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Sample records for maxima eimeria tenella

  1. Differing susceptibilities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-10-01

    Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella oocysts were incorporated into gelatin beads and incubated at 32 C for 0, 1, 2, or 3 days. In vitro oocyst excystation rates were measured for each combination of Eimeria species and incubation time. Day-old broiler chicks were allowed to ingest the oocysts-containing beads, and total oocyst production was measured from days 5-8 post-inoculation. Although no effect on excystation was observed, E. maxima oocysts displayed greater resistance to drying compared to E. acervulina and E. tenella oocysts. Eimeria acervulina oocyst production decreased 100-fold after 1-2 days incubation. Eimeria tenella oocysts were slightly more resistant to drying in that a 100-fold decrease in oocyst production was delayed until 2 days. For both E. acervulina and E. tenella , very few oocysts were observed after 3 days incubation. Eimeria maxima oocyst production remained high at all time points. Subsequent studies revealed E. maxima oocyst production was ablated only after 5 days incubation. These findings may explain in part the observed prevalence of E. maxima in litter from commercial poultry operations.

  2. Identification of common immunodominant antigens of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima by immunoproteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianrui; Huang, Xinmei; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Wenyu; Ji, Yihong; Tian, Di; Tian, Lu; Yang, Xinchao; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui; Song, Xiaokai

    2017-05-23

    Clinical chicken coccidiosis is mostly caused by simultaneous infection of several Eimeria species, and host immunity against Eimeria is species-specific. It is urgent to identify common immunodominant antigen of Eimeria for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. In this study, sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Western bot analysis was performed on the yielded 2DE gel using antisera of E. tenella E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Next, the detected immunodominant spots were identified by comparing the data from MALDI-TOF-MS/MS with available databases. Finally, Eimeria common antigens were identified by comparing amino acid sequence between the three Eimeria species. The results showed that analysis by 2DE of sporozoite proteins detected 629, 626 and 632 protein spots from E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Western bot analysis revealed 50 (E. tenella), 64 (E. acervulina) and 57 (E. maxima) immunodominant spots from the sporozoite 2DE gels of the three Eimeria species. The immunodominant spots were identified as 33, 27 and 25 immunodominant antigens of E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Fifty-four immunodominant proteins were identified as 18 ortholog proteins among the three Eimeria species. Finally, 5 of the 18 ortholog proteins were identified as common immunodominant antigens including elongation factor 2 (EF-2), 14-3-3 protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme domain-containing protein (UCE) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In conclusion, our results not only provide Eimeria sporozoite immunodominant antigen map and additional immunodominant antigens, but also common immunodominant antigens for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines.

  3. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina infections using multivalent epitope DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaokai; Ren, Zhe; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-06-04

    Avian coccidiosis is mostly caused by mixed infection of several Eimeria species under natural conditions and immunity to avian coccidiosis is largely dependent on T-cell immune response. In this study, 14 T-cell epitope fragments from eight antigens of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), Eimeria necatrix (E. necatrix), Eimeria maxima (E. maxima) and Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) were ligated with pVAX1 producing 14 monovalent DNA vaccines, respectively. Protective immunity of the monovalent DNA vaccines was assessed by in vivo challenge experiments and then four most protective fragments of each species were chosen to construct multivalent epitope DNA vaccines with or without chicken IL-2 as genetic adjuvant. Protective efficacies of the epitope DNA vaccines on chickens against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina were evaluated. The results showed that the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds. Especially, the multivalent epitope DNA vaccines of pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1 and pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1-IL-2 not only significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds, but also resulted in anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 170 against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina, which indicated they could induce protective immunity against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina. Our findings suggest the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines are the potential candidate multivalent vaccines against mixed infection of Eimeria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  5. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David

    2013-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Dietary supplementation with C. longa enhanced coccidiosis resistance as demonstrated by increased BW gains, reduced fecal oocyst shedding, and decreased gut lesions compared with infected birds fed a nonsupplemented control diet. The chickens fed C. longa-supplemented diet showed enhanced systemic humoral immunity, as assessed by greater levels of serum antibodies to an Eimeria microneme protein, MIC2, and enhanced cellular immunity, as measured by concanavalin A-induced spleen cell proliferation, compared with controls. At the intestinal level, genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray hybridization identified 601 differentially expressed transcripts (287 upregulated, 314 downregulated) in gut lymphocytes of C. longa-fed chickens compared with nonsupplemented controls. Based on the known functions of the corresponding mammalian genes, the C. longa-induced intestinal transcriptome was mostly associated with genes mediating anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary C. longa could be used to attenuate Eimeria-induced, inflammation-mediated gut damage in commercial poultry production.

  7. Induction of Protective Immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina Infections Using Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Margarita; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P.; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina, and the cell-derived exosomes were isolated. Chickens were nonimmunized or immunized intramuscularly with exosomes and subsequently noninfected or coinfected with E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina oocysts. Immune parameters compared among the nonimmunized/noninfected, nonimmunized/infected, and immunized/infected groups were the numbers of cells secreting Th1 cytokines, Th2 cytokines, interleukin-16 (IL-16), and Ag-reactive antibodies in vitro and in vivo readouts of protective immunity against Eimeria infection. Cecal tonsils, Peyer's patches, and spleens of immunized and infected chickens had increased numbers of cells secreting the IL-16 and the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon, greater Ag-stimulated proliferative responses, and higher numbers of Ag-reactive IgG- and IgA-producing cells following in vitro stimulation with the sporozoite Ags compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and nonimmunized/infected controls. In contrast, the numbers of cells secreting the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were diminished in immunized and infected chickens compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and the nonimmunized/infected controls. Chickens immunized with Ag-loaded exosomes and infected in vivo with Eimeria oocysts had increased body weight gains, reduced feed conversion ratios, diminished fecal oocyst shedding, lessened intestinal lesion scores, and reduced mortality compared with the nonimmunized/infected controls. These results suggest that successful field vaccination against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from DCs incubated with Ags isolated from Eimeria species may be possible. PMID:22354026

  8. Vaccination with Eimeria tenella elongation factor-1α recombinant protein induces protective immunity against E. tenella and E. maxima infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Qing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Seung Kyoo; Oh, Sungtaek; Panebra, Alfredo; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2017-08-30

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by multiple species of the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, and is one of the most economically devastating enteric diseases for the poultry industry worldwide. Host immunity to Eimeria infection, however, is relatively species-specific. The ability to immunize chickens against different species of Eimeria using a single vaccine will have a major beneficial impact on commercial poultry production. In this paper, we describe the molecular cloning, purification, and vaccination efficacy of a novel Eimeria vaccine candidate, elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). One day-old broiler chickens were given two subcutaneous immunizations one week apart with E. coli-expressed E. tenella recombinant (r)EF-1α protein and evaluated for protection against challenge infection with E. tenella or E. maxima. rEF-1α-vaccinated chickens exhibited increased body weight gains, decreased fecal oocyst output, and greater serum anti-EF-1α antibody levels following challenge infection with either E. tenella or E. maxima compared with unimmunized controls. Vaccination with EF-1α may represent a new approach to inducing cross-protective immunity against avian coccidiosis in the field. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Sensitive and specific identification by polymerase chain reaction of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima, important protozoan pathogens in laboratory avian facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kim, Okjin

    2011-09-01

    Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima are important pathogens causing intracellular protozoa infections in laboratory avian animals and are known to affect experimental results obtained from contaminated animals. This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive, and efficient protocol for the molecular identification of E. tenella and E. maxima in experimental samples using chickens as laboratory avian animals. DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected from chickens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed to detect E. tenella and E. maxima from the extracted DNA. The target nucleic acid fragments were specifically amplified by PCR. Feces secreting E. tenella and E. maxima were detected by a positive PCR reaction. In this study, we were able to successfully detect E. tenella and E. maxima using the molecular diagnostic method of PCR. As such, we recommended PCR for monitoring E. tenella and E. maxima in laboratory avian facilities.

  10. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima . In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria . After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1's and E. maxima oocyst antigens' specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain.

  11. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima. In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria. After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1’s and E. maxima oocyst antigens’ specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain. PMID:29375584

  12. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  13. Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

  14. Vaccination with Eimeria tenella Elongation Factor-1alpha Recombinant Protein Induces protective Immunity against E. tenella and E. maxima infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by multiple species of the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, and is one of the most economically devastating enteric diseases for the poultry industry worldwide. Host immunity to Eimeria infection, however, is relatively species-specific. The ability to immunize chickens a...

  15. Host response to simultaneous infections with Eimeria acervulina, maxima and tenella: A cumulation of single responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Swinkels, W.J.C.; Boersma, W.A.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that broilers may be infected by different Eimeria strains at the same time and that different species infect specific parts of the gut. Cell mediated responses play a major role in the immune response in broilers after infection with Eimeria species. The cell mediated responses

  16. Assessment of probiotics supplementation via feed or water on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and microflora of chickens after experimental infection with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannenas, I; Tsalie, E; Triantafillou, E; Hessenberger, S; Teichmann, K; Mohnl, M; Tontis, D

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 10(4)), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 10(4) each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in

  17. Eimeria tenella: host specificity in gallinaceous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterling, J M

    1976-02-01

    Eight species representing 8 genera of gallinaceous birds were used: Alectoris graeca; Colinus virginianus; Coturnix coturnix; Gallus gallus; Meleagris gallopavo; Numidia meleagris; Pavo cristatus; Phasianus colchicus. Three week-old birds were dosed with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella Beltsville strain. At 4, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144, and 168 hr after inoculation, 1-3 infected birds and uninoculated controls of each species were killed by cardiac exsanguination. Pieces of intestines were fixed and examined for stages of E. tenella as stained paraffin sections or indirect fluorescent antibody preparations. Oocyst counts were made in droppings collected for the first 6 days of the patent period. Sporozoites were found in the lamina propria of some birds of 5 species at 4 hr postinoculation, but no stages were found thereafter except in the breeds of G. gallus and A. gracea. At 144 and 168 hr postinoculation, a few macrogametes were found in the ceca of 2 A. gracea, but no oocysts were found in the feces. No statistical difference was found between the number of oocysts produced/bird in the breeds of G. gallus examined. It is evident from these observations the E. tenella did not complete its life cycle in several close phylogenetic relatives of G. gallus, even though in other studies this parasite was found to complete its life cycle in cell cultures derived from the same birds.

  18. Ekstrak Sambiloto Menurunkan Patogenesitas Ookista Eimeria Tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yellita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria tenella is one of the nine of Eimeria species, a pathogenic intraseluler protozoa causing aviancoccidiosis. Infection was initiated by the ingestion of sporulated oocysts. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the effect of E. tenella oocyst incubation in methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata beforeinfection in broiler performance. This research used 115 broiler DOC (CP 707 devided into five groups,each group consisted of 23 broilers. The infection with 1x105 oocyst were done at the 14th day old of chicken.The 1st group was placebo (KN, while the 2nd group was infected with unincubated oocyst (KP, and theother three groups i.e. : 3rd, 4th, 5th were infected with incubated oocyst in A. paniculata extract for 2, 4, and6 hours, respectively. The number of oocysts in feces were counted on day 5th to 14th post-infection, theheterophile and macrophages were counted from caecum histology preparation, by slaughtered threechickens of each of groups on the day 0,3,6.9, and 14 post infection, and accretion body weight wasmeasured by weighing chickens per week to five-week old chickens. The results of this study indicated thatthe incubation period the sporulated oocyst in the extract of A.paniculata for six hours before infection,reduced the number of oocysts production in the feces, the number of inflammatory cells (macrophages andheterophile in the cecum, and increases body weight (gain. In conclusion A.paniculata extract decreasedthe pathogenisity of E.tenella oocyst, so the extract of A.paniculata has good potential as anticoccidia. Itis high likely that A. paniculata extract has a potential to be anticoccidia.

  19. Evaluation of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of Eimeria tenella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The development of vaccine to control coccidiosis caused by Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) in chickens is intensifying because of the increasing threat of drug resistance to anticoccidial agents. It is important, therefore, to develop a reliable standard method for the assessment of vaccine afficacy particularly ...

  20. The rhoptry proteome of Eimeria tenella sporozoites

    KAUST Repository

    Oakes, Richard D.; Kurian, Dominic; Bromley, Elizabeth V.; Ward, Chris; Lal, Kalpana; Blake, Damer P.; Reid, Adam James; Pain, Arnab; Sinden, Robert E.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Tomley, F. M. M Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. The rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. Proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, RON) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host membranes. Proteins from the bulb compartment (rhoptry protein, ROP) are released later, into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole where they have a role in modifying the vacuolar environment, and into the host cell where they act as key determinants of virulence through their ability to interact with host cell signalling pathways, causing an array of downstream effects. In this paper we present the results of an extensive proteomics analysis of the rhoptry organelles from the coccidian parasite, Eimeria tenella, which is a highly pathogenic parasite of the domestic chicken causing severe caecal coccidiosis. Several different classes of rhoptry protein have been identified. First are the RON proteins that have varying degrees of similarity to proteins of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. For some RON families, E. tenella expresses more than one gene product and many of the individual RON proteins are differentially expressed between the sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. The E. tenella sporozoite rhoptry expresses only a limited repertoire of proteins with homology to known ROP proteins from other coccidia, including just two secreted ROP kinases, both of which appear to be equipped for catalytic activity. Finally, a large number of hitherto undescribed proteins that map to the sporozoite rhoptry are identified, many of which have orthologous proteins encoded within the genomes of T. gondii and N. caninum. © 2012 .

  1. The rhoptry proteome of Eimeria tenella sporozoites

    KAUST Repository

    Oakes, Richard D.

    2013-02-01

    Proteins derived from the rhoptry secretory organelles are crucial for the invasion and survival of apicomplexan parasites within host cells. The rhoptries are club-shaped organelles that contain two distinct subpopulations of proteins that localise to separate compartments of the organelle. Proteins from the neck region (rhoptry neck proteins, RON) are secreted early in invasion and a subset of these is critical for the formation and function of the moving junction between parasite and host membranes. Proteins from the bulb compartment (rhoptry protein, ROP) are released later, into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole where they have a role in modifying the vacuolar environment, and into the host cell where they act as key determinants of virulence through their ability to interact with host cell signalling pathways, causing an array of downstream effects. In this paper we present the results of an extensive proteomics analysis of the rhoptry organelles from the coccidian parasite, Eimeria tenella, which is a highly pathogenic parasite of the domestic chicken causing severe caecal coccidiosis. Several different classes of rhoptry protein have been identified. First are the RON proteins that have varying degrees of similarity to proteins of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. For some RON families, E. tenella expresses more than one gene product and many of the individual RON proteins are differentially expressed between the sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. The E. tenella sporozoite rhoptry expresses only a limited repertoire of proteins with homology to known ROP proteins from other coccidia, including just two secreted ROP kinases, both of which appear to be equipped for catalytic activity. Finally, a large number of hitherto undescribed proteins that map to the sporozoite rhoptry are identified, many of which have orthologous proteins encoded within the genomes of T. gondii and N. caninum. © 2012 .

  2. Identification and characterization of secreted proteins in Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlee, Intan Azlinda; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2015-09-01

    Eimeria tenella is a protozoan parasite that causes coccidiosis, an economically important disease in the poultry industry. The characterization of proteins that are secreted by parasites have been shown to play important roles in parasite invasion and are considered to be potential control agents. In this study, 775 proteins potentially secreted by E. tenella were identified. These proteins were further filtered to remove mitochondrial proteins. Out of 763 putative secreted proteins, 259 proteins possess transmembrane domains while another 150 proteins have GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchors. Homology search revealed that 315 and 448 proteins have matches with known and hypothetical proteins in the database, respectively. Within this data set, previously characterized secretory proteins such as micronemes, rhoptry kinases and dense granules were detected.

  3. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crane, M.St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Labs., Rahway, NJ (USA))

    1984-06-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed.

  4. Eimeria tenella: in vitro development in irradiated bovine kidney cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M. St.J.; Schmatz, D.M.; Stevens, S.; Habbersett, M.C.; Murray, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    The initial infection and first-generation development of Eimeria tenella was quantified using a cloned MDBK (Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney) cell line, irradiated with gamma radiation prior to infection, as the host cell. Irradiated cell cultures were found to be more susceptible to infection and had a greater capacity to support parasite development than non-irradiated cultures. It was suggested that the larger proportion of cells in the G 2 phase of the cell cycle, the larger individual cell size and the inhibition of cell division in the irradiated cultures were all factors contributing to the increased susceptibility to infection and capacity to support parasite growth and development. The application of this technique (host cell irradiation) to the cultivation of other intracellular, protozoan parasites is discussed. (author)

  5. Attenuate Eimeria Tenella parasite by gamma radiation in chicken vaccination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-atar, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Mature occysts of eimeria tenella were attenuated by different doses of gamma radiation. The vitality, pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these occysts were examined by infecting one day old broiler chicks. The study revealed that the irradiated occysts lost pathogenicity by increasing radiation dose. To examine the immunogenicity of irradiated occysts, chickens were challenged 28 days post immunogenic infection. It was shown that the irradiated occycts kept their immunogenicity but this ability decreased when the irradiation dose was increased. Also, the number of vaccination doses as well as the level of irradiation were studied. Occysts irradiated with 15, 18, 20 Krad were used to vaccinate one-day old broiler chicks for one or two times, and seven-day old chicks for three times. High level of protection was observed as shown by disappeaeance of clinical signs or mortality in most vaccinated groups

  6. Co-infection of chickens with Eimeria praecox and Eimeria maxima does not prevent development of immunity to Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2009-05-12

    Previous studies revealed an ameliorating effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection, such that weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and intestinal lesions were nearly identical to uninfected or E. praecox-infected controls. The purpose of the present study was to determine if protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection developed in chickens infected with both E. praecox and E. maxima. Day-old chickens were infected with 10(3)E. praecox, 10(3)E. maxima, or a mixture of 10(3)E. praecox and 10(3)E. maxima oocysts. Chickens were then challenged at 4 weeks of age with 5x10(4)E. praecox or 5x10(3)E. maxima oocysts and clinical signs of coccidiosis were assessed 7 days post-challenge. Relative to non-challenged controls, naïve chickens or chickens immunized with E. praecox displayed a 32-34% weight gain depression after challenge with 5x10(3)E. maxima oocysts. In contrast, chickens immunized with either E. maxima oocysts alone or a combination of E. praecox and E. maxima oocysts displayed complete protection against lower weight gain associated with E. maxima challenge. Also, protection against decreased feed conversion ratio and intestinal lesions was observed in single E. maxima- or dual E. maxima+E. praecox-immunized chickens. These findings indicate that co-infection of chickens with E. maxima and E. praecox does not prevent development of immunity against E. maxima or E. praecox challenge.

  7. Immunoproteomic analysis of proteins from unsporulated Oocysts of Eimeria tenella in MALDI TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoproteomic approaches were conducted to identify antigenic proteins from the total proteins of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella). Approximately 101 protein spots were recognized by chicken sera infected experimentally with E. tenella. Fourty-six spots of unsporulated oocysts ...

  8. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immunoprotective protein IMP1 that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transc...

  9. Ekstrak Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Menurunkan Jumlah Skizon, Mikrogamet, Makrogamet, dan Oosista Eimeria tenella (EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA DECREASED SCHIZONTS, MICROGAMETES, MACROGAMETES AND OOCYSTS NUMBER OF EIMERIA TENELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI CAHYANINGSIH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe the effect of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata givenin grading doses to the schizonts, microgamete, macrogamete, and oocytes counts of Eimeria tenella inchicken caecum. A total of ninety day old broiler chicks were used in the study. At two weeks old the broilerswere divided into six groups. Each group consisted of 15 broilers, the 6 groups were: (i negative control(broilers did not receive any treatment; (ii positive control (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenellaoocytes; (iii medicine control (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and coccidiostat; (ivA1 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 90 mg/kg body weight; (vA2 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 180 mg/kg body weight;and (vi A3 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 360 mg/kg bodyweight. At day 6, 9, 13, 16, and 22 post infection three broilers from each group were sacrificed and theirceca were collected for histopathological examination. The results showed that paniculata extract at dose90 mg/kg body weight and 180 mg/kg body weight was able to decrease the numbers of shizont, microgamete,macrogamete, and oocytes of E. tenella in the chicken caecum.

  10. Immunoproteomic analysis of the protein repertoire of unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhenchao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexan protozoans Eimeria spp. cause coccidioses, the most common intestinal diseases in chickens. Coccidiosis is associated with significant animal welfare issues and has a high economic impact on the poultry industry. Lack of a full understanding of immunogenic molecules and their precise functions involved in the Eimeria life cycles may limit development of effective vaccines and drug therapies. In this study, immunoproteomic approaches were used to define the antigenic protein repertoire from the total proteins of unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts. Approximately 101 protein spots were recognized in sera from chickens infected experimentally with E. tenella. Forty-six spots of unsporulated oocysts were excised from preparative gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS (MALDI-TOF-MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. For unsporulated oocysts, 13 known proteins of E. tenella and 17 homologous proteins to other apicomplexan or protozoan parasites were identified using the ‘Mascot’ server. The remaining proteins were searched against the E. tenella protein sequence database using the ‘Mascot in-house’ search engine (version 2.1 in automated mode, and 12 unknown proteins were identified. The amino acid sequences of the unknown proteins were searched using BLAST against non-redundant sequence databases (NCBI, and 9 homologous proteins in unsporulated oocyst were found homologous to proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. These findings may provide useful evidence for understanding parasite biology, pathogenesis, immunogenicity and immune evasion mechanisms of E. tenella.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of a Novel Protein Disulfide Isomerase-Like Protein of Eimeria tenella

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Qiping; Jiang, Lianlian; Wang, Yange; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youlin; Huang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDI...

  12. Anticoccidial activity of hydrochloric acid (HCl against Eimeria tenella in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Z Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the different concentrations of the HCl against Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens in comparison with the amprolium anticoccidial. For this purpose, a total of 198 chicks were placed 11 per pen with three pens per treatment. The different concentrations of HCl (1000ppm, 2000ppm and 3000ppm and amproilum (at the dose rate of 125ppm were given to the experimental groups in drinking water from 10 to 19th days of age. One group was kept as infected non medicated control and one as non infected non medicated control. At the 12th day of age, all the groups were inoculated orally with 75,000 sporulated oocysts except non infected non medicated control. Anticoccidial activity was evaluated on the basis of performance (weight gain, feed conversion ratio and pathogenic (oocyst score, lesion score and mortality %age parameters. Among HCl medicated groups, the maximum anticoccidial effect was seen in the group medicated with 1000ppm HCl followed by 2000ppm and 3000ppm HCl medicated groups. Amprolium and 1000ppm HCl were almost equivalent in suppressing the negative performance and pathogenic effects associated with coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella challenge. In summary, the lower doses of HCl have the potential to be used as alternative to chemotherapeutic drugs for Eimeria tenella control. It is therefore suggested that further studies should be carried out to determine the possible minimum safe levels of HCl with least toxic effects to be used as anticoccidial.

  13. An Eimeria vaccine candidate based on Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 and the TLR-5 agonist Salmonella typhimurium FliC flagellin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei [National Animal Protozoa Laboratory and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Liu, Xianyong [National Animal Protozoa Laboratory and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, China Ministry of Agriculture and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Suo, Jingxia; Tang, Xinming; Tao, Geru [National Animal Protozoa Laboratory and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Han, Qian [Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Suo, Xun [National Animal Protozoa Laboratory and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, China Ministry of Agriculture and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Wu, Wenxue, E-mail: labboard@126.com [National Animal Protozoa Laboratory and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, China Ministry of Agriculture and College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •We found a new protective protein – (IMPI) in Eimeria tenella. •EtIMP1-flagellin fusion protein is an effective immunogen against Eimeria infection. •Flagellin can be as an apicomplexan parasite vaccine adjuvant in chickens. -- Abstract: Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exits in Eimeria tenella. But its structure and immunogenicity in E. tenella are still unknown. In this study, IMPI in E. tenella was predicted to be a membrane protein. To evaluate immunogenicity of IMPI in E. tenella, a chimeric subunit vaccine consisting of E. tenella IMP1 (EtIMP1) and a molecular adjuvant (a truncated flagellin, FliC) was constructed and over-expressed in Escherichia coli and its efficacy against E. tenella infection was evaluated. Three-week-old AA broiler chickens were vaccinated with the recombinant EtIMP1-truncated FliC without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with the recombinant EtIMP1-truncated FliC fusion protein resulted in stronger cellular immune responses than immunization with only recombinant EtIMP1 with adjuvant. The clinical effect of the EtIMP1-truncated FliC without adjuvant was also greater than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, which was evidenced by the differences between the two groups in body weight gain, oocyst output and caecal lesions of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggested that the EtIMP1-flagellin fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. This is the first demonstration of antigen-specific protective immunity against avian coccidiosis using a recombinant flagellin as an apicomplexan parasite vaccine adjuvant in chickens.

  14. An Eimeria vaccine candidate based on Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 and the TLR-5 agonist Salmonella typhimurium FliC flagellin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Jingxia; Tang, Xinming; Tao, Geru; Han, Qian; Suo, Xun; Wu, Wenxue

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We found a new protective protein – (IMPI) in Eimeria tenella. •EtIMP1-flagellin fusion protein is an effective immunogen against Eimeria infection. •Flagellin can be as an apicomplexan parasite vaccine adjuvant in chickens. -- Abstract: Immune mapped protein-1 (IMP1) is a new protective protein in apicomplexan parasites, and exits in Eimeria tenella. But its structure and immunogenicity in E. tenella are still unknown. In this study, IMPI in E. tenella was predicted to be a membrane protein. To evaluate immunogenicity of IMPI in E. tenella, a chimeric subunit vaccine consisting of E. tenella IMP1 (EtIMP1) and a molecular adjuvant (a truncated flagellin, FliC) was constructed and over-expressed in Escherichia coli and its efficacy against E. tenella infection was evaluated. Three-week-old AA broiler chickens were vaccinated with the recombinant EtIMP1-truncated FliC without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund’s Complete Adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with the recombinant EtIMP1-truncated FliC fusion protein resulted in stronger cellular immune responses than immunization with only recombinant EtIMP1 with adjuvant. The clinical effect of the EtIMP1-truncated FliC without adjuvant was also greater than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, which was evidenced by the differences between the two groups in body weight gain, oocyst output and caecal lesions of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggested that the EtIMP1-flagellin fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection. This is the first demonstration of antigen-specific protective immunity against avian coccidiosis using a recombinant flagellin as an apicomplexan parasite vaccine adjuvant in chickens

  15. Molecular Characterization and Immune Protection of a New Conserved Hypothetical Protein of Eimeria tenella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhai

    Full Text Available The genome sequences of Eimeria tenella have been sequenced, but >70% of these genes are currently categorized as having an unknown function or annotated as conserved hypothetical proteins, and few of them have been studied. In the present study, a conserved hypothetical protein gene of E. tenella, designated EtCHP559, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA 5'-ends (5'RACE based on the expressed sequence tag (EST. The 1746-bp full-length cDNA of EtCHP559 contained a 1224-bp open reading frame (ORF that encoded a 407-amino acid polypeptide with the predicted molecular weight of 46.04 kDa. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that EtCHP559 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second generation merozoites. The ORF was inserted into pCold-TF to produce recombinant EtCHP559. Using western blotting, the recombinant protein was successfully recognized by rabbit serum against E. tenella sporozoites. Immunolocalization by using EtCHP559 antibody showed that EtCHP559 was mainly distributed on the parasite surface in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region after sporozoites were incubated in complete medium. The EtCHP559 became uniformly dispersed in immature and mature schizonts. Inhibition of EtCHP559 function using anti-rEtCHP559 polyclonal antibody reduced the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells by >70%. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant EtCHP559 significantly increased the average body weight gain, reduced the oocyst outputs, alleviated cecal lesions of the infected chickens, and resulted in anticoccidial index >160 against E. tenella. These results suggest that EtCHP559 plays an important role in sporozoite invasion and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against E. tenella.

  16. Immunogenic Eimeria tenella glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigens (SAGs induce inflammatory responses in avian macrophages.

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    Yock-Ping Chow

    Full Text Available At least 19 glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchored surface antigens (SAGs are expressed specifically by second-generation merozoites of Eimeria tenella, but the ability of these proteins to stimulate immune responses in the chicken is unknown.Ten SAGs, belonging to two previously defined multigene families (A and B, were expressed as soluble recombinant (r fusion proteins in E. coli. Chicken macrophages were treated with purified rSAGs and changes in macrophage nitrite production, and in mRNA expression profiles of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and of a panel of cytokines were measured. Treatment with rSAGs 4, 5, and 12 induced high levels of macrophage nitric oxide production and IL-1β mRNA transcription that may contribute to the inflammatory response observed during E. tenella infection. Concomitantly, treatment with rSAGs 4, 5 and 12 suppressed the expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ and elevated that of IL-10, suggesting that during infection these molecules may specifically impair the development of cellular mediated immunity.In summary, some E. tenella SAGs appear to differentially modulate chicken innate and humoral immune responses and those derived from multigene family A (especially rSAG 12 may be more strongly linked with E. tenella pathogenicity associated with the endogenous second generation stages.

  17. Use of Eimeria tenella radiovaccine for immunoprophylaxis in fowl against coccidiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmann, R.; Mielke, D.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted into oral immunization of broilers, using a widely standardized coccidiosis vaccine attenuated by irradiation with 250 Gy (Eimeria tenella radiovaccine). The method was applied to 2,567 animals kept in floor pens and to another 21,620 animals under production conditions. Profound immunity was thus built up to last from three weeks after vaccination to slaughter maturity. Immunized chickens challenged with E. tenella develope no clinical infection, whereas the non-immunized ones showed an intensive haemorrhagic enteritis with 88% of lethality. The total output of coccidiaoocysts of immunized chickens decreased to more than 95% compared to the non-immunized ones. These results were reproducible in six different experimental groups. (author)

  18. Quantitative proteomic studies in resistance mechanisms of Eimeria tenella against polyether ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ahmed; Honscha, Walther; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2017-05-01

    Polyether ionophores are widely used to treat and control coccidiosis in chickens. Widespread use of anticoccidials resulted in worldwide resistance. Mechanisms of resistance development and expansion are complex and poorly understood. Relative proteomic quantification using LC-MS/MS was used to compare sensitive reference strains (Ref-1, Ref-2) with putatively resistant and moderately sensitive field strains (FS-R, FS-mS) of Eimeria tenella after isotopic labelling with tandem mass tags (TMT). Ninety-seven proteins were identified, and 25 of them were regulated. Actin was significantly upregulated in resistant strains in comparison with their sensitive counterparts. On the other hand, microneme protein (MIC4) was downregulated in resistant strains. Optimization of labelling E. tenella sporozoites by TMT might identify further proteins that play a role in the obvious complex mechanism leading to resistance against Monensin.

  19. Study on the immunogenic ability of Eimeria tenella oocytes following treatment with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, P.; Stafanova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the immunizing capacity of Eimeria tenella oocytes, treated with gamma rays at the rate of 6000 R, in 10- and 20-day-old chickens. The oocytes sporulated after treatment. Applied at the rate of 50,000 R they showed lower virulence and were capable of inducing resistance to reinfection with non-irradiated oocytes at rates that were three times as much. Following reinfection some birds manifested subclinical coccidiosis but survived. This showed that the immunization with oocytes that had been irradiated with 6,000 R had its peculiar aspects. (author)

  20. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P

    2015-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Expression and immunological characterisation of Eimeria tenella glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigen-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sue-Kim; Nathan, Sheila; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-11-01

    Eimeria tenella is the most pathogenic of the Eimeria species that infect chickens and causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored surface antigen-5 (SAG5) found on the surface of the parasite has been shown to activate the chicken's immune system. In this study, recombinant SAG5 was expressed, purified and used to investigate the immune-inducing characteristics of the molecule. Chickens were immunized with purified recombinant SAG5 and sera were subjected to Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA). Results indicated that specific antibodies against rSAG5 were produced, with IgG detected at a higher level compared to IgA and IgM. Information on the immunological responses elicited by SAG5 provides essential knowledge that will contribute towards the effort to develop more effective strategies against coccidiosis.

  2. Irradiated Eimeria brunetti, E. necatrix and E. tenella in the simultaneous immunization of chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolic, A.; Movsesijan, M.; Tanielian, Z.; Abu Ali, N.

    1976-01-01

    Chickens three weeks of age were immunized simultaneously against E. necatrix, E. tenella and E. brunetti receiving a single oral dose of oocysts of these Eimeria spp. irradiated at 10k rads with gamma rays delivered from a 60 Co-source. Two weeks later immunized chickens and their corresponding untreated controls were challenged with infective oocysts of the same three protozoan species. The results obtained have shown that all immunized chickens survived a heavy challenge which killed 70% of the corresponding control chickens. The results and their possible practical implication are discussed. Eimeria spp. selected for these studies were of great epidemiological and economic importance in the area of Lebanon with the most intensive poultry production. (author)

  3. Insights into the genome structure and copy-number variation of Eimeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Lik-Sin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eimeria is a genus of parasites in the same phylum (Apicomplexa as human parasites such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium. As an apicomplexan whose life-cycle involves a single host, Eimeria is a convenient model for understanding this group of organisms. Although the genomes of the Apicomplexa are diverse, that of Eimeria is unique in being composed of large alternating blocks of sequence with very different characteristics - an arrangement seen in no other organism. This arrangement has impeded efforts to fully sequence the genome of Eimeria, which remains the last of the major apicomplexans to be fully analyzed. In order to increase the value of the genome sequence data and aid in the effort to gain a better understanding of the Eimeria tenella genome, we constructed a whole genome map for the parasite. Results A total of 1245 contigs representing 70.0% of the whole genome assembly sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute were selected and subjected to marker selection. Subsequently, 2482 HAPPY markers were developed and typed. Of these, 795 were considered as usable markers, and utilized in the construction of a HAPPY map. Markers developed from chromosomally-assigned genes were then integrated into the HAPPY map and this aided the assignment of a number of linkage groups to their respective chromosomes. BAC-end sequences and contigs from whole genome sequencing were also integrated to improve and validate the HAPPY map. This resulted in an integrated HAPPY map consisting of 60 linkage groups that covers approximately half of the estimated 60 Mb genome. Further analysis suggests that the segmental organization first seen in Chromosome 1 is present throughout the genome, with repeat-poor (P regions alternating with repeat-rich (R regions. Evidence of copy-number variation between strains was also uncovered. Conclusions This paper describes the application of a whole genome mapping

  4. Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses of Eimeria tenella-Infected Chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Parmentier, H.K.; Li, W.K.; Yang, Z.Q.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of polysaccharide extracts from 2 mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on cellular and humoral immune responses of Eimeria tenella-infected chickens. A total of 150 broiler chicks were assigned to 5

  5. Coccidiosis Immunization: Effects of Mushroom and Herb Polysaccharides on Immune Responses of Chickens Infected with Eimeria Tenella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, F.C.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Williams, B.A.; Suo, X.; Li, W.K.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of polysaccharide extracts (E) of two mushrooms, Lentinus edodes (LenE) and Tremella fuciformis (TreE), and an herb, Astragalus membranaceus (AstE), on the immune responses of chickens infected with Eimeria tenella. A total of 180 broiler

  6. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian Jijel province poultry farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in Eimeria recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and ITS1 PCR revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely E. acervulina and E. maxima. A pool of these is...

  7. Anticoccidial efficacy testing: In vitro Eimeria tenella assays as replacement for animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ahmed; Zhang, Runhui; Alnassan, Alaa-Aldin; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2017-01-15

    Availability of an accurate in vitro assay is a crucial demand to determine sensitivity of Eimeria spp. field strains toward anticoccidials routinely. In this study we tested in vitro models of Eimeria tenella using various polyether ionophores (monensin, salinomycin, maduramicin, and lasalocid) and toltrazuril. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC 95 , MIC 50/95 ) for the tested anticoccidials were defined based on a susceptible reference (Houghton strain), Ref-1. In vitro sporozoite invasion inhibition assay (SIA) and reproduction inhibition assay (RIA) were applied on sensitive laboratory (Ref-1 and Ref-2) and field (FS-1, FS-2, and FS-3) strains to calculate percent of inhibition under exposure of these strains to the various anticoccidials (%I SIA and%I RIA, respectively). The in vitro data were related to oocyst excretion, lesion scores, performance, and global resistance indices (GI) assessed in experimentally infected chickens. Polyether ionophores applied in the RIA were highly effective at MIC 95 against Ref-1 and Ref-2 (%I RIA ≥95%). In contrast, all tested field strains displayed reduced to low efficacy (%I RIA animal model (p89%) against all strains used in this study. However, adjusted GI (GI adj ) for toltrazuril-treated groups exhibited differences between reference and field strains which might indicate varying sensitivity. RIA is a suitable in vitro tool to detect sensitivity of E. tenella towards polyether ionophores, and may thus help to reduce, replace, or refine use of animal experimentation for in vivo sensitivity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-coccidial activity of the ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits on Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunhwa; Moon, Mi-Na; Im, Eun-Kyung; Won, Jum-Soon; Yoo, Ji-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Anti-coccidial effects of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris (Tribuli fructus) ethanol extract (TTE) were studied with animal experiment following per oral administration with Eimeria (E.) tenella. This experiment was performed on the 3-day-old chicks (n=30). The animals were divided with 3 groups; TFE 15mg per animal+infected (n=10), TTE untreated+infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Animals were administrated with or without TTE during 1 week, and then inoculated with E. tenella. The anti-coccidial activity were evaluated with oocysts shedding numbers in stools, body weights changes and food intake changes. The TTE-inoclated animals revealed significantly decreased stool oocysts numbers (P<0.05) when compared to the TTE untreated animals. Also, TTE-treated animals showed more increased body weight gains (P<0.05) than the TTE untreated animals. These results demonstrate that TTE produce anticoccidial activities against E. tenella. TTE could be a promising treatment for the coccidiosis. PMID:29628976

  9. Anti-coccidial activity of the ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits on Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunhwa; Moon, Mi-Na; Im, Eun-Kyung; Won, Jum-Soon; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Okjin

    2018-03-01

    Anti-coccidial effects of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris (Tribuli fructus) ethanol extract (TTE) were studied with animal experiment following per oral administration with Eimeria ( E .) tenella . This experiment was performed on the 3-day-old chicks (n=30). The animals were divided with 3 groups; TFE 15mg per animal+infected (n=10), TTE untreated+infected (n=10) and non-infected control (n=10). Animals were administrated with or without TTE during 1 week, and then inoculated with E. tenella . The anti-coccidial activity were evaluated with oocysts shedding numbers in stools, body weights changes and food intake changes. The TTE-inoclated animals revealed significantly decreased stool oocysts numbers ( P <0.05) when compared to the TTE untreated animals. Also, TTE-treated animals showed more increased body weight gains ( P <0.05) than the TTE untreated animals. These results demonstrate that TTE produce anticoccidial activities against E. tenella . TTE could be a promising treatment for the coccidiosis.

  10. Protection Efficacy of Multivalent Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Eimeria Tenella Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Xu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To control avian coccidiosis with drug-independent strategy effec­tively and safely, multivalent hyperimmune egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY was prepared and its ability to protect against Eimeria tenella infection was evaluated.Methods: Hens were orally immunized with live oocysts of 5 species of Eimeria for six times, antibody titers in serum and yolk were monitored by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The specific IgY was isolated, purified and lyophi­lized. IgY powder was orally administrated as dietary supplement in newly hatched chicks at various dosages. Birds were orally challenged with 10000 sporulated oo­cysts of E. tenella at 10 days of age, weighed and killed at 8 days post challenge, and the protective effect was assessed.Results: The averge yeid of IgY was 9.2 mg/ml yolk, the antibody titer of IgY reached to 1:163840 per mg with the purity up to 98%. Chickens fed IgY resulted in reduced mortality, increased body weight gain (BWG, reduced oocyst shedding, reduced caecal lesion score and increased anti-coccidial index. In terms of BWG and caecal lesion, IgY significantly enhanced the resistance of bird at ≥ 0.05% of IgY in the diet when compared with the challenged control group (P0.05.Conclusion: Supplementing newly hatched chicks with Eimeria-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent avian coccidiosis.

  11. Assessment of humoral immunity to Eimeria tenella sporozoites in chickens by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the humoral immune response of Eimeria tenella sporozoites in broiler chickens by a developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the efficacy in terms of bodyweight, lesion score and oocysts excretion in immunized broilers. Materials and Methods: Purified live E. tenella sporozoites were administered subcutaneously in neck region of broiler chickens in the early life (first week at different concentrations. The potency of the sporozoite vaccine as assessed by IgG levels and the performance in immunized broilers as assessed by body weight, lesion score and oocysts excretion in faeces after challenge with 10, 000 live E. tenella oocysts at 49 days of age were evaluated. Results: The chickens of group (T4 immunized with 20 µg of antigen on day 6 showed an increase in IgG levels (0.161±0.004 two weeks post immunization (PI peaking (0.399± 0.016 at 5 weeks PI. The mean weekly weight gain (g after challenge, at 56 days of age was high in T4 (148±4.751 g with a low mean lesion score (2.5±0.22 and mean oocyst output (x103 oocytes per gram (OPG in faeces (100.3± 45.72 when compared to unimmunised infected controls. Conclusion: An early but partial immune response against caecal coccidiosis could be achieved by immunization with E. tenella specific sporozoites in chickens of less than a week old. Moreover, the performance of immunized chickens as indicated by weight gain, lesion score and oocyst output was found to be superior to the unimmunized infected controls.

  12. Monitoring of local CD8 β-expressing cell populations during Eimeria tenella infection of naïve and immune chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattrang, Eva; Thebo, Per; Lunden, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to monitor abundance and activation of local CD8β-expressing T-cell populations during Eimeria tenella infections of naïve chickens and chickens immune by previous infections. Chickens were infected with E. tenella up to three times. Caecal T-cell receptor (TCR) γ...

  13. Incorporation of a recombinant Eimeria maxima IMP1 antigen into nanoparticles confers protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if incorporating a recombinant Eimeria maxima protein, namely rEmaxIMP1, into gold nanoparticles (NP) could improve the level of protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Recombinant EmaxIMP1 was expressed in Escherchia coli as a poly-His f...

  14. Studies on the effects of whole-body gamma irradiation on chickens infected with Eimeria tenella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, S.V.

    1974-01-01

    Whole-body exposure of one- and three-week-old White Leghorn cockerels to 600 R gamma radiation (Cesium-137) 24 hours before oral inoculation with 500, 2500, 5000, or 50,000 Eimeria tenella oocysts produced a pattern of mortality differing markedly from nonirradiated, infected (NRI) control birds. When oocyst dosage was held constant (2500) and radiation exposure increased (250, 450, 600, 800, or 1000 R) a gradual increase in mortality rate with higher radiation dosages was observed among both one- and three-week-old birds. Birds irradiated 24 hours or more before inoculation were less able to survive infection than were those irradiated one hour before and one, two, three, or four days after inoculation. (U.S.)

  15. In vitro evaluation of the disinfection efficacy on Eimeria tenella unsporulated oocysts isolated from broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José S; Bogado, Alexey L Gomel; da Cunha, Thiago Cezar B; Garcia, João Luis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the action of eight chemical principles by disinfection efficacy (DE) of Eimeria tenella oocysts. Disinfection efficacy was evaluated by either destruction or sporulation inhibition of the oocysts. Eight treatments were performed: T1 (Glutaraldehyde 42.5 g + Benzalkonium Chloride 7.5 g); T2 (Benzalkonium chloride + quaternary ammonium salt); T3 (formol 37% + Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate 12%); T4 (sodium hypochlorite 2%); T5 (Orthodichlorobenzene 60% + Xylene 30%); T6 (Polyoctyl polyamino ethyl glycine + Polyoxyethylene alkylphenol ether + Sodium Chloride); T7 (Chloramine T) and finally T8 (free iodine 2.25% + Phosphoric acid 15 g). The control test was carried out with distilled water (T9). The best DE were observed, respectively, in T3 (79.49%), T5 (75.60%) and T4 (65.56%) treatments.

  16. Location of RAD51-like protein during meiotic prophase in Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Cacho, Emilio; Gallego, Margarita; Pagés, Marc; Barbero, José Luís; Monteagudo, Luís; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2011-05-31

    This study focuses on reporting events in Eimeria tenella oocysts from early to late prophase I in terms of RAD51 protein in association with the synaptonemal complex formed between homologous chromosomes. The aim of the study was the sequential localization of RAD51 protein, which is involved in the repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) on the eimerian chromosomes as they synapse and desynapse. Structural Maintenance of Chromosome protein SMC3, which plays a role in synaptonemal complex formation, was labeled to identify initiation and progress of chromosome synapsis and desynapsis in parallel with the appearance and disappearance of RAD51 foci. Antibodies directed against RAD51 and cohesin subunit SMC3 proteins were labeled with either fluorescence or colloidal gold to visualize RAD51 protein foci and synaptonemal complexes. RAD51 protein localization during prophase I was studied on meiotic chromosomes spreads obtained from oocysts at different points in time after the start of sporulation. The present findings showed that foci detected with the antibody directed against RAD51 protein first appeared at the pre-leptotene stage before homologous chromosomes began pairing. Subsequently, the foci were detected in association with the lateral elements at the precise sites where synapsis were in progress. These findings lead us to suggest that in E. tenella, homologous chromosome pairing was a DSB-dependent mechanism and reinforced the participation of RAD51 protein in meiotic homology search, alignment and pairing of chromosomes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of plasma chemistry and haematological studies on chickens infected with Eimeria tenella and E acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, T; Komba, Y; Sasai, K; Baba, E; Arakawa, A

    1997-07-12

    Plasma chemistry and haematological studies were conducted on chickens with coccidiosis. Male White Leghorn chickens, of two weeks old, were inoculated with 5 x 10(4) Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts or with 1 x 10(6) E acervulina sporulated oocysts. Blood samples were taken four, seven and 11 days after inoculation. A wet chemistry system was applied to measure the plasma activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase, creatine kinase, amylase and lactate dehydrogenase and the concentrations of creatine, total bilirubin, urate, total cholesterol, total protein, albumin, glucose and triglycerides. A dry chemistry system was applied to measure sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium. The number of red blood cells and packed cell volume were determined by a micro cell counter and blood pH was measured with a blood gas analyser. The erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, sodium and chloride levels in the chickens infected with E tenella were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of the uninfected controls. The significant decrease in blood pH of the chickens infected with E acervulina suggests malabsorption associated with duodenal lesions induced by the infection.

  18. Effects of dietary supplementation with phytonutrients on vaccine-stimulated immunity against infection with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bravo, David; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2011-09-27

    Two phytonutrient mixtures, VAC (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, and Capsicum oleoresin), and MC (Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin), were evaluated for their effects on chicken immune responses following immunization with an Eimeria profilin protein. Chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet, or with VAC- or MC-supplemented diets, immunized with profilin, and orally challenged with virulent oocysts of Eimeria tenella. Immunity against infection was evaluated by body weight, fecal oocyst shedding, profilin antibody levels, lymphocyte recall responses, cytokine expression, and lymphocyte subpopulations. Following immunization and infection, chickens fed the VAC- or MC-supplemented diets showed increased body weights, greater profilin antibody levels, and/or greater lymphocyte proliferation compared with non-supplemented controls. Prior to Eimeria infection, immunized chickens on the MC-supplemented diet showed reduced IFN-γ and IL-6 levels, but increased expression of TNFSF15, compared with non-supplemented controls. Post-infection levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 were increased, while IL-17F transcripts were decreased, with MC-supplementation. For VAC-supplemented diets, decreased IL-17F and TNFSF15 levels were observed only in infected chickens. Finally, immunized chickens fed the MC-supplemented diet exhibited increased MHC class II(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), TCR1+, or TCR2(+) T cells compared with nonsupplemented controls. Animals on the VAC-containing diet only displayed an increase in K1(+) macrophages. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with VAC or MC alters immune parameters following recombinant protein vaccination against avian coccidiosis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of the Eimeria maxima response in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzić, Edin; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hérault, Frédéric; Hawken, Rachel; Abrahamsen, Mitchel S; Servin, Bertrand; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand

    2015-11-25

    Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and is caused by protozoans of the Eimeria genus. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high costs for the development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the current control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics to improve the host response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500 broilers using E. maxima for which we investigated variability among animals in response to the challenge. As a follow-up to this challenge study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions underlying variability of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis to increase our biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge. In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with q value Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, the post-GWAS functional analysis indicates that biological pathways and networks involved in tissue proliferation and repair along with the primary innate immune response may play the most important role during the early stage of Eimeria maxima infection in broilers.

