosynthesis; biological activity, including the occurrence of pyrrolizidines as toxic components or contaminants in foods and beverages; and formal and total syntheses of naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids and closely related non-natural analogues.

  17. Copper catalysed synthesis of indolylquinazolinone alkaloid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ful reactions using copper catalyst have been reported in literature.9. The reported methods6 for the synthesis of bouchar- datine were reported, either via harsher reactions con- dition or multi-step sequence. Therefore, we are inter- ested in identifying mild reaction conditions for the construction of quinazolinone alkaloids.

  18. [Study on the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhadze, A D; Vachnadze, V Iu; Dzhokhadze, M S; Berashvili, D T; Bakuridze, A Dzh

    2013-04-01

    In present article was studied the separation process of pharmacological active total alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. growing in Georgia. Alkaloids were extracted from medicinal herbal material and separated by liquid extraction, diluents gas and a microfiltration through membrane equipment. The obtained A1, A2, A3 fractions were analyzed by GC/MS method; in all cases separation proceeds by the principle of extraction of the target alkaloids. It was concluded that the A1 is enriched with α and β cryptopins, and protopin, but homochelidonine and chelidonine are in low contents. As accompanying alkaloid is identified dihydrosanguinarine as an artifact; the A2 is enriched with the maximum contents of stylopine and protopin, but the poor contents of chelidonine and homochelidonine; the A3 is enriched with α and β cryptopins and maximum content of chelidonine. Extraction of alkaloids from Chelidonium majus L. proceeds selectively, but depending on a way of separation of the total alkaloids allows varying qualitative and quantitative consistence of the final product.

  19. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  20. Tri-maximal vs. bi-maximal neutrino mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, W.G

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that data from atmospheric and solar neutrino experiments point strongly to tri-maximal or bi-maximal lepton mixing. While ('optimised') bi-maximal mixing gives an excellent a posteriori fit to the data, tri-maximal mixing is an a priori hypothesis, which is not excluded, taking account of terrestrial matter effects

  1. Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Harmane-β-Carboline Alkaloid: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Haroon; Patel, Seema; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2017-01-01

    The plant secondary metabolites have an outstanding therapeutic potential and success over the years. In fact, it is the foundation of numerous clinically used drugs. Similarly, these is a general perception that these products are inherent safety. However, such products might have toxic/unwanted lethal effects therefore, along with biological relevance, toxicological evaluation is equally important for clinical applications. Therefore, harmane- β-carboline alkaloid was investigated for both therapeutic and toxicological potential. The literature related to the therapeutic/toxicological effects of the alkaloid was searched using various scientific data bases including Google, ScienceDirect, PubMed, SpringerLink, ASC. The peer reviewed articles were only selected. The harmane-β-carboline alkaloid has shown several pharmacological activities such as antianxiety, antidepressant, antiplatelet, antidiabetic, acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase inhibition, antioxidant, antiparasitic, hypotensive, morphine withdrawal syndrome alleviation, and antinociceptive effects. On the other hand, it exhibited tremorogenic effect, for a symptom of Parkinson's disease. Adverse effect of the alkaloid on learning and memory have also been observed. All together, it is, concluded in this review that harmane elicited marked pharmacological effects but simultaneously, it possessed some serious side effects that could be the primary hurdle in the way of its clinical testing. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Antioxidative properties of harmane and beta-carboline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, S Y; Mak, I T; Dickens, B F

    1991-07-15

    beta-Carboline alkaloids are derived as a result of condensation between indoleamine (e.g. tryptamine) and short-chain carboxylic acid (e.g. pyruvic acid) or aldehyde (e.g. acetaldehyde), a reaction that occurs readily at room temperature. These compounds have been found endogenously in human and animal tissues and may be formed as a byproduct of secondary metabolism: their endogenous functions however, are not well understood. Indoles and tryptophan derivatives exhibit antioxidative actions by scavenging free radicals and forming resonance stabilized indolyl radicals. Harmane and related compounds exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbiturate reactive products) in a hepatic microsomal preparation incubated with either enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/NADPH) or non-enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/dihydroxyfumarate) oxygen radical producing systems. Alkaloids with hydroxyl substitution and a partially desaturated pyridyl ring were found to have the highest antioxidative potencies. Substitution of a hydroxyl group by a methoxyl group at the 6-position resulted in a decrease of greater than 10-fold in the antioxidative activities. Harmane showed high efficacy in an enzymatic system but low efficacy in a non-enzymatic system. The antioxidative effects of harmane in the former system may be attributed to its ability to inhibit oxidative enzymes in the microsomal system. These results suggest that beta-carbolines may also serve as endogenous antioxidants.

  3. Alkaloid and polyphenol analysis by HPLC in green and black tea powders and their potential use as additives in ruminant diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Diky; Chaudhry, Abdul S.; Seal, Chris J.

    2018-02-01

    We used HPLC to examine the bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and polyphenols in green and black tea powders and their use as potential additives in ruminant diets. Caffeine was the highest alkaloid in both green and black teas. Green tea had significantly higher concentrations of alkaloids and catechins but lower theaflavins than black tea. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were the major catechins in green tea while theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate and theaflavin-3-gallate were the major theaflavins in black tea. Tea powders in ruminant diets decreased in vitro rumen ammonia and methane production without affecting volatile fatty acid profiles and the degradability of the diets. The tea powders containing variable amounts of alkaloids, catechins and theaflavins can potentially be used to decrease rumen ammonia and methane productions without any detrimental effect on rumen functions in vitro and perhaps ruminant productive efficiency.

  4. THE SULFONATION STUDY OF REACTION MECHANISM ON PAPAVERINE ALKALOID BY GC-MS AND FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sudarma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to prove theoretical mechanism reaction on the sulfonation of papaverine alkaloid and the result could be used as a reference on the transformation of these alkaloid to the other derivatives. Theoriticaly sulfonation of papaverine (1 by HO-SO2Cl could produced papaverine sulfonyl chloride (1a. The formation of this product was analyzed by analytical thin layer chromatography GC-MS, and FT-IR. These analysis showed the formation of product (1a more favorable than the other. Tlc showed product (1a less polar than papaverine, and supported by GC-MS and infrared which showed molecular ion at m/z 412 due to the presence of -SO2Cl and vibration at 1153,4 dan 1265,2 Cm-1 due to absorption of sulfonyl group.   Keywords: reaction mechanism, sulfonation, papaverine alkaloid.

  5. Single cell subtractive transcriptomics for identification of cell-specifically expressed candidate genes of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, Christian; Beuerle, Till; Hollmann, Julien; Ober, Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    Progress has recently been made in the elucidation of pathways of secondary metabolism. However, because of its diversity, genetic information concerning biosynthetic details is still missing for many natural products. This is also the case for the biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. To close this gap, we tested strategies using tissues that express this pathway in comparison to tissues in which this pathway is not expressed. As many pathways of secondary metabolism are known to be induced by jasmonates, the pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing species Heliotropium indicum, Symphytum officinale, and Cynoglossum officinale of the Boraginales order were treated with methyl jasmonate. An effect on pyrrolizidine alkaloid levels and on transcript levels of homospermidine synthase, the first specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, was not detectable. Therefore, a method was developed by making use of the often observed cell-specific production of secondary compounds. H. indicum produces pyrrolizidine alkaloids exclusively in the shoot. Homospermidine synthase is expressed only in the cells of the lower leaf epidermis and the epidermis of the stem. Suggesting that the whole pathway of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis might be localized in these cells, we have isolated single cells of the upper and lower epidermis by laser-capture microdissection. The resulting cDNA preparations have been used in a subtractive transcriptomic approach. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction has shown that the resulting library is significantly enriched for homospermidine-synthase-coding transcripts providing a valuable source for the identification of further genes involved in pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Li, Gen-Tao; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Liu, Ji-Kai; Wang, Fei

    2015-12-01

    Five new hexacyclic monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, rauvovertine A (1), 17-epi-rauvovertine A (2), rauvovertine B (3), 17-epi-rauvovertine B (4), and rauvovertine C (5) together with 17 known analogues were isolated from the stems of Rauvolfia verticillata. Compounds 1/2 and 3/4 were obtained as C-17 epimeric mixtures due to rapid hemiacetal tautomerism in solution. The structures of 1-5 were established by spectroscopic analysis and with the aid of molecular modeling. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against human tumor HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW-480 cell lines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alkaloids of root barks of Zanthoxylum spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlemwerger, Sandra Virginia Alves; Sales, Edijane Matos; Costa, Rafael dos Santos; Velozo, Eudes da Silva; Guedes, Maria Lenise da Silva

    2012-01-01

    In 1959, Gottlieb and Antonaccio published a study reporting the occurrence of lignan sesamin and triterpene lupeol in Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba. In this work we describe the phytochemical study of the root bark of the Z. tingoassuiba which allowed the identification of the lupeol, sesamin, and alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, chelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadin, predicentine, 2, 3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine. The investigation of hexane and methanol extracts of the root bark of Z. rhoifolium and Z. stelligerum also investigated showed the presence of alkaloids dihydrochelerythrine, anorttianamide, cis-N-methyl-canadine, 7,9-dimethoxy-2,3- methylenedioxybenzophen anthridine and angoline. The occurrence of 2,3-methylenedioxy-10,11-dimethoxy-tetrahydro protoberberine is first described in Z. tingoassuiba and Z. stelligerum. This is also the first report of the presence of hesperidin and neohesperidin in roots of Z. stelligerum (author)

  8. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J. Diaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia.

  9. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and diterpenes from Villasenoria orcuttii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Perez-Castorena, Ana L.; Gonzalez, Karina; Vivar, Alfonso Romo de, E-mail: alperezc@unam.mx [Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, DF (Mexico); Reyes-Lezama, Marisol [Centro Conjunto de Investigacion en Quimica Sustentable, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico-Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAEM-UNAM), Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Villasenor, Jose Luis [Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan, DF, (Mexico)

    2013-07-15

    The chemical study of Villasenoria orcuttii, the only species of the genus Villasenoria, afforded three acyclic diterpenes, two of them described for the first time. Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, florosenine and floridanine, among other known compounds were also isolated. The absolute configuration of floridanine was determined by X-ray analysis using anomalous dispersion with Cu K{sub {alpha}} radiation, and its {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were corrected. (author)

  11. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  12. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Onosmakaheirei Teppner (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Maria Orfanou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The new pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA 3΄-O-acetylechinatine N-oxide (7, along with two more known PAs (5, 6, two known flavonoids (3, 4, one known alkannin (1, two known triterpenoids, one known sterol, and allantoin (2 were isolated from the aerial parts of Onosma kaheirei. In addition, the retention indeces of the reduced PAs 6 and 7 were determined in a DB-5 WCOT column, to aid their detection by GC/MS in the future.

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and diterpenes from Villasenoria orcuttii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arciniegas, Amira; Pérez-Castorena, Ana L.; González, Karina; Vivar, Alfonso Romo de; Reyes-Lezama, Marisol; Villaseñor, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    The chemical study of Villasenoria orcuttii, the only species of the genus Villasenoria, afforded three acyclic diterpenes, two of them described for the first time. Two pyrrolizidine alkaloids, florosenine and floridanine, among other known compounds were also isolated. The absolute configuration of floridanine was determined by X-ray analysis using anomalous dispersion with Cu K α radiation, and its 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data were corrected. (author)

  14. MAXIM: The Blackhole Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendreau, Keith; Cash, Webster; Gorenstein, Paul; Windt, David; Kaaret, Phil; Reynolds, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Beyond Einstein Program in NASA's Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe theme spells out the top level scientific requirements for a Black Hole Imager in its strategic plan. The MAXIM mission will provide better than one tenth of a microarcsecond imaging in the X-ray band in order to satisfy these requirements. We will overview the driving requirements to achieve these goals and ultimately resolve the event horizon of a supermassive black hole. We will present the current status of this effort that includes a study of a baseline design as well as two alternative approaches.

  15. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  16. Biosynthesis of ergot alkaloids from penicillium commune using response surface methodology (RSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M. G.; Cheema, T. A.; Baig, S.; Nadeem, M.; Nelofar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study employed the response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical technique, for the identification, screening and optimization of fermentation factors to produce ergot alkaloids under laboratory conditions by Penicillium commune. The static surface culture fermentation technique helped to enhance the production of ergot alkaloids. In the first step Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to evaluate the effect of ten factors, including nine ingredients of fermentation medium and one process parameter. It was found that sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O played the pivotal role in enhancing the yield of ergot alkaloids. In the second step, the effect of concentration levels of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O was further optimized using Box-Behnken design (BBD) under the same fermentation conditions. The optimized concentrations of sucrose, yeast extract and FeSO/sub 4/.7H/sub 2/O were 41%, 39% and 0.11% respectively, which significantly enhanced the yield of ergot alkaloids. (author)

  17. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  18. Histrionicotoxin alkaloids finally detected in an ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Tappey H.; Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Spande, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Workers of the ant Carebarella bicolor collected in Panama were found to have two major poison-frog alkaloids, cis- and trans-fused decahydroquinolines (DHQs) of the 269AB type, four minor 269AB isomers, two minor 269B isomers, and three isomers of DHQ 271D. For the first time in an ant, however......) sp., were found to have a very similar DHQ complex but failed to show HTXs. Several new DHQ alkaloids of MW 271 (named in the frog as 271G) are reported from the above ants that have both m/z 202 and 204 as major fragment ions, unlike the spectrum seen for the poison-frog alkaloid 271D, which has...... only an m/z 204 base peak. Found also for the first time in skin extracts from the comparison frog Oophaga granulifera of Costa Rica is a trace DHQ of MW 273. It is coded as 273F in the frog; a different isomer is found in the ant....

  19. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  20. New One-Pot Methodologies for the Modification or Synthesis of Alkaloid Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir E. Wahba

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There are several avenues by which promising bioactive natural products can be produced in sufficient quantities to enable lead optimization and medicinal chemistry studies. The total synthesis of natural products is an important, but sometimes difficult, approach and requires the development of innovative synthetic methodologies to simplify the synthesis of complex molecules. Various classes of natural product alkaloids are both common and widely distributed in plants, bacteria, fungi, insects and marine organisms. This mini-review will discuss the scope, mechanistic insights and enantioselectivity aspects of selected examples of recently developed one-pot methods that have been published in 2009 for the synthesis of substituted piperidines, quinolizidines, pyrrolidines, hexahydropyrrolizines, octahydroindolizines and g-lactams. In addition, progress on the synthesis of b-carboline (manzamine alkaloids will also be discussed.

  1. TOXIC PYRROLIZIDINE ALKALOIDS OF ECHIUM AMOENUM FISCH. & MEY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRA MEHRABANI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids are present in some species of Echium (Boraginaceae. In this study petals of Echium amoenum Fisch. & Mey. (Gol-e-Gavzaban as a popular herbal medicine in Iran, were investigated for pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. The alkaloids were separated and purified by preparative TLC and characterized by IR, one and two dimensional 1H and 13C-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. Four toxic alkaloids namely: echimidine I, echimidine isomer II, 7-angeloyl retronecine III and 7-tigloyl retronecine IV were identified.

  2. Tolerating Toxins: Grasshoppers that Feast on Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids §.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housecroft, Catherine E

    2018-03-30

    The elegant grasshopper (Zonocerus elegans) and the variegated grasshopper (Z. variegatus) are among insects that deliberately consume and store pyrrolizidine alkaloids which are subsequently used in defence mechanisms.

  3. Dietary alkaloid sequestration in a poison frog: an experimental test of alkaloid uptake in Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Bufonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantak, Maggie M; Grant, Taran; Reinsch, Sherri; McGinnity, Dale; Loring, Marjorie; Toyooka, Naoki; Saporito, Ralph A

    2013-12-01

    Several lineages of brightly colored anurans independently evolved the ability to secrete alkaloid-containing defensive chemicals from granular glands in the skin. These species, collectively referred to as 'poison frogs,' form a polyphyletic assemblage that includes some species of Dendrobatidae, Mantellidae, Myobatrachidae, Bufonidae, and Eleutherodactylidae. The ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods has been demonstrated experimentally in most poison frog lineages but not in bufonid or eleutherodactylid poison frogs. As with other poison frogs, species of the genus Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) consume large numbers of mites and ants, suggesting they might also sequester defensive alkaloids from dietary sources. To test this hypothesis, fruit flies dusted with alkaloid/nutritional supplement powder were fed to individual Melanophryniscus stelzneri in two experiments. In the first experiment, the alkaloids 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine 235B' and decahydroquinoline were administered to three individuals for 104 days. In the second experiment, the alkaloids 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine 239Q and decahydroquinoline were given to three frogs for 153 days. Control frogs were fed fruit flies dusted only with nutritional supplement. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses revealed that skin secretions of all experimental frogs contained alkaloids, whereas those of all control frogs lacked alkaloids. Uptake of decahydroquinoline was greater than uptake of 5,8-disubstituted indolizidine, and uptake of 3,5-disubstituted indolizidine was greater than uptake of decahydroquinoline, suggesting greater uptake efficiency of certain alkaloids. Frogs in the second experiment accumulated a greater amount of alkaloid, which corresponds to the longer duration and greater number of alkaloid-dusted fruit flies that were consumed. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that bufonid poison frogs sequester alkaloid-based defenses from dietary

  4. Application of electron ionization mass spectrometry for mulungu alkaloid analysis; Aplicacao de espectrometria de massas com ionizacao por eletron na analise de alcaloides do mulungu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feitosa, Luis Guilherme Pereira; Guaratini, Thais; Lopes, Joao Luis Callegari; Lopes, Norberto Peporine [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCFRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica; Bizaro, Aline Cavalli; Silva, Denise Brentan da, E-mail: npelopes@fcfrp.usp.br [Incubadora SUPERA, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lychnoflora Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Produtos Naturais

    2012-07-01

    Erythrina verna is a medicinal plant used to calm agitation popularly known as mulungu. We purchased the barks of E. verna from a commercial producer and analyzed the alkaloid fraction of the bark by CG-MS and HRESI-MS. Five erythrinian alkaloids were identified: erysotrine, erythratidine, erythratidinone, epimer, and 11-hydroxyeritratidinone. Here we report the compound 11-hydroxyeritratidinone for the first time as a natural product. (author)

  5. Furochinoline alkaloids in plants from Rutaceae family – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamska-Szewczyk Aldona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the past five years, phytochemical and pharmacological studies have been conducted on material extracted from members of the Rutaceae family. In such work, new furochinoline-structured alkaloids were isolated from Ruta sp. and Dictamnus sp. Beyond the aforementioned, other substances with promising activity were isolated from the less-known species of Zanthoxylum, Evodia, Lonchocarpus, Myrthopsis and Teclea. Currently used forms of extraction, as well as methods of isolation and detection, allow the obtaining of pure, biologically active compounds. Many of these have antifungal, anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial properties. Others are still being researched as potential drugs, which, in future, may be used in treating those afflicted with HIV and cancer. This article is designed to give the readers a thorough review of the active natural products from the Rutaceae family.

  6. Alkaloids from single skins of the Argentinian toad Melanophryniscus rubriventris (ANURA, BUFONIDAE): An unexpected variability in alkaloid profiles and a profusion of new structures

    OpenAIRE

    Garraffo, H Martin; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Mar?a F; Heit, Cecilia; Spande, Thomas F

    2012-01-01

    GC-MS analysis of single-skins of ten Melanophryniscus rubriventris toads (five collections of two toads each) captured during their breeding season in NW Argentina has revealed a total of 127 alkaloids of which 56 had not been previously detected in any frog or toad. Included among these new alkaloids are 23 new diastereomers of previously reported alkaloids. What is particularly distinguishing about the alkaloid profiles of these ten collections is the occurrence of many of the alkaloids, w...

  7. Determining the amount of rumen-protected methionine supplement that corresponds to the optimal levels of methionine in metabolizable protein for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Overton, T R; Schwab, C G; Tauer, L W

    2007-10-01

    The profitability of feeding rumen-protected Met (RPMet) sources to produce milk protein was estimated using a 2-step procedure: First, the effect of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) on milk protein production was estimated by using a quadratic Box-Cox functional form. Then, using these estimation results, the amounts of RPMet supplement that corresponded to the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production and profit on dairy farms were determined. The data used in this study were modified from data used to determine the optimal level of Met in MP for lactating cows in the Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (NRC, 2001). The data used in this study differ from that in the NRC (2001) data in 2 ways. First, because dairy feed generally contains 1.80 to 1.90% Met in MP, this study adjusts the reference production value (RPV) from 2.06 to 1.80 or 1.90%. Consequently, the milk protein production response is also modified to an RPV of 1.80 or 1.90% Met in MP. Second, because this study is especially interested in how much additional Met, beyond the 1.80 or 1.90% already contained in the basal diet, is required to maximize farm profits, the data used are limited to concentrations of Met in MP above 1.80 or 1.90%. This allowed us to calculate any additional cost to farmers based solely on the price of an RPMet supplement and eliminated the need to estimate the dollar value of each gram of Met already contained in the basal diet. Results indicated that the optimal level of Met in MP for maximizing milk protein production was 2.40 and 2.42%, where the RPV was 1.80 and 1.90%, respectively. These optimal levels were almost identical to the recommended level of Met in MP of 2.40% in the NRC (2001). The amounts of RPMet required to increase the percentage of Met in MP from each RPV to 2.40 and 2.42% were 21.6 and 18.5 g/d, respectively. On the other hand, the optimal levels of Met in MP for maximizing profit were 2.32 and 2.34%, respectively. The amounts

  8. Anaerobic digestion in combination with 2nd generation ethanol production for maximizing biofuels yield from lignocellulosic biomass – testing in an integrated pilot-scale biorefinery plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    An integrated biorefinery concept for 2nd generation bioethanol production together with biogas production from the fermentation effluent was tested in pilot-scale. The pilot plant comprised pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol and anaerobic digestion......-VS/(m3•d) a methane yield of 340 L/kg-VS was achieved for thermophilic operation while 270 L/kg-VS was obtained under mesophilic conditions. Thermophilic operation was, however, less robust towards further increase of the loading rate and for loading rates higher than 5 kg-VS/(m3•d) the yield was higher...... for mesophilic than for thermophilic operation. The effluent from the ethanol fermentation showed no signs of toxicity to the anaerobic microorganisms. Implementation of the biogas production from the fermentation effluent accounted for about 30% higher biofuels yield in the biorefinery compared to a system...