  20. Embryonated chicken eggs as an alternative model for mixed Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Shehata, Awad Ali; Kotsch, Marianne; Lendner, Matthias; Daugschies, Arwid; Bangoura, Berit

    2013-06-01

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryo eggs is a suitable model for viral and bacterial infections. In the present study, a new approach for testing the pathogenesis and virulence of Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria tenella dual infections as a model using the CAM of embryonated chicken eggs was developed. For this purpose, 24 specific pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups (n = 6) and designated group E, group CP, group CPE, and NC. Sporozoites of E. tenella (20,000 sporozoites) were inoculated into 10-day-old embryonated SPF chicken eggs (groups E and CPE) via allantoic sac route. At 15-day-old, eggs of groups CP and CPE were infected with 10 (4)  cfu C. perfringens via the same route. Assessment of pathogenicity was assessed using gross and histopathological lesions. Embryo mortality reached 17 % after mono-infection with C. perfringens and/or E. tenella and 50 % in the mixed-infected group. Lesions in the CAMs were most numerous and most severe in co-infected eggs (group CPE), reaching the maximum score of 3 in 50 % of the inoculated eggs (P < 0.01). In Eimeria spp.-infected eggs (group E), lesions of score were between 1 and 2. Mono-infection with C. perfringens did not lead to a significant occurrence of lesions. Histopathological investigations of the CAM revealed clusters of Gram-positive bacteria, infiltration with leukocytes, lymphocytes, and developmental stages of E. tenella in the co-infected group. These data suggest that embryonated eggs could be an in ovo model for studying the pathogenesis of mixed infection with Eimeria and C. perfringens.

  1. In vitro inhibition of Eimeria tenella sporozoite invasion into host cells by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessenberger, S; Schatzmayr, G; Teichmann, K

    2016-10-15

    The aim was to study the effects of probiotics isolated from the intestinal tract of livestock animals on Eimeria tenella invasion into Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells in vitro. E. tenella sporozoites were purified and labeled with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester before seeding on cell cultures, and invasion was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Two protocols (A and B) were used. In protocol A, Enterococcus faecium # 589 or Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 were added together with sporozoites to MDBK cell cultures and invasion was evaluated after incubation for approximately 20h. Viable, dead, or spent culture supernatants of probiotics were tested. In protocol B, viable probiotics were incubated with MDBK cells for one hour before sporozoites were added and invasion was evaluated after two more hours of incubation. Parasite invasion of viable, dead, or spent culture supernatant of E. faecium # 589 was assessed. Using protocol A, it was shown that parasite invasion was inhibited by viable (80%) or dead (75%) E. faecium # 589. While inhibition by viable L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505 was not valid at the highest concentration and not significant at the other test concentrations, dead cells inhibited parasite invasion up to 45%. Spent culture supernatants of both probiotics had no influence on parasite invasion. Using protocol B, it was shown that viable Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis # 503, E. faecium # 497, E. faecium # 589, L. reuteri # 514, L. salivarius subsp. salivarius # 505, and Bacillus subtilis # 588 inhibited parasite invasion into MDBK cells up to 80%. Anticoccidial activity was strain-specific for E. faecium strains, and the strongest effect was shown by E. faecium # 589. Anticoccidial effects of some of the tested probiotics have already been shown in vivo, which makes them candidates to prevent coccidiosis. These findings have now been confirmed in vitro. The used parasite invasion

  2. Molecular characterization and analysis of a novel protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Qiping; Jiang, Lianlian; Wang, Yange; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youlin; Huang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC). BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55-59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells. These results

  3. Molecular characterization and analysis of a novel protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of Eimeria tenella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Han

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE according to the expressed sequence tag (EST. The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC. BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55-59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells

  4. Sequence analysis of the PIP5K locus in Eimeria maxima provides further evidence for eimerian genome plasticity and segmental organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B K; Pan, M Z; Lau, Y L; Wan, K L

    2014-07-29

    Commercial flocks infected by Eimeria species parasites, including Eimeria maxima, have an increased risk of developing clinical or subclinical coccidiosis; an intestinal enteritis associated with increased mortality rates in poultry. Currently, infection control is largely based on chemotherapy or live vaccines; however, drug resistance is common and vaccines are relatively expensive. The development of new cost-effective intervention measures will benefit from unraveling the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie host-parasite interactions, including the identification and characterization of genes encoding proteins such as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K). We previously identified a PIP5K coding sequence within the E. maxima genome. In this study, we analyzed two bacterial artificial chromosome clones presenting a ~145-kb E. maxima (Weybridge strain) genomic region spanning the PIP5K gene locus. Sequence analysis revealed that ~95% of the simple sequence repeats detected were located within regions comparable to the previously described feature-rich segments of the Eimeria tenella genome. Comparative sequence analysis with the orthologous E. maxima (Houghton strain) region revealed a moderate level of conserved synteny. Unique segmental organizations and telomere-like repeats were also observed in both genomes. A number of incomplete transposable elements were detected and further scrutiny of these elements in both orthologous segments revealed interesting nesting events, which may play a role in facilitating genome plasticity in E. maxima. The current analysis provides more detailed information about the genome organization of E. maxima and may help to reveal genotypic differences that are important for expression of traits related to pathogenicity and virulence.

  5. The response of red ginger (Zinggiber officinalle var rubra) with various processing in broilers were infected by Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, E. Z. J.; Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.

    2018-02-01

    Red ginger contains high antioxidants and have anti -inflamatory properties. Ginger also has the ability to treat kimiatif, antiemetic, antinausea, and antiparasitik. The aim of this experiment was identified the response of red ginger in broilers were infected by Eimeria tenella. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Eimeria tenella were infected by 10.000 oocysts / head and red ginger solution were aplicated with 1% concentration. The treatments consist of KP (positive control), KO (coccidiostat), K1 (red ginger powder), K2 (extracted red ginger by ethanol) and K3 (extracted red ginger by water) . The results showed that the treatment of red ginger was significant effect (PEimeria tenella. The comparison between extracted red ginger by ethanol is better than by water or in powder form to decreased. The utilization of red ginger showed the percentage of heterophile and eosinophile close to normal when compared with positive control. Assesment of caecum lesion score was not significant (P>0.05) different effect between all the treatments. It is concluded that the treatment by red ginger better than coccidiostat and positive control.

  6. Effect of irradiation (gamma rays) on the biology of Eimeria tenella oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, R.S.; Gill, B.S.

    1977-01-01

    Effect of gamma rays on the biology of the progeny of the irradiated Eimeria tenella oocysts was investigated. The parent inoculum of sporulated oocysts was exposed to 5 to 60 kR (gamma rays). These oocysts were fed to chicks. The oocysts voided by the chicks were collected and sporulated. The sporulation rate, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and reproduction potential of these oocysts--the progeny of the irradiated oocysts--were compared with those of the unirradiated oocysts. It was observed that increase of irradiation dose caused progressive decrease in the pathogenicity of the oocyst suspension. The oocysts exposed to 30 and 40 kR produced only mild infections whereas those exposed to 50 kR and above were noninfective. No difference in pathogenicity, immunogenicity and reproduction potential of unirradiated oocysts and the oocysts progeny of the irradiated oocysts was seen. It was concluded, therefore, that the effect of irradiation was limited to the inoculum exposed to it, and was not transmissible to the progeny of the irradiated oocysts.

  7. Identification and characterization of Eimeria tenella apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianlian Jiang

    Full Text Available Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a micronemal protein of apicomplexan parasites that appears to be essential during the invasion of host cells. In this study, a full-length cDNA of AMA1 was identified from Eimeria tenella (Et using expressed sequence tag and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. EtAMA1 had an open reading frame of 1608 bp encoding a protein of 535 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that EtAMA1 was expressed at higher levels in sporozoites than in the other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts and second-generation merozoites. The ectodomain sequence was expressed as recombinant EtAMA1 (rEtAMA1 and rabbit polyclonal antibodies raised against the rEtAMA1 recognized a 58-kDa native parasite protein by Western Blotting and had a potent inhibitory effect on parasite invasion, decreasing it by approximately 70%. Immunofluorescence analysis and immunohistochemistry analysis showed EtAMA1 might play an important role in sporozoite invasion and development.

  8. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian to Jijel province poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemai, Samir; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Jenkins, Mark C

    2016-07-15

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm). As indicated by anticoccidial sensitivity profiles based on lesion scores and anticoccidial index (ACI), complete resistance to monensin and narasin, partial resistance to salinomycin and lasalocid, and complete sensitivity to diclazuril was observed. While lack of sensitivity to monensin is not surprising given its use for years as the sole anticoccidial compound, the resistance to monoether (narasin) and polyether (lasalocid) ionophores suggests that cross-resistance has developed in a segment of the Eimeria population. The fairly uniform Eimeria species composition among all poultry farms suggests that E. acervulina and E. maxima more rapidly develop resistance to ionophore drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis for response to Eimeria maxima in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Hérault, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and which caused by protozoans from the genus of Eimeria. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high...... costs for development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the present control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics for improvement of the host’s response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500...... of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis with the aim of gaining a better biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. Results In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide...

  10. Ameliorative effect of mycofix plus 3.0 in reducing intensity of Eimeria tenella infection during aflatoxicosis in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shareef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and sixty male broiler chicks were fed at one day of age aflatoxin (AF at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg alone, or with groups injected with Eimeria tenella sporulated oocysts (40000 at 14 days of age. Adsorbent (Mycofix® plus 3.0 was incorporated at a rate of 0.25% in the above mentioned groups from one day of age till the end of the experiment. The study was conducted to reveal the effect of a aforementioned different diets and treatments on live body weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, blood parameters (total red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, biochemical profile of serum (alkaline phosphatase and β-carotin, liver weights, bursal and thymus indexes, caecal lesion scores and mortalities. The results indicated that AF was responsible for a significant (P<0.05 reduction. in body weigh gain (BWG, feed consumption, and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Afllatoxin was also responsible for reduction in blood parameters, β-Carotin, bursal and thymus indexes. While relative liver weight and alkaline phosphatase level were significantly (P<0.05 increased. Groups that fed AF at a rate of 3.5 mg/kg feed and exposed to sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella show a high significant (P<0.05 reduction in BWG, feed consumption and an increase in feed conversion ratio. Aflatoxin was also responsible for significant blood parameter, β-carotin, and also a significant (P<0.05 increase in caecal lesion scores, mortality, alkaline phosphatase level and relative liver weight, while they showed significant (P<0.05 decrease in bursal and thymus indexes in comparison with injected groups with E-tenella sporulated oocysts alone. The study approved that the groups maintained on mycofix plus 3.0 (0.25% and contaminated with aflatoxin 3.5 mg/kg, revealed a positive noticeable effects in amelioration on BWG, feed consumption and feed conversion, blood parameter, β-carotin, alkaline phosphatase level, relative liver weight, bursal and

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study for Response to Eimeria maxima Challenge in Broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Hérault, Frédéric

    Use of genetic tools for improvement of host’s response is considered as a promising complementary approach for coccidiosis control. Therefore, we performed genome wide association study (GWAS) for response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. The challenge was done on 2024 Cobb500 broilers. We...

  12. Molecular Identification of Eimeria Species in Broiler Chickens in Trinidad, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Brown Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease of chickens of major economic importance to broiler industries worldwide. Species of coccidia found in chickens include Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella. In recent years, polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been developed to provide accurate and rapid identification of the seven known Eimeria species of chickens. The aim of this study was to use species-specific real-time PCR (qPCR to identify which of the seven Eimeria species are present in Trinidad poultry. Seventeen pooled fecal samples were collected from 6 broiler farms (2–5 pens per farm across Trinidad. Feces were also collected from birds showing clinical signs of coccidiosis in two live bird markets (pluck shops. qPCR revealed the presence of five species of Eimeria (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, and E. tenella, but not E. brunetti or E. praecox. Mixed infections were detected on all broiler farms, and DNA of two highly pathogenic Eimeria species (E. tenella and E. necatrix was detected in feces taken from clinically sick birds sampled from the two pluck shops.

  13. Large-scale investigation of the parameters in response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzic, E; Bed'Hom, B; Juin, H; Hawken, R; Abrahamsen, M S; Elsen, J M; Servin, B; Pinard-van der Laan, M H; Demeure, O

    2015-04-01

    Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract caused by members of the genera Eimeria and Isospora, is one of the most common and costly diseases in chicken. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the challenge and level of variability of measured parameters in chickens during the challenge with Eimeria maxima. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate which parameters are the most relevant indicators of the health status. Finally, the study also aimed to estimate accuracy of prediction for traits that cannot be measured on large scale (such as intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count) using parameters that can easily be measured on all animals. The study was performed in 2 parts: a pilot challenge on 240 animals followed by a large-scale challenge on 2,024 animals. In both experiments, animals were challenged with 50,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts at 16 d of age. In the pilot challenge, all animals were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit, and rectal temperature and, in addition, a subset of 48 animals was measured for oocyst count and the intestinal lesion score. All animals from the second challenge were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, and hematocrit whereas a subset of 184 animals was measured for intestinal lesion score, fecal oocyst count, blood parameters, and plasma protein content and composition. Most of the parameters measured were significantly affected by the challenge. Lesion scores for duodenum and jejunum (P Eimeria maxima. Prediction of intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count using the other parameters measured was not very precise (R2 Eimeria maxima has a strong genetic determinism, which may be improved by genetic selection.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE ANTIGENICITY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF Eimeria tenella BY REPRODUCTIVE INDEX AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF CECAL COCCIDIOSIS VIRULENT LIVE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprihati, Endang; Yunus, Muchammad

    2018-01-01

    The development of vaccine to control coccidiosis caused by Eimeria tenella ( E. tenella ) in chickens is intensifying because of the increasing threat of drug resistance to anticoccidial agents. It is important, therefore, to develop a reliable standard method for the assessment of vaccine afficacy particularly antigenicity and immunogenicity become crucial. Evaluation of E. tenella antigenicity and immunogenicity to some low doses can be reflected by reproductive index and histopathological changes. The complete random design of research was used in this study. Sixty of two weeks old broilers were divided into four groups and each group composed 15 replications. The group 1 was chicken group without virulent E. tenella oocyst inoculation. The group 2, 3 and group 4 were chicken group inoculated with virulent E. tenella oocyst at doses of 1.0 x 10 2 , 2.0 x 10 2 , 3.0 x 10 2 , respectively. Then all chicken groups were challenged with E. tenella oocyst at doses of 1.0 x 10 3 . Observation of research that represented antigenicity and immunogenicity was clinical sign, reproductive index, histopathological changes. On virulent E. tenella inoculation step, some clinical signs such as appetite, weakness, and diarrhea were very slight on all chicken groups. While on challenge test step, there were no clinical signs of all chicken groups except the group 1. For the reproductive index of virulent E. tenella inoculation step, there were no significantly differences in all chicken groups except the group 1. As reproductive index, the same result pattern was seen for histopathological changes. The low number virulent E. tenella had low reproductive index and few histopathological changes effect that represents a promising strategy to prevent cecal coccidiosis in chickens.

  15. Profil Saraf Nitrergik Sekum Ayam Pedaging yang Diinfeksi Eimeria tenella (THE PROFILE OF NEORAL NITRERGIC IN THE COECUM OF BROILER INFECTED WITH Emeria tenella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurotransmitter found in the enteric nervous system that plays an important role in a variety ofenteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease. Alteration of nitrergic neurons has been reported to bedependent on the manner by which inflammation is caused. This study was performed to determine theprofile of neural nitrergic with Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-dstaining in the cecum of broiler infected by Eimeria tenella (E. tenella. Thirty six health free of coccidiosisbroiler one-day old chickens (DOC used in this study. All of broiler adapted for 7 days with food and drinkgiven ad libitum then divided into three groups, each group consisted of 12 broilers. The 1st group wascontrol only given orally 1.0 ml of distilled water/ heads , while 2nd group was infected with a single dose of5x103 oocysts/ head orally, and 3rd group was infected with a single dose of 2x104 oocysts/ head orally. Onday 7 post infection, all of chickens were fasted for 12 hours then were euthanized and cecum was taken.Lesion score of cecum was assessed. Furthermore, tissue of the coecum was prepared for hisochemicalusing NADPH-d staining to determine morphology, and morhometric of nitrergic neurons. The resultshown that cecum lesion score of group I is 0, group II is +2, group III is +3. Neuron density in the cecum ofgroup I is 2794.96+4.65 neuron/cm2, group II is 4930.36+63.73 neuron/cm2 and group III is 7892.31+44.97 neuron/cm2. Neuron density of group II and III increased signifcantly (p<001 than group I. Nitrergic neurondesity of group III increased significantly (p<0.05 than that of group II. It was concluded that the infectionof E.tenella led to increase the number of neutrl mienteric nitrergic of the cecum. The higher lesion score ofcecum led to increase the number of mienteric nitrergic neuron.

  16. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  17. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Dubey, J P; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2017-03-15

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens were greater by a score of 1-1.5 compared to chickens infected with E. maxima APU2. Likewise, weight gain depression in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens was 20-25% greater (equivalent to 110-130g body weight) than in E. maxima APU2-infected chickens. In order to understand the underlying cause of these observed clinical effects, 120 broiler chicks (5 oocyst levels, 6 replicates/level) were inoculated with various doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts. The dynamics of oocyst shedding was investigated by collecting fecal material every 12h from 114 to 210h post-inoculation (p.i.) and every 24h thereafter from 210 to 306h, and then processed for measuring E. maxima oocyst output. Oocysts were first observed at 138h p.i., and time of peak oocyst production was nearly identical for both E. maxima APU1 and APU2 around 150-162h. Total oocyst production was 1.1-2.6 fold higher at all dose levels for E. maxima APU1 compared to E. maxima APU2, being significantly higher (P<0.05) at the log 1.5 dose level. Other groups of chickens were infected with higher doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts, and intestinal lesions were assessed by histology at 72, 96, 120, and 144h p.i. Although schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were observed at expected time-points, no obvious differences were noted in lesions induced by the two E. maxima strains. This study showed that the greater fecundity of E. maxima APU1 compared to E

  18. Prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Broilers by Multiplex PCR in the Southern Region of Brazil on Two Hundred and Fifty Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Julio Cesar; França, Marciél; Sartor, Amélia Aparecida; Bellato, Valdomiro; de Moura, Anderson Barbosa; de Lourdes Borba Magalhães, Maria; de Souza, Antonio Pereira; Miletti, Luiz Claudio

    2015-06-01

    Parasitic infections caused by Eimeria species are responsible for most economic losses in poultry production. Prevalence studies can adequately assist the design of prophylaxis strategies for disease control. Therefore, stool samples from 251 flocks of broilers from 28 to 48 days old were collected in 21 municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, to detect and examine the prevalence of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria brunetti. The oocysts were recovered and quantified, and the species were identified by a multiplex PCR technique. Amplicons of seven Eimeria species originating from the PCR-positive samples were cloned. Microscopy studies demonstrated that 96% of the farms were positive for the Eimeria. Seven species were identified, as follows: E. maxima (63.7%) and E. acervulina (63.3%) were the most prevalent species, followed by E. tenella (54.6%), E. mitis (38.6%), E. praecox (25.1%), E. necatrix (24.3%), and E. brunetti (13.1%). The average number of species detected per farm was 2.96, and the most common were E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella (9.16%). The sequencing of the clones confirmed the specificity and effectiveness of multiplex PCR for the identification of seven species of Eimeria, so this tool can be useful in studying circulating species in poultry farms, thereby assisting prophylactic measures against coccidiosis.

  19. The immunogenicity of Eimeria tenella sporozoite proteins and living oocyst vaccines in broilersImunogenicidade de vacina com proteínas de esporozoítos e oocistos vivos de Eimeria tenella em frangos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Vidotto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the immunity of broilers inoculated with sporulated oocysts and sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella against challenge with homologous infectives oocysts. Broiler chickens of Hubbard strain, females, coccidian-free, were kept in wire cages and inoculated on the third day (day 0. Three treatments were used: T1, the negative control; T2, received 500 sporulated oocysts by gavage; T3, positive control; T4, received 50 ?g of sporozoite protein with Quil A; and T5, received Quil A without sporozoite protein and PBS, the last two protocols were administered via nasal route on days 0, 7, and 21. On the 31st day, all groups, with the exception of T1, were challenged with homologous virulent strain of E. tenella at the dose of 8.0×104 oocysts. Immunogenicity was assessed by carotenoids, ELISA assay, histopathological analysis, oocysts count and lesion score. Antibody kinetics were measured weekly and showed a gradual increase in levels of immunoglobulin for treatment T2 and T4, reaching a peak on day 21. Based on the parameters evaluated, a total protecting immunological effect for the infectant oocysts vaccine (T2 and partial protection for the sporozoite protein vaccine (T4 against homologous virulent strain challenge were observed. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a imunidade de frangos de corte inoculados com oocistos esporulados e proteínas de esporozoítos de Eimeria tenella utilizando um desafio com oocistos esporulados homólogos. Frangos de corte da linhagem Hubbard, fêmeas, livres de coccidiose, foram mantidos em gaiolas de arame e inoculados no terceiro dia (dia 0. O delineamento experimental consistiu de cinco tratamentos com três repetições: T1- controle negativo; T2- recebeu 500 oocistos esporulados por gavagem; T3- controle positivo; T4- receberam 50 ?g de proteína de esporozoítos adicionados a Quil-A, e finalmente o T5- que recebeu apenas Quil A e PBS, os últimos dois

  20. The Induction of Protective Immunity against Experimental Eimeria tenella Infection using Serum Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by Eimeria, a unicellular, apicomplexan protist which primarily infects intestinal epithelia resulting in nutrition malabsorption and reduced growth of commercial poultry. Vaccination of chickens with exosomes isolated from antigen presenting cells and containing parasit...

  1. Effect of dietary vitamin E on Eimeria tenella-induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ramezanali

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of dietary ... vitamin E (p<0.05). A significant rise of plasma and erythrocyte MDA was ... biological membranes, thereby making them stable. This prevents free ... Vegetable oil. 2.00. 2.00 ..... tenella: a review of the type strain selected for genome sequencing. Avian Pathol.

  2. Identification of immune protective genes of Eimeria maxima through cDNA expression library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XinChao; Li, MengHui; Liu, JianHua; Ji, YiHong; Li, XiangRui; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai

    2017-02-16

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most prevalent Eimeria species causing avian coccidiosis, and results in huge economic loss to the global poultry industry. Current control strategies, such as anti-coccidial medication and live vaccines have been limited because of their drawbacks. The third generation anticoccidial vaccines including the recombinant vaccines as well as DNA vaccines have been suggested as a promising alternative strategy. To date, only a few protective antigens of E. maxima have been reported. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel protective antigens of E. maxima for the development of neotype anticoccidial vaccines. With the aim of identifying novel protective genes of E. maxima, a cDNA expression library of E. maxima sporozoites was constructed using Gateway technology. Subsequently, the cDNA expression library was divided into 15 sub-libraries for cDNA expression library immunization (cDELI) using parasite challenged model in chickens. Protective sub-libraries were selected for the next round of screening until individual protective clones were obtained, which were further sequenced and analyzed. Adopting the Gateway technology, a high-quality entry library was constructed, containing 9.2 × 10 6 clones with an average inserted fragments length of 1.63 kb. The expression library capacity was 2.32 × 10 7 colony-forming units (cfu) with an average inserted fragments length of 1.64 Kb. The expression library was screened using parasite challenged model in chickens. The screening yielded 6 immune protective genes including four novel protective genes of EmJS-1, EmRP, EmHP-1 and EmHP-2, and two known protective genes of EmSAG and EmCKRS. EmJS-1 is the selR domain-containing protein of E. maxima whose function is unknown. EmHP-1 and EmHP-2 are the hypothetical proteins of E. maxima. EmRP and EmSAG are rhomboid-like protein and surface antigen glycoproteins of E. maxima respectively, and involved in invasion of the parasite. Our

  3. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) in a Fayoumi x White Leghorn cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Pitel, Frédérique; Feve, Katia; Leroux, Sophie; Legros, Hélène; Thomas, Aurélie; Gourichon, David; Repérant, Jean-Michel; Rault, Paul

    2009-01-20

    Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion) on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several candidate genes and relevant pathways linked to innate immune

  4. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella in a Fayoumi × White Leghorn cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourichon David

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. Results The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Conclusion Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several

  5. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104  E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  6. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5 × 10³ sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species in broiler chicken farms of different capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Györke, Adriana; Pop, Loredana; Cozma, Vasile

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a survey in broiler farms from Romania to establish prevalence and distribution of Eimeria species using single PCR assay. We found Eimeria spp. in 21 (91%) out of 23 flocks, and in 11 (92%) out of 12 farms. Four species of Eimeria were identified: E. acervulina (21/23; 91%), E. tenella (14/23; 61%), E. maxima (5/23; 22%) and E. praecox (3/23; 13%). Infection with a single species (E. acervulina) was detected in 6 (26%) infected flocks originated from large farms. Mixed infections were found in 15 (65%) flocks and the most prevalent combination was E. acervulina + E. tenella (8/23; 35%). Four flocks (17%) harboured mixed infection with E. acervulina + E. tenella + E. maxima. E. acervulina was significantly more prevalent in flocks that received ionophores as anticoccidial feed additives. PMID:24309007

  8. Molecular characterisation and the protective immunity evaluation of Eimeria maxima surface antigen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqi; Huang, Jingwei; Li, Yanlin; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Zhouyang; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-05-30

    Coccidiosis is recognised as a major parasitic disease in chickens. Eimeria maxima is considered as a highly immunoprotective species within the Eimeria spp. family that infects chickens. In the present research, the surface antigen gene of E. maxima (EmSAG) was cloned, and the ability of EmSAG to stimulate protection against E. maxima was evaluated. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic plasmids expressing EmSAG were constructed. The EmSAG transcription and expression in vivo was performed based on the RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The expression of EmSAG in sporozoites and merozoites was detected through immunofluorescence analyses. The immune protection was assessed based on challenge experiments. Flow cytometry assays were used to determine the T cell subpopulations. The serum antibody and cytokine levels were evaluated by ELISA. The open reading frame (ORF) of EmSAG gene contained 645 bp encoding 214 amino acid residues. The immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the EmSAG gene were transcribed and expressed in vivo. The EmSAG proteins were expressed in sporozoite and merozoite stages of E. maxima by the immunofluorescence assay. Challenge experiments showed that both pVAX1-SAG and the recombinant EmSAG (rEmSAG) proteins were successful in alleviating jejunal lesions, decreasing loss of body weight and the oocyst ratio. Additionally, these experiments possessed anticoccidial indices (ACI) of more than 170. Higher percentages of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were detected in both EmSAG-inoculated birds than those of the negative control groups (P maxima.

  9. Eimeria tenella infections in chicken: aspects of host-parasite interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, S.H.M.; Janse, E.M.; Vermeulen, A.N.; Vervelde, L.

    1996-01-01

    Intestinal coccidiosis, caused by various species of Eimeria, has become an economically important disease of poultry and livestock throughout the world. Infection of chickens starts after ingestion of oocysts when sporozoites penetrate the epithelium of the villi. After passage through the lamina

  10. IL-17A regulates Eimeria tenella schizont maturation and migration in avian coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although IL17A is associated with the immunological control of various infectious diseases, its role in host response to Eimeria infections is not well understood. In an effort to better dissect the role of IL17A in host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis, a neutralizing antibody (Ab) to chi...

  11. Incorporation of a recombinant Eimeria maxima IMP1 antigen into nanoparticles confers protective immunity against E. Maxima challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Stevens, Laura; O'Brien, Celia; Parker, Carolyn; Miska, Katrzyna; Konjufca, Vjollca

    2018-02-14

    The purpose of this study was to determine if conjugating a recombinant Eimeria maxima protein, namely EmaxIMP1, into 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP) could improve the level of protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Recombinant EmaxIMP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a poly-His fusion protein, purified by NiNTA chromatography, and conjugated to 20 nm polystyrene NP (NP-EmaxIMP1). NP-EMaxIMP1 or control non-recombinant (NP-NR) protein were delivered per os to newly-hatched broiler chicks with subsequent booster immunizations at 3 and 21 days of age. In battery cage studies (n = 4), chickens immunized with NP-EMaxIMP1 displayed complete protection as measured by weight gain (WG) against E. maxima challenge compared to chickens immunized with NP-NR. WG in the NP-EMaxIMP1-immunized groups was identical to WG in chickens that were not infected with E. maxima infected chickens. In floor pen studies (n = 2), chickens immunized with NP-EMaxIMP1 displayed partial protection as measured by WG against E. maxima challenge compared to chickens immunized with NP-NR. In order to understand the basis for immune stimulation, newly-hatched chicks were inoculated per os with NP-EMaxIMP1 or NP-NR protein, and the small intestine, bursa, and spleen, were examined for NP localization at 1 h and 6 h post-inoculation. Within 1 h, both NP-EMaxIMP1 and NP-NR were observed in all 3 tissues. An increase was observed in the level of NP-EmaxIMP1 and NP-NR in all tissues at 6 h post-inoculation. These data indicate that 20 nm NP-EmaxIMP1 or NP-NR reached deeper tissues within hours of oral inoculation and elicited complete to partial immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sporulation dynamics of poultry Eimeria oocysts in Chennai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, P; Raman, M; Gomathinayagam, S

    2015-12-01

    The infective form of Eimeria is the highly resistant oocyst, which is shed in the faeces of infected animals. Present study was carried out to understand the sporulation dynamics of six Eimeria oocysts viz. E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella in Chennai. Faecal samples of poultry were collected from various poultry farms located in and around Tamil Nadu. Oocysts of various Eimeria species were examined microscopically for sporulation on a 6 h interval basis till complete sporulation is acheived. The sporulation time recorded was 168, 120, 216, 192, 96 and 96 h for E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix and E. tenella respectively. It can be concluded on comparison with previous studies that humid weather conditions delay the sporulation time and dry weather and wet litter is the ideal condition for rapid sporulation.

  13. Expression of avian beta-defensins in the intestine of Eimeria-challenged chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific; for example, E. acervulina mainly affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa reduce feed efficiency a...

  14. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed effic...

  15. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.

  16. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Wong, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basolateral and brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. The current study investigated the expression of amino acid transporters (AAT) and other genes in the intestine of chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. At 7-day postinfection (PI), tissue from each intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was taken from birds inoculated with 3 × 10(3) oocysts/bird and processed to recover RNA. Analysis of gene expression was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results were given as relative expression using β₂-microglobulin as an endogenous control. All the genes studied were expressed in three segments of the intestines, and expression of the genes was altered by infection with E. maxima. Even though the jejunum is considered the parasite's primary predilection site, there was no segment-related difference in expression of most of the genes studied. The antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2) was downregulated in all three segments of the intestine. The results also demonstrate that transporters associated with brush border membranes were downregulated while transporters associated with the basolateral membranes were upregulated and that E. maxima alters the expression of AAT and LEAP2 throughout the small intestine.

  17. Re-evaluation of the life cycle of Eimeria maxima Tyzzer, 1929 in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C

    2017-12-14

    A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages. At 12 h p.i., sporozoites were observed inside a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in the epithelial villi and the lamina propria. By 24 h, sporozoites enclosed by a PV were observed in enterocytes of the glands of Lieberkühn. At 48 h p.i., sporozoites, elongated immature and mature schizonts, were all seen in the glands with merozoites budding off from a residual body. By 60 h, second-generation, sausage-shaped schizonts containing up to 12 merozoites were observed around a residual body in the villar tip of invaded enterocytes. At 72 and 96 h, profuse schizogony associated with third- and fourth-generation schizonts was observed throughout the villus. At 120 h, another generation (fifth) of schizonts were seen in villar tips as well as in subepithelium where gamonts and oocysts were also present; a few gamonts were in epithelium. Our finding of maximum parasitization of E. maxima in jejunum is important because this region is critical for nutrient absorption and weight gain.

  18. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  19. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-06-29

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development.

  1. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  2. Protective immunity against Eimeria maxima induced by vaccines of Em14-3-3 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqi; Huang, Jingwei; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Fei, Hong; Zhou, Zhouyang; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-04-15

    Eimeria maxima 14-3-3 (Em14-3-3) open reading frame (ORF) which consisted of 861 bp encoding a protein of 286 amino acids was successfully amplified and sequenced. Subsequently, the Em14-3-3 ORF was subcloned into pET-32a (+) and pVAX1, respectively. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that the target gene was successfully transcribed and expressed in vivo. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Em14-3-3 was expressed in both the sporozoites and merozoites. The animal experiments demonstrated that both rEm14-3-3 and pVAX1-14-3-3 could clearly alleviate jejunum lesions and body weight loss. The Em14-3-3 vaccines could increase oocyst decrease ratio, as well as produce an anticoccidial index of more than 165. The percentages of CD4 + in both the Em14-3-3 immunized groups were much higher, when compared with those of PBS, pET32a (+), and pVAX1 controls (P maxima. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticoccidial effects of coumestans from Eclipta alba for sustainable control of Eimeria tenella parasitosis in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, M G; Bertolini, L C T; Esteves, A F; Moreira, P; Franca, S C

    2011-04-19

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of a product containing coumestans from Eclipta alba. Experimental conditions were set up as to reproduce the environment conditions for husbandry adopted in commercial broiler farms. Broilers were raised in broiler chicken shed provided with feeders, drinkers, illumination and temperature control systems and floor covering to afford an adequate nourishing environment. Male Cobb broilers (240) were assigned to four experimental groups being each experimental group set apart in rice straw-covered shed isolated with wire mesh. One-day-old broilers were reared in a coccidian-free environment with ad libitum supply of filtered water and freely available standard feed, from the 1st to the 35th day of life. The T1 group received standard feed (negative control); T2 was treated with standard feed supplemented with 66 ppm of salinomycin (positive control); groups T3 and T4 had standard feed supplemented with the ethyl acetate fraction from methanolic extract of E. alba aerial parts, which contains the coumestans WL and DWL (120 and 180 ppm, respectively). The chicken broilers were individually infected with 2 × 104 oocysts of Eimeria tenella when they were 14 days old and were monitored weekly to evaluate zootechnical parameters such as weight gain and food conversion ratio. Counting of coccidial oocyst in chicken feces was assessed from random samples, from the 21st to 28th days of life, which corresponded to 7-14 days after the infection. Five chickens selected at random from each experimental group were subsequently euthanized at 21, 28 or 35 days of life to determine the lesion score in the cecal region and to excise a cecum portion for histopathological evaluation. The group treated with coumestans from E. alba presented an average weight gain and food conversion ratio higher than the negative control group and similar to the mean value of the positive control group. Coumestan-treated groups showed a

  4. Protecting chickens against coccidiosis in floor pens by administering Eimeria oocysts using gel beads or spray vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-09-01

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.

  5. IMMUNO-MODULATORY EFFECT OF INACTIVATED EIMERIA TENELLA VACCINE AND LIVE IMPPORTED COCCIDIAL VACCINE ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS VACCINA TED BROILER CHICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram Muneer, Haji Ahmad Hashmi, Masood Rabbani, Zahid Munir Chaudhry and Ali M. Bahrami

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 160 one-day-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of an inactivated Eimeria tenella vaccine and a live polyvalent imported antiococcidial vaccine (Coccivac. This study indicated that both of these vaccines did not adversely affect the development of serum antibody against Newcastle disease virus (NDV and the chicks vaccinated with either of the anticoccidial vaccines resisted the virulent NDV challenge. A study of the lymphoid organs such as bursa of fabricuis: thymus and spleen from the experimental chicks indicated that those organs were comparable with those from the chicks not vaccinated with these coccidial vaccines. The overall findings of this study indicate that anticoccidial vaccines do not have any effects on the immune functions of the vaccinates. In fact these vaccines prevented the occurrence of clinical coccidiosis in the vaccinates.

  6. Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  7. Efficacy of chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella 5401 and chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 against coccidiosis in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaokai; Huang, Xinmei; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-09-01

    Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) surface antigen 5401 were constructed and their efficacies against E. tenella challenge were studied. The open reading frame (ORF) of 5401 was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T2 to express the recombinant protein and the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blot. The ORF of 5401 and chicken cytokine gene IFN-γ or IL-2 were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 consecutively to construct DNA vaccines pVAX-5401-IFN-γ, pVAX-5401-IL-2 and pVAX-5401. The expression of aim genes in vivo was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated twice at an interval of 7 days with 100 µg of plasmids pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ and pVAX-5401-IL-2 or 200 µg of recombinant 5401 protein by leg intramuscular injection, respectively. Seven days after the second inoculation, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days after challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered to determine the effects of immunization. The results showed the recombinant protein was about 90 kDa and reacted with antiserum against soluble sporozoites. The animal experiment showed that all the DNA vaccines pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 and the recombinant 5401 protein could obviously alleviate body weight loss and cecal lesions as compared with non-vaccinated challenged control and empty vector pVAX1control. Furthermore, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 induced anti-coccidial index (ACI) of 180.01 or 177.24 which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-5401. The results suggested that 5401 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine. This finding also suggested that chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 could effectively improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  8. The Eimeria Transcript DB: an integrated resource for annotated transcripts of protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Luiz Thibério; Novaes, Jeniffer; Durham, Alan M.; Madeira, Alda Maria B. N.; Gruber, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Parasites of the genus Eimeria infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including chickens. We have recently reported a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella, integrating ORESTES data produced by our group and publicly available Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). All cDNA reads have been assembled, and the reconstructed transcripts have been submitted to a comprehensive functional annotation pipeline. Additional studies included orthology assignment across apicomplexan parasites and clustering analyses of gene expression profiles among different developmental stages of the parasites. To make all this body of information publicly available, we constructed the Eimeria Transcript Database (EimeriaTDB), a web repository that provides access to sequence data, annotation and comparative analyses. Here, we describe the web interface, available sequence data sets and query tools implemented on the site. The main goal of this work is to offer a public repository of sequence and functional annotation data of reconstructed transcripts of parasites of the genus Eimeria. We believe that EimeriaTDB will represent a valuable and complementary resource for the Eimeria scientific community and for those researchers interested in comparative genomics of apicomplexan parasites. Database URL: http://www.coccidia.icb.usp.br/eimeriatdb/ PMID:23411718

  9. Proteomic analysis of protein interactions between Eimeria maxima sporozoites and chicken jejunal epithelial cells by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Liu, Tingqi; Li, Ke; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-04-04

    Eimeria maxima initiates infection by invading the jejunal epithelial cells of chicken. However, the proteins involved in invasion remain unknown. The research of the molecules that participate in the interactions between E. maxima sporozoites and host target cells will fill a gap in our understanding of the invasion system of this parasitic pathogen. In the present study, chicken jejunal epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. Western blot was employed to analyze the soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay was used to separate the E. maxima proteins that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Shotgun LC-MS/MS technique was used for proteomics identification and Gene Ontology was employed for the bioinformatics analysis. The results of Western blot analysis showed that four proteins bands from jejunal epithelial cells co-cultured with soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites were recognized by the positive sera, with molecular weights of 70, 90, 95 and 130 kDa. The co-IP dilutions were analyzed by shotgun LC-MS/MS. A total of 204 proteins were identified in the E. maxima protein database using the MASCOT search engine. Thirty-five proteins including microneme protein 3 and 7 had more than two unique peptide counts and were annotated using Gene Ontology for molecular function, biological process and cellular localization. The results revealed that of the 35 annotated peptides, 22 (62.86%) were associated with binding activity and 15 (42.86%) were involved in catalytic activity. Our findings provide an insight into the interaction between E. maxima and the corresponding host cells and it is important for the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying E. maxima invasion.

  10. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

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    Sahar M Gadelhaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated.Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR marker.The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp, E. brunette (626bp, E. tenella (539bp, E. maxima (272bp, E. necatrix (200bp, E. mitis (327bp and E. praecopx (354bp. A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G in compared with the reference sequence.This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  11. Molecular characterization of eimeria species naturally infecting egyptian baldi chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhaq, Sahar M; Arafa, Waleed M; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens.

  12. Molecular Characterization of Eimeria Species Naturally Infecting Egyptian Baldi Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    GADELHAQ, Sahar M; ARAFA, Waleed M; ABOELHADID, Shawky M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coccidiosis is a serious protozoal disease of poultry. The identification of Eimeria species has important implications for diagnosis and control as well as for epidemiology. The molecular characterization of Eimeria species infecting Egyptian baladi chickens was investigated. Methods: Eimeria species oocysts were harvested from intestines of naturally infected Egyptian baldi chickens. The morphometry characterization of oocysts along with COCCIMORPH software was done. The DNA was extracted initially by freezing and thawing then the prepared samples was subjected to commercial DNA kits. The DNA products were analyzed through conventional polymerase chain reaction by using amplified region (SCAR) marker. Results: The PCR results confirmed the presence of 7 Eimeria species in the examined fecal samples of Egyptian baldi breed with their specific ampilicon sizes being E. acervulina (811bp), E. brunette (626bp), E. tenella (539bp), E. maxima (272bp), E. necatrix (200bp), E. mitis (327bp) and E. praecopx (354bp). A sequencing of the two most predominant species of Eimeria was done, on E. tenella and E. máxima. Analysis of the obtained sequences revealed high identities 99% between Egyptian isolates and the reference one. Similarly, E. maxima isolated from Egyptian baldi chickens showed 98% nucleotide identities with the reference strain. Only single nucleotide substitution was observed among the Egyptian E. tenella isolates (A181G) when compared to the reference one. The Egyptian isolates acquired 4 unique mutations (A68T, C164T, G190A and C227G) in compared with the reference sequence. Conclusion: This is the first time to identify the 7 species of Eimeria from Egyptian baladi chickens. PMID:25904950

  13. Eimeria maxima microneme protein 2 delivered as DNA vaccine and recombinant protein induces immunity against experimental homogenous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    E. maxima is one of the seven species of Eimeria that infects chicken. Until now, only a few antigenic genes of E. maxima have been reported. In the present study, the immune protective effects against E. maxima challenge of recombinant protein and DNA vaccine encoding EmMIC2 were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. The experimental group of chickens was immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC2 or 200 μg rEmMIC2 protein while the control group of chickens was injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile PBS. The results showed that the anti-EmMIC2 antibody titers of both rEmMIC2 protein and pVAX1-MIC2 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (Pmaxima challenge and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on the effect of gamma-rays irradiation on the virulence and immunogenicity of Eimeria tenella oocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, Birjees

    1976-01-01

    Complete attenuation of the infective oocysts of Eimeria tanella was obtained with a gamma ray dose of 15000r. Above this dose, pathogenicity and the sensitivity of the disease decreased. There was no difference in the level of immunity induced with irradiated and non-irradiated oocysts, but the mortality with the irradiated oocysts was much lower. (ARA)

  15. Cryptic Eimeria genotypes are common across the southern but not northern hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Thenmozhi, V; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Ayoade, Simeon; Fornace, Kimberly M; Jatau, Isa Danladi; Moftah, Abdalgader; Nolan, Matthew J; Sudhakar, N R; Adebambo, A O; Lawal, I A; Álvarez Zapata, Ramón; Awuni, Joseph A; Chapman, H David; Karimuribo, Esron; Mugasa, Claire M; Namangala, Boniface; Rushton, Jonathan; Suo, Xun; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Srinivasa Rao, Arni S R; Tewari, Anup K; Banerjee, Partha S; Dhinakar Raj, G; Raman, M; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2016-08-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa includes parasites of medical, zoonotic and veterinary significance. Understanding the global distribution and genetic diversity of these protozoa is of fundamental importance for efficient, robust and long-lasting methods of control. Eimeria spp. cause intestinal coccidiosis in all major livestock animals and are the most important parasites of domestic chickens in terms of both economic impact and animal welfare. Despite having significant negative impacts on the efficiency of food production, many fundamental questions relating to the global distribution and genetic variation of Eimeria spp. remain largely unanswered. Here, we provide the broadest map yet of Eimeria occurrence for domestic chickens, confirming that all the known species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria praecox, Eimeria tenella) are present in all six continents where chickens are found (including 21 countries). Analysis of 248 internal transcribed spacer sequences derived from 17 countries provided evidence of possible allopatric diversity for species such as E. tenella (FST values ⩽0.34) but not E. acervulina and E. mitis, and highlighted a trend towards widespread genetic variance. We found that three genetic variants described previously only in Australia and southern Africa (operational taxonomic units x, y and z) have a wide distribution across the southern, but not the northern hemisphere. While the drivers for such a polarised distribution of these operational taxonomic unit genotypes remains unclear, the occurrence of genetically variant Eimeria may pose a risk to food security and animal welfare in Europe and North America should these parasites spread to the northern hemisphere. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima, GS and M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badri, Riadh; Barta, John Robert

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation of two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima (GS and M6) were compared. Both strains had a prepatent period of approximately 120 h followed by peak oocyst shedding at 144-150 h post inoculation. Mean total oocyst output determined for each strain demonstrated that the fecundity of the M6 strain (12.8 × 10(3) ± 1.95) of E. maxima was roughly twice that of the GS strain (6.9 × 10(3) ± 3.33) when inoculated at the rate of 1,000 infective oocysts per bird. The process of oocyst sporulation was followed by repetitive sampling of sporulating oocysts at 26 °C with aeration over a 138 hour period. Sporulation was divided into five morphologically distinguishable stages whose abundance peaked at the following times during sporulation: unsporulated oocysts at 0 h; sporoblast anlagen at 18 h; sporoblasts without sporocyst walls at 22 h; and sporocysts without mature sporozoites at 38 h. The time to 50 % sporulation of E. maxima oocysts observed in the present study was approximately 53 h for both strains and all viable oocysts had completed sporulation by 60 h. In the present study, the prepatent periods, duration of oocyst shedding, and the relative kinetics of sporulation of the GS and M6 strains of E. maxima were found to be virtually identical despite the immunological distinctiveness of these two parasite strains.

  17. Meta-analysis of the performance variation in broilers experimentally challenged by Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, Marcos; Andretta, Ines; Lehnen, Cheila Roberta; Lovatto, Paulo Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2013-09-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out to (1) study the relation of the variation in feed intake and weight gain in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria tenella, or a Pool of Eimeria species, and (2) to identify and to quantify the effects involved in the infection. A database of articles addressing the experimental infection with Coccidia in broilers was developed. These publications must present results of animal performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio). The database was composed by 69 publications, totalling around 44 thousand animals. Meta-analysis followed three sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance. The feed intake of the groups challenged by E. acervulina and E. tenella did not differ (P>0.05) to the control group. However, the feed intake in groups challenged by E. maxima and Pool showed an increase of 8% and 5% (PEimeria species, animal age, sex, and genetic line. In general the age effect is superior to the challenge effect, showing that age at the challenge is important to determine the impact of Eimeria infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A new adenovirus based vaccine vector expressing an Eimeria tenella derived TLR agonist improves cellular immune responses to an antigenic target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Appledorn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviral based vectors remain promising vaccine platforms for use against numerous pathogens, including HIV. Recent vaccine trials utilizing Adenovirus based vaccines expressing HIV antigens confirmed induction of cellular immune responses, but these responses failed to prevent HIV infections in vaccinees. This illustrates the need to develop vaccine formulations capable of generating more potent T-cell responses to HIV antigens, such as HIV-Gag, since robust immune responses to this antigen correlate with improved outcomes in long-term non-progressor HIV infected individuals.In this study we designed a novel vaccine strategy utilizing an Ad-based vector expressing a potent TLR agonist derived from Eimeria tenella as an adjuvant to improve immune responses from a [E1-]Ad-based HIV-Gag vaccine. Our results confirm that expression of rEA elicits significantly increased TLR mediated innate immune responses as measured by the influx of plasma cytokines and chemokines, and activation of innate immune responding cells. Furthermore, our data show that the quantity and quality of HIV-Gag specific CD8(+ and CD8(- T-cell responses were significantly improved when coupled with rEA expression. These responses also correlated with a significantly increased number of HIV-Gag derived epitopes being recognized by host T cells. Finally, functional assays confirmed that rEA expression significantly improved antigen specific CTL responses, in vivo. Moreover, we show that these improved responses were dependent upon improved TLR pathway interactions.The data presented in this study illustrate the potential utility of Ad-based vectors expressing TLR agonists to improve clinical outcomes dependent upon induction of robust, antigen specific immune responses.

  19. The effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of amino acid and sugar transporters aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1, is not solely due to decreased feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria in poultry is endemic to poultry operations and results in decreased feed intake, diarrhea, and decreased weight gain. The goal was to determine the effect infection Eimeria maxima on the expression of genes that encode peptide and amino acid transporters (AATs), and al...

  20. Eimeria Oocyst Concentrations and Species Composition in Litter from Commercial Broiler Farms During Anticoccidial Drug or Live Eimeria Oocyst Vaccine Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; Ritter, Donald

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Eimeria oocyst concentrations and species composition in commercial broiler house litter changed during different cycles of anticoccidial drug (ACD) or live Eimeria oocyst vaccine (VAC) control programs and if there was a correlation between Eimeria oocyst levels and broiler performance. Litter samples were collected from a total of 15 different broiler farms encompassing a total of 45 individual houses during at least one complete grow-out cycle over a 21-mo period. Of these 15 broiler farms, three were followed for the entire 21-mo period spanning three ACD and four VAC cycles. Samples were collected at 2, 4, and 7-8 wk of grow-out corresponding to starter, grower, and withdraw periods of the ACD cycle. On a number of occasions, litter samples were obtained just prior to chick placement. Eimeria oocysts were isolated from all samples, counted by microscopy, and extracted for DNA to identify Eimeria species by ITS1 PCR. In general, Eimeria oocyst concentration in litter reached peak levels at 2-4 wk of grow-out regardless of coccidiosis control measure being used. However, peak oocyst numbers were sometimes delayed until 7-8 wk, indicating some level of Eimeria spp. drug resistance or incomplete vaccine coverage. Eimeria maxima , Eimeria acervulina , Eimeria praecox, and Eimeria tenella were generally present in all samples, and no difference in the species composition was noted between houses on a particular farm. While Eimeria species composition was similar among houses, Eimeria spp. oocyst levels exhibited sporadic peaks in one house of a given location's houses. Of particular interest was the observed correlation between E. maxima oocyst abundance and chick mortality. However, no correlation was observed in E. maxima oocyst levels, and the performance parameters adjusted feed conversion ratio and average daily weight gain. This study showed that understanding the dynamics of Eimeria spp. oocyst levels and species

  1. Comparison between McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC methods for the enumeration of Eimeria maxima oocysts in poultry excreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, C; Paras, K L; Applegate, T J; Verocai, G G

    2018-04-30

    Monitoring Eimeria shedding has become more important due to the recent restrictions to the use of antibiotics within the poultry industry. Therefore, there is a need for the implementation of more precise and accurate quantitative diagnostic techniques. The objective of this study was to compare the precision and accuracy between the Mini-FLOTAC and the McMaster techniques for quantitative diagnosis of Eimeria maxima oocyst in poultry. Twelve pools of excreta samples of broiler chickens experimentally infected with E. maxima were analyzed for the comparison between Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster technique using, the detection limits (dl) of 23 and 25, respectively. Additionally, six excreta samples were used to compare the precision of different dl (5, 10, 23, and 46) using the Mini-FLOTAC technique. For precision comparisons, five technical replicates of each sample (five replicate slides on one excreta slurry) were read for calculating the mean oocyst per gram of excreta (OPG) count, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and precision of both aforementioned comparisons. To compare accuracy between the methods (McMaster, and Mini-FLOTAC dl 5 and 23), excreta from uninfected chickens was spiked with 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000, or 10,000 OPG; additional samples remained unspiked (negative control). For each spiking level, three samples were read in triplicate, totaling nine reads per spiking level per technique. Data were transformed using log10 to obtain normality and homogeneity of variances. A significant correlation (R = 0.74; p = 0.006) was observed between the mean OPG of the McMaster dl 25 and the Mini-FLOTAC dl 23. Mean OPG, CV, SD, and precision were not statistically different between the McMaster dl 25 and Mini-FLOTAC dl 23. Despite the absence of statistical difference (p > 0.05), Mini-FLOTAC dl 5 showed a numerically lower SD and CV than Mini-FLOTAC dl 23. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant and positive

  2. CDR3 analysis of TCR Vβ repertoire of CD8⁺ T cells from chickens infected with Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Suo, Jingxia; Lv, Qiyao; Xie, Li; Wang, Yunzhou; Huang, Xiaoxi; Chen, Yuchen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2014-08-01

    CD8(+) T cells play a major role in the immune protection of host against the reinfection of Eimeria maxima, the most immunogenic species of eimerian parasites in chickens. To explore the dominant complementarity-determining regions 3 (CDR3) of CD8(+) T cell populations induced by the infection of this parasite, sequence analysis was performed in this study for CDR3 of CD8(+) T cells from E. maxima infected chickens. After 5 days post the third or forth infection, intraepithelial lymphocytes were isolated from the jejunum of bird. CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were sorted and subjected to total RNA isolation and cDNA preparation. PCR amplification and cloning of the loci between Vβ1 and Cβ was conducted for the subsequent sequencing of CDR3 of T cell receptor (TCR). After the forth infection, 2 birds exhibited two same frequent TCR CDR3 sequences, i.e., AKQDWGTGGYSNMI and AGRVLNIQY; while the third bird showed two different frequent TCR CDR3 sequences, AKQGARGHTPLN and AKQDIEVRGPNTPLN. No frequent CDR3 sequence was detected from uninfected birds, though AGRVLNIQY was also found in two uninfected birds. Our result preliminarily demonstrates that frequent CDR3 sequences may exist in E. maxima immunized chickens, encouraging the mining of the immunodominant CD8(+) T cells against E. maxima infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of four important Eimeria species by multiplex PCR in a single assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myung-Jo

    2014-06-01

    The oocysts of some of the recognized species of chicken coccidiosis are difficult to distinguish morphologically. Diagnostic laboratories are increasingly utilizing DNA-based technologies for the specific identification of Eimeria species. This study reports a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) for the simultaneous diagnosis of the Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria necatrix species, which infect domestic fowl. Primer pairs specific to each species were designed in order to generate a ladder of amplification products ranging from 20 to 25 bp, and a common optimum annealing temperature for these species was determined to be 52.5 °C. Sensitivity tests were performed for each species, showing a detection threshold of 1-5 pg. All the species were amplified homogeneously, and a homogenous band ladder was observed, indicating that the assay permitted the simultaneous detection of all the species in a single-tube reaction. In the phylogenic study, there was a clear species clustering, which was irrespective of geographical location, for all the ITS-1 sequences used. This multiplex PCR assay represents a rapid and potential cost-effective diagnostic method for the detection of some key Eimeria species that infect domestic fowl. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  5. Roles of tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins and dityrosine- and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-mediated protein cross-linking in development of the oocyst wall in the coccidian parasite Eimeria maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belli, Sabina I; Wallach, Michael G; Luxford, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    infection by several organisms of medical and veterinary importance such as Eimeria, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cyclospora, and Neospora could be developed. Here, we show that two tyrosine-rich precursor glycoproteins, gam56 and gam82, found in specialized organelles (wall-forming bodies) in the sexual stage...... (macrogamete) of Eimeria maxima are proteolytically processed into smaller glycoproteins, which are then incorporated into the developing oocyst wall. The identification of high concentrations of dityrosine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) in oocyst extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography......-mediated cross-linking might be an enzyme-catalyzed event. As such, the mechanism of oocyst wall formation in Eimeria, is analogous to the underlying mechanisms involved in the stabilization of extracellular matrices in a number of organisms, widely distributed in nature, including insect resilin, nematode...

  6. Epidemiology of Eimeria species in selected broiler farms of Khoy suburb, West Azarbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is an economically-important disease of poultry production industry worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of different Eimeria species in the farmed broilers of Khoy city, West Azarbaijan, North West Iran. A total of 26 broiler farms of different production capacities were arbitrarily selected and examined in 2013. In each of the farms, Litters of two broilers farms were randomly sampled twice a week and examined. The intensity of infection with each of the Eimeria species was assessed on the basis of number of oocysts per gram of litter using Clayton-Lane and McMaster methods. Eimeria species diversity was determined by using oocyst sporulation technique in 2% potassium dichromate solution. Results indicated that 23.08% (6/26 of the broiler farms were infected with Eimeria oocysts. The maximum litter infection rate (7.5×103 was observed in fifth week of the rearing period. The litter infection rate was significantly correlated with kinds of water dispenser, feeder, ventilation, and density. The litters were infected with five Eimeria species; E. maxima (32.67% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. mitis (24% in 6 farms (23.07%, E. acervulina (18% in 5 farms (19.23%, E. tenella (14.67% in 4 farms (15.38%, and E. necatrix (10.67% in 3 farms (11.58%. Results of this study uncovered high rates of litter infection with various Eimeria species in the studied farms, suggesting the establishment of firm health management strategies in the region.

  7. Construction of Lactococcus lactis expressing secreted and anchored Eimeria tenella 3-1E protein and comparison of protective immunity against homologous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunli; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Mingyang; Ma, Dexing

    2017-07-01

    Two novel plasmids pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E and pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA were constructed. The plasmids were respectively electrotransformed into L. lactis NZ9000 to generate strain of L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-Δ3-1E in which 3-1E protein was expressed in secretion, and L. lactis/pTX8048-SP-NAΔ3-1E-CWA on which 3-1E protein was covalently anchored to the surface of bacteria cells. The expression of target proteins were examined by Western blot. The live lactococci expressing secreted 3-1E protein, anchored 3-1E protein, and cytoplasmic 3-1E protein was administered orally to chickens respectively, and the protective immunity and efficacy were compared by animal experiment. The results showed oral immunization to chickens with recombinant lactococci expressing anchored 3-1E protein elicited high 3-1E-specific serum IgG, increased high proportion of CD4 + and CD8α + cells in spleen, alleviated average lesion score in cecum, decreased the oocyst output per chicken compared to lactococci expressing cytoplasmic or secreted 3-1E protein. Taken together, these findings indicated the surface anchored Eimeria protein displayed by L. lacits can induce protective immunity and partial protection against homologous infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The mRNA expression of amino acid and sugar transporters, aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1 in the intestines of Eimeria infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miska, K B; Fetterer, R H

    2017-02-01

    Coccidiosis in chickens is caused by infection of gut epithelial cells with protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria This disease causes losses to the poultry industry since infected birds fail to gain weight as rapidly as non-infected birds and efficiency of feed conversion is compromised. For the present study the effect of Eimeria on expression of components of amino acid and sugar uptake mechanisms was determined. Broiler chicks were infected with Eimeria maxima, which infects the jejunum; Eimeria acervulina, which infects the duodenum; or Eimeria tenella, which infects the ceca. Sections of the jejunum, duodenum, and ceca (depending on species of Eimeria) were taken at several time points between d zero and 14 post infection (PI) for mRNA expression analysis. Genes examined included one digestive enzyme, 7 peptide and amino acid transporters located on the brush border, 8 transporters located at the basolateral surface of the gut epithelium, and 5 sugar transporters. All 3 Eimeria species examined caused decrease in expression of brush border transporters particularly at d 5 to 7 PI, which corresponds to the time when pathology is greatest. The same pattern was seen in expression of sugar transporters. However, the expression of basolateral transporters differed among species. Eimeria tenella infection resulted in decreased expression of all basolateral transporters, while E. maxima infection caused increased expression of 2 genes and slight decrease in expression of the remaining 5 genes. Infection with E. acervulina resulted in increased expression at the height of infection of all but one basolateral transporter. In conclusion, Eimeria infection causes a general decrease in gene expression of sugar transporter and brush border AATs at the height of infection. However the expression of basolateral transporters is increased in E. maxima and E. acervulina infected birds. It is possible that decreased expression of brush border transporters in combination with

  9. Protective Efficacy of Coccidial Common Antigen Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) against Challenge with Three Eimeria Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Li, Wenyu; Huang, Xinmei; Tian, Di; Liu, Jianhua; Yang, Xinchao; Liu, Lianrui; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui; Song, Xiaokai

    2017-01-01

    Coccidiosis is an intestinal disorder of poultry and often caused by simultaneous infections of several Eimeria species. GAPDH is one of the immunogenic common antigens among Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina, and E. maxima identified in our previous study. The present study was performed to further evaluate its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The genes of GAPDH cloned from E. acervulina and E. maxima were named as EaGAPDH and EmGAPDH, respectively. The immunogenicity of recombinant proteins of EaGAPDH and EmGAPDH were analyzed by Western blot. The transcription and expression of pVAX-EaGAPDH and pVAX-EmGAPDH in the injected muscles were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. GAPDH-induced changes of T lymphocytes subpopulation, cytokines production, and antibody were determined using flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and ELISA, respectively. Finally, the protective efficacies of pVAX-EaGAPDH and pVAX-EmGAPDH were evaluated by vaccination and challenge experiments. The results revealed that the recombinant GAPDH proteins reacted with the corresponding chicken antisera. The EaGAPDH genes were successfully transcribed and expressed in the injected muscles. Vaccination with pVAX-EaGAPDH and pVAX-EmGAPDH significantly increased the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, the cytokines productions of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 et al., and IgG antibody levels compared to controls. The vaccination increased the weight gains, decreased the oocyst outputs, alleviate the enteric lesions compared to controls, and induced moderate anti-coccidial index (ACI). In conclusion, the coccidial common antigen of GAPDH induced significant humoral and cellular immune response and effective protection against E. tenella, E. acervulina, E. maxima, and mixed infection of the three Eimeria species. PMID:28769877

  10. Expression of host defense peptides in the intestine of Eimeria-challenged chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Dwyer, D M; Miska, K B; Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Wong, E A

    2017-07-01

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Eimeria, which produces intestinal lesions leading to weight gain depression. Current control methods include vaccination and anticoccidial drugs. An alternative approach involves modulating the immune system. The objective of this study was to profile the expression of host defense peptides such as avian beta-defensins (AvBDs) and liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), which are part of the innate immune system. The mRNA expression of AvBD family members 1, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, and 13 and LEAP2 was examined in chickens challenged with either E. acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella. The duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca were collected 7 d post challenge. In study 1, E. acervulina challenge resulted in down-regulation of AvBD1, AvBD6, AvBD10, AvBD11, AvBD12, and AvBD13 in the duodenum. E. maxima challenge caused down-regulation of AvBD6, AvBD10, and AvBD11 in the duodenum, down-regulation of AvBD10 in the jejunum, but up-regulation of AvBD8 and AvBD13 in the ceca. E. tenella challenge showed no change in AvBD expression in any tissue. In study 2, which involved challenge with only E. maxima, there was down-regulation of AvBD1 in the ileum, AvBD11 in the jejunum and ileum, and LEAP2 in all 3 segments of the small intestine. The expression of LEAP2 was further examined by in situ hybridization in the jejunum of chickens from study 2. LEAP2 mRNA was expressed similarly in the enterocytes lining the villi, but not in the crypts of control and Eimeria challenged chickens. The lengths of the villi in the Eimeria challenged chickens were less than those in the control chickens, which may in part account for the observed down-regulation of LEAP2 mRNA quantified by PCR. Overall, the AvBD response to Eimeria challenge was not consistent; whereas LEAP2 was consistently down-regulated, which suggests that LEAP2 plays an important role in modulating an Eimeria infection. Published by Oxford University Press on

  11. Effects of in ovo supplementation of probiotics on performance and immunocompetence of broiler chicks to an Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, C M; Kim, S; Potter, T D; Ritzi, M M; Young, M; Dalloul, R A

    2016-11-30

    Coccidiosis is regarded as the parasitic disease with the greatest economic impact on the poultry industry due to reduced performance and increased mortality. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of in ovo administration of probiotics on hatchability, performance, immune organ weights, and lesion scores in broiler chicks during a mixed Eimeria infection. At embryonic day 18, 210 eggs were injected with either sterile water or 1×10 6 cfu probiotic bacteria. On day 3 post-hatch, half of the chicks from each treatment group were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. Measurements and tissue samples were taken on day of hatch (DOH) and days 3, 9 and 15. On day 9, 24 birds per treatment were scored for intestinal Eimeria lesions. No differences were seen among groups for hatchability as well as for body weight (BW), BW gain (BWG), or immune organ weights prior to the Eimeria challenge. On day 9, the non-challenged birds with probiotic supplementation had higher BW and BWG than the non-supplemented controls while no differences were seen among the challenged groups. On day 15, probiotic supplemented birds had improved BW compared to the non-supplemented birds as well as increased BWG from day 9 to 15. Bursa weight was not affected by treatment at any time point while spleen weight was greater in supplemented birds on day 15. Birds receiving the probiotic had significantly lower mortality than non-treated birds. Additionally, gross lesion severity was reduced due to probiotic supplementation in all intestinal segments evaluated. These results suggest that in ovo supplementation of probiotics may improve early performance and provide protection against a mixed Eimeria infection.

  12. Are Eimeria Genetically Diverse, and Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P

    2017-03-01

    Eimeria pose a risk to all livestock species as a cause of coccidiosis, reducing productivity and compromising animal welfare. Pressure to reduce drug use in the food chain makes the development of cost-effective vaccines against Eimeria essential. For novel vaccines to be successful, understanding genetic and antigenic diversity in field populations is key. Eimeria species that infect chickens are most significant, with Eimeria tenella among the best studied and most economically important. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based haplotyping has been used to determine population structure, genotype distribution, and potential for cross-fertilization between E. tenella strains. Here, we discuss recent developments in our understanding of diversity for Eimeria in relation to its specialized life cycle, distribution across the globe, and the challenges posed to vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria-challenged broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, S; Miska, K B; Fetterer, R H; Jenkins, M C; Wong, E A

    2015-03-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. The site of invasion and lesions in the intestine is species-specific, for example E. acervulina affects the duodenum, E. maxima the jejunum, and E. tenella the ceca. Lesions in the intestinal mucosa cause reduced feed efficiency and body weight gain. The growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in the intestine. The objective of this study was to compare the expression of digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters and an antimicrobial peptide in broilers challenged with either E. acervulina, E. maxima or E. tenella. The genes examined included digestive enzymes (APN and SI), peptide and amino acid transporters (PepT1, ASCT1, b(0,+)AT/rBAT, B(0)AT, CAT1, CAT2, EAAT3, LAT1, y(+)LAT1 and y(+)LAT2), sugar transporters (GLUT1, GLUT2, GLUT5 and SGLT1), zinc transporter (ZnT1) and an antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2). Duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca were collected 7 days post challenge. E. acervulina challenge resulted in downregulation of various nutrient transporters or LEAP2 in the duodenum and ceca, but not the jejunum or ileum. E. maxima challenge produced both downregulation and upregulation of nutrient transporters and LEAP2 in all three segments of the small intestine and ceca. E. tenella challenge resulted in the downregulation and upregulation of nutrient transporters and LEAP2 in the jejunum, ileum and ceca, but not the duodenum. At the respective target tissue, E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella infection caused common downregulation of APN, b(0,+)AT, rBAT, EAAT3, SI, GLUT2, GLUT5, ZnT1 and LEAP2. The downregulation of nutrient transporters would result in a decrease in the efficiency of protein and polysaccharide digestion and uptake, which may partially explain the weight loss. The downregulation of nutrient transporters may also be a cellular response to reduced expression of the host defense protein LEAP2, which would

  14. Chicken IL-17F: identification and comparative expression analysis in Eimeria-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo H; Jeong, Jipseol; Park, Ae R; Yim, Dongjean; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Kwang D; Chang, Hong H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Byung-Hyung; Min, Wongi

    2012-11-01

    Interleukin-17F (IL-17F) is a proinflammatory cytokine, which plays an important role in gut homeostasis. A full-length chicken IL-17F (chIL-17F) cDNA with a 510-bp coding region was identified from ConA-activated chicken splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the previously described chicken IL-17 (chIL-17A) and 38-43% with mammalian homologues. The locus harboring chIL-17 and chIL-17F displayed inverted order compared to those of mammals. ChIL-17F transcript expression was high in lymphoblast cell line CU205 and at moderate levels in small and large intestines and liver. ChIL-17F and chIL-17 expression profiles were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR in mitogen-stimulated splenic lymphocytes and intestinal areas affected by Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections. Expression levels of chIL-17F, like chIL-17, were elevated in mitogen-activated splenic lymphocytes. ChIL-17F, but not chIL-17, expression was upregulated in intestinal tissues affected by E. maxima and E. tenella infections. Recombinant chIL-17F biological activities were similar to that of chIL-17 in primary chicken embryonic fibroblasts. These results suggest that chIL-17F is a unique member of the IL-17 family of cytokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Madeira, Alda M.B.N

    2014-01-01

    and oocyst excretion were investigated. Broilers given chemical coccidiostats performed better than all other groups. Broilers given the two highest dosages of the herbal mixture had intermediate lesion scores caused by Eimeria acervulina, which was higher than in broilers given coccidiostats, but less than...

  16. Effects of probiotics and application methods on performance and response of broiler chickens to an Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzi, Miranda M; Abdelrahman, Wael; Mohnl, Michaela; Dalloul, Rami A

    2014-11-01

    Coccidiosis is an inherent risk in the commercial broiler industry and inflicts devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Probiotics may provide a potential alternative to the prophylactic use of anticoccidials in commercial production. This study evaluated the effects of probiotic applications (feed and water) on bird performance and resistance to a mixed Eimeria infection in commercial broilers. On day of hatch, 1,008 commercial male broilers (Cobb 500) were assigned to 1 of 6 treatments (8 replicate floor pens; 21 birds/pen), including noninfected negative control (NEG), Eimeria-infected positive control (POS), anticoccidial control (0.01% salinomycin, SAL), intermittent high-dose water-applied probiotic (WPI), continuous low-dose water-applied probiotic (WPC), and feed-supplemented probiotic (FSP). On d 15, all birds except those in NEG were challenged with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. Measurements were taken on d 7, 15, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Fecal samples were collected from d 20 to 24 for oocyst counts, and lesion scores were evaluated on d 21. Data were analyzed using the Fit Model platform in JMP Pro 10.0 (SAS Institute Inc.). Differences in experimental treatments were tested using Tukey's honestly significant difference following ANOVA with significance reported at P ≤ 0.05. Overall, NEG birds outperformed all other groups. For performance, the probiotic groups were comparable with the SAL-treated birds, except during the 6 d immediately following the Eimeria species challenge, where the SAL birds exhibited better performance. The WPC birds had lower duodenal and jejunal lesion scores, indicating a healthier intestine and enhanced resistance to Eimeria species compared with POS. Birds in the WPI treatment shed fewer oocysts in the feces, although this was not a trend for all of the probiotic treatment groups. The results of this study suggest probiotic supplementation without anticoccidials can

  17. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Yin, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3-10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima.

  18. The effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of amino acid and sugar transporters aminopeptidase, as well as the di- and tri-peptide transporter PepT1, is not solely due to decreased feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miska, Katarzyna B; Fetterer, Raymond H

    2018-05-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria in poultry is endemic to poultry operations and results in decreased feed intake, diarrhea, and decreased weight gain. The goal was to determine the effect of Eimeria maxima infection on the expression of genes that encode peptide and amino acid transporters (AATs), and also to determine whether decreased feed intake contributes to the change in gene expression by including a pair-fed group of broilers. Three groups of male Ross broilers: 1) not infected, 2) infected, and 3) not infected pair-fed groups were used. Chicks were infected with 1,000 oocysts of E. maxima at 21 d of age. Feed consumption was obtained daily, and at d 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 post-infection (PI), 6 birds were euthanized, and a portion of the jejunum was removed for qRT-PCR. Infected birds had significantly decreased feed consumption between d 6 to 9 PI. At d 7 PI infected birds had a 45% reduction in weight gain, and pair-fed birds had a 32% reduction in weight gain. The feed conversion ratio at d 7 PI of infected birds was 2.2 while that of pair-fed birds was 1.7, compared to 1.5 in uninfected birds. Growth parameters were more affected in infected birds than in pair-fed birds. By measuring expression levels of nutrient uptake and processing genes via qRT-PCR, it was determined that genes encoding proteins located at the brush border of the gut epithelium were affected by infection as well as change in feed intake. The expression of AATs B°AT, b°,+AT, EAAT3, and PepT1 in infected birds decreased sharply at the height of infection; however, in birds that were pair fed, an increase in expression of b°,+AT, and PepT1 was observed, and little change was seen in expression of B°AT and EAAT3. In summary, the changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters are distinct between coccidia-infected birds compared to healthy pair-fed birds.

  19. The epizootiology of Eimeria infections in commercial broiler chickens where anticoccidial drug programs were employed in six successive flocks to control coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D; Barta, J R; Hafeez, M A; Matsler, P; Rathinam, T; Raccoursier, M

    2016-08-01

    The course of natural Eimeria infections in 6 successive broiler flocks at a commercial farm comprising 4 houses, where different anticoccidial drug programs were employed, was studied by counting the number of oocysts in the litter at weekly intervals. The course of infection in all flocks followed a bell shaped curve in which oocyst numbers, initially low, increased to a peak ranging from 36 × 10(3) to 74 × 10(3) oocysts/g (OPG) of litter around 3 to 4 wk of age. Numbers subsequently declined to 3 × 10(3) to 15 × 10(3) OPG. Oocysts could be detected between flocks when birds were not present. Species of Eimeria identified included E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella Despite the presence of large numbers of oocysts in the litter, coccidial lesions were not observed in the intestines of the birds. The performance of broilers at the study site was comparable to that of other farms in the area where birds from the same settlement were reared to a similar age using the same drug programs. The results indicate the ubiquitous nature of Eimeria spp. infections in commercial broilers despite prophylactic medication. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. An alternative to antibiotic-based drugs in feed for enhancing performance of broilers grown on Eimeria spp.-infected litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, V G; Gray, C; Daley, M; Krueger, W F; Sefton, A E

    2004-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of lasalocid, an anticoccidial feed additive (90.7 kg/ton); bacitracin, a growth-promoter (50 g/ton); and yeast culture residue (YCR) (1 kg/ton) on the performance of broiler chicks reared to 42 d of age on recycled litter. Recycled litter consisted of pine wood shavings containing droppings from chicks infected with 3 select strains of coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina). Response variables (BW, intestinal tract and litter coliform counts, cecal and liver relative weights, and litter moisture content) were recorded biweekly. Mean BW of chicks fed the diet supplemented with YCR was higher than that of the controls (P litter aged and moisture content increased. The mean intestinal coliform population from YCR-treated chicks was lower (P litter coliform counts increased with increased use of the litter. Cecal and liver relative weights calculated from the chicks in trial 3 showed that only the liver was significantly affected by treatments. YCR appeared to be a viable alternative to bacitracin and lasalocid medication in enhancing growth of broiler chicks reared on recycled litter.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Barta, John R

    2014-07-17

    via host switching from another avian host. Phylogenetic analyses suggest E. necatrix and E. tenella are related distantly to other Eimeria of chickens. Mitochondrial genomes of Eimeria species sequenced to date are highly conserved with regard to gene content and structure. Nonetheless, complete mitochondrial genome sequences and, particularly the three CDS, possess sufficient sequence variability for differentiating Eimeria species of poultry. The mitochondrial genome sequences are highly suited for molecular diagnostics and phylogenetics of coccidia and, potentially, genetic markers for molecular epidemiology.

  2. Relative disease susceptibility and clostridial toxin antibody responses in three commercial broiler lines co-infected with Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima using an experimental model of necrotic enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotic enteritis is an enteric disease of poultry resulting from infection by Clostridium perfringens with co-infection by Eimeria spp. constituting a major risk factor for disease pathogenesis. This study compared three commercial broiler chicken lines using an experimental model of necrotic ente...

  3. Oral treatment of Eimeria tenella -infected broilers using aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, wild Ganoderma species of mushroom grows in abundance during the rainy season. Studies were conducted to evaluate the haematological parameters and the histopathology lesions in organs of broilers treated with aqueous extract of wild Ganoderma sp. Blood and organs were collected for haematology and ...

  4. Óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia D.M.M. Bona

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de um composto vegetal contendo óleo essencial de orégano, alecrim, canela e extrato de pimenta vermelha no controle de Salmonella, Eimeria e Clostridium em frangos de corte. Para tal, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro avaliou-se a eficiência deste produto no controle de Clostridium perfringens após desafio com Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima e E. tenella. Aves de um dia de idade foram divididas em três grupos: T1 - dieta controle sem aditivo promotor de crescimento; T2 - dieta com adição de avilamicina (10ppm; e T3 - dieta com adição do composto vegetal (100ppm. O uso do composto vegetal na alimentação de frangos reduziu lesões específicas de E. maxima e E. tenella aos 14 dias pós-inoculação (PI como também reduziram a contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC de Clostridium perfringens no conteúdo do ceco das aves em relação ao grupo controle. No segundo experimento avaliou-se a eficiência deste mesmo produto em aves desafiadas com Salmonella Enteritidis. Aves de um dia de idade foram distribuídas em três tratamentos, sendo T1 - dieta controle sem adição de antibiótico promotor de crescimento, T2 - dieta com 10ppm de Avilamicina, T3 - dieta com 100ppm de um produto a base do composto vegetal acima citado. Aos 21 dias de idade todas as aves foram inoculadas com 10(5 UFC de Salmonella Enteritidis. A utilização do composto vegetal e avilamicina diminuiu a excreção de Salmonella nas aves 72 horas PI de Salmonella. A utilização do composto vegetal aumentou a relação vilo/células CD3+ no duodeno, em relação ao grupo avilamicina e controle, porém não teve efeito sobre a expressão destas células no ceco.

  5. Validation of a quantitative Eimeria spp. PCR for fresh droppings of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Ter Veen, C; Dijkman, R; Landman, W J M

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the seven chicken Eimeria spp. was modified and validated for direct use on fresh droppings. The analytical specificity of the qPCR on droppings was 100%. Its analytical sensitivity (non-sporulated oocysts/g droppings) was 41 for E. acervulina, ≤2900 for E. brunetti, 710 for E. praecox, 1500 for E. necatrix, 190 for E. tenella, 640 for E. maxima, and 1100 for E. mitis. Field validation of the qPCR was done using droppings with non-sporulated oocysts from 19 broiler flocks. To reduce the number of qPCR tests five grams of each pooled sample (consisting of ten fresh droppings) per time point were blended into one mixed sample. Comparison of the oocysts per gram (OPG)-counting method with the qPCR using pooled samples (n = 1180) yielded a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.76-0.80) and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.70-0.81) using mixed samples (n = 236). Comparison of the average of the OPG-counts of the five pooled samples with the mixed sample per time point (n = 236) showed a Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.95) for the OPG-counting method and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84-0.90) for the qPCR. This indicates that mixed samples are practically equivalent to the mean of five pooled samples. The good correlation between the OPG-counting method and the qPCR was further confirmed by the visual agreement between the total oocyst/g shedding patterns measured with both techniques in the 19 broiler flocks using the mixed samples.

  6. Further characterisation of two Eimeria species (Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis) in quokkas (Setonix brachyurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, J M; Friend, J A; Yang, R; Ryan, U M

    2014-03-01

    The identification and characterisation of novel Eimeria species has largely been based on sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphology, the host species and the geographical range. Variation in the size and shape of Eimeria oocysts across their host range however, make the identification and characterisation of novel species using traditional methodologies alone problematic. The use of molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis has greatly advanced our ability to characterise Eimeria species and has recently been applied to understand evolutionary relationships among Eimeria species from Australian marsupials. In the present study, Eimeria species isolated from quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) captured from Two Peoples Bay, Bald Island and Rottnest Island, Western Australia, were morphologically identified as Eimeria quokka and Eimeria setonicis. Both Eimeria species were identified as being polymorphic in nature with regards to sporulated oocyst and sporocyst morphometrics. Phylogenetic analysis using 18S rRNA and COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) genes, grouped E. quokka and E. setonicis within the Eimeria marsupial clade together with Eimeria trichosuri from brushtail possums, Eimeria macropodis from tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) and several unidentified macropod Eimeria species from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). This study is the first to characterise E. quokka and E. setonicis by molecular analysis, enabling more extensive resolution of evolutionary relationships among marsupial-derived Eimeria species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmadreza; Razavi, Seyyed Mostafa; Asasi, Keramat; Goudarzi, Majid Torabi

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effect of different Artemisia annua extracts on sporulation rate of mixed oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, and Eimeria tenella. Three types of A. annua extracts including petroleum ether (PE), ethanol 96° (E), and water (W) extracts were prepared. Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide derived from the A. annua analysis of each extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). Fresh fecal samples containing three Eimeria species were floated and counted, and the oocysts were transferred into 50 tubes, each containing 10(5) oocysts per milliliter. Five tubes were control. Each of the other 45 tubes contained one of three doses (1 part per thousand (ppt), 2 ppt, and 5 ppt) and one of three extracts (PE, E, and W extracts) with five replications. The tubes were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and aerated. Sporulation inhibition assay was used to evaluate the activity of extracts. The results showed that the E and PE extracts inhibit sporulation in 2 and 5 ppt concentrations, but the W extract stimulates it in all concentrations. The proportions of oocyst inhibition relative to control were 31 % (5 ppt) and 29 % (2 ppt) for PE and 34 % (5 ppt) and 46 % (2 ppt) for E extract. Furthermore, many oocysts in PE and E groups were wrinkled and contained abnormal sporocysts. The proportions of sporulation stimulation relative to control were 22 % (5 ppt), 24 % (2 ppt), and 27 % (1 ppt) in W extract. Our study is the first to demonstrate that all types of A. annua extracts do not necessarily have a similar activity, and the interaction of all contents and their relative concentrations is an important factor for sporulation stimulation or inhibition. It seems, some parts of unmetabolized excreted PE and E extracts could inhibit oocyst sporulation and eventually affect infection transmission.

  8. Eimeria species occurrence varies between geographic regions and poultry production systems and may influence parasite genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengat Prakashbabu, B; Thenmozhi, V; Limon, G; Kundu, K; Kumar, S; Garg, R; Clark, E L; Srinivasa Rao, A S R; Raj, D G; Raman, M; Banerjee, P S; Tomley, F M; Guitian, J; Blake, D P

    2017-01-15

    Coccidiosis is one of the biggest challenges faced by the global poultry industry. Recent studies have highlighted the ubiquitous distribution of all Eimeria species which can cause this disease in chickens, but intriguingly revealed a regional divide in genetic diversity and population structure for at least one species, Eimeria tenella. The drivers associated with such distinct geographic variation are unclear, but may impact on the occurrence and extent of resistance to anticoccidial drugs and future subunit vaccines. India is one of the largest poultry producers in the world and includes a transition between E. tenella populations defined by high and low genetic diversity. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the prevalence of Eimeria species defined by high and low pathogenicity in northern and southern states of India, and seek to understand factors which vary between the regions as possible drivers for differential genetic variation. Faecal samples and data relating to farm characteristics and management were collected from 107 farms from northern India and 133 farms from southern India. Faecal samples were analysed using microscopy and PCR to identify Eimeria occurrence. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to transform correlated putative risk factors into a smaller number of synthetic uncorrelated factors. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify poultry farm typologies, revealing three distinct clusters in the studied regions. The association between clusters and presence of Eimeria species was assessed by logistic regression. The study found that large-scale broiler farms in the north were at greatest risk of harbouring any Eimeria species and a larger proportion of such farms were positive for E. necatrix, the most pathogenic species. Comparison revealed a more even distribution for E. tenella across production systems in south India, but with a lower overall occurrence. Such a polarised region- and

  9. Host response to Eimeria infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, W.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Eimeria is responsible for the disease coccidiosis and has a worldwide distribution. Intestinal Eimeria infections are the dominating class of diseases in poultry causing great economical damage and considerably affecting animal welfare. In the Netherlands in chickens raised

  10. Eimeria genomics: Where are we now and where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P

    2015-08-15

    The evolution of sequencing technologies, from Sanger to next generation (NGS) and now the emerging third generation, has prompted a radical frameshift moving genomics from the specialist to the mainstream. For parasitology, genomics has moved fastest for the protozoa with sequence assemblies becoming available for multiple genera including Babesia, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Giardia, Leishmania, Neospora, Plasmodium, Theileria, Toxoplasma and Trypanosoma. Progress has commonly been slower for parasites of animals which lack zoonotic potential, but the deficit is now being redressed with impact likely in the areas of drug and vaccine development, molecular diagnostics and population biology. Genomics studies with the apicomplexan Eimeria species clearly illustrate the approaches and opportunities available. Specifically, more than ten years after initiation of a genome sequencing project a sequence assembly was published for Eimeria tenella in 2014, complemented by assemblies for all other Eimeria species which infect the chicken and Eimeria falciformis, a parasite of the mouse. Public access to these and other coccidian genome assemblies through resources such as GeneDB and ToxoDB now promotes comparative analysis, encouraging better use of shared resources and enhancing opportunities for development of novel diagnostic and control strategies. In the short term genomics resources support development of targeted and genome-wide genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with whole genome re-sequencing becoming viable in the near future. Experimental power will develop rapidly as additional species, strains and isolates are sampled with particular emphasis on population structure and allelic diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Divergent nuclear 18S rDNA paralogs in a turkey coccidium, Eimeria meleagrimitis, complicate molecular systematics and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, Shiem; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; Hafeez, Mian A; Barta, John R

    2013-07-01

    Multiple 18S rDNA sequences were obtained from two single-oocyst-derived lines of each of Eimeria meleagrimitis and Eimeria adenoeides. After analysing the 15 new 18S rDNA sequences from two lines of E. meleagrimitis and 17 new sequences from two lines of E. adenoeides, there were clear indications that divergent, paralogous 18S rDNA copies existed within the nuclear genome of E. meleagrimitis. In contrast, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) partial sequences from all lines of a particular Eimeria sp. were identical and, in phylogenetic analyses, COI sequences clustered unambiguously in monophyletic and highly-supported clades specific to individual Eimeria sp. Phylogenetic analysis of the new 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis showed that they formed two distinct clades: Type A with four new sequences; and Type B with nine new sequences; both Types A and B sequences were obtained from each of the single-oocyst-derived lines of E. meleagrimitis. Together these rDNA types formed a well-supported E. meleagrimitis clade. Types A and B 18S rDNA sequences from E. meleagrimitis had a mean sequence identity of only 97.4% whereas mean sequence identity within types was 99.1-99.3%. The observed intraspecific sequence divergence among E. meleagrimitis 18S rDNA sequence types was even higher (approximately 2.6%) than the interspecific sequence divergence present between some well-recognized species such as Eimeria tenella and Eimeria necatrix (1.1%). Our observations suggest that, unlike COI sequences, 18S rDNA sequences are not reliable molecular markers to be used alone for species identification with coccidia, although 18S rDNA sequences have clear utility for phylogenetic reconstruction of apicomplexan parasites at the genus and higher taxonomic ranks. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A review of Eimeria infections in horses and other equids

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable confusion concerning validity of Eimeria species in equids, and endogenous developmental stages and pathogenicity of equid Eimeria. This paper summarizes worldwide information on history, structure, life cycle, pathogenicity, prevalence, epidemiology, and diagnosis of Eimeria i...

  13. Synergistic effect of embryo vaccination with Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens NetB proteins on inducing protective immunity against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of embryo vaccination with Eimeria profilin plus Clostridium perfringens NetB toxin proteins in combination with the Montanide IMS-OVO adjuvant on the chicken immune response to necrotic enteritis were investigated using an E. maxima/C. perfringens co-infection model. Eighteen-day-old br...

  14. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  15. Immunomodulatory properties of Alternanthera tenella Colla aqueous extracts in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N.M. Guerra

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the genus Alternanthera are thought to possess antimicrobial and antiviral properties. In Brazilian folk medicine, the aqueous extract of A. tenella Colla is used for its anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the immunomodulatory property of A. tenella extract by evaluating the antibody production in male albino Swiss mice weighing 20-25 g (10 per group. The animals received standard laboratory diet and water ad libitum. The effect of A. tenella extract (5 and 50 mg/kg, ip was evaluated in mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC 10%, ip as T-dependent antigen, or in mice stimulated with mitogens (10 µg, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS, ip. The same doses (5 and 50 mg/kg, ip of A. tenella extract were also tested for antitumor activity, using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma as model. The results showed that 50 mg/kg A. tenella extract ip significantly enhanced IgM (64% and IgG2a (50% antibody production in mice treated with LPS mitogen. The same dose had no effect on IgM-specific response, whereas the 5 mg/kg treatment caused a statiscally significant reduction of anti-SRBC IgM-specific antibodies (82%. The aqueous extract of A. tenella (50 mg/kg increased the life span (from 16 ± 1 to 25 ± 1 days and decreased the number of viable tumor cells (59% in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The present findings are significant for the development of alternative, inexpensive and perhaps even safer strategies for cancer treatment.

  16. Maxima and Minima: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher , Serge

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of various operators: minima, maxima, extended minima and maxima, dynamics.; The purpose of this document is just to provide additional information about the concepts of maxima and minima in MM. This paper must simply be considered as a clarification of these notions. The notion of dynamics is also addressed. Mamba implementations of the operators are also provided.

  17. Mitochondrial genomes of Australian chicken Eimeria support the presence of ten species with low genetic diversity among strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jess A T; Godwin, Rosamond M

    2017-08-30

    Modern molecular approaches have vastly improved diagnostic capabilities for differentiating among species of chicken infecting Eimeria. Consolidating information from multiple genetic markers, adding additional poultry Eimeria species and increasing the size of available data-sets is improving the resolving power of the DNA, and consequently our understanding of the genus. This study adds information from 25 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes from Australian chicken Eimeria isolates representing all 10 species known to occur in Australia, including OTU-X, -Y and -Z. The resulting phylogeny provides a comprehensive view of species relatedness highlighting where the OTUs align with respect to others members of the genus. All three OTUs fall within the Eimeria clade that contains only chicken-infecting species with close affinities to E. maxima, E. brunetti and E. mitis. Mitochondrial genetic diversity was low among Australian isolates likely reflecting their recent introduction to the country post-European settlement. The lack of observed genetic diversity is a promising outcome as it suggests that the currently used live vaccines should continue to offer widespread protection against Eimeria outbreaks in all states and territories. Flocks were frequently found to host multiple strains of the same species, a factor that should be considered when studying disease epidemiology in the field. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences from five Eimeria species (Apicomplexa; Coccidia; Eimeriidae) infecting domestic turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Barta, John R

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical and subclinical coccidiosis is cosmopolitan and inflicts significant losses to the poultry industry globally. Seven named Eimeria species are responsible for coccidiosis in turkeys: Eimeria dispersa; Eimeria meleagrimitis; Eimeria gallopavonis; Eimeria meleagridis; Eimeria adenoeides; Eimeria innocua; and, Eimeria subrotunda. Although attempts have been made to characterize these parasites molecularly at the nuclear 18S rDNA and ITS loci, the maternally-derived and mitotic...

  19. Transfection of Eimeria mitis with yellow fluorescent protein as reporter and the endogenous development of the transgenic parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advancements have been made in the genetic manipulation of apicomplexan parasites. Both the in vitro transient and in vivo stable transfection of Eimeria tenella have been developed successfully. Herein, we report the transient and stable transfection of Eimeria mitis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sporozoites of E. mitis transfected with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (EYFP expression plasmid were inoculated into chickens via the cloacal route. The recovered fluorescent oocysts were sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS and then passaged 6 generations successively in chickens. The resulting population was analyzed by genome walking and Western blot. The endogenous development of the transgenic E. mitis was observed and its reproduction potential was tested. The stable transfection of E. mitis was developed. Genome walking confirmed the random integration of plasmid DNA into the genome; while Western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of foreign proteins. Constitutive expression of EYFP was observed in all stages of merogony, gametogony and sporogony. The peak of the transgenic oocyst output was delayed by 24 h and the total oocyst reproduction was reduced by 7-fold when compared to the parental strain. CONCLUSION: Stable transfection of E. mitis was successfully developed. The expression of foreign antigens in the transgenic parasites will facilitate the development of transgenic E. mitis as a vaccine vector.

  20. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  1. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Leung, H.; Akhtar, N.; Li, J.; Barta, J. R.; Wang, Y.; Yang, C.; Kiarie, E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d. A basal antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet containing TiO2 was used. Birds were offered fresh feed with respective treatments on daily basis and had free access to drinking water for 14 d. On d 5, birds (6 replicates per treatment) were challenged with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima mixture via oral gavage and the other 6 replicates were given sham. Growth performance was measured in pre- (d 0 to 5) and post- (d 6 to 14) challenge periods. Two birds per cage were necropsied on d 10 for intestinal lesion scores and tissue samples for histomorphology and expression of select intestinal genes. Excreta samples for AR of components and oocyst shedding were taken d 10 to 13 and all birds were necropsied on d 14 for gastrointestinal weight. The EGF linearly (P Eimeria interaction (P > 0.05) on growth performance, AR of GE, and intestinal histomorphology; the main effects were such that Eimeria depressed (P Eimeria (P Eimeria challenged birds whilst no effect in non-challenged control. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and impaired gut function; EGF showed beneficial effects on growth pre-challenge and improved indices of gut function upon Eimeria challenge. PMID:28938785

  2. Growth performance and gastrointestinal responses of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal diet without or with exogenous epidermal growth factor upon challenge with Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E; Leung, H; Akhtar, N; Li, J; Barta, J R; Wang, Y; Yang, C; Kiarie, E

    2017-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a protein known for its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic effects was fed to broiler chickens to evaluate growth performance, gastrointestinal measurements, and apparent retention (AR) of components upon challenge with Eimeria. A total of 216, d old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were placed in cages (6 birds/cage) and allocated to treatments. The treatments were: 1) control (Lactotobacilli lactis fermentation supernatant without EGF), 2) 80 μg of EGF/kg BW/d, and 3) 160 μg of EGF/kg BW/d. A basal antibiotic-free corn-soybean diet containing TiO2 was used. Birds were offered fresh feed with respective treatments on daily basis and had free access to drinking water for 14 d. On d 5, birds (6 replicates per treatment) were challenged with 1 mL of E. acervulina and E. maxima mixture via oral gavage and the other 6 replicates were given sham. Growth performance was measured in pre- (d 0 to 5) and post- (d 6 to 14) challenge periods. Two birds per cage were necropsied on d 10 for intestinal lesion scores and tissue samples for histomorphology and expression of select intestinal genes. Excreta samples for AR of components and oocyst shedding were taken d 10 to 13 and all birds were necropsied on d 14 for gastrointestinal weight. The EGF linearly (P Eimeria interaction (P > 0.05) on growth performance, AR of GE, and intestinal histomorphology; the main effects were such that Eimeria depressed (P Eimeria (P Eimeria challenged birds whilst no effect in non-challenged control. In conclusion, Eimeria challenge reduced growth performance and impaired gut function; EGF showed beneficial effects on growth pre-challenge and improved indices of gut function upon Eimeria challenge. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  3. Stable transfection of Eimeria intestinalis and investigation of its life cycle, reproduction and immunogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuanyuan eShi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit coccidiosis, caused by infection of Eimeria spp. is one of the most severe parasitic diseases in rabbits. E. intestinalis is one of the most immunogenic species in rabbit coccidia. Due to the lack of genomic information and unsuccessful in vitro cultivation, genetic manipulation of rabbit coccidia lagged behind other apicomplexan parasites. Using regulatory sequences from E. tenella, we obtained a transgenic line of E. intestinalis expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP. YFP was continuously expressed throughout the whole life cycle. Morphological features of E. intestinalis in the different developmental stages were dynamically observed with the transgenic line. Some important features in the endogenous development stages were observed. Trophozoites were found as early as 4 h post inoculation. Two-types of schizonts and merozoites were observed in first three of the four schizogonies. Beside jejunum and ileum, gametogony stage and oocysts were also found in the duodenum and vermiform appendix. In addition, the transgenic strain was highly immunogenic but less pathogenic than the wild type. Considering the high immunogenicity of E. intestinalis and amenability to transfection with foreign genes, transgenic E. intestinalis could be a promising oral eukaryotic vaccine vector.