  9. Enrichment of total steroidal saponins from the extracts of Trillium tschonoskii Maxim by macroporous resin and the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins in the final product by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulan; Gao, Xin; Fu, Qiang; Guo, Pengqi; Xu, Xinya; Zhang, Ting; Ge, Yanhui; Zhang, Bilin; Wang, Mingchan; Zeng, Aiguo; Luo, Zhimin; Chang, Chun

    2017-03-01

    An effective and simple method was established for the separation and enrichment of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim. The adsorption and desorption properties of seven macroporous resins were investigated. Among the tested resins, AB-8 resin showed the best adsorption and desorption capacities. The adsorption of steroidal saponins on AB-8 at 25°C was quite consistent with both the Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. By optimizing the dynamic adsorption and desorption parameters, the content of steroidal saponins increased from 5.20% in the crude extracts to 51.93% in the final product, with a recovery yield of 86.67%. Furthermore, by scale-up separation, the concentration and recovery of total steroidal saponins were 43.8 and 85.5%, respectively, which suggested that AB-8 resin had great industrial and pharmaceutical potential because of its high efficiency and cost-effectiveness. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of eight steroidal saponins was established for the first time, which was employed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the final product. Based on the methodological validation results, the high-performance liquid chromatography method can be widely applied to the quality control of steroidal saponins from Trillium tschonoskii Maxim due to its excellent accuracy, stability, and repeatability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Variación en la producción de alcaloides en inflorescencias de Senecio Grisebachii por deficiencia de nutrientes Alkaloid production changes due to nutrient deficiencies in Senecio Grisebachii inflorescences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita A Yaber Grass

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Senecio grisebachii Baker es una maleza que invade pasturas naturales y cultivos en el sur de Brasil, Uruguay, y provincias mesopotámicas y Buenos Aires en la Argentina y es considerada tóxica debido a la presencia de alcaloides pirrolizidínicos (APs en sus tejidos. Se evaluó el efecto de la deficiencia de nitrógeno y de fósforo sobre el perfil de APs en inflorescencias de esta maleza. Se realizó un ensayo utilizando un diseño completamente aleatorizado con 10 repeticiones, en el cual las plantas, que crecieron en hidroponia desde mayo hasta octubre, fueron regadas con solución de nutrientes en las que las concentraciones de N o de P reducidas en un 50% respecto del control. La cuantificación de APs en las inflorescencias de S. grisebachii por CG y CG-EM, demuestra un aumento significativo en el contenido total de APs, en los tratamientos con déficit en N o P (1,33 y 1,34 mg g-1 de materia seca, respectivamente, comparados con el control 0,35 mg g-1. Se identificaron siete APs y sus concentraciones variaron entre tratamientos. Senecionina resultó el alcaloide mayoritario en el tratamiento déficit de N, mientras senecifilina resultó más abundante en los tratamientos control y con déficit de P, seguidos en todos los casos por integerrimina y cantidades menores de espartiodina, jacobina, jacozina y retrorsina.Senecio grisebachii Baker is a weed that invades natural pastures and crops in southern Brazil, Uruguay, the mesopotamic provinces and Buenos Aires in Argentina, and is considered to be toxic because of the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs in its tissues. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency was evaluated on the APs patterns of the weed inflorescences. A completely randomized design with 10 repetitions was used in an experiment where plants growing in hydroponics from May to October were irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 50% P or N concentrations with respect to the control treatment. PAs

  11. Maximizing benefits from resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbred, B.

    2002-01-01

    The main objectives of Norwegian petroleum policy are to maximize the value creation for the country, develop a national oil and gas industry, and to be at the environmental forefront of long term resource management and coexistence with other industries. The paper presents a graph depicting production and net export of crude oil for countries around the world for 2002. Norway produced 3.41 mill b/d and exported 3.22 mill b/d. Norwegian petroleum policy measures include effective regulation and government ownership, research and technology development, and internationalisation. Research and development has been in five priority areas, including enhanced recovery, environmental protection, deep water recovery, small fields, and the gas value chain. The benefits of internationalisation includes capitalizing on Norwegian competency, exploiting emerging markets and the assurance of long-term value creation and employment. 5 figs

  12. Antimicrobial potential of alkaloids and flavonoids extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaloids and flavonoids are secondary metabolites extracted from different medicinal plants. Tamarix aphylla a traditionally valuable medicinal plant; was used for the extraction of alkaloids and flavonoids in order to evaluate their antibacterial activity. Methodology: The leaves of the plant were collected from ...

  13. Indole alkaloids from leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Jie; Peng, Lei; Wu, Zhi-Kun; Bao, Mei-Fen; Liu, Ya-Ping; Cheng, Gui-Guang; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Seven new indole alkaloids, rauverines A-G (1-7), and 19 known indole alkaloids were isolated from the leaves and twigs of Rauvolfia verticillata. All compounds showed no cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, human myeloid leukemia (HL-60), hepatocellular carcinoma (SMMC-7721), lung cancer (A-549), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (SW480) cells.

  14. New derivatives of alkaloids peganine, vazicinone and garmine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agedilova, M.T.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.; Kazantsev, A.V.; Shul'ts, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    It was studied the chemical modification of chinazolin alkaloids peganine and vasicinone and indolin alkaloid garmine. The corresponding halogen-, alkyl-, cetyl and hydrazone derivatives and its salts were obtained. The structure of synthesized compounds was definite by following spectral methods: IR, UV, 1 H, 13 C and 11 B NMR spectroscopy

  15. ALKALOIDS OF SOME EUROPEAN AND MACARONESIAN SEDOIDEAE AND SEMPERVIVOIDEAE (CRASSULACEAE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; HENDRIKS, H; MALINGRE, TM

    1992-01-01

    Some 22 pyrrolidine and piperdine alkaloids were detected in the leafy parts of Sedum acre, S. aetnense, S. anglicum, S. brissemoreti, S. farinosum, S. fusiforme, S. lancerottense, S. melanantherum, and S. nudum. In addition to the alkaloids known from S. acre, 1-(2-pyrrolidyl)-propan-2-one and

  16. Studies of interaction between two alkaloids and double helix DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yantao; Peng, Tingting; Zhao, Lei; Jiang, Dayu; Cui, Yuncheng

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the study on the interaction of two alkaloids (matrine and evodiamine) and hs-DNA by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), DNA melting and viscosity experiments. The spectroscopic studies suggested that two alkaloids can bind to DNA through an intercalative mode. The viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation also indicated that two alkaloids can intercalate to DNA. The binding constants (K A ) and the number of binding sites (n) were determined. At the same time, some significant thermodynamic parameters of the binding of the alkaloids to DNA were obtained. Competitive binding studies revealed that alkaloids had an effect on ethidium bromide (EB) bound DNA. In addition, it was also proved that the fluorescence quenching was influenced by ionic strength. - Highlights: • Interaction between two alkaloids and DNA is studied by spectral methods. • The binding constant and the binding sites between two alkaloids and DNA are obtained. • There are a classical intercalative mode between alkaloids and DNA. • The binding of matrine with DNA is weaker than that of evodiamine. • It is important for us to understand the alkaloids–DNA interactions at a molecular level

  17. Heterosis and heritability estimates of purine alkaloids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry cocoa beans displayed high content of purine alkaloids (2.1 and 8.8 mg g-1 for caffein and theobromine, respectively), and polyphenols (25 and 2978 μg g-1 for catechin and epicatechin, respectively). Among the five cocoa clones, SNK16 was the highest in purine alkaloid (caffein and theobromin) and flavanol ...

  18. Pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing-Shan; Yu, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Xu, Rui-Xia

    2003-02-01

    The pharmacological actions of Uncaria alkaloids, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline extracted from Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq Jacks were reviewed. The alkaloids mainly act on cardiovascular system and central nervous system including the hypotension, brachycardia, antiarrhythmia, and protection of cerebral ischemia and sedation. The active mechanisms were related to blocking of calcium channel, opening of potassium channel, and regulating of nerve transmitters transport and metabolism, etc.

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Bulgarian species of the genus Senecio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA KOSTOVA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nine Bulgarian species from the genus Senecio were studied phytochemically and/or by GC-MS analysis. Senecivernine-N-oxide was isolated and identified by spectral data for the first time. Different types of pyrrolizidine alkaloids were tested for cytotoxicity on murine lymphocytes. At a concentration of 100 µg/ml, the alkaloid retroisosenine showed immunosuppressive effect.

  20. Estimation of total alkaloid in Chitrakadivati by UV-Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajanal, Manjunath; Gundkalle, Mahadev B; Nayak, Shradda U

    2012-04-01

    Herbal formulation standardization by adopting newer technique is need of the hour in the field of Ayurvedic pharmaceutical industry. As very few reports exist. These kind of studies would certainly widen the herbal research area. Chitrakadivati is one such popular herbal formulation used in Ayurveda. Many of its ingredients are known for presence of alkaloids. Presence of alkaloid was tested qualitatively by Dragondroff's method then subjected to quantitative estimation by UV-Spectrophotometer. This method is based on the reaction between alkaloid and bromocresol green (BCG). Study discloses that out of 16 ingredients, 9 contain alkaloid. Chitrakadivati has shown 0.16% of concentration of alkaloid and which is significantly higher than it's individual ingredients.

  1. POSSIBILITY FOR APPLICATION OF LIQUEFIED GASES FOR PURIFICATION OF BARBERRY ALKALOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko D.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Biologically active substances (BAS of barberry roots represented by alkaloids of isoquinoline group are perspective substances for development of preparations with multiple pharmacological activities. However, now manufacture of them in Ukraine is stopped. One of the reasons of this is out-of-date production technologies of alkaloids involving use of toxic and/or flammable solvents. In the article possibility for application of liquefied gases in technology of obtaining of alkaloids from barberry roots has been studied. Materials and methods. Initial raw herb drug were barberry (Berberis vulgaris roots harvested in spring on the territory of Southern Ukraine. Their moisture content was 11%, comminuting degree was 0,5-1,4 mm. At the first stage purification of raw herb drug from lipophilic impurities (defatting was made with use of some liquefied gases: tetrafluoroethane, isobutane, difluorochloromethane and difluoromethane. Extraction of the alkaloid sum was made with difluoromethane mixed with various quantities of liquid ammonia or diethylamine as alkaline agent. Crude extracts were exposed to two-level liquefied-gas purification. At first the alkaloid bases were transformed into saline forms with aqueous solutions of acids and purified from ballast impurities with liquefied freon-22. Then alkaloid salts were reextracted from aqueous phase in the base form with liquefied mixture of difluoromethane and ammonia. Mixing of liquid phases was provided by creation of alternate gradients of temperatures and, as consequence, pressures between separators feeding alternately cool water into jacket of one of them, and warm water – into jacket of another one. Quantity of lipophilic ballast impurities and also weight of extractives were determined gravimetrically. Quantitative analysis of the alkaloid sum was made by titrimetric method after sedimentation of alkaloids with volumetric solution of phosphomolybdic acid. Results and discussion

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  3. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Kenneth W

    2008-08-01

    Ayahuasca is a tea made from two plants native to the Amazon, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, which, respectively, contain the psychoactive chemicals harmala alkaloids and dimethyltryptamine. The tea has been used by indigenous peoples in countries such as Brazil, Ecuador and Peru for medicinal, spiritual and cultural purposes since pre-Columbian times. In the 20th century, ayahuasca spread beyond its native habitat and has been incorporated into syncretistic practices that are being adopted by non-indigenous peoples in modern Western contexts. Ayahuasca's globalization in the past few decades has led to a number of legal cases which pit religious freedom against national drug control laws. This paper explores some of the philosophical and policy implications of contemporary ayahuasca use. It addresses the issue of the social construction of ayahuasca as a medicine, a sacrament and a "plant teacher." Issues of harm reduction with respect to ayahuasca use are explored, but so too is the corollary notion of "benefit maximization."

  4. Cytotoxicity and accumulation of ergot alkaloids in human primary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Dennis; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2011-04-11

    Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced by fungi of the species Claviceps. Toxic effects after consumption of contaminated grains are described since mediaeval times. Of the more than 40 known ergot alkaloids six are found predominantly. These are ergotamine, ergocornine, ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergosine and ergometrine, along with their corresponding isomeric forms (-inine-forms). Toxic effects are known to be induced by an interaction of the ergot alkaloids as neurotransmitters, like dopamine or serotonin. Nevertheless data concerning cytotoxic effects are missing and therefore a screening of the six main ergot alkaloids was performed in human primary cells in order to evaluate the toxic potential. As it is well known that ergot alkaloids isomerize easily the stability was tested in the cell medium. Based on these results factors were calculated to correct the used concentration values to the biologically active lysergic (-ine) form. These factors range from 1.4 for the most stable compound ergometrine to 5.0 for the most unstable ergot alkaloid ergocristine. With these factors, reflecting the instability, several controverse literature data concerning the toxicity could be explained. To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of ergot alkaloids, human cells in primary culture were used. These cells remain unchanged in contrast to cell lines and the data allow a better comparison to the in vivo situation than using immortalized cell lines. To characterize the effects on primary cells, renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) and normal human astrocytes (NHA) were used. The parameters necrosis (LDH-release) and apoptosis (caspase-3-activation, DNA condensation and fragmentation) were distinguished. The results show that depending on the individual structure of the peptide ergot alkaloids the toxic properties change. While ergometrine as a lysergic acid amide did not show any effect, the peptide ergot alkaloids revealed a different toxic potential. Of

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  6. Alkaloid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kenneth; Ebild, S.J.; Christensen, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    %) as methanol-d containing 5% aqueous NHOH (30%) as eluents were successful, even though elution of alkaloids with pK of the corresponding acid above 10 proved difficult. Alkaloid extracts of Huperzia selago containing complex aliphatic alkaloids and Triclisia patens containing bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids...

  7. Effects of antibacterial agents on in vitro ovine ruminal biotransformation of the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid jacobine.

    OpenAIRE

    Wachenheim, D E; Blythe, L L; Craig, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ingestion of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, naturally occurring plant toxins, causes illness and death in a number of animal species. Senecio jacobaea pyrrolizidine alkaloids cause significant economic losses due to livestock poisoning, particularly in the Pacific Northwest. Some sheep are resistant to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning, because ovine ruminal biotransformation detoxifies free pyrrolizidine alkaloids in digesta. Antibacterial agents modify ruminal fermentation. Pretreatment with antib...

  8. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  9. Maximizing petrochemicals from refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glover, B.; Foley, T.; Frey, S. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-07-01

    New fuel quality requirements and high growth rates for petrochemicals are providing both challenges and opportunities for refineries. A key challenge in refineries today is to improve of the value of the products from the FCC unit. In particular, light FCC naphtha and LCO are prime candidates for improved utilization. Processing options have been developed focusing on new opportunities for these traditional fuel components. The Total Petrochemicals/UOP Olefin Cracking Process cracks C4-C8 olefins to produce propylene and ethylene. This process can be integrated into FCC units running at all severity levels to produce valuable light olefins while reducing the olefin content of the light FCC naphtha. Integration of the Olefin Cracking Process with an FCC unit can be accomplished to allow a range of operating modes which can accommodate changing demand for propylene, cracked naphtha and alkylate. Other processes developed by UOP allow for upgrading LCO into a range of products including petrochemical grade xylenes, benzene, high cetane diesel and low sulfur high octane gasoline. Various processing options are available which allow the products from LCO conversion to be adjusted based on the needs and opportunities of an individual refinery, as well as the external petrochemical demand cycles. This presentation will examine recent refining and petrochemical trends and highlight new process technologies that can be used to generate additional revenue from petrochemical production while addressing evolving clean fuel demands. (orig.)

  10. Coumarin and alkaloids of Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae); Cumarinas e alcaloides de Rauia resinosa (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarici, Tatiane Regina; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, Joao Batista; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da, E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Pirani, Jose Rubens [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias. Dept. de Botanica

    2010-07-01

    The genus Rauia, that is poorly chemically studied, belongs to the Rutaceae family. This family has been known to contain a large variety of secondary metabolites. Our phytochemical investigation of the stem and leaves of Rauia resinosa has led to the identification of the structurally related coumarins: murralongin (1), murrangatin (2), munomicrolin (3), murrangatin diacetate (4), umbelliferone (5), rauianin (6) and one novel coumarin: 3-ethylrauianin (7); the alkaloids: N-methyl-4-methoxy-2-quinolone (8), mirtopsine (9), dictamine (10), g-fagarine (11), skimmianine (12), Z-dimethylrhoifolinate (13), zantodioline (14), zantobungeanine (15), veprissine (16), one novel alkaloid 7-hydroxy-8-methoxy-N-methylflindersine (17) and 8-hydroxy-N-methylflindersine (18) that is described as a natural product for the first time, and a mixture of steroids: as sitosterol and stigmasterol. (author)

  11. Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Principles of maximally classical and maximally realistic quantum mechanics. S M ROY. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India. Abstract. Recently Auberson, Mahoux, Roy and Singh have proved a long standing conjecture of Roy and Singh: In 2N-dimensional phase space, ...

  12. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Martin J; Moon, Christina D; Wilkinson, Heather H; Schardl, Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same order and orientation. Also identified was lolF-2, but its possible linkage with either cluster was undetermined. Most lol genes were regulated in N. uncinatum and N. coenophialum, and all were expressed concomitantly with loline-alkaloid biosynthesis. A lolC-2 RNA-interference (RNAi) construct was introduced into N. uncinatum, and in two independent transformants, RNAi significantly decreased lolC expression (P lol-gene products indicate that the pathway has evolved from various different primary and secondary biosynthesis pathways.

  13. Maximizing your fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lytle, J. [GE Capital Rail Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    A series of viewgraphs were presented to illustrate this discussion which focused on the economics of the railroad environment in 2001 and beyond. Fleet productivity and customer relations were described. The viewgraphs were entitled: new car builds; fleet demographics for North American LPG/AA fleet; and, issues and trends of North American LPG/AA fleet. It was noted that there is a continued demand for North American LPG/AA fleet as cars are phased out. GE Capital Rail Services is addressing the future by focusing on the following four initiatives: service, globalization, building a six sigma company, and transforming into an e-business. The company's six sigma approach is based on customer orientation, safety and compliance, quality and reliability, productivity and planning, cost, and people and culture. The actions taken thus far have been a planned maintenance program, the relocation of safety valves, and the elimination of early failures. figs.

  14. The anti-inflammation and pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yihan; Ying, Zheming; Xiang, Zheng; Hao, Dong; Zhang, Wenjie; Zheng, Yu; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang

    2016-03-01

    This study was to elucidate the pharmacokinetics of a novel alkaloid, 6-acetyl-2,2,5-trimethyl-2,3-dihydrocyclohepta[b]pyrrol-8(1H)-one, named oleracone isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and to examine the anti-inflammatory ability with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. The novel alkaloid, oleracone, was isolated from Portulaca oleracea L., and its structure was determined by spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, 2D NMR spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The activity of anti-inflammation was assayed via the test with RAW 264.7 activated by LPS, and the pharmacokinetics of oleracone in rat plasma after intravenous and oral administration at dose of 2.5 mg/kg was, respectively, investigated by a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with bergapten as internal standard. Oleracone was a novel alkaloid first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. and possessed unique structure in natural products, whose anti-inflammatory effecting on nitrite oxide production and several pivotal pro-inflammatory cytokines was found at the concentration of 50 μm, and the pharmacokinetic results indicated that oleracone was rapidly distributed with Tmax of 15.7 min after oral administration and presented a higher oral absolute bioavailability to be 74.91 ± 10.7%. Oleracone as novel alkaloid presented remarkably anti-inflammatory effect, which was rapid distributed in rat with high bioavailability of 74.91 ± 10.7%. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  15. Indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae); Alkaloides {beta}-indolopiridoquinazolinicos de Esenbeckia grandiflora mart. (Rutaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Januario, Ana Helena; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Silva, Maria Fatima das Gracas Fernandes da; Fernandes, Joao Batista [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica], e-mail: anahjanuario@unifran.br; Silva, Jorge Jose de Brito; Conserva, Lucia Maria [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical composition of two specimens of Esenbeckia grandiflora, collected in the south and northeast regions of Brazil, was investigated. In this study, three b-indolopyridoquinazoline alkaloids from the leaves (rutaecarpine, 1-hydroxyrutaecarpine) and roots (euxylophoricine D) were isolated for the first time in this genus. In addition, the triterpenes {alpha}-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, {alpha}-amyrenonol, {beta}-amyrenonol, 3{alpha}-hydroxy-ursan-12-one, and 3{alpha}-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-oleanane, the coumarins auraptene, umbelliferone, pimpinelin, and xanthotoxin, the furoquinoline alkaloids delbine and kokusaginine, and the phytosteroids sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol and 3{beta}-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated from the leaves, twigs, roots and stems of this species. Structures of these compounds were established by spectral analysis. (author)

  16. Analytical chemical study of alkaloid fraction of methanolic extract of Croton baillonianus (AUBL) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes R, Cesar M.; Benavides, Angelyne; Pizza, Cosimo; Napolitano, Asunta; Basarello, Carla; Piacente, Sonia; Carbone Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study has been to extract and isolate the alkaloids from leaves of Croton baillonianus, corresponding to the methanolic extract by exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 followed by a purification by high performance liquid chromatography, obtaining six alkaloids. Two low polarity alkaloid and two glycoside alkaloids were analyzed by Electronic System impact mass spectrometry; these alkaloids belong to bencylisoquinolinic type; the study has connection to the determination of its antioxidant, antiulcerose and cytotoxic properties. (author).

  17. Prenylindole alkaloids from Raputia praetermissa (Rutaceae) and their chemosystematic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Lisandra V.; Veiga, Thiago Andre M.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Vieira, Paulo C.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da, E-mail: dmfs@power.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The dichloromethane extract from the stems of Raputia praetermissa afforded four new compounds, 4-deoxyraputindole C (1), raputimonoindole A-B (2, 3), and hexadecanyl 2-hydroxy- 4-methoxy-cinnamate (5), besides the alkaloids 5-(4-methoxymethylfuran-2-yl)-1H-indole (raputimonoindole C), furoquinolines maculosidine, robustine, evolitrine and dictamnine. The hexane extract yielded N-methyl-4-methoxyquinoline-2(1H)-one, skimmianine, cycloartenone, sitosterol, stigmasterol and sitostenone. The anthranilate alkaloid content indicates that the genus is strongly related to those included in Cusparieae tribe, but differs from Neoraputia by the absence of prenylindole alkaloids in the late, whose species have previously been placed in Raputia. (author)

  18. Semiquantitative determination of ergot alkaloids in seed, straw, and digesta samples using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzius, J M; Hill, N S; Thompson, C S; Craig, A M

    2001-05-01

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue cause fescue toxicosis and other toxic effects in livestock that consume infected plant tissue, leading to significant financial losses in livestock production each year. The predominant method currently in use for quantifying ergot alkaloid content in plant tissue is through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which quantifies the amount of ergovaline, one of many ergot alkaloids in E+ plant tissue. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method used in this study detects quantities of nonspecific ergot alkaloids and therefore accounts for greater amounts of the total ergot alkaloid content in E+ tissue than does HPLC. The ELISA can also be used to more expediently analyze a larger number of forage samples without sophisticated and costly analytical equipment and therefore could be more desirable in a diagnostic setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the between-day and within-run variability of the ELISA and to determine the binding efficiency of 6 ergot alkaloids to the 15F3.E5 antibody used in the competitive ELISA to ascertain its feasibility as a quick analysis tool for ergot alkaloids. Straw samples had an average coefficient of variation (CV) for concentration of 10.2% within runs and 18.4% between runs, and the seed samples had an average CV for concentration of 13.3% within runs and 24.5% between runs. The grass tissue-based lysergic acid standard curve calculated from the ELISA had an average r2 of 0.99, with a CV of 2.1%. Ergocryptine, ergocristine, ergocornine, and ergotamine tartrate did not bind strongly to the 15F3.E5 antibody because of the presence of large side groups on these molecules, which block their binding to the antibody, whereas ergonovine and ergonovine maleate were bound much more efficiently because of their structural similarity to lysergic acid. Clarified rumen fluid was tested as an additional matrix for use in the ergot alkaloid competitive

  19. The chemistry of isoindole natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, Klaus; Magauer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review highlights the chemical and biological aspects of natural products containing an oxidized or reduced isoindole skeleton. This motif is found in its intact or modified form in indolocarbazoles, macrocyclic polyketides (cytochalasan alkaloids), the aporhoeadane alkaloids, meroterpenoids from Stachybotrys species and anthraquinone-type alkaloids. Concerning their biological activity, molecular structure and synthesis, we have limited this review to the most inspiring examples...