  4. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88% and E. arloingi (85%, followed by E. alijevi (63% and E. caprovina(63%. The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  5. Slow kinetics of Brownian maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2014-07-18

    We study extreme-value statistics of Brownian trajectories in one dimension. We define the maximum as the largest position to date and compare maxima of two particles undergoing independent Brownian motion. We focus on the probability P(t) that the two maxima remain ordered up to time t and find the algebraic decay P ∼ t(-β) with exponent β = 1/4. When the two particles have diffusion constants D(1) and D(2), the exponent depends on the mobilities, β = (1/π) arctan sqrt[D(2)/D(1)]. We also use numerical simulations to investigate maxima of multiple particles in one dimension and the largest extension of particles in higher dimensions.

  6. The Maxima and Boomerang Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hanany, S.; Collaboration, MAXIMA; Collaboration, BOOMERANG

    1997-01-01

    MAXIMA and BOOMERanG are balloon borne experiments designed to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropy power spectrum from l=10 to l=900 with high resolution. Here we describe the program of observations, the experiments, their capabilities, and their expected performance.

  7. Maxima and Minima Without Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Ian

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to extrema that do not require calculus are presented to help free maxima/minima problems from the confines of calculus. Many students falsely suppose that these types of problems can only be dealt with through calculus, since few, if any, noncalculus examples are usually presented. (MP)

  8. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  9. Transmission dynamics of Eimeria acervulina in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Control of the intestinal disease coccidiosis, caused by infections with Eimeria species, is a major challenge, especially for the broiler industry. Effective control strategies require a comprehensive understanding of processes that lead to infection and disease in a population. One of the key

  10. New approaches for morphological diagnosis of bovine Eimeria species: a study on a subtropical organic dairy farm in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florião, Mônica Mateus; Lopes, Bruno do Bomfim; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Bovine eimeriosis or coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by Eimeria spp. which is related to gastrointestinal disorders and, in some cases, death. The current work aimed to identify and provide detailed morphological characteristic features of the different Eimeria spp. parasites of crossbred cows of a subtropical organic dairy farm in Brazil, offering tools for the diagnosis of bovine eimeriosis. Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria bovis, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria canadensis, Eimeria cylindrica, Eimeria ildefonsoi, and Eimeria zuernii were identified. The application of line regressions and ANOVA provided a means for the identification of these species. Finally, the current work proposes a dichotomous key to assist in the morphologic identification of bovine Eimeria spp. oocysts.

  11. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  12. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  13. A molecular survey of Eimeria in chickens across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Rosamond M; Morgan, Jess A T

    2015-11-30

    Coccidiosis is a costly enteric disease of chickens caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Eimeria. Disease diagnosis and management is complicated since there are multiple Eimeria species infecting chickens and mixed species infections are common. Current control measures are only partially effective and this, combined with concerns over vaccine efficacy and increasing drug resistance, demonstrates a need for improved coccidiosis diagnosis and control. Before improvements can be made, it is important to understand the species commonly infecting poultry flocks in both backyard and commercial enterprises. The aim of this project was to conduct a survey and assessment of poultry Eimeria across Australia using genetic markers, and create a collection of isolates for each Eimeria species. A total of 260 samples (faecal or caecal) was obtained, and survey results showed that Eimeria taxa were present in 98% of commercial and 81% of backyard flocks. The distribution of each Eimeria species was widespread across Australia, with representatives of all species being found in every state and territory, and the Eimeria species predominating in commercial flocks differed from those in backyard flocks. Three operational taxonomic units also occurred frequently in commercial flocks highlighting the need to understand the impact of these uncharacterised species on poultry production. As Eimeria infections were also frequent in backyard flocks, there is a potential for backyard flocks to act as reservoirs for disease, especially as the industry moves towards free range production systems. This Eimeria collection will be an important genetic resource which is the crucial first step in the development of more sophisticated diagnostic tools and the development of new live vaccines which ultimately will provide savings to the industry in terms of more efficient coccidiosis management. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using Maxima in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Coming from the Macsyma system and adapted to the Common Lisp standard, Maxima can be regarded as a tool for a frequent use in the mathematics classroom. The main aim of this work is to show some possibilities of Maxima and its graphical interface through our experience as Mathematics teachers in Business degrees, although it can be easily spread…

  15. Diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence and diversity of Eimeria spp. in dairy cattle present in and around Guwahati, Kamrup district, Assam, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2339 fecal samples of calves (535, heifer (641 and adult (1163 cattle were screened for 1 year present in and around Guwahati, Assam for detection of Eimeria oocysts by flotation techniques. Sporulation of the oocyst was done in 2.5% potassium dichromate solution for identification of the Eimeria species. Results: Examination of fecal samples revealed an overall prevalence of 11.97% Eimeria infection in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam. Age-wise, 33.2%, 45.4%, and 21.4% infections were recorded in calves (3 years cattle, respectively. Season-wise, infection was recorded highest during post-monsoon (16.29%, followed by monsoon (15%, winter (9.44%, and pre-monsoon (7.49% season. Seven species of Eimeria were recorded viz. Eimeria bovis, Eimeria zuernii, Eimeria subspherica, Eimeria bukidnonensis, Eimeria auburnensis, Eimeria ellipsoidalis and Eimeria alabamensis. The oocyst count per gram of feces ranged from 50 to 1500 in infected cattle. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is the prevalence of seven species of Eimeria in dairy cattle of Guwahati, Assam and mostly prevalent during the post-monsoon season.

  16. Field abundance and nest structure of the ant Anoplolepis tenella associated with the African root and tuber scale in the Congo Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Fotso Kuate, A.; Tindo, M.; Hanna, R.; Kenne, M.; Goergen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Anoplolepis tenella is a ground-dwelling ant of the tropical forest zone of Central Africa. It is associated with the African root and tuber scale (ARTS), Stictococcus vayssierei Richard, an emerging cassava pest in the zone. Developing sustainable and effective methods to control ARTS requires basic knowledge of the biology of A. tenella and the nature of interactions between the two insects. A study on the nest distribution and composition of A. tenella in various vegetation types prevailin...

  17. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria magna (Apicomplexa: Coccidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Liu, Guo-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Eimeria magna from rabbits for the first time, and compared its gene contents and genome organizations with that of seven Eimeria spp. from domestic chickens. The size of the complete mt genome sequence of E. magna is 6249 bp, which consists of 3 protein-coding genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3), 12 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA, and 7 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, without transfer RNA genes, in accordance with that of Eimeria spp. from chickens. The putative direction of translation for three genes (cytb, cox1 and cox3) was the same as those of Eimeria species from domestic chickens. The content of A + T is 65.16% for E. magna mt genome (29.73% A, 35.43% T, 17.09 G and 17.75% C). The E. magna mt genome sequence provides novel mtDNA markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Eimeria spp. and has implications for the molecular diagnosis and control of rabbit coccidiosis.

  19. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  20. Influence of climatic and management factors on Eimeria infections in goats from semi-arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, A; González, J F; Rodríguez, E; Martín, S; Hernández, Y I; Almeida, R; Molina, J M

    2006-10-01

    A survey of Eimeria infections was performed in dairy goats and kids (<6 months old) of six farms from a dry desert area of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). The number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) was determined by a modified McMaster technique over a total of 2,616 individual faecal samples taken from the rectum in monthly intervals. Eimeria oocysts were found in 96.1% of the samples with OPG ranging from 1 x 10(2) to 1.4 x 10(6). Kid goats had significantly (P < 0.001) higher OPG counts (46,496 +/- 5,228) than dairy females (2,225 +/- 287). Eight Eimeria species were identified, with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae (30.0%), Eimeria arloingi (28.6%) and Eimeria alijevi (20.5%) being the most frequent species followed by Eimeria caprina (9.1%), Eimeria christenseni (4.5%), Eimeria jolchijevi (3.4%), Eimeria caprovina (3.2%) and Eimeria hirci (0.7%). Although significant differences were observed among goat groups and herds, the eight species were present in the six farms in both dairy goats and kids. The intensity of oocysts shedding was related to some factors such as the size of the herd and was further influenced by the prevailing climatic conditions of the area. The highest OPG counts were recorded during the hot season in dairy goats and close to weaning time in kids reared in small farms having no prophylactic treatments against eimeriosis.

  1. Ecosystem pressures: Ecklonia maxima and Laminaria pallida

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dunga, LVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available is fundamental to the assessment of their ecosystem condition and is important for their spatial management, particularly in the face of changing climates (Figure 3a&b&c). • In South Africa Ecklonia maxima and Laminaria pallida constitute the dominant forest... maxima and Laminaria pallida Authors: L.V.A Dunga, L.K. Blamey, M.D. Rothman, M. Lück-Vogel, K. Sink & J.J. Bolton • To synthesize a national occurrence map of the South African kelp forest, improving on that generated by Anderson et al. (2007) • Measure...

  2. Protective efficacy of a live attenuated anti-coccidial vaccine administered to 1-day-old chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, C F; Andrews, S J; Ward, R G; Francis, M J

    2003-06-01

    The efficacy of a live attenuated anti-coccidial vaccine, Paracox-5, administered to 1-day-old chicks was investigated by assessing protection against changes in weight gain following virulent challenge. Vaccinated birds were challenged independently 28 days later with each of the component species (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis or Eimeria tenella), and protection was demonstrated against associated reduction in weight gain and lesion formation. In addition, an improvement in bird performance, in terms of feed conversion ratio, was also observed following vaccination. Furthermore, under conditions designed to more closely mimic those in the field and using hatchery spray administration, protection against a mixed virulent challenge introduced by 'seeder birds' was demonstrated evenly across a flock of broiler birds within 21 days after vaccination. These data demonstrate that Paracox-5 vaccine will protect broiler chickens against the adverse effects on performance induced by Eimeria spp.

  3. Identification of Eimeria acervulina conoid antigen using chicken monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Minoura, Chisa; Kimura, Shintaro; Tani, Hiroyuki; Furuya, Masaru; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Matsuda, Haruo; Takenaka, Shigeo; Hatta, Takeshi; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sasai, Kazumi

    2016-11-01

    In the poultry industry, Eimeria spp. is one of the important pathogens which cause significant economic losses. We have previously generated a chicken monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D-12-G10, with specificity for an antigen located in the apical cytoskeleton of Eimeria acervulina and with cross-reactive among Apicomplexan parasites, including other Eimeria spp., Toxoplasma, Neospora, and Cryptosporidium spp. Furthermore, the protein of Cryptosporidium parvum recognized by the 6D-12-G10 has been identified as elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). In the present study, to identify the target molecule of E. acervulina by the mAb, we performed two-dimensional Western blotting analysis. Finally, we found two positive molecules which are identified as EF-1α and a related protein. Our previous finding using C. parvum and the results in this study suggest that EF-1α could be associated with the invasion facilitated by the cytoskeleton at the apical region of zoites.

  4. Environmental predictors of bovine Eimeria infection in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makau, D N; Gitau, G K; Muchemi, G K; Thomas, L F; Cook, E A J; Wardrop, N A; Fèvre, E M; de Glanville, W A

    2017-02-01

    Eimeriosis is caused by a protozoan infection affecting most domestic animal species. Outbreaks in cattle are associated with various environmental factors in temperate climates but limited work has been done in tropical settings. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and environmental factors associated with bovine Eimeria spp. infection in a mixed farming area of western Kenya. A total of 983 cattle were sampled from 226 cattle-keeping households. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum via digital extraction and analysed for the presence of Eimeria spp. infection using the MacMaster technique. Individual and household level predictors of infection were explored using mixed effects logistic regression. The prevalence of individual animal Eimeria infection was 32.8% (95% CI 29.9-35.9). A positive linear relationship was found between risk of Eimeria infection and increasing temperature (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.06-1.86) and distance to areas at risk of flooding (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.17-1.91). There was weak evidence of non-linear relationship between Eimeria infection and the proportion of the area around a household that was classified as swamp (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 0.87-1.44; OR (quadratic term) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-1.00), and the sand content of the soil (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 0.91-1.53; OR (quadratic term) = 1.1, 95% CI 0.99-1.23). The risk of animal Eimeria spp. infection is influenced by a number of climatic and soil-associated conditions.

  5. A Study of Eimeria Species in Sheep in Mosul City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to diagnose and study species of Eimeria in sheep in Mosul city from beginning of September2009 to end May 2010, as well as to determine the percentage and intensity of infection of Eimeria species. Five hundredfecal samples of sheep with different ages were collected from different areas of the Mosul city. The results showed that totalpercentage of Emeria infection was 63.6%. The variations in percentage of infection were recorded according to month ofstudy. Highest percentage was recorded in March being 89.2% and the lowest in September 25.9%. The species E. ovinarecorded the highest infection rate 86.7%, while the species E. granulosa represented lowest infection rate 10%. Moreover theintensity of infection was higher in young ages and lower in adult. The results were detected that indoor sheep infection withhigh parasitic infection 69.9% whereas outdoor animals have an infection rate 25.3%. The morphological characters of oocystswere varied according to species of Eimeria has been studied. Fifty of intestinal and abomasal samples from both slaughteredin shops butchery in Mosul city and dead animals were examined to detect Eimeria infection, and results show that infectionpercentage was 56.4% in intestine of slaughtered animals and 36.3% in dead animal. Moreover no infection of Eimeria weredetected in abomasums in both slaughtered and dead animals. The oocysts of (E. parva, E.pallida and E. ovinoidalis detectedat more than 5000 oocysts per gram of intestinal contents. The intestinal secraping stained with Giemsa stain reveals thepresence of different developmental stages of parasites in wall of intestine. The histopathological sections of intestine revealedthe different pathological changes concerning of Eimeria infection.

  6. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  7. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  8. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Eimeria arloingi in Iranian native kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Hashemnia, M; Razavi, S M; Sharifiyazdi, H; Nazifi, S

    2013-09-01

    Among the 16 species of Eimeria from goats, Eimeria arloingi and Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae are regarded as the most pathogenic species in the world and cause clinical caprine coccidiosis. E. arloingi is known to be an important cause of coccidiosis in Iranian kids. Molecular analyses of two portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) and 18S rDNA) were used for the genetic characterization of the E. arloingi. Comparison of the sequencing data of E. arloingi obtained in the present study (ITS1: KC507793 and 18S rDNA: KC507792) with other Eimeria species in the GenBank database revealed a particularly close relationship between E. arloingi and Eimeria spp. from the cattle and sheep. The phylogram based on the ITS1 sequences shows that the E. arloingi, Eimeria bovis, and Eimeria zuernii formed a distinct group separate from the other remaining Eimeria spp. in cattle and poultry. In pairwise alignment, 18S rDNA sequence derived from E. arloingi showed 99% similarity to Eimeria ahsata with differences observed at only three nucleotides. This study showed that the ITS1 and 18S rDNA gene are useful genetic markers for the specific identification and differentiation of Eimeria spp. in ruminants.

  9. Direct-fed microbials in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima or raised on Clostridium spp.-contaminated used litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary direct-fed microbials (DFMs) influence the composition of gut microbiota and enhance gut health in broiler chickens. Increasing scientific data have been gathered to show that gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of the immune system and the maintenance of homeostasis wi...

  10. Protection of non-immunized broiler chicks housed with immunized cohorts against infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidosis in broiler chicks. Knowledge of the mechanisms of how chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chick...

  11. Immunostimulatory complexes containing Eimeria tenella antigens and low toxicity plant saponins induce antibody response and provide protection from challenge in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunostimulating complexes (ISCOMs) are unique multimolecular structures formed by encapsulating antigens, lipids and triterpene saponins and are one of the most successful antigen delivery systems for microbial antigens. In the current study, both the route of administration and the antigen conce...

  12. Prevalence and intensity of Nematodirus sp. and Eimeria sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant correlation between OPG and host size. We conclude that differences in parasite loads are determined by both environmental and biological factors. KEY WORDS: goats, Nematodirus, Eimeria, season, site, food, sex, age. Egyptian Journal of Botany Vol.5 2003: 78-85. AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. New Eimeria species from the snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volf, J.; Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [New Eimeria species from the snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca). 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 8111231 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  14. Immune responses in Eimeria acervulina infected one-day-old broilers compared to amount of Eimeria in the duodenum, measured by real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, W.J.C.; Post, J.; Cornelissen, J.B.W.J.; Engel, B.; Boerma, S.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    T-cell responses are supposed to be the major immune reactions in broilers infected with Eimeria. The nature of such T-cell responses is influenced by the species of Eimeria involved, age of the host, amount of parasites and the preceding infection history. In young chicks the intestine is still

  15. Potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate: a novel metabolite isolated from the marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales); 4-(Hidroximetil)-Benzenossulfonato de potassio: metabolito inedito isolado da alga marinha Bostrychia tenella (Rhodomelaceae, ceramiales)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felicio, Rafael de; Debonsi, Hosana Maria [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Fisica e Quimica]. E-mail: hosana@fcfrp.usp.br; Yokoya, Nair Sumie [Instituto de Botanica de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Ficologia

    2008-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the marine alga Bostrychia tenella has led to the isolation of two aromatic compounds, the new sulfate metabolite potassium 4-(hydroxymethyl)-benzenosulfonate (1) and the compound 1-methoxyphenethyl alcohol (2), described previously as a synthetic product. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including NMR, MS, IR and by comparison with literature data. (author)

  16. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  17. High-Latitude Neutral Mass Density Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Huang, Y.; Su, Y.-J.; Huang, T.; Sutton, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have reported that thermospheric effects due to solar wind driving can be observed poleward of auroral latitudes. In these papers, the measured neutral mass density perturbations appear as narrow, localized maxima in the cusp and polar cap. They conclude that Joule heating below the spacecraft is the cause of the mass density increases, which are sometimes associated with local field-aligned current structures, but not always. In this paper we investigate neutral mass densities measured by accelerometers on the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft from launch until years 2010 (CHAMP) and 2012 (GRACE), approximately 10 years of observations from each satellite. We extract local maxima in neutral mass densities over the background using a smoothing window with size of one quarter of the orbit. The maxima have been analyzed for each year and also for the duration of each set of satellite observations. We show where they occur, under what solar wind conditions, and their relation to magnetic activity. The region with the highest frequency of occurrence coincides approximately with the cusp and mantle, with little direct evidence of an auroral zone source. Our conclusions agree with the "hot polar cap" observations that have been reported and studied in the past.

  18. Molecular characterization of crane Coccidia, Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi, found in feces of migratory cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubayashi, Makoto; Takami, Kazutoshi; Abe, Niichiro; Kimata, Isao; Tani, Hiroyuki; Sasai, Kazumi; Baba, Eiichiroh

    2005-08-01

    Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi have lethal pathogenicity to a number of species of cranes. These parasites develop at multiple organs or tissues in infected cranes, thus lacking the specificity of infection sites shown by other Eimeria spp. in spite of morphologic similarity. To date, there have been many reports of crane Eimeria infections, however, genetic examinations of these parasites have never been published. In the present study, we isolated oocysts of E. gruis and E. reichenowi from crane feces at a wintering area in Japan. By phylogenic analysis, we first demonstrated that partial sequences of the isolates formed their own cluster, located separately from other Eimeria spp.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genomes of five Eimeria species infecting domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Si-Qin; Cui, Ping; Fang, Su-Fang; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-12-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis caused by members of the genus Eimeria can cause enormous economic impact worldwide, but the genetics, epidemiology and biology of these parasites remain poorly understood. In the present study, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of five Eimeria species that commonly infect the domestic rabbits. The complete mt genomes of Eimeria intestinalis, Eimeria flavescens, Eimeria media, Eimeria vejdovskyi and Eimeria irresidua were 6261bp, 6258bp, 6168bp, 6254bp, 6259bp in length, respectively. All of the mt genomes consist of 3 genes for proteins (cytb, cox1, and cox3), 14 gene fragments for the large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 11 gene fragments for the small subunit (SSU) rRNA, but no transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order of the mt genomes is similar to that of Plasmodium, but distinct from Haemosporida and Theileria. Phylogenetic analyses based on full nucleotide sequences using Bayesian analysis revealed that the monophyly of the Eimeria of rabbits was strongly statistically supported with a Bayesian posterior probabilities. These data provide novel mtDNA markers for studying the population genetics and molecular epidemiology of the Eimeria species, and should have implications for the molecular diagnosis, prevention and control of coccidiosis in rabbits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular detection of field isolates of Turkey Eimeria by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, T; Gadde, U; Chapman, H D

    2015-07-01

    Oocysts of Eimeria spp. were isolated from litter samples obtained from 30 commercial turkey farms. Genomic DNA was extracted from clean oocysts, and polymerase chain amplification of the species-specific cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was performed for five species of turkey Eimeria. The species tested were Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria gallopavonis. All DNA samples were positive for E. meleagrimitis, nine were positive for E. adenoeides, two were positive for E. dispersa, and none for E. meleagridis and E. gallopavonis. E. meleagrimitis occurred as a single species in 21 (70 %) of the farms while 9 (30 %) farms had a mixed species with E. meleagrimitis and E. adenoeides and 2 (7 %) were triple positive with E. meleagrimitis, E. adenoeides, and E. dispersa. This is the first account of the field prevalence of turkey Eimeria species using molecular methods.

  1. Expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters in Eimeria acervulina-challenged layers and broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is a disease caused by the intestinal protozoa Eimeria. Eimeria-infected chickens develop lesions in the intestinal mucosa, which result in reduced feed efficiency and body weight gain. This growth reduction may be due to changes in expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient tran...

  2. Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica: new characteristic features and diagnostic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese quail Coturnix japonica originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current paper characterizes Eimeria bateri, Eimeria tsunodai and Eimeria uzura recovered from C. japonica. Based on the fact that quails have a global distribution, as are their coccidia, the findings of this study should provide the means for diagnosis of those Eimeria spp. in other regions and continents. Eimeria bateri showed the greatest intensity of infection and shed oocysts from the fourth day after infection; in contrast, E. tsunodai and E. uzura shed oocysts from the fifth day after infection. The three species shared a high degree of similarity and were all polymorphic. Yet, the application of line regressions, histograms and ANOVA provided means for the identification of these species. Finally, the algorithm was very efficient since verified that resultant values were not superimposed.

  3. Plutonium disproportionation. Hydrolysis and local oxidation-state maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Local maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states are inherent in the algebra of Pu disproportionation reactions. A new method predicts the pH and the oxidation-state fractions at maximum. Tabulated results illustrate the effects of the Pu oxidation number and Pu(IV) hydrolysis on the maxima. This method suggests a new laboratory approach for discovering Pu oxidation-state maxima. (author)

  4. First amplification of Eimeria hessei DNA from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros) and its phylogenetic relationships with Eimeria species from other bats and rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Eve; Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tournant, Pierline; Capelli, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Although coccidian parasites of the genus Eimeria are among the best-documented parasites in bats, few Eimeria species found in bats have been characterised using molecular tools, and none of the characterised species are found in European countries. Phylogenetic relationships of Eimeria species that parasitise bats and rodents can be related to the morphology of oocysts, independently from host range, suggesting that these species are derived from common ancestors. In the present study, we isolated a partial sequence of the Eimeria hessei 18S rRNA gene from the lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros), a European bat species. Droppings from lesser horseshoe bats were collected from 11 maternity roosts located in France that were positive for the presence of the parasite. Through morphological characterisation, the oocysts detected in the lesser horseshoe bat droppings were confirmed to be E. hessei. The unique E. hessei sequence obtained through molecular analysis belonged to a clade that includes both rodent and bat Eimeria species. However, the E. hessei oocysts isolated from the bat droppings did not show morphological similarities to rodent Eimeria species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal mucosa structure of broiler chickens infected experimentally with Eimeria tenella and treated with essential oil of oregano Morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte infectados experimentalmente com Eimeria tenella e tratados com óleo essencial de orégano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the first trial a total of 250 day-old male chicks were distributed into five treatments and given the following diets: a diet with growth promoter; a diet without added growth promoter; a diet added with avilamycin only; diet supplemented with 0.5g of oregano oil kg diet-1; 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. In other trial a total of 288 day-old chicks was used and distributed into four treatments, which were given the following diets: a diet with anticoccidial agent; a diet without anticoccidial agent; a diet supplemented with 0.5g of oregano oil kg diet-1; a 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. In the first trial the nonmedicated group had the highest crypt depth which differs from chickens fed with growth promoter or with 0.5 and 1.0g of oregano oil kg diet-1. The broilers fed with positive control (antibiotic and anticoccidial had the highest villous: crypt ratio compared with the negative control that had the lowest villous:crypt ratio and the highest oocyst excretion in litter (PInicialmente, foram utilizados, neste estudo, 250 pintos de um dia de idade distribuídos em cinco tratamentos: dieta com promotor de crescimento; dieta sem promotor de crescimento; dieta contendo somente antibiótico; dieta com 0,5g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1 ou com 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. No outro ensaio, foram utilizados 288 pintos de um dia de idade distribuídos em quatro grupos: dieta com anticoccidiano; dieta sem anticoccidiano; dieta com 0,5g de orégano óleo kg dieta-1 ou 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. No primeiro ensaio, o grupo tratado sem promotor de crescimento apresentou a maior profundidade de cripta quando comparada com os animais tratados com promotor de crescimento ou com 0,5 e 1,0g de orégano óleo kg de ração-1. Os frangos que receberam a dieta com promotor de crescimento (antibiótico+anticoccidiano apresentaram uma maior relação vilo:cripta em comparação com os frangos do controle negativo, os quais tiveram a menor relação vilo:cripta e uma maior excreção de oocistos por grama de fezes (P<0.05. No segundo ensaio, observou-se que os frangos alimentados com dieta sem anticoccidiano tiveram uma maior espessura de lâmina própria cecal, diferindo dos frangos tratados com anticoccidiano ou com 1,0 de orégano óleo kg de ração-1 (P <0,05.

  6. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities exhibited by endophytic fungi from the Brazilian marine red alga Bostrychia tenella (Ceramiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Felício

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine environment is one of the most important sources regarding natural products research. Besides, marine microorganisms have been denominated as a talented natural source for discovery of new leads. Although the association of macroalgae and fungi has been described regarding ecological issues, there is a lack of studies about marine seaweed endophytic fungi. In this context, the goal of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the Brazilian marine seaweed Bostrychia tenella (J.V. Lamouroux J. Agardh (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta. Forty-five endophytic microorganism strains were isolated from B. tenella. Crude extracts and organic fractions of ten selected strains were obtained after growth in rice medium. Samples were evaluated for cytotoxicity, antifungal and antibacterial assays. Penicillium strains showed positive results in a diversity of assays, and other five strains were active in at least one test. In addition, cytochalasin D was isolated from Xylaria sp. This alga is composed of a microbiological potential, since its endophytic strains exhibited remarkable biological properties. Moreover, cytochalasin D isolation has confirmed chemical potential of marine endophytic strains. This is the first study in which cultured fungi isolates from the Brazilian macroalga B. tenella were evaluated concerning biological properties. Results corroborated that this species could be a pharmaceutical source from marine environment. Furthermore, Acremonium implicatum is being firstly described as marine endophyte and Xylaria sp., Trichoderma atroviride and Nigrospora oryzae as marine seaweed endophytes. Thus, this work reports the first study relating detailed isolation, cultivation and biological evaluation (cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial of endophytes Penicillium decaturense and P. waksmanii from the Brazilian marine red alga B. tenella. We are also reporting the

  7. Evaluation of immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects and phytochemical screening of Alternanthera tenella Colla (Amaranthaceae aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Agostino Biella

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla extracts are used in Brazilian traditional folk medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases as well as inflammation and fever. In this work, the immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and potential toxic effects of cold (CAE and hot (HAE aqueous extracts of A. tenella were investigated in vivo. In addition, we analyzed the phytochemical properties of both extracts. BALB/c mice were immunized in vivo with sheep red blood cells and concomitantly inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p. with each extract (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg. Specific antibody-producing cells were enumerated using plaque-forming cell assays (PFC and anti-SRBC IgG and IgM serum levels were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Body and lymphoid organ weights were determined after treatments in order to evaluate toxic effects. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was employed to investigate anti-inflammatory activity in mice inoculated i.p. with CAE or HAE (200 or 400 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening was performed using spectrometric and chromatographic approaches and revealed that CAE possessed higher tannin and flavonoid levels than HAE. PFC numbers were increased after treatment with CAE (100 mg/kg four days after immunization, as were the serum antibody titers after four and seven days, suggesting immunostimulatory activity through modulation of B lymphocyte functions. Body and organ weights did not show major changes, suggesting that extracts administered to mice did not induce significant toxicity. Both extracts had significant anti-inflammatory activity in the paw edema assay. These results suggested that aqueous extracts from A. tenella contained several chemical compounds that possess positive and/or negative modulator effects on the immune system, which appeared to correlate with tannin and flavonoid levels in those extracts. In summary, these studies provide important insight into the biological activities of A. tenella.

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterisation of Eimeria species in Ethiopian village chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Lisa; Bettridge, Judy; Christley, Robert M; Melese, Kasech; Blake, Damer; Dessie, Tadelle; Wigley, Paul; Desta, Takele T; Hanotte, Olivier; Kaiser, Pete; Terfa, Zelalem G; Collins, Marisol; Lynch, Stacey E

    2013-10-15

    Coccidiosis, caused by species of the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria, is a major disease of chickens. Eimeria species are present world-wide, and are ubiquitous under intensive farming methods. However, prevalence of Eimeria species is not uniform across production systems. In developing countries such as Ethiopia, a high proportion of chicken production occurs on rural smallholdings (i.e. 'village chicken production') where infectious diseases constrain productivity and surveillance is low. Coccidiosis is reported to be prevalent in these areas. However, a reliance on oocyst morphology to determine the infecting species may impede accurate diagnosis. Here, we used cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to investigate the prevalence of Eimeria oocyst shedding at two rural sites in the Ethiopian highlands. Faecal samples were collected from 767 randomly selected chickens in May or October 2011. In addition, 110 chickens were sampled in both May and October. Eimeria oocysts were detected microscopically in 427 (56%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 52-59%) of the 767 faecal samples tested. Moderate clustering of positive birds was detected within households, perhaps suggesting common risk factors or exposure pathways. Seven species of Eimeria were detected by real time PCR in a subset of samples further analysed, with the prevalence of some species varying by region. Co-infections were common; 64% (23/36, 95% CI 46-79%) of positive samples contained more than one Eimeria spp. Despite frequent infection and co-infection overt clinical disease was not reported. Eimeria oocysts were detected significantly more frequently in October (248/384, 65%, 95% CI 60-69%), following the main rainy season, compared to May (179/383, 47%, 95% CI 42-52%, p Eimeria oocyst positivity in May did not significantly affect the likelihood of detecting Eimeria oocyst five months later perhaps suggesting infection with different species or immunologically distinct strains. Eimeria spp oocysts

  9. Fruit and seed biometry of cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg = Biometria de fruto e semente de cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Veruska Cruz da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cambuí tree (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg is native to Brazil and its fruits are harvested by extraction for fresh consumption in the state of Sergipe (Brazil. Because of the regional importance of the species, this work aims to characterize the cambuí fruits and seeds. The fruits were harvested mature from native trees in the Reserva do Caju Experimental Field, on Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brazil, belonging to Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Two hundred fruits and seeds were biometrically analyzed. In addition, we evaluated the fruit, pulp, and seed color based on RHS Color Chart. Two different skin colors were found: 1. yellow [orange - red (group 32A] with yellow pulp [yellow - orange (group 17A]; and 2. purple [violet -blue (group 93A] with red pulp [red - purple (group 60A]. The seeds have only one color, green [yellow-green (group 152A] with dark stripes [Brown (group 200C]. The fruits mean diameter was 9.23 mm.fruit-1, and average width 8.50 mm.fruit-1. The seeds mean diameter was 5.34 mm.seed-1, mean width 6.52 mm.seed-1 and thickness 5.08 mm.seed-1. The cambuí is a little red fruit. The biometry had a high variability as expected, because it is a native species without any type of management.=Resumo - O cambuí (Myrciaria tenella O. Berg é nativo do Brasil e os frutos são colhidos por extrativismo para consumo in natura no estado de Sergipe (Brasil. Por causa da importância regional da espécie, objetivou-se com este trabalho caracterizar os frutos e sementes de cambuí. Os frutos foram colhidos maduros provenientes de plantas nativas do Campo Experimental Reserva do Caju, no município de Itaporanga d’Ajuda (Sergipe, Brasil pertencente a Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros. Foram analisados 200 frutos e sementes biometricamente. Além disso, caracterizou-se a cor da fruta, da polpa, e da semente com base na cartela de cores RHS. Foram identificados duas cores diferentes para a fruta: 1. de cor amarela [laranja - vermelho (grupo32A

  10. In-Place Algorithms for Computing (Layers of) Maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal time and occupy only constant extra......We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal time and occupy only constant extra...

  11. Maxima krabab uute supermarketite abil turgu / Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 18. juuli lk. 5. 2007. aasta esimese kuue kuu ligi 60 protsendiline käibe kasv annab Leedu poekett Maxima tegevjuhile lootust 4-5 aasta pärast tõusta Eesti kaubandusturu liidripositsioonile. Diagramm: Maxima sai tuule tiibadesse. Lisa: Number

  12. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. An optimised protocol for molecular identification of Eimeria from chickens☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Moftah, Abdalgader; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Chaudhry, Abdul S.; Sparagano, Olivier; Banerjee, Partha S.; Kundu, Krishnendu; Tomley, Fiona M.; Blake, Damer P.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular approaches supporting identification of Eimeria parasites infecting chickens have been available for more than 20 years, although they have largely failed to replace traditional measures such as microscopy and pathology. Limitations of microscopy-led diagnostics, including a requirement for specialist parasitological expertise and low sample throughput, are yet to be outweighed by the difficulties associated with accessing genomic DNA from environmental Eimeria samples. A key step towards the use of Eimeria species-specific PCR as a sensitive and reproducible discriminatory tool for use in the field is the production of a standardised protocol that includes sample collection and DNA template preparation, as well as primer selection from the numerous PCR assays now published. Such a protocol will facilitate development of valuable epidemiological datasets which may be easily compared between studies and laboratories. The outcome of an optimisation process undertaken in laboratories in India and the UK is described here, identifying four steps. First, samples were collected into a 2% (w/v) potassium dichromate solution. Second, oocysts were enriched by flotation in saturated saline. Third, genomic DNA was extracted using a QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit protocol including a mechanical homogenisation step. Finally, nested PCR was carried out using previously published primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1). Alternative methods tested included sample processing in the presence of faecal material, DNA extraction using a traditional phenol/chloroform protocol, the use of SCAR multiplex PCR (one tube and two tube versions) and speciation using the morphometric tool COCCIMORPH for the first time with field samples. PMID:24138724

  14. Sequence-based genotyping clarifies conflicting historical morphometric and biological data for 5 Eimeria species infecting turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherry, S; Ogedengbe, M E; Hafeez, M A; Sayf-Al-Din, M; Gad, N; Barta, J R

    2015-02-01

    Unlike with Eimeria species infecting chickens, specific identification and nomenclature of Eimeria species infecting turkeys is complicated, and in the absence of molecular data, imprecise. In an attempt to reconcile contradictory data reported on oocyst morphometrics and biological descriptions of various Eimeria species infecting turkey, we established single oocyst derived lines of 5 important Eimeria species infecting turkeys, Eimeria meleagrimitis (USMN08-01 strain), Eimeria adenoeides (Guelph strain), Eimeria gallopavonis (Weybridge strain), Eimeria meleagridis (USAR97-01 strain), and Eimeria dispersa (Briston strain). Short portions (514 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mt COI) from each were amplified and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences showed sufficient species-specific sequence variation to recommend these short mt COI sequences as species-specific markers. Uniformity of oocyst features (dimensions and oocyst structure) of each pure line was observed. Additional morphological features of the oocysts of these species are described as useful for the microscopic differentiation of these Eimeria species. Combined molecular and morphometric data on these single species lines compared with the original species descriptions and more recent data have helped to clarify some confusing, and sometimes conflicting, features associated with these Eimeria spp. For example, these new data suggest that the KCH and KR strains of E. adenoeides reported previously represent 2 distinct species, E. adenoeides and E. meleagridis, respectively. Likewise, analysis of the Weybridge strain of E. adenoeides, which has long been used as a reference strain in various studies conducted on the pathogenicity of E. adenoeides, indicates that this coccidium is actually a strain of E. gallopavonis. We highly recommend mt COI sequence-based genotyping be incorporated into all studies using Eimeria spp. of turkeys to confirm species identifications and so

  15. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  16. Description of Eimeria motelo sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from the yellow footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (Chelonia: Testudinidae, and replacement of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Hurková

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria motelo sp. n. is described from faeces of the yellow-footed tortoise, Geochelone denticulata (L.. Oocysts are irregularly ellipsoidal or cylindrical, with slightly expressed lobed protrusions and irregularities at the poles, possibly caused by wrinkling of the oocyst wall, 17 (15-19 × 9.4 (8.5-11 µm, shape index (length/width being 1.81 (1.45-2. The oocyst wall is smooth, single-layered, 0.5 µm thick with no micropyle. There are no polar bodies. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 8.9 (7.5-10 × 4.4 (4-5 µm, shape index 2.03 (1.7-2.5. A sporocyst residuum is present, composed of many granules of irregular size. The sporozoites are elongate, lying lengthwise in the sporocysts. Comparison with other species of the genus Eimeria parasitising members of family Testudinidae indicates that the presently described coccidium represents a new species. The name of Eimeria carinii Lainson, Costa & Shaw, 1990 is found to be preoccupied by a homonym, Eimeria carinii Pinto 1928 given to a coccidium from Rattus norvegicus. Therefore, it is replaced by Eimeria lainsoni nom. nov.

  17. Metabolic networks of Cucurbita maxima phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    Metabolomic analysis aims at a comprehensive characterization of biological samples. Yet, biologically meaningful interpretations are often limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of the acquired data sets. One way to remedy this is to limit the complexity of the cell types being studied. Cucurbita maxima Duch. vascular exudates provide an excellent material for metabolomics in this regard. Using automated mass spectral deconvolution, over 400 components have been detected in these exudates, but only 90 of them were tentatively identified. Many amino compounds were found in vascular exudates from leaf petioles at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in tissue disks from the same leaves, whereas hexoses and sucrose were found in far lower amounts. In order to find the expected impact of assimilation rates on sugar levels, total phloem composition of eight leaves from four plants was followed over 4.5 days. Surprisingly, no diurnal rhythm was found for any of the phloem metabolites that was statistically valid for all eight leaves. Instead, each leaf had its own distinct vascular exudate profile similar to leaves from the same plant, but clearly different from leaves harvested from plants at the same developmental stage. Thirty to forty per cent of all metabolite levels of individual leaves were different from the average of all metabolite profiles. Using metabolic co-regulation analysis, similarities and differences between the exudate profiles were more accurately characterized through network computation, specifically with respect to nitrogen metabolism.

  18. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  19. Anticoccidial activities of Chitosan on Eimeria papillata-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Abdel-Haleem, Heba M; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S

    2016-07-01

    Eimeria spp. multiply within the intestinal tract causing severe inflammatory responses. Chitosan (CS), meanwhile, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities in different experimental models. Here, we investigated the effect of CS on the outcome of inflammation caused by Eimeria papillata in the mouse intestine. Investigations were undertaken into the oocyst output in feces and developmental stages and goblet cells in intestinal tissue. Assays for lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also performed. T cells in intestinal tissue were counted using immunohistochemistry while total IgA in serum or intestinal wash was assayed using ELISA. In addition, mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 were detected using real-time PCR. The data indicated a reduction in both oocyst output and in the number of parasite developmental stages following CS treatment, while the goblet cell hypoplasia in infected mice was also inhibited. CS decreased lipid peroxidation, NO, and MPO but did not alter the T cell count or IgA levels in comparison to the infected group. The expression of TNF-α and TGF-β decreased but IL-10 and IL-4 increased after CS treatment in comparison to the non-treated infected group. In conclusion, CS showed anti-inflammatory and protective effects against E. papillata infection.

  20. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  1. Evaluation of next generation sequencing for the analysis of Eimeria communities in wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Elke T; Lott, Matthew J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Power, Michelle L

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques are well-established for studying bacterial communities but not yet for microbial eukaryotes. Parasite communities remain poorly studied, due in part to the lack of reliable and accessible molecular methods to analyse eukaryotic communities. We aimed to develop and evaluate a methodology to analyse communities of the protozoan parasite Eimeria from populations of the Australian marsupial Petrogale penicillata (brush-tailed rock-wallaby) using NGS. An oocyst purification method for small sample sizes and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol for the 18S rRNA locus targeting Eimeria was developed and optimised prior to sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. A data analysis approach was developed by modifying methods from bacterial metagenomics and utilising existing Eimeria sequences in GenBank. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) assignment at a high similarity threshold (97%) was more accurate at assigning Eimeria contigs into Eimeria OTUs but at a lower threshold (95%) there was greater resolution between OTU consensus sequences. The assessment of two amplification PCR methods prior to Illumina MiSeq, single and nested PCR, determined that single PCR was more sensitive to Eimeria as more Eimeria OTUs were detected in single amplicons. We have developed a simple and cost-effective approach to a data analysis pipeline for community analysis of eukaryotic organisms using Eimeria communities as a model. The pipeline provides a basis for evaluation using other eukaryotic organisms and potential for diverse community analysis studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eimeria spp. infecting quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Alison E; Yang, Rongchang; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Parasites of wildlife inhabiting urbanised and peri-urban environments are of interest regarding wildlife population health, and also veterinary public health in the case of parasites that can also infect humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to: identify, and estimate the prevalence of, species of Eimeria parasitic in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia; 2) morphologically describe and genetically characterise a novel observed species of Eimeria as E. angustus; and 3) genetically characterise E. kanyana. Eimeria spp. prevalence was 76.1% (95% CI 64.9-84.5%), and four putative species of Eimeria were identified. Eimeria kanyana was identified infecting quenda for the first time, with a prevalence of 54.9% (43.4-66.0%). Eimeria quenda was less prevalent, at 7.0% (3.1-15.5%). The novel species E. angustus was present in 45.1% of sampled quenda (34.0-56.6%). A second novel morphotype of Eimeria was present in 2.8% of sampled quenda (0.9-9.7%). Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were present in 21/71 quenda (29.6%, 95% CI 20.2-41.1%). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of E. kanyana and E. angustus were conducted at the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase loci. At both loci, two isolates identified as E. kanyana grouped in a phylogenetic clade with E. trichosuri. Five isolates identified as the novel E. angustus were most closely related to E. tropidura at the 18S locus. At the COI locus, no sequence data were available for E. tropidura; isolates of E. angustus grouped with E. sciurorum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune response to rabbit coccidiosis: a comparison between infections with Eimeria flavescens and E. intestinalis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakandl, Michal; Hlásková, Lenka; Poplštein, M.; Nevečeřalová, M.; Vodička, T.; Salát, Jiří; Mucksová, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-6 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/2328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : rabbit coccidiosis * Eimeria intestinalis * Eimeria flavescens * immune response * ELISA * lymph ocyte proliferation * intraepithelial lymph ocytes Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  4. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  5. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards identifying novel anti-Eimeria agents: trace elements, vitamins, and plant-based natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Frank; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Steinbrenner, Holger; Sies, Helmut; Dkhil, Mohamed A

    2014-10-01

    Eimeriosis, a widespread infectious disease of livestock, is caused by coccidian protozoans of the genus Eimeria. These obligate intracellular parasites strike the digestive tract of their hosts and give rise to enormous economic losses, particularly in poultry, ruminants including cattle, and rabbit farming. Vaccination, though a rational prophylactic measure, has not yet been as successful as initially thought. Numerous broad-spectrum anti-coccidial drugs are currently in use for treatment and prophylactic control of eimeriosis. However, increasing concerns about parasite resistance, consumer health, and environmental safety of the commercial drugs warrant efforts to search for novel agents with anti-Eimeria activity. This review summarizes current approaches to prevent and treat eimeriosis such as vaccination and commercial drugs, as well as recent attempts to use dietary antioxidants as novel anti-Eimeria agents. In particular, the trace elements selenium and zinc, the vitamins A and E, and natural products extracted from garlic, barberry, pomegranate, sweet wormwood, and other plants are discussed. Several of these novel anti-Eimeria agents exhibit a protective role against oxidative stress that occurs not only in the intestine of Eimeria-infected animals, but also in their non-parasitized tissues, in particular, in the first-pass organ liver. Currently, it appears to be promising to identify safe combinations of low-cost natural products with high anti-Eimeria efficacy for a potential use as feed supplementation in animal farming.

  7. Development of Eimeria nieschulzi (Coccidia, Apicomplexa Gamonts and Oocysts in Primary Fetal Rat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro production of gametocytes and oocysts of the apicomplexan parasite genus Eimeria is still a challenge in coccidiosis research. Until today, an in vitro development of gametocytes or oocysts had only been shown in some Eimeria species. For several mammalian Eimeria species, partial developments could be achieved in different cell types, but a development up to gametocytes or oocysts is still lacking. This study compares several permanent cell lines with primary fetal cells of the black rat (Rattus norvegicus concerning the qualitative in vitro development of the rat parasite Eimeria nieschulzi. With the help of transgenic parasites, the developmental progress was documented. The selected Eimeria nieschulzi strain constitutively expresses the yellow fluorescent protein and a macrogamont specific upregulated red tandem dimer tomato. In the majority of all investigated host cells the development stopped at the second merozoite stage. In a mixed culture of cells derived from inner fetal organs the development of schizont generations I-IV, macrogamonts, and oocysts were observed in crypt-like organoid structures. Microgamonts and microgametes could not be observed and oocysts did not sporulate under air supply. By immunohistology, we could confirm that wild-type E. nieschulzi stages can be found in the crypts of the small intestine. The results of this study may be helpful for characterization of native host cells and for development of an in vitro cultivation system for Eimeria species.

  8. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  9. Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov., a replacement name for Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas et al., 2015 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), preoccupied by Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), with observations on histopathology and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Medina, Juan Pablo; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; González-Gómez, Maricruz; Flores-Valle, Izanami Tereira; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2017-01-31

    Eimeria pileata Soriano-Vargas, Medina, Salgado-Miranda, García-Conejo, Galindo-Sánchez, Janczur, Berto and Lopes, 2015 is a junior homonym of Eimeria pileata Straneva and Kelley, 1979 and needs to be replaced. This coccidium was described from a rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler in the Nevado de Toluca Natural Protected Area, Mexico. Thus, to maintain the original intent of the specific epithet derived from the scientific name of the type-host, the name Eimeria atlapetesi nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name. Additionally, the current work reports another rufous-capped brush finch A. pileatus parasitized by E. atlapetesi in co-infection with an Isospora sp., providing observations of histopathology and phylogenetic analysis of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene from E. atlapetesi. Endogenous forms of E. atlapetesi and Isospora sp. were observed in intestinal sections. Few oocysts of Isospora sp. were observed; therefore they were not morphologically or molecularly identified. In return, E. atlapetesi was identified and it was phylogenetically close to Eimeria dispersa Tyzzer, 1929 from the domestic turkey Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus.

  10. Interleukin-10 neutralizing antibody for detection of intestinal luminal levels and as a dietary additive in Eimeria challenged broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Maria K; Sand, Jordan M; Marcone, Taylor M; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA levels are increased within intestinal mucosa after Eimeria infection. IL-10 apical receptor presence on enterocytes suggests IL-10 is secreted into the intestinal lumen. Increased IL-10 has been shown to be central to the pathogenesis of numerous intracellular pathogens; we hypothesize luminal secretion of IL-10 enables Eimeria spp. infection in chickens. This study examines intestine luminal IL-10 levels and performance in broilers challenged with Eimeria when fed an anti-IL-10 antibody. Chicks were fed a diet (1 to 21 d) with control or anti-IL-10 antibody (0.34 g egg yolk antibody powder/Kg diet) with a saline or 10× dose of Advent coccidiosis vaccine on d 3. One chick per pen was euthanized on days 2, 4, 7, 10, 13, 16, and 19 post-challenge, bled, and intestines were collected for luminal fluid IL-10 concentrations. Body weight and feed intake were measured on d 21, and oocyst shedding was assessed on d 7 post-challenge. A significant Eimeria × antibody interaction on d 21 body weight (P < 0.05) showed chicks fed control antibody, but not anti-IL-10, had significant reductions in body weight when challenged with Eimeria spp. Oocyst shedding was increased with Eimeria challenge, but dietary antibody had no effect. Plasma carotenoid levels were reduced in Eimeria challenged chicks 4, 7, 10, and 16 days post-challenge compared to unchallenged chicks. Lack of an Eimeria × antibody interaction showed anti-IL-10 was not protective against Eimeria-induced decreases in plasma carotenoids. Eimeria challenge increased intestine luminal IL-10 on days 4 and 7 post-challenge in the cecum and jejunum, respectively, compared to unchallenged. Dietary anti-IL-10 decreased luminal IL-10 in the ileum on day 2 post-challenge when compared to control antibody fed chicks. No interaction between Eimeria challenge and antibody was observed on intestine luminal contents of IL-10, suggesting anti-IL-10 was ineffective at preventing increased Eimeria

  11. Biopathologic Characterization of Three Mixed Poultry Eimeria spp. Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Mansoori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coccidiosis of domestic fowl, caused by species of the Genus Eimeria, is responsi­ble for important economic losses in poultry production. Because different species and/or strains can vary in pathogenicity and other biological parameters, their precise characteriza­tion is important for epizootiological studies.Methods: Fifty samples from litter, whole intestinal tract and feces were collected from poul­try houses located in different provinces of Iran. One hundred twenty male day-old broi­ler chicks were challenged with three selected isolates. Data on weight gain, Food Conversion Ratio (FCR, food intake, lesion scoring and shedding of oocysts per gram of feces were rec­orded and analyzed by the Duncan's test.Results: In all treatments, the challenged groups had statistically significant lower weight gain than that of unchallenged control group. Isolate three caused the lowest weight gain and food intake and the worst lesion score as well as FCR. Despite originating from close geographi­cal regions for isolates 1 and 2, the difference in biopathologic factors may be either due to different proportion of identified species or the different pathogenicity of the species present in the isolates.Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of considering various species of Eimeria in designing the preventive, control and treatment strategies to prevent coccidiosis in different regions of Iran. Further characterization of each isolate would be the next step to provide a basis for coccidiosis research with well-characterized local isolates.

  12. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  13. Electron diffraction patterns with thermal diffuse scattering maxima around Kikuchi lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakhanyan, R. K.; Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron diffraction patterns of silicon with thermal diffuse maxima around Kikuchi lines, which are analogs of the maxima of thermal diffuse electron scattering around point reflections, have been recorded. Diffuse maxima are observed only around Kikuchi lines with indices that are forbidden for the silicon structure. The diffraction conditions for forming these maxima are discussed.

  14. Maxima: tarbimine elavneb alles kahe aasta pärast / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Maxima grupi laienemine on peatatud, sh. ka Eestis. Maxima kaupluste arv vähenes Leedus kümne võrra, Eestis lisandus üks Maxima kauplus, Lätis jäi nende arv samaks. Prisma Peremarketi juhi Janne Tapio Lihavaineni hinnangul on Maxima poed liiga väikesed, et majanduskriisi ajal konkureerida

  15. Comparative transcriptome analysis of second- and third-generation merozoites of Eimeria necatrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shijie; Hou, Zhaofeng; Liu, Dandan; Jia, Chuanli; Wang, Lele; Xu, Jinjun; Tao, Jianping

    2017-08-16

    Eimeria is a common genus of apicomplexan parasites that infect diverse vertebrates, most notably poultry, causing serious disease and economic losses. Eimeria species have complex life-cycles consisting of three developmental stages. However, the molecular basis of the Eimeria reproductive mode switch remains an enigma. Total RNA extracted from second- (MZ-2) and third-generation merozoites (MZ-3) of Eimeria necatrix was subjected to transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) followed by qRT-PCR validation. A total of 6977 and 6901 unigenes were obtained from MZ-2 and MZ-3, respectively. Approximately 2053 genes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between MZ-2 and MZ-3. Compared with MZ-2, 837 genes were upregulated and 1216 genes were downregulated in MZ-3. Approximately 95 genes in MZ-2 and 48 genes in MZ-3 were further identified to have stage-specific expression. Gene ontology category and KEGG analysis suggested that 216 upregulated genes in MZ-2 were annotated by 70 GO assignments, 242 upregulated genes were associated with 188 signal pathways, while 321 upregulated genes in MZ-3 were annotated by 56 GO assignments, 322 upregulated genes were associated with 168 signal pathways. The molecular functions of upregulated genes in MZ-2 were mainly enriched for protein degradation and amino acid metabolism. The molecular functions of upregulated genes in MZ-3 were mainly enriched for transcriptional activity, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first RNA-seq data study of the MZ-2 and MZ-3 stages of E. necatrix; it demonstrates a high number of differentially expressed genes between the MZ-2 and MZ-3 of E. necatrix. This study forms a basis for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the shift from the second to third generation schizogony in Eimeria. It also provides valuable resources for future studies on Eimeria, and provides insight into the understanding of reproductive mode

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria species in Philippine bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Fumi; Recuenco, Frances C; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Sano, Kaori; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Masangkay, Joseph S; Alviola, Philip; Eres, Eduardo; Cosico, Edison; Alvarez, James; Une, Yumi; Kyuwa, Shigeru; Sugiura, Yuki; Kato, Kentaro

    2016-05-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium, which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infects various vertebrates and causes a diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. Bats are naturally infected with zoonotic pathogens; thus, they are potential reservoirs of parasites. We investigated the species and genotype distribution as well as prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria in Philippine bats. We captured and examined 45 bats; four were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and seven were positive for Eimeria spp. We detected Cryptosporidium bat genotype II from Ptenochirus jagori. Three other Cryptosporidium sequences, detected from Rhinolophus inops, Cynopterus brachyotis, and Eonycteris spelaea, could not be classified as any known species or genotype; we therefore propose the novel genotype Cryptosporidium bat genotypes V, VI, and VII. Bat genotype V is associated with human cryptosporidiosis clade, and therefore, this genotype may be transmissible to humans. Among the Eimeria sequences, BE3 detected from Scotophilus kuhlii was classified with known bat and rodent clades; however, other sequences detected from C. brachyotis, E. spelaea, Rousettus amplexicaudatus, and R. inops could not be classified with known Eimeria species. These isolates might represent a new genotype. Our findings demonstrate that the bats of the Philippines represent a reservoir of multiple Cryptosporidium and Eimeria spp.

  17. Marketingová strategie Maxima pojišťovny

    OpenAIRE

    Šafrová, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on the analysis of marketing strategy of an insurance company Maxima pojišťovna, a.s. and its aim is to asses current strategy and to propose recommendations for its improvement. In the theoretical part of the thesis I describe how is a marketing strategy made and I also cover the content of distribution strategy, price strategy, product strategy and communication strategy. In the practical part I focus on the Maxima's marketing strategy and I describe its produ...

  18. The clustering of local maxima in random noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, P.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of analytic and numerical techniques is used to study the clustering properties of local maxima of random noise. Technical complexities restrict us to the case of 1D noise, but the results obtained should give a reasonably accurate picture of the behaviour of cosmological density peaks in noise defined on a 3D domain. We give estimates of the two-point correlation function of local maxima, for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise and show that previous approximations are not accurate. (author)

  19. In-Place Algorithms for Computing (Layers of) Maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal O(n log2 n) time and require O(1) space in addition to the representation of the input.......We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal O(n log2 n) time and require O(1) space in addition to the representation of the input....

  20. The statistics of maxima in primordial density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Heavens, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the hypothesis that protogalaxies/protoclusters form at the sites of maxima in a primordial field of normally distributed density perturbations. Using a mixture of analytic and numerical techniques, the properties of the maxima, have been studied. The results provide a natural mechanism for biased galaxy formation in which galaxies do not necessarily follow the large-scale density. Methods for obtained the true autocorrelation function of the density field and implications for Microwave Background studies are discussed. (author)

  1. Longitudinal prevalence, oocyst shedding and molecular characterisation of Eimeria species in sheep across four states in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of Eimeria in sheep in Australia has not been well described, therefore a quantitative PCR (qPCR) was developed, validated and used to study the prevalence and oocyst concentration in lamb faecal samples at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms across South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected from approximately 1182 lambs across the 4 states and screened for the presence of Eimeria using this qPCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. A subset of positives was typed by sequence analysis at the 18S locus. The overall prevalence was 18.1% (95% CI 16.8-19.3%) and of the 616 positives, 118 were successfully genotyped. The prevalence of Eimeria was highest in NSW and peaked at 70% during the post-weaning period. The range of oocyst shedding per gram of faeces (g(-1)) at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter overall across all states was 23-2.1×10(7), 23-1.3×10(7) and 23-2.1×10(5), respectively. Median Eimeria shedding g(-1) was higher during post-weaning (1.1×10(3)) and pre-slaughter (1.1×10(3)) than during weaning (206). The following species were identified: Eimeria crandallis, Eimeria ahsata, Eimeria ovinoidalis, Eimeria weybridgensis and Eimeria cylindrica. Of these, E. crandallis and E. ovinoidalis, the most pathogenic species in sheep were responsible for 58.5% of infections typed. This highlights a need for further research to quantify the production impacts of Eimeria in sheep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous identification and DNA barcoding of six Eimeria species infecting turkeys using PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian A; Shivaramaiah, Srichaitanya; Dorsey, Kristi Moore; Ogedengbe, Mosun E; El-Sherry, Shiem; Whale, Julia; Cobean, Julie; Barta, John R

    2015-05-01

    Species-specific PCR primers targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) locus were generated that allow for the specific identification of the most common Eimeria species infecting turkeys (i.e., Eimeria adenoeides, Eimeria meleagrimitis, Eimeria gallopavonis, Eimeria meleagridis, Eimeria dispersa, and Eimeria innocua). PCR reaction chemistries were optimized with respect to divalent cation (MgCl2) and dNTP concentrations, as well as PCR cycling conditions (particularly anneal temperature for primers). Genomic DNA samples from single oocyst-derived lines of six Eimeria species were tested to establish specificity and sensitivity of these newly designed primer pairs. A mixed 60-ng total DNA sample containing 10 ng of each of the six Eimeria species was used as DNA template to demonstrate specific amplification of the correct product using each of the species-specific primer pairs. Ten nanograms of each of the five non-target Eimeria species was pooled to provide a non-target, control DNA sample suitable to test the specificity of each primer pair. The amplifications of the COI region with species-specific primer pairs from pooled samples yielded products of expected sizes (209 to 1,012 bp) and no amplification of non-target Eimeria sp. DNA was detected using the non-target, control DNA samples. These primer pairs specific for Eimeria spp. of turkeys did not amplify any of the seven Eimeria species infecting chickens. The newly developed PCR primers can be used as a diagnostic tool capable of specifically identifying six turkey Eimeria species; additionally, sequencing of the PCR amplification products yields sequence-based genotyping data suitable for identification and molecular phylogenetics.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Eimeria innocua (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Mian Abdul; Vrba, Vladimir; Barta, John Robert

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eimeria innocua KR strain (Eimeriidae, Coccidia, Apicomplexa) was sequenced. This coccidium infects turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), Bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus), and Grey partridges (Perdix perdix). Genome organization and gene contents were comparable with other Eimeria spp. infecting galliform birds. The circular-mapping mt genome of E. innocua is 6247 bp in length with three protein-coding genes (cox1, cox3, and cytb), 19 gene fragments encoding large subunit (LSU) rRNA and 14 gene fragments encoding small subunit (SSU) rRNA. Like other Apicomplexa, no tRNA was encoded. The mitochondrial genome of E. innocua confirms its close phylogenetic affinities to Eimeria dispersa.

  4. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. from Pipistrellus kuhlii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dakhil, Mohamed; Al-Shawa, Yaser

    1999-01-01

    Fecal samples from 12 Pipistrellus kuhlii captured at Shagrah, Saudi Arabia, were examined for coccidia and three (25%) found to harbor a undescribed eimerian, herein described as Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. Sporulated oocysts were subspherical, 24.8×23.2 (22-27×20-25) µm, with a bilayered and smooth wall. The micropyle was absent, but a large oocyst residuum and a single polar granule were present. Sporocysts were ovoid, 11.6×8.3 (10.5-13×7.5-9) µm, with a prominent Stieda body, but without a substiedal body; sporozoites lay head to tail in sporocysts and contained one large posterior refractile body. Eimeria pipistrellus n. sp. is the 3rd species of the genus Eimeria found from bats of the genus Pipistrellus. PMID:10188376

  5. Zinc Supplementation against Eimeria acervulina-Induced Oxidative Damage in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedyalka V. Georgieva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the dietary supplements of Zn containing diet on the antioxidant status in chickens experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina. The antioxidant status was monitored via determination of MDA concentrations and erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities, as well as vitamin E, vitamin C, Cu, and Zn in liver, muscle, and serum. The results showed increased MDA (<.05, CAT (<.001, and decreased SOD (<.001 in the infected birds. Significant changes in Cu and Zn concentrations and dramatically reduction of vitamin C and E concentrations in the infected chickens were found. The observed deviations in the studied enzymes and nonenzymatic parameters evidence the occurrence of oxidative stress following the infection and impaired antioxidant status of chickens, infected with Eimeria acervulina. Our results proved the ameliorating role of CuZn(OH3Cl (0.170 g per kg food against Eimeria acervulina-induced oxidative damage in infected chickens.

  6. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) adult female wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on immunity. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (A,B,C and D) with five rats in each group. Group A, served as control while group B, C and D served as the experimental groups.

  7. Extremal Regions Detection Guided by Maxima of Gradient Magnitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faraji, Mehdi; Shambezadeh, Jamshid; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    boundaries we introduce Maxima of Gradient Magnitudes (MGMs) which are shown to be points that are mostly around the boundaries of the regions. Having found the MGMs, the method obtains a Global Criterion (GC) for each level of the input image which is used to find Extremum Levels (ELs). The found ELs...

  8. Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)

  9. Depth preference in released juvenile turbot Psetta maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Støttrup, Josianne; Nielsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile turbot Psetta maxima were tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags and released at three different depths in a sandy bay in Denmark. About 2–7% of the released fish were registered daily to monitor their distribution using a tag antenna mounted on a modified...

  10. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  11. The acoustic realization of metrical structure by FO maxima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terken, J.M.B.; Collier, R.P.G.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine whether the scaling of F0 maxima is sensitive to syntactic properties of sentences. Seventy sentences were read aloud by a professional speaker. They all had the same basic structure: NP–VP. Variations of the basic scheme were obtained by adding lexical

  12. Baryon acoustic signature in the clustering of density maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjacques, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    We reexamine the two-point correlation of density maxima in Gaussian initial conditions. Spatial derivatives of the linear density correlation, which were ignored in the calculation of Bardeen et al.[Astrophys. J. 304, 15 (1986)], are included in our analysis. These functions exhibit large oscillations around the sound horizon scale for generic cold dark matter (CDM) power spectra. We derive the exact leading-order expression for the correlation of density peaks and demonstrate the contribution of those spatial derivatives. In particular, we show that these functions can modify significantly the baryon acoustic signature of density maxima relative to that of the linear density field. The effect depends upon the exact value of the peak height, the filter shape and size, and the small-scale behavior of the transfer function. In the ΛCDM cosmology, for maxima identified in the density field smoothed at mass scale M≅10 12 -10 14 M · /h and with linear threshold height ν=1.673/σ(M), the contrast of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be a few tens of percent larger than in the linear matter correlation. Overall, the BAO is amplified for ν > or approx. 1 and damped for ν < or approx. l 1. Density maxima thus behave quite differently than linearly biased tracers of the density field, whose acoustic signature is a simple scaled version of the linear baryon acoustic oscillation. We also calculate the mean streaming of peak pairs in the quasilinear regime. We show that the leading-order 2-point correlation and pairwise velocity of density peaks are consistent with a nonlinear, local biasing relation involving gradients of the density field. Biasing will be an important issue in ascertaining how much of the enhancement of the BAO in the primeval correlation of density maxima propagates into the late-time clustering of galaxies.

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation on oocysts of Eimeria necatrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Gill, B.S.

    1975-01-01

    Effect of γ radiation on oocysts of Eimeria necatrix was investigated. It was observed that oocysts exposed to 200kR or above did not sporulate. Irradiation at 10 to 150kR caused a progressive decrease in sporulation. Irradiation affected normal development of unsporulated oocysts as the zygote protoplasm divided into unequal masses or was shattered into granules. Increase in the intensity of irradiation of sporulated oocysts resulted in the progressive decrease in severity of the resultant infections in chicks and their effects - mortality, type of lesions developed, total oocyst production and immunity produced - were comparable with infections induced by decreasing the number of unirradiated oocysts. Infection produced by 1000 unirradiated oocysts was comparable with that resulting from 50,000 oocysts irradiated at 25kR. Infection obtained with 20,000 unexposed oocysts approximated to that produced by 50,000 oocysts irradiated at 2.5kR. It was concluded that irradiation abolished infectivity of the oocysts/sporozoites rather than bringing about attenuation of the parasite. (author)

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  15. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  16. Effects of Varium and a pre-cursor formula on cytokine production in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of new products with toxin binding properties on cytokine production during a necrotic enteritis challenge. A precursor (PV) formula to the product Varium (V) was tested in experiment one, and PV and V formulas were included in the second experimen...

  17. Effects of Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens infections on Cecal Microbiome in Broiler Chickens Analyzed by 16S rRNA Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Necrotic enteritis (NE) and coccidiosis are considered two of the priority enteric diseases impacting poultry production in the U.S. and Europe, and are responsible for the annual economic loss of US $6 billion and $ 3 billion, respectively. NE is caused by Clostridium perfringens (CP), ...

  18. Quantifying risk factors of coccidiosis in broilers using on-farm data based on a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graat, E A; van der Kooij, E; Frankena, K; Henken, A M; Smeets, J F; Hekerman, M T

    1998-01-01

    A study was done to find and quantify risk factors for coccidiosis. The study population consisted of 4774 broiler flocks kept on 177 farms. Flocks were considered a case when at least one bird in the flock showed microscopic presence of oocysts in intestinal scrapings in a grow-out cycle. Other flocks were defined as controls. This was done for three types of Eimeria: Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima. Logistic regression was used to assess variables that influence the occurrence of Eimeria species. There were 49 variables, based on animal, flock or farm level. There was an enhanced risk of coccidiosis due to environmental and management factors that increase the risk of introducing contamination or that are related to hygienic measures. These include lack of use of overalls by visitors, a farmyard which is difficult to clean, bad hygienic status, personnel who might also be working on other farms, presence of other animals on the farm, and feeding and drinking systems which are more difficult to clean. Also, the presence of other diseases on the farm and Eimeria species found in the previous flock increased the risk of coccidiosis.

  19. Maxima poekett mitmendat aastat järjest keeleinspektsiooni murelaps / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Kauplusekettidest on kõige rohkem saanud keeleinspektsioonilt ettekirjutusi Maxima. Inspektsiooni nõuniku Hele Pärna, Maxima pressiesindaja Erkki Erilaiu selgitusi. Lisa: Probleem haridussüsteemis?

  20. EIMERIOSIS IN POULTRY OF RAWALPINDI/ISLAMABAD AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. KHAN, H. IRSHAD, R. ANJUM, M. JAHANGIR AND U. NASIR

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the prevalence of eimeriosis in poultry and identify potential risk factors for its spread in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area of Pakistan. Of 359 gut samples (suspected for harbouring eimeriosis examined, 258 (71.86% were found infected. Four species of Eimeria (E. maxima, 34.10%, E. tenella, 30.62%, E. mitis, 13.95% and E. necatrix, 7.75% were recorded. The prevalence of eimeriosis was highest in the month of September (89.74%, while lowest during June (28.57%. The disease was more common at the farms where the litter was wet and not managed properly.

  1. PREVALENCE OF COCCIDIOSIS IN BROILER CHICKENS IN FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Ayaz, M. Akhtar, C.S. Hayat, M.A. Hafeez and A. Haq1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted during the period from October, 2000 to June, 2001 to record the prevalence of coccidiosis in broiler chickens in Faisalabad district. A total of 930 guts were collected and processed at Immunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Seven species of Eimeria (E viz. E. tenella (50%, E. maxima (40%, E. mitis (2%, E. praecox (0.8%, E. acervulina (4%; E. necatrix (2% and E. brunetti (1.2% were recorded. The overall prevalence of coccidiosis was found to be 37.95%.

  2. Anti-Eimeria activity of berberine and identification of associated gene expression changes in the mouse jejunum infected with Eimeria papillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Metwaly, Mahmoud S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sherif, Nour E; Delic, Denis; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Wunderlich, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Plant-based natural products are promising sources for identifying novel agents with potential anti-Eimeria activity. This study explores possible effects of berberine on Eimeria papillata infections in the jejunum of male Swiss albino mice. Berberine chloride, when daily administered to mice during infection, impairs intracellular development and multiplication of E. papillata, evidenced as 60% reduction of maximal fecal output of oocysts on day 5 p.i. Concomitantly, berberine attenuates the inflammatory response, evidenced as decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, and iNOS, as well as the oxidative stress response, evidenced as impaired increase in malondialdehyde, nitrate, and H2O2 and as prevented decrease in glutathione and catalase activity. Berberine also alters gene expression in the infected jejunum. On day 5 p.i., mRNA expression of 29 genes with annotated functions is more than 10-fold upregulated and that of 14 genes downregulated. Berberine downregulates the genes Xaf1, Itgb3bp, and Faim3 involved in apoptotic processes and upregulates genes involved in innate immune responses, as e.g., Colec11, Saa2, Klra8, Clec1b, and Crtam, especially the genes Cpa3, Fcer1a, and Mcpt1, Mcpt2, and Mcpt4 involved in mast cell activity. Additionally, 18 noncoding lincRNA species are differentially expressed more than 10-fold under berberine. Our data suggest that berberine induces hosts to exert anti-Eimeria activity by attenuating the inflammatory and oxidative stress response, by impairing apoptotic processes, and by activating local innate immune responses and epigenetic mechanisms in the host jejunum. Berberine has the potential as an anti-Eimeria food additive in animal farming.

  3. A new Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), possessing mitra-shaped oocysts, from the Neotropical chelid turtle Batrachemys heliostemma (Testudines: Chelidae), and its comparison with Eimeria mitraria (Laveran & Mesnil 1902)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Kamler, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 5 (2006), s. 555-558 ISSN 0074-0276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Batrachemys * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2006

  4. New ultrasonic attenuation maxima for single crystal dysprosium in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, R.A.; Maekawa, S.; Levy, M.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures and corresponding applied basal plane magnetic fields are reported for longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation maxima in a cylindrical Dy sample. Besides maxima at Tsub(N) and Tsub(C), two new maxima are observed and possible explanations for their existence are given. (Auth.)

  5. Post-fire vegetative recruitment of the alien grass Glyceria maxima at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An accidental fire at a site where the reproductive behaviour of Glyceria maxima was being investigated provided an opportunity to measure its effect on G. maxima vegetative recruitment. The fire burned G. maxima growing along the water's edge and down to a water depth of 10 cm. Post-fire tiller densities in these zones ...

  6. Improved resistance to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens due to dietary supplementation with garlic metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of a compound including secondary metabolites of garlic, propyl thiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl thiosulfinatate oxide (PTSO), on in vitro and in vivo parameters of chicken gut immunity during experimental Eimeria acervulina infection were evaluated. In in vitro assays, the compound of P...

  7. Eimeria Species and Genetic Background Influence the Serum Protein Profile of Broilers with Coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R.; Cox, Chasity M.; Williams, Patricia M.; McElroy, Audrey P.; Dalloul, Rami A.; Ray, W. Keith; Barri, Adriana; Emmerson, Derek A.; Wong, Eric A.; Webb, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is an intestinal disease caused by protozoal parasites of the genus Eimeria. Despite the advent of anti-coccidial drugs and vaccines, the disease continues to result in substantial annual economic losses to the poultry industry. There is still much unknown about the host response to infection and to date there are no reports of protein profiles in the blood of Eimeria-infected animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the serum proteome of two genetic lines of broiler chickens after infection with one of three species of Eimeria. Methodology/Principal Findings Birds from lines A and B were either not infected or inoculated with sporulated oocysts from one of the three Eimeria strains at 15 d post-hatch. At 21 d (6 d post-infection), whole blood was collected and lesion scoring was performed. Serum was harvested and used for 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,266 spots were quantitatively assessed by densitometry. Protein spots showing a significant effect of coccidia strain and/or broiler genetic line on density at PEimeria infection and in identifying molecular targets for diagnostic screening and development of alternative preventative and therapeutic methods. PMID:21297942

  8. The genome of Eimeria falciformis--reduction and specialization in a single host apicomplexan parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitlinger, Emanuel; Spork, Simone; Lucius, Richard; Dieterich, Christoph

    2014-08-20

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises important unicellular human parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Eimeria is the largest and most diverse genus of apicomplexan parasites and some species of the genus are the causative agent of coccidiosis, a disease economically devastating in poultry. We report a complete genome sequence of the mouse parasite Eimeria falciformis. We assembled and annotated the genome sequence to study host-parasite interactions in this understudied genus in a model organism host. The genome of E. falciformis is 44 Mb in size and contains 5,879 predicted protein coding genes. Comparative analysis of E. falciformis with Toxoplasma gondii shows an emergence and diversification of gene families associated with motility and invasion mainly at the level of the Coccidia. Many rhoptry kinases, among them important virulence factors in T. gondii, are absent from the E. falciformis genome. Surface antigens are divergent between Eimeria species. Comparisons with T. gondii showed differences between genes involved in metabolism, N-glycan and GPI-anchor synthesis. E. falciformis possesses a reduced set of transmembrane transporters and we suggest an altered mode of iron uptake in the genus Eimeria. Reduced diversity of genes required for host-parasite interaction and transmembrane transport allow hypotheses on host adaptation and specialization of a single host parasite. The E. falciformis genome sequence sheds light on the evolution of the Coccidia and helps to identify determinants of host-parasite interaction critical for drug and vaccine development.

  9. Eimeria infection in calves under local farming system in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High infection rates occur from environments that were already contaminated with infected animals. A study on the prevalence, species and risk of occurrence of Eimeria species in calves was conducted at Asella, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Management systems, breed, age, sex, and site were considered as variables ...

  10. Quantitative characterization, classification and reconstruction of oocyst shapes of Eimeria species from cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.

    1998-01-01

    by multivariate statistical techniques. The morphology of 810 Eimeria specimens was defined in binary (b/w) digital images by pixels of their oocyst outline. A Fourier transform of pixel positions yielded size and shape features. To classify coccidia, the quantitative data were employed in an agglomerative...

  11. Eimeria terraepokotorum sp.n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Hoplobatrachus occipitalis (Anura: Ranidae) from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 443-447 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GA206/03/1544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * coccidia * Anura Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  12. Appearance of maxima of combined type in Moessbauer diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, A.V.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Kuz'min, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An appearance of Bragg maxima in the Moessbauer diffraction pattern due to a combined hyperfine interaction on nuclei in a crystal is discussed. By a combined interaction one means presence on the nuclei of a magnetic field and tensor of electric field gradient. The structure RFe 2 R=Pu, Np, V, Zr, Tm) is considered. It has been shown that when a scattering system is in fields of several actions with various symmetries, the diffraction pattern is not an additive superposition of diffraction patterns of magnetic and electric quadrupole scatterings. In this case the diffraction patterns of magnetic and electric quadrupole scatterings. In this case the diffraction spectra have maxima forbidden by the extinction laws in diffraction in the presence of only a magnetic field or only electric quadrupole interaction

  13. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  14. Mucin gene mRNA levels in broilers challenged with eimeria and/or Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Nattrass, Gregory S; Forder, Rebecca E A; McGrice, Hayley A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Hughes, Robert J

    2014-09-01

    The effects of Eimeria (EM) and Clostridium perfringens (CP) challenges on the mRNA levels of genes involved in mucin (Muc) synthesis (Muc2, Muc5ac, Muc13, and trefoil family factor-2 [TFF2]), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-18 [IL-18]), and metabolic processes (cluster of differentiation [CD]36) in the jejunum of broilers were investigated. Two parallel experiments involving 1) EM challenge and 2) EM and CP challenges were conducted. The first experiment was a 2 X 2 study with 12 birds per treatment (N = 48) involving fishmeal substitution (25%) in the diet (FM) and EM challenge. The treatments were: Control (FM-, EM-), Fishmeal (FM+, EM-), EM challenge (FM-, EM+), and fishmeal substitution and EM challenge (FM+, EM+). The second experiment was a 2 X 2 X 2 experiment with six birds per treatment (N = 48) involving fishmeal (FM-, FM+), Eimeria (EM-, EM+), and C perfringens (CP-, CP+). In both arms of the study, male broilers were given a starter diet for the whole period of 16 days, except those assigned to FM+, where 25% of the starter ration was replaced with fishmeal from days 8 to 14. EM inoculation was performed on day 9 and CP inoculation on days 14 and 15. The EM challenge birds were euthanatized for sampling on day 13; postmortem examination and sampling for the Eimeria plus C perfringens challenge arm of the study were on day 16. In the Eimeria challenge arm of the study, fishmeal supplementation significantly suppressed the mRNA levels of TNF-alpha, TFF2, and IL-18 pre-CP inoculation but simultaneously increased the levels of Muc13 and CD36 mRNAs. Birds challenged with Eimeria exhibited increased mRNA levels of Muc13, Muc5ac, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. In the Eimeria and C. perfringens challenge arm, birds exposed to EM challenge exhibited significantly lower mRNA levels of Muc2 and CD36. The mRNA levels of CD36 were also significantly suppressed by CP challenge. Our results showed that the transcription of mucin synthesis

  15. Mechanism for the generation of cavitation maxima by pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, H.G.; Church, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A train of 1-MHz pulses can generate maxima of cavitation activity at pulse lengths of 6 and 60 ms and at pressure amplitudes, P/sub A/, between 5.4 and 9.4 bars (or intensities between 10 and 30 W/cm 2 ). Generation of maxima at P/sub A/ between these limits on pressure amplitude implies that the increase in cavitation activity originates from gas nuclei with radii lying in a critical size range centered at about 0.08 μm. The mechanism proposed for this phenomenon suggests that nuclei in this critical range are unstabilized nuclei generated in one pulse and surviving to the next with an appreciable fraction of the survivors lying in the critical range. Transient cavities that grow from such small nuclei are shown to behave as isolated mechanical systems that on reaching maximum size collapse as imploding spheres. The maximum pressures reached in such imploding cavities would then approximate those calculated for the spherical collapse of cavities. The occurrence of the observed maxima is ascribed to the spherical collapse of transient cavities. 17 references, 5 figures

  16. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Californian rabbits in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Liu, Hongbin; Fang, Sufang; Gu, Xiaolong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Chunling; Tao, Geru; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Rabbit coccidiosis is caused by infection with one or usually several Eimeria species, parasitizing in hepatobiliary ducts or intestinal epithelium of rabbits. To date, 11 species of rabbit coccidia have been well documented. Here we report a new species of Eimeria from rabbits. Sporulated oocysts were ellipsoidal to slightly ovoidal, 37.4 (32.6-41.2) μm in length, 23.5 (20.9-25.5) μm in width, with a shape index (length/width) 1.6 (1.43-1.91) and smooth, bilayered, homogeneously thick wall. The micropyle was obvious and with an inner diameter of 6.2 (5.0-7.5) μm. Both oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal to elongate, 17.2 (13.2-20.0) μm long and 8.4 (7.5-9.1) μm wide, with a shape index (length/width) of 2.1 (1.74-2.21) and the presence of Stieda body and sporocyst residuum. The prepatent period was 132h. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 18S rDNA sequence of the new species clustered together with the 11 rabbit Eimeria species into a clade. However, ITS-1 sequence of the new species shared low similarities (27.1%-30%) with those of 11 rabbit Eimeria species. As the data above supported the erection of a new species, we named it as Eimeria kongi n. sp., in honor of Fanyao Kong, a Chinese parasitologist. The finding of the new species has important implications for the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit coccidiosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Genetic analysis of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Tiago Luciano; Carrera, Juan Pablo Botero; dos Santos, Livia Loiola; Raidan, Fernanda Santos Silva; dos Santos, Dalinne Chrystian Carvalho; Cardoso, Eduardo Penteado; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Toral, Fabio Luiz Buranelo

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to obtain genetic parameters for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes (worms) and Eimeria spp. in Nellore cattle, analyze the inclusion of resistance traits in Nellore breeding programs and evaluate genetic selection as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Counting of ticks, gastrointestinal nematode eggs and Eimeria spp. oocysts per gram of feces totaling 4270; 3872 and 3872 records from 1188; 1142 and 1142 animals, respectively, aged 146 to 597 days were used. The animals were classified as resistant (counts equal to zero) or susceptible (counts above zero) to each parasite. The statistical models included systematics effects of contemporary groups and the mean trajectory. The random effects included additive genetic effects, direct permanent environmental effects and residual. The mean trajectory and random effects were modeled with linear Legendre polynomials for all traits except for the mean trajectory of resistance to Eimeria spp., which employed the cubic polynomial. Heritability estimates were of low to moderate magnitude and ranged from 0.06 to 0.30, 0.06 to 0.33 and 0.04 to 0.33 for resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp., respectively. The posterior mean of genetic and environmental correlations for the same trait at different ages (205, 365, 450 and 550 days) were favorable at adjacent ages and unfavorable at distant ages. In general, the posterior mean of the genetic and environmental correlations between traits of resistance were low and high-density intervals were large and included zero in many cases. The heritability estimates support the inclusion of resistance to ticks, gastrointestinal nematodes and Eimeria spp. in Nellore breeding programs. Genetic selection can increase the frequency of resistant animals and be used as a complementary tool in parasite control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification of Eimeria acervulina conoid antigen using chicken monoclonal antibody and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa include a large number of medically important species. Among them, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium that cause watery diarrhea and mortality in humans and livestock, and Eimeria which induces gastrointestinal disorder in livestock and poul...

  19. Identification and analysis of Eimeria nieschulzi gametocyte genes reveal splicing events of gam genes and conserved motifs in the wall-forming proteins within the genus Eimeria (Coccidia, Apicomplexa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedmer Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia provides a wide range of different species with different hosts to study common and variable features within the genus and its species. A common characteristic of all known Eimeria species is the oocyst, the infectious stage where its life cycle starts and ends. In our study, we utilized Eimeria nieschulzi as a model organism. This rat-specific parasite has complex oocyst morphology and can be transfected and even cultivated in vitro up to the oocyst stage. We wanted to elucidate how the known oocyst wall-forming proteins are preserved in this rodent Eimeria species compared to other Eimeria. In newly obtained genomics data, we were able to identify different gametocyte genes that are orthologous to already known gam genes involved in the oocyst wall formation of avian Eimeria species. These genes appeared putatively as single exon genes, but cDNA analysis showed alternative splicing events in the transcripts. The analysis of the translated sequence revealed different conserved motifs but also dissimilar regions in GAM proteins, as well as polymorphic regions. The occurrence of an underrepresented gam56 gene version suggests the existence of a second distinct E. nieschulzi genotype within the E. nieschulzi Landers isolate that we maintain.

  20. Identification and analysis of Eimeria nieschulzi gametocyte genes reveal splicing events of gam genes and conserved motifs in the wall-forming proteins within the genus Eimeria (Coccidia, Apicomplexa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmer, Stefanie; Erdbeer, Alexander; Volke, Beate; Randel, Stephanie; Kapplusch, Franz; Hanig, Sacha; Kurth, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Coccidia) provides a wide range of different species with different hosts to study common and variable features within the genus and its species. A common characteristic of all known Eimeria species is the oocyst, the infectious stage where its life cycle starts and ends. In our study, we utilized Eimeria nieschulzi as a model organism. This rat-specific parasite has complex oocyst morphology and can be transfected and even cultivated in vitro up to the oocyst stage. We wanted to elucidate how the known oocyst wall-forming proteins are preserved in this rodent Eimeria species compared to other Eimeria. In newly obtained genomics data, we were able to identify different gametocyte genes that are orthologous to already known gam genes involved in the oocyst wall formation of avian Eimeria species. These genes appeared putatively as single exon genes, but cDNA analysis showed alternative splicing events in the transcripts. The analysis of the translated sequence revealed different conserved motifs but also dissimilar regions in GAM proteins, as well as polymorphic regions. The occurrence of an underrepresented gam56 gene version suggests the existence of a second distinct E. nieschulzi genotype within the E. nieschulzi Landers isolate that we maintain. PMID:29210668

  1. Three operational taxonomic units of Eimeria are common in Nigerian chickens and may undermine effective molecular diagnosis of coccidiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatau, Isa D; Lawal, Idris A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Nok, Andrew J

    2016-06-04

    Chicken is fast becoming the world's most consumed meat. As a consequence poultry health is more important now than ever before, with pathogens of chickens recognised as serious threats to food security. One such threat are Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which can cause the disease coccidiosis. Eimeria can compromise economic poultry production and chicken welfare, and have serious consequences for poor livestock keepers. Seven Eimeria species that infect chickens are recognised with a global enzootic distribution. More recently three cryptic Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUx, y and z) have been described in populations of Eimeria recovered from chickens in Australia. Two of the three OTUs have also been detected in sub-Saharan Africa, but their occurrence, pathology and the risk they pose is largely unknown. Nigeria has witnessed a dramatic expansion in poultry production and is now the largest poultry producer in Africa. Here, faecal samples collected from nine of 12 commercial chicken farms sampled in Kaduna state, Nigeria, were found to contain eimerian oocysts. After amplification by in vivo propagation all three cryptic OTU genotypes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including OTUy for the first time outside of Australia. Comparison with a widely used, established Eimeria species-specific PCR assay revealed failure to detect the OTU genotypes. All three of the Eimeria OTU genotypes appear to be common in north-western Nigeria. The failure of a leading species-specific molecular assay to detect these genotypes indicates a risk of false negative Eimeria diagnosis when using molecular tools and suggests that the spatial occurrence of each OTU may be far wider than has been recognised. The risk posed by these novel genotypes is unknown, but it is clear that a better understanding of Eimeria occurrence is required together with the validation of effective diagnostics.

  2. Chicken IgY Fc expressed by Eimeria mitis enhances the immunogenicity of E. mitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Mei; Tang, Xinming; Yin, Guangwen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Ei-Ashram, Saeed; Li, Yuan; Suo, Xun

    2016-03-21

    Eimeria species are obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites, causing great economic losses in the poultry industry. Currently wild-and attenuated- type anticoccidial vaccines are used to control coccidiosis. However, their use in fast growing broilers is limited by vaccination side effects caused by medium and/or low immunogenic Eimeria spp. There is, therefore, a need for a vaccine with high immunogenicity for broilers. The avian yolk sac IgY Fc is the avian counterpart of the mammalian IgG Fc, which enhances immunogenicity of Fc-fusion proteins. Here, we developed a stable transgenic Eimeria mitis expressing IgY Fc (Emi.chFc) and investigated whether the avian IgY Fc fragment enhances the immunogenicity of E. mitis. Two-week-old broilers were immunized with either Emi.chFc or wild type Eimeria and challenged with wild type E. mitis to analyze the protective properties of transgenic Emi.chFc. Chickens immunized with Emi.chFc had significantly lower oocyst output, in comparison with PBS, mock control (transgenic E. mitis expressing HA1 from H9N2 avian influenza virus) and wildtype E. mitis immunized groups after challenge, indicating that IgY Fc enhanced the immunogenicity of E. mitis. Our findings suggest that IgY Fc-expressing Eimeria may be a better coccidiosis vaccine, and transgenic Eimeria expressing Fc-fused exogenous antigens may be used as a novel vaccine-delivery vehicle against a wide variety of pathogens.

  3. Nuevos casos de coccidiosis bovina en León. Denuncia de Eimeria bovis (Züblin,1908) Fiebiger, 1912, E. auburnensis Christensen y Porter, 1939 y E. ellipsoidalis Becker y Frye, 1929

    OpenAIRE

    Cordero del Campillo, Miguel

    1981-01-01

    P. 61-72 Se estudian nuevos focos de coccidiosis bovina en la provincia de León. En la zona montañosa del NE, se identifica, nuevamente Eimeria zürni más Eimeria auburnensis. En las cercanías de la ciudad de León se comprobó la existencia de Eimeria bovis, Eimeria auburnensis y Eimeria ellipsoidalis. La máxima frecuencia corre a cargo de Eimeria zürni y Eimeria bovis, dotadas también de mayor poder patógeno. Los datos morfológicos de Eimeria zürni concuerdan con los estudiados por el autor...

  4. Analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing the dynamics of bovine Eimeria spp. from central-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Grzybek, Maciej; Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Studzińska, Maria; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Klockiewicz, Maciej

    2015-11-30

    Eimeria infections are common in cattle worldwide, however, little is known about the invasion dynamics of this unicellular parasite. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze intrinsic (host age) and extrinsic (herd size and management system) factors influencing the dynamics of Eimeria spp. found in calves from CE Poland. Fecal samples were collected from 356 calves from different types of management systems and from different herd sizes. Flotation and McMaster method were used for parasitological investigation. Oocysts were differentiated on the basis of morphological criteria. Eight Eimeria species were identified and mean species richness (MSR) was significantly affected by host age. The highest MSR was noted for middle age animals. There was an association between species, with a highly significant co-occurrence of Eimeria bovis with Eimeria zuernii. The presence of E. bovis significantly increased the percentage of individuals carrying E. zuernii. The presence of E. bovis significantly increased the percentage of individuals carrying Eimeria canadensis. The overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. reached 52.8% and was significantly affected by the age of cows, with the highest prevalence in animals between 5-10 months old. The most prevalent species were E. bovis (37.4%), E. zuernii (19.9%) and E. canadensis (12.1%). The prevalence of E. bovis was affected by host age (the highest prevalence in age class 2 animals) and management type (the highest prevalence in individuals raised in groups). The prevalence of E. zuernii was affected by age (the lowest prevalence was noted in the oldest individuals) and herd size (individuals infected were present only in the middle and large size herds), whereas the prevalence of E. canadensis was affected by all three factors. Overall, mean OPG of the combined Eimeria spp. was 458.84 (37.93) and differed significantly between age classes. Mean OPGs were generally low for young and mature animals but high for middle age

  5. Oral antibody to interleukin-10 reduces growth rate depression due to Eimeria spp. infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Jordan M; Arendt, Maria K; Repasy, Alec; Deniz, Gűlay; Cook, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Eimeria spp. must be controlled in floor-reared poultry to prevent the onset of coccidiosis. Here we use an oral antibody to chicken IL-10 to prevent growth depression due to Eimeria spp. infection. Egg antibody directed against an antigenic peptide of IL-10 was produced in laying hens and measured using an ELISA. In the first experiment, egg yolk powder containing antibody to chicken IL-10 (vlpramqt conjugate) (anti-IL-10 yolk powder) was fed at 3.4 g/kg feed to determine growth response following mixed Eimeria spp. challenge. Chicks were fed either anti-IL-10 antibodies or control antibodies and challenged (d3) with either sterile saline or a 10× attenuated Eimeria spp. vaccine. Control-fed and Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 8.8% slower than those challenged with saline (P < 0.04), whereas anti-IL-10-fed Eimeria challenged chicks were not different from untreated controls. In the second trial a dose response was performed with doses of either 0 (control antibody), 0.34-, or 3.4-g anti-IL-10 yolk powder/kg feed. Control-fed, Eimeria-challenged chicks grew 10.6% slower than control saline-challenged chicks (P < 0.05); however, anti-IL-10-fed chicks fed either dose of anti-IL-10 were not different from saline-challenged chicks. Finally, the effect of anti-IL-10 on acquired immunity was investigated. Chicks were fed control or anti-IL-10 yolk powder and vaccinated with a 1× dose of Eimeria vaccine at d 3. After 14 d, antibody was removed from the diet. Chicks were either saline or 10× Eimeria challenged at d 17. We found that the anti-IL-10-fed chickens did not show a reduction in growth due to challenge; hence anti-IL-10 does not appear to affect adaptive immunity during the primary immunization. Overall, use of an antibody to IL-10 is a novel method in preventing adverse effects of Eimeria spp. infection in poultry. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  7. Eimeria Species in Danish Dairy Cattle – Preliminary Data from an Ongoing Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Enemark, J. M.D.

    2011-01-01

    . auburnensis was in several cases correlated to diarrhea. These cases however were not diagnosed as coccidiosis. The results warrants further pathogenicity studies of the different Eimeria spp. In addition, it was shown that correct diagnosis of coccidiosis is a challenge and knowledge of the management system......Contrary to the majority of European countries, antiparasiticides are on prescription only in Denmark, thus treatment requires a proper diagnosis made by a veterinarian, and therefore relies on adequate diagnostic procedures. This study was performed to obtain information about presence of Eimeria...... identified so far. Of the faecal samples included in the study 7% had a firm/ normal consistency, 81% were soft to liquid, and 12 % were watery with blood and/or mucus. Oocyst excretion above 5000 oocysts per gram (OPG) was found in 6.5% of the calves, whereas 12.0% excreted 500-5000 OPG. Clinical...