  20. A novel alkaloid from Portulaca oleracea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Ying, Zheming; Wei, Wenjuan; Hao, Dong; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Cuiyu; Jiang, Mingyue; Ying, Xixiang; Liu, Jing

    2017-04-01

    A novel alkaloid named oleraciamide C (1), with six known compounds, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), uracil (3), catechol (4), 4-aminophenol (5), vanillic acid (6) as well as 3-hydroxypyridine (7), were isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Additionally, hydroxydihydrobovolide (2), 4-aminophenol (5), 3-hydroxypyridine (7) were obtained from the plant for the first time. Structure of the new compound was determined using spectroscopic methods including HR-ESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR. Others were elucidated through 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR spectra and comparison with literature data. Notably, Compound 1 possessed an unusual bis-substituted eight-membered ring linked with the β-glucopyranose moiety. The cytotoxicity of compound 1 was evaluated against human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) by CCK-8 method.

  1. Maximizing ROI (return on information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, B.

    2000-05-01

    The role and importance of managing information are discussed, underscoring the importance by quoting from the report of the International Data Corporation, according to which Fortune 500 companies lost $ 12 billion in 1999 due to inefficiencies resulting from intellectual re-work, substandard performance , and inability to find knowledge resources. The report predicts that this figure will rise to $ 31.5 billion by 2003. Key impediments to implementing knowledge management systems are identified as : the cost and human resources requirement of deployment; inflexibility of historical systems to adapt to change; and the difficulty of achieving corporate acceptance of inflexible software products that require changes in 'normal' ways of doing business. The author recommends the use of model, document and rule-independent systems with a document centered interface (DCI), employing rapid application development (RAD) and object technologies and visual model development, which eliminate these problems, making it possible for companies to maximize their return on information (ROI), and achieve substantial savings in implementation costs.

  2. Bioactive alkaloids produced by fungi. I. Updates on alkaloids from the species of the genera Boletus, Fusarium and psilocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zafar Alam; Ahmed, Syed Waseemuddin; Azhar, Iqbal; Sualeh, Mohammad; Baig, Mirza Tasawer; Zoha, Sms

    2010-07-01

    Fungi, in particular, are able in common with the higher plants and bacteria, to produce metabolites, including alkaloids. Alkaloids, along with other metabolites are the most important fungal metabolites from pharmaceutical and industrial point of view. Based on this observation, the authors of this review article have tried to provide an information on the alkaloids produced by the species of genera: Boletus, Fusarium and Psilocybef from 1981-2009. Thus the review would be helpful and provides valuable information for the researchers of the same field.

  3. Riboflavin-mediated photosensitization of Vinca alkaloids distorts drug sensitivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, C; Kopun, M; Kröber, T

    1995-11-01

    Poor reproducibility of cytotoxicity tests with Vinca alkaloids has frequently been reported. A commonly presumed light sensitivity of the drugs could not be confirmed. However, we found that they are photosensitized by riboflavin (vitamin B2), an obligatory component of cell culture media. Light of wavelengths below 500 nm triggered rapid photoreactions of riboflavin with vinblastine, vincristine, and vindesine in aqueous solutions. The photoreactions altered the absorption spectra of these alkaloids and yielded degradation products that could be separated by TLC. In cell cultures, both immediate and persisting, riboflavin-mediated photoreactivity could be distinguished. They preclude reliable determinations of sensitivity and resistance to Vinca alkaloids, as exemplified on chemosensitive and multidrug-resistant mouse ascites cells. In experiments involving photosensitization, the 50% inhibitory concentration values of sensitive and resistant cells were overlapping and fluctuated in the ranges from 3 to 30 nM and 15 to 360 nM vinblastine, respectively. Corresponding values from series of experiments protected from photosensitization were 1.02 +/- 0.22 nM and 18.5 +/- 3.42 nM. Hence, riboflavin-mediated photoreactions must be fully prevented in assays of cellular drug sensitivity. Procedures for eliminating immediate as well as persisting photoreactivity were established.

  4. Implications of maximal Jarlskog invariant and maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Jauregui, E.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico

    2001-04-01

    We argue here why CP violating phase Φ in the quark mixing matrix is maximal, that is, Φ=90 . In the Standard Model CP violation is related to the Jarlskog invariant J, which can be obtained from non commuting Hermitian mass matrices. In this article we derive the conditions to have Hermitian mass matrices which give maximal Jarlskog invariant J and maximal CP violating phase Φ. We find that all squared moduli of the quark mixing elements have a singular point when the CP violation phase Φ takes the value Φ=90 . This special feature of the Jarlskog invariant J and the quark mixing matrix is a clear and precise indication that CP violating Phase Φ is maximal in order to let nature treat democratically all of the quark mixing matrix moduli. (orig.)

  5. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Feeny, Paul

    1983-06-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval weights, and showed reduced survivorship. The benzylisoquinolines tested were not equally effective as toxins or feeding inhibitors. Some produced dramatic effects while others produced no effects. The relative responses of the three caterpillar species to the six alkaloids were similar. Those benzylisoquinolines with a methylene-dioxyphenyl (1,3-benzodioxole) group were consistently the most toxic or repellent while laudanosine, a relatively simple benzylisoquinoline, was generally innocuous. Available host records indicate that benzylisoquinoline-containing plants are avoided by the larvae of these moth species.

  6. Quinolizidines alkaloids: Petrosin and xestospongins from the sponge Oceanapia sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; Das, B.; Naik, C.G.

    having di-hetro atom rings, from the ethyl acetate extract of the sponge. The compounds exhibited moderate to high activities against some microorganisms and clinical isolates. The structures of the alkaloids were elucidated by NMR and ESIMS spectroscopic...

  7. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey: comparison of analytical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, M.; Wittig, M.; Reinhard, A.; Ohe, von der K.; Blacquière, T.; Raezke, K.P.; Michel, R.; Schreier, P.; Beuerle, T.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a structurally diverse group of toxicologically relevant secondary plant metabolites. Currently, two analytical methods are used to determine PA content in honey. To achieve reasonably high sensitivity and selectivity, mass spectrometry detection is demanded. One

  8. Two bromotyrosine alkaloids from the sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.

    , antimicrobial properties etc. Herein is reported isolation and structure determination of two such alkaloids: 16-debromo aplysamine-4 1 and purpuramine 1 2 from the sponge @iP. purpurea@@ collected from Mandapam, Tamil Nadu, India. The structures...

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALOIDS AND TANNINS IN THE CRASSULACEAE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; VANHAM, CHJ; ELEMA, ET; VANDENENT, MMVX; WILDEBOER, M; ZWAVING, JH

    Alkaloid and tannin levels of 36 species of the Crassulaceae were compared. The taxa investigated were Crassula multicava, Echeveria venezuelensis, Pachyphytum compactum, Kalanchoe (two sop.), Bryophyllum daigremontianum, Sedum (23 spp.), Aeonium (four spp.) and Sempervivum (three spp.). Apart from

  10. Simultaneous determination of aconitum alkaloids in rat body fluids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    performance liquid chromatography. ... were in the range of 85.63 - 90.94% for all analysis of the three aconitum alkaloids with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 14%. Positive linear relationships were observed in correlation coefficients that ...

  11. New bromotyrosine alkaloids from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Rodrigues, C; Naik, C; Parameswaran, P.S.; Wahidullah, S.

    Seven new bromotyrosine alkaloids Purpurealidin A, B, C, D, F, G, H and the known compounds Purealidin Q, Purpurealidin E, 16-Debromoaplysamine-4 and Purpuramine I have been isolated from the marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea. Their structure...

  12. Studies on the Alkaloids of the Calycanthaceae and Their Syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Biao Xu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Calycanthaceae family, which possesses four genera and about 15 species, are mainly distributed in China, North America and Australia. Chemical studies on the Calycanthaceae have led to the discovery of about 14 alkaloids of different skeletons, including dimeric piperidinoquinoline, dimeric pyrrolidinoindoline and/or trimeric pyrrolidinoindolines, which exhibit significant anti-convulsant, anti-fungal, anti-viral analgesic, anti-tumor, and anti-melanogenesis activities. As some of complex tryptamine-derived alkaloids exhibit promising biological activities, the syntheses of these alkaloids have also been a topic of interest in synthetic chemistry during the last decades. This review will focus on the structures and total syntheses of these alkaloids.

  13. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stap...

  14. Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process optimization and insecticidal activity of alkaloids from the root bark of Catalpa ovata G. Don by response surface methodology. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced ...

  15. New zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Xinyu; Si, Xiali; Liang, Hong; Tu, Pengfei; Zhang, Qingying

    2018-01-31

    Four new zwitterionic monoterpene indole alkaloids, rhynchophyllioniums A-D (1-4), together with eight known alkaloids (5-12), were isolated from the hook-bearing stems of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ECD, and the zwitterionic forms and absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All the isolates, including the monoterpene indole alkaloids with free C-22 carboxyl group and those with C-22 carboxyl methyl ester, were proved to be naturally coexisting in the herb by LC-MS analysis. This is the first report of monoterpene indole alkaloids that exist in the form of zwitterion. Additionally, the cytotoxic activities of all isolates against A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cell lines are reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the α-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 μM), but it did not inhibit β-glucosidase, α- or β-mannosidase, or α- or β-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc 3 Man 7-9 (GlcNAc) 2 -oligosaccharides

  17. New bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from Laureliopsis philippiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærk, Dan; Thi, Loi Pham; Rasmussen, Hasse Bonde

    2009-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Laureliopsis philippiana resulted in isolation of a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid (1) named laureliopsine A. The structure was established by spectroscopic methods, including 2D homo- and heteronuclear NMR experiments. This finding of a bisbenzylisoquinoline al...

  18. Maximization techniques for oilfield development profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1999-01-01

    In 1981 Nind provided a quantitative procedure for estimating the optimum number of development wells to emplace on an oilfield to maximize profit. Nind's treatment assumed that there was a steady selling price, that all wells were placed in production simultaneously, and that each well's production profile was identical and a simple exponential decline with time. This paper lifts these restrictions to allow for price fluctuations, variable with time emplacement of wells, and production rates that are more in line with actual production records than is a simple exponential decline curve. As a consequence, it is possible to design production rate strategies, correlated with price fluctuations, so as to maximize the present-day worth of a field. For price fluctuations that occur on a time-scale rapid compared to inflation rates it is appropriate to have production rates correlate directly with such price fluctuations. The same strategy does not apply for price fluctuations occurring on a time-scale long compared to inflation rates where, for small amplitudes in the price fluctuations, it is best to sell as much product as early as possible to overcome inflation factors, while for large amplitude fluctuations the best strategy is to sell product as early as possible but to do so mainly on price upswings. Examples are provided to show how these generalizations of Nind's (1981) formula change the complexion of oilfield development optimization. (author)

  19. Phenomenology of maximal and near-maximal lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Pena-Garay, Carlos; Nir, Yosef; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The possible existence of maximal or near-maximal lepton mixing constitutes an intriguing challenge for fundamental theories of flavor. We study the phenomenological consequences of maximal and near-maximal mixing of the electron neutrino with other (x=tau and/or muon) neutrinos. We describe the deviations from maximal mixing in terms of a parameter ε(equivalent to)1-2sin 2 θ ex and quantify the present experimental status for |ε| e mixing comes from solar neutrino experiments. We find that the global analysis of solar neutrino data allows maximal mixing with confidence level better than 99% for 10 -8 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 . In the mass ranges Δm 2 ∼>1.5x10 -5 eV 2 and 4x10 -10 eV 2 ∼ 2 ∼ -7 eV 2 the full interval |ε| e mixing in atmospheric neutrinos, supernova neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay

  20. Maximal quantum Fisher information matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yu; Yuan, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix in the multi-parameter quantum estimation, which bounds the ultimate precision limit. We show that when the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix exists, it can be directly obtained from the underlying dynamics. Examples are then provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the maximal quantum Fisher information matrix by deriving various trade-off relations in multi-parameter quantum estimation and obtaining the bounds for the scalings of the precision limit. (paper)

  1. Hybrid Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids Obtained as Artifacts from Rauvolfia tetraphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-10-01

    Five new hybrid monoterpenoid indole alkaloids bearing an unusual 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxopiperidin-6-yl moiety, namely rauvotetraphyllines F-H (1, 3, 4), 17-epi-rauvotetraphylline F (2) and 21-epi-rauvotetraphylline H (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against five human cancer cell lines.

  2. Hybrid Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids Obtained as Artifacts from Rauvolfia tetraphylla

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five new hybrid monoterpenoid indole alkaloids bearing an unusual 2,2-dimethyl-4-oxopiperidin-6-yl moiety, namely rauvotetraphyllines F–H (1, 3, 4), 17-epi-rauvotetraphylline F (2) and 21-epi-rauvotetraphylline H (5), were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The new alkaloids were evaluated for their cytotoxicity in vitro against five human cancer cell lines. Graphical Abstract Electronic supp...

  3. Cyclobutane-Containing Alkaloids: Origin, Synthesis, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeiko, Anastasia; Poroikov, Vladimir V; Hanuš, Lumir O; Dembitsky, Valery M

    2008-01-01

    Present review describes research on novel natural cyclobutane-containing alkaloids isolated from terrestrial and marine species. More than 60 biological active compounds have been confirmed to have antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, synthesis, origins, and biological activities of a selection of cyclobutane-containing alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional biological activities are also predicted, which point toward ...

  4. Indole Alkaloids Inhibiting Neural Stem Cell from Uncaria rhynchophylla

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Xin; Jiang, Li-Ping; Guo, Ying; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Ya-Ping; Yu, Hao-Fei; Wang, Bei; Ding, Cai-Feng; Zhu, Pei-Feng; Chen, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Yun-Li; Chen, Yong-Bing; Wang, Yi-Fen; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is commonly recognized as a traditional treatment for dizziness, cerebrovascular diseases, and nervous disorders in China. Previously, the neuro-protective activities of the alkaloids from U. rhynchophylla were intensively reported. In current work, three new indole alkaloids (1–3), identified as geissoschizic acid (1), geissoschizic acid N 4-oxide (2), and 3β-sitsirikine N 4-oxide (3), as well as 26 known analogues were isolated from U. rhynchophylla. However, in the ne...

  5. Detection and quantification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in antibacterial medical honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Beuerle, Till

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in antibacterial honey for wound care ranging from minor abrasions and burns to leg ulcers and surgical wounds. On the other hand, several recent studies demonstrated that honey for human consumption was contaminated with natural occurring, plant derived pyrrolizidine alkaloids.1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a group of secondary plant metabolites that show developmental, hepato-, and geno-toxicity as well as carcinogenic effects in animal models and in in vitro test systems. Hence, it was of particular interest to analyze the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of medical honeys intended for wound care.19 different medical honey samples and/or batches were analyzed by applying a recently established pyrrolizidine alkaloid sum parameter method. 1,2-Unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids were converted into the common necin backbone structures and were analyzed and quantified by GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode.All but one medical honey analyzed were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive. The results ranged from 10.6 µg retronecine equivalents per kg to 494.5 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey. The average pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of all positive samples was 83.6 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (average of all samples was 79.3 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey). The limit of detection was 2.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey, while the limit of quantification was 6.0 µg retronecine equivalents/kg medical honey (S/N > 7/1).Based on the data presented here and considering the fact that medical honeys can be applied to open wounds, it seems reasonable to discuss the monitoring of 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids in honey intended for wound treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Refined reservoir description to maximize oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flewitt, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    To assure maximized oil recovery from older pools, reservoir description has been advanced by fully integrating original open-hole logs and the recently introduced interpretive techniques made available through cased-hole wireline saturation logs. A refined reservoir description utilizing normalized original wireline porosity logs has been completed in the Judy Creek Beaverhill Lake ''A'' Pool, a reefal carbonate pool with current potential productivity of 100,000 BOPD and 188 active wells. Continuous porosity was documented within a reef rim and cap while discontinuous porous lenses characterized an interior lagoon. With the use of pulsed neutron logs and production data a separate water front and pressure response was recognized within discrete environmental units. The refined reservoir description aided in reservoir simulation model studies and quantifying pool performance. A pattern water flood has now replaced the original peripheral bottom water drive to maximize oil recovery

  7. Envisaging the Regulation of Alkaloid Biosynthesis and Associated Growth Kinetics in Hairy Roots of Vinca minor Through the Function of Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Anjum, Shahin; Khan, Shamshad Ahmad; Roy, Sudeep; Odstrcilik, Jan; Mathur, Ajay Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Artificial neural network based modeling is a generic approach to understand and correlate different complex parameters of biological systems for improving the desired output. In addition, some new inferences can also be predicted in a shorter time with less cost and labor. As terpenoid indole alkaloid pathway in Vinca minor is very less investigated or elucidated, a strategy of elicitation with hydroxylase and acetyltransferase along with incorporation of various precursors from primary shikimate and secoiridoid pools via simultaneous employment of cyclooxygenase inhibitor was performed in the hairy roots of V. minor. This led to the increment in biomass accumulation, total alkaloid concentration, and vincamine production in selected treatments. The resultant experimental values were correlated with algorithm approaches of artificial neural network that assisted in finding the yield of vincamine, alkaloids, and growth kinetics using number of elicits. The inputs were the hydroxylase/acetyltransferase elicitors and cyclooxygenase inhibitor along with various precursors from shikimate and secoiridoid pools and the outputs were growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine. The approach incorporates two MATLAB codes; GRNN and FFBPNN. Growth kinetic studies revealed that shikimate and tryptophan supplementation triggers biomass accumulation (GI = 440.2 to 540.5); while maximum alkaloid (3.7 % dry wt.) and vincamine production (0.017 ± 0.001 % dry wt.) was obtained on supplementation of secologanin along with tryptophan, naproxen, hydrogen peroxide, and acetic anhydride. The study shows that experimental and predicted values strongly correlate each other. The correlation coefficient for growth index (GI), alkaloids, and vincamine was found to be 0.9997, 0.9980, 0.9511 in GRNN and 0.9725, 0.9444, 0.9422 in FFBPNN, respectively. GRNN provided greater similarity between the target and predicted dataset in comparison to FFBPNN. The findings can provide future

  8. Towards the Shell Biorefinery: Sustainable Synthesis of the Anticancer Alkaloid Proximicin A from Chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Alejandro D; Chen, Xi; Yan, Ning; Sperry, Jonathan

    2018-02-09

    A shell biorefinery would involve fractionation of crustacean shells and incorporation of the components into value-added products, particularly those that contain nitrogen. In a proof-of-concept study that validates this concept, the anticancer alkaloid proximicin A has been synthesized from the chitin-derived platform chemical 3-acetamido-5-acetylfuran (3A5AF). This study accentuates the leading role chitin is likely to play in the sustainable production of nitrogen-containing fine chemicals that are not directly attainable from lignocellulose. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Maximize x(a - x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  10. Finding Maximal Quasiperiodicities in Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Pedersen, Christian N. S.

    2000-01-01

    of length n in time O(n log n) and space O(n). Our algorithm uses the suffix tree as the fundamental data structure combined with efficient methods for merging and performing multiple searches in search trees. Besides finding all maximal quasiperiodic substrings, our algorithm also marks the nodes......Apostolico and Ehrenfeucht defined the notion of a maximal quasiperiodic substring and gave an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string of length n in time O(n log2 n). In this paper we give an algorithm that finds all maximal quasiperiodic substrings in a string...... in the suffix tree that have a superprimitive path-label....

  11. Chemical Diversity Investigation of Hepatotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Qianliguang (Senecio scandens and Related Species by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Qianliguang (Senecio scandens is a common Chinese medicinal herb. Qianliguang-containing herbal proprietary products are registered as over-the-counter remedies in China and exported to Western countries. The presence of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs has raised concerns about the safety of using Qianliguang and its products. The present study aims at investigation of different types of PAs present in Qianliguang collected from representative locations in China.

  12. On the maximal diphoton width

    CERN Document Server

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the 750 GeV diphoton excess found at LHC, we compute the maximal width into $\\gamma\\gamma$ that a neutral scalar can acquire through a loop of charged fermions or scalars as function of the maximal scale at which the theory holds, taking into account vacuum (meta)stability bounds. We show how an extra gauge symmetry can qualitatively weaken such bounds, and explore collider probes and connections with Dark Matter.

  13. Anticonvulsant properties of the total alkaloid fraction of Rauvolfia ligustrina Roem. et Schult. in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia ligustrina Roem et. Schult (Apocynaceae, commonly known as "paratudo" and "arrebenta-boi" is a small tree found in Brazilian Northeastern. Previous studies have demonstrated depressant and anticonvulsant properties of the ethanol extract of Rauvolfia ligustrina. The aim of the present study was the determination of the lethal dose 50% (LD50 and the effects of total alkaloid fraction (TAF of the aerial parts of R. ligustrina in animal models of convulsion. It was found that the acute toxicity of TAF was 127.8 (112.5-145.2 mg/kg (i.p. in mice. TAF (20 mg/kg, ip significantly increased (p < 0.05 the latencies of clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ and picrotoxin (PIC. However, TAF did not protect the animals in maximal electroshock (MES induced seizures. These results suggest that TAF of R. ligustrina possesses anticonvulsant properties.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF BENZOPHENANTHRIDINE AND PROTOPINE ALKALOIDS IN BROILER CHALLENGED AND NOT BY SALMONELLA HEIDELBERG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PFG Previato do Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Salmonellosis is a globally important zoonosis, and Salmonella Heidelberg is one of the most prevalent serovars in poultry production worldwide, as well as in food poisoning cases. Antimicrobial drugs were previously widely used to face health challenges in animal production; however, since their ban as performance enhancers, many alternative strategies have been proposed. One of these strategies is the use of plant extracts, such as those containing the alkaloids benzophenanthridine and protopine. These compounds have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and nutritional effects. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the supply of a product containing benzophenanthridine and protopine (Sangrovit(rWS 100 g/1000 L of drinking water to broilers during different rearing periods 1-21, 1-6 and 6-21 days of age challenged or not with Salmonella Heidelberg at six days of age. There was no effect of the product on the performance, jejunal morphometry, cecal goblet cell counts, or control of Salmonella spp. in broilers challenged or not with Salmonella Heidelberg. However, the group receiving the alkaloids from 1 to 21 days of age, compared with the control group, presented a numerical difference of 28 points in productive efficiency index, which directly impacts live production cost of live broiler, representing savings of R$ 0.11/kg of meat produced.