  8. Shedding of the immunodominant P20 surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, C A; Whitmire, W M

    1989-01-01

    P20 is an immunodominant surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites. As parasites underwent merogony within cultured bovine monocytes and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, P20 appeared to be shed gradually by meronts and was absent in type 1 and 2 first-generation merozoites. Meronts of E. bovis appeared to shed P20 into the parasitophorous vacuole of bovine monocytes, whereas MDBK cells evidently released P20 into the culture medium or destroyed its antigenic determinant.

  9. Outbreak of Eimeria kofoidi and E. legionensis coccidiosis in redlegged partridges (Alectoris rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Giorgio Bolognesi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of coccidiosis occurred in red-legged partridges is reported. At the post-mortem examination the birds showed a mucous haemorrhagic enteritis, mostly in the duodenal intestinal tract. Direct microscopic examination of intestinal content revealed the presence of a high number of oocysts. After incubation, on the basis of the morphological features, two species of coccidia were identified: Eimeria kofoidi and E. legionensis.

  10. In vitro activity of natural and chemical products on sporulation of Eimeria species oocysts of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhaq, Sahar M; Arafa, Waleed M; Abolhadid, Shawky M

    2018-02-15

    This study was designed to investigate the ability of two herbal extracts and different chemical substances to inhibit or disrupt sporulation of Eimeria species oocysts of the chickens. The two herbal extracts were Allium sativum (garlic) and Moringa olifiera while the chemical substances included commercial disinfectants and diclazuril. Field isolates of Eimeria oocysts were propagated in chickens to obtain a continuous source of oocysts. The collected unsporulated oocysts (10 5 oocysts/5 ml) were dispensed into 5 cm Petri dish. Three replicates were used for each treatment. The treated oocysts were incubated for 48 h at 25-29 °C and 80% relative humidity. The results showed that herbal extracts, the commercial recommended dose of Dettol, TH4, Phenol, Virkon ® S, and Diclazuril 20% have no effect on the sporulation. While Sodium hypochlorite showed a significant degree of sporulation inhibition reached to 49.67%. Moreover, 70% ethanol, and 10% formalin showed 100% sporulation inhibition. It was concluded that 70% ethanol and 10% formalin are the most effective methods to inhibit Eimeria species sporulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Two new species of Eimeria from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudi, M A

    1988-11-01

    Fifteen fecal samples from peacocks (Pavo cristatus) in Saudi Arabia contained oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae n. sp. in two peacocks and oocysts of E. arabica n. sp. in one peacock. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria riyadhae are ellipsoidal, 27-30.5 x 20.5-25 (28.8 +/- 1.3 x 22.4 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and bilobed polar body, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocysts are ovoid, 11-14.5 x 6.5-8 (13.2 +/- 1.2 x 7.2 +/- 0.6) micron with a thick, knob-like Stieda body and a residuum. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria arabica are spheroidal, 17.5-21.5 x 17.5-21.5 (19.2 +/- 1.6 x 19.2 +/- 1.6) micron, with a two-layered wall and two refractile polar bodies, but without a micropyle or residuum. The sporocyts are elongate ovoid, 9.5-12 x 4-6.5 (11.2 +/- 0.9 x 5.5 +/- 0.88), with a small crescent-shaped Stieda body. The host bird belongs to the order Galliformis.

  12. New species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps (Rodentia: Echimyidae) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Viana, Lúcio André; Santos, Filipe Martins; de Oliveira Porfírio, Grasiela Edith; Perdomo, Alessandra Cabral; da Silva, Alanderson Rodrigues; de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; de Oliveira, Michel Angelo Constantino; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano

    2017-11-01

    The echimyid rodents Thrichomys fosteri and Clyomys laticeps are among the most commonly recorded small mammals in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. These species play important ecological roles since they are the basis of the food chain of some predators and are parasitized by some pathogens. Knowledge of the eimerians that parasitize echimyid rodents in Brazil is absent, and only one report is available for South America. We therefore investigated parasitism by coccidians in the echimyids T. fosteri and C. laticeps in the Pantanal. Using morphological and morphometric features and associated statistical analyses, we describe five new eimerian species parasitizing T. fosteri (Eimeria nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria jansenae n. sp., and Eimeria fosteri n. sp.) and C. laticeps (E. nhecolandensis n. sp., Eimeria corumbaensis n. sp., and Eimeria laticeps n. sp.) in different types of infection associations. We document the developmental forms in the tissues, and describe lesions in the enteric tract of some infected animals. We also discuss some approaches regarding epidemiological and ecological data. Our results demonstrate that echimyid rodents in the Brazilian Pantanal are important hosts for the maintenance of enteric coccidia. Moreover, in some circumstances, this parasitism may threaten the health of the hosts.

  13. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkway, Christopher P; Pocock, Rebecca L; Vrba, Vladimir; Blake, Damer P

    2015-02-20

    Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which cause the enteric disease coccidiosis, pose a serious threat to the production and welfare of chickens. In the absence of effective control clinical coccidiosis can be devastating. Resistance to the chemoprophylactics frequently used to control Eimeria is common and sub-clinical infection is widespread, influencing feed conversion ratios and susceptibility to other pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens. Despite the availability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tools, diagnosis of Eimeria infection still relies almost entirely on traditional approaches such as lesion scoring and oocyst morphology, but neither is straightforward. Limitations of the existing molecular tools include the requirement for specialist equipment and difficulties accessing DNA as template. In response a simple field DNA preparation protocol and a panel of species-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been developed for the seven Eimeria recognised to infect the chicken. We now provide a detailed protocol describing the preparation of genomic DNA from intestinal tissue collected post-mortem, followed by setup and readout of the LAMP assays. Eimeria species-specific LAMP can be used to monitor parasite occurrence, assessing the efficacy of a farm's anticoccidial strategy, and to diagnose sub-clinical infection or clinical disease with particular value when expert surveillance is unavailable.

  14. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  15. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  16. Acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols from Myristica maxima Warb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhamad Aqmal; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-06-01

    Giganteone E (1), a new dimeric acylphenol was isolated as a minor constituent from the bark of Myristica maxima Warb. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Malabaricones A-C (2-4), giganteones A and C (5 and 6), maingayones A and B (7 and 8), maingayic acid B (9) and β-sitosteryl oleate (10) were also characterized in this plant for the first time. Compound 10 was identified for the first time in the Myristicaceae. Compounds 2 and 5 were active against human prostate cancer cell-lines, thus making this the first report on the prostate cancer inhibiting potential of acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8 exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on their free radical scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cosmological streaming velocities and large-scale density maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Lumsden, S.L.; Heavens, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The statistical testing of models for galaxy formation against the observed peculiar velocities on 10-100 Mpc scales is considered. If it is assumed that observers are likely to be sited near maxima in the primordial field of density perturbations, then the observed filtered velocity field will be biased to low values by comparison with a point selected at random. This helps to explain how the peculiar velocities (relative to the microwave background) of the local supercluster and the Rubin-Ford shell can be so similar in magnitude. Using this assumption to predict peculiar velocities on two scales, we test models with large-scale damping (i.e. adiabatic perturbations). Allowed models have a damping length close to the Rubin-Ford scale and are mildly non-linear. Both purely baryonic universes and universes dominated by massive neutrinos can account for the observed velocities, provided 0.1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1. (author)

  18. Pathogenic characteristics of a novel intranuclear coccidia in Japanese black calves and its genetic identification as Eimeria subspherica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreeda, Terunori; Kawakami, Tomo; Okada, Ayako; Hirashima, Yoshimasa; Imai, Naoto; Sasai, Kazumi; Tanaka, Shogo; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2017-11-01

    Bovine intranuclear coccidiosis is caused by the protozoans Eimeria alabamensis and Cyclospora spp. Here, we characterized the disease and genetically identified the causative species in Japanese black calves with chronic and refractory watery diarrhea. Histologic examinations revealed atrophy of the jejunal villi and numerous parasites in the nucleus of epithelial cells in the jejunum. Based on molecular analyses using 18S ribosomal RNA gene-specific primers that we designed, the parasites were found to be formed in the same cluster as Eimeria subspherica in the phylogenetic tree, which was separated from those of other related Eimeria spp. These results constitute the first report of E. subspherica as a cause of bovine intranuclear coccidiosis.

  19. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  20. Critical Analysis of Non-Nuclear Electron-Density Maxima and the Maximum Entropy Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.Y.; Briels, Willem J.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the existence of non-nuclear maxima in charge densities is questioned. It is shown that the non-nuclear maxima reported for silicon are artifacts of the maximum entropy method that was used to analyze the x-ray diffraction data. This method can be improved by the use of

  1. Two necrotic enteritis predisposing factors, dietary fishmeal and Eimeria infection, induce large changes in the caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Stanley, Dragana; Rodgers, Nicholas; Swick, Robert A; Moore, Robert J

    2014-03-14

    It is widely established that a high-protein fishmeal supplemented starter diet and Eimeria infection can predispose birds to the development of clinical necrotic enteritis symptoms following Clostridium perfringens infection. However, it has not been clearly established what changes these treatments cause to predispose birds to succumb to necrotic enteritis. We analysed caecal microbiota of 4 groups of broilers (n=12) using deep pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons: (1) control chicks fed a control diet, (2) Eimeria infected chicks fed control diet, (3) chicks fed fishmeal supplemented diet and lastly (4) both fishmeal fed and Eimeria infected chicks. We found that the high-protein fishmeal diet had a strong effect on the intestinal microbiota similar to the previously reported effect of C. perfringens infection. We noted major changes in the prevalence of various lactobacilli while the total culturable Lactobacillus counts remained stable. The Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, unknown Clostridiales and Lactobacillaceae families were most affected by fishmeal with increases in a number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that had previously been linked to Crohn's disease and reductions in OTUs known to be butyrate producers. Eimeria induced very different changes in microbiota; Ruminococcaceae groups were reduced in number and three unknown Clostridium species were increased in abundance. Additionally, Eimeria did not significantly influence changes in pH, formic, propionic or isobutyric acid while fishmeal induced dramatic changes in all these measures. Both fishmeal feeding and Eimeria infection induced significant changes in the gut microbiota; these changes may play an important role in predisposing birds to necrotic enteritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shahawy,Ismail Saad

    2010-01-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an ooc...

  3. Incidence of single and mixed infections with Eimeria kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis on the health of experimentally infected red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naciri, M; Fort, G; Briant, J; Duperray, J; Benzoni, G

    2014-09-15

    Little is known about Eimeria-induced coccidiosis in partridges. After a coccidiosis outbreak in a farm rearing red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Brittany (France), three Eimeria species were identified as Eimeria kofoidi, Eimeria caucasica and Eimeria legionensis. This study aimed to reproduce the effects of the disease occurring in field conditions, in the absence of preventive treatments, to further build a coccidiosis model, helpful for coccidiostatic development. The pathogenic effects of a single infection with Eimeria kofoidi, E. caucasica and E. legionensis were evaluated, as well as the effects of multiple infections associating two or three of these species in red-legged partridges. Thirty-one-day-old birds were individually inoculated with Eimeria spp. and clinically followed up until 49 days of age. Mortality, lesion scores, daily oocyst production and growth were used as assessment criteria. Single infections with 250,000 E. kofoidi, 30,000 E. caucasica or 100,000 E. legionensis oocysts did not increase mortality rate compared to uninfected birds, whereas the combination of 3 species caused significant 28% mortality (PEimeria spp. or for selecting efficient molecules to struggle coccidiosis of red-legged partridges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  6. Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMA example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Radek; Balbi, Amedeo; Borrill, Julian D.; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hanany, Shaul; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Lee, Adrian T.; Oh, Sang; Rabii, Bahman; Richards, Paul L.; Smoot, George F.; Winant, Celeste D.; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2002-01-01

    This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXIMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

  7. Combination of probiotics and coccidiosis vaccine enhances protection against an Eimeria challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzi, Miranda M; Abdelrahman, Wael; van-Heerden, Kobus; Mohnl, Michaela; Barrett, Nathaniel W; Dalloul, Rami A

    2016-11-08

    Coccidiosis is endemic in the commercial broiler industry capable of inflicting devastating economic losses to poultry operations. Vaccines are relatively effective in controlling the disease; their efficacy could potentially be improved with concurrent use of probiotics as evaluated in this study using an Eimeria challenge. Day of hatch 400 Cobb-500 male broilers were assigned to one of four treatment groups including control (CON), vaccine-only gel application (VNC), probiotic-only gel application (NPC), and vaccine-plus-probiotic gel application (VPC). Birds were placed in floor pens (6 replicate pens/treatment, 16-17 birds/pen). NPC and VPC birds received the probiotics in the water on days 2-4, 8, 14-20, 22, 29, and 34-36. On day 15, birds were mildly challenged with 0.5 mL of a mixed oral inoculum of Eimeria sp. prepared with the coccidiosis vaccine at 10× the vaccination dose. Performance measurements were recorded on first day and weekly afterwards, and lesion scores were evaluated 6 days post-challenge. Overall, the probiotics and coccidiosis vaccine resulted in an enhanced protective effect against the challenge, with VPC birds exhibiting lower lesion scores in the duodenum than VNC or NPC birds. Birds in the VPC treatment also demonstrated higher weight gains during days 1-15, days 7-15, and days 21-28 when compared to the VNC birds. These results suggest that the combination of probiotics and coccidiosis vaccines could enhance performance and provide an additional protective effect against a mixed Eimeria challenge.

  8. Age-related immune response to experimental infection with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae in goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Pérez, D; López, A M; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2018-06-01

    Both the immune response developed in ruminants against Eimeria spp. and the ability to bear patent infections seems to be dependent on the age of the host. In the present study we have evaluated the influence of the age in the development of protective immune responses against Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae. For this purpose, 3, 4 and 5-week-old goat kids were infected with sporulated oocysts and subjected to a homologous challenge 3 weeks later. Goat kids primary infected at 6, 7 and 8 weeks of age served as challenge controls, and uninfected animals were used as negative controls. The protective immunity was assessed by clinical, haematological, parasitological, immunological and pathological parameters. Altogether, the results demonstrate that goat kids of either 3, 4 or 5 weeks of age are able to develop patent infections and immunoprotective responses against E. ninakohlyakimovae, as all age groups: (i) released significantly less oocysts after challenge, which was associated to milder clinical signs; (ii) displayed a local immune response, with significant increase of numerous cellular populations; and (iii) had increased levels of IgG and IgM, and mainly of local IgA. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the data showed some differences between the three age groups, related both to the Eimeria infection outcome and the resulting immune response, suggesting that youngest goat kids are not fully immunocompetent. This finding may be of interest for the design of immunoprophylactic approaches and/or prophylactic/methaphylactic treatments against goat coccidiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study on the immunogenic ability of Eimeria tennela oocysts following treatment with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penev, P.; Stefanova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Studied was the immunizing capacity of Eimeria tennela oocysts, treated with gamma rays at the rate of 6000 R, in 10- and 20-day-old chickens. The oocysts sporulated after treatment. Applied at the rate of 50000 R they showed lower virulence and were capable of inducing resistance to reinfection with non-irradiated oocysts at rates that were three times as much. Following reinfection some birds manifested subclinical coccidiosis but survived. This showed that the immunization with oocysts that had been irradiated with 6000 R had its peculiar aspect. (author)

  10. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M Fornace

    Full Text Available Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.

  11. Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  12. Volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic compartments and have physiological and structural characteristics similar to acidocalcisomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Lia Carolina Soares; Gomes, Fabio; Maciel, Luis Renato Maia; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia; Plattner, Helmut; Hentschel, Joachim; Kawazoe, Urara; Barrabin, Hector; de Souza, Wanderley; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; Miranda, Kildare

    2012-01-01

    The structural organization of parasites has been the subject of investigation by many groups and has lead to the identification of structures and metabolic pathways that may represent targets for anti-parasitic drugs. A specific group of organelles named acidocalcisomes has been identified in a number of organisms, including the apicomplexan parasites such as Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, where they have been shown to be involved in cation homeostasis, polyphosphate metabolism, and osmoregulation. Their structural counterparts in the apicomplexan parasite Eimeria have not been fully characterized. In this work, the ultrastructural and chemical properties of acidocalcisomes in Eimeria were characterized. Electron microscopy analysis of Eimeria parasites showed the dense organelles called volutin granules similar to acidocalcisomes. Immunolocalization of the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase, considered as a marker for acidocalcisomes, showed labeling in vesicles of size and distribution similar to the dense organelles seen by electron microscopy. Spectrophotometric measurements of the kinetics of proton uptake showed a vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase activity. X-ray mapping revealed significant amounts of Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, and Zn in their matrix. The results suggest that volutin granules of Eimeria parasites are acidic, dense organelles and possess structural and chemical properties analogous to those of other acidocalcisomes, suggesting a similar functional role in these parasites. PMID:21699625

  13. Efficacy of treatments with toltrazuril 7.5% and lasalocid sodium in sheep naturally infected with Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Paiva, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an experimental formulation of toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ on a naturally acquired infection of Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs kept on pasture and, in another trial, evaluate the comparative efficacy between lasalocid and toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ in newly weaned sheep under feedlot conditions that had been naturally infected with Eimeria spp. In the first experiment, 30 suckling lambs were divided into two groups: A - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™ and B- control. In experiment 2, 30 weaned sheep were divided into three groups: I - treated with toltrazuril 7.5% + Trimix™, II - treated with lasalocid and III - control. Treatment group A showed an efficacy of 90, 99.4 and 87.3% on days 5, 10 and 20, respectively. Treatment group I had an efficacy of 98.2, 92.6 and 94.5%, while group II had an efficacy of 72.7, 81.6 and 95.9% on days 7, 21 and 42, respectively. Eight Eimeria species were identified; E. ovinoidalis was the most common. Treatment with the toltrazuril 7.5% +Trimix ™ formulation was effective against Eimeria spp. in suckling lambs in field conditions and lambs weaned in under feedlot conditions.

  14. A simple, one-tube assay for the simultaneous detection and diagnosis of ten Australian poultry Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Rosamond M; Morgan, Jess A T

    2014-02-01

    Coccidiosis is a costly worldwide enteric disease of chickens caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria. At present, there are seven described species that occur globally and a further three undescribed, operational taxonomic units (OTUs X, Y, and Z) that are known to infect chickens from Australia. Species of Eimeria have both overlapping morphology and pathology and frequently occur as mixed-species infections. This makes definitive diagnosis with currently available tests difficult and, to date, there is no test for the detection of the three OTUs. This paper describes the development of a PCR-based assay that is capable of detecting all ten species of Eimeria, including OTUs X, Y, and Z in field samples. The assay is based on a single set of generic primers that amplifies a single diagnostic fragment from the mitochondrial genome of each species. This one-tube assay is simple, low-cost, and has the capacity to be high throughput. It will therefore be of great benefit to the poultry industry for Eimeria detection and control, and the confirmation of identity and purity of vaccine strains. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa.

  16. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Alvarez, A.; Modrý, David; Foronda, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2016), s. 1817-1825 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coccidia * Eimeria barbarae n. sp * Alectoris barbara * Canary Island Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  17. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Asian geoemydid turtles Kachuga tentoria and Melanochelys trijuga (Testudines: Geoemydidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Modrý, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2005), s. 9-13 ISSN 1252-607X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Apicomplexa * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.844, year: 2005

  18. HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND UV LIGHT TREATMENT OF PRODUCE CONTAMINATED WITH EIMERIA ACERVULINA AS A CYCLOSPORA CAYETANENSIS SURROGATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence, size, genome, and life cycle of Eimeria acervulina make this organism a good surrogate for Cyclospora cayetanensis, a protozoan that causes gastroenteritis in humans, including recent outbreaks in the United States and Canada associated with contaminated raspberries and basil. Labora...

  19. The rabbit coccidium Eimeria flavescens Marotel and Guilhon, 1941: an electron microscopic study of its life cycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakandl, Michal; Černík, F.; Coudert, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 4 (2003), s. 304-311 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6022002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Coccidia * life cycle * Eimeria flavescens Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  20. Development of molecular assays for the identification of the 11 Eimeria species of the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliveira, U. C.; Fraga, J. S.; Licois, D.; Pakandl, Michal; Gruber, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 176, 2/3 (2011), 275-280 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Rabbit * Coccidiosis * ITS1 * Ribosomal DNA * PCR-based diagnosis Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  1. Evidence for a structural role for acid-fast lipids in oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkin, G Guy; Motari, Edwin; Carpentieri, Andrea; Dubey, Jitender P; Costello, Catherine E; Robbins, Phillips W; Samuelson, John

    2013-09-03

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp. cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while Toxoplasma causes disseminated infections in fetuses and untreated AIDS patients. Eimeria is a major pathogen of commercial chickens. Oocysts, which are the infectious form of Cryptosporidium and Eimeria and one of two infectious forms of Toxoplasma (the other is tissue cysts in undercooked meat), have a multilayered wall. Recently we showed that the inner layer of the oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria is a porous scaffold of fibers of β-1,3-glucan, which are also present in fungal walls but are absent from Cryptosporidium oocyst walls. Here we present evidence for a structural role for lipids in the oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria. Briefly, oocyst walls of each organism label with acid-fast stains that bind to lipids in the walls of mycobacteria. Polyketide synthases similar to those that make mycobacterial wall lipids are abundant in oocysts of Toxoplasma and Eimeria and are predicted in Cryptosporidium. The outer layer of oocyst wall of Eimeria and the entire oocyst wall of Cryptosporidium are dissolved by organic solvents. Oocyst wall lipids are complex mixtures of triglycerides, some of which contain polyhydroxy fatty acyl chains like those present in plant cutin or elongated fatty acyl chains like mycolic acids. We propose a two-layered model of the oocyst wall (glucan and acid-fast lipids) that resembles the two-layered walls of mycobacteria (peptidoglycan and acid-fast lipids) and plants (cellulose and cutin). Oocysts, which are essential for the fecal-oral spread of coccidia, have a wall that is thought responsible for their survival in the environment and for their transit through the stomach and small intestine. While oocyst walls of Toxoplasma and Eimeria are strengthened by a porous scaffold of fibrils of β-1,3-glucan and by proteins cross

  2. High pathogenicity and strong immunogenicity of a Chinese isolate of Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Gu, Xiaolong; Cui, Ping; Fang, Sufang; Suo, Xun; Liu, Xianyong

    2017-06-01

    Coccidia infection of rabbits with one or several species of parasites of the genus Eimeria causes coccidiosis, a disease leading to huge economic losses in the rabbit industry. Eimeria magna, one of the causal agents of rabbit coccidiosis, was characterized as mildly pathogenic and moderately immunogenic in previous studies. In this study, we identified a Chinese isolate of E. magna by testing its biological features (oocyst morphology and size, prepatent time) and sequencing its internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) DNA fragment. This isolate is highly pathogenic; infection of rabbits with only 1×10 2 oocysts caused a 55% reduction in weight gain in 14days. In addition, immunization with 1×10 2 oocysts prevented body weight loss against re-infection with 5×10 4 oocysts, indicating the high immunogenicity of this isolate. Our study described the distinctive phenotype of the Chinese isolate of E. magna and contributed to the research of geographic variation of rabbit coccidia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular analysis of single oocyst of Eimeria by whole genome amplification (WGA) based nested PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunzhou; Tao, Geru; Cui, Yujuan; Lv, Qiyao; Xie, Li; Li, Yuan; Suo, Xun; Qin, Yinghe; Xiao, Lihua; Liu, Xianyong

    2014-09-01

    PCR-based molecular tools are widely used for the identification and characterization of protozoa. Here we report the molecular analysis of Eimeria species using combined methods of whole genome amplification (WGA) and nested PCR. Single oocyst of Eimeria stiedai or Eimeriamedia was directly used for random amplification of the genomic DNA with either primer extension preamplification (PEP) or multiple displacement amplification (MDA), and then the WGA product was used as template in nested PCR with species-specific primers for ITS-1, 18S rDNA and 23S rDNA of E. stiedai and E. media. WGA-based PCR was successful for the amplification of these genes from single oocyst. For the species identification of single oocyst isolated from mixed E. stiedai or E. media, the results from WGA-based PCR were exactly in accordance with those from morphological identification, suggesting the availability of this method in molecular analysis of eimerian parasites at the single oocyst level. WGA-based PCR method can also be applied for the identification and genetic characterization of other protists. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Humoral immune responses of experimentally Eimeria ninakholyakimovae-infected goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Lorena; Muñoz, María Del Carmen; Molina, José Manuel; Ferrer, Otilia; Rodríguez, Francisco; Pérez, Davinia; López, Adassa María; Martín, Sergio; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; Ruiz, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Although cellular immune reactions seem to be crucial for protective immune responses in Eimeria spp. infections, there are also evidences on an active involvement of the humoral counterpart. In the present study, we have analyzed the humoral response of goat kids subjected to primary and challenge infections with Eimeria ninakholyakimovae. Specific levels of IgG and IgM in serum samples and IgA in the ileal mucus were estimated. In infected kids, significantly increased levels of IgG were observed from 3 weeks post infection onwards in addition to an enhancement of specific IgM and secretory IgA levels. A wide range of peptides of sporulated oocyst antigen (SOA) was recognized by specific IgG as determined by immunoblotting. However, no correlations were found between immunoglobulin levels and OPG counts after challenge infection. Overall, these data indicate a significant specific humoral response of E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected goat kids that does not seem to convey immunoprotection. Further studies should be addressed to clarify if the lack of correlation might be associated to the type of antigen used for the immunoenzimatic assays, the age of the animals or other factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da C; Almeida, Katyane de S; Zanetti, André S; do Nascimento, Adjair A; Machado, Cé Lio R; Machado, Rosangela Z

    2006-01-01

    The parasitism of the two giant anteaters adults (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), one male and one female, infected naturally with Eimeria escomeli, E. tamanduae e E. marajoensis was related in the present research. In E. escomeli oocysts were 23.9 +/- 1.89 by 19.7 +/- 1.60 microm and its sporocysts were 11.47 +/- 1.25 by 6.48 +/- 0.80 microm. In E. tamanduae oocysts were 23.52 +/- 0.95 by 20.59 +/- 0.92 microm and its sporocysts were 12.19 +/- 0.65 by 7.15 +/- 0.55 microm. In E. marajoensis oocysts were 13.5 +/- 1.7 by 13.1 +/- 1.8 microm and its sporocysts were 7.4 +/- 0.58 by 5.4 +/- 0.8 microm. Eimeria escomeli was described before parasitizing giants anteater from Bolivia, and it was point out as the first time in Brazil. The presence of E. tamanduae and E. marajoensis parasitizing giant anteaters indicate the possibility of having co-infection of them among animals of the family Myrmecophagidae.

  6. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Eimeria spp. DURING EARLY NATURAL INFECTION IN GOAT KIDS IN BAJA CALIFORNIA SUR, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cepeda-Palacios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the natural infection by Eimeria spp. in goat kids, and to describe some pathophysiological responses to eimerosis in kids under intensive rearing conditions in B.C.S, Mexico. Nineteen adult crossbred does naturally infected with mixed Eimeria spp. and 20 Anglo Nubian x Creole crossbred kids were used. Oocyst per gram of feces (OPG and identification of Eimeria species were determined in does (during the pre-kidding and post-kidding periods and kids. Clinical signs, hematocrit, hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood serum were evaluated. OPG (mean±SD was significantly higher (P<0.05 in pre-kidding (9,478±7,599 than in post-kidding (5,313±2,909 period. Oocyst elimination in feces began at age 59±9 days in kids. Eimerian species identified were E. arloingi, E. jolchijevi, E. ninakohlyakimovae, E. hirci, E. christenseni and E. alijevi. Kids were humanely sacrificed to evaluate pathological lesions. Intestinal lesions and lesion severity showed differences in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon, being more severe in duodenum. In conclusion, OPG increased during the late pregnancy in does which favored a doe-kid transmission mechanism. Our results support the notion of Eimeria reproduction rhythms during the late pregnancy period in goats, and this reproduction contribute to vertical transmission of Eimeria to the newborn. However, coccidian outbreaks are developed and clinically observed only when stressing factors such as when weaning occur. Coccidia had devastating effects on the intestine of kids, which might cause long-term permanent malabsortion consequences. Â

  7. Differential responses of cecal microbiota to fishmeal, Eimeria and Clostridium perfringens in a necrotic enteritis challenge model in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanley

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens causes enteric diseases in animals and humans. In poultry, avian-specific C. perfringens strains cause necrotic enteritis, an economically significant poultry disease that costs the global industry over $2 billion annually in losses and control measures. With removal of antibiotic growth promoters in some countries this disease appears to be on the rise. In experimental conditions used to study disease pathogenesis and potential control measures, reproduction of the disease relies on the use of predisposing factors such as Eimeria infection and the use of high protein diets, indicating complex mechanisms involved in the onset of necrotic enteritis. The mechanisms by which the predisposing factors contribute to disease progression are not well understood but it has been suggested that they may cause perturbations in the microbiota within the gastrointestinal tract. We inspected changes in cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA induced by Eimeria and fishmeal, in birds challenged or not challenged with C. perfringens. C. perfringens challenge in the absence of predisposing factors did not cause significant changes in either the alpha or beta diversity of the microbiota nor in concentrations of SCFA. Moreover, there was no C. perfringens detected in the cecal microbiota 2 days post-challenge without the presence of predisposing factors. In contrast, both fishmeal and Eimeria caused significant changes in microbiota, seen in both alpha and beta diversity and also enabled C. perfringens to establish itself post challenge. Eimeria had its strongest influence on intestinal microbiota and SCFA when combined with fishmeal. Out of 6 SCFAs measured, including butyric acid, none were significantly influenced by C. perfringens, but their levels were strongly modified following the use of both predisposing factors. There was little overlap in the changes caused following Eimeria and fishmeal treatments, possibly indicating

  8. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  9. ODF Maxima Extraction in Spherical Harmonic Representation via Analytical Search Space Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    By revealing complex fiber structure through the orientation distribution function (ODF), q-ball imaging has recently become a popular reconstruction technique in diffusion-weighted MRI. In this paper, we propose an analytical dimension reduction approach to ODF maxima extraction. We show that by expressing the ODF, or any antipodally symmetric spherical function, in the common fourth order real and symmetric spherical harmonic basis, the maxima of the two-dimensional ODF lie on an analytically derived one-dimensional space, from which we can detect the ODF maxima. This method reduces the computational complexity of the maxima detection, without compromising the accuracy. We demonstrate the performance of our technique on both artificial and human brain data. PMID:20879302

  10. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  11. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  12. The essential oil from the flowers of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Pha, Nguyen M.; Lo, Vu N.; An, N.T.K.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five compounds have been identified in the flower oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. The major components were limonene (18.2%), linalool (16.4%), nerolidol (29.3%) and farnesol (15.7%).

  13. Variance analysis of forecasted streamflow maxima in a wet temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aamery, Nabil; Fox, James F.; Snyder, Mark; Chandramouli, Chandra V.

    2018-05-01

    Coupling global climate models, hydrologic models and extreme value analysis provides a method to forecast streamflow maxima, however the elusive variance structure of the results hinders confidence in application. Directly correcting the bias of forecasts using the relative change between forecast and control simulations has been shown to marginalize hydrologic uncertainty, reduce model bias, and remove systematic variance when predicting mean monthly and mean annual streamflow, prompting our investigation for maxima streamflow. We assess the variance structure of streamflow maxima using realizations of emission scenario, global climate model type and project phase, downscaling methods, bias correction, extreme value methods, and hydrologic model inputs and parameterization. Results show that the relative change of streamflow maxima was not dependent on systematic variance from the annual maxima versus peak over threshold method applied, albeit we stress that researchers strictly adhere to rules from extreme value theory when applying the peak over threshold method. Regardless of which method is applied, extreme value model fitting does add variance to the projection, and the variance is an increasing function of the return period. Unlike the relative change of mean streamflow, results show that the variance of the maxima's relative change was dependent on all climate model factors tested as well as hydrologic model inputs and calibration. Ensemble projections forecast an increase of streamflow maxima for 2050 with pronounced forecast standard error, including an increase of +30(±21), +38(±34) and +51(±85)% for 2, 20 and 100 year streamflow events for the wet temperate region studied. The variance of maxima projections was dominated by climate model factors and extreme value analyses.

  14. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  15. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pmaxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  16. Deep silicon maxima in the stratified oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Crombet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silicon biogeochemical cycle has been studied in the Mediterranean Sea during late summer/early autumn 1999 and summer 2008. The distribution of nutrients, particulate carbon and silicon, fucoxanthin (Fuco, and total chlorophyll-a (TChl-a were investigated along an eastward gradient of oligotrophy during two cruises (PROSOPE and BOUM encompassing the entire Mediterranean Sea during the stratified period. At both seasons, surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the nutriclines gradually deepened towards the East, the phosphacline being the deepest in the easternmost Levantine basin. Following the nutriclines, parallel deep maxima of biogenic silica (DSM, fucoxanthin (DFM and TChl-a (DCM were evidenced during both seasons with maximal concentrations of 0.45 μmol L−1 for BSi, 0.26 μg L−1 for Fuco, and 1.70 μg L−1 for TChl-a, all measured during summer. Contrary to the DCM which was a persistent feature in the Mediterranean Sea, the DSM and DFMs were observed in discrete areas of the Alboran Sea, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ionian sea and the Levantine basin, indicating that diatoms were able to grow at depth and dominate the DCM under specific conditions. Diatom assemblages were dominated by Chaetoceros spp., Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudonitzschia spp. and the association between large centric diatoms (Hemiaulus hauckii and Rhizosolenia styliformis and the cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis was observed at nearly all sites. The diatom's ability to grow at depth is commonly observed in other oligotrophic regions and could play a major role in ecosystem productivity and carbon export to depth. Contrary to the common view that Si and siliceous phytoplankton are not major components of the Mediterranean biogeochemistry, we suggest here that diatoms, by persisting at depth during the stratified period, could contribute to a

  17. Molecular and phylogenetic characterizations of an Eimeria krijgsmanni Yakimoff & Gouseff, 1938 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) mouse intestinal protozoan parasite by partial 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Toshinori; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Maeda, Hiroki; Kusakisako, Kodai; Matsui, Toshihiro; Mochizuki, Masami; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2014-08-01

    Previously, we characterized an undocumented strain of Eimeria krijgsmanni by morphological and biological features. Here, we present a detailed molecular phylogenetic analysis of this organism. Namely, 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences of E. krijgsmanni were analyzed to incorporate this species into a comprehensive Eimeria phylogeny. As a result, partial 18S rDNA sequence from E. krijgsmanni was successfully determined, and two different types, Type A and Type B, that differed by 1 base pair were identified. E. krijgsmanni was originally isolated from a single oocyst, and thus the result show that the two types might have allelic sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rDNA. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the two types of E. krijgsmanni 18S rDNA formed one of two clades among murine Eimeria spp.; these Eimeria clades reflected morphological similarity among the Eimeria spp. This is the third molecular phylogenetic characterization of a murine Eimeria spp. in addition to E. falciformis and E. papillata. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman She

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies

  19. Accumulation of alkaline earth metals by the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakamura, Saki; Nakayama, Katsumi; Fujisaki, Shingo; Watanabe, Soichiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-five days after the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, we collected samples of the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima from the Pacific coast of Japan. Bryopsis maxima is a unicellular, multinuclear, siphonous green macroalga. Radiation analysis revealed that B. maxima emitted remarkably high gamma radiation of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (140)Ba as fission products of (235)U. Interestingly, B. maxima contained naturally occurring radionuclides derived from (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Analysis of element content revealed that B. maxima accumulates many ocean elements, especially high quantities of the alkaline earth metals Sr (15.9 g per dry-kg) and Ba (3.79 g per dry-kg), whereas Ca content (12.5 g per dry-kg) was lower than that of Sr and only 61 % of the mean content of 70 Japanese seaweed species. Time-course analysis determined the rate of radioactive (85)Sr incorporation into thalli to be approximately 0.13 g Sr per dry-kg of thallus per day. Subcellular fractionation of B. maxima cells showed that most of the (85)Sr was localized in the soluble fraction, predominantly in the vacuole or cytosol. Given that (85)Sr radioactivity was permeable through a dialysis membrane, the (85)Sr was considered to be a form of inorganic ion and/or bound with a small molecule. Precipitation analysis with sodium sulfate showed that more than 70% of the Sr did not precipitate as SrSO4, indicating that a proportion of the Sr may bind with small molecules in B. maxima.

  20. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaoman; Yu, Lin; Lan, Guobing; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum . The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies for C. maxima wilt

  1. Coccidies genus Eimeria as bioindicator of radioactive pollution of the biocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pel'gunov, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of ecosystems contamination on morphological changes and sporulation of oocytes of Coccidae r. Eimeria, which are rodent parasites, is analyzed. Coccidae of rodents were collected in Chernobyl (1989-1991) and the Bryansk region of Russia (1992-1999). The surface contamination of experimental plots was varied from 0.11 to 11.8 MBq/m 2 . It was found that parametric sings (size and form index of oocytes) were independent from contamination level. Whereas nonparametric sings (deformations of oocytes shells and internal structure) and sporulatio process depend on contamination levels. The part of nonsporulated oocytes increased with contamination increasing but the the quantity of oocytes corresponding to the description of given type (norm) decreased. The dependence is well described by the logarithmic regression equation that allows to use these indexes for biological indication of ecosystem contamination [ru

  2. The economic impact of infection with Eimeria spp. in broiler farms from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Györke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey was conducted on chicken broiler farms from Romania in August-November 2010 to evaluate economic losses due to coccidiosis. Data were collected from six broiler farms of different capacity regarding chemoprophylaxis program, weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality, for two previous flocks in two houses of each farm, and finally we evaluated the economic losses. Also, faeces samples were collected and oocysts were classified according to their size, and virulence of each Eimeria spp. field isolate was determined by lesion scoring. Correlations between economic performance, oocysts category, and virulence of Eimeria were assessed by multiple linear regression. Total economic losses per 24 flocks of 18,000 chicks each were about €37,948.2, with an average of €3,162.4 per flock, and they were caused by mortality (34.8% and poor feed conversion (65.2%. Poor body weight gain was associated with AM oocyst category (presumptively E. acervulina and/or E. mitis, high lesion score in the duodenum, and coccidiostat used for chemoprophylaxis. Feed conversion ratio was linked to the same parameters as body weight gain, minus chemoprophylaxis programme, plus total lesion score. The percentage of mortality was influenced by the lesion score in the caecum and total lesion score. Statistical analysis showed that epidemiological survey of broiler flocks during the grower period can help the farmer to avoid important economic losses due to coccidiosis. As in other countries, the economic losses caused by coccidiosis in Romania are important, and a good prophylaxis programme can reduce the economic impact of coccidiosis.

  3. Interactive effects of dietary arginine and Eimeria acervulina infection on broiler growth performance and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochell, S J; Helmbrecht, A; Parsons, C M; Dilger, R N

    2017-03-01

    The influence of dietary Arg concentration and Eimeria acervulina infection on broiler growth performance and plasma carotenoid, nitric oxide (NO), amino acid, and urea concentrations was evaluated. Male Ross × Ross 308 broilers (384 total) were fed a common diet for 10 d post-hatch and provided experimental diets formulated to contain 1.23 (HA) or 0.74% (LA) standardized ileal digestible Arg from 10 to 28 d. At 21 d, one-half of the broilers were switched to the opposite diet to create 4 dietary regimens where birds were fed the LA diet throughout, the LA diet replaced by the HA diet at 21 d, the HA diet throughout, or the HA diet replaced by the LA diet at 21 d. Broilers were orally inoculated 0 (uninfected) or 3.5 × 105 sporulated E. acervulina oocysts at 15 d, resulting in a factorial arrangement of 4 dietary regimens × 2 infection states (8 replicates/treatment). Overall (10 to 28 d) BW gain and G:F were greatest (P Eimeria acervulina infection decreased (P  0.05) of E. acervulina on BW gain or G:F of broilers from 21 to 28 d. Plasma Arg, Lys, and Orn levels at 21 d indicated that the LA diet caused an imbalance in the Lys and Arg status of broilers, and E. acervulina infection increased (P < 0.01) the plasma concentration of these 3 amino acids. Diet × infection interactions (P < 0.05) were observed on 21 d for plasma carotenoids and NO, whereby infection decreased plasma carotenoids and increased plasma NO, but dietary Arg concentration only influenced these measures for uninfected birds. Thus, production of NO during E. acervulina infection was not impaired by dietary Arg limitation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Compositions of the volatile oils of Citrus macroptera and C. maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Virendra S; Blazquez, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the fresh peels of Citrus macroptera Montr. and C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of oil ranged from 0.53% in C. macroptera to 0.13% in C. maxima cultivar (white). Forty-seven compounds were identified in the oils with limonene (55.3-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (2.2-8.0%), geranial (0.4-3.5%), trans-linalool oxide (1.0-2.8%), alpha-terpineol (0.7-2.3%), linalool (0.7-1.5%) and cis-linalool oxide (0.5-1.4%) identified as major compounds. The oil ofC. macroptera contained limonene (55.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.7%) and geranial (3.5%) as main compounds. Similarly, oils from two C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were rich in limonene (72.0-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (8.0-7.2%) and nootkatone (1.6-2.5%). C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were found to contain higher amount of limonene (72.0 and 80.0%) as compared with C. macroptera (55.3%). The chemical compositions of the oils were found to be similar, but nootkatone (1.6-2.5%) was identified only in C. maxima cultivars.

  5. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p   Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  6. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  7. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data: appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  8. Eimeria jayakaris sp. n. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from the snake, Eryx jayakari (Serpentes: Boidae) in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alyousif, Mohamed S; AlShawa, Yaser R

    2007-01-01

    A new coccidian parasite of the genus Eimeria is described from the gall bladder of the boid snake, Eryx jayakari collected from Althumamah, central region, Saudi Arabia. Oocysts of Eimeria jayakaris sp. n. are ellipsoid, measuring 31x19.5 (28.7-33.5 x 18.5-20.8) micron meter, with a smooth greenish-yellow bilayered oocyst wall of 1.1 (0.9-1.2) micron meter. Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring 12 x 9.3 (10.7-12.8x8-10) micron meter. Sporocyst residuum is present as a granulated compact mass. Sporocysts lack a Stieda body. Sporozoites are banana-shaped, laying head to tail in the sporocysts, each with one spherical refractile globule. (author)

  9. A study of the level and dynamics of Eimeria populations in naturally infected, grazing beef cattle at various stages of production in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Aaron S; Swecker, William S; Lindsay, David S; Scaglia, Guillermo; Neel, James P S; Elvinger, Francois C; Zajac, Anne M

    2014-05-28

    There is little information available on the species dynamics of eimerian parasites in grazing cattle in the central Appalachian region of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the level of infection and species dynamics of Eimeria spp. in grazing beef cattle of various age groups over the course of a year in the central Appalachian region. Rectal fecal samples were collected from male and female calves (n=72) monthly from May through October 2005, heifers only (n=36) monthly from November 2005 to April 2006, and cows (n=72) in May, July, and September, 2005. Eimeria spp. oocysts were seen in 399 of 414 (96%) fecal samples collected from the calves from May through October. Fecal oocysts counts (FOC) in the calves were lower (PEimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 198 of 213 (92%) of fecal samples collected from the 36 replacement heifers monthly from November to April and monthly mean FOC did not differ during this time period. The prevalence of oocyst shedding increased to 100% in calves in September and remained near 100% in the replacement heifers during the sampling period. Eimeria spp. oocysts were also detected in 150 of 200 (75%) samples collected in May, July, and September from the cows and mean FOC did not differ significantly over the sampling period. Eimeria spp. composition was dominated by Eimeria bovis in fecal samples collected from calves, replacement heifers and cows. Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were, however, common in all groups and 13 Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified throughout the sampling period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Control of eight predominant Eimeria spp. involved in economic coccidiosis of broiler chicken by a chemically characterized essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, E K; Bragg, R R; Karrouf, G; Iyer, A; Azhar, E; Harakeh, S; Kumosani, T

    2015-03-01

    To control eight most predominant Eimeria spp. involved in the economic disease of coccidiosis in broiler chicken, by a chemically characterized essential oil of eucalyptus and peppermint. The experimental design consisted of 160 day-old-broiler chicks, divided into four equal groups (G1 , G2 , G3 and G4 ), with 40 birds per group. Each group was divided into four equal subgroups. Birds in G1 were deprived of essential oil treatment and of Eimeria challenge. Birds in G2 were unchallenged, and administered the essential oil in drinking water at 0.69 ml kg(-1) body weight. Birds in G3 were untreated with essential oil, and each of its four subgroups was challenged at a different age (14, 21, 28 and 35 days). Birds in G4 were treated with essential oil, and challenged in the same manner as for G3 . Equal number of birds from all subgroups (n = 10) were sacrificed at the sixth day after the time allocated for each challenge. The 6 day incubation period post challenge resulted in respective mean per cent weight increase in G2 and G1 birds equivalent to 57.8 and 53.1% (P essential oil improved the per cent weight increase in challenged birds (54.6%) compared to the challenged-untreated birds (18.6%) (P essential oils of eucalyptus and peppermint to control the most prevalent Eimeria spp. involved in coccidiosis of broiler chicken, helping in improvement of their production, alleviation of lesions and reduction in intestinal oocyst counts. This study provides information about the possibility of using this blend of essential oil as a coccidiostat for the protection of broiler chickens against the prevalent eight Eimeria spp. of coccidiosis. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Eimeria lokuma n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidium from the African helmeted turtle Pelomedusa subrufa (Lacepede) (Testudines: Pelomedusidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Kamler, M.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2006), s. 73-76 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD524/03/H133; GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Pelomedusa * Apicomplexa Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.856, year: 2006

  12. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  13. The nuclear fluctuation width and the method of maxima in excitation curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burjan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The method of counting maxima of excitation curves in the region of the occurrence of nuclear cross section fluctuations is extended to the case of the more realistic maxima defined as a sequence of five points instead of the simpler and commonly used case of a sequence of three points of an excitation curve. The dependence of the coefficient b (5) (κ), relating the number of five-point maxima and the mean level width Γ of the compound nucleus, on the relative distance K of excitation curve points is calculated. The influence of the random background on the coefficient b (5) (κ) is discussed and a comparison with the properties of the three-point coefficient b (3) (κ) is made - also in connection with the contribution of the random background. The calculated values of b (5) (κ) are well reproduced by the data obtained from the analysis of artificial excitation curves. (orig.)

  14. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima . The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % ( P  maxima -is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements.

  15. Short Communication: Genetic linkage map of Cucurbita maxima with molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Li, X; Yang, X X; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-05-22

    Cucurbita maxima is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables in China and exhibits distinct morphological characteristics. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with 57 simple-sequence repeats, 21 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 3 random-amplified polymorphic DNA, and one morphological marker revealed 20 genetic linkage groups of C. maxima covering a genetic distance of 991.5 cM with an average of 12.1 cM between adjacent markers. Genetic linkage analysis identified the simple-sequence repeat marker 'PU078072' 5.9 cM away from the locus 'Rc', which controls rind color. The genetic map in the present study will be useful for better mapping, tagging, and cloning of quantitative trait loci/gene(s) affecting economically important traits and for breeding new varieties of C. maxima through marker-assisted selection.

  16. Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

    2011-09-01

    This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses.

  17. A NEW SPECIES OF EIMERIA (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) FROM THE NORTHERN MYOTIS, MYOTIS SEPTENTRIONALIS (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE), IN OKLAHOMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Roehrs, Zachary P.

    2012-01-01

    During September 2004, 4 adult northern myotis, Myotis septentrionalis, were collected from LeFlore County, Oklahoma (n = 2), and Logan (n = 1) and Yell (n = 1) counties, Arkansas, and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Three of 4 bats (75%) were passing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Oocysts of Eimeria tumlisoni n. sp. were ovoidal, 17.6 × 16.8 (16–19 × 14–18) μm with a shape index of 1.0 (1.0–1.1). A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, although 1–2 bilobed polar granules were often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.5 × 5.9 (9–12 × 5–7) μm with a shape index of 1.8 (1.6–2.0). A Stieda body was present, but sub–Stieda and para–Stieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum was present consisting of compact to dispersed granules between the sporozoites. The sporozoites were elongate, with subspherical anterior refractile body and spherical posterior refractile body; a nucleus was not discernable. This is the second coccidian reported from this host and the first instance of a bat coccidian reported from Oklahoma. We also document a new geographic record for Eimeria catronensis in Oklahoma, and provide an emended description. PMID:22509940

  18. Comparative Response of the Nigerian Indigenous and Broiler Chickens to a Field Caecal Isolate of Eimeria Oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of Nigerian indigenous (local and broiler chickens to experimental Eimeria infections was investigated by measures of clinical signs, packed cell volume (PCV, body weights (BW, feed consumption, faecal oocyst counts (oocyst per gram, and microscopic intestinal lesions. Three-week-old chickens of each breed received single pulse infections with 2500, 5000, and 100.000 sporulated Eimeria oocysts. Infected birds were dull and passed bloody diarrhoea. OPG showed a dose related response but no significant difference between groups (P>0.05. OPG was significantly higher in local chickens (P<0.05 and varied significantly with time (P<0.05. PCV declined significantly in infected birds within breeds and groups (P<0.05; however, the decline in PCV was significantly greater in broilers (P<0.05. Both breeds had significant BW gains (P<0.05. BW gain varied between groups being significantly higher in the uninfected control broilers than in the infected broilers (P<0.05. Comparatively, broilers gained significantly more BW than their local counterparts (P<0.05. Feed intake increased significantly with time (P<0.05 in both breeds. The Eimeria isolate was pathogenic to both breeds of chicken although clinical signs and lesions were more severe in indigenous chickens suggesting the breed’s more susceptibility.

  19. The Efficacies of Banana Stem Extract as a Candidate of Coccidiostat Against Rabbit Eimeria Stiedaio Ocysts: an in Vitro Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Indrasanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigatethe ability of banana stem (Musa paradisiaca to inhibitsporulation of Eimeria stiedaioocystsderived fromrabbit by in vitroanalysis.Analyze the active substance proximate analysis and active substancesin this research were performed too. Banana stem extract were used in this experiment andsulfaquinoxalline(Coxy ®was run as acontrol. The Eimeria stiedaioocystswere incubated prior the presence of  different concentration from banana stem extract  0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%for 1, 2 and 3 daysat 26°C. In addition,Factorial patterned Completely Randomized Design (CRD with five replicates wasapplied on the experiment. Result analysis was performed by using Analysis of Variance and following by Honestly Significant Difference (HSD post hoc test. Here, we identified that banana stem extract contain different type of active substance such as tannin, saponin, and alkaloid. Banana stem extract significantly affected the oocysts sporulation included the amount of sporulatedoocysts (P<0.01, unsporulatedoocysts (P<0.01, and transformed oocysts (P<0.01. In conclusion banana stem could inhibit the development of Eimeria stiedaioocysts on in vitroexperiment. HSD test showed that the optimum potential efficacy of banana stem toinhibit sporulation was at 4% and 8% concentration during three days incubation.

  20. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  1. Plantago maxima leaves extract inhibits adipogenic action of a high-fat diet in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the content of biologically active compounds producing an antioxidant effect in Plantago maxima and their influence on main mechanisms of dietary obesity development. Biologically active compounds in P. maxima were tested using paper chromatography. In in vivo experiment, high-fat-fed Wistar rats obtained P. maxima water extract for 3 months. Morphometric parameters, weight gain, serum adipokines, and cytokines, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers in rats’ tissues were evaluated. Gut microflora was also examined. Plantago maxima leaves used in the experiment contained significant amount of flavonoids, iridoids, phenol carboxylic acids, and tannins and ascorbic acid. Our in vivo experiment data demonstrate that P. maxima water extract prevents excessive adiposity in a diet-induced model. P. maxima consumption reduced serum leptin (twofold), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (sevenfold), tumornecrosis factor-α (25%), and interleukine-6 (26%) levels. P. maxima water extract decreased adipose tissue oxidative stress biomarkers in rats fed a high-fat diet. In addition, increased bacterial growth in the diet-induced obesity model was reversed by the P. maxima extract treatment. Plantago maxima water extract possessed antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant activity, and normalized gut microflora in a rat model of diet-induced excessive adiposity due to a high content of biologically active compounds.

  2. Evaluation of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant during profilin vaccination against experimental coccidiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung I Jang

    Full Text Available Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70 or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71 water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296, the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adjuvant was not conferring non-specific immune stimulation. These results suggest that profilin plus ISA 71 augments protective immunity

  3. Evaluation of Montanide™ ISA 71 VG Adjuvant during Profilin Vaccination against Experimental Coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehoj, Hyun S.; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lee, Kyung Woo; Bertrand, François; Dupuis, Laurent; Deville, Sébastien; Ben Arous, Juliette; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2013-01-01

    Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296), the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adjuvant was not conferring non-specific immune stimulation. These results suggest that profilin plus ISA 71 augments protective immunity against selective

  4. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  5. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  6. Estimate of the cosmological bispectrum from the MAXIMA-1 cosmic microwave background map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M G; Balbi, A; Borrill, J; Ferreira, P G; Hanany, S; Jaffe, A H; Lee, A T; Magueijo, J; Rabii, B; Richards, P L; Smoot, G F; Stompor, R; Winant, C D; Wu, J H P

    2002-06-17

    We use the measurement of the cosmic microwave background taken during the MAXIMA-1 flight to estimate the bispectrum of cosmological perturbations. We propose an estimator for the bispectrum that is appropriate in the flat sky approximation, apply it to the MAXIMA-1 data, and evaluate errors using bootstrap methods. We compare the estimated value with what would be expected if the sky signal were Gaussian and find that it is indeed consistent, with a chi(2) per degree of freedom of approximately unity. This measurement places constraints on models of inflation.

  7. Estudos anatômicos de folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla Leaf anatomical studies in weed species widely common in Brazil: IV - Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ferreira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentado um estudo da anatomia das folhas de espécies de plantas daninhas de grande ocorrência no Brasil: Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella e Euphorbia heterophylla, visando melhor compreensão das barreiras que cada espécie impõe à penetração dos herbicidas e outros compostos utilizados em aplicações foliares. As folhas completamente expandidas do terceiro ao quinto nó foram coletadas de plantas de ocorrência espontânea no campo. Das folhas de cada espécie foram obtidas três amostras da região mediana, com aproximadamente 1 cm², as quais foram utilizadas em estudos da estrutura, clarificação e em observações em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Todas as espécies avaliadas são anfiestomáticas. As principais barreiras foliares potenciais à penetração de herbicidas observadas nas plantas daninhas A. deflexus e A. spinosus foram, respectivamente, grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial e da cutícula das duas faces. Já em relação a A. tenella, grande espessura da cutícula das duas faces, elevado teor de cera epicuticular e alta densidade tricomática foram os principais obstáculos potenciais detectados. E. heterophylla apresentou como possíveis principais barreiras foliares à penetração de agroquímicos o alto teor de cera epicuticular, a elevada densidade de laticíferos e a grande espessura da cutícula da face adaxial.This research aimed to study the leaf anatomy of the weed species Amaranthus deflexus, Amaranthus spinosus, Alternanthera tenella and Euphorbia heterophylla, widely known in Brazil, to acquire a better understanding of the barriers each species imposes to herbicide penetration, and to other substances used for leaf spraying. Completely expanded leaves from the third to the fifth nodes were collected from spontaneous plants in the field. Three samples approximately 1cm², were removed from the medium portion of the leaves, from each

  8. Reproductive effort and seasonality associated with male-biased parasitism in Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) infected by Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, A L S; Levenhagem, M; Leiner, N O

    2015-07-01

    The aggregation of parasites among hosts is associated with differential host exposure and susceptibility to parasites, which varies according to host gender, body size, reproductive status and environmental factors. We evaluated the role of these factors on infestation by Eimeria spp. (Eimeriidae) in the agile gracile mouse opossum (Gracilinanus agilis), a semelparous didelphid inhabiting neotropical savannahs. Eimeria spp. abundance and prevalence among G. agilis were associated with the breeding status of individuals and to a lesser extent to climatic season, with both sexes presenting higher Eimeria spp. burdens during late breeding/wet season. On the other hand, male-biased parasitism was restricted to dry/mating season. We suggest that male spatial organization and diet may account for increased parasite burdens within this sex, although future studies should evaluate the role of physiological differences associated with androgen hormones. Finally, a rapid increase in Eimeria spp. loads among females during the late breeding/wet season seems associated with seasonal changes in susceptibility, due to breeding costs related to semelparity, and exposure to infective propagules, while male-die off seems to explain maintenance of higher Eimeria spp. burdens within this sex in the same period.

  9. An Example of Competence-Based Learning: Use of Maxima in Linear Algebra for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana; Garcia, Alfonsa; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in a model of learning based on competences. The proposal is an e-learning model Linear Algebra course for Engineering, which includes the use of a CAS (Maxima) and focuses on problem solving. A reference model has been taken from the Spanish Open University. The proper use of CAS is…

  10. Different AT-rich satellite DNAs in Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganal, M; Hemleben, V

    1986-11-01

    The AT-rich highly repeated satellite DNA of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) were cloned and their DNA structure was investigated. DNA sequencing revealed that the repeat length of satellite DNA in Cucurbita pepo is 349-352 base pairs. The percentage of AT-base pairs is about 61%. This satellite is highly conserved in restriction enzyme pattern and DNA sequence; sequence heterogeneity is about 10%. In contrast, the satellite DNA of Cucurbita maxima has a repeat length of 168-169 base pairs. This satellite is also rich in AT-base pairs (64%), existing in at least three different variants as revealed by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing. The sequence heterogeneity between these variants is about 15%. The two satellite DNAs showed no cross-hybridization to each other and sequence homology is only limited. Nevertheless, we found in the C. pepo genome a high amount of sequences resembling the satellite of C. maxima. In contrast, the satellite repeat of C. pepo is found in the C. maxima DNA only in a few copies. These observations were discussed with respect to satellite DNA evolution and compared to the data received from monocotyledonous species.

  11. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...

  12. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  13. Macro- and microelement distribution in organs of Glyceria maxima and biomonitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Agnieszka; Stankiewicz, Andrzej; Wisłocka, Magdalena; Polechońska, Ludmiła

    2014-07-01

    The content of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and of trace metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) in water, bottom sediments and various organs of Glyceria maxima from 19 study sites selected in the Jeziorka River was determined. In general, the concentrations of nutrients recorded in the plant material decreased in the following order: leaf>root>rhizome>stem, while the concentrations of the trace elements showed the following accumulation scheme: root>rhizome>leaf>stem. The bioaccumulation and transfer factors for nutrients were significantly higher than for trace metals. G. maxima from agricultural fields was characterised by the highest P and K concentrations in leaves, and plants from forested land contained high Zn and Ni amounts. However, the manna grass from small localities showed high accumulation of Ca, Mg and Mn. Positive significant correlations between Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co and Ni concentrations in water or sediments and their concentrations in plant indicate that G. maxima may be employed as a biomonitor of trace element contamination. Moreover, a high degree of similarity was noted between self-organizing feature map (SOFM)-grouped sites of comparable quantities of elements in the water and sediments and sites where G. maxima had a corresponding content of the same elements in its leaves. Therefore, SOFM could be recommended in analysing ecological conditions of the environment from the perspective of nutrients and trace element content in different plant species and their surroundings.

  14. Cryptic behaviour of juvenile turbot Psetta maxima L. and European flounder Platichthys flesus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Louise Dahl; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the burying behaviour of hatchery-reared European flounder Platichthys flesus and turbot Psetta maxima, and whether conditioning on a sandy substrate would improve burying efficiency. Both species buried shortly after release on a sandy substrate. However...

  15. A Sperm Spawn-Inducing Pheromone in the Silver Lip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Mills, D; Wang, T; Ntalamagka, N; Cummins, S F; Elizur, A

    2018-04-28

    Pheromones are considered to play an important role in broadcast spawning in aquatic animals, facilitating synchronous release of gametes. In oysters, the sperm has been implicated as a carrier for the spawn-inducing pheromone (SIP). In hatchery conditions, male pearl oysters (Pinctata maxima) can be stimulated to spawn through a variety of approaches (e.g. rapid temperature change), while females can only be induced to spawn through exposure to conspecific sperm, thus limiting development of targeted pairing, required for genetic research and management. The capacity for commercial production and improvement of genetic lines of pearl oysters could be greatly improved with access to a SIP. In this study, we prepared and sequenced crude and semi-purified P. maxima sperm extracts that were used in bioassays to localise the female SIP. We report that the P. maxima SIP is proteinaceous and extrinsically associated with the sperm membrane. Bioactivity from pooled RP-HPLC fractions, but not individual fractions, suggests that the SIP is multi-component. We conclude that crude sperm preparations, as described in this study, can be used as a sperm-free inducer of female P. maxima spawning, which enables for a more efficient approach to genetic breeding.

  16. Strong law and central limit theorem for a process between maxima and sums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Keane, M.S.; Resing, J.A.C.

    1991-01-01

    We prove an invariance principle for the random process (X n ) n1 given by where (Y n ) n1 are i.i.d. random variables and ( n ) n are nonrandom numbers tending upward to 1 (both in ). This process interpolates between maxima ( n 0) and sums ( n 1). Depending on the distribution ofY n and on the

  17. Potential antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Amoo, Stephen O; Stirk, Wendy A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-11-15

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors play a potential role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes by delaying glucose absorption in the small intestine. Ecklonia maxima, a brown alga which grows abundantly on the west coast of South Africa, is used to produce alginate, animal feed, nutritional supplements and fertilizer. The crude aqueous methanol extract, four solvent fractions and three phlorotannins: 1,3,5-trihydroxybenezene (phloroglucinol) (1), dibenzo [1,4] dioxine-2,4,7,9-tetraol (2) and hexahydroxyphenoxydibenzo [1,4] dioxine (eckol) (3) isolated from E. maxima were evaluated for antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. All the phlorotannins tested had strong antioxidant activities on DPPH free radicals with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 0.128μM. Compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated stronger antioxidant activity and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitory property than positive controls. These results suggest that E. maxima could be a natural source of potent antioxidants and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This study could facilitate effective utilization of E. maxima as an oral antidiabetic drug or functional food ingredient with a promising role in the formulation of medicines and nutrition supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  19. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  20. Glyceria maxima as new test species for the EU risk assessment for herbicides: a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Hoenemann, L; Feibicke, M

    2015-03-01

    In its recent guidance document on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed to use Glyceria maxima as monocotyledonous grass species for the testing of special herbicide groups. However, published toxicity data for this species is very limited and there is no test guideline for Glyceria sp. For this reason a microcosm study was conducted in order to gain experience on the degree of sensitivity of G. maxima to the herbicidal substances clodinafop-propargyl (grass herbicide) and fluroxypyr (auxin) in comparison to the already established test organism water milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum and the duckweed species Landoltia punctata. Five concentrations without replicates were tested for each test substance using 10 microcosms and three microcosms served as controls. The experiment was run for 8 weeks. Morphological endpoints were used to determine growth and EC50 values. The results show that M. spicatum was most sensitive to fluroxypyr (37 days EC50 for roots: 62 µg/L) and G. maxima most sensitive to clodinafop-propargyl (22 days EC50 for total shoot length: 48 µg/L) whereas the duckweed species was considerable less sensitive. Hence, G. maxima turns out to be a good candidate for testing grass specific herbicides, supporting its inclusion as an additional macrophyte test for the risk assessment of herbicides as proposed by the EFSA.

  1. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment

  2. Estimating return levels from maxima of non-stationary random sequences using the Generalized PWM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ribereau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work of Landwehr et al. (1979, Hosking et al. (1985 and their collaborators, the Probability Weighted Moments (PWM method has been very popular, simple and efficient to estimate the parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution when modeling the distribution of maxima (e.g., annual maxima of precipitations in the Identically and Independently Distributed (IID context. When the IID assumption is not satisfied, a flexible alternative, the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE approach offers an elegant way to handle non-stationarities by letting the GEV parameters to be time dependent. Despite its qualities, the MLE applied to the GEV distribution does not always provide accurate return level estimates, especially for small sample sizes or heavy tails. These drawbacks are particularly true in some non-stationary situations. To reduce these negative effects, we propose to extend the PWM method to a more general framework that enables us to model temporal covariates and provide accurate GEV-based return levels. Theoretical properties of our estimators are discussed. Small and moderate sample sizes simulations in a non-stationary context are analyzed and two brief applications to annual maxima of CO2 and seasonal maxima of cumulated daily precipitations are presented.

  3. Maxima soovib kukkuval turul kiiret kasvu jätkata / Katre Pilvinski, Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi tarbimise vähenemise tulemusel vähenes 2008. aastal jaemüügi kasv, suutis Maxima kaubanduskett kasvatada siinsel turul käivet pea poole võrra. Vt. samas: Kiratsevat jaemüüki hoidsid üleval ravimid ja toit. Diagramm

  4. Rikkad ja ilusad protestivad Maxima säästupoe vastu / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Pirital asuva Merivälja tee 80e kinnistu eskiisprojektist, mis ei vasta kehtestatud detailplaneeringule. Elanikud protestivad plaani vastu rajada elukohta lähedale Maxima säästuketi pood. Hoone arhitektuurse lahenduse autor on Tõnis Tarbe Arhitektuuribüroo

  5. Is Maxima a Wal-Mart in sheep's clothing? / Todd Graham

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graham, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Nii USA-s kui Leedus tegutsev teadlane Randy Richards uuris Ida-Euroopas jõudsalt laienenud kaubaketi Maxima ja USA Wal-Mart-i turu hõivamise, -positsiooni ja -strateegiate sarnasusi ja erinevusi. Vt. samas: Baltic retail continues to thrive. Kaubanduskeskuste ehitusbuum Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus

  6. Microeconomic theory and computation applying the maxima open-source computer algebra system

    CERN Document Server

    Hammock, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step-by-step tutorial for using Maxima, an open-source multi-platform computer algebra system, to examine the economic relationships that form the core of microeconomics in a way that complements traditional modeling techniques.

  7. Stability at Potential Maxima: The L-4 and L-5 Points of the Restricted Three-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard; Davis, Donald R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a dynamical system which is stable at potential maxima. The maxima, called L-4 and L-5, are stable locations of the restricted three-body problem. Energy loss from the system will tend to drive it away from stability. (GA)

  8. Maxima of the scattering cross section, the wave vector being quasi orthogonal to the confining magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.-L.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the scattering cross section maximas of an electromagnetic wave by a magnetoplasma, the angle between the wave vector and the confining magnetic field approaching π/2 were computed. It is shown that the maximas are shifted toward the roots of the electrostatic dispersion relation in perpendicular propagation. These roots are not exactly the electron cyclotron harmonics [fr

  9. Protective immune responses during prepatency in goat kids experimentally infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Perez, D; Lopez, A; Ferrer, O; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2017-08-15

    During the first schizogony, the goat coccidia Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae develops macroschizonts in lacteal duct endothelial cells, whose rupture leads to severe ileal damage and clinical signs during the prepatent period. The immune response elicited against early stages of the parasite development still requires to be investigated. In the present study we have evaluated immune reactions in goat kids primary- and challenged-infected with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, and sacrificed during prepatency (7days after challenge). The oocyst output during the primary infection, body weight and clinical condition of all the animals were examined and, at the end of the experiment, all the goat kids were euthanized and subjected to necropsy. Samples were taken from different sections of the ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of primary- and challenged E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected animals. Intestinal leukocyte subpopulations were characterized in E. ninakohlyakimovae-infected mucosa and counts of lymphocytes, eosinophils, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), globular leukocytes and mast cells were recorded. Additionally, gene expression of caprine IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and INFγ of ileal, colonic and MLN tissues were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical characterization of immune cells. The E. ninakohlyakimovae primary infection resulted in moderate to severe enteritis with different degrees of diarrhoea and was accompanied by high OPG counts and an increase of most immune cells analyzed when compared to uninfected control animals. Furthermore, eosinophil-, lymphocyte-, globular leukocyte- and mast cell-counts were significantly higher in the challenge group compared to the primary infected animals, whilst the opposite was true for PMN counts. The challenge infection was also associated with moderate increased levels of local mucosal IgA. Interestingly, the number of immature schizonts found at the ileal mucosa was statistically higher in the challenge infected

  10. Dose-response curves for fish MFO induction: How do we interpret different maxima and slopes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Induction of hepatic mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity has been useful for screening effluents from pulp mills and oil refineries. Effluents and pure compounds can be assessed by direct fish exposure or by concentration with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by measuring MFO in fish liver cell lines exposed to SPMD extracts. In these experiments, both fish and fish cells showed differences in slopes of dose-response curves, and in the maximal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. For example, TCDD elicits an EROD maxima of over 500 pmol/mg/min in PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), while pulp mill and oil refinery effluent extracts showed maxima of 40 to 200 pmol/mg/min. Substituted phenanthrenes caused induction maxima of 100 pmol/mg/min. Similarly, in rainbow trout in vivo, TCDD and other chlorinated dioxins and furans induced up to 500 pmol/mg/min, whereas pulp mill and refinery effluents and substituted phenanthrenes produced EROD maxima of up to 100 pmol/mg/min. Differences in the slopes of dose-response curves were also common. In the current assessment of potencies, these diverse response curves are boiled-down to one number, the EC50 or other threshold-type of concentration. Comparisons of EC50s cannot express these differences and instead, ignore them. However, the authors realize there must be a better approach that takes into account these large differences in dose-response curve shape, slope and maxima. Interaction and discussions with modelers in the session will allow them to discuss various approaches to expressing the potencies of MFO inducers in fish

  11. Optimization of the digestion process of Scenedesmus sp. and Opuntia maxima for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Suárez, Juan Luis; Martínez, Alejandro; Carreras, Nely

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Scenedesmus biomass showed low biodegradability and biogas production. • Methane yield and kinetics of the batch process were improved by co-digestion. • Scenedesmus and Opuntia maxima were successfully co-digested in CSTR. • High biogas yields were obtained and no inhibition by ammonia was observed. - Abstract: Scenedesmus biomass is not an adequate substrate for anaerobic digestion due to its low biodegradability and low biogas yield. This study aims to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of Scenedesmus microalgal biomass and Opuntia maxima cladodes, the latter added in order to improve the digestion process. Batch assays were conducted to evaluate possible synergistic effects in different mixtures of both substrates. Mixture with highest methane yield was digested in semi-continuous mode at different VS concentrations. Feedstock composed of 75% O.maxima and 25% Scenedesmus (VS basis) showed the highest methane yield increasing 66.4% and 63.9% that of Scenedesmus and O.maxima, respectively. In semi-continuous mode, ideal organic loading rate (OLR) with 6%VS feed concentration was 4 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 292 ± 39 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). In the case of 8%VS feed concentration ideal OLR was 5.33 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 308 ± 22 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). The co-digestion of O.maxima and Scenedesmus biomass enhanced the anaerobic digestion process and avoided inhibition caused by low C/N ratio of microalgae

  12. Coccidiosis due to various species of Eimeria in the stunted and diarrheic native turkey poults: Pathology and morphological characterization of oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezfoulian, O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecal samples of 60 turkey poults that showed chronic progressive symptoms like unthriftiness, loss ofweight, diarrhea were collected from the most rural areas with high rate of turkey population in north andwest part of country for intestinal protozoan parasites. According to the morphological characteristics, likeshape, presence or absence of micropyle, and/or polar granule, the 5 different types of eimerian oocycts were diagnosed in the stool of infected birds, including E. adenoids, E. meleagridis, E. dispersa, Eimeria spp (E. innocua or E. subrotunda and E. meleagrimitis. Various life- cycle stages of Eimeria were identified in the epithelial lining of inflamed intestine of the affected turkey poults.

  13. Eimeria minasensis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in the Domestic Goat Capra hircus, from Brazil

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    Silva Andréa C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria minasensis n. sp. is described in the domestic goat Capra hircus from Brazil. Oocysts ellipsoidal are 35 x 24.5 (32-37.7 x 20.9-27.9 mm. Sporocysts elongate-ellipsoid are 15.2 x 9 (12.3-18.4 x 7.8-10.2 mm, with a Stieda body at the narrow end. Oocyst wall smooth and bilayered; outer layer about 1.2 (0.8-1.6 mm and colorless; inner layer about 0.5 (0.4-0.8 mm and dark-brown. Micropyle, a mound-shaped micropylar cap 1,6 x 8,9 (0,8-2 x7-10,2 easily dislodged; one or more oocyst polar granules present. Oocyst residuum absent. Sporocyst residuum present, composed of many scattered granules. Sporozoites elongate, lying lengthwise, "head to tail" in the sporocysts; one or two refractile globules are usually visible. Sporulation time was 120 hr at 27oC, prepatent period, 19 to 20 days and patent period 15 to 25 days. Gamonts, gametes and oocysts present in cecum and colon. Prevalence was 12.8% (6/47 in goats from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  14. Course of induced infection by Eimeria krijgsmannni in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yuina; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Tsujio, Masashi; Mizuno, Masanobu; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Masatani, Tatsunori; Matsui, Toshihiro; Matsuo, Tomohide

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated the utility of Eimeria krijgsmanni as a novel mouse eimerian parasite for elucidating the biological diversity. The parasite showed notable infectivity to mice with various levels of immune status and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents including coccidiostat. However, the detailed lifecycle of E. krijgsmanni had not yet been determined and this information was lacking in discussion of previous findings. In the present study, we clarified the morphological characteristics of E. krijgsmanni and its lifecycle in normal mice, and examined the effects in immunodeficient mice and lifecycle stage for challenge infections after the primary inoculation. In immunocompetent mice, the lifecycle consisted of four asexual stages and the sexual sages followed by formation of oocysts during the prepatent periods. Interestingly, the second-generation meronts were detected in all observation periods after the disappearance of the other stages. For the challenge infection of immunodeficient mice, all developmental stages except for the second generation meronts were temporarily vanished. This finding suggests a "rest" or marked delay in development and a "restart" of the promotion toward the next generations. The second generation meronts may play an important role in the lifecycle of E. krijgsmanni.

  15. Epidemiology of Eimeria infections in sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to identify and determine the prevalence of Eimeria species affecting sheep raised extensively in a semiarid region of Brazil. Fecal samples of native sheep were collected during the rainy and dry seasons. The degree of infection was determined by counting oocysts per gram (OPG of feces, and the morphometric method was used for species identification. Oocysts were found in all the properties assessed, in which 68.3% of the animals were infected. The prevalence of oocysts was influenced by the season and animal category (P<0.05. It was higher during the rainy season than the dry season (80.2% vs. 55.8% and highest in young animals than the adults animals (68.2% vs. 39.6%. The OPG was lower during the dry season (1,269 ± 312 vs. 4,400 ± 1,122. Ten species were found; of these, E. ovinoidalis, E. granulosa, E. faurei, and E. crandallis were the most frequent. E. ovinoidalis and E. crandallis were found in all properties, with their prevalences being 19.4% and 13.6% respectively. The high prevalence of pathogenic species shows that eimeriosis is a risk for animals raised extensively in the semiarid region.

  16. Identification of sporozoite surface proteins and antigens of Eimeria nieschulzi (Apicomplexa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilley, M.; Upton, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, lectin binding, and 125 I surface labeling of sporozoites were used to probe sporozoites of the rat coccidian, Eimeria nieschulzi. Analysis of silver stained gels revealed greater than 50 bands. Surface iodination revealed about 14 well labeled, and about 10 weakly labeled but potential, surface proteins. The most heavily labeled surface proteins had molecular masses of 60, 53-54, 45, 28, 23-24, 17, 15, 14, 13, and 12 kD. Following electrophoresis and Western blotting, 2 of the 12 125I labeled lectin probes bound to two bands on the blots, which collectively indicated that two bands were glycosylated. Concanavalin A (ConA) specifically recognized a band at 53 kD, which may represent a surface glycoprotein, and a lectin derived from Osage orange (MPA) bound to a single band at 82-88 kD, that may also be a surface molecule. Immunoblotting using sera collected from rats inoculated orally with oocysts, as well as sera from mice hyperimmunized with sporozoites, revealed that many surface molecules appear to be immunogenic

  17. The endogenous development and pathogenicity of Eimeria anseris (Kotlan, 1932) in domestic goslings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongqin; Liu, Dandan; Xu, Jinjun; Wu, Lili; Dai, Yabin; Liu, Mei; Tao, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10 4 , 1 × 10 4 , or 100 × 10 4 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E. anseris. The first generation of meronts developed at 24-96 HPI and the second generation at 90-128 HPI. Each meront contained 4-10 merozoites. Development of gamonts began at 128 HPI and mature oocysts appeared at 168 HPI. Developmental stages presented mainly in the epithelial cells of crypts and lamina propria in the posterior parts of the jejunum and ileum. Parasites localized mostly in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the nuclei of host cells. Histological lesions were pronounced in the jejunum and ileum. Desquamation and necrosis of the epithelium of intestine and crypts, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and hemorrhage and mucosal edema were associated with aggregates of endogenous stages. The infected goslings mainly showed severe diarrhea, depression, anorexia, and emaciation, suggesting that E. anseris is highly pathogenic in goslings.

  18. A new Eimeria species (Protozoa: Eimeriidae) from caribou in Ameralik, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirnisson, K; Cuyler, C

    2016-04-01

    Fecal samples of 11 calves shot in the Ameralik area, West Greenland, in August-September 2014 were examined for coccidian parasites. The calves belonged to a population of interbreeding indigenous caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus and feral semi-domestic Norwegian reindeer Rangifer tarandus tarandus. Two coccidian species were found: Eimeria rangiferis and a coccidium that was identified and described as a new species. The latter's sporulated oocyst is spherical or slightly subspherical. Average size is 25.6 × 24.8 μm. The oocyst has two distinct walls. Wall thickness is ∼1.4 μm. The unicolored outer wall is brown, the inner wall is dark gray. The oocysts contain a small polar granule but are devoid of a microphyle. The oocysts enclose four ovoid-shaped sporocysts with a rounded end opposite to the Stieda body. The average size of sporocysts is 15.2 × 7.8 μm. Sporocysts contain a granular sporocyst residuum that forms a spherical cluster between the sporocysts, one large refractile body is present in each sporozoite. The spherical form easily distinguishes oocysts of the new species from the seven previously described eimerid species in R. tarandus. This is the first eimerid described as a new species to the sciences from caribou in the Nearctic.

  19. [Coccidies genus Eimeria as a bioindicator of radioactive pollution of the biocenose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pel'gunov, A N

    2006-01-01

    The data on coccidies of rodents were collected in Chernobil (1989-1991) and in the regions of radioactive pollution in the Bryansk region of Russia (1992-1999). The surface pollution of experimental plots was different and come from 0.11 to 11.8 MBq/m2. 2185 rodent were examined in all. Thirteen types of coccidies p. Eimeria were found out in 525 small animals. The analysis of changes in morphological characters and oocysts sporulation in dependence of the level of radioactive pollution of biocenose was carried out. It was found out that parametric signs (length, width and form index of oocysts) were independent from radioactive pollution. At the some time the radioactive pollution renders a significant influence on the nonparametric signs (different types of capsule deformation and internal texture of oocysts) and the process of sporulation. With the increase of radioactive pollution the part of nonsporulated oocycts increased and the quantity of oocysts, corresponding to the description of given type (normal), decreased. This dependence is well described by the equation of logarithmic regression, that allows to use this indexes in the bioindication of the radioactive pollution of the biocenose.

  20. Regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. Coli challenged broilers supplemented with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, E T; Prokoski, K; Horn, D; Viott, A D; Santos, T C; Fernandes, J I M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of the intestinal mucosa in Eimeria and E. coli challenged broilers supplemented with glutamine, arginine, and threonine. Six hundred male broilers at one d of age from the Cobb strain were utilized. The design was completely randomized using a 2×3 factorial design (unchallenged and challenged and 3 diets). A commercial diet was used as a control and 2 other diets were formulated with glutamine (1.5 and 3% Aminogut®), arginine (1 and 2% L-Arginine), and threonine (1 and 2% L-threonine). The animals that consumed diets supplemented with amino acids presented better (Pbroilers that received diets supplemented with amino acids. High levels of amino acids in the experimental feeds reflected in greater protein levels in poultry house litter, and they did not interfere with ammonia production. The supplementation of diets with trophic amino acids can positively contribute to the regeneration and proliferation of the intestinal mucosa in broilers and to the maintenance of zootechnical performance when submitted to enteric challenges. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Evaluation of pomegranate (Punica granatum pericarp aqueous extract on Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Berto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic properties have been associated with the extract of pomegranate (Punica granatum in several animals and conditions. The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica, originated from North Africa, Europe and Asia, is used worldwide as an experimental animal and model for aviculture. The current study investigated the effects of the pomegranate pericarp aqueous extract on the shedding, viability and morphometry of three Eimeria spp. from Japanese quails, besides the weight gain and genotoxic activity. Although the pomegranate is recognized by multiple properties, including anti-coccidial, in the current study the results are contrary. The treated group shed greater amount of oocysts; the sporulation times and viability were similar in both groups; despite some morphometric differences, these were not expressive; weight gains were similar; and the pomegranate had insignificant effect genotoxic. Finally, these results suggest that the pomegranate pericarp extract did not influence on Eimeira spp. from Japanese quails; therefore, the pomegranate pericarp extract is not suggested in the prevention/treatment of coccidiosis in Japanese quails, or at least not using methods of preparation and administration applied in this study.

  2. Chicken Coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia: A Recent Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Penny Humaidah; Kristianingrum, Yuli Purwandari; Wardhana, April Hari; Prastowo, Sigit; da Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro

    2018-01-01

    Avian coccidiosis is a huge problem worldwide. Heavily infected animals that show severe clinical signs and coccidiostat resistance are causing important economic losses. The present study aimed to update the recent cases of coccidiosis in Central Java, Indonesia, and to show the importance of the disease in the region. A total of 699 samples were obtained from different chicken breed. Different Eimeria species were detected in 175 individuals (25.04%). Three different groups of chicken breed were considered: local chicken (autochthonous chickens of Sentul and Jawa), commercial broiler, and layer. Broiler chickens showed the highest prevalence of infection (34%), followed by layer (26.26%) and local chickens (10.45%). Mild to severe clinical signs of avian coccidiosis were observed in 42% of the infected animals, while 58% of the infected animals showed no clinical signs other than low feed conversion rates. Seven different Eimeria species were identified: E. tenella was the most prevalent (43.3%), followed by E. maxima (26.3%), E. necatrix (15.7%), E. acervulina (8%), E. praecox (3.1%), E. mitis (2.2%), and E. brunetti (1.3%). Coinfections with several Eimeria species were diagnosed. With this study we found massive usage of coccidiostat in the region even though its usage cannot guarantee coccidiosis-free chicken production.

  3. [Epizootiological and parasitological status of the flocks at a poultry combine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, V; Markarian, M; Genchev, G; Donev, A; Tsvetkov, S

    1976-01-01

    A comprehensive epizootiologic study has been carried out at one of the large poultry dressing combines in this country. Results have shown that the part played by infections as against the remaining diseases established in the various technologic categories is as follows: 9 to 23.8 per cent in growing parents; 16.0 to 24.6 per cent in adult parents; and 4.8 to 13.4 per cent in broilers. So far as parasitic diseases are concerned the respective figures are 3.2 to 9.9 per cent, 3.0 to 3.3. per cent, and 2.9 to 3.0 to per cent. The import of birds from France and England intended for satisfying the needs of the poultry dressing combine in Roussé has contributed to the introduction of infections which have later on assumed an epizootic course, such as infections encephalomyelitis, infectious bronchitis, and Marek' disease. The epizootic status has been aggravated with the development of a number of diseases already existing in this country--fowl pox, lymphoid leukosis, chronic respiratory disease, salmonellosis, and above all infections caused by the so-called occasionally pathogenic agents--coli organisms, staphylococci, and Pseudomonas. Of the parasitic diseases only coccidiosis has developed, being caused by a variety of species: Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria muvati and Eimeria tenella. The absence of helminth infections is due to the routinely adopted technological practice of raising birds in confinement and the strict veterinary control and guard. On the basis of the results obtained and the conclusions drawn some more effective prophylactic measures are suggested correcting and supplementing the existing prophylactic programme.

  4. Efficacy and economic analysis of two treatment regimens using toltrazuril in lambs naturally infected with Eimeria spp. on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rodrigues, Fernando; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; de Menezes, Fernanda Rezer; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2017-11-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and the economic viability of two anticoccidial treatment regimens tested in lambs naturally exposed to Eimeria spp. re-infections in a grazing system during a 140-day period. Twenty-four suckling lambs were distributed into three groups based on the individual count of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) and body weight. Animals were treated with toltrazuril 5% (20 mg/kg) at 14- (GI) or 21-day (GII) intervals, and GIII was kept as untreated control. A cost-benefit analysis of each treatment regimen was calculated. Additionally, economic analysis was performed on four hypothetical scenarios, in which lambs could be having 10, 25, 50, or 85% decrease in their expected body weight gain due to clinical. Efficacy of toltrazuril against Eimeria spp. was 96.9-99.9% (GI) and 74.2-99.9% (GII). E. ovinoidalis was most frequently identified, but no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in lambs. There were no differences in weight gain among the groups. The cost of treatment per lamb was $13.09 (GI) and $7.83 (GII). The estimation model showed that the cost-benefit ratio favored treatment with toltrazuril when lambs fail to gain weight. In the studied flock, the break-even point for toltrazuril administered at 14-day intervals was reached with 85% decrease in mean weight gain. In conclusion, toltrazuril can be used at 14-day intervals to control Eimeria spp. (re)-infection in lambs raised on pasture. This treatment regimen was not economically feasible for subclinical coccidiosis; however, it may be feasible when used to prevent weight loss caused by clinical coccidiosis.

  5. Temporal pattern changes in duodenal protein tyrosine nitration events in response to Eimeria acervulina infection in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsasser, Ted H; Miska, Kate; Kahl, Stanislaw; Fetterer, Raymond H; Martínez Ramirez, Alfredo

    2018-06-04

    Intracellular generation of nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide anion (SOA) can result in the formation of 3'-nitrotyrosine proteins (NTp). Nitrated proteins usually are associated with significant perturbation in protein function, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. We undertook the present study to establish the temporal dynamics of NTp generation in cytokeratin-18-positive epithelial cells (ETCs) of broiler chickens in response to infection with Eimeria acervulina. Duodenal tissue was harvested from noninfected (NOI) and infected (INF) broilers on days (d) 1, 3, 6, 7, and 10 postinfection (PI) and fixed, embedded, and sectioned for quantitative image analysis, immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific to NTp and the SOA-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO). The pixel density characteristics for NTp and XO representative of ETCs demonstrated that NTp and XO increased in intestinal villi as early as d1 PI (P ETCs through d6 PI. For XO, increases in cell content increased only through d3. On d6 and d7 PI, high levels of NTp were present in immune infiltrating cells (IIC) where no XO was detected. The increases in ETC NTp occurred in a defined pattern, significant by villus-to-crypt location for day of infection, initiating in the distal villus and progressing down into the crypts. Two NTp patterns were observed for ETCs: a high level associated with ETCs harboring parasites and a low-level increase in ETCs not containing Eimeria but in proximity to such. The data suggest that NTp and XO responses may mediate some of the processes through which ETCs respond to Eimeria to limit the extent of infection by this pathogen.

  6. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the mountain beaver, Aplodontia rufa (Rodentia: Aplodontiidae), from Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; McKown, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Two mountain beavers, Aplodontia rufa , were collected in Lincoln County, Oregon, and examined for coccidia. Both were infected with 2 new species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria chitkoae n. sp. were ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 24.5 × 20.2 μm, with a shape index (SI) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule of several fragments was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.5 × 7.9 μm, SI was 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies were present, but a parastieda body was absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a cluster of moderately coarse granules with many scattered fine granules. Stout sporozoites were 14.7 × 2.9 μm in situ, with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Oocysts of Eimeria lewisi n. sp. were ovoidal, with a smooth single-layered wall, and measured 13.7 × 7.8 μm, SI was 1.7. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but 1-2 polar granule(s) were present. Sporocysts were 6.6 × 4.2 μm, with SI of 1.6. A Stieda body was present, but substieda and parastieda bodies were absent; a sporocyst residuum was present, composed of a small cluster of several granules. Sporozoites were granular, 8.2 × 1.8 μm in situ, with a posterior refractile body. These are the first coccidians reported from the mountain beaver.

  7. Voith Maxima: simulation-based throttle parameterisation; Voith Maxima: Simulationsbasierte Reglerparametrierung. Bei der Elektronik-Entwicklung der Lokomotive Voith Maxima wurden Methoden der Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation zur Reglerparametrierung eingesetzt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thorsten; Hanke, Bjoern [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany). Powertrain Mechatronik; Jung, Eggert [Voith Turbo Lokomotiv Technik, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For fine-tuning of the diesel engine throttle control on the new Voith Maxima, IAV GmbH developed a physical Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation (HiL), whose parameterisation is based chiefly on easily obtainable construction design data. With the aid of the HiL simulation, the software functions of the of the engine's ECU could already be parameterised and verified in the lab, before a running prototype was available. As a result, a throttle application was available at an early stage, needing only to be further optimised during subsequent test runs. This enabled the number of driving trials, with the cost and effort involved, to be reduced. Looking to the future, an extended HiL simulation with an optimisation algorithm for automatic throttle parameterisation will allow for a further reduction in application development costs. (orig.)

  8. Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae of podocnemis expansa (Schweigger and geochelone denticulata (LINN. from Amazonian Brazil (Reptilia: Chelonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lainson

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Eimeria lagunculata, Eimeria mammiformis and Eimeria podocnemis n. spp., are described from the faeces of the fresh-water turtle Podocnemis expansa, in Pará State, north Brasil. Oocysts of E. lagunculata are ellipsoidal, 19.2 x 12.8 (17.0-20.7 x 11.8-14.1 mum, shape-index (= length/ width 1.5 (1.4-1.7. Oocyst wall about 0.5-0.7 mum thick, with a prominent stopper-like micropyle at one pole. No oocyst residuum and no polar body. Sporocysts elongate ellipsoidal, 11.0 x 5.4 (10.4-11.8 x 5.2-6.0 mum, shape-index 2.0 (1.8-2.1: no Stieda body. A compact, ellipsoidal sporocyst residuum lies between the two sporozoites, which possess a posterior and an anterior refractile body. Oocysts of E. mammiformis broadly ellipsoidal, 30.0 x 19.4 (23.0-37.0 x 16.3-21.5 mum, shape-index 1.5 (1.1-1.9. Oocyst wall about 0.7 mum thick, with a prominent micropyle: no oocyst residuum and rarely a single polar body. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 15.3 x 7.9 (14.8-17.0 x 7.4-9.6 mum, shape-index 2.0 (1.8-2.2, with a tiny Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum bulky, ellipsoidal: sporozoites with two conspicuous refractile bodies. E. podocnemis has broadly ellipsoidal oocysts, 17.0 x 12.8 (14.8-19.2 x 11.8-14.1 mum, shape-index 1.3 (1.1-1.4. Oocyst wall about 0.5-0.7 mum thick, with no micropyle. No oocyst residuum, but always a single polar body. Sporocysts ellipsoidal, 9.7 x 5.2 (8.9-10.4 x 4.4-6.0 mum, shape-index 1.9 (1.6-2.0, with no Stieda body. Sporocyst residuum bulky, ellipsoidal: sporocysts with 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria carinii n. sp., is recorded from the tortoise Geochelone denticulata, also from Pará. Oocyst wall about 1.2 mum thicl. No micropyle. Oocyst residuum limited to a number (about 10-20 of scattered granules: no polar body. Sporocysts broadly ellipsoidal, and with no Stieda body: they measure 8,8 x 7.3 (8.0-9.0 x 7.0-7.5 mum, shape-index 1.2 (1.1-1.3. Sporocyst residuum bulky, spherical to ellipsoidal: sporozoites possess both posterior and anterior

  9. Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) and two phenylated analogues on S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity from Eimeria stiedai (Apicomplexa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín Núñez, B; Alunda, J M; Balaña-Fouce, R; Ordóñez Escudero, D

    1987-01-01

    1. Activity of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, one of the rate-limiting enzymes of polyamine biosynthesis, was determined in oocysts of Eimeria stiedai, a coccidian parasite of the rabbit. 2. Several properties of the enzyme were compared to the mammalian enzyme. It showed considerably less substrate affinity than the analog enzyme from the rabbit. 3. The E. stiedai enzyme showed a low sensitivity to methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), a frequently used inhibitor of the enzyme in mammals, and two phenylated derivatives. 4. Results with the inhibitors are discussed in view of their potential use in chemotherapy.

  10. Immunizing potential of sporulated oocysts of Eimeria nieschulzi exposed to heat and 60Co gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conder, G.A.; Duszynski, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria nieschulzi Dieben 1924, a rat coccidium, were exposed to radiation, heat, or both in an effort to attenuate the parasite. Moderate levels of each treatment or combination thereof attenuated the parasite, reduced pathogenesis (as judged by oocyst discharge during primary infection), and produced immunity to challenge when the oocysts were subsequently inoculated into rats. Thus, heat- and/or radiation-treated E. nieschulzi oocysts fed to rats could reduce pathogenesis during a primary infection and yet give good homologous protection

  11. Resistance to infection with Eimeria vermiformis in mouse radiation chimeras is determined by donor bone-marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joysey, H.S.; Wakelin, D.; Rose, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The course of infection with Eimeria vermiformis was determined in BALB/b, BALB/c, and C57BL/10ScSn (B10) mice and in radiation chimeras prepared from the H-2-compatible BALB/b and B10 mice. The BALB strains, irrespective of H-2 haplotype, were resistant, the B10 mice were susceptible, and in the chimeras infection was characterized by the genotype of the donated bone-marrow cells and not by the phenotype of the recipient. Thus, the genetic control of relative resistance or susceptibility to infection with this parasite is expressed through bone-marrow-derived cells

  12. Complementary Speckle Patterns: Deterministic Interchange of Intrinsic Vortices and Maxima through Scattering Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jérôme; Rigneault, Hervé; Guillon, Marc

    2017-01-27

    Intensity maxima and zeros of speckle patterns obtained behind a diffuser are experimentally interchanged by applying a spiral phase delay of charge ±1 to the impinging coherent beam. This transform arises from the expectation that tightly focused beams, which have a planar wave front around the focus, are so changed into vortex beams and vice versa. The statistics of extrema locations and the intensity distribution of the so-generated "complementary" patterns are characterized by numerical simulations. It is demonstrated experimentally that the incoherent superposition of the three "complementary speckle patterns" yield a synthetic speckle grain size enlarged by a factor of sqrt[3]. A cyclic permutation of optical vortices and intensity maxima is unexpectedly observed and discussed.

  13. Extended-Maxima Transform Watershed Segmentation Algorithm for Touching Corn Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Touching corn kernels are usually oversegmented by the traditional watershed algorithm. This paper proposes a modified watershed segmentation algorithm based on the extended-maxima transform. Firstly, a distance-transformed image is processed by the extended-maxima transform in the range of the optimized threshold value. Secondly, the binary image obtained by the preceding process is run through the watershed segmentation algorithm, and watershed ridge lines are superimposed on the original image, so that touching corn kernels are separated into segments. Fifty images which all contain 400 corn kernels were tested. Experimental results showed that the effect of segmentation is satisfactory by the improved algorithm, and the accuracy of segmentation is as high as 99.87%.