  15. Search for alkaloids on callus culture of Passiflora alata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelli Wesz Machado

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary work on Passiflora alata leaves failed to detect harmane alkaloids using LC. The aim of this work was to investigate the production of harmane alkaloids through the cell culture of P. alata, inducing its precursor (L-tryptophan. The leaf explants presented satisfactory results after disinfection, and the callus formation was initiated in MS media with adequate quantities of phytohormones. Sixty days after inoculation, calli were inoculated in the optimized semi-solid MS media, with and without the addition of L-tryptophan (50, 100, 200 mg/L and kept in standard conditions for 90 days. Calli were collected on days 6, 16, 26, 36, and 90, followed by acid-base extraction, and analysed by LC. The results showed an absence of harmane, harmin, harmol, harmalol, and harmaline. With L-tryptophan feeding, two peaks were detected, collected and analysed through positive mode electrospray [ESI(+-MS] and sequential analysis in tandem ESI(+-MS/MS. The spectra obtained were very similar, with a repetition of the more intense ions, and consecutive loss of 68 Da units, attributed to the heterocycle pyrazole. It appeared that this transformation was not related to any enzymatic pathway previously described for the plant from L-tryptophan, and the biosynthesis of β-carboline alkaloids in callus culture of P. alata were not observed in this work.As folhas de varias espécies de Passiflora são utilizadas como ansioliticas e sedativas. Passiflora alata Curtis, Passifloraceae consta em três edições da farmacopéia brasileira, porem não há muitos estudos sobre sua composição química. No passado, enfatizava-se a ação conjunta de alcalóides e flavonóides. Em trabalho anterior, não foi detectada a presença de alcalóides harmanicos através de CLAE. Assim, decidiu-se investigar a produção dos mesmos através de cultivo celular, introduzindo seu precursor metabólico L-triptofano. Os explantes foliares apresentaram resultados satisfatorios

  16. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the food chain: development, validation, and application of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Luise; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Ernst, Ludger; Beuerle, Till

    2013-11-27

    Contamination of food and feed with pyrrolizidine alkaloids is currently discussed as a potential health risk. Here, we report the development of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate the pyrrolizidine alkaloid content in complex food matrices. The procedure was validated for honey and culinary herbs. Isotopically labeled 7-O-9-O-dibutyroyl-[9,9-(2)H2]-retronecine was synthesized and utilized as an internal standard for validation and quantitation. The total pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of a sample is expressed as a single sum parameter: retronecine equivalents (RE). Ld/Lq for honey was 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg. For culinary herbs, 1.0 μg RE/kg/3.0 μg RE/kg (dry weight, dw) and 0.1 μg RE/kg/0.3 μg RE/kg (fresh weight, fw) were determined, respectively. The new method was applied to analyze 21 herbal convenience products. Fifteen products (71%) were pyrrolizidine alkaloid positive showing pyrrolizidine alkaloid concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 74 μg RE/kg fw.

  17. Anti-Allergic Properties of Curine, a Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ribeiro-Filho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Curine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Chondrodendron platyphyllum (Menispermaceae. Recent findings have shed light on the actions of curine in different models of allergy and inflammation. Here we review the properties and mechanisms of action of curine focusing on its anti-allergic effects. Curine pre-treatment significantly inhibited the scratching behavior, paw edema and systemic anaphylaxis induced by either ovalbumin (OVA in sensitized animals or compound 48/80, through mechanisms of mast cell stabilization and inhibition of mast cell activation to generate lipid mediators. In addition, oral administration of curine significantly inhibited eosinophil recruitment and activation, as well as, OVA-induced airway hyper-responsiveness in a mouse model of asthma, through inhibition of the production of IL-13 and eotaxin, and of Ca2+ influx. In conclusion, curine exhibit anti-allergic effects in models of lung, skin and systemic allergy in the absence of significant toxicity, and as such has the potential for anti-allergic drug development.

  18. Maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Garmroodi Asil

    2017-09-01

    To further reduce the sulfur dioxide emission of the entire refining process, two scenarios of acid gas or air preheats are investigated when either of them is used simultaneously with the third enrichment scheme. The maximum overall sulfur recovery efficiency and highest combustion chamber temperature is slightly higher for acid gas preheats but air preheat is more favorable because it is more benign. To the best of our knowledge, optimization of the entire GTU + enrichment section and SRU processes has not been addressed previously.

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Heliotropium transoxanum Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Delnavazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The plants belonging to the genus Heliotropium L. (Boraginaceae are the main sources of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs. In the present study, we have investigated the PAs of the aerial parts of Heliotropium transoxanum Bunge, a perennial species native to Iran. Methods: Silica gel column chromatography and silica gel PTLC were applied for the isolation of PAs present in the total methanol extract of H. transoxanum. The structures of the isolated compounds were identified using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EIMS spectral analyses. Results: Three PAs, heliotrine (1, lasiocarpine (2 and heliotrine N-oxide (3,with known mutagenic and genotoxic properties, were isolated from the aerial parts of H. transoxanum. Conclusion: The results of this study on the presence of toxic PAs in H. transoxanum introduce this herb as a poisonous species and also suggest it as an appropriate source for the isolation of heliotrine and lasiocarpine for further toxicological and pharmacological studies.

  20. Advances in vinca-alkaloids: Navelbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, M; Extra, J M; Espie, M; Leandri, S; Besenval, M; Krikorian, A

    1989-01-01

    Vinorelbine (Navelbine) is a new semisynthetic vinca alkaloid which chemically differs from vinblastine by substitutions on the catharantine moiety of the molecule. It has shown promising experimental antitumor activity against experimental murine tumors as well as continuous cell lines of human neoplastic origin and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. Acute subacute and chronic toxicity extensively studied in rodents, dogs and primate has shown that hematotoxicity was almost the sole side-effect; neurotoxicity appears very limited. Almost exclusive affinity of NVB for mitotic tubulin and tubulin associated protein accounts for this pattern of toxicity. Phase I and II studies have been conducted in humans. Dose limiting side-effect appears to be neutropenia: the drug is slightly emetogenic, induces little alopecia, almost no neurotoxicity, and no other toxicity. Although preliminary, results of phase II studies already suggest significant activity of NVB in non small lung cancer (33% response rate in 78 evaluable patients), advanced breast cancer (53% response rate in 33 pts without significant chemotherapy for the target progression) and Hodgkin's disease (90% response rate after 4 weekly courses in 31 pts). Thus extensive pharmacological studies and ongoing clinical studies confirm that chemical modifications of the catharantine moiety of vinca alcaloid can lead to active agents with broader spectrum of activity and easily manageable side effects.

  1. Sequestered Alkaloid Defenses in the Dendrobatid Poison Frog Oophaga pumilio Provide Variable Protection from Microbial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Kyle J; Seiter, Emily M; Johnson, Erin E; Saporito, Ralph A

    2018-03-01

    Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens. While natural alkaloid mixtures in dendrobatid poison frogs have recently been shown to inhibit growth of non-pathogenic microbes, no studies have examined the effectiveness of alkaloids against microbes that infect these frogs. Herein, we examined how alkaloid defenses in the dendrobatid poison frog, Oophaga pumilio, affect growth of the known anuran pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Frogs were collected from five locations throughout Costa Rica that are known to vary in their alkaloid profiles. Alkaloids were isolated from individual skins, and extracts were assayed against both pathogens. Microbe subcultures were inoculated with extracted alkaloids to create dose-response curves. Subsequent spectrophotometry and cell counting assays were used to assess growth inhibition. GC-MS was used to characterize and quantify alkaloids in frog extracts, and our results suggest that variation in alkaloid defenses lead to differences in inhibition of these pathogens. The present study provides the first evidence that alkaloid variation in a dendrobatid poison frog is associated with differences in inhibition of anuran pathogens, and offers further support that alkaloid defenses in poison frogs confer protection against both pathogens and predators.

  2. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  3. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  4. Actions of piperidine alkaloid teratogens at fetal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Pfister, James A; Kem, William R

    2010-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids are found in many species of plants including Conium maculatum L., Nicotiana glauca, Nicotiana tabaccum, and multiple Lupinus spp. Fetal musculoskeletal defects produced by alkaloids from these plants include arthrogyropisis, scoliosis, torticollis, kyposis, lordosis, and cleft palate. A pharmacodynamic comparison of the alkaloids ammodendrine, anabasine, anabaseine, anagyrine, and coniine in SH-SY5Y cells and TE-671 cells was made. These alkaloids and their enantiomers were more effective in depolarizing TE-671 cells which express the human fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) relative to SH-SY5Y cells which predominately express autonomic nAChRs. The rank order of potency in TE-671 cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-anabasine > (+/-)-anabasine>anagyrine>(-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+/-)-ammodendrine>(+)-ammodendrine. The rank order potency in SH-SY5Y cells was: anabaseine>(+)-anabasine>(-)-coniine>(+)-coniine>(+)-ammodendrine>anagyrine>(-)-anabasine>(+/-)-coniine>(+/-)-anabasine>(-)-ammodendrine. The actions of these alkaloids at nAChRs in both cell lines could be distinguished by their maximum effects in depolarizing cell membrane potential. The teratogenic action of these compounds may be related to their ability to activate and subsequently desensitize nAChRs.

  5. Ornithine decarboxylase, polyamines, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids in senecio and crotalaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birecka, H; Birecki, M; Cohen, E J; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P

    1988-01-01

    When tested for ornithine and arginine decarboxylases, pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Senecio riddellii, S. longilobus (Compositae), and Crotalaria retusa (Leguminosae) plants exhibited only ornithine decarboxylase activity. This contrasts with previous studies of four species of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-bearing Heliotropium (Boraginaceae) in which arginine decarboxylase activity was very high relative to that of ornithine decarboxylase. Unlike Heliotropium angiospermum and Heliotropium indicum, in which endogenous arginine was the only detectable precursor of putrescine channeled into pyrrolizidines, in the species studied here-using difluoromethylornithine and difluoromethylarginine as the enzyme inhibitors-endogenous ornithine was the main if not the only precursor of putrescine converted into the alkaloid aminoalcohol moiety. In S. riddellii and C. retusa at flowering, ornithine decarboxylase activity was present mainly in leaves, especially the young ones. However, other very young organs such as inflorescence and growing roots exhibited much lower or very low activities; the enzyme activity in stems was negligible. There was no correlation between the enzyme activity and polyamine or alkaloid content in either species. In both species only free polyamines were detected except for C. retusa roots and inflorescence-with relatively very high levels of these compounds-in which conjugated putrescine, spermidine, and spermine were also found; agmatine was not identified by HPLC in any plant organ except for C. retusa roots with rhizobial nodules. Organ- or age-dependent differences in the polyamine levels were small or insignificant. The highest alkaloid contents were found in young leaves and inflorescence.

  6. Incorporation of 2H-labelled cadaverines into the quinolizidine alkaloids in Baptisia australis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robins, D.J.; Sheldrake, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of 2 H-labelled cadaverines into the quinolizidine alkaloids, sparteine and N-methylcytisine, in Baptisia australis has been studied in order to gain more information about the formation of these alkaloids. (author)

  7. Alkaloids in bufonid toads (melanophryniscus): temporal and geographic determinants for two argentinian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J W; Wilham, J M; Spande, T F; Garraffo, H M; Gil, R R; Silva, G L; Vaira, M

    2007-04-01

    Bufonid toads of the genus Melanophryniscus represent one of several lineages of anurans with the ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods for chemical defense. The alkaloid profile for Melanophryniscus stelzneri from a location in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, changed significantly over a 10-year period, probably indicating changes in availability of alkaloid-containing arthropods. A total of 29 alkaloids were identified in two collections of this population. Eight alkaloids were identified in M. stelzneri from another location in the province of Córdoba. The alkaloid profiles of Melanophryniscus rubriventris collected from four locations in the provinces of Salta and Jujuy, Argentina, contained 44 compounds and differed considerably between locations. Furthermore, alkaloid profiles of M. stelzneri and M. rubriventris strongly differed, probably reflecting differences in the ecosystem and hence in availability of alkaloid-containing arthropods.

  8. Biosynthesis, asymmetric synthesis, and pharmacology, including cellular targets, of the pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole marine alkaloids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Mourabit, A.; Zancanella, M.A.; Tilvi, S.; Romo, D.

    The pyrrole-2-aminoimidazole (P-2-AI) alkaloids are a growing family of marine alkaloids, now numbering well over 150 members, with high topographical and biological information content. Their intriguing structural complexity, rich and compact...

  9. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate structures and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of lycopodane-type alkaloids isolated from an Icelandic collection of Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre. Ten alkaloids were isolated, including annotinine, annotine, lycodoline, lycoposerramine M...

  10. Alkaloids from sponge, scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2016-05-06

    Anti-viral compounds with low cytotoxicity are identified from screening of products found in Red Sea sponges, including the sponge Stylissa carteri. The identified compounds can be brominated pyrrole-2- aminoimidazole alkaloids and derivatives thereof. Specific examples of identified compounds include oroidin, hymenialdisine, and debromohymenialdisine, as well as derivatives thereof. The compounds also can be useful scaffolds or pharmacores for further chemical modification and derivatization. Selected compounds, particularly oroidin, show selective anti-viral HIV-1 activity coupled with reduced cytotoxicity. The compounds can function as HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and molecular modeling can be used to confirm inhibition.

  11. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in German licensed herbal medicinal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Meins, J; Diemert, S; Zagermann-Muncke, P; Goebel, R; Schrenk, D; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Abdel-Tawab, M

    2015-06-01

    Because of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and cancerogenic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends not to exceed a daily PA intake of 0.007 µg/kg body weight (0.42 µg/60 kg adult). In a recent study conducted by the BfR, up to 5647 µg PA/kg dried herbal material were detected in tea products marketed as food. The present study aimed at elucidating whether medicinal teas licensed or registered as medicinal products contain PAs as well. One hundred sixty-nine different commercially available medicinal teas, i.e. 19 nettle (Urtica dioica L.), 12 fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), 14 chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), 11 melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) and 4 peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) teas as well as 109 tea mixtures were analyzed for the presence of 23 commercially available PAs. LC/MS was used for the determination of the PAs In general, the total PA contents ranging 0-5668 µg/kg. Thirty percent of the tested single-ingredient tea products and 56.9% of the tested medicinal tea mixtures were found to contain PA concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 µg/kg. In 11 medicinal teas PA contents >300 µg/kg dry herb were determined thus exceeding the recommended limit for PA intake by BfR. In addition three products of the investigated tea mixtures revealed extremely high PA contents of 4227, 5137, and 5668 µg/kg. Generally, single-ingredient tea products contained much less or even no detectable amounts of PAs when compared to the tea mixtures. PAs in the range between 13 and 1080 µg/kg were also detected in five analyzed aqueous herbal infusions of the medicinal tea mixture products with the highest PA content. Two out of the five investigated herbal infusions exceeded the recommended BfR limit for PA intake. This study demonstrates clearly that also medicinal teas licensed as medicinal products may partly contain high amounts of PAs exceeding current recommendations. For

  12. Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim.: fernbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd

    2008-01-01

    Fernbush - Chamaebatiaria millefolium (Torr.) Maxim. - the only species in its genus, is endemic to the Great Basin, Colorado Plateau, and adjacent areas of the western United States. It is an upright, generally multistemmed, sweetly aromatic shrub 0.3 to 2 m tall. Bark of young branches is brown and becomes smooth and gray with age. Leaves are leathery, alternate,...

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  14. Tyrosine Aminotransferase Contributes to Benzylisoquinoline Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Opium Poppy1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Facchini, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine aminotransferase (TyrAT) catalyzes the transamination of l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, yielding 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and l-glutamate. The decarboxylation product of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, is a precursor to a large and diverse group of natural products known collectively as benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). We have isolated and characterized a TyrAT cDNA from opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), which remains the only commercial source for several pharmaceutical BIAs, including codeine, morphine, and noscapine. TyrAT belongs to group I pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes wherein Schiff base formation occurs between PLP and a specific Lys residue. The amino acid sequence of TyrAT showed considerable homology to other putative plant TyrATs, although few of these have been functionally characterized. Purified, recombinant TyrAT displayed a molecular mass of approximately 46 kD and a substrate preference for l-Tyr and α-ketoglutarate, with apparent Km values of 1.82 and 0.35 mm, respectively. No specific requirement for PLP was detected in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirmed the conversion of l-Tyr to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. TyrAT gene transcripts were most abundant in roots and stems of mature opium poppy plants. Virus-induced gene silencing was used to evaluate the contribution of TyrAT to BIA metabolism in opium poppy. TyrAT transcript levels were reduced by at least 80% in silenced plants compared with controls and showed a moderate reduction in total alkaloid content. The modest correlation between transcript levels and BIA accumulation in opium poppy supports a role for TyrAT in the generation of alkaloid precursors, but it also suggests the occurrence of other sources for 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. PMID:21949209

  15. Studies toward the synthesis of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids: a Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Nicholas; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2014-02-07

    A synthetic route to the isotwistane core of palhinine lycopodium alkaloids is described. A Morita-Baylis-Hillman/intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) strategy sets the vicinal all-carbon quaternary centers present in this family of natural products. The regioselectivity of the IMDA reaction is dictated by the conditions employed for silyl enol ether formation, with one set of conditions providing the core of cardionine and alternate conditions generating the desired isotwistane core of isopalhinine.

  16. Calcium, membranes and accumulation of alkaloids in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovkova, M.Ya.; Buzuk, G.N.; Grinkevich, N.I.

    1983-01-01

    Ca 2+ effect upon metabolism of aporphines and protopines has been studied in Glaucium flavun, which alkaloids are of an essential interest for the medicine practice. It has been shown that calcium produces the inhibiting effect both on catabolitic splitting and metabolism of glaucine and protopine. It has been anticipated that calcuium introduced into an expert plant stabilizes membranes of intracellular structures and prevents 14 C alkaloid entering from an environment to metabolically active cell compartments, which contain ferments realizing transformations of the above compounds. The level of membrane permeability is probably the main mechanism, through which a control of metabolism processes occurs, and hence, a control of alkaloid accumulation processes under in vivo conditions

  17. A new alkaloid from the fruit of Nandina domestica Thunb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cai-Ying; Liu, Jian-Qun; Zhang, Rui; Shu, Ji-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    A new steroidal alkaloid, (20S,22R,24R)-24-ethyl-3-oxocholest-4-en-22-amino, named as nandsterine (1), together with 10 known alkaloids, palmatine (2), O-methylbulbocapnine (3), nantenine (4), dehydronantenine (5), glaucine (6), didehydroglaucine (7), dehydrocorydaline (8), jatrorrhizine (9), magnoflorine (10) and berberine (11), was isolated from the fruit of Nandina domestica Thunb. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods as well as by comparing with the published data. Compound 1 was a new class of steroidal alkaloid isolated from the family Berberidaceae, meanwhile compounds 2, 3, 6-8 and 10 were obtained from N. domestica for the first time. Compound 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (human leukaemia) with IC50 values of 52.1 μM.

  18. A new spermidine macrocyclic alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola leaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gustavo; Martinho, Ana; Soengas, Raquel González; Duarte, Ana Paula; Serrano, Rita; Gomes, Elsa Teixeira; Silva, Olga

    2015-10-01

    The isolation and structural elucidation of a macrocyclic alkaloid, characterized by the presence of a 13-membered macrolactam ring containing a spermidine unit N-linked to a benzoyl group is hereby reported. The structure of this previously unknown spermidine alkaloid isolated from Gymnosporia arenicola (Celastraceae) leaves has been elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy (including bidimensional analysis) and further characterized by high-resolution mass spectrometry and polarimetry. A route for the biosynthesis of this new bioactive macrocycle is proposed and the cytotoxicity of the compound was evaluated against two ATCC cell lines - one normal-derived (MCF10A) and one cancer-derived cell line (MCF7) - using the MTT assay. The alkaloid revealed to be non-cytotoxic against both cell lines. The IC50 values from the cells were also determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quinolizidine alkaloids from the curare adjuvant Clathrotropis glaucophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagen, Anne Lise; Gertsch, Jürg; Becker, Rita; Heilmann, Jörg; Sticher, Otto

    2002-12-01

    The bark of Clathrotropis glaucophylla (Fabaceae) is used as admixture of curare arrow poison by the Yanomami; Amerindians in Venezuela. A new quinolizidine alkaloid (QA), (-)-13alpha-hydroxy-15alpha-(1-hydroxyethyl)-anagyrine [(-)-clathrotropine], was isolated from the alkaloid extract of C. glaucophylla bark, together with eleven known QAs: (-)-anagyrine, (-)-thermopsine, (-)-baptifoline, (-)-epibaptifoline, (-)-rhombifoline, (-)-tinctorine, (-)-cytisine, (-)-N-methylcytisine, (-)-lupanine, (-)-6alpha-hydroxylupanine and (+)-5,6-dehydrolupanine. The isolation and structure elucidation were performed with the aid of chromatographic (TLC, HPLC and CC) and spectroscopic (UV and 1D/2D NMR) methods, and mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first time quinolizidine alkaloids have been isolated from an arrow poison ingredient. It is also the first report on Clathrotropis species being used for preparation of arrow poison.

  20. Steroidal glyco alkaloids and molluscicidal activity of Solanum asperum Rich. fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania M.S. [Instituto Multidisciplinar em Saude, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Campus Avancado Anisio Teixeira]. E-mail: sarmento@pesquisador.cnpq.br; Camara, Celso A. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Freire, Kristerson R.L.; Silva, Thiago G. da; Agra, Maria de F.; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica

    2008-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the alkaloidal extract of the green fruits of Solanum asperum afforded a new compound, solanandaine along with solasonine and solamargine. The total crude alkaloids as well as the isolated pure alkaloids exhibited significant molluscicidal activity. (author)

  1. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  2. Quinoline Alkaloids in Suspension Cultures of Cinchona ledgeriana Treated with Various Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH RATNADEWI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cinchona alkaloids are in extensive uses, not only for drugs but also for soft drink industries. They are harvested from the bark of trees Cinchona spp. after certain ages and therefore are available over a limited time. Cell culture is an alternative way to continuously produce such secondary metabolites in a much shorter time. Various substances were added in the normal growth media to promote quinoline alkaloids production by cell cultures of Cinchona ledgeriana. At the sixth week of culture, quinine and cinchonine contents were suppressed by paclobutrazol (PBZ, abscisic acid (ABA, or even by precursor tryptophan, while cinchonidine content was enhanced by 0.2 mg/l tryptophan to 43 fold of that produced by untreated cells (2.8% dry weight. At the seventh week of culture, the production of quinine and quinidine started to grow whereas the production of cinchonine and cinchonidine tended to decrease. An addition of 5 mg/l PBZ to culture media yielded the highest level of total quinine/quinidine after seven weeks, e.g. quinine 11 times more abundant and quinidine 23 fold higher compared to the untreated cells. Particularly the level of quinine which is the most demanded for medical and industrial purposes still need to be improved to approach to or even higher than that of extracted from the conventional source.

  3. Indole alkaloids and other constituents of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Atsuko; Kumashiro, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Machiko; Nagakura, Naotaka; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nishi, Toyoyuki; Tanahashi, Takao

    2005-06-01

    From the dried roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were isolated five new indole alkaloids, N(b)-methylajmaline (1), N(b)-methylisoajmaline (2), 3-hydroxysarpagine (3), yohimbinic acid (4), isorauhimbinic acid (5), a new iridoid glucoside, 7-epiloganin (6), and a new sucrose derivative, 6'-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)glomeratose A (7), together with 20 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. The inhibitory activities of the selected alkaloids on topoisomerase I and II and their cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lines were assessed.

  4. Cat's claw oxindole alkaloid isomerization induced by common extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kaiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat's claw oxindole alkaloids are prone to isomerization in aqueous solution. However, studies on their behavior in extraction processes are scarce. This paper addressed the issue by considering five commonly used extraction processes. Unlike dynamic maceration (DM and ultrasound-assisted extraction, substantial isomerization was induced by static maceration, turbo-extraction and reflux extraction. After heating under reflux in DM, the kinetic order of isomerization was established and equations were fitted successfully using a four-parameter Weibull model (R² > 0.999. Different isomerization rates and equilibrium constants were verified, revealing a possible matrix effect on alkaloid isomerization.

  5. Butyrylcholinesterase, lipoxygenase inhibiting and antifungal alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat

    2008-06-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6. Compounds 3, 2 were found to be potent butyrylcholinesterase and lipoxygenase enzymes inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with the IC(50) values 16.3 +/- 0.06 and 19.7 +/- 0.03 microM against BChE and 30.6 +/- 0.02 and 33.7 +/- 0.05 microM against LOX, respectively. The compounds (1-6) showed significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton schoen leinii, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Trichophyton simii, and Macrophomina phaseolina.

  6. Five new indole alkaloids from the leaves of Rauvolfia yunnanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chang-An; Liu, Xi-Kui

    2013-09-01

    Five new indole alkaloids, rauvoloids A-E (1-5), together with two known ones, raucaffrinoline (6) and perakine (7) were isolated from the leaves of Rauvolfia yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods. Structurally, rauvoloids A (1), B-C (2-3) and D (4) with unusual substitution patterns (no substitution, Cl and (1E)-3-oxo-butenyl, respectively) at C-20, are the first examples of perakine-type alkaloids with C18 and C22 skeletons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyrrole alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Beom; Chang, Bo Yoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2014-12-15

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruits of Morus alba afforded seventeen pyrrole alkaloids including five new compounds. The structures of five new pyrrole alkaloids, named morroles B-F (4, 5, 7, 16 and 17), were determined on the basis of spectroscopic interpretations. 4-[Formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoate (2) was synthesized by chemical reaction but first isolated from nature. Among isolated compounds, compounds 6 and 14 significantly inhibited pancreatic lipase activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Glutarimide alkaloids and a terpenoid benzoquinone from Cordia globifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joshua; Gyeltshen, Thinley; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-05-28

    Three new compounds, a meroterpene (2) having a cyclopropane moiety named globiferane and glutarimide alkaloids named cordiarimides A (3) and B (4), were isolated from the roots of Cordia globifera. Compounds 2-4 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity. Cordiarimide B (4) exhibited radical scavenging activity, as it inhibited superoxide anion radical formation in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XXO) assay, and also suppressed superoxide anion generation in differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells when induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This is the first report on the presence of glutarimide alkaloids in the genus Cordia.

  9. Budd-Chiari syndrome secondary to toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Janet S W; Poon, W T; Ma, C K; Chen, M L; Pang, K S; Mak, Tony W L; Chan, H B

    2013-12-01

    In this report, we describe a case of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-related Budd-Chiari syndrome in Hong Kong. A 10-month-old boy presented with ascites, right pleural effusion, and hepatomegaly after consumption of herbal drinks for 3 months. His clinical (including imaging) features were compatible with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Budd-Chiari syndrome is a rare disease entity in paediatric patients. In our case, extensive workup performed to look for the underlying cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome was unrevealing, except for toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure in his herbal drinks.

  10. Antioxidant Potential of Cyclopeptyide Alkaloids Isolated from Zizyphus Oxphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, W.A.; Muhammad, N.; Khan, H.; Rauf, A.; Haq, M.Z.U.; Qayum, M.; Khan, A.Z.; Nisar, M.; Obaidullah, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the antioxidant potential of five cyclopeptide alkaloids isolated from Zizyphus oxyphylla including Oxyphylline-D 1, Nummularin-C 2, Nummularin-R 3, Oxyphylline-B 4, Oxyphylline C 5 using DPPH free radical assay, nitric oxide radical assay and reducing power assay. The isolated alkaloids demonstrated marked antioxidant potential in a concentration dependent manner. Among the tested molecules, the compounds, 2 was most potent with IC50 values of 27.23, 32.03 and 22.45 μg/ml in DPPH free radical assay, nitric oxide radical assay and reducing power assay respectively. (author)

  11. Alkaloids and Phenolic Compounds from Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) and Vasorelaxant Activity of Two Indoquinoline Alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Otemberg Souza; Teles, Yanna Carolina Ferreira; Monteiro, Matheus Morais de Oliveira; Mendes Junior, Leônidas das Graças; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Silva, Tânia Maria Sarmento; Souza, Maria de Fátima Vanderlei de

    2017-01-06

    The follow-up of phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Sida rhombifolia L. (Malvaceae) aims to strengthen the chemosystematics and pharmacology of Sida genera and support the ethnopharmacological use of this species as hypotensive herb. The present work reports phytoconstituents isolated and identified from aerial parts of S. rhombifolia by using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The study led to the isolation of scopoletin ( 1 ), scoporone ( 2 ), ethoxy-ferulate ( 3 ), kaempferol ( 4 ), kaempferol-3- O -β-d-glycosyl-6''-α-d-rhamnose ( 5 ), quindolinone ( 6 ), 11-methoxy-quindoline ( 7 ), quindoline ( 8 ), and the cryptolepine salt ( 9 ). The alkaloids quindolinone ( 6 ) and cryptolepine salt ( 9 ) showed vasorelaxant activity in rodent isolated mesenteric arteries.

  12. Ergot alkaloids in rye flour determined by solid-phase cation-exchange and high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Strobel, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    Ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that are undesirable contaminants of cereal products, particularly rye. A method was developed employing clean-up by cation-exchange solid-phase extraction, separation by high-performance liquid chromatography under alkaline conditions and fluorescence detection...

  13. Toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal medicines commonly used in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2017-04-18

    Herbal medicines have been used for centuries for the management and treatment of various ailments due to the belief that they pose only little or no health risk and side effects, and also, in part, due to their availability, affordability and/or self-supply. However, the increasing information over the recent years on the occurrence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey, herbal food and tea products has raised concerns about the safety of herbal medicines with respect to contamination. To this day, little is known on the occurrence of toxic PAs in herbal medicines, especially in tropical West Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the PA content of 70 well-known and widely patronized plant-derived medicinal preparations, which are commercialized in Ghana and some West African countries, in order to ascertain their potential health risk. PAs of the herbal medicinal products, sourced from specialized drugstores and mostly regulatory approved, were analyzed for their PA content by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method. The results show that a total of 60% of the analyzed herbal products were PA positive, indicating an average PA-concentration of 25.0μg/kg. The maximum PA level (1290.0μg/kg) was attributed to a regulatory-approved herbal medicine not known, according to the list of declared ingredients, to contain PA-plant parts. Interestingly, higher PA content (average, 30.2μg/kg) was detected in regulatory-approved herbal medicines, in contrast to lower amount (average, 8.0μg/kg) detected in non-regulatory-approved products. The findings of this study clearly demonstrate that herbal medicines containing PA plants as ingredients, as well as some of those containing plant species not known to produce PAs, are likely to contain hepatotoxic PA at levels higher than the daily dose in food and herbal medicinal products proposed by the European Medicines Agency (i.e. 0.35μg PA per day for 50kg adult and 0.14μg PA per day for 20kg children

  14. Effect of processing on the alkaloids in Aconitum tubers by HPLC-TOF/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015, only processed Aconitum tubers can be clinically applied, and the effect of processing is unclear. This research aimed to explore the effect of processing on cardiac efficacy of alkaloids in Aconitum tubers. First, the chemical ingredients in unprocessed and processed Aconitum tubers were identified and compared by using high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-TOF/MS and multivariate pattern recognition methods. Then the representative alkaloids in Aconitum tubers, aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine, which belong to diester-diterpenoid alkaloids, monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids, respectively, were selected for further validation of attenuated mechanism. Subsequent pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats were used for validate the effect of processing on cardiac functions. After processing the Aconitum tubers, it was found that the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were reduced, and those of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids were increased, suggesting that diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were transformed into monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids. Through further decocting the aconitine in boiling water, it was confirmed that the three alkaloids could be progressively transformed. Pharmacological experiments with aconitine, benzoylaconine, and aconine in SD rats showed that aconitine at a dose of 0.01 mg/kg and aconine at a dose of 10 mg/kg enhanced the cardiac function, while benzoylaconine at a dose of 2 mg/kg weakened the cardiac function. The effect of processing is attributed to the transformation of the most toxic diester-diterpenoid alkaloids into less toxic monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids and amine-diterpenoid alkaloids.

  15. IMNN: Information Maximizing Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnock, Tom; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D.

    2018-04-01

    This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.

  16. Is the β phase maximal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, Javier

    2005-01-01

    The current experimental determination of the absolute values of the CKM elements indicates that 2 vertical bar V ub /V cb V us vertical bar =(1-z), with z given by z=0.19+/-0.14. This fact implies that irrespective of the form of the quark Yukawa matrices, the measured value of the SM CP phase β is approximately the maximum allowed by the measured absolute values of the CKM elements. This is β=(π/6-z/3) for γ=(π/3+z/3), which implies α=π/2. Alternatively, assuming that β is exactly maximal and using the experimental measurement sin(2β)=0.726+/-0.037, the phase γ is predicted to be γ=(π/2-β)=66.3 o +/-1.7 o . The maximality of β, if confirmed by near-future experiments, may give us some clues as to the origin of CP violation

  17. Strategy to maximize maintenance operation

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This project presents a strategic analysis to maximize maintenance operations in Alcan Kitimat Works in British Columbia. The project studies the role of maintenance in improving its overall maintenance performance. It provides strategic alternatives and specific recommendations addressing Kitimat Works key strategic issues and problems. A comprehensive industry and competitive analysis identifies the industry structure and its competitive forces. In the mature aluminium industry, the bargain...

  18. Scalable Nonlinear AUC Maximization Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, Majdi; Ray, Indrakshi; Chitsaz, Hamidreza

    2017-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a measure of interest in various machine learning and data mining applications. It has been widely used to evaluate classification performance on heavily imbalanced data. The kernelized AUC maximization machines have established a superior generalization ability compared to linear AUC machines because of their capability in modeling the complex nonlinear structure underlying most real world-data. However, the high training complexity renders the kernelize...

  19. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new indole alkaloid from Rauvolfia serpentina hairy root culture: the first naturally occurring alkaloid of the raumacline group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, Yuri; Gerasimenko, Irina; Kolshorn, Heinz; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-05-01

    A new monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, 10-hydroxy- N(alpha)-demethyl-19,20-dehydroraumacline ( 1), was isolated as a mixture of E- and Z-isomers from hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz (Apocynaceae) and the structure was determined by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The new indole alkaloid represents the first naturally occurring alkaloid of the raumacline group and its putative biosynthetical pathway is discussed.

  20. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  1. [Effects of steaming and baking on content of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-lin; Huang, Zhi-fang; Zhang, Yi-han; Liu, Yu-hong; Liu, Yun-huan; Chen, Yan; Yi, Jin-hai

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of steaming and baking process on contents of alkaloids in Aconite Lateralis Radix (Fuzi), 13 alkaloids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS equipped with ESI ion source in MRM mode. In steaming process, the contents of diester-diterpenoid alkaloids decreased rapidly, the contents of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids firstly increased, reached the peak at 40 min, and then deceased gradually. The contents of aconine alkaloids (mesaconine, aconine and hypaconine) increased all the time during processing, while the contents of fuziline, songorine, karacoline, salsolionl were stable or slightly decreased. In baking process, dynamic variations of alkaloids were different from that in the steaming process. Diester-diterpenoid alkaloids were degraded slightly slower than in steaming process. Monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids, aconine alkaloids and the total alkaloids had been destroyed at different degrees, their contents were significantly lower than the ones in steaming Fuzi at the same processing time. This experiment revealed the dynamic variations of alkaloids in the course of steaming and baking. Two processing methods which can both effectively remove the toxic ingredients and retain the active ingredients are simple and controllable, and are valuable for popularization and application.

  2. Alkaloids in the human food chain--natural occurrence and possible adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Soffers, Ans E M F; Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their bioactivation to reactive alkylating intermediates. Several quinolizidine alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, ergot alkaloids and steroid alkaloids are active without bioactivation and mostly act as neurotoxins. Regulatory agencies are aware of the risks and have taken or are considering appropriate regulatory actions for most alkaloids. These vary from setting limits for the presence of a compound in feed, foods and beverages, trying to define safe upper limits, advising on a strategy aiming at restrictions in use, informing the public to be cautious or taking specific plant varieties from the market. For some alkaloids known to be present in the modern food chain, e.g., piperine, nicotine, theobromine, theophylline and tropane alkaloids risks coming from the human food chain are considered to be low if not negligible. Remarkably, for many alkaloids that are known constituents of the modern food chain and of possible concern, tolerable daily intake values have so far not been defined. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alkaloids from single skins of the Argentinian toad Melanophryniscus rubriventris (ANURA, BUFONIDAE): An unexpected variability in alkaloid profiles and a profusion of new structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffo, H Martin; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, María F; Heit, Cecilia; Spande, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    GC-MS analysis of single-skins of ten Melanophryniscus rubriventris toads (five collections of two toads each) captured during their breeding season in NW Argentina has revealed a total of 127 alkaloids of which 56 had not been previously detected in any frog or toad. Included among these new alkaloids are 23 new diastereomers of previously reported alkaloids. What is particularly distinguishing about the alkaloid profiles of these ten collections is the occurrence of many of the alkaloids, whether known or new to us, in only one of the ten skins sampled, despite two skins being obtained from each breeding site of the five populations. Many of the alkaloids are of classes known to have structures with branched-chains (e.g. pumiliotoxins and tricyclic structures) that are considered to derive from dietary mites. A large number of previously reported and new alkaloids are also of unclassified structures. Only a very few 3,5-disubstituted-indolizidine or -pyrrolizidine alkaloids are observed that have a straight-chain carbon skeleton and are likely derived from ant prey. The possible relationship of these collections made during the toad's brief breeding episodes to sequestration of dietary arthropods and individual alkaloid profiles is discussed.

  4. Isolation, Identification, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Activity of Alkaloid Compound from Peperomia pellucida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachriyah, E.; Ghifari, M. A.; Anam, K.

    2018-04-01

    The research of the isolation and xanthine oxidation inhibition activity of alkaloid compound from Peperomia pellucida has been carried out. Alkaloid extract is isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Alkaloid isolate is identified spectroscopically by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR, and LC-MS/MS. Xanthine oxidase inhibition activity is carried out by in vitro assay. The result showed that the alkaloid isolated probably has piperidine basic structure. The alkaloid isolate has N-H, C-H, C = C, C = O, C-N, C-O-C groups and the aromatic ring. The IC50 values of ethanol and alkaloid extract are 71.6658 ppm and 76.3318 ppm, respectively. Alkaloid extract of Peperomia pellucida showed higher activity than ethanol extract.

  5. Analysis, separation, and bioassay of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from comfrey (Symphytum officinale).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couet, C E; Crews, C; Hanley, A B

    1996-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been linked to liver and lung cancers and a range of other deleterious effects. As with many natural toxicants, major problems arise in determining the effects of the different members of the class and the importance of various forms of ingestion. In this study we have investigated the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in comfrey (Symphytum officinale), determined the levels in different parts of the plant and in herbal remedies, separated the alkaloids into two main groups--the principal parent alkaloids and the corresponding N-oxides--and, finally, carried out a simple bioassay based upon the mutagenic capability of the separated compounds in a human cell line. We conclude that the part of the plant ingested is important in terms of alkaloid challenge and that the effect of two of the major groups of alkaloids individually is different from that of alkaloids in the whole plant extract.

  6. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH and Selected Flavors in e-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from four manufacturers. Methods We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control (QC) validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH and flavors. Results Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6% - 42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1 – 9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Conclusions Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. Pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:25636907

  7. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from 4 manufacturers. We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH, and flavors. Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6%-42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1-9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  9. Clustered Ergot Alkaloids Modulate Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křen, Vladimír; Fišerová, Anna; Weignerová, Lenka; Stibor, I.; Halada, Petr; Přikrylová, Věra; Sedmera, Petr; Pospíšil, Miloslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2002), s. 415-424 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4020901; GA ČR GA310/98/0347 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clustered * ergot * alkaloids Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.043, year: 2002

  10. Repellence and attraction of Apis mellifera foragers by nectar alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hroncová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites present naturally in nectar, such as alkaloids, may change the behavioural responses of floral visitors and affect pollination. Some studies have shown that nectar containing low concentrations of these secondary metabolites is preferred by honey bee foragers over pure nectar. However, it remains unclear whether this is caused by dependence or addictive behaviour, a simple taste preference, or by other conditions such as self-medication. In our choice experiment, free-flying bees were presented with artificial flowers holding 20% sucrose containing 0.5−50 μg ml−1 of one of the naturally occurring nectar alkaloids - caffeine, nicotine, senecionine, and gelsemine. Nectar uptake was determined by weighing each flower and comparing the weight to that of the control flower. Our experimental design minimized memorizing and marking; despite this, caffeine was significantly preferred at concentrations 0.5−2 μg ml−1 over control nectar; this preference was not observed for other alkaloids. All of the compounds tested were repellent at concentrations above 5 μg ml−1. We confirmed previous reports that bees exhibit a preference for caffeine, and hypothesize that this is not due only to addictive behaviour but is at least partially mediated by taste preference. We observed no significant preference for nicotine or any other alkaloid.

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Bosi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely-recognized that the view that herbal remedies have no adverse effects and/or toxicity is incorrect; some traditionally-used plants can present toxicity. The well-established popular use of Ageratum conyzoides has led to its inclusion in a category of medicinal crude drugs created by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Ageratum belongs to the Eupatorieae tribe, Asteraceae, and is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. harvested in Brazil (commercial, flowering and non-flowering samples were prepared according to the prescribed method and analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides, were detected in the analyzed extracts, lycopsamine and its N-oxide being known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. Together with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids identified by HPLC-HRMS, thirteen phenolic compounds were identified, notably, methoxylated flavonoids and chromenes. Toxicological studies on A. conyzoides are necessary, as is monitoring of its clinical use. To date, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.

  12. Reviewing colchicaceae alkaloids – perspectives of evolution on medicinal chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Sonny; Rønsted, Nina

    2014-01-01

    . In this review an approach of taking phylogenetic classification into account in evaluating colchicine and related phenethylisoquinoline alkaloids from the family Colchicaceae will be applied. Following on the trends of utilizing evolutionary reasoning in inferring mechanisms in eg. drug resistance in cancer...

  13. In vitro anticancer activity and cytotoxicity of some papaver alkaloids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: The Vero and HeLa cell lines were treated with various concentrations (1-300 μg/mL) of alkaloids for 48 h. Values for cytotoxicity measured by MTT assay were expressed as the concentration that causes a 50% decrease in cell viability (IC50) (μg/mL). Results: Berberine and macranthine were the ...

  14. Indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia bahiensis A.DC. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Lucilia; Marques Braga, Raquel; Koch, Ingrid; Sumiko Kinoshita, Luiza

    2002-06-01

    Four indole alkaloids, 12-methoxy-N(a)-methyl-vellosimine, demethoxypurpeline, 12-methoxyaffinisine, and 12-methoxy-vellosimine, in addition to picrinine, vinorine, raucaffrinoline, normacusine B, norseredamine, seredamine, 10-methoxynormacusine B, norpurpeline and purpeline, were isolated from the bark or leaf extracts of Rauvolfia bahiensis.

  15. Rauvotetraphyllines A-E, new indole alkaloids from Rauvolfia tetraphylla

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Kong, Ling-Mei; Hai, Ping; Li, Yan; Wang, Fei; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Five new indole alkaloids rauvotetraphyllines A–E (1–5), together with eight known analogues, were isolated from the aerial parts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla. The structures were established by means of spectroscopic methods. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s13659-012-0012-5 and is accessible for authorized users.

  16. Synthesis of the new derivatives of alkaloid glaucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukusheva, G.K.; Zhumagalieva, Zh.Zh.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.; Kazantsev, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of aporphine alkaloid glaucine by reactions of halogenation, amino-methylation, acetylation and with esters of boronic acid new derivatives of glaucine were synthesized. The structures of obtained compounds were determined on basis of IR, 13 C, 1 H, 11 B NMR spectral data

  17. CNS active ergot alkaloid dihydro derivatives. Tritium labelling and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.A.; Nugent, R.P.; Filer, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    The ergot alkaloids are an important class of medicinally useful substances and this report describes the high specific activity tritium labelling of two dihydro derivatives; namely, dihydroergotamine and dihydrobromocriptine. The former was prepared by the direct tritiation of ergotamine itself. However, efforts to perform an analogous direct tritiation on bromocriptine were unsuccessful and a multistep synthesis was required. (author)

  18. Quantification of alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids in sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allelochemicals in leaves, stems and roots of sunflower (cv Hysun 38) were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for alkaloids and spectrophotometry for phenols and flavonoids. In the TLC, the highest Rf value was recorded in leaves, followed by roots and stems, a sequence that held true also for the quantity ...

  19. Three new alkaloids from the fruits of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Kang, Jie; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2014-01-01

    From the fruits of Morus alba, three new alkaloids, mulbaines A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR).

  20. Effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Mingsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne. The rats that were administered high, medium, and low doses of motherwort alkaloids, tanshinone capsules, a model and a control group. Each group of rats was subjected to gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. On the first day of testing, the control and model groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of sterilized saline solution and the remaining groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of Staphylococcus epidermidis in addition to the gavage. The thicknesses of the rats’ auricles were measured for five consecutive days following the injections. Anticoagulated blood was used for erythrocyte rheology index measurement. In addition, the entire ear of each rat was removed for morphological examination. Compared to the model group, the group administered motherwort alkaloids exhibited significantly reduced swelling, improved localized auricle proliferation, and reduced blood viscosity. This result suggests motherwort alkaloids are effective in rat ear acne.

  1. Mechanistic Insights to the Cytotoxicity of Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nair, J. J.; Rárová, L.; Strnad, Miroslav; Bastida, J.; van Staden, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), s. 171-182 ISSN 1934-578X Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Alkaloid * Amaryllidaceae * Apoptosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.884, year: 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25920242

  2. Analysis of alkaloid phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the compounds of alkaloids extracts from the leaves of Datura stramonium, which can be the basis for the synthesis of new antibiotics. ... The chemical compositions of the leaves of ethanolic extract of D.

  3. Spatiotemporal oscillations of morphinan alkaloids in opium poppy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahdi Rezaei

    2018-04-30

    Apr 30, 2018 ... biosynthesis is coordinated tightly by the enzymatic function of SalAT enzyme. Meanwhile, despite ... Therefore, determination of the alkaloid profile of each individual plant .... well-known technique, IMS offers low detection limit, fast response ...... ion mobility spectrometry with ammonia reagent gas. Talanta.

  4. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  5. Australine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that inhibits amyloglucosidase and glycoprotein processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tropea, J.E.; Molyneux, R.J.; Kaushal, G.P.; Pan, Y.T.; Mitchell, M.; Elbein, A.D. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (USA))

    1989-03-07

    Australine is a polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that was isolated from the seeds of the Australian tree Castanospermum australe and characterized by NMR and X-ray diffraction analysis. Since swainsonine and catanospermine are polyhydroxylated indolizidine alkaloids that inhibit specific glycosidases, the authors tested australine against a variety of exoglycosidases to determine whether it would inhibit any of these enzymes. This alkaloid proved to be a good inhibitor of the {alpha}-glucosidase amyloglucosidase (50% inhibition at 5.8 {mu}M), but it did not inhibit {beta}-glucosidase, {alpha}- or {beta}-mannosidase, or {alpha}- or {beta}-galactosidase. The inhibition of amyloglucosidase was of a competitive nature. Australine also inhibited the glycoprotein processing enzyme glucosidase I, but had only slight activity toward glucosidase II. When incubated with cultured cells, this alkaloid inhibited glycoprotein processing at the glucosidase I step and caused the accumulation of glycoproteins with Glc{sub 3}Man{sub 7-9}(GlcNAc){sub 2}-oligosaccharides.

  6. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane F. Bosi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available It is now widely-recognized that the view that herbal remedies have no adverse effects and/or toxicity is incorrect; some traditionally-used plants can present toxicity. The well-established popular use of Ageratum conyzoides has led to its inclusion in a category of medicinal crude drugs created by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Ageratum belongs to the Eupatorieae tribe, Asteraceae, and is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides L. harvested in Brazil (commercial, flowering and non-flowering samples were prepared according to the prescribed method and analyzed by HPLC-HRMS. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides, were detected in the analyzed extracts, lycopsamine and its N-oxide being known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. Together with the pyrrolizidine alkaloids identified by HPLC-HRMS, thirteen phenolic compounds were identified, notably, methoxylated flavonoids and chromenes. Toxicological studies on A. conyzoides are necessary, as is monitoring of its clinical use. To date, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrolizidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.

  7. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in food: A spectrum of potential health consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of grain with 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs) and their N-oxides is responsible for large incidents of acute and subacute food poisoning, with high morbidity and mortality, in Africa and in central and south Asia. Herbal medicines and teas containing dehydroPAs ha...

  8. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio jacobaea affect fungal growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, W.H.G.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the growth-reducing effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from Senecio jacobaea on nine plant-associated fungi (five strains of Fusarium oxysporum, two of F. sambucinum, and two of Trichoderma sp). Fungal growth was monitored on water agar media containing different concentrations

  9. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity in livestock: A paradigm for human poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livestock poisoning, primarily liver damage, caused by consumption of plants containing 1,2-dehydropyrro-lizidine ester alkaloids (dehydroPAs), and the corresponding N-oxides, is a relatively common occurrence worldwide. Because of the economic impact, extensive investigations...

  10. Activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against biofilm formation and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Negreiros Neto, Themístocles; Gardner, Dale; Hallwass, Fernando; Leite, Ana Jéssica Matias; de Almeida, Camila Guimarães; Silva, Laura Nunes; de Araújo Roque, Alan; de Bitencourt, Fernanda Gobbi; Barbosa, Euzébio Guimarães; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira; Giordani, Raquel Brandt

    2016-10-01

    Crotalaria genus belongs to the subfamily Papilionoideae comprising about 600 species spread throughout tropical, neotropical and subtropical regions. In this study, seeds of Crolatalaria pallida were used to the isolation of usaramine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Thus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were utilized as strains to test some activities of this alkaloid, such as antibiofilm and antibacterial. Meanwhile, monocrotaline obtained from Crotalaria retusa seeds, was used as the starting material for synthesis of necine base derivatives with anti-Trichomonas vaginalis potential. Alkaloids were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and GC-MS analysis. Usaramine demonstrated a highlighted antibiofilm activity against S. epidermidis by reducing more than 50% of biofilm formation without killing the bacteria, thus it could be assumed as a prototype for the development of new antibiofilm molecules for pharmaceutical and industrial purposes. Monocrotaline activity against T. vaginalis was evaluated and results indicated inhibition of 80% on parasite growth at 1mg/mL, in addition, neither cytotoxicity against vaginal epithelial cells nor hemolytic activity were observed. On the other hand, retronecine showed no anti-T. vaginalis activity while azido-retronecine was more active than monocrotaline killing 85% of the parasites at 1mg/mL. In conclusion, pyrrolizidine alkaloids are suggested as promising prototypes for new drugs especially for topical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The ergot alkaloid gene cluster: Functional analyses and evolutionary aspects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lorenz, N.; Haarmann, T.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Jung, M.; Tudzynski, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 70, 15-16 (2009), s. 1822-1832 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Claviceps purpurea * Ergot fungus * Ergot alkaloid gene cluster Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.104, year: 2009

  12. NAUCLEFOLININE: A NEW ALKALOID FROM THE ROOTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    NAUCLEFOLININE: A NEW ALKALOID FROM THE ROOTS OF. NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA. D. Ngnokam1*, J.F. Ayafor1, J.D. Connolly2 and J.M. Nuzillard3. 1Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon. 2Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland.

  13. Effect Of CARICAPRYL-99 Seed Alkaloid Extract On The Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: Activity of alkaloid extract of caricapryl–99 seeds (Carica papaya Linn seeds) on the serum levels of steroid hormones was studied in adult male albino rats. Three tolerated doses obtained from the graph of percectage toxicity (10, 50 and 150 mg/kg) were separately administered orally, daily for three days to ...

  14. Rapid screening for cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jie; Yang, Zijuan; Lv, Beibei; Xiang, Lan

    2008-05-01

    A simple and rapid qualitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for screening cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. at sub-ppm levels. An electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometer, which provides accurate full scan MS and MS/MS data, was used in this study. After simple extraction with ethanol and purification by AB-8 resin, the extracts were subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis. A high mass tolerance (10 ppm) was used in the initial screening to filter the full scan MS data. The cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloid standards gave limits of detection (LODs) at or below 5 ng/mL. The results also indicated that the method had an acceptable precision for day-to-day use in the identification of compounds. The alkaloids could be identified based on their MS/MS data, elemental compositions, and retention behavior. This system was used to assay trace amounts of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L., leading to the identification of 5/2 confirmed/unconfirmed cyclo-dopa and 7/6 confirmed/unconfirmed diketopiperazine alkaloids, respectively. The screening method considerably reduces the time and cost involved in the identification of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L., as well as being a simple and convenient approach to the identification of other structural families of natural products. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Mass defect filtering-oriented classification and precursor ions list-triggered high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis for the discovery of indole alkaloids from Uncaria sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiqin; Yang, Wenzhi; Yao, Changliang; Shen, Yao; Zhang, Yibei; Shi, Xiaojian; Yao, Shuai; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-09-22

    Discovery of new natural compounds is becoming increasingly challenging because of the interference from those known and abundant components. The aim of this study is to report a dereplication strategy, by integrating mass defect filtering (MDF)-oriented novelty classification and precursor ions list (PIL)-triggered high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, and to validate it by discovering new indole alkaloids from the medicinal herb Uncaria sinensis. Rapid chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex ® EVO C18 column (<16min). An in-house MDF algorithm, developed based on the informed phytochemistry information and molecular design, could more exactly screen the target alkaloids and divide them into three novelty levels: Known (KN), Unknown-but-Predicted (UP), and Unexpected (UN). A hybrid data acquisition method, namely PIL-triggered collision-induced dissociation-MS 2 and high-energy C-trap dissociation-MS 3 with dynamic exclusion on a linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer, facilitated the acquisition of diverse product ions sufficient for the structural elucidation of both indole alkaloids and the N-oxides. Ultimately, 158 potentially new alkaloids, including 10 UP and 108 UN, were rapidly characterized from the stem, leaf, and flower of U. sinensis. Two new alkaloid compounds thereof were successfully isolated and identified by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The varied ring E and novel alkaloid-acylquinic acid conjugates were first reported from the whole Uncaria genus. Conclusively, it is a practical chemical dereplication strategy that can enhance the efficiency and has the potential to be a routine approach for the discovery of new natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Peculiarities of tropane alkaloids determination in Datura Stramonium L. leaves

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    Володимир Анатолійович Міщенко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the search, pharmacological activity and standardization of natural extracts are appropriate and important for national pharmaceutical science and practice. Since 2000, one of the key points of the Action Plan to ensure the integration of Ukraine into the European Union is development of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine harmonized with the European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur.Aim: A comparative analysis of herbal material according to the methods for tropane group alkaloids determination, as described in the PhEur and in the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf».Methods: Datura leaves samples have been harvested during 2010-2012 in different regions of Ukraine for experimental research. Identification of tropane group alkaloids was carried out by the method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC and by Vitali-Morin colour reaction. According to the PhEur method, firstly Dragendorff reagent and then Sodium nitrite solutions were used for the TLC plates spraying. Alkaloids assay was carried out by alkalimetry method with indicator determination of equivalence point.Results: Datura leaves qualitative features, defined by PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf», as well as their rationing have been analyzed. Certain differences concerning regulated quality parameters of herbal material have been determined. A comparative analysis of the natural extracts by described in the given normative documents methods for determination of tropane group alkaloids content has been done. After spraying the TLC plates with Sodium nitrite solution, red-brown zones corresponding Hyoscyamine were determined. Hyoscine zones were characterized by less intense color. As a result of quantitative determination it was determined that the alkaloids content in analyzed Datura leaves samples was within the limits regulated by the PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia – more than 0

  17. [Recent results on the pharmacodynamics of Strychnos malgaches alkaloids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoanaivo, P; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, S; Frappier, F

    1996-01-01

    Investigation of Strychnos (Loganiaceae) shrubs and trees was initiated by their traditional uses of their inherent poisons on arrows: this led to the discovery of strychnine and curare alkaloids. Subsequently, phytochemical investigation of several Strychnos species has shown great structural diversity of the alkaloid constituent which also display various biological effects, i.e. convulsive and relaxant effects on muscles, and antimicrobial, antitumor and antihypertensive properties. Ethnobotanical field work conducted in different regions of Madagascar revealed that infusion of three Strychnos species, S. mostueoides, S. myrtoides and S. diplotricha, is used in association with subcurative doses of chloroquine to treat chronic malaria. Bioassayfractionation led to the isolation of two major bioactive components, strychnobrasiline and malagashanine. Whereas strychnobrasiline is a previously known chemical compound, malagashanine is the first in a series of a new subtype of Strychnos alkaloids. These two alkaloids are devoid of intrinsic antimalarial effects, both in vitro (IC50 = 73.0 micrograms/ml for strychnobrasiline and 69.1 micrograms/ml for malagashanine) and in vivo (10 mg/kg conferred a 5% suppression of parasitemia). When these alkaloids are combined with chloroquine at doses much lower than required for antiplasmodial effects, they greatly enhance the chloroquine action in a dose dependent manner as seen by the isobologram method. Several minor alkaloids structurally related to malagashanine were also isolated from Madagascan Strychnos. They all enhance, to greater or lesser degrees, the chloroquine effectiveness. Interestingly, there is a positive correlation between the ethnomedical use of the three Strychnos species as chloroquine adjuvants and the chloroquine-potentiating effects of malagashanine and strychnobrasiline isolated from them. After preliminary toxicological studies, infusion of stem barks of S. myrtoides in association with chloroquine

  18. Enzymes from Fungal and Plant Origin Required for Chemical Diversification of Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in Grass-Epichloë Symbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  19. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Grossman, Robert B; Schardl, Christopher L

    2014-01-01

    The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline), -NHCH3 (loline), -N(CH3)2 (N-methylloline), -N(CH3)Ac (N-acetylloline), -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline), and -N(CH3)CHO (N-formylloline). Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase) and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense) plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for the

  20. Enzymes from fungal and plant origin required for chemical diversification of insecticidal loline alkaloids in grass-Epichloë symbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pan

    Full Text Available The lolines are a class of bioprotective alkaloids that are produced by Epichloë species, fungal endophytes of grasses. These alkaloids are saturated 1-aminopyrrolizidines with a C2 to C7 ether bridge, and are structurally differentiated by the various modifications of the 1-amino group: -NH2 (norloline, -NHCH3 (loline, -N(CH32 (N-methylloline, -N(CH3Ac (N-acetylloline, -NHAc (N-acetylnorloline, and -N(CH3CHO (N-formylloline. Other than the LolP cytochrome P450, which is required for conversion of N-methylloline to N-formylloline, the enzymatic steps for loline diversification have not yet been established. Through isotopic labeling, we determined that N-acetylnorloline is the first fully cyclized loline alkaloid, implying that deacetylation, methylation, and acetylation steps are all involved in loline alkaloid diversification. Two genes of the loline alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL gene cluster, lolN and lolM, were predicted to encode an N-acetamidase (deacetylase and a methyltransferase, respectively. A knockout strain lacking both lolN and lolM stopped the biosynthesis at N-acetylnorloline, and complementation with the two wild-type genes restored production of N-formylloline and N-acetylloline. These results indicated that lolN and lolM are required in the steps from N-acetylnorloline to other lolines. The function of LolM as an N-methyltransferase was confirmed by its heterologous expression in yeast resulting in conversion of norloline to loline, and of loline to N-methylloline. One of the more abundant lolines, N-acetylloline, was observed in some but not all plants with symbiotic Epichloë siegelii, and when provided with exogenous loline, asymbiotic meadow fescue (Lolium pratense plants produced N-acetylloline, suggesting that a plant acetyltransferase catalyzes N-acetylloline formation. We conclude that although most loline alkaloid biosynthesis reactions are catalyzed by fungal enzymes, both fungal and plant enzymes are responsible for

  1. Kratom alkaloids and O-desmethyltramadol in urine of a "Krypton" herbal mixture consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Torsten; Claussen, Ulrich; Güssregen, Brunhilde; Schröfel, Stefanie; Stürzer, Birgit; Werle, Annika; Wolf, Gerald

    2011-05-20

    A drug and alcohol withdrawal rehabilitation centre requested an analysis for "Krypton" in urine of a former opiate-addictive woman. She showed an altered clinical picture and behaviour with miosis, itchiness, agitation, and moderate euphoria after 3 months of until than successful treatment. Literature search revealed that "Krypton" is said to contain "Kratom" (leaves of Mitragyna speciosa), but could also contain O-desmethyltramadol (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction thematic paper "Spice"). Immunological drug screenings were done with test strips (nal von minden, Regensburg, Germany) and with cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (Microgenics, Passau, Germany). "Kratom" alkaloids and tramadol (metabolites) were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (ThermoFisher Scientific Quantum Ultra Triple Quadrupole mass spectrometer). Immunoassays were negative for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, ethylglucuronide, methadone (metabolite), opiates, oxycodone, and THC-COOH, and test strips were negative for tramadol and its metabolites (cut-off 10 mg/L for O-desmethyltramadol). LC-MS/MS detected the "Kratom" alkaloids mitragynine, speciociliatine, speciogynine, mitraciliatine, and paynantheine and approximately 9mg/L O-desmethyltramadol, but no tramadol and N-desmethyltramadol. The detection of M. speciosa alkaloids is a proof of "Kratom" abuse. Confronted with the analysis data, the patient admitted to have consumed 3-4 infusions of "Krypton". The origin of the O-desmethyltramadol is unclear. Tramadol abuse is unlikely since tramadol and N-desmethyltramadol (physiologically occurring in urine after tramadol intake) were not detectable. Consumption of a "Krypton" product spiked with O-desmethyltramadol could explain our findings and the patient's clinical picture. This would be in agreement with a most recent report about spiking apparently natural herbal mixtures with the synthetic opioid O-desmethyltramadol. Analysis of "Kratom

  2. Antiparasitic activities of acridone alkaloids from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Djalma A.P. dos; Vieira, Paulo C; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da; Fernandes, Joao B [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rattray, Lauren; Croft, Simon L [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Infectious and Tropical Diseases

    2009-07-01

    Eleven acridone alkaloids isolated from Swinglea glutinosa (Bl.) Merr. were examined for in vitro activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum 3D7, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 and Leishmania donovani L82. An assay with KB cells was developed in order to compare in vitro toxicity of alkaloids with the selective action on the parasites. Nine of the compounds had IC{sub 50} values ranging from 0.3 to 11.6 {mu}M against P. falciparum. In contrast, a small number of compounds showed significant activity against T. brucei rhodesiense and none had activity against L. donovani. Among the alkaloids three had IC{sub 50} < 1.0 {mu}M against P. falciparum, whereas against T. b. rhodesiense five had IC{sub 50} < 10 {mu}M. The characterization of the acridone alkaloids, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-4-methoxy-10-methyl-2,8-bis(3-methylbut-2-enyl)acridin-9 (10H)-one (1), 2,3-dihydro-4,9-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-11-methoxy-10-methylfuro [3,2-b] acridin-5(10H)-one (2) and 3,4-dihydro-3,5,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-2,2,7-trimethyl-2Hpyrano[ 2,3-a]acridin-12(7H)-one (3), is discussed, as well as the structure-activity relationship of all compounds assayed. Isolation and spectral data of alkaloids 1-3 are described for the first time although their cytotoxicities to cancer cells have been described before. (author)

  3. Maximal Abelian sets of roots

    CERN Document Server

    Lawther, R

    2018-01-01

    In this work the author lets \\Phi be an irreducible root system, with Coxeter group W. He considers subsets of \\Phi which are abelian, meaning that no two roots in the set have sum in \\Phi \\cup \\{ 0 \\}. He classifies all maximal abelian sets (i.e., abelian sets properly contained in no other) up to the action of W: for each W-orbit of maximal abelian sets we provide an explicit representative X, identify the (setwise) stabilizer W_X of X in W, and decompose X into W_X-orbits. Abelian sets of roots are closely related to abelian unipotent subgroups of simple algebraic groups, and thus to abelian p-subgroups of finite groups of Lie type over fields of characteristic p. Parts of the work presented here have been used to confirm the p-rank of E_8(p^n), and (somewhat unexpectedly) to obtain for the first time the 2-ranks of the Monster and Baby Monster sporadic groups, together with the double cover of the latter. Root systems of classical type are dealt with quickly here; the vast majority of the present work con...

  4. Electrospray[+] tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in the elucidation of ergot alkaloids chromatographed by HPLC: screening of grass or forage samples for novel toxic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Craig, Morrie; Fannin, Neil; Bush, Lowell; Tobin, Tom

    2005-11-01

    , molecular weights of compounds newly revealed by mass spectrometry suggested ergosine, ergostine and ergoptine in four samples, for which standards were not available. Dehydrated products of ergotamine, ergocrystine and ergocornine were discovered, along with dihydrogenated ergocrystine and ergocryptine in seven of the samples, and the issue was raised as to whether dehydration was strictly an instrument-derived artifact. Finally, five of the samples, along with fescue seed standard, evidenced one or more of 14 new ergot alkaloids ranging in size from 381 to 611 molecular weight and with key mass spectral characteristics of ergot alkaloids, specifically the pair of peaks m/z 223 and 208, corresponding to the ergoline ring system and its demethylated variant, respectively. It is anticipated that findings such as these will provide impetus to future development of analytical methodology for these heretofore relatively rare ergot alkaloid species. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  5. Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX  versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.

  6. Quality Assessment of Kumu Injection, a Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation, Using HPLC Combined with Chemometric Methods and Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Multiple Alkaloids by Single Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Zhi-Yong; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Li, Qiao; Yang, Xin; Xu, Hui

    2018-04-09

    Kumu injection (KMI) is a common-used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation made from Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn. rich in alkaloids. An innovative technique for quality assessment of KMI was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with chemometric methods and qualitative and quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker (QAMS). Nigakinone (PQ-6, 5-hydroxy-4-methoxycanthin-6-one), one of the most abundant alkaloids responsible for the major pharmacological activities of Kumu, was used as a reference substance. Six alkaloids in KMI were quantified, including 6-hydroxy- β -carboline-1-carboxylic acid (PQ-1), 4,5-dimethoxycanthin-6-one (PQ-2), β -carboline-1-carboxylic acid (PQ-3), β -carboline-1-propanoic acid (PQ-4), 3-methylcanthin-5,6-dione (PQ-5), and PQ-6. Based on the outcomes of twenty batches of KMI samples, the contents of six alkaloids were used for further chemometric analysis. By hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), radar plots, and principal component analysis (PCA), all the KMI samples could be categorized into three groups, which were closely related to production date and indicated the crucial influence of herbal raw material on end products of KMI. QAMS combined with chemometric analysis could accurately measure and clearly distinguish the different quality samples of KMI. Hence, QAMS is a feasible and promising method for the quality control of KMI.

  7. In Silico Screening and Designing Synthesis of Cinchona Alkaloids Derivatives as Potential Anticancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (P-gp resistance in cancer cells decreases intracellular accumulation of various anticancer drugs. This multidrug resistance (MDR protein can be modulated by a number of non-cytotoxic drugs. We have screened 30 chincona alkaloids derivatives as a potent P-gp inhibitor agent in silico. Hereby, we report the highest potential inhibitions of P-gp is Cinchonidine isobutanoate through molecular docking approach. with affinity energy -8.6 kcal/mol and inhibition constant, Ki is 4.89 x 10-7 M. Cinchonidine isobutanoate is also known has molecular weight below 500, Log P value 3.5, which is indicated violation free of Lipinski`s rule of five. Thus, Cinchonidine isobutanoate is the most potent compound as anticancer compare to other Cinchona alkaloids. Ultimately, we design Cinchonidine isobutanoate for further lead synthesis by using DBSA, act as a combined Brønsted acid-surfactant-catalyst (BASC to obtain high concentration of organic product by forming micellar aggregates which is very powerful catalytic application in water environment.

  8. Interspecific transfer of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: An unconsidered source of contaminations of phytopharmaceuticals and plant derived commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Melanie; Wittke, Carina; Lederer, Ines; Klier, Bernhard; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2016-12-15

    Many plant derived commodities contain traces of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs). The main source of these contaminations seems to be the accidental co-harvest of PA-containing weeds. Yet, based on the insights of the newly described phenomenon of the horizontal transfer of natural products, it is very likely that the PA-contaminations may also be due to an uptake of the alkaloids from the soil, previously being leached out from rotting PA-plants. The transfer of PAs was investigated using various herbs, which had been mulched with dried plant material from Senecio jacobaea. All of the acceptor plants exhibited marked concentrations of PAs. The extent and the composition of the imported PAs was dependent on the acceptor plant species. These results demonstrate that PAs indeed are leached out from dried Senecio material into the soil and confirm their uptake by the roots of the acceptor plants and the translocation into the leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Chemical Profiling and Identification of Alkaloids and Flavonoids in Uncaria lanosa var. ferrea Via UHPLC-Orbitrap MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nursyaza Husna Shaharuddin; Nor Hadiani Ismail; Nurhuda Manshoor; Fatimah Salim; Rohaya Ahmad; Nursyaza Husna Shaharuddin; Nor Hadiani Ismail; Fatimah Salim; Rohaya Ahmad; Nurhuda Manshoor

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies on Malaysian Uncaria (Rubiaceae) have yielded over 20 compounds including alkaloids and flavonoids with some compounds showing interesting biological activities. In the search of new bioactive compounds from the genus, a phytochemicals investigation on Uncaria lanosa (Wall.) locally known as gegambir paya or gegambir hitam was carried out via metabolite profiling. The plant is reported to be used as an infusion for intestine inflammation and a decoction for cleaning wounds and ulcers. Metabolite profiling was carried out using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with orbitrap mass spectrometry detectors (UHPLC-Orbitrap MS). Ten alkaloids and six flavonoids previously isolated from other Uncaria species were used as reference compounds. Phytochemicals analysis of the stem extracts of the plant found the presence of a flavonoid and three alkaloids whose identities were obtained through the comparison of their mass and fragmentation pattern as well as the retention times of the reference compounds. The developed LC-MS method is expected to lead to a more rapid and reliable approach in discovery of new or novel compounds in Uncaria genus. The development of the MS database will also aid in the metabolite profiling of other medicinal plants in natural product research. (author)

  10. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  11. Molecular Architecture of Strictosidine Glucosidase: The Gateway to the Biosynthesis of the Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloid Family[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barleben, Leif; Panjikar, Santosh; Ruppert, Martin; Koepke, Juergen; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Strictosidine β-d-glucosidase (SG) follows strictosidine synthase (STR1) in the production of the reactive intermediate required for the formation of the large family of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in plants. This family is composed of ∼2000 structurally diverse compounds. SG plays an important role in the plant cell by activating the glucoside strictosidine and allowing it to enter the multiple indole alkaloid pathways. Here, we report detailed three-dimensional information describing both native SG and the complex of its inactive mutant Glu207Gln with the substrate strictosidine, thus providing a structural characterization of substrate binding and identifying the amino acids that occupy the active site surface of the enzyme. Structural analysis and site-directed mutagenesis experiments demonstrate the essential role of Glu-207, Glu-416, His-161, and Trp-388 in catalysis. Comparison of the catalytic pocket of SG with that of other plant glucosidases demonstrates the structural importance of Trp-388. Compared with all other glucosidases of plant, bacterial, and archaeal origin, SG's residue Trp-388 is present in a unique structural conformation that is specific to the SG enzyme. In addition to STR1 and vinorine synthase, SG represents the third structural example of enzymes participating in the biosynthetic pathway of the Rauvolfia alkaloid ajmaline. The data presented here will contribute to deciphering the structure and reaction mechanism of other higher plant glucosidases. PMID:17890378

  12. The nuclear genome of Rhazya stricta and the evolution of alkaloid diversity in a medically relevant clade of Apocynaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabir, Jamal S M; Jansen, Robert K; Arasappan, Dhivya; Calderon, Virginie; Noutahi, Emmanuel; Zheng, Chunfang; Park, Seongjun; Sabir, Meshaal J; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Hajrah, Nahid H; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Baeshen, Nabih A; Obaid, Abdullah Y; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sankoff, David; El-Mabrouk, Nadia; Ruhlman, Tracey A

    2016-09-22

    Alkaloid accumulation in plants is activated in response to stress, is limited in distribution and specific alkaloid repertoires are variable across taxa. Rauvolfioideae (Apocynaceae, Gentianales) represents a major center of structural expansion in the monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIAs) yielding thousands of unique molecules including highly valuable chemotherapeutics. The paucity of genome-level data for Apocynaceae precludes a deeper understanding of MIA pathway evolution hindering the elucidation of remaining pathway enzymes and the improvement of MIA availability in planta or in vitro. We sequenced the nuclear genome of Rhazya stricta (Apocynaceae, Rauvolfioideae) and present this high quality assembly in comparison with that of coffee (Rubiaceae, Coffea canephora, Gentianales) and others to investigate the evolution of genome-scale features. The annotated Rhazya genome was used to develop the community resource, RhaCyc, a metabolic pathway database. Gene family trees were constructed to identify homologs of MIA pathway genes and to examine their evolutionary history. We found that, unlike Coffea, the Rhazya lineage has experienced many structural rearrangements. Gene tree analyses suggest recent, lineage-specific expansion and diversification among homologs encoding MIA pathway genes in Gentianales and provide candidate sequences with the potential to close gaps in characterized pathways and support prospecting for new MIA production avenues.

  13. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  15. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li; Branford-White, Christopher J.; Wang Zhengtao; Bligh, S.W. Annie

    2007-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL -1 and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL -1 . The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported

  16. Quantitative analysis of total retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids in plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fang; Wang Changhong; Xiong Aizhen; Wang Wan; Yang Li [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); Branford-White, Christopher J. [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom); Wang Zhengtao [Key Laboratory of Standardization of Chinese Medicines of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cai Lun Road, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai 201203 (China); School of Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210038 (China)], E-mail: wangzt@shutcm.edu.cn; Bligh, S.W. Annie [Institute for Health Research and Policy, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: a.bligh@londonmet.ac.uk

    2007-12-12

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are alkaloids which typically contain a necine (7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-pyrrolizidine) base unit, and they can be found in one third of the higher plants around the world. They are hepatotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic and pose a threat to human health and safety. A specific, quick and sensitive method is therefore needed to detect and quantify the PAs sometimes in trace amount in herbs, tea or food products. Based on high performance liquid chromatography with prior derivatization of the alkaloids using o-chloranil and Ehrlich's reagent, we report an improved method for quantitative analysis of the total amount of retronecine esters-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids (RET-PAs) in a plant extract. The total quantitation of RET-PAs is achieved because of a common colored retronecine marker, a 7-ethoxy-1-ethoxylmethyl retronecine derivative, is produced with all the different RET-PAs during the derivatization reaction. The chemical identity of the common retronecine marker was characterized on-line by positive mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The limit of detection using the improved method is 0.26 nmol mL{sup -1} and the limit of quantitation is 0.79 nmol mL{sup -1}. The advantages of this method are much enhanced sensitivity in detection and quantitation, and, no restriction on the choice of RET-PA as a calibration standard. Application of the developed method to the quantitation of total RET esters-type PAs in Senecio scandens from different regions of China is also reported.

  17. Comparison of a specific HPLC determination of toxic aconite alkaloids in processed Radix aconiti with a titration method of total alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezso; Borcsa, Botond; Heydel, Barbara; Hohmann, Judit; Zupkó, István; Ma, Yan; Widowitz, Ute; Bauer, Rudolf

    2011-10-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) roots are only applied after processing. Nevertheless, several cases of poisoning by improperly processed aconite roots have been reported. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable analytical method to assess the amount of toxic aconite alkaloids in commercial aconite roots, and to compare this method with the commonly used total alkaloid content determination by titration. The content of mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine in 16 commercial samples of processed aconite roots was determined by an HPLC method and the total alkaloid content by indirect titration. Five samples were selected for in vivo toxicological investigation. In most of the commercial samples, toxic alkaloids were not detectable, or only traces were found. In four samples, we could detect >0.04% toxic aconite alkaloids, the highest with a content of 0.16%. The results of HPLC analysis were compared with the results obtained by titration, and no correlation was found between the two methods. The in vivo results reassured the validity of the HPLC determination. Samples with mesaconitine, aconitine, and hypaconitine content below the HPLC detection limit still contained up to 0.2% alkaloids determined by titration. Since titration of alkaloids gives no information selectively on the aconitine-type alkaloid content and toxicity of aconite roots this method is not appropriate for safety assessment. The HPLC method developed by us provides a quick and reliable assessment of toxicity and should be considered as a purity test in pharmacopoeia monographs.

  18. Maximizing synchronizability of duplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiang; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the synchronizability of duplex networks formed by two randomly generated network layers with different patterns of interlayer node connections. According to the master stability function, we use the smallest nonzero eigenvalue and the eigenratio between the largest and the second smallest eigenvalues of supra-Laplacian matrices to characterize synchronizability on various duplexes. We find that the interlayer linking weight and linking fraction have a profound impact on synchronizability of duplex networks. The increasingly large inter-layer coupling weight is found to cause either decreasing or constant synchronizability for different classes of network dynamics. In addition, negative node degree correlation across interlayer links outperforms positive degree correlation when most interlayer links are present. The reverse is true when a few interlayer links are present. The numerical results and understanding based on these representative duplex networks are illustrative and instructive for building insights into maximizing synchronizability of more realistic multiplex networks.

  19. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  20. Risk assessment of buckwheat flour contaminated by thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) alkaloids: a case study from Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perharič, Lucija; Koželj, Gordana; Družina, Branko; Stanovnik, Lovro

    2013-01-01

    In Slovenia, a mass poisoning incident involving 73 consumers with symptoms such as dry mouth, hot red skin, blurred vision, tachycardia, urinary retention, ataxia, speech disturbance, disorientation and visual hallucinations occurred in 2003. In all cases, consumers had eaten buckwheat flour food products within the last few hours. Investigations by responsible authorities identified the contamination of a range of buckwheat food products with thorn-apple (Datura stramonium L.) seeds containing toxic alkaloids, atropine and scopolamine. To ensure the safe consumption of buckwheat food products, we carried out risk characterisation and proposed provisional maximum residue levels (MRLs) of atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour. In the absence of critical "no observed adverse effect levels" for atropine and scopolamine, we based our estimation of the acute reference doses on the lowest recommended therapeutic doses. Taking into account the additive effect of the two alkaloids, we calculated acute reference doses of the mixture, that is 0.05 µg/kg of body mass for atropine and 0.03 µg/kg of body mass for scopolamine. MRLs for atropine and scopolamine mixture in buckwheat flour were estimated in a worst-case scenario, that is consumption of 100 g of flour by a child weighing 10 kg and taking into account a range of atropine/scopolamine ratio in implicated food products, that is 0.85-3.3. We proposed the national MRLs for atropine/scopolamine mixture in buckwheat food products: 4.0 µg/kg (atropine) and 2.0 µg/kg(scopolamine). However, in view of the large variability in the alkaloid content, depending on the origin of the Datura, we propose that risk assessment should be carried out on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the ratio between atropine and scopolamine content in a particular sample.

  1. Urease and serine protease inhibitory alkaloids from Isatis tinctoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Fatima, Itrat; Afza, Nighat; Malik, Abdul; Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal

    2008-12-01

    Phytochemical investigations on the alkaloidal fraction of the whole plant of the Isatis tinctoria led to the isolation of the alkaloids 1-6., 3'-Hydroxyepiglucoisatisin (3), Epiglucoisatisin (2) were found to be potent urease inhibitors in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values 25.63 +/- 0.74, 37.01 +/- 0.41 and 31.72 +/- 0.93, 47.33 +/- 0.31 microM against Bacillus pasteurii & Jack bean urease, respectively. Compounds 3 and 2 also showed potent inhibitory potential against alpha-chymotrypsin with IC(50) values of 23.40 +/- 0.21 and 27.45 +/- 0.23 microM, respectively.

  2. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Characterization of Half-Calycanthaceous Alkaloid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 29 novel tetrahydropyrroloindol-based calycanthaceous alkaloid derivatives were synthesized from indole-3-acetonitrile in good yields. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against nine strains of bacteria and a wide range of plant pathogen fungi. Bioassay results revealed that majority of the compounds displayed similar or higher in vitro antimicrobial activities than the positive control. The biological activities also indicated that substituents at R4 and R5 significantly affect the activities. Notably, compound c4 was found to be most active among the tested calycanthaceous analogues and might be a novel potential leading compound for further development as an antifungal agent. The results could pave the way for further design and structural modification of calycanthaceous alkaloids as antimicrobial agents.

  3. Extractions of isoquinoline alkaloids with butanol and octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorová, Jana; Babica, Jan; Marek, Radek; Paulová, Hana; Táborská, Eva; Dostál, Jirí

    2010-09-01

    Six different isoquinoline alkaloids (sanguinarine, chelerythrine, berberine, coptisine, allocryptopine, and protopine) were extracted by butanol and octanol from aqueous solution, pH 4.5. The samples were analyzed by HPLC. Butanol extraction was non-selective, alkaloids passed into organic phase in 83-98%. Octanol extraction provided more selective yields: sanguinarine 99%, chelerythrine 94%, berberine 18%, coptisine 16%, allocryptopine 7.5%, protopine 7%. Further, we tested octanol treatment of extract from Dicranostigma lactucoides. The octanol extraction yields were also selective: sanguinarine 98%, chelerythrine 92%, chelirubine 92.5%, protopine 6% and allocryptopine 3.5%. 6-Butoxy-5,6-dihydrosanguinarine and 6-butoxy-5,6-dihydrochelerythrine were prepared and their NMR and MS data are reported and discussed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from seven wild-growing Senecio species in Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORIS M. MANDIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Senecio (family Asteraceae is one of the largest in the world. It comprises about 1100 species which are the rich source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most important sources of human and animal exposure to plant toxins and carcinogens. The pyrrolizidine alkaloids of seven Senecio species (S. erucifolius, S. othonnae, S. wagneri, S. subalpinus, S. carpathicus, S. paludosus and S. rupestris were studied. Fourteen alkaloids were isolated and their structures determined from spectroscopic data (1H- and 13C-NMR, IR and MS. Five of them were identified in S. erucifolius, four in S. othonnae, two in S. wagneri, four in S. subalpinus, two in S. carpathicus, three in S. paludosus and three in S. rupestris. Seven pyrrolizidine alkaloids were found for the first time in particular species. The results have chemotaxonomic importance. The cytotoxic activity and antimicrobial activity of some alkaloids were also studied.

  5. Occurrence of theobromine synthase genes in purine alkaloid-free species of Camellia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Mariko; Kitao, Naoko; Mizuno, Kouichi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Kato, Misako

    2009-02-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) are purine alkaloids that are present in high concentrations in plants of some species of Camellia. However, most members of the genus Camellia contain no purine alkaloids. Tracer experiments using [8-(14)C]adenine and [8-(14)C]theobromine showed that the purine alkaloid pathway is not fully functional in leaves of purine alkaloid-free species. In five species of purine alkaloid-free Camellia plants, sufficient evidence was obtained to show the occurrence of genes that are homologous to caffeine synthase. Recombinant enzymes derived from purine alkaloid-free species showed only theobromine synthase activity. Unlike the caffeine synthase gene, these genes were expressed more strongly in mature tissue than in young tissue.

  6. Nerinine and homolycorine, amaryllidaceae alkaloids from the bulbs of Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Babashpour-Asl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Many members of the Amaryllidaceae are regarded as toxic. The toxic constituents that occur in the whole family are referred to as the Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. The main aim of this study was the identification of alkaloid compounds from Galanthus transcaucasicus Fomin, a medicinal plant from Amaryllidaceae. Methods: Planar and column chromatography techniques were used for isolation of alkaloid components. GC/MS analysis was carried out for the identification of alkaloid compounds. Results: Silica gel column chromatography of the alkaloidal extract of G. transcaucasicus bulbs afforded seven fractions. Preparative thin layer chromatography of these fractions led to the isolation of compounds 1 (nerinineand 2 (homolycorine. Galantamine was not detected in any of these fractions. Conclusion: Our findings showed that G. transcaucasicus could be a new source of bioactive alkaloids for possible applications in pharmaceutical industries.

  7. Studies on preparation of some alkaloid complexes and solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, A A

    1990-12-31

    Describes the various methods available in the literature for the determination of different classes of alkaloids spectrochemical (e.g.spectrophotometry and colorimetry, fluorimetry and phosphorimetry, nephelometry and reiractometry), electrochemical (e.g. polarography, amperometry, conductometry, coulometry and potentiometry), volumetric (e.q. acid-base, iodometry , bromimetry , oxidimetry, complexometry and precipitation ) and miscellaneous methods (e.g.gasliquid chromatography, gravimetry, thermometry and rediometry ) has been discussed. 31 tabs; 29 figs; 402 refs.

  8. Studies on preparation of some alkaloid complexes and solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the various methods available in the literature for the determination of different classes of alkaloids spectrochemical (e.g.spectrophotometry and colorimetry, fluorimetry and phosphorimetry, nephelometry and reiractometry), electrochemical (e.g. polarography, amperometry, conductometry, coulometry and potentiometry), volumetric (e.q. acid-base, iodometry , bromimetry , oxidimetry, complexometry and precipitation ) and miscellaneous methods (e.g.gasliquid chromatography, gravimetry, thermometry and rediometry ) has been discussed

  9. Coumarins and alkaloids in shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Ekiert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A shoot culture of Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae was maintained in the stationary liquid phase. From the cultured shoots seven compounds were isolated and identified as psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, isopimpinellin (linear furanocoumarins, rutamarin (linear dihydrofuranocoumarin, kokusaginine and skimmianine (furanoquinoline alkaloids by spectral methods. The compounds are known as secondary metabolites of the intact plant, as well as its cell and tissue cultures.

  10. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Maria Amelia R.; Batista, Andrea N. de L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Santos, Luciana de A. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Nogueira, Paulo J. de C.; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo L. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Latif, Abdul; Arfan, Mohammad [University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan). Inst. of Chemical Sciences

    2011-07-01

    Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM). (author)

  11. Anxiolytic-like effects of erythrinian alkaloids from Erythrina suberosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Maria Amelia R.; Batista, Andrea N. de L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Santos, Luciana de A.; Nogueira, Paulo J. de C.; Nunes-de-Souza, Ricardo L.; Latif, Abdul; Arfan, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM). (author)

  12. [Pharmacokinetic of four alkaloids of Yanshu injection in Beagel dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Xue, Mei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Shu; Jiang, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Luyong

    2012-06-01

    For studying the pharmacokinetic of Yanshu injections in Beagel dogs, a sensitive and reproducible LC-MS method for quantitative determination of matrine, oxymatrine, sophocarpine and oxysophocarpine in dog's plasma were developed and validated using monocrotaline as an internal standard after iv of Yanshu injections (Sophorae Flavescentis Radix and Heterosmilacis Japonicae Rhizoma). The separation of plasma samples was performed on a CN column by isocratic elution with methanol-10 mmol x L(-1) NH4Ac-0.02% HCOOH-H2O 90:10 as the mobile phase. The plasma concentration of four kinds of alkaloids were calculated in dog plasta by detection of healthy dogs given Yanshu injection fluid after in twelve hours of plasma samples, All data of concentration-time of four kinds of alkaloids were treated with pharmacokinetics program DAS 2. 0. MT, OMT, SP and OSP have a good linear relationship in 0.01-16.0, 0.02-60.0, 0.01-4.0, 0.02-16.0 mg x L(-1), respectively. The average recoveries were more than 90% and the RSD of precision and stability of the test were less than 6.4% iv 1.2 g x kg(-1) Yanshu injection, four kinds of alkaloids in rats meet the two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model, Cmax and the concentration of the original liquid in the proportion of the basic line, the AUC(0-infinity) of matrine and oxymatrine, sophocarpine and oxysophocarpine compared to the original both in the proportion of liquid increases, the MRT(0-infinity) and t(1/2z) of matrine and sophocarpine were less than oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine; four kinds of alkaloids apparent volume of distribution matrine > oxymatrine, sophocarpine > oxysophocarpine. A method with high recovery rate and good stabilitywas established to determine the blood concentration of MT, OMT, SP, OSP in Yanshu injection and applied in its pharmacokinetics successfully.

  13. Tetracyclic indole alkaloids with antinematode activity from Uncaria rhynchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fandong; Ma, Qingyun; Huang, Shengzhuo; Yang, Shuang; Fu, Linran; Zhou, Liman; Dai, Haofu; Yu, Zhifang; Zhao, Youxing

    2017-06-01

    A new tetracyclic indole alkaloid, 17-O-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetradehydrogeissoschizine, together with seven known ones, were isolated from the aerial part of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Their structures were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic methods and comparing with the literature data. Among them, compounds 1, 3, 4 and 6-8 showed potent to moderate antinematode activities against Panagrellus redivevus at a concentration of 250 μg/mL.

  14. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Chemistry, Pharmacology, Toxicology and Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rute; Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2018-06-05

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are widely distributed in plants throughout the world, frequently in species relevant for human consumption. Apart from the toxicity that these molecules can cause in humans and livestock, PA are also known for their wide range of pharmacological properties, which can be exploited in drug discovery programs. In this work we review the current body of knowledge regarding the chemistry, toxicology, pharmacology and food safety of PA.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Echium confusum Coincy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benamar, Houari; Tomassini, Lamberto; Venditti, Alessandro; Marouf, Abderrazak; Bennaceur, Malika; Serafini, Mauro; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    Four pyrrolizidine alkaloids, namely 7-O-angeloyllycopsamine N-oxide 1, echimidine N-oxide 2, echimidine 3 and 7-O-angeloylretronecine 4, were isolated for the first time from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Echium confusum Coincy, through bioassay-guided approach. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. All the isolates compounds showed moderate activities in inhibiting AChE, with IC50 0.276-0.769.

  16. Incidence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Herbal Medicines from German Retail Markets: Risk Assessments and Implications to Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Lindigkeit, Rainer; Beuerle, Till

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in herbal medicines (HMs) is currently intensely being discussed in Europe. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, particularly the 1,2-unsaturated PAs, are undesired compounds in HMs due to their potential hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. In this study, 98 widely patronized HMs from six popular German retail supermarkets/drugstores, as well as from pharmacies, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of PAs. The results showed that about 63% of the HMs were PA positive, whereas the average PA concentration of the samples was 201 μg/kg, the highest concentration of PAs (3270 μg/kg) was attributed to a product that was purchased from the pharmacy and contained Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) as an active ingredient. In addition, H. perforatum-containing products were frequently contaminated with PAs from Echium spp., while both Cynara cardunculus L. products and fixed-combination products of Gentiana lutea L., Rumex acetosa L., Verbena officinalis L., Sambucus nigra L., and Primula veris L. products were commonly contaminated with PAs of Senecio spp. The study showed that H. perforatum, C. cardunculus, Urtica dioica L., and fixed-combination products were frequently contaminated with PA levels above the recommended values of both the German and European Medicines Agencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Synthesis of Lycodine-Type Lycopodium Alkaloids Using C-H Functionalization Tactics

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, James

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes our syntheses of several lycodine-type Lycopodium alkaloids by the late-stage C-H functionalization of lycodine derivatives. Lycodine-type alkaloids are well-known for their neurological activity. For example, huperzine A is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and the complanadine family of molecules has been shown to induce the secretion of Nerve Growth Factor. Due to these properties, lycodine-type alkaloids serve as interesting lead compounds for the deve...

  18. Alkaloids in Solanum torvum Sw (Solanaceae): (With 2 Tables & 1 Figure)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Amador, MC; Muñoz Ocotero, V; García Castañeda, JM; González Esquinca, AR

    2007-01-01

    A comparison was made between plants of Solanum torvum Sw that grow in Chiapas, Mexico, and plants of the same species originating from India. This was effected to establish either similarities or differences between these plants in total alkaloid contents and presence of solasodine, an important alkaloid for the partial synthesis of steroids. The total alkaloid content (0.12%) of the plants coming from Chiapas and India was the same. However, solasodine was found only in the plants of Chiapa...

  19. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-06

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. New alkaloids of the sarpagine group from Rauvolfia serpentina hairy root culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheludko, Yuri; Gerasimenko, Irina; Kolshorn, Heinz; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2002-07-01

    Three new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, 19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine (1), 19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine-17-al (2), and 10-hydroxy-19(S),20(R)-dihydroperaksine (3), along with 16 known alkaloids 4-19 were isolated from hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina, and their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. Taking into account the stereochemistry of the new alkaloids and results of preliminary enzymatical studies, the putative biosynthetical relationships between the novel alkaloids are discussed.

  1. Diversity of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in the Boraginaceae Structures, Distribution, and Biological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assem El-Shazly

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants as means of defence against herbivores and microbes, pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are common in Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and some other plant families. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are infamous as toxic compounds which can alkylate DNA und thus cause mutations and even cancer in herbivores and humans. Almost all genera of the family Boraginaceae synthesize and store this type of alkaloids. This review reports the available information on the present status (literature up to early 2014 of the pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Boraginaceae and summarizes the topics structure, distribution, chemistry, chemotaxonomic significance, and biological properties.

  2. A note on a profit maximizing location model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Zhang (Shuzhong)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a locational model with a profit-maximizing objective. The model can be illustrated by the following situation. There is a set of potential customers in a given region. A firm enters the market and wants to sell a certain product to this set of customers. The

  3. Maximizing plant density affects broccoli yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market bunch broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the United States east coast. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding southeastern commercial markets. This broccoli plant density study was carr...

  4. Maximizing the model for Discounted Stream of Utility from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osagiede et al. (2009) considered an analytic model for maximizing discounted stream of utility from consumption when the rate of production is linear. A solution was provided to a level where methods of solving order differential equations will be applied, but they left off there, as a result of the mathematical complexity ...

  5. Biochemistry of hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) alkaloids and their acute and chronic toxicity in livestock. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, T A; Cid, M S; Bianchini, M L

    1999-06-01

    although MCC can be surgically corrected in some cases, most of the malformed animals are lost. Since no specific antidote is available, prevention is the only way to deal with the production loses caused by this weed. Control with herbicides and grazing with less susceptible animals (such as sheep) have been suggested. C. maculatum alkaloids can be transferred to milk and to fowl muscle tissue through which the former can reach the human food chain. The losses produced by C. maculatum chronic toxicity may be largely underestimated, at least in some regions, because of the difficulty in associate malformations in offspring with the much earlier maternal poisoning.

  6. A strategy for complex dimer formation when biomimicry fails: total synthesis of ten coccinellid alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Trevor C; Trotta, Adam H; Snyder, Scott A

    2014-07-09

    Although dimeric natural products can often be synthesized in the laboratory by directly merging advanced monomers, these approaches sometimes fail, leading instead to non-natural architectures via incorrect unions. Such a situation arose during our studies of the coccinellid alkaloids, when attempts to directly dimerize Nature's presumed monomeric precursors in a putative biomimetic sequence afforded only a non-natural analogue through improper regiocontrol. Herein, we outline a unique strategy for dimer formation that obviates these difficulties, one which rapidly constructs the coccinellid dimers psylloborine A and isopsylloborine A through a terminating sequence of two reaction cascades that generate five bonds, five rings, and four stereocenters. In addition, a common synthetic intermediate is identified which allows for the rapid, asymmetric formal or complete total syntheses of eight monomeric members of the class.

  7. Three Novel Alkaloids from Portulaca oleracea L. and Their Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Yu; Meng, Yi-Han; Ying, Zhe-Ming; Xu, Nan; Hao, Dong; Gao, Ming-Zhe; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Xu, Liang; Gao, Yu-Cong; Ying, Xi-Xiang

    2016-07-27

    Three novel carbon skeleton alkaloids, named oleracimine (1), oleracimine A (2), and oleracone A (3), with one novel azulene carbon skeleton compound, oleracone B (4), and one known compound, β-carboline (5), were first isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. The structures were determined using spectroscopic methods, including one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry techniques. In addition, oleracimine (1) was used to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that oleracimine (1) remarkably inhibited nitric oxide production and could dose-dependently decrease the secretions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 in cell culture supernatants as well as the mRNA of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  8. Tulongicin, an Antibacterial Tri-Indole Alkaloid from a Deep-Water Topsentia sp. Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bing; Lauro, Gianluigi; O'Connor, Robert D; Lohith, Katheryn; Kelly, Michelle; Colin, Patrick; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Bewley, Carole A

    2017-09-22

    Antibacterial-guided fractionation of an extract of a deep-water Topsentia sp. marine sponge led to the isolation of two new indole alkaloids, tulongicin A (1) and dihydrospongotine C (2), along with two known analogues, spongotine C (3) and dibromodeoxytopsentin (4). Their planar structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy. Their absolute configurations were determined through a combination of experimental and computational analyses. Tulongicin (1) is the first natural product to contain a di(6-Br-1H-indol-3-yl)methyl group linked to an imidazole core. The coexistence of tri-indole 1 and bis-indole alcohol 2 suggests a possible route to 1. All of the compounds showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  9. Sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, shikimic acid derivatives and pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Senecio kingii Hook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vásquez, Liliana; Reina, Matías; López-Rodríguez, M; Giménez, Cristina; Cabrera, Raimundo; Cuadra, Pedro; Fajardo, Víctor; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eleven eremophilanolides (1-11), one eremophilane (13), five shikimic acid derivatives (14-18), six flavonoids (19-24), and the macrocyclic unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloid integerrimine (25) were isolated from Senecio kingii, an endemic species from the Magallanes Region (Chile). Compounds 3, 5, 6, 8-11 and 13-18 have not been previously reported as natural products. Their molecular structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published NMR data. An X-ray-analysis of compound 3 has been performed. Their insecticidal and antifungal activities were tested, being compound 3 the strongest insect antifeedant. Compounds 6, 9 and 18 were moderate antifungals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in herbal teas for infants, pregnant or lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mädge, Inga; Cramer, Luise; Rahaus, Ines; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Beuerle, Till

    2015-11-15

    A general contamination of tea with pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) has just become known. Here, we report the application and modification of a new HPLC-ESI-MS/MS sum parameter method to quantitate PA content of herbal teas intended for infants, pregnant and lactating women. Using p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate for derivatization and a stable isotope labeled internal standard, the total retronecine-/heliotridine-type PA content of the samples is expressed in form of a single sum parameter (retronecine equivalents: RE). The new methods were applied to analyze 44 tea samples for such consumer groups. Thirty eight products (86%) were tested PA positive showing PA concentrations ranging from 0 to 391 μg RE/kg (average: 50 μg RE/kg). The dataset is discussed in the view of the current discussion on PA in the food chain with special focus on those particular vulnerable consumer groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  12. AUC-Maximizing Ensembles through Metalearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDell, Erin; van der Laan, Mark J; Petersen, Maya

    2016-05-01

    Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) is often used to measure the performance of an estimator in binary classification problems. An AUC-maximizing classifier can have significant advantages in cases where ranking correctness is valued or if the outcome is rare. In a Super Learner ensemble, maximization of the AUC can be achieved by the use of an AUC-maximining metalearning algorithm. We discuss an implementation of an AUC-maximization technique that is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. We also evaluate the effectiveness of a large number of different nonlinear optimization algorithms to maximize the cross-validated AUC of the ensemble fit. The results provide evidence that AUC-maximizing metalearners can, and often do, out-perform non-AUC-maximizing metalearning methods, with respect to ensemble AUC. The results also demonstrate that as the level of imbalance in the training data increases, the Super Learner ensemble outperforms the top base algorithm by a larger degree.

  13. On maximal massive 3D supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergshoeff , Eric A; Hohm , Olaf; Rosseel , Jan; Townsend , Paul K

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT We construct, at the linearized level, the three-dimensional (3D) N = 4 supersymmetric " general massive supergravity " and the maximally supersymmetric N = 8 " new massive supergravity ". We also construct the maximally supersymmetric linearized N = 7 topologically massive supergravity, although we expect N = 6 to be maximal at the non-linear level. (Bergshoeff, Eric A) (Hohm, Olaf) (Rosseel, Jan) P.K.Townsend@da...

  14. Inclusive Fitness Maximization:An Axiomatic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okasha, Samir; Weymark, John; Bossert, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Kin selection theorists argue that evolution in social contexts will lead organisms to behave as if maximizing their inclusive, as opposed to personal, fitness. The inclusive fitness concept allows biologists to treat organisms as akin to rational agents seeking to maximize a utility function. Here we develop this idea and place it on a firm footing by employing a standard decision-theoretic methodology. We show how the principle of inclusive fitness maximization and a related principle of qu...

  15. Antibacterial activity of the alkaloid-enriched extract from Prosopis juliflora pods and its influence on in vitro ruminal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Edilene T; Pereira, Mara Lúcia A; da Silva, Camilla Flávia P G; Souza-Neta, Lourdes C; Geris, Regina; Martins, Dirceu; Santana, Antônio Euzébio G; Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio A; Silva, Herymá Giovane O; Freitas, Giovana C; Figueiredo, Mauro P; de Oliveira, Fernando F; Batista, Ronan

    2013-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of alkaloid-enriched extracts from Prosopis juliflora (Fabaceae) pods in order to evaluate them as feed additives for ruminants. As only the basic chloroformic extract (BCE), whose main constituents were juliprosopine (juliflorine), prosoflorine and juliprosine, showed Gram-positive antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus (MIC = 25 μg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 50 μg/mL) and Streptococcus mutans (MIC = 50 μg/mL), its influence on ruminal digestion was evaluated using a semi-automated in vitro gas production technique, with monensin as the positive control. Results showed that BCE has decreased gas production as efficiently as monensin after 36 h of fermentation, revealing its positive influence on gas production during ruminal digestion. Since P. juliflora is a very affordable plant, this study points out this alkaloid enriched extract from the pods of Prosopis juliflora as a potential feed additive to decrease gas production during ruminal digestion.

  16. Identifying the related compounds using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry: bromotyrosine alkaloids from marine sponge Psammaplysilla purpurea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; DeSouza, L.

    electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This sponge has tremendous chemical diversity of bromotyrosine alkaloids. Here we have used the proteomics approach in identifying related bromotyrosine alkaloids based on the predicated mass...

  17. Stereoselective total syntheses of three Lycopodium alkaloids, (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone, and (+)-paniculatine, based on two Pauson-Khand reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaka, Takashi; Miyakoshi, Naoki; Mukai, Chisato

    2007-12-21

    The total syntheses of (-)-magellanine, (+)-magellaninone, and (+)-paniculatine were completed from diethyl l-tartrate via the common intermediate in a stereoselective manner. The crucial steps in these syntheses involved two intramolecular Pauson-Khand reactions of enynes: the first Pauson-Khand reaction constructed the bicyclo[4.3.0] carbon framework, the corresponding A and B rings of these alkaloids in a highly stereoselective manner, whereas the second Pauson-Khand reaction stereoselectively produced the bicyclo[3.3.0]skeleton, which could be converted into the C and D rings of the target natural products.

  18. Activity versus outcome maximization in time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Selin A; Tonietto, Gabriela N

    2018-04-30

    Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. On the maximal superalgebras of supersymmetric backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose; Hackett-Jones, Emily; Moutsopoulos, George; Simon, Joan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we give a precise definition of the notion of a maximal superalgebra of certain types of supersymmetric supergravity backgrounds, including the Freund-Rubin backgrounds, and propose a geometric construction extending the well-known construction of its Killing superalgebra. We determine the structure of maximal Lie superalgebras and show that there is a finite number of isomorphism classes, all related via contractions from an orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. We use the structure theory to show that maximally supersymmetric waves do not possess such a maximal superalgebra, but that the maximally supersymmetric Freund-Rubin backgrounds do. We perform the explicit geometric construction of the maximal superalgebra of AdS 4 X S 7 and find that it is isomorphic to osp(1|32). We propose an algebraic construction of the maximal superalgebra of any background asymptotic to AdS 4 X S 7 and we test this proposal by computing the maximal superalgebra of the M2-brane in its two maximally supersymmetric limits, finding agreement.

  20. Task-oriented maximally entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pradhan, B

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a task-oriented maximally entangled state (TMES). This notion depends on the task for which a quantum state is used as the resource. TMESs are the states that can be used to carry out the task maximally. This concept may be more useful than that of a general maximally entangled state in the case of a multipartite system. We illustrate this idea by giving an operational definition of maximally entangled states on the basis of communication tasks of teleportation and superdense coding. We also give examples and a procedure to obtain such TMESs for n-qubit systems.

  1. Metabolism and resistance of Fusarium spp. to the manzamine alkaloids via a putative retro pictet-spengler reaction and utility of the rational design of antimalarial and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanah, Noer; Farr, Lorelei Lucas; Gholipour, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Hamann, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    As a part of our continuing investigation of the manzamine alkaloids we studied the in vitro activity of the β-carboline containing manzamine alkaloids against Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporium, and Fusarium proliferatum by employing several bioassay techniques including one-dimensional direct bioautography, dilution, and plate susceptibility, and microtiter broth assays. In addition, we also studied the metabolism of the manzamine alkaloids by Fusarium spp. in order to facilitate the redesign of the compounds to prevent resistance of Fusarium spp. through metabolism. The present research reveals that the manzamine alkaloids are inactive against Fusarium spp. and the fungi transform manzamines via hydrolysis, reduction, and a retro Pictet-Spengler reaction. This is the first report to demonstrate an enzymatically retro Pictet-Spengler reaction. The results of this study reveal the utility of the rational design of metabolically stable antifungal agents from this class and the development of manzamine alkaloids as antimalarial drugs through the utilization of Fusarium's metabolic products to reconstruct the molecule.

  2. Independent Recruitment of a Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenase for Safe Accumulation of Sequestered Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Grasshoppers and Moths

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Linzhu; Beuerle, Till; Timbilla, James; Ober, Dietrich

    2012-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respective N-oxide,...

  3. Molekulare Identifizierung und Charakterisierung der Flavin-abhängigen Monooxygenasen in verschiedenen Pyrrolizidin-Alkaloid-adaptierten Insekten

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Linzhu

    2013-01-01

    Several insect lineages have developed diverse strategies to sequester toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids from food-plants for their own defense. Here, we show that in two highly divergent insect taxa, the hemimetabolous grasshoppers and the holometabolous butterflies, an almost identical strategy evolved independently for safe accumulation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. This strategy involves a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase that transfers the pyrrolizidine alkaloids to their respect...

  4. New method for the study of Amaryllidaceae alkaloid biosynthesis using biotransformation of deuterium-labeled precursor in tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahchy, A. E.; Boisbrun, M.; Chretien, F.; Henry, M.; Chapleur, Y.; Laurain-Mattar, D.; Ptak, A.; Dupire, F.

    2010-01-01

    Biotransformation of deuterated-4'-O-methylnorbelladine into alkaloids galanthamine and lycorine in tissue cultures of Leucojum aestivum was demonstrated using HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry. GC-MS screening was also carried to investigate other native and deuterated alkaloids. A total of six labeled alkaloids were identified indicating that 4'-O-methyl-d3-norbelladine is incorporated into three different groups of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids that are biosynthesized by three modes of intramolecular oxidative phenol coupling. (authors)

  5. Analysis of Alkaloids from Physalis peruviana by Capillary GC, Capillary GC-MS, and GC-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Rollmann, B; Tilquin, B

    1993-04-01

    The alkaloid composition of the aerial parts and roots of PHYSALIS PERUVIANA was analysed by capillary GC (GC (2)), GC (2)-MS and GC (2)-FTIR. Eight alkaloids were identified, three of those alkaloids are 3beta-acetoxytropane and two N-methylpyrrolidinylhygrine isomers, which were not previously found in the genus PHYSALIS. A reproduction of the identification of alkaloids detected in the plant by the use of retention indices has been proposed.

  6. Biological activity of the alkaloids of Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, C.A.; Novák, M.; Khan, I.

    1984-01-01

    The cultivated Erythroxylum varieties E. coca var. coca, E. coca var. ipadu, E. novogranatense var. novogranatense and E. novogranatense var. truxillense contain 18 alkaloids, identified so far, belonging to the tropanes, pyrrolidines and pyridines, with cocaine as the main alkaloid. The biological

  7. Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of conium alkaloids and their adducts with C60 fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotnyi, M. A.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Poluyan, N. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Dovbeshko, G. I.

    2016-08-01

    Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of the components of Conium alkaloids (Conium maculatum) in aqueous environment were determined by model calculations and experiment. With the help of FT-IR spectroscopy the possibility of formation of an adduct between γ-coniceine alkaloid and C60 fullerene was demonstrated, which is important for further application of conium analogues in biomedical purposes.

  8. Recognition of pyrrolizidine alkaloid esters in the invasive aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction – The freshwater aquatic plant Gymnocoronis spilanthoides (Senegal tea plant, jazmín del bañado, Falscher Wasserfreund) is an invasive plant in many countries. Behavioural observations of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous butterflies suggested the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid...

  9. Renieramycins H and I, two novel alkaloids from the sponge Haliclona cribricutis Dendy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Pramanik, B.N.

    The known alkaloid, mimosamycin 1, along with its moon- and di hydroxy derivaties, 4-hydroxy mimosamycin 2 and 1, 4-dihydroxymimosamycin 3 and two new dimeric alkaloids: namely renieramycins H and I 4 and 5 have been isolated from the MeOH extract...

  10. Livestock Poisoning with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Containing Plants (Senecio, Crotalaria, Cynoglossum, Amsinckia, Heliotropium and Echium spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are potent liver toxins that have been identified in over 6,000 plants throughout the world. Alkaloids are nitrogen-based compounds with potent biological activity. About half of the identified PAs are toxic and several cause cancer (carcinogenic). PA-containing plants...

  11. [Effects of Total Alkaloids of Harmaline on Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-shuang; Sun, Jian-ning; Yu, Hui-ling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of total alkaloids of harmaline on learning and memory in vascular dementia rats, and its mechanism. The model rats of vascular dementia were established with bilateral carotid artery ligation. After 30 days, the model rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, nicergoline tablets 7 mg/kg group, and 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg dose groups of total alkaloids of harmaline, the rats were given medicine for 30 days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze, histomorphology in hippocampal CA1 area were observed by HE staining, BAX and BCL-2 protein expression in hippocampal CA1 area were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with model group, 25 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the third and fourth day significantly, 12.5 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the fourth day. 25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups of total alkaloids of harmaline significantly increased the times crossing the target. Total alkaloids of harmaline improved the neurons pathological changes of rat in the hippocampus CA1 area, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg of total alkaloids of harmaline downregulated the expression of apoptosis proteins BAX, upregulated the protein expression of BCL-2. Total alkaloids of harmaline can improve the learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats, which probably is related to inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus cell.

  12. Total alkaloid content in various fractions of Tabernaemonata sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, N.; Ningsih, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) is one of the Apocynaceae family plants containing alkaloid compound. Traditionally, it is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. It is found to have a new bisindole alkaloid compound that shows a potent cytotoxic activity in human cancer. This study aimed to know the total alkaloid content in some fractions of ethanolic extract of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. leaf powder was extracted by maceration method in 70% ethanol solvent. Then, the extract was fractionated in a separatory funnel using water, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total alkaloid content in each fraction was analyzed with visible spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG). The total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction were (0.0312±0.0009)% and (0.0281±0.0014)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total alkaloid content in hexane was not detected. The statistical analysis, performed in SPSS, resulted in a significant difference between the total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The total alkaloid in water fraction of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. was higher than the one in ethyl acetate fraction.

  13. Isolation of alkaloid stachydrin from capparis spinosa L. and her new derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmaganbetov, Zh.S.; Turmukhambetov, A.Zh.; Kazantsev, A.V.; Serperov, K.S.

    2005-01-01

    Phirrolidine alkaloid stachydrin was isolated from capparis spinosa L. New chemical derivatives of this new alkaloid were synthesized by reactions of halogenation (with bromine) and by reactions with methyl iodine and hydrochloric acid. The structures and composition of obtained compounds were determined on the basis of IR, 1 H NMR spectral data and elemental analysis

  14. [Comparative study on alkaloids of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant of Dendrobium huoshanense ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-dong; Gao, Feng; Lin, Xin; Jin, Hui

    2014-06-01

    To compare the composition and content of alkaloid of Dendrobium huoshanense tissue-culture seedling and wild plant. A comparative evaluation on the quality was carried out by HPLC and TLC methods including the composition and the content of alkaloids. Remarkable variation existed in the two kinds of Dendrobium huoshanense. For the tissue-culture plant, only two alkaloids were checked out by both HPLC and TLC while four alkaloids were observed in the wild plant. The alkaloid content of tissue-culture seedling and wild plant was(0. 29 ± 0. 11)%o and(0. 43 ± 0. 15) %o,respectively. Distinguished difference is observed in both composition and content of alkaloids from the annual shoots of different provenances of Dendrobium huoshanense. It suggested that the quality of tissue-culture seedling of Dendrobium huoshanense might be inconsistent with the wild plant. Furthermore, the established alkaloids-knock-out HPLC method would provide a new research tool on quality control of Chinese medicinal materials which contain unknown alkaloids.

  15. Anagyrine desensitization of peripheral nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A potential biomarker of quinolizidine alkaloid teratogenesis in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagyrine, a teratogenic quinolizidine alkaloid found in certain Lupinus spp., has been proposed to undergo metabolism by pregnant cattle to a piperidine alkaloid which acts inhibit fetal movement, the putative mechanism behind crooked calf syndrome. The objective of this study was to test the hypot...

  16. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel),

  17. Two new tropolonic alkaloids from Colchicum speciosum Steven bulbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tayyeb*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The genus Colchicum belongs to the family Colchicaceae, which comprises of 19 genera, and 225 species worldwide. They have been recognized for more than 2000 years for their noticeable biological properties. The Colchicum species are well known for presence of tropolonic alkaloids, mainly colchicine. Colchicine, is still the drug of choice for treatment of gout, and is used for the treatment of a number of proinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever, and Behcet’s disease. Clinical studies have proved colchicine to posses potent anti-tumor activity. Colchicum speciosum Steven is an indigenous perennial herbaceous plant widely distributed in northern, central and western regions of Iran.  Methods: In the present study, the phytochemical composition of MeOH extract from bulbs of C. speciosum collected fromSavadkouh region, Iranwas investigated by combination of HPLC-PDA-MS spectrometry and NMR specroscopy. The fractionation of MeOH extract was carried out by partitioning on CH2Cl2, EtOAc and water. Results: The isolation and purification of CH2Cl2 portion by combination of reverse and normal phase chromatography resulted in the isolation, purification and identification of two new tropolonic alkaloids, compounds (1 and (2, as well as two known compound colchicine (3 and demecolcine (4. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D (1H NMR and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC. The absolute configurations of isolated compounds were established by aid of circular dichroism. Conclusion: Phytochemical investigation of CH2Cl2 extract of C. speciosum by combination of HPLC, column chromatography and hyphenated spectroscopic techniques led to identification two new alkaloids with potential as lead compounds.

  18. Complete inhibition of fetal movement in the day 40 pregnant goat model by the piperidine alkaloid anabasine but not related alkaloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four chemically similar alkaloids, anabasine, anabaseine, epibatidine and dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP), are potent nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists of fetal muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human TE-671 cells. Based on results with these cells, we hypothesized that these alk...

  19. Bromopyrrole alkaloids from the Caribbean sponge Agelas cerebrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regalado, Erik L.; Laguna, Abilio; Mendiola, Judith; Thomas, Olivier P.; Nogueiras, Clara

    2011-01-01

    Bioguided fractionation of Agelas cerebrum crude extract resulted in isolation of four bromopyrrole and four bromopyrrole aminoimidazole alkaloids, identified as 5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (1), 4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (2), 3,4-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (3), 4,5-bromopyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (4), oroidin (5), bromoageliferin (6), dibromoageliferin (7) and dibromosceptrin (8) on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (UV, IR, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. This is the first report of compounds 2 and 3 in a marine sponge belonging to the Agelas genus and the first evidence of the presence of 1 from a natural source. (author)

  20. A Short Synthetic Route to the Calystegine Alkaloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaanderup, Philip Robert; Madsen, Robert

    2003-01-01

    An efficient strategy is described for the synthesis of enantiopure calystegine alkaloids. The key step employs a zinc-mediated fragmentation of benzyl-protected methyl 6-iodo-glycosides followed by in situ formation of the benzyl imine and Barbier-type allylation with zinc, magnesium, or indium...... metal. Stereochemistry in the pivotal allylation is controlled by the choice of the metal. The functionalized 1,8-nonadienes, thus formed, are converted into cycloheptenes by ring-closing metathesis. Regioselective hydroboration and oxidation give the corresponding cycloheptanones, which are deprotected...