  14. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.J.; Freeman, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi(q) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2(2π/a) in momentum space--in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q) calculated for both ZrC and HfC--for which no phonon anomalies have been observed--fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are thus interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons

  15. THE BIOLOGY OF FISSURELLA MAXIMA SOWERBY (MOLLUSCA: ARCHAEOGASTROPODA) IN NORTHERN CHILE. 2. NOTES ON ITS REPRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretos, Marta; Tesorieri, Italo; Alvarez, Luis

    1983-12-01

    For 14 months, monthly samples were collected to study reproduction in Fissurella maxima at Huayquique. Results indicate that F. maxima is a dioecious species; no sign of hermaphroditism has been observed. The sex ratio is 1:1 in the different size classes analyzed. Ovaries are green and testis are median brown to yellowish white. Eggs in the ovary measure from 120-280 µ without envelopes. The gonads are parasitized by adult digenea trematods of the genus Proctoeces. Some effects of parasitism are discussed. Variations in mean monthly gonadosomatic index suggest that there is a main spawning period in late November-December (late spring-early summer) and a secondary period in July-August (winter). Fluctuations in mean gonad index show a close correlation with sea water temperature variations. The youngest mature specimens detected were about 5 cm in shell length (over two years old), but the majority of mature animals were over 6.5 cm.

  16. Accuracy assessment of tree crown detection using local maxima and multi-resolution segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N; Hamid, J R A; Latif, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of trees forms an important component in the forest ecosystems and needs proper inventories to assist the forest personnel in their daily activities. However, tree parameter measurements are often constrained by physical inaccessibility to site locations, high costs, and time. With the advancement in remote sensing technology, such as the provision of higher spatial and spectral resolution of imagery, a number of developed algorithms fulfil the needs of accurate tree inventories information in a cost effective and timely manner over larger forest areas. This study intends to generate tree distribution map in Ampang Forest Reserve using the Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation algorithm. The utilization of recent worldview-2 imagery with Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation proves to be capable of detecting and delineating the tree crown in its accurate standing position

  17. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  18. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  19. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  20. Antioxidant activity and antiaging gel formulation grapefruit peel (Citrus maxima Merr.) ethanolic extract

    OpenAIRE

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Febrika, Nilsya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to conduct the antioxidant activity test of grapefruit peel ethanolic extracts and gel formulation. Grapefruit (Citrus maxima Merr.) is a plant of the Rutaceae family, which has been known to contain ph enolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins). Grapefruit skin was very thick (>30% of the total weight of the fr uit) and always considered as waste that has not been utiliz ed properly....

  1. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, R.A.; Rothballer, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Engel, M.; Schulz, M.; Hartmann, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) w...

  2. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P. B. T. B.; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode–rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) w...

  3. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima) FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wasmo Wakmana; M.S. Kontong; D.S. Teakle; D.M. Persley

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  4. Watermelon Mosaic Virus Of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima) From Sulawesi: Identification, Transmission, And Host Range

    OpenAIRE

    Wakmana, Wasmo; Kontong, M.S; Teakle, D.S; Persley, D.M

    2002-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  5. Maxima and Octave in Development of Online Applications: Service Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Zakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a way for fast development of interactive online applications that can be used in teaching process. It introduces the web service implemented in PHP programming language for two free computer algebra systems Maxima and Octave. It can be later used for building web applications that need to solve some mathematical tasks during their running. The example of such implementation is also shown.

  6. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  7. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  8. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima ( C. maxima ) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2 θ ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative ( Escherichia coli ) and gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  10. Study on the prediction of visible absorption maxima of azobenzene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-na; Chen, Zhi-rong; Yuan, Shen-feng

    2005-01-01

    The geometries of azobenzene compounds are optimized with B3LYP/6-311G* method, and analyzed with nature bond orbital, then their visible absorption maxima are calculated with TD-DFT method and ZINDO/S method respectively. The results agree well with the observed values. It was found that for the calculation of visible absorption using ZINDO/S method could rapidly yield better results by adjusting OWFπ-π (the relationship between π-π overlap weighting factor) value than by the TD-DFT method. The method of regression showing the linear relationship between OWFπ-π and BLN-N (nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths) as OWF π-π=−8.1537+6.5638BL N-N, can be explained in terms of quantum theory, and also be used for prediction of visible absorption maxima of other azobenzne dyes in the same series. This study on molecules’ orbital geometry indicates that their visible absorption maxima correspond to the electron transition from HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) to LUMO (the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). PMID:15909349

  11. The Nature of Grand Minima and Maxima from Fully Nonlinear Flux Transport Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inceoglu, Fadil; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Rempel, Matthias, E-mail: finceoglu@aip.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We aim to investigate the nature and occurrence characteristics of grand solar minimum and maximum periods, which are observed in the solar proxy records such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C, using a fully nonlinear Babcock–Leighton type flux transport dynamo including momentum and entropy equations. The differential rotation and meridional circulation are generated from the effect of turbulent Reynolds stress and are subjected to back-reaction from the magnetic field. To generate grand minimum- and maximum-like periods in our simulations, we used random fluctuations in the angular momentum transport process, namely the Λ-mechanism, and in the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. To characterize the nature and occurrences of the identified grand minima and maxima in our simulations, we used the waiting time distribution analyses, which reflect whether the underlying distribution arises from a random or a memory-bearing process. The results show that, in the majority of the cases, the distributions of grand minima and maxima reveal that the nature of these events originates from memoryless processes. We also found that in our simulations the meridional circulation speed tends to be smaller during grand maximum, while it is faster during grand minimum periods. The radial differential rotation tends to be larger during grand maxima, while it is smaller during grand minima. The latitudinal differential rotation, on the other hand, is found to be larger during grand minima.

  12. Description of Eimeria arabukosokokensis sp. n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Telescopus semiannulatus (Serpentes: Colubridae) with notes on eimerian coccidia from snakes of Eastern Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlapeta, Jan Roger; Modrý, David; Ashe, J.; Koudela, Břetislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2003), s. 23-30 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/00/P015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Coccidia * Caryospora * Eimeria Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2003

  13. New data on Eimeria dicentrarchi (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a common parasite of farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the mid-eastern Adriatic

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study extends the original description of Eimeria dicentrarchi Daoudi and Marquès, 1987, a common coccidian parasite of European sea bass from the mid-eastern Adriatic, by providing insights into the parasite’s site of infection, development and pathogenicity. E. dicentrarchi was found in vario...

  14. Eimeria-induced chicken cNK-2 is an anti-infective host defense peptide and an immunomodulator of host innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian coccidiosis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases of chickens. The etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis is Eimeria, a genus of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Clinical manifestations of infection include damage to the intestinal epit...

  15. Two Eimerian Coccidia (Apicomplexa : Eimeriidae) from the critically endangered Arakan forest turtle Heosemys depressa (Testudines: Geoemydidae), with description of Eimeria arakanensis n. sp.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Široký, P.; Modrý, David

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2006), s. 183-189 ISSN 0065-1583 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Eimeria * Apicomplexa * Heosemys Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.162, year: 2006

  16. Eimeria atheridis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidium from the western bush viper Atheris chlorechis (Pel, 1851) from tropical Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Nečas, T.; Mazuch, T.; Kamler, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2004), s. 71-74 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP524/03/D104; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Eimeriidae * Eimeria Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.669, year: 2004

  17. Tridacna maxima

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related to substrate affinity by two giant clam species found on the Mauritian coral reefs. Giant clams .... (Marine Protected Areas (Amendment) Act, 2007) with clear water and an ..... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. (CITES) ...

  18. Eimeria collieie n. sp. (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) from the western long-necked turtle (Chelodina colliei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una

    2015-07-01

    A new species, Eimeria collieie n. sp., is described from the western long-necked turtle (Chelodina colliei). Sporulated oocysts (n = 35) are spherical to subspherical, with colourless single layer oocyst wall, 0.6 ± 0.2 (0.4-0.7) µm thick. Oocyst with elongated ellipsoid sporocysts. Oocyst length, 29.8 ± 0.4 (28.2-31.0) µm; oocyst width, 29.4 ± 0.3 (28.0-30.8) µm; oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.0 ± 0.03 (1.0-1.05). Micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. Sporocysts with sporocyst residuum and 2 sporozoites. Sporocyst length, 21.6 ± 0.4 (21.2-22.0) µm; sporocyst width, 6.0 ± 0.3 (5.7-6.3) µm; sporocyst L/W ratio, 3.6 ± 0.2 (3.4-3.8). Stieda, parastieda and substieda bodies were absent. Sporozoite length, 14.0 ± 0.2 (13.8-14.2) µm; sporozoite width, 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.4-2.8) µm; sporozoite L/W ratio, 5.46 ± 0.10 (5.4-5.6). Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18S rRNA locus, E. collieie n. sp. shared 96.4% and 98.3% genetic similarity to E. ranae (GenBank accession number: EU717219) and E. arnyi (AY613853) respectively. At the 28S rRNA locus, E. collieie n. sp. shared 91.6% genetic similarity to E. papillata (GenBank accession number: GU593706) and phylogenetic analysis at this locus placed E. collieie n. sp. in aseparateclade. At the COI locus, E. collieie n. sp. shared 92.7% genetic similarity to Eimeria setonicis (GenBankaccession number: KF225638) from a quokka (Setonix brachyurus) in Western Australia. Reptile-derived sequences were not available for the 28S rRNA and the COI loci. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of coccidian parasite that, to date, has only been found in western long-necked turtles. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Betzel, Christian; Lindley, Peter F.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R free = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO 2 substituents

  20. Molecular diagnosis of Eimeria stiedae in hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Khaled M; Arafa, Waleed M; Mousa, Waheed M; Shokier, Khaled A M; Shany, Salama A; Aboelhadid, Shawky M

    2016-10-01

    The early detection of Eimeria stiedae in the hepatic tissue of experimentally infected rabbits was investigated using molecular assay. Forty 6-week-old male New Zealand rabbits were divided into two groups. Group A (30 animals) was infected with 2.5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae per animal on Day 0 and Group B (10 animals) was used as the uninfected controls. Three animals from Group A and one from Group B were sacrificed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 and 27 days post infection (PI). Gross and microscopic post-mortem findings were recorded. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the E. stiedae internal transcribed spacer 1 genomic region was conducted on blood, liver tissue, and feces from the Group A experimentally infected animals. Macroscopically, the liver showed irregular yellowish white nodules pathognomonic to E. stiedae infection beginning on Day 15 PI. Hepatomegaly and ascites were obvious from Day 21-24 PI. The presence of different E. stiedae schizonts and gametocytes in the histopathological sections of the biliary epithelium were evident on Day 15 PI. The E. stiedae PCR was first positive in liver tissues on Day 12 and in fecal samples on Day 18 PI, but the blood samples were negative. In conclusion, the PCR can be used for early diagnosis and control of E. stiedae schizonts before shedding of the oocysts in feces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Histomorphometry and macroscopic intestinal lesions in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Beletti, M E; Assis, R L; Nasser, N M; Faria, E S M; Cury, M C

    2010-03-25

    This study aimed at measuring intestinal villi and assessing the intestinal absorptive area in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina under different treatments to control coccidiosis. The experiment was divided into two stages, carried out in successive housings, raised in the same environment (or aviary). In the first stage, on 25 May 2008, fifty 12-day-old birds were orally inoculated with 3 x 10(3) oocysts of E. acervulina. In the second stage, on July 2008, other 50 birds were allocated on litter contaminated by the feces of birds on the first housing (natural infection by oocysts present in the reused litter). The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with five treatments and three replicates of 10 chicks per treatment. Broiler chicks were housed at 1 day of age and autopsies were performed at 21 days of age. Three 2-cm-long segments of the duodenum were excised from each bird and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. A total of 30 slides were prepared for each treatment, totaling 150 evaluated histological sections using H&E staining. Villus morphology was carried out by the HL Image 97 software. The intestinal absorptive area was calculated and macroscopic lesions were classified according to standard lesion scores. Results showed that intestinal villus measurements and absorptive area are directly affected by E. acervulina and that there is direct and positive correlation between the macro and microscopic findings observed in intestinal coccidiosis. E. acervulina causes shortening of villi and reduction in the intestinal absorptive area, affecting broiler growth. The prevention method of litter fermentation during the interval between housings and oral administration of Diclazuril can reduce the severity of intestinal lesions by E. acervulina in broilers impairing oocyst virulence or viability.

  2. Absorption and deposition of xanthophylls in broilers challenged with three dosages of Eimeria acervulina oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Velasco, X; Chapman, H D; Owens, C M; Kuttappan, V A; Fuente-Martínez, B; Menconi, A; Latorre, J D; Kallapura, G; Bielke, L R; Rathinam, T; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2014-01-01

    1. An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of different doses of oocysts of Eimeria acervulina on intestinal absorption and skin deposition of xanthophylls (XAs) in broilers. 2. A total of 192 broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 4 groups: an uninfected control group and three groups inoculated with either 1 × 10(2), 1 × 10(4) or 1 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina by gavaging at 21 d. There were 4 replicate pens (2 male and 2 female) per group. 3. Plasma xanthophyll (PX) and skin yellowness (SY) were measured in live birds weekly. At 42 d of age, SY was measured in the breast and abdomen after chilling and in the breast 24 h post-processing on refrigerated carcasses. 4. In general, in all challenged treatments, and for the duration of the study, the average PX decreased by 0.02 μg/ml (R(2) = 61.6%) for every 1000 inoculated oocysts, whereas PX increased by 1.26 μg/ml/d in uninfected birds. 5. The average SY in live birds from 21 to 42 d of age decreased by 0.019 b*/every 1000 oocysts administered, while SY of uninfected controls increased by 0.57 b*/d. It was also noted that in all treatments females had a greater SY (6.17 b*) than males for the duration of the study. The SY of the breast and abdomen was correlated (r = 0.76) in chilled carcasses. Breast SY in 24 h refrigerated carcasses was greater in the control group and for female birds. 6. Oocyst excretion was different between inoculated treatments only on 7 d post-inoculation (PI). Coccidia lesion scores in the duodenum averaged 1+ in infected birds and 2+ in birds given the highest oocyst dose.

  3. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of

  4. Evaluation of anaerobic digestates from different feedstocks as growth media for Tetradesmus obliquus, Botryococcus braunii, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Arthrospira maxima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massa, Marina; Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Castaldo, Luigi; Martello, Anna; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, two freshwater microalgae (Tetradesmus obliquus and Botryococcus braunii), a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and a photosynthetic cyanobacterium (Arthrospira maxima) were investigated for their ability to grow on liquid digestates (LDs). Three LDs were obtained from

  5. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae) from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad

    2010-12-01

    Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16) × 12 (10-12.9) microm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3). The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~approximately1.7 microm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11) × 4 (4-4.7) microm; their average shape-index is 2.5 microm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 microm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  6. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm.

  7. Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae in faeces of Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus, 1758 (Galliformes: Phasianidae from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saad El-Shahawy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination of 15 Indian peacocks, Pavo cristatus, revealed the presence of a coccidium species of the genus Eimeria, which apparently represents a previously undescribed species. Sporulation is exogenous and fully developed oocysts of Eimeria pavoaegyptica sp. nov. are ellipsoidal, with a dimension of 15 (13-16 × 12 (10-12.9 μm and with a shape index of 1.25 (1-1.3. The sporulated oocysts have no micropyle but enclose one large rectangular-shaped polar granule and an oocyst residuum. The oocysts have a distinct two-layered wall, which is ~1.7 μm thick. The outer layer has a smooth texture; it fills ~¾ of the total thickness and appears bicolored. The sporocysts are boat-shaped, of about 10 (9-11 × 4 (4-4.7 μm; their average shape-index is 2.5 μm with a small pointed Stieda body and a smooth, thin single-layered wall. No substieda body is detected. The sporocysts contain numerous, nearly uniform granular residua. The sporozoites are banana-shaped, 6 × 3 μm and each has two different-sized refractile bodies.

  8. A NEW SPECIES OF EIMERIA (APICOMPLEXA: EIMERIIDAE) FROM THE EASTERN PIPISTRELLE, PERIMYOTIS SUBFLAVUS (CHIROPTERA: VESPERTILIONIDAE), IN ARKANSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Burt, Scott; Seville, R. Scott; Robison, Henry W.

    2011-01-01

    During November 2009 and March 2010, 20 adult eastern pipistrelles, Perimyotis (=Pipistrellus) subflavus were collected from Polk County, Arkansas, and their feces examined for coccidian parasites. Two (10%) of the bats were found to be passing oocysts of an undescribed species of Eimeria. Oocysts of Eimeria heidti n. sp. were ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 26.1 × 20.5 (23-31 × 18-23) μm, with a bilayered wall, externally rough, internally smooth, and with a shape index of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a subspherical polar granule was often present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 13.0 × 8.8 (11-15 × 7-13) μm, the shape index was 1.6, a Stieda body was present and sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies were absent. A sporocyst residuum consisting of multiple globules dispersed along the perimeter of the sporocyst and between the sporozoites were present, sporozoites were elongate, with a subspherical anterior refractile body and elongate posterior refractile body; a nucleus not discernable. This is the second coccidian reported from this host and the fourth instance of a coccidian species reported from an Arkansas bat. PMID:21506799

  9. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Carlia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from rainbow skinks, Carlia ailanpalai Zug and Carlia eothen Zug is described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Oöcysts of Eimeria zugi n. sp. from one of one (100%) C. eothen are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 25.1 × 15.5 μm and have a length/width ratio of 1.6. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal and 10.3 × 7.1 μm in size and do not contain Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies; and the sporocyst residuum is composed of a compact mass of large globules. The sporozoites are elongate, 12.8 × 2.9 μm in size, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. This is the ninth species of coccidium described from skinks from PNG, and the new species described herein is apparently endemic to the skink genus Carlia (Gray).

  10. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  11. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  12. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-04

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  14. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Riaz Hasan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA, nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP, and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  15. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  16. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  17. Three New Multiflorane-Type Triterpenes from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2, and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  18. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  19. P-protein distribution in mature sieve elements of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, R F; Eschrich, W; Eichhorn, S E

    1972-09-01

    Portions of the hypocotyls of 16-day-old Cucurbita maxima plants, from which the cotyledons and first foliage leaves had been removed 2 days earlier, were fixed in glutaraldehyde and postfixed in osmium tetroxide for electron microscopy. In well over 90% of the mature sieve elements examined the P-protein was entirely parietal in distribution in both the lumina and sieve-plate pores. In addition to the parietal P-protein, the unoccluded sieve-plate pores were lined by narrow callose cylinders and the plasmalemma. Segments of endoplasmic reticulum also occurred along the margins of the pores.

  20. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  1. Improving mass candidate detection in mammograms via feature maxima propagation and local feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-08-01

    Mass candidate detection is a crucial component of multistep computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. It is usually performed by combining several local features by means of a classifier. When these features are processed on a per-image-location basis (e.g., for each pixel), mismatching problems may arise while constructing feature vectors for classification, which is especially true when the behavior expected from the evaluated features is a peaked response due to the presence of a mass. In this study, two of these problems, consisting of maxima misalignment and differences of maxima spread, are identified and two solutions are proposed. The first proposed method, feature maxima propagation, reproduces feature maxima through their neighboring locations. The second method, local feature selection, combines different subsets of features for different feature vectors associated with image locations. Both methods are applied independently and together. The proposed methods are included in a mammogram-based CAD system intended for mass detection in screening. Experiments are carried out with a database of 382 digital cases. Sensitivity is assessed at two sets of operating points. The first one is the interval of 3.5-15 false positives per image (FPs/image), which is typical for mass candidate detection. The second one is 1 FP/image, which allows to estimate the quality of the mass candidate detector's output for use in subsequent steps of the CAD system. The best results are obtained when the proposed methods are applied together. In that case, the mean sensitivity in the interval of 3.5-15 FPs/image significantly increases from 0.926 to 0.958 (p < 0.0002). At the lower rate of 1 FP/image, the mean sensitivity improves from 0.628 to 0.734 (p < 0.0002). Given the improved detection performance, the authors believe that the strategies proposed in this paper can render mass candidate detection approaches based on image location classification more robust to feature

  2. Biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição” = Pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima, variedade Exposição, realizaram-se dois ensaios, utilizando-se 128 plantas, numa área de 2.000 m2. A abertura e o murchamento das flores ocorreu, em média, às 6h35 e 13h52, respectivamente. Havia, em média, 2,26 flores masculinas para cada flor feminina. As flores femininas produziram, em média, 138,9% mais néctar que as masculinas. A produção de néctar foi menor no segundo ensaio devido à menor precipitação e menor umidade relativa do ar. A concentração total de açúcares do néctar foi 0,3 e 3,8% maior nas flores femininas em relação às masculinas, respectivamente, para o primeiro e segundo ensaios. As flores masculinas produziram, em média, 129.021 grãos de pólen por flor, com 91,2% viáveis às 9h00. O estigma das flores femininas foi receptivo aos grãos de pólen, em média, até às 13h40. As flores femininas foram mais atrativas que as masculinas.In order to study pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima var. “Exposição”, were conduced two tests, using 128 plants, in 2,000 m2. The opening and the withering of the flowers happened, on average, 6h35 and 13h52, respectively. There were, on average, 2.26male flowers for each female flower. The female flowers produced, on average 138.9% more nectar than the male ones. The nectar production was smaller in the second test because of a lesser due precipitation and smaller relative humidity of the air. The sugar concentration in the nectar was 0.3 and 3.8% larger in the female flowers in relation to the male ones, respectively for the 1st and 2nd tests. The male flowers produced 129,021 pollen grains for flower, with 91.2% viable at 9h00. The stigma of the female flowers was receptive to the pollen grains, on average, to the 13h40. The female flowers were more attractive than the male ones.

  3. Anticoccidial efficacy of naringenin and a grapefruit peel extract in growing lambs naturally-infected with Eimeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fonseca, Agustín; Alcala-Canto, Yazmin; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Alberti-Navarro, Aldo B

    2016-12-15

    The current study aimed to determine the anti-Eimeria efficacy of an extract of grapefruit peels (GF) and commercial naringenin (NAR) in naturally-infected lambs, as well as the influence of these flavonoids on the oxidative status during ovine coccidiosis. Pharmacokinetic profiles were also determined. Extracts were administered per os to Eimeria naturally infected growing lambs during 90 consecutive days. The commercial anticoccidial drug toltrazuril (TTZ) was included in this trial as a standard. Twenty-four lambs were divided into four groups: NAR, lambs given a daily dose of 5mg of a commercial naringenin extract of 98% higher purity per kg body weight; GF, lambs that recived a daily dose of 5mg of ethanolic extract of grapefruit peels per kg body weight; TTZ, lambs treated with 20mg of toltrazuril/kg body weight on days 0 and 15 of the experiment; and CTRL, untreated lambs that received daily dose of 30ml of water. Daily doses of GF and NAR were dissolved in 30ml of water and orally given to animals; whereas toltrazuril was administered as a single dose of an undiluted suspension to lambs of the TTZ group. The CTRL group received 30ml of water; as well as the TTZ group for the period after the single dose administration. Fecal and serum samples were collected from all lambs. Anticoccidial efficacy was estimated by coprological techniques. Generation of nitric oxide levels and the antioxidant capacity of the experimental compounds were determined by the Griess and ABTS assays, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of NAR and the GF extract were obtained. On day 30 post-ingestion, anticoccidial efficacy was 91.76% (NAR) and 89.65% (GF); whereas 99.63% of efficacy was achieved with TTZ 15days after treatment. NAR, GF and TTZ significantly reduced oxidative stress in infected animals. The mean daily weight gain for each group was 122g (NAR), 122g (GF), 143g (TTZ) and 98g (CTRL). Following the oral administration of NAR and GF, values in plasma approached

  4. Morphological and molecular characterization of Eimeria paludosa coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) in a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa, Gould, 1846) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elloit, Aileen; Lee, Elvina; Ryan, Una

    2014-12-01

    An Eimeria species is described from a dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa). Sporulated oocysts (n = 40) are ovoid, with a pitted single-layered oocyst wall in young oocysts and a relatively smooth wall in the mature oocysts. Oocyst wall was 1.0 µm thick, oocysts measured 17.3 × 13.3 (16.3-17.9 × 12.7-13.9) µm, oocyst length/width (L/W) ratio, 1.3. Oocyst residuum was absent. A large polar granule was always observed in the centre of the micropyle and many small polar granules were observed when the focus was on the wall. Sporocysts are elongate-ovoid, 8.4 × 5.1 (8.0-8.9 × 4.9-5.5) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.6 (1.5-1.8), sporocyst residuum was present, composed of numerous granules in a spherical or ovoid mass. Each sporocyst contained 2 elongate sporozoites, 7.7 × 2.6 (7-10 × 2.2-3) µm. A spherical-ellipsoid posterior refractile body was found in the sporozoites. A nucleus is located immediately anterior to the posterior refractile body. When the oocyst measurements and features were compared with valid Eimeria species from hosts in the Rallidae family, this Eimeria species was identified as E. paludosa. This is the first report of E. paludosa in Australia and the dusky moorhen (Gallinula tenebrosa) in a new host for this species. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). At the 18 S locus, E. paludosa shared 97.3% genetic similarity with Eimeria gruis (GenBank accession number: AB544336). It also shared 99.2% genetic similarity with Eimeria crecis (GenBank accession numbers: HE653904 and HE653905) and 98.5% similarity with Eimeria nenei (GenBank accession numbers: HE653906), both of which were identified from a corncrake (Crex crex) in the United Kingdom. At the 28S locus, E. paludosa shared 91.4% similarity with E. papillata from a chicken (Gallus gallus) in the USA. At COI locus, E. paludosa was in a clade by itself and shared 87.2% similarity with E

  5. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  6. Synthesis of P-protein in mature phloem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, J; Eschrich, W

    1976-01-01

    Cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima Duch. seedlings were provided with (14)C-labeled amino acids for 12 h. Besides the bulk of labeled amino acids the sieve-tube exudate also carried labeled proteins. 80% of the incorporated radioactivity was found in the P-protein, 20% in a neutral protein, and traces were found in acidic proteins after fractionation on diethyl-aminoethyl cellulose columns. The radioactive elutes were characterized by autoradiographs of both disc- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gelelectropherograms, and by isoelectric focusing. The P-protein fraction appeared with the void volume from the diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column. Obviously, this is the protein that gels when oxidized and that is reversibly precipitable giving rise to filaments when processed for electron microscopy. Its main component has a molecular weight of 115,000 Dalton. By isoelectric focusing this fraction separated into 3 proteins with isoelectric points of 9.8, 9.4, and 9.2. The isoelectric point 9.2-protein probably is identical with an oligomer of a 30,000 Dalton protein with neutral isoelectric point, which keeps 20% of the incorporated label. Microautoradiographs suggest that the labeled proteins were synthesized in companion cells. The results indicate that P-protein of Cucurbita maxima is synthesized continuously in mature phloem. It can be assumed that P-protein has a relatively high turn-over rate. Therefore it seems unlikely that P-protein is a "structural" protein.

  7. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  8. Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae, Bivalvia Fed Gambierdiscus polynesiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Roué

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs. Ciguatera-like poisoning events involving giant clams (Tridacna maxima are reported occasionally from Pacific islands communities. The present study aimed at providing insights into CTXs tissue distribution and detoxification rate in giant clams exposed to toxic cells of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, in the framework of seafood safety assessment. In a first experiment, three groups of tissue (viscera, flesh and mantle were dissected from exposed individuals, and analyzed for their toxicity using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. The viscera, flesh, and mantle were shown to retain 65%, 25%, and 10% of the total toxin burden, respectively. All tissues reached levels above the safety limit recommended for human consumption, suggesting that evisceration alone, a practice widely used among local populations, is not enough to ensure seafood safety. In a second experiment, the toxin content in contaminated giant clams was followed at different time points (0, 2, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. Observations suggest that no toxin elimination is visible in T. maxima throughout 6 days of detoxification.

  9. Changes in fatty acid composition in the giant clam Tridacna maxima in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousquet, Vaimiti; Gros, Emmanuelle; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Viguier, Bruno; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Bertrand, Cédric; Lecellier, Gaël J

    2016-10-15

    Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown. Third, the stress-induced changes in fatty acid (FA) diversity were accompanied by an upregulation of genes involved in lipids and ROS pathways. Finally, our microscopic analysis revealed that for the giant clam's symbiont, Symbiodinium, thermal stress led to two sequential cell death processes. Our data suggests that the degradation of Symbiodinium cells could provide an additional source of energy to T maxima in response to heat stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog

  11. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  12. Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae, Bivalvia) Fed Gambierdiscus polynesiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Mélanie; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Ung, André; Viallon, Jérôme; Sibat, Manoella; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-05-10

    Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Ciguatera-like poisoning events involving giant clams ( Tridacna maxima ) are reported occasionally from Pacific islands communities. The present study aimed at providing insights into CTXs tissue distribution and detoxification rate in giant clams exposed to toxic cells of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis , in the framework of seafood safety assessment. In a first experiment, three groups of tissue (viscera, flesh and mantle) were dissected from exposed individuals, and analyzed for their toxicity using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. The viscera, flesh, and mantle were shown to retain 65%, 25%, and 10% of the total toxin burden, respectively. All tissues reached levels above the safety limit recommended for human consumption, suggesting that evisceration alone, a practice widely used among local populations, is not enough to ensure seafood safety. In a second experiment, the toxin content in contaminated giant clams was followed at different time points (0, 2, 4, and 6 days post-exposure). Observations suggest that no toxin elimination is visible in T. maxima throughout 6 days of detoxification.

  13. Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiling and Functional Analysis of the Frog (Bombina maxima) Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Guangyin; Lee, Wenhui; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians occupy a key phylogenetic position in vertebrates and evolution of the immune system. But, the resources of its transcriptome or genome are still little now. Bombina maxima possess strong ability to survival in very harsh environment with a more mature immune system. We obtained a comprehensive transcriptome by RNA-sequencing technology. 14.3% of transcripts were identified to be skin-specific genes, most of which were not isolated from skin secretion in previous works or novel non-coding RNAs. 27.9% of transcripts were mapped into 242 predicted KEGG pathways and 6.16% of transcripts related to human disease and cancer. Of 39 448 transcripts with the coding sequence, at least 1501 transcripts (570 genes) related to the immune system process. The molecules of immune signalling pathway were almost presented, several transcripts with high expression in skin and stomach. Experiments showed that lipopolysaccharide or bacteria challenge stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of pro-inflammatory caspase-1. These frog's data can remarkably expand the existing genome or transcriptome resources of amphibians, especially immunity data. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform for further investigation on more detailed immune response in B. maxima and a comparative study with other amphibians. PMID:23942912

  14. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Interactive processing of x-ray diffraction maxima (exchange of experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabolotnyi, V.A.; Moroz, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    A program package for primary processing of the curve of intensity of x-ray dispersion has been developed and tested within the framework of creating computer programs that are compatible with IBM/PC/XT/AT computers for calculation and modeling of randial distributions of atoms. The following calculations have been included in this package: determination of the positions of maxima; separation of the maxima; and calculation of the integral characteristics of components. This paper describes the main feature of the algorithm, which is the procedure for varying the form of components, each of which is represented as a sum of two Gaussians with differing half-width ad amplitude. Use of the described method of modeling of the x-ray diffraction maximum was found effective in most of the practically important cases. To illustrate the operation of the program the results of approximation of a pentaplet of quartz obtained in CuKα-radiation with 0.01 degrees scanning step and 20 sec build-up time (40 kV; 40 mA; HZG-4C) are presented. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  16. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  17. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Freeman, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q vector), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q vector/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi (q vector) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q vector/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2 (2π/a) in momentum space, in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q vector) calculated for both ZrC and HfC (for which no phonon anomalies have been observed) fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons. 8 figures, 41 references

  18. Tree detection in urban regions from aerial imagery and DSM based on local maxima points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgür; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we propose an automatic approach for tree detection and classification in registered 3-band aerial images and associated digital surface models (DSM). The tree detection results can be used in 3D city modelling and urban planning. This problem is magnified when trees are in close proximity to each other or other objects such as rooftops in the scenes. This study presents a method for locating individual trees and estimation of crown size based on local maxima from DSM accompanied by color and texture information. For this purpose, segment level classifier trained for 10 classes and classification results are improved by analyzing the class probabilities of neighbour segments. Later, the tree classes under a certain height were eliminated using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). For the tree classes, local maxima points are obtained and the tree radius estimate is made from the vertical and horizontal height profiles passing through these points. The final tree list containing the centers and radius of the trees is obtained by selecting from the list of tree candidates according to the overlapping and selection parameters. Although the limited number of train sets are used in this study, tree classification and localization results are competitive.

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the wild orchid Cattleya maxima Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Yadira Cueva-Agila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocorms are unique anatomical structures; they are akin to rhizoids and are formed by young orchid seedlings under physiological conditions. Explanted orchid tissues produce similar structures called protocorm-like bodies (PLBs when exposed to appropriate in vitro growing conditions. Both the propagative nature of PLBs and the easiness by which they can be generated, make these structures an attractive alternative to seed-mediated production for growing large numbers of plants. To increase somatic embryogenesis and optimize the procedure, PLBs of Cattleya maxima were transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. The T-DNA carried a Hygromycin-resistance gene, a visible marker (GFP5-GUSA and a rice gene encoding the Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase, deemed to be important for somatic embryogenesis. Treated PLBs generated somatic embryos developing Hygromycin-resistant plantlets. The insertion of T-DNA was confirmed by PCR, and GFP expression was observed using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Transformed Cattleya maxima PLBs were more efficient in forming somatic embryos (60 - 80 % than untransformed controls (45 - 57 %, and this contrast was maximized in hormone-free, Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (80 % of the transformed plants compared to 57 % of the untransformed ones. This finding supports the notion that SERK plays an important role in Orchid embryogenesis

  20. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  1. Lipid and glucose metabolism of broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina Tyzzer, 1929 oocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLC Freitas

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipid and glucose metabolism of 76 ten-day-old Cobb male broilers, experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, was studied for 30 days. Birds were distributed in 2 groups: one infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina sporulated oocysts, and the other inoculated with distilled water. Pathological e biochemical liver changes were assessed, as well as plasma glucose concentrations and total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, VLDL, fatty-acid, and triglyceride levels in the serum. The infected broilers presented hypoglycemia associated with a reduction in liver glycogen. In addition, these birds developed fatty liver, and there were changes in all lipid classes in the serum. Lipid and glucose metabolism was dramatically changed in broilers experimentally infected with 1x10(6 E. acervulina oocysts.

  2. Electron microscopic study on macrogametogenesis of Eimeria labbeana infecting the Egyptian wild doves and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashtar, A R; Abdel-Ghaffar, F A; Ahmed, A K

    1991-04-01

    The development of macrogametes of Eimeria labbeana was studied by electron microscopy in the epithelial cells of the villi at 96 hrs. post-infection. Appearance of young macrogamonts was characterized by the loss of the architecture of the apicomplexa (polar ring, rhoptries, micronemes, conoid, subpellicular microtubules), while the pellicle became only one unit membrane. This was associated by the formation of wall forming bodies II then I. Moreover, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi were increased in the cytoplasm. Amylopectin granules as well as lipid globules were greatly increased in mature macrogametes. Host cell reaction due to infection included enlargement and deformation of infected cells, hypertrophy of their nuclei, swollen and degeneration of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and vacuolation of ground cytoplasm. These changes occur in both cells with and without parasite.

  3. Eimeria pileata n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo; Medina, Juan Pablo; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patrícia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Berto, Bruno Pereira; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2015-11-01

    A new coccidian species (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the rufous-capped brush finch Atlapetes pileatus Wagler in the Nevado de Toluca Natural Protected Area, Mexico. Oöcysts of Eimeria pileata n. sp. are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 16.5 × 14.1 μm, with a smooth, bi-layered wall. Micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, measuring on average 9.0 × 5.4 μm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies are both present. A sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. This is the third description of an eimeriid coccidian infecting passerines.

  4. Dietary protease can alleviate negative effects of a coccidiosis infection on production performance in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peek, H.W.; Klis, van der J.D.; Vermeulen, B.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary protease on coccidiosis infection, production performance, the intestinal mucus layer thickness, and brush border enzyme activity using broilers challenged with Eimeria spp. laboratory isolates (Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E.

  5. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  6. Endogenous Life Cycle of Eimeria melanomytis (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Dusky Rice Rat, Melanomys caliginosus (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Duszynski, Donald W

    2017-02-01

    Endogenous stages of the life cycle of Eimeria melanomytis, infecting the peripheral epithelial cells of villi of the small intestine of experimentally infected young dusky rice rats, Melanomys caliginosus , were studied. Giemsa-stained mucosal scrapings and histological sections were examined for all the stages. Eimeria melanomytis has 3 generations of meronts (M), different in size, shape, and number of merozoites (m); and in size, shape, and location of the nuclei within the cytoplasm of the meronts. The 3 meront types, M 1 -M 3 , respectively, had 11-14 (m 1 ), 7-10 (m 2 ), and 20-30 (m 3 ) merozoites. Macrogametocytes and microgametocytes, as well as macrogametes and microgametes, complete the sexual cycle forming the unsporulated oocysts. This parasite's endogenous development produced severe intestinal lesions in experimentally infected dusky rice rats.

  7. Comparative study of tranavirus isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) with reference to other ranaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Holopainen, Riikka; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity in immun......Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity......). The challenge trials indicate that rainbow trout fry cultured at 15A degrees C are not target species for the virus isolates in the present panel. We suggest that the two isolates belong in the genus Ranavirus and propose the name Ranavirus maxima (Rmax) for the turbot isolate....

  8. Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daszak P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.

  9. Eimeria species in young and adult sheep raised under intensive and / or semi-intensive systems of a herd from Umuarama city, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify Eimeria species in young and adult sheep raised under intensive and / or semi-intensive systems of a herd from Umuarama city, Parana State, Brazil using the traditional diagnostic methods and to correlate the infection level/types of infection in the different age/system in this herd. Fecal samples were collected from the rectum of 210 sheep and were subjected to laboratory analysis to differentiate the species. Furthermore, animals were observed to determine the occurrences of the clinical or subclinical forms of eimeriosis. Out of the 210 collected fecal samples, 147 (70% were positive for Eimeria oocysts, and 101 (47.86% belonged to young animals that were raised under intensive and / or semi-intensive farming systems. Oocysts from 9 species of Eimeria parasites were identified in the sheep at the following prevalence rates: E. crandallis, 50.0%; E. parva, 21.6%; E. faurei, 8.1%; E. ahsata, 8.1%; E. intricata, 5.4%; E. granulosa , 2.7%; E. ovinoidalis , 2.0%; E. ovina , 1.3%; and E. bakuensis , 0.6%. There were no differences regarding the more frequent Eimeria species among the different ages of animals or between the different farming management systems. Based on these data, E. crandallis was the most prevalent, followed by E. parva and E. faurei species, regardless of the age. Higher parasitism was diagnosed in the young animals that were raised in a confinement regime, and the disease found in the herd was classified as subclinical. Further studies should be conducted in this herd, to verify if the eimeriosis subclinical can cause damage especially in young animals with a high level of infection.

  10. Establishment, characterization and immortalization of a fibroblast cell line from the Chinese red belly toad Bombina maxima skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Gao, Qian; Su, Weiting; Zeng, Lin; Wang, Jinhuan; Hu, Yi; Nie, Wenhui; Ma, Xutong; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The skin of the amphibian Bombina maxima is rich in biologically active proteins and peptides, most of which have mammalian analogues. The physiological functions of most of the mammalian analogues are still unknown. Thus, Bombina maxima skin may be a promising model to reveal the physiological role of these proteins and peptides because of their large capacity for secretion. To investigate the physiological role of these proteins and peptides in vitro, a fibroblast cell line was successfully established from Bombina maxima tadpole skin. The cell line grew to form a monolayer with cells of a uniform shape and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are typical characteristics of fibroblasts. Further identification at a molecular level revealed that they strongly expressed the fibroblast marker protein vimentin. The chromosome number of these cells is 2n = 28, and most of them were diploid. Growth property analysis showed that they grew well for 14 passages. However, cells showed decreased proliferative ability after passage 15. Thus, we tried to immortalize the cells through the overexpression of SV40 T antigen. After selecting by G418, cells stably expressed SV40 large T antigen and showed enhanced proliferative ability and increased telomerase activity. Signal transduction analysis revealed functional p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in immortalized Bombina maxima dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblast cells and the immortalized fibroblast cells from Bombina maxima cultured in the present study can be used to investigate the physiological role of Bombina maxima skin-secreted proteins and peptides. In addition, the methods for primary cell culturing and cell immortalization will be useful for culturing and immortalizing cells from other types of amphibians.

  11. The novel role of fungal intracellular laccase: used to screen hybrids between Hypsizigus marmoreus and Clitocybe maxima by protoplasmic fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Zhang, Weiguo; Hu, Kaihui

    2012-08-01

    Laccase has been proved important in decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), oxidation of 2, 2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, lignin degradation and fruiting-body formation. The decolorization of RBBR by laccase was firstly used to screen protoplast fusants. Fusants were obtained by protoplast fusion between the strains of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Clitocybe maxima, and two fusants (IM1 and IIIM5) were screened on PDA medium containing RBBR. These fusants were significant higher in laccase activity than H. marmoreus, nearly 413 and 395 times, respectively. Their hyphal growth rates were also remarkable higher than H. marmoreus, nearly 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed these fusants contained the laccase, and the molecular mass of the laccase was consistent with the laccase of C. maxima, nearly 62 kDa. The pileus color of the IM1 and IIIM5 also showed partial recombined characteristics comparing to the parental strains, while biological efficiency ratios were prominent higher than that of H. marmoreus, up to 14.58 and 10.87 %, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA bands of fusants not only were similar to parental bands, but presented new non-parental bands. Using the Unweighted pair-group method together with mathematic averages method to gain a dendrogram, in which the fusants showed intra-cluster variations. Significantly, H. marmoreus was the dominant parent, while C. maxima were distant from the fusants. The differences among IM1, IIIM5 and H. marmoreus, and the similarities among IM1, IIIM5 and C. maxima indicated IM1 and IIIM5 were somatic hybrids of H. marmoreus and C. maxima. Accordingly, it is feasible to use laccase to screen fusants of H. marmoreus and C. maxima.

  12. Toxicologic evaluation of acute and subacute oral administration of Cucurbita maxima seed extracts to rats and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz-Neto, A; Mataqueiro, M I; Santana, A E; Alessi, A C

    1994-06-01

    The extract prepared from dried seeds of Cucurbita maxima was administered to rats and pigs. Following a single dose or 4 weeks of daily oral administration, the extract produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, uric acid, GOT, GPT, LDH or blood counts. Urine analysis (urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, Na and K), as well as histopathological investigation, showed no abnormalities. These results taken as a whole indicate that the seeds of C. maxima as used in Brazilian folk medicine are not toxic for rats and swine.

  13. Algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianduo; Xiao Gang; Di Yuming; Han Feng; Qiu Xiaoling

    1999-01-01

    The γ energy spectrum is expanded in allied energy-frequency space. By the different characterization of the evolution of wavelet transform modulus maxima across scales between energy spectrum and noise, the algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales is presented. The results show, in contrast to the methods in energy space or in frequency space, the method has the advantages that the peak of energy spectrum can be indicated accurately and the energy spectrum can be reconstructed with a good approximation

  14. Coccidiosis: recent advancements in the immunobiology of Eimeria species, preventive measures, and the importance of vaccination as a control tool against these Apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaramaiah C

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chaitanya Shivaramaiah,1 John R Barta,2 Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco,3 Guillermo Téllez,1 Billy M Hargis11Department of Poultry Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 2Department of Pathobiology, University of Guelph, ON, Canada; 3Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, MexicoAbstract: Coccidiosis, caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria, is probably the most expensive parasitic disease of poultry. Species of Eimeria are ubiquitous where poultry are raised and are known to cause drastic reductions in performance and induce mortality, thereby affecting the overall health status of poultry. Chemotherapy has been the predominant form of disease control for many years, even though vaccination is steadily gaining importance as a feasible control method. The objective of this review is to highlight recent advancements in understanding the role of host immunity against coccidiosis. In addition, pros and cons associated with chemotherapy and the role of vaccination as an increasingly popular disease control method are discussed. Finally, the role played by recombinant vaccines as a potential vaccination tool is highlighted. With interest growing rapidly in understanding host–parasite biology, recent developments in designing recombinant vaccines and potential epitopes that have shown promise are mentioned.Keywords: Eimeria, coccidiosis, chemotherapy, recombinant vaccines, immunity

  15. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  16. A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Gong, Y X; Richardson, M

    1990-10-29

    A protein inhibitor (CMTI-V; Mr 7106) of trypsin and activated Hageman factor (Factor XIIa), a serine protease involved in blood coagulation, has been isolated for the first time from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds by means of trypsin-affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dissociation constants of the inhibitor complexes with trypsin and Factor XIIa have been determined to be 1.6 x 10(-8) and 4.1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The primary structure of CMTI-V is reported. The protein has 68 amino acid residues and one disulfide bridge and shows a high level of sequence homology to the Potato I inhibitor family. Furthermore, its amino terminus consists of an N-acetylates Ser. The reactive site has been established to be the peptide bond between Lys44-Asp45. The modified inhibitor which has the reactive site peptide bond hydrolyzed inhibits trypsin but not the Hageman factor.

  17. Atlas of depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperatively funded project was to develop a simple-to-use atlas of precipitation depths in Texas for selected storm durations and frequencies on the basis of the research results and unpublished digital archives of Asquith (1998). The selected storm durations are 15 and 30 minutes; 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours; and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. The selected storm frequencies or annual recurrence intervals are 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years. Depth-duration frequency (DDF) of annual precipitation maxima is important for cost-effective, risk-mitigated hydrologic design. DDF values are in common and wide-spread use by public and private entities throughout Texas.

  18. Tests for Gaussianity of the MAXIMA-1 cosmic microwave background map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Balbi, A; Borrill, J; Ferreira, P G; Hanany, S; Jaffe, A H; Lee, A T; Rabii, B; Richards, P L; Smoot, G F; Stompor, R; Winant, C D

    2001-12-17

    Gaussianity of the cosmological perturbations is one of the key predictions of standard inflation, but it is violated by other models of structure formation such as cosmic defects. We present the first test of the Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on subdegree angular scales, where deviations from Gaussianity are most likely to occur. We apply the methods of moments, cumulants, the Kolmogorov test, the chi(2) test, and Minkowski functionals in eigen, real, Wiener-filtered, and signal-whitened spaces, to the MAXIMA-1 CMB anisotropy data. We find that the data, which probe angular scales between 10 arcmin and 5 deg, are consistent with Gaussianity. These results show consistency with the standard inflation and place constraints on the existence of cosmic defects.

  19. Cosmological Parameters and Hyper-Parameters: The Hubble Constant from Boomerang and Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Ofer

    Recently several studies have jointly analysed data from different cosmological probes with the motivation of estimating cosmological parameters. Here we generalise this procedure to allow freedom in the relative weights of various probes. This is done by including in the joint likelihood function a set of `Hyper-Parameters', which are dealt with using Bayesian considerations. The resulting algorithm, which assumes uniform priors on the log of the Hyper-Parameters, is very simple to implement. We illustrate the method by estimating the Hubble constant H0 from different sets of recent CMB experiments (including Saskatoon, Python V, MSAM1, TOCO, Boomerang and Maxima). The approach can be generalised for a combination of cosmic probes, and for other priors on the Hyper-Parameters. Reference: Lahav, Bridle, Hobson, Lasenby & Sodre, 2000, MNRAS, in press (astro-ph/9912105)

  20. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Ruud A; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P B T B; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-04-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors.