WorldWideScience

Sample records for maxima dual inversions

  1. High effective inverse dynamics modelling for dual-arm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haoyu; Liu, Yanli; Wu, Hongtao

    2018-05-01

    To deal with the problem of inverse dynamics modelling for dual arm robot, a recursive inverse dynamics modelling method based on decoupled natural orthogonal complement is presented. In this model, the concepts and methods of Decoupled Natural Orthogonal Complement matrices are used to eliminate the constraint forces in the Newton-Euler kinematic equations, and the screws is used to express the kinematic and dynamics variables. On this basis, the paper has developed a special simulation program with symbol software of Mathematica and conducted a simulation research on the a dual-arm robot. Simulation results show that the proposed method based on decoupled natural orthogonal complement can save an enormous amount of CPU time that was spent in computing compared with the recursive Newton-Euler kinematic equations and the results is correct and reasonable, which can verify the reliability and efficiency of the method.

  2. Controllable rotational inversion in nanostructures with dual chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lu; Zhu, Ka-Di; Shen, Wenzhong; Huang, Xiaojiang; Zhang, Li; Goriely, Alain

    2018-04-05

    Chiral structures play an important role in natural sciences due to their great variety and potential applications. A perversion connecting two helices with opposite chirality creates a dual-chirality helical structure. In this paper, we develop a novel model to explore quantitatively the mechanical behavior of normal, binormal and transversely isotropic helical structures with dual chirality and apply these ideas to known nanostructures. It is found that both direction and amplitude of rotation can be finely controlled by designing the cross-sectional shape. A peculiar rotational inversion of overwinding followed by unwinding, observed in some gourd and cucumber tendril perversions, not only exists in transversely isotropic dual-chirality helical nanobelts, but also in the binormal/normal ones when the cross-sectional aspect ratio is close to 1. Beyond this rotational inversion region, the binormal and normal dual-chirality helical nanobelts exhibit a fixed directional rotation of unwinding and overwinding, respectively. Moreover, in the binormal case, the rotation of these helical nanobelts is nearly linear, which is promising as a possible design for linear-to-rotary motion converters. The present work suggests new designs for nanoscale devices.

  3. Fat suppression with short inversion time inversion-recovery and chemical-shift selective saturation: a dual STIR-CHESS combination prepulse for turbo spin echo pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Koji; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sano, Tsukasa; Sakai, Osamu; Jara, Hernán

    2010-05-01

    To test a newly developed fat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prepulse that synergistically uses the principles of fat suppression via inversion recovery (STIR) and spectral fat saturation (CHESS), relative to pure CHESS and STIR. This new technique is termed dual fat suppression (Dual-FS). To determine if Dual-FS could be chemically specific for fat, the phantom consisted of the fat-mimicking NiCl(2) aqueous solution, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. For Dual-FS and STIR, several inversion times were used. Signal intensities of each image obtained with each technique were compared. To determine if Dual-FS could be robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities, the phantom consisting of different NiCl(2) aqueous solutions, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with Dual-FS and CHESS at the several off-resonance frequencies. To compare fat suppression efficiency in vivo, 10 volunteer subjects were also imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. Dual-FS could suppress fat sufficiently within the inversion time of 110-140 msec, thus enabling differentiation between fat and fat-mimicking aqueous structures. Dual-FS was as robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities as STIR and less vulnerable than CHESS. The same results for fat suppression were obtained in volunteers. The Dual-FS-STIR-CHESS is an alternative and promising fat suppression technique for turbo spin echo MRI. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Co-infection of chickens with Eimeria praecox and Eimeria maxima does not prevent development of immunity to Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M; Fetterer, R; Miska, K

    2009-05-12

    Previous studies revealed an ameliorating effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection, such that weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and intestinal lesions were nearly identical to uninfected or E. praecox-infected controls. The purpose of the present study was to determine if protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection developed in chickens infected with both E. praecox and E. maxima. Day-old chickens were infected with 10(3)E. praecox, 10(3)E. maxima, or a mixture of 10(3)E. praecox and 10(3)E. maxima oocysts. Chickens were then challenged at 4 weeks of age with 5x10(4)E. praecox or 5x10(3)E. maxima oocysts and clinical signs of coccidiosis were assessed 7 days post-challenge. Relative to non-challenged controls, naïve chickens or chickens immunized with E. praecox displayed a 32-34% weight gain depression after challenge with 5x10(3)E. maxima oocysts. In contrast, chickens immunized with either E. maxima oocysts alone or a combination of E. praecox and E. maxima oocysts displayed complete protection against lower weight gain associated with E. maxima challenge. Also, protection against decreased feed conversion ratio and intestinal lesions was observed in single E. maxima- or dual E. maxima+E. praecox-immunized chickens. These findings indicate that co-infection of chickens with E. maxima and E. praecox does not prevent development of immunity against E. maxima or E. praecox challenge.

  5. Inversion of Gravity Anomalies Using Primal-Dual Interior Point Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Velasco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural inversion of gravity datasets based on the use of density anomalies to derive robust images of the subsurface (delineating lithologies and their boundaries constitutes a fundamental non-invasive tool for geological exploration. The use of experimental techniques in geophysics to estimate and interpret di erences in the substructure based on its density properties have proven e cient; however, the inherent non-uniqueness associated with most geophysical datasets make this the ideal scenario for the use of recently developed robust constrained optimization techniques. We present a constrained optimization approach for a least squares inversion problem aimed to characterize 2-Dimensional Earth density structure models based on Bouguer gravity anomalies. The proposed formulation is solved with a Primal-Dual Interior-Point method including equality and inequality physical and structural constraints. We validate our results using synthetic density crustal structure models with varying complexity and illustrate the behavior of the algorithm using di erent initial density structure models and increasing noise levels in the observations. Based on these implementations, we conclude that the algorithm using Primal-Dual Interior-Point methods is robust, and its results always honor the geophysical constraints. Some of the advantages of using this approach for structural inversion of gravity data are the incorporation of a priori information related to the model parameters (coming from actual physical properties of the subsurface and the reduction of the solution space contingent on these boundary conditions.

  6. Total variation regularization for seismic waveform inversion using an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Peng; Liao, Wenyuan; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchuan

    2018-04-01

    Full waveform inversion is an effective tool for recovering the properties of the Earth from seismograms. However, it suffers from local minima caused mainly by the limited accuracy of the starting model and the lack of a low-frequency component in the seismic data. Because of the high velocity contrast between salt and sediment, the relation between the waveform and velocity perturbation is strongly nonlinear. Therefore, salt inversion can easily get trapped in the local minima. Since the velocity of salt is nearly constant, we can make the most of this characteristic with total variation regularization to mitigate the local minima. In this paper, we develop an adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method to implement total variation regularization by projecting the solution onto a total variation norm constrained convex set, through which the total variation norm constraint is satisfied at every model iteration. The smooth background velocities are first inverted and the perturbations are gradually obtained by successively relaxing the total variation norm constraints. Numerical experiment of the projection of the BP model onto the intersection of the total variation norm and box constraints has demonstrated the accuracy and efficiency of our adaptive primal dual hybrid gradient method. A workflow is designed to recover complex salt structures in the BP 2004 model and the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model, starting from a linear gradient model without using low-frequency data below 3 Hz. The salt inversion processes demonstrate that wavefield reconstruction inversion with a total variation norm and box constraints is able to overcome local minima and inverts the complex salt velocity layer by layer.

  7. Inverse modeling of multicomponent reactive transport through single and dual porosity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, Javier; Zheng, Liange; Fernández, Ana María; Montenegro, Luis

    2008-06-01

    Compacted bentonite is foreseen as buffer material for high-level radioactive waste in deep geological repositories because it provides hydraulic isolation, chemical stability, and radionuclide sorption. A wide range of laboratory tests were performed within the framework of FEBEX ( Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) project to characterize buffer properties and develop numerical models for FEBEX bentonite. Here we present inverse single and dual-continuum multicomponent reactive transport models of a long-term permeation test performed on a 2.5 cm long sample of FEBEX bentonite. Initial saline bentonite porewater was flushed with 5.5 pore volumes of fresh granitic water. Water flux and chemical composition of effluent waters were monitored during almost 4 years. The model accounts for solute advection and diffusion and geochemical reactions such as aqueous complexation, acid-base, cation exchange, protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation and dissolution/precipitation of calcite, chalcedony and gypsum. All of these processes are assumed at local equilibrium. Similar to previous studies of bentonite porewater chemistry on batch systems which attest the relevance of protonation/deprotonation on buffering pH, our results confirm that protonation/deprotonation is a key process in maintaining a stable pH under dynamic transport conditions. Breakthrough curves of reactive species are more sensitive to initial porewater concentration than to effective diffusion coefficient. Optimum estimates of initial porewater chemistry of saturated compacted FEBEX bentonite are obtained by solving the inverse problem of multicomponent reactive transport. While the single-continuum model reproduces the trends of measured data for most chemical species, it fails to match properly the long tails of most breakthrough curves. Such limitation is overcome by resorting to a dual-continuum reactive transport model.

  8. Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  9. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  10. Maxima and Minima: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beucher , Serge

    2013-01-01

    Implementation of various operators: minima, maxima, extended minima and maxima, dynamics.; The purpose of this document is just to provide additional information about the concepts of maxima and minima in MM. This paper must simply be considered as a clarification of these notions. The notion of dynamics is also addressed. Mamba implementations of the operators are also provided.

  11. Dual-energy digital mammography: Calibration and inverse-mapping techniques to estimate calcification thickness and glandular-tissue ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappadath, S. Cheenu; Shaw, Chris C.

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer may manifest as microcalcifications in x-ray mammography. Small microcalcifications, essential to the early detection of breast cancer, are often obscured by overlapping tissue structures. Dual-energy imaging, where separate low- and high-energy images are acquired and synthesized to cancel the tissue structures, may improve the ability to detect and visualize microcalcifications. Transmission measurements at two different kVp values were made on breast-tissue-equivalent materials under narrow-beam geometry using an indirect flat-panel mammographic imager. The imaging scenario consisted of variable aluminum thickness (to simulate calcifications) and variable glandular ratio (defined as the ratio of the glandular-tissue thickness to the total tissue thickness) for a fixed total tissue thickness--the clinical situation of microcalcification imaging with varying tissue composition under breast compression. The coefficients of the inverse-mapping functions used to determine material composition from dual-energy measurements were calculated by a least-squares analysis. The linear function poorly modeled both the aluminum thickness and the glandular ratio. The inverse-mapping functions were found to vary as analytic functions of second (conic) or third (cubic) order. By comparing the model predictions with the calibration values, the root-mean-square residuals for both the cubic and the conic functions were ∼50 μm for the aluminum thickness and ∼0.05 for the glandular ratio

  12. Inverse modeling of rainfall infiltration with a dual permeability approach using different matrix-fracture coupling variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöcher, Johanna; Kuraz, Michal

    2017-04-01

    In this contribution we propose implementations of the dual permeability model with different inter-domain exchange descriptions and metaheuristic optimization algorithms for parameter identification and mesh optimization. We compare variants of the coupling term with different numbers of parameters to test if a reduction of parameters is feasible. This can reduce parameter uncertainty in inverse modeling, but also allow for different conceptual models of the domain and matrix coupling. The different variants of the dual permeability model are implemented in the open-source objective library DRUtES written in FORTRAN 2003/2008 in 1D and 2D. For parameter identification we use adaptations of the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and Teaching-learning-based optimization (TLBO), which are population-based metaheuristics with different learning strategies. These are high-level stochastic-based search algorithms that don't require gradient information or a convex search space. Despite increasing computing power and parallel processing, an overly fine mesh is not feasible for parameter identification. This creates the need to find a mesh that optimizes both accuracy and simulation time. We use a bi-objective PSO algorithm to generate a Pareto front of optimal meshes to account for both objectives. The dual permeability model and the optimization algorithms were tested on virtual data and field TDR sensor readings. The TDR sensor readings showed a very steep increase during rapid rainfall events and a subsequent steep decrease. This was theorized to be an effect of artificial macroporous envelopes surrounding TDR sensors creating an anomalous region with distinct local soil hydraulic properties. One of our objectives is to test how well the dual permeability model can describe this infiltration behavior and what coupling term would be most suitable.

  13. Inverse kinematics of a dual linear actuator pitch/roll heliostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Joshua; Shankar, Balakrishnan; Sundaram, Ganesh

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a simple, computationally efficient inverse kinematics solution for a pitch/roll heliostat using two linear actuators. The heliostat design and kinematics have been developed, modeled and tested using computer simulation software. A physical heliostat prototype was fabricated to validate the theoretical computations and data. Pitch/roll heliostats have numerous advantages including reduced cost potential and reduced space requirements, with a primary disadvantage being the significantly more complicated kinematics, which are solved here. Novel methods are applied to simplify the inverse kinematics problem which could be applied to other similar problems.

  14. Estimating soil hydraulic properties from soil moisture time series by inversion of a dual-permeability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Valle, Nicolas; Wutzler, Thomas; Meyer, Stefanie; Potthast, Karin; Michalzik, Beate

    2017-04-01

    Dual-permeability type models are widely used to simulate water fluxes and solute transport in structured soils. These models contain two spatially overlapping flow domains with different parameterizations or even entirely different conceptual descriptions of flow processes. They are usually able to capture preferential flow phenomena, but a large set of parameters is needed, which are very laborious to obtain or cannot be measured at all. Therefore, model inversions are often used to derive the necessary parameters. Although these require sufficient input data themselves, they can use measurements of state variables instead, which are often easier to obtain and can be monitored by automated measurement systems. In this work we show a method to estimate soil hydraulic parameters from high frequency soil moisture time series data gathered at two different measurement depths by inversion of a simple one dimensional dual-permeability model. The model uses an advection equation based on the kinematic wave theory to describe the flow in the fracture domain and a Richards equation for the flow in the matrix domain. The soil moisture time series data were measured in mesocosms during sprinkling experiments. The inversion consists of three consecutive steps: First, the parameters of the water retention function were assessed using vertical soil moisture profiles in hydraulic equilibrium. This was done using two different exponential retention functions and the Campbell function. Second, the soil sorptivity and diffusivity functions were estimated from Boltzmann-transformed soil moisture data, which allowed the calculation of the hydraulic conductivity function. Third, the parameters governing flow in the fracture domain were determined using the whole soil moisture time series. The resulting retention functions were within the range of values predicted by pedotransfer functions apart from very dry conditions, where all retention functions predicted lower matrix potentials

  15. Inverse kinematics for the variable geometry truss manipulator via a Lagrangian dual method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanchun Zhao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the inverse kinematics problem of the variable geometry truss manipulator. The problem is cast as an optimization process which can be divided into two steps. Firstly, according to the information about the location of the end effector and fixed base, an optimal center curve and the corresponding distribution of the intermediate platforms along this center line are generated. This procedure is implemented by solving a non-convex optimization problem that has a quadratic objective function subject to quadratic constraints. Then, in accordance with the distribution of the intermediate platforms along the optimal center curve, all lengths of the actuators are calculated via the inverse kinematics of each variable geometry truss module. Hence, the approach that we present is an optimization procedure that attempts to generate the optimal intermediate platform distribution along the optimal central curve, while the performance index and kinematic constraints are satisfied. By using the Lagrangian duality theory, a closed-form optimal solution of the original optimization is given. The numerical simulation substantiates the effectiveness of the introduced approach.

  16. Secondary maxima in ozone profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lemoine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone profiles from balloon soundings as well as SAGEII ozone profiles were used to detect anomalous large ozone concentrations of ozone in the lower stratosphere. These secondary ozone maxima are found to be the result of differential advection of ozone-poor and ozone-rich air associated with Rossby wave breaking events. The frequency and intensity of secondary ozone maxima and their geographical distribution is presented. The occurrence and amplitude of ozone secondary maxima is connected to ozone variability and trend at Uccle and account for a large part of the total ozone and lower stratospheric ozone variability.

  17. An inverse model for locating skin tumours in 3D using the genetic algorithm with the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Ribeiro Bueno

    Full Text Available Here, the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method is used to solve the 3D Pennes Bioheat Equation, which together with a Genetic Algorithm, produces an inverse model capable of obtaining the location and the size of a tumour, having as data input the temperature distribution measured on the skin surface. Given that the objective function, which is solved inversely, involves the DRBEM (Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method the Genetic Algorithm in its usual form becomes slower, in such a way that it was necessary to develop functions based the solution history in order that the process becomes quicker and more accurate. Results for 8 examples are presented including cases with convection and radiation boundary conditions. Cases involving noise in the readings of the equipment are also considered. This technique is intended to assist health workers in the diagnosis of tumours.

  18. Slow kinetics of Brownian maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2014-07-18

    We study extreme-value statistics of Brownian trajectories in one dimension. We define the maximum as the largest position to date and compare maxima of two particles undergoing independent Brownian motion. We focus on the probability P(t) that the two maxima remain ordered up to time t and find the algebraic decay P ∼ t(-β) with exponent β = 1/4. When the two particles have diffusion constants D(1) and D(2), the exponent depends on the mobilities, β = (1/π) arctan sqrt[D(2)/D(1)]. We also use numerical simulations to investigate maxima of multiple particles in one dimension and the largest extension of particles in higher dimensions.

  19. The Maxima and Boomerang Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Hanany, S.; Collaboration, MAXIMA; Collaboration, BOOMERANG

    1997-01-01

    MAXIMA and BOOMERanG are balloon borne experiments designed to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropy power spectrum from l=10 to l=900 with high resolution. Here we describe the program of observations, the experiments, their capabilities, and their expected performance.

  20. Maxima and Minima Without Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Ian

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to extrema that do not require calculus are presented to help free maxima/minima problems from the confines of calculus. Many students falsely suppose that these types of problems can only be dealt with through calculus, since few, if any, noncalculus examples are usually presented. (MP)

  1. Oxidation-state maxima in plutonium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    Maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states of plutonium are inherent in the algebra of its disproportionation reactions. The maxima do not support overall disproportionation equations as satisfactory representations of aqueous plutonium. (author)

  2. Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w  − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....

  3. Using Maxima in the Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedriani, Eugenio M.; Moyano, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Coming from the Macsyma system and adapted to the Common Lisp standard, Maxima can be regarded as a tool for a frequent use in the mathematics classroom. The main aim of this work is to show some possibilities of Maxima and its graphical interface through our experience as Mathematics teachers in Business degrees, although it can be easily spread…

  4. Efficient combination of a 3D Quasi-Newton inversion algorithm and a vector dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voznyuk, I; Litman, A; Tortel, H

    2015-01-01

    A Quasi-Newton method for reconstructing the constitutive parameters of three-dimensional (3D) penetrable scatterers from scattered field measurements is presented. This method is adapted for handling large-scale electromagnetic problems while keeping the memory requirement and the time flexibility as low as possible. The forward scattering problem is solved by applying the finite-element tearing and interconnecting full-dual-primal (FETI-FDP2) method which shares the same spirit as the domain decomposition methods for finite element methods. The idea is to split the computational domain into smaller non-overlapping sub-domains in order to simultaneously solve local sub-problems. Various strategies are proposed in order to efficiently couple the inversion algorithm with the FETI-FDP2 method: a separation into permanent and non-permanent subdomains is performed, iterative solvers are favorized for resolving the interface problem and a marching-on-in-anything initial guess selection further accelerates the process. The computational burden is also reduced by applying the adjoint state vector methodology. Finally, the inversion algorithm is confronted to measurements extracted from the 3D Fresnel database. (paper)

  5. HEALTH INSURANCE: FIXED CONTRIBUTION AND REIMBURSEMENT MAXIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Affected by the salary adjustments on 1 January 2001 and the evolution of the staff members and fellows population, the average reference salary, which is used as an index for fixed contributions and reimbursement maxima, has changed significantly. An adjustment of the amounts of the reimbursement maxima and the fixed contributions is therefore necessary, as from 1 January 2001. Reimbursement maxima The revised reimbursement maxima will appear on the leaflet summarizing the benefits for the year 2001, which will be sent out with the forthcoming issue of the CHIS Bull'. This leaflet will also be available from the divisional secretariats and from the UNIQA office at CERN. Fixed contributions The fixed contributions, applicable to some categories of voluntarily insured persons, are set as follows (amounts in CHF for monthly contributions) : voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with normal health insurance cover : 910.- (was 815.- in 2000) voluntarily insured member of the personnel, with reduced heal...

  6. Novel type of linear mitochondrial genomes with dual flip-flop inversion system in apicomplexan parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikosaka Kenji

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial (mt genomes vary considerably in size, structure and gene content. The mt genomes of the phylum Apicomplexa, which includes important human pathogens such as the malaria parasite Plasmodium, also show marked diversity of structure. Plasmodium has a concatenated linear mt genome of the smallest size (6-kb; Babesia and Theileria have a linear monomeric mt genome (6.5-kb to 8.2-kb with terminal inverted repeats; Eimeria, which is distantly related to Plasmodium and Babesia/Theileria, possesses a mt genome (6.2-kb with a concatemeric form similar to that of Plasmodium; Cryptosporidium, the earliest branching lineage within the phylum Apicomplexa, has no mt genome. We are interested in the evolutionary origin of linear mt genomes of Babesia/Theileria, and have investigated mt genome structures in members of archaeopiroplasmid, a lineage branched off earlier from Babesia/Theileria. Results The complete mt genomes of archaeopiroplasmid parasites, Babesia microti and Babesia rodhaini, were sequenced. The mt genomes of B. microti (11.1-kb and B. rodhaini (6.9-kb possess two pairs of unique inverted repeats, IR-A and IR-B. Flip-flop inversions between two IR-As and between two IR-Bs appear to generate four distinct genome structures that are present at an equi-molar ratio. An individual parasite contained multiple mt genome structures, with 20 copies and 2 – 3 copies per haploid nuclear genome in B. microti and B. rodhaini, respectively. Conclusion We found a novel linear monomeric mt genome structure of B. microti and B. rhodhaini equipped with dual flip-flop inversion system, by which four distinct genome structures are readily generated. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the presence of two pairs of distinct IR sequences within a monomeric linear mt genome. The present finding provides insight into further understanding of evolution of mt genome structure.

  7. Continuous time-resolved regional methane leak detection with on-line background estimation using a novel combination of dual frequency comb laser spectroscopy and atmospheric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. B.; Coburn, S.; Wright, R.; Baumann, E.; Cossel, K.; Sweeney, C.; Ghosh, S.; Newbury, N.; Prasad, K.; Coddington, I.; Rieker, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in natural gas extraction technology have led to increased US production and transport activity, and as a consequence, an increased need for monitoring of methane leaks. Current leak detection methods provide time snapshots, and not continuous, time-varying estimates of emissions. Most approaches also require specific atmospheric conditions, operators, or the use of a tracer gas, requiring site access. Given known intermittency in fugitive methane emissions, continuous monitoring is a critical need for emissions mitigation. We present a novel leak detection method that employs dual frequency comb spectrometry to offer continuous, autonomous, leak detection and quantification over square-km scale areas. The spectrometer is situated in a field of natural gas pads, and a series of retroreflectors around the field direct light back to a detector. The laser light spans 1620-1680 nm with 0.002 nm line spacing, measuring thousands of individual absorption features from multiple species. The result is high-stability trace gas (here CH4, CO2, and H2O) measurements over long (1 km+) open paths through the atmosphere. Measurements are used in an atmospheric inversion to estimate the time variability of emissions at each location of interest. Importantly, the measurement framework and inversion solve explicitly for background concentrations, which vary rapidly in fields of active oil and gas production. We present the results of controlled-leak field tests in rural Colorado. We demonstrate the ability to locate and size a leak located 1 km away from the spectrometer and varying in strength from 1.5 to 7.7 g/min, resulting in mean atmospheric enhancements of 20 ppb. The inversion correctly identifies when the leak turned on and off over a 24-hour period, and determines the mean leak strength to within 10% of the true controlled rate. We further demonstrate the ability of the system to correctly locate and size the start and end of simultaneous 2.7 to 4.8 g/min leaks

  8. Rate dependent direct inverse hysteresis compensation of piezoelectric micro-actuator used in dual-stage hard disk drive head positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Arifur; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Yao, Kui

    2015-08-01

    The head positioning servo system in hard disk drive is implemented nowadays using a dual-stage actuator—the primary stage consisting of a voice coil motor actuator providing long range motion and the secondary stage controlling the position of the read/write head with fine resolution. Piezoelectric micro-actuator made of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) has been a popular choice for the secondary stage. However, PZT micro-actuator exhibits hysteresis—an inherent nonlinear characteristic of piezoelectric material. The advantage expected from using the secondary micro-actuator is somewhat lost by the hysteresis of the micro-actuator that contributes to tracking error. Hysteresis nonlinearity adversely affects the performance and, if not compensated, may cause inaccuracy and oscillation in the response. Compensation of hysteresis is therefore an important aspect for designing head-positioning servo system. This paper presents a new rate dependent model of hysteresis along with rigorous analysis and identification of the model. Parameters of the model are found using particle swarm optimization. Direct inverse of the proposed rate-dependent generalized Prandtl-Ishlinskii model is used as the hysteresis compensator. Effectiveness of the overall solution is underscored through experimental results.

  9. Ecosystem pressures: Ecklonia maxima and Laminaria pallida

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dunga, LVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available is fundamental to the assessment of their ecosystem condition and is important for their spatial management, particularly in the face of changing climates (Figure 3a&b&c). • In South Africa Ecklonia maxima and Laminaria pallida constitute the dominant forest... maxima and Laminaria pallida Authors: L.V.A Dunga, L.K. Blamey, M.D. Rothman, M. Lück-Vogel, K. Sink & J.J. Bolton • To synthesize a national occurrence map of the South African kelp forest, improving on that generated by Anderson et al. (2007) • Measure...

  10. Production of phenolic compounds from Spirulina maxima ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the enhancing process of phenolics synthesis in Spirulina maxima grown in Zarrouk's medium supplemented with different concentration of NaNO3 and/or combined with phenylalanine (L-PA). Also, the protective efficacy of Spirulina polyphenolic (SPP) extracts against ...

  11. Nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    There are 2 nitrite maxima in the Northern Arabian Sea, one at the thermocline depth and the other at depths between 300 and 500 m. The 2nd maximum is more prominent in the northeastern part of the Arabian Sea. The 1st maximum is associated...

  12. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immunoprotective protein IMP1 that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transc...

  13. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda M.S.; Cintra R.G.; Barros S.B.M.; Mancini-Filho J.

    1998-01-01

    Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated ...

  14. High-Latitude Neutral Mass Density Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. Y.; Huang, Y.; Su, Y.-J.; Huang, T.; Sutton, E. K.

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have reported that thermospheric effects due to solar wind driving can be observed poleward of auroral latitudes. In these papers, the measured neutral mass density perturbations appear as narrow, localized maxima in the cusp and polar cap. They conclude that Joule heating below the spacecraft is the cause of the mass density increases, which are sometimes associated with local field-aligned current structures, but not always. In this paper we investigate neutral mass densities measured by accelerometers on the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) spacecraft from launch until years 2010 (CHAMP) and 2012 (GRACE), approximately 10 years of observations from each satellite. We extract local maxima in neutral mass densities over the background using a smoothing window with size of one quarter of the orbit. The maxima have been analyzed for each year and also for the duration of each set of satellite observations. We show where they occur, under what solar wind conditions, and their relation to magnetic activity. The region with the highest frequency of occurrence coincides approximately with the cusp and mantle, with little direct evidence of an auroral zone source. Our conclusions agree with the "hot polar cap" observations that have been reported and studied in the past.

  15. Plutonium disproportionation. Hydrolysis and local oxidation-state maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Local maxima in the fractions of the trivalent and hexavalent oxidation states are inherent in the algebra of Pu disproportionation reactions. A new method predicts the pH and the oxidation-state fractions at maximum. Tabulated results illustrate the effects of the Pu oxidation number and Pu(IV) hydrolysis on the maxima. This method suggests a new laboratory approach for discovering Pu oxidation-state maxima. (author)

  16. In-Place Algorithms for Computing (Layers of) Maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal time and occupy only constant extra......We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal time and occupy only constant extra...

  17. Maxima krabab uute supermarketite abil turgu / Sten-Aleks Pihlak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pihlak, Sten-Aleks

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 18. juuli lk. 5. 2007. aasta esimese kuue kuu ligi 60 protsendiline käibe kasv annab Leedu poekett Maxima tegevjuhile lootust 4-5 aasta pärast tõusta Eesti kaubandusturu liidripositsioonile. Diagramm: Maxima sai tuule tiibadesse. Lisa: Number

  18. Spirulina maxima Protects Liver From Isoniazid and Rifampicin Drug Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatav, Santosh Kumar; Kulshrestha, Archana; Zacharia, Anish; Singh, Nita; Tejovathi, G; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2014-07-01

    Hepatotoxicity associated with isoniazid and rifampicin is one of the major impediments in antituberculosis therapy. The present study explored the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of Spirulina maxima in isoniazid and rifampicin induced hepatic damage in a rat model. Hepatic damage induced in Wistar rats by isoniazid and rifampicin resulted in significant alterations in biomarkers of liver function, namely, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima along with antituberculosis drugs protected liver from hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid and rifampicin. Administration of Spirulina maxima consecutively for 2 weeks to hepatodamaged animals resulted in restoration of hepatic function as evident from normalization of serum markers of liver function. Thus, the present study revealed remarkable prophylactic and therapeutic potential of Spirulina maxima. Co-administration of Spirulina maxima and antituberculosis drugs is advantageous as it provides extra nutritional benefit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P

    2015-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Some dual relations in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarski, J.

    1983-08-01

    The option of employing twistors or dual twistors in integral representations, etc., is considered. In particular, dual-space analyses are presented which relate to the problem of background electromagnetic fields, and to the inverse transformation. (author)

  1. Incorporation of a recombinant Eimeria maxima IMP1 antigen into nanoparticles confers protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if incorporating a recombinant Eimeria maxima protein, namely rEmaxIMP1, into gold nanoparticles (NP) could improve the level of protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Recombinant EmaxIMP1 was expressed in Escherchia coli as a poly-His f...

  2. Metabolic networks of Cucurbita maxima phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2003-03-01

    Metabolomic analysis aims at a comprehensive characterization of biological samples. Yet, biologically meaningful interpretations are often limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of the acquired data sets. One way to remedy this is to limit the complexity of the cell types being studied. Cucurbita maxima Duch. vascular exudates provide an excellent material for metabolomics in this regard. Using automated mass spectral deconvolution, over 400 components have been detected in these exudates, but only 90 of them were tentatively identified. Many amino compounds were found in vascular exudates from leaf petioles at concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than in tissue disks from the same leaves, whereas hexoses and sucrose were found in far lower amounts. In order to find the expected impact of assimilation rates on sugar levels, total phloem composition of eight leaves from four plants was followed over 4.5 days. Surprisingly, no diurnal rhythm was found for any of the phloem metabolites that was statistically valid for all eight leaves. Instead, each leaf had its own distinct vascular exudate profile similar to leaves from the same plant, but clearly different from leaves harvested from plants at the same developmental stage. Thirty to forty per cent of all metabolite levels of individual leaves were different from the average of all metabolite profiles. Using metabolic co-regulation analysis, similarities and differences between the exudate profiles were more accurately characterized through network computation, specifically with respect to nitrogen metabolism.

  3. Antioxidant activity of the microalga Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Miranda

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina maxima, which is used as a food additive, is a microalga rich in protein and other essential nutrients. Spirulina contains phenolic acids, tocopherols and ß-carotene which are known to exhibit antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of a Spirulina extract. The antioxidant activity of a methanolic extract of Spirulina was determined in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro antioxidant capacity was tested on a brain homogenate incubated with and without the extract at 37oC. The IC50 (concentration which causes a 50% reduction of oxidation of the extract in this system was 0.18 mg/ml. The in vivo antioxidant capacity was evaluated in plasma and liver of animals receiving a daily dose of 5 mg for 2 and 7 weeks. Plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in brain homogenate incubated for 1 h at 37oC. The production of oxidized compounds in liver after 2 h of incubation at 37oC was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS in control and experimental groups. Upon treatment, the antioxidant capacity of plasma was 71% for the experimental group and 54% for the control group. Data from liver spontaneous peroxidation studies were not significantly different between groups. The amounts of phenolic acids, a-tocopherol and ß-carotene were determined in Spirulina extracts. The results obtained indicate that Spirulina provides some antioxidant protection for both in vitro and in vivo systems.

  4. Long T2 suppression in native lung 3-D imaging using k-space reordered inversion recovery dual-echo ultrashort echo time MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Neville D; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Bluemke, David A

    2017-08-01

    Long T2 species can interfere with visualization of short T2 tissue imaging. For example, visualization of lung parenchyma can be hindered by breathing artifacts primarily from fat in the chest wall. The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate a scheme for long T2 species suppression in lung parenchyma imaging using 3-D inversion recovery double-echo ultrashort echo time imaging with a k-space reordering scheme for artifact suppression. A hyperbolic secant (HS) pulse was evaluated for different tissues (T1/T2). Bloch simulations were performed with the inversion pulse followed by segmented UTE acquisition. Point spread function (PSF) was simulated for a standard interleaved acquisition order and a modulo 2 forward-reverse acquisition order. Phantom and in vivo images (eight volunteers) were acquired with both acquisition orders. Contrast to noise ratio (CNR) was evaluated in in vivo images prior to and after introduction of the long T2 suppression scheme. The PSF as well as phantom and in vivo images demonstrated reduction in artifacts arising from k-space modulation after using the reordering scheme. CNR measured between lung and fat and lung and muscle increased from -114 and -148.5 to +12.5 and 2.8 after use of the IR-DUTE sequence. Paired t test between the CNRs obtained from UTE and IR-DUTE showed significant positive change (p lung-fat CNR and p = 0.03 for lung-muscle CNR). Full 3-D lung parenchyma imaging with improved positive contrast between lung and other long T2 tissue types can be achieved robustly in a clinically feasible time using IR-DUTE with image subtraction when segmented radial acquisition with k-space reordering is employed.

  5. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  6. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Sharma; Ashish K. Sharma; Tara Chand; Manoj Khardiya; Kailash Chand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae) is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, aci...

  7. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Electron diffraction patterns with thermal diffuse scattering maxima around Kikuchi lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakhanyan, R. K.; Karakhanyan, K. R.

    2011-01-01

    Transmission electron diffraction patterns of silicon with thermal diffuse maxima around Kikuchi lines, which are analogs of the maxima of thermal diffuse electron scattering around point reflections, have been recorded. Diffuse maxima are observed only around Kikuchi lines with indices that are forbidden for the silicon structure. The diffraction conditions for forming these maxima are discussed.

  9. Maxima: tarbimine elavneb alles kahe aasta pärast / Andres Reimer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reimer, Andres

    2009-01-01

    Maxima grupi laienemine on peatatud, sh. ka Eestis. Maxima kaupluste arv vähenes Leedus kümne võrra, Eestis lisandus üks Maxima kauplus, Lätis jäi nende arv samaks. Prisma Peremarketi juhi Janne Tapio Lihavaineni hinnangul on Maxima poed liiga väikesed, et majanduskriisi ajal konkureerida

  10. MRI before and after external beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy of patients with prostate cancer: The feasibility of monitoring of radiation-induced tissue changes using a dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franiel, Tobias; Luedemann, Lutz; Taupitz, Matthias; Boehmer, Dirk; Beyersdorff, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and quantify suitable pharmacokinetic MRI parameters for monitoring tissue changes after external beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Material and methods: Six patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer (initial PSA, 6.0-81.4 ng/ml) underwent MRI at 1.5 T using a combined endorectal/body phased-array coil and a dynamic contrast-enhanced inversion-prepared dual-contrast gradient echo sequence (T1/T2*w; 1.65 s temporal resolution). MRI was performed before and immediately after radiotherapy, at 3 months and at 1 year. Perfusion, blood volume, mean transit time, delay, dispersion, interstitial volume, and extraction coefficient were calculated in prostate cancer and normal prostate for all four time points using a sequential 3-compartment model. Results: Prostate cancer and normal prostate tissue showed a statistically significant decrease in perfusion (p = 0.006, p = 0.001) and increase in extraction coefficient (p = 0.004, p 3 min, p = 0.028) and a smaller extraction coefficient (0.42 vs. 0.64, p = 0.028). Conclusions: Two pharmacokinetic parameters, perfusion and extraction coefficient, appear to be suitable candidates for monitoring the response to percutaneous intensity-modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  11. Dual roles of a flouride-doped SnO2/TiO2 bilayer based on inverse opal/nanoparticle structure for water oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gun; Balamurugan, Maheswari; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kang, Soon Hyung; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2018-01-01

    Fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated on a template of polystyrene (PS) beads (diameter = 400 nm (±20 nm)) by using a spin-coating method. The concentration of the FTO precursor, in particular, the 1.0 M FTO concentration solution significantly influenced the morphology of the IO film. The FTO nanoparticles upon the FTO IO film were sparsely formed relative to these formed from the 0.5 M FTO solution. To compensate for the large band gap ( E g = 3.8 eV) of FTO in the photoelectrochemical (PEC) reaction, we deposited a photoactive TiO2 shell on the FTO IO film by using the sol-gel method. The morphological change and the crystalline properties of the FTO IO and TiO2-coated FTO IO (hereafter referred to as FTO IO/TiO2) films, were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The PEC behaviors of the samples were tested in a 0.1 M KOH solution under one sun illumination (100 mW/cm2 with an AM 1.5 filter). The highest PEC performance was obtained with the 1.0 M FTO IO/TiO2 film, which produced a photocurrent density (Jsc) of 3.28 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V (vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), as briefly expressed to 1.23 VNHE) compared to 2.42 mA/cm2 at 1.23 VNHE with the 0.5 M FTO IO/TiO2 film. The approximately 30% enhanced performance of the 1.0 M FTO IO/TiO2 film was mainly attributed to the peculiar structure comprised of the FTO nanoparticle layer and IO films to form a bilayer structure, providing a much larger surface area, as well as complete coverage of the photoactive TiO2 nanoparticles through the FTO IO skeleton in the proper band alignment to boost the charge separation/transfer phenomenon, finally resulting in the enhanced PEC activity.

  12. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  13. Marketingová strategie Maxima pojišťovny

    OpenAIRE

    Šafrová, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on the analysis of marketing strategy of an insurance company Maxima pojišťovna, a.s. and its aim is to asses current strategy and to propose recommendations for its improvement. In the theoretical part of the thesis I describe how is a marketing strategy made and I also cover the content of distribution strategy, price strategy, product strategy and communication strategy. In the practical part I focus on the Maxima's marketing strategy and I describe its produ...

  14. The clustering of local maxima in random noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, P.

    1989-01-01

    A mixture of analytic and numerical techniques is used to study the clustering properties of local maxima of random noise. Technical complexities restrict us to the case of 1D noise, but the results obtained should give a reasonably accurate picture of the behaviour of cosmological density peaks in noise defined on a 3D domain. We give estimates of the two-point correlation function of local maxima, for both Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise and show that previous approximations are not accurate. (author)

  15. In-Place Algorithms for Computing (Layers of) Maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal O(n log2 n) time and require O(1) space in addition to the representation of the input.......We describe space-efficient algorithms for solving problems related to finding maxima among points in two and three dimensions. Our algorithms run in optimal O(n log2 n) time and require O(1) space in addition to the representation of the input....

  16. The statistics of maxima in primordial density perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Heavens, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the hypothesis that protogalaxies/protoclusters form at the sites of maxima in a primordial field of normally distributed density perturbations. Using a mixture of analytic and numerical techniques, the properties of the maxima, have been studied. The results provide a natural mechanism for biased galaxy formation in which galaxies do not necessarily follow the large-scale density. Methods for obtained the true autocorrelation function of the density field and implications for Microwave Background studies are discussed. (author)

  17. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) adult female wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on immunity. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (A,B,C and D) with five rats in each group. Group A, served as control while group B, C and D served as the experimental groups.

  18. Extremal Regions Detection Guided by Maxima of Gradient Magnitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faraji, Mehdi; Shambezadeh, Jamshid; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    boundaries we introduce Maxima of Gradient Magnitudes (MGMs) which are shown to be points that are mostly around the boundaries of the regions. Having found the MGMs, the method obtains a Global Criterion (GC) for each level of the input image which is used to find Extremum Levels (ELs). The found ELs...

  19. Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)

  20. Depth preference in released juvenile turbot Psetta maxima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard; Støttrup, Josianne; Nielsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Hatchery-reared juvenile turbot Psetta maxima were tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags and released at three different depths in a sandy bay in Denmark. About 2–7% of the released fish were registered daily to monitor their distribution using a tag antenna mounted on a modified...

  1. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  2. The acoustic realization of metrical structure by FO maxima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terken, J.M.B.; Collier, R.P.G.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine whether the scaling of F0 maxima is sensitive to syntactic properties of sentences. Seventy sentences were read aloud by a professional speaker. They all had the same basic structure: NP–VP. Variations of the basic scheme were obtained by adding lexical

  3. Baryon acoustic signature in the clustering of density maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjacques, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    We reexamine the two-point correlation of density maxima in Gaussian initial conditions. Spatial derivatives of the linear density correlation, which were ignored in the calculation of Bardeen et al.[Astrophys. J. 304, 15 (1986)], are included in our analysis. These functions exhibit large oscillations around the sound horizon scale for generic cold dark matter (CDM) power spectra. We derive the exact leading-order expression for the correlation of density peaks and demonstrate the contribution of those spatial derivatives. In particular, we show that these functions can modify significantly the baryon acoustic signature of density maxima relative to that of the linear density field. The effect depends upon the exact value of the peak height, the filter shape and size, and the small-scale behavior of the transfer function. In the ΛCDM cosmology, for maxima identified in the density field smoothed at mass scale M≅10 12 -10 14 M · /h and with linear threshold height ν=1.673/σ(M), the contrast of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) can be a few tens of percent larger than in the linear matter correlation. Overall, the BAO is amplified for ν > or approx. 1 and damped for ν < or approx. l 1. Density maxima thus behave quite differently than linearly biased tracers of the density field, whose acoustic signature is a simple scaled version of the linear baryon acoustic oscillation. We also calculate the mean streaming of peak pairs in the quasilinear regime. We show that the leading-order 2-point correlation and pairwise velocity of density peaks are consistent with a nonlinear, local biasing relation involving gradients of the density field. Biasing will be an important issue in ascertaining how much of the enhancement of the BAO in the primeval correlation of density maxima propagates into the late-time clustering of galaxies.

  4. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland; Neelakanda, Pradeep; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2014-01-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene

  5. Maxima poekett mitmendat aastat järjest keeleinspektsiooni murelaps / Dannar Leitmaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leitmaa, Dannar, 1982-

    2008-01-01

    Kauplusekettidest on kõige rohkem saanud keeleinspektsioonilt ettekirjutusi Maxima. Inspektsiooni nõuniku Hele Pärna, Maxima pressiesindaja Erkki Erilaiu selgitusi. Lisa: Probleem haridussüsteemis?

  6. New ultrasonic attenuation maxima for single crystal dysprosium in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treder, R.A.; Maekawa, S.; Levy, M.

    1976-01-01

    The temperatures and corresponding applied basal plane magnetic fields are reported for longitudinal ultrasonic attenuation maxima in a cylindrical Dy sample. Besides maxima at Tsub(N) and Tsub(C), two new maxima are observed and possible explanations for their existence are given. (Auth.)

  7. Post-fire vegetative recruitment of the alien grass Glyceria maxima at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An accidental fire at a site where the reproductive behaviour of Glyceria maxima was being investigated provided an opportunity to measure its effect on G. maxima vegetative recruitment. The fire burned G. maxima growing along the water's edge and down to a water depth of 10 cm. Post-fire tiller densities in these zones ...

  8. Appearance of maxima of combined type in Moessbauer diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolpakov, A.V.; Ovchinnikova, E.N.; Kuz'min, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    An appearance of Bragg maxima in the Moessbauer diffraction pattern due to a combined hyperfine interaction on nuclei in a crystal is discussed. By a combined interaction one means presence on the nuclei of a magnetic field and tensor of electric field gradient. The structure RFe 2 R=Pu, Np, V, Zr, Tm) is considered. It has been shown that when a scattering system is in fields of several actions with various symmetries, the diffraction pattern is not an additive superposition of diffraction patterns of magnetic and electric quadrupole scatterings. In this case the diffraction patterns of magnetic and electric quadrupole scatterings. In this case the diffraction spectra have maxima forbidden by the extinction laws in diffraction in the presence of only a magnetic field or only electric quadrupole interaction

  9. Bound Maxima as a Traffic Feature under DDOS Flood Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a novel traffic feature for identifying abnormal variation of traffic under DDOS flood attacks. It is the histogram of the maxima of the bounded traffic rate on an interval-by-interval basis. We use it to experiment on the traffic data provided by MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA in 1999. The experimental results profitably enhance the evidences that traffic rate under DDOS attacks is statistically higher than that of normal traffic considerably. They show that the pattern of the histogram of the maxima of bounded rate of attack-contained traffic greatly differs from that of attack-free traffic. Besides, the present traffic feature is simple in mathematics and easy to use in practice.

  10. Incorporation of a recombinant Eimeria maxima IMP1 antigen into nanoparticles confers protective immunity against E. Maxima challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Stevens, Laura; O'Brien, Celia; Parker, Carolyn; Miska, Katrzyna; Konjufca, Vjollca

    2018-02-14

    The purpose of this study was to determine if conjugating a recombinant Eimeria maxima protein, namely EmaxIMP1, into 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles (NP) could improve the level of protective immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Recombinant EmaxIMP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a poly-His fusion protein, purified by NiNTA chromatography, and conjugated to 20 nm polystyrene NP (NP-EmaxIMP1). NP-EMaxIMP1 or control non-recombinant (NP-NR) protein were delivered per os to newly-hatched broiler chicks with subsequent booster immunizations at 3 and 21 days of age. In battery cage studies (n = 4), chickens immunized with NP-EMaxIMP1 displayed complete protection as measured by weight gain (WG) against E. maxima challenge compared to chickens immunized with NP-NR. WG in the NP-EMaxIMP1-immunized groups was identical to WG in chickens that were not infected with E. maxima infected chickens. In floor pen studies (n = 2), chickens immunized with NP-EMaxIMP1 displayed partial protection as measured by WG against E. maxima challenge compared to chickens immunized with NP-NR. In order to understand the basis for immune stimulation, newly-hatched chicks were inoculated per os with NP-EMaxIMP1 or NP-NR protein, and the small intestine, bursa, and spleen, were examined for NP localization at 1 h and 6 h post-inoculation. Within 1 h, both NP-EMaxIMP1 and NP-NR were observed in all 3 tissues. An increase was observed in the level of NP-EmaxIMP1 and NP-NR in all tissues at 6 h post-inoculation. These data indicate that 20 nm NP-EmaxIMP1 or NP-NR reached deeper tissues within hours of oral inoculation and elicited complete to partial immunity against E. maxima challenge infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Mechanism for the generation of cavitation maxima by pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, H.G.; Church, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A train of 1-MHz pulses can generate maxima of cavitation activity at pulse lengths of 6 and 60 ms and at pressure amplitudes, P/sub A/, between 5.4 and 9.4 bars (or intensities between 10 and 30 W/cm 2 ). Generation of maxima at P/sub A/ between these limits on pressure amplitude implies that the increase in cavitation activity originates from gas nuclei with radii lying in a critical size range centered at about 0.08 μm. The mechanism proposed for this phenomenon suggests that nuclei in this critical range are unstabilized nuclei generated in one pulse and surviving to the next with an appreciable fraction of the survivors lying in the critical range. Transient cavities that grow from such small nuclei are shown to behave as isolated mechanical systems that on reaching maximum size collapse as imploding spheres. The maximum pressures reached in such imploding cavities would then approximate those calculated for the spherical collapse of cavities. The occurrence of the observed maxima is ascribed to the spherical collapse of transient cavities. 17 references, 5 figures

  12. Inverse Kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Sereno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverse kinematics is the process of converting a Cartesian point in space into a set of joint angles to more efficiently move the end effector of a robot to a desired orientation. This project investigates the inverse kinematics of a robotic hand with fingers under various scenarios. Assuming the parameters of a provided robot, a general equation for the end effector point was calculated and used to plot the region of space that it can reach. Further, the benefits obtained from the addition of a prismatic joint versus an extra variable angle joint were considered. The results confirmed that having more movable parts, such as prismatic points and changing angles, increases the effective reach of a robotic hand.

  13. Multidimensional inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desesquelles, P.

    1997-01-01

    Computer Monte Carlo simulations occupy an increasingly important place between theory and experiment. This paper introduces a global protocol for the comparison of model simulations with experimental results. The correlated distributions of the model parameters are determined using an original recursive inversion procedure. Multivariate analysis techniques are used in order to optimally synthesize the experimental information with a minimum number of variables. This protocol is relevant in all fields if physics dealing with event generators and multi-parametric experiments. (authors)

  14. Differences in fecundity of Eimeria maxima strains exhibiting different levels of pathogenicity in its avian host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Dubey, J P; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2017-03-15

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most pathogenic species of avian coccidia, yet it is unknown why different E. maxima strains differ in the pathogenic effects they cause in chickens. The purpose of this study was to determine if a more pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU1) was also more fecund than a less pathogenic E. maxima strain (APU2). At identical doses, E. maxima APU1 always produces greater intestinal lesions and lower weight gain compared to E. maxima APU2. Using a dose response study, median and mean intestinal lesion scores in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens were greater by a score of 1-1.5 compared to chickens infected with E. maxima APU2. Likewise, weight gain depression in E. maxima APU1-infected chickens was 20-25% greater (equivalent to 110-130g body weight) than in E. maxima APU2-infected chickens. In order to understand the underlying cause of these observed clinical effects, 120 broiler chicks (5 oocyst levels, 6 replicates/level) were inoculated with various doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts. The dynamics of oocyst shedding was investigated by collecting fecal material every 12h from 114 to 210h post-inoculation (p.i.) and every 24h thereafter from 210 to 306h, and then processed for measuring E. maxima oocyst output. Oocysts were first observed at 138h p.i., and time of peak oocyst production was nearly identical for both E. maxima APU1 and APU2 around 150-162h. Total oocyst production was 1.1-2.6 fold higher at all dose levels for E. maxima APU1 compared to E. maxima APU2, being significantly higher (P<0.05) at the log 1.5 dose level. Other groups of chickens were infected with higher doses of E. maxima APU1 or APU2 oocysts, and intestinal lesions were assessed by histology at 72, 96, 120, and 144h p.i. Although schizonts, gamonts, and oocysts were observed at expected time-points, no obvious differences were noted in lesions induced by the two E. maxima strains. This study showed that the greater fecundity of E. maxima APU1 compared to E

  15. Phase-inversion tape-casting preparation and significant performance enhancement of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ dual-phase asymmetric membrane for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hua; Cheng, Shiyang; Gao, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The dual-phase Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95–La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ asymmetric membrane was prepared via a phase-inversion tape-casting method. The membrane consisted of a thicker porous support layer and a thinner dense layer. When the dense side of the membrane was coated with a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ catalytic...

  16. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-12-28

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients.

  17. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-04-16

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  18. Three New Triterpene Esters from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kikuchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2, and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4. Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5–93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  19. Acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols from Myristica maxima Warb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhamad Aqmal; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-06-01

    Giganteone E (1), a new dimeric acylphenol was isolated as a minor constituent from the bark of Myristica maxima Warb. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Malabaricones A-C (2-4), giganteones A and C (5 and 6), maingayones A and B (7 and 8), maingayic acid B (9) and β-sitosteryl oleate (10) were also characterized in this plant for the first time. Compound 10 was identified for the first time in the Myristicaceae. Compounds 2 and 5 were active against human prostate cancer cell-lines, thus making this the first report on the prostate cancer inhibiting potential of acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8 exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on their free radical scavenging capacity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Cosmological streaming velocities and large-scale density maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.; Lumsden, S.L.; Heavens, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    The statistical testing of models for galaxy formation against the observed peculiar velocities on 10-100 Mpc scales is considered. If it is assumed that observers are likely to be sited near maxima in the primordial field of density perturbations, then the observed filtered velocity field will be biased to low values by comparison with a point selected at random. This helps to explain how the peculiar velocities (relative to the microwave background) of the local supercluster and the Rubin-Ford shell can be so similar in magnitude. Using this assumption to predict peculiar velocities on two scales, we test models with large-scale damping (i.e. adiabatic perturbations). Allowed models have a damping length close to the Rubin-Ford scale and are mildly non-linear. Both purely baryonic universes and universes dominated by massive neutrinos can account for the observed velocities, provided 0.1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1. (author)

  1. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  2. Critical Analysis of Non-Nuclear Electron-Density Maxima and the Maximum Entropy Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.Y.; Briels, Willem J.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental evidence for the existence of non-nuclear maxima in charge densities is questioned. It is shown that the non-nuclear maxima reported for silicon are artifacts of the maximum entropy method that was used to analyze the x-ray diffraction data. This method can be improved by the use of

  3. Dual Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Spady, Richard; Stouli, Sami

    2012-01-01

    We propose dual regression as an alternative to the quantile regression process for the global estimation of conditional distribution functions under minimal assumptions. Dual regression provides all the interpretational power of the quantile regression process while avoiding the need for repairing the intersecting conditional quantile surfaces that quantile regression often produces in practice. Our approach introduces a mathematical programming characterization of conditional distribution f...

  4. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  6. Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMA example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stompor, Radek; Balbi, Amedeo; Borrill, Julian D.; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Hanany, Shaul; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Lee, Adrian T.; Oh, Sang; Rabii, Bahman; Richards, Paul L.; Smoot, George F.; Winant, Celeste D.; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2002-01-01

    This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXIMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments.

  7. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  8. Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong

    2018-03-01

    Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.

  9. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  10. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Nishimura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB. Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS. Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  11. ODF Maxima Extraction in Spherical Harmonic Representation via Analytical Search Space Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganj, Iman; Lenglet, Christophe; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    By revealing complex fiber structure through the orientation distribution function (ODF), q-ball imaging has recently become a popular reconstruction technique in diffusion-weighted MRI. In this paper, we propose an analytical dimension reduction approach to ODF maxima extraction. We show that by expressing the ODF, or any antipodally symmetric spherical function, in the common fourth order real and symmetric spherical harmonic basis, the maxima of the two-dimensional ODF lie on an analytically derived one-dimensional space, from which we can detect the ODF maxima. This method reduces the computational complexity of the maxima detection, without compromising the accuracy. We demonstrate the performance of our technique on both artificial and human brain data. PMID:20879302

  12. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

  13. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  14. The essential oil from the flowers of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Pha, Nguyen M.; Lo, Vu N.; An, N.T.K.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five compounds have been identified in the flower oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. The major components were limonene (18.2%), linalool (16.4%), nerolidol (29.3%) and farnesol (15.7%).

  15. Variance analysis of forecasted streamflow maxima in a wet temperate climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Aamery, Nabil; Fox, James F.; Snyder, Mark; Chandramouli, Chandra V.

    2018-05-01

    Coupling global climate models, hydrologic models and extreme value analysis provides a method to forecast streamflow maxima, however the elusive variance structure of the results hinders confidence in application. Directly correcting the bias of forecasts using the relative change between forecast and control simulations has been shown to marginalize hydrologic uncertainty, reduce model bias, and remove systematic variance when predicting mean monthly and mean annual streamflow, prompting our investigation for maxima streamflow. We assess the variance structure of streamflow maxima using realizations of emission scenario, global climate model type and project phase, downscaling methods, bias correction, extreme value methods, and hydrologic model inputs and parameterization. Results show that the relative change of streamflow maxima was not dependent on systematic variance from the annual maxima versus peak over threshold method applied, albeit we stress that researchers strictly adhere to rules from extreme value theory when applying the peak over threshold method. Regardless of which method is applied, extreme value model fitting does add variance to the projection, and the variance is an increasing function of the return period. Unlike the relative change of mean streamflow, results show that the variance of the maxima's relative change was dependent on all climate model factors tested as well as hydrologic model inputs and calibration. Ensemble projections forecast an increase of streamflow maxima for 2050 with pronounced forecast standard error, including an increase of +30(±21), +38(±34) and +51(±85)% for 2, 20 and 100 year streamflow events for the wet temperate region studied. The variance of maxima projections was dominated by climate model factors and extreme value analyses.

  16. The Explicit Determinations Of Dual Plane Curves And Dual Helices In Terms Of Its Dual Curvature And Dual Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae Won; Choi Jin Ho; Jin Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give the explicit determinations of dual plane curves, general dual helices and dual slant helices in terms of its dual curvature and dual torsion as a fundamental theory of dual curves in a dual 3-space

  17. Estimation of humoral immune response in rabbits fed with Cucurbita maxima seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ranganathan

    Full Text Available Aim : The objective of the study was to estimate the humoral immune response in rabbits treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Materials and Methods: Thirty six male Newzealand White rabbits were divided into six groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI of six in each. Group I was the untreated control. Group II was treated with dexamethasone sodium (2 mg/Kg, i.m for 7 days. Group III was treated with levamisole hydrochloride at 2.5 mg/kg (s.c thrice a week. Group IV was treated with Cucurbita maxima seeds. Group V was treated with levamisole and dexamethasone and Group VI was treated with dexamethasone and Cucurbita maxima seeds. The seed was given @ 1000 mg/kg orally for 10 days. Antibody titre and serum immunoglobulin concentration were estimated along with haematology. Results: Dexamethasone caused significant decreases in the antibody titre, immunoglobulin concentration where as Curcurbita maxima, Dexamethasone + Curcurbita maxima and dexamethasone + levamisole groups showed significant increase in these entities. There were no significant differences in RBC count, Haemoglobin contents among all the groups studied. Conclusion: Results suggest that Cucurbita maxima seeds has the ability to stimulate humoral immune response in rabbits. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 396-399

  18. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Zacharia, J Anish; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P S; Prasad, G B K S

    2012-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n = 5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Significant (Pmaxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms.

  19. Differing susceptibilities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond

    2013-10-01

    Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella oocysts were incorporated into gelatin beads and incubated at 32 C for 0, 1, 2, or 3 days. In vitro oocyst excystation rates were measured for each combination of Eimeria species and incubation time. Day-old broiler chicks were allowed to ingest the oocysts-containing beads, and total oocyst production was measured from days 5-8 post-inoculation. Although no effect on excystation was observed, E. maxima oocysts displayed greater resistance to drying compared to E. acervulina and E. tenella oocysts. Eimeria acervulina oocyst production decreased 100-fold after 1-2 days incubation. Eimeria tenella oocysts were slightly more resistant to drying in that a 100-fold decrease in oocyst production was delayed until 2 days. For both E. acervulina and E. tenella , very few oocysts were observed after 3 days incubation. Eimeria maxima oocyst production remained high at all time points. Subsequent studies revealed E. maxima oocyst production was ablated only after 5 days incubation. These findings may explain in part the observed prevalence of E. maxima in litter from commercial poultry operations.

  20. Deep silicon maxima in the stratified oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Crombet

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silicon biogeochemical cycle has been studied in the Mediterranean Sea during late summer/early autumn 1999 and summer 2008. The distribution of nutrients, particulate carbon and silicon, fucoxanthin (Fuco, and total chlorophyll-a (TChl-a were investigated along an eastward gradient of oligotrophy during two cruises (PROSOPE and BOUM encompassing the entire Mediterranean Sea during the stratified period. At both seasons, surface waters were depleted in nutrients and the nutriclines gradually deepened towards the East, the phosphacline being the deepest in the easternmost Levantine basin. Following the nutriclines, parallel deep maxima of biogenic silica (DSM, fucoxanthin (DFM and TChl-a (DCM were evidenced during both seasons with maximal concentrations of 0.45 μmol L−1 for BSi, 0.26 μg L−1 for Fuco, and 1.70 μg L−1 for TChl-a, all measured during summer. Contrary to the DCM which was a persistent feature in the Mediterranean Sea, the DSM and DFMs were observed in discrete areas of the Alboran Sea, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ionian sea and the Levantine basin, indicating that diatoms were able to grow at depth and dominate the DCM under specific conditions. Diatom assemblages were dominated by Chaetoceros spp., Leptocylindrus spp., Pseudonitzschia spp. and the association between large centric diatoms (Hemiaulus hauckii and Rhizosolenia styliformis and the cyanobacterium Richelia intracellularis was observed at nearly all sites. The diatom's ability to grow at depth is commonly observed in other oligotrophic regions and could play a major role in ecosystem productivity and carbon export to depth. Contrary to the common view that Si and siliceous phytoplankton are not major components of the Mediterranean biogeochemistry, we suggest here that diatoms, by persisting at depth during the stratified period, could contribute to a

  1. Identification of immune protective genes of Eimeria maxima through cDNA expression library screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, XinChao; Li, MengHui; Liu, JianHua; Ji, YiHong; Li, XiangRui; Xu, LiXin; Yan, RuoFeng; Song, XiaoKai

    2017-02-16

    Eimeria maxima is one of the most prevalent Eimeria species causing avian coccidiosis, and results in huge economic loss to the global poultry industry. Current control strategies, such as anti-coccidial medication and live vaccines have been limited because of their drawbacks. The third generation anticoccidial vaccines including the recombinant vaccines as well as DNA vaccines have been suggested as a promising alternative strategy. To date, only a few protective antigens of E. maxima have been reported. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel protective antigens of E. maxima for the development of neotype anticoccidial vaccines. With the aim of identifying novel protective genes of E. maxima, a cDNA expression library of E. maxima sporozoites was constructed using Gateway technology. Subsequently, the cDNA expression library was divided into 15 sub-libraries for cDNA expression library immunization (cDELI) using parasite challenged model in chickens. Protective sub-libraries were selected for the next round of screening until individual protective clones were obtained, which were further sequenced and analyzed. Adopting the Gateway technology, a high-quality entry library was constructed, containing 9.2 × 10 6 clones with an average inserted fragments length of 1.63 kb. The expression library capacity was 2.32 × 10 7 colony-forming units (cfu) with an average inserted fragments length of 1.64 Kb. The expression library was screened using parasite challenged model in chickens. The screening yielded 6 immune protective genes including four novel protective genes of EmJS-1, EmRP, EmHP-1 and EmHP-2, and two known protective genes of EmSAG and EmCKRS. EmJS-1 is the selR domain-containing protein of E. maxima whose function is unknown. EmHP-1 and EmHP-2 are the hypothetical proteins of E. maxima. EmRP and EmSAG are rhomboid-like protein and surface antigen glycoproteins of E. maxima respectively, and involved in invasion of the parasite. Our

  2. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  3. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoman She

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum. The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies

  4. Accumulation of alkaline earth metals by the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakamura, Saki; Nakayama, Katsumi; Fujisaki, Shingo; Watanabe, Soichiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-five days after the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, we collected samples of the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima from the Pacific coast of Japan. Bryopsis maxima is a unicellular, multinuclear, siphonous green macroalga. Radiation analysis revealed that B. maxima emitted remarkably high gamma radiation of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (140)Ba as fission products of (235)U. Interestingly, B. maxima contained naturally occurring radionuclides derived from (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Analysis of element content revealed that B. maxima accumulates many ocean elements, especially high quantities of the alkaline earth metals Sr (15.9 g per dry-kg) and Ba (3.79 g per dry-kg), whereas Ca content (12.5 g per dry-kg) was lower than that of Sr and only 61 % of the mean content of 70 Japanese seaweed species. Time-course analysis determined the rate of radioactive (85)Sr incorporation into thalli to be approximately 0.13 g Sr per dry-kg of thallus per day. Subcellular fractionation of B. maxima cells showed that most of the (85)Sr was localized in the soluble fraction, predominantly in the vacuole or cytosol. Given that (85)Sr radioactivity was permeable through a dialysis membrane, the (85)Sr was considered to be a form of inorganic ion and/or bound with a small molecule. Precipitation analysis with sodium sulfate showed that more than 70% of the Sr did not precipitate as SrSO4, indicating that a proportion of the Sr may bind with small molecules in B. maxima.

  5. Identification and Genetic Characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex Isolates from Cucurbita maxima in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Xiaoman; Yu, Lin; Lan, Guobing; Tang, Yafei; He, Zifu

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum species complex is a devastating phytopathogen with an unusually wide host range, and new host plants are continuously being discovered. In June 2016, a new bacterial wilt on Cucurbita maxima was observed in Guangdong province, China. Initially, in the adult plant stage, several leaves of each plant withered suddenly and drooped; the plant then wilted completely, and the color of their vasculature changed to dark brown, ultimately causing the entire plant to die. Creamy-whitish bacterial masses were observed to ooze from crosscut stems of these diseased plants. To develop control strategies for C. maxima bacterial wilt, the causative pathogenic isolates were identified and characterized. Twenty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from diseased C. maxima plants, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pathogenicity analysis results indicated that the pathogen of C. maxima bacterial wilt was Ralstonia solanacearum . The results from DNA-based analysis, host range determination and bacteriological identification confirmed that the 24 isolates belonged to R. solanacearum phylotype I, race 1, and eight of these isolates belonged to biovar 3, while 16 belonged to biovar 4. Based on the results of partial egl gene sequence analysis, the 24 isolates clustered into three egl- sequence type groups, sequevars 17, 45, and 56. Sequevar 56 is a new sequevar which is described for the first time in this paper. An assessment of the resistance of 21 pumpkin cultivars revealed that C. moschata cv. Xiangyu1 is resistant to strain RS378, C. moschata cv. Xiangmi is moderately resistant to strain RS378, and 19 other pumpkin cultivars, including four C. maxima cultivars and 15 C. moschata cultivars, are susceptible to strain RS378. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of C. maxima bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum race 1 in the world. Our results provide valuable information for the further development of control strategies for C. maxima wilt

  6. Compositions of the volatile oils of Citrus macroptera and C. maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Virendra S; Blazquez, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the fresh peels of Citrus macroptera Montr. and C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of oil ranged from 0.53% in C. macroptera to 0.13% in C. maxima cultivar (white). Forty-seven compounds were identified in the oils with limonene (55.3-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (2.2-8.0%), geranial (0.4-3.5%), trans-linalool oxide (1.0-2.8%), alpha-terpineol (0.7-2.3%), linalool (0.7-1.5%) and cis-linalool oxide (0.5-1.4%) identified as major compounds. The oil ofC. macroptera contained limonene (55.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.7%) and geranial (3.5%) as main compounds. Similarly, oils from two C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were rich in limonene (72.0-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (8.0-7.2%) and nootkatone (1.6-2.5%). C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were found to contain higher amount of limonene (72.0 and 80.0%) as compared with C. macroptera (55.3%). The chemical compositions of the oils were found to be similar, but nootkatone (1.6-2.5%) was identified only in C. maxima cultivars.

  7. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p   Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  8. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis of the Eimeria maxima response in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzić, Edin; Buitenhuis, Bart; Hérault, Frédéric; Hawken, Rachel; Abrahamsen, Mitchel S; Servin, Bertrand; Elsen, Jean-Michel; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'Hom, Bertrand

    2015-11-25

    Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and is caused by protozoans of the Eimeria genus. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high costs for the development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the current control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics to improve the host response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500 broilers using E. maxima for which we investigated variability among animals in response to the challenge. As a follow-up to this challenge study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions underlying variability of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis to increase our biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge. In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with q value Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, the post-GWAS functional analysis indicates that biological pathways and networks involved in tissue proliferation and repair along with the primary innate immune response may play the most important role during the early stage of Eimeria maxima infection in broilers.

  9. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  10. Trend prognosis of regional ozone maxima in 1994 using various meteorologic data: appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loibl, W.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a statistical method for the short-term forecast of ozone concentrations. Austrian ozone monitoring data from April to September 1994 are used to develop the forecast model. It builds upon a multiple linear regression model developed earlier which uses the temperature of the forecast day, and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. In this study temperature difference between previous and forecast day, and wind velocity of the forecast day were additionally taken into account. Furthermore wind direction dependent regression models were developed using subsamples of the data set devided into 8 wind direction classes. Different regression function parameters have to be applied for each of the 40 selected ozone monitoring sites to allow forecasting of regional ozone maxima throughout Austria. It was found that regression models with temperature difference and wind velocity as additional variables did not improve the results. Wind direction dependent regression models only slightly improved the results for some wind directions at several monitoring sites. Best forecast results in general were achieved by using the base regression model with the temperature of the forecast day and the ozone maxima of the previous day as variables. Ozone forecast maps were calculated by spatial interpolation of the forecasted ozone maxima of the monitoring sites. Forecast accuracy is within ± 10 ppb on 70-80 % of the observed days. Errors higher than ± 10 ppb occur mainly on days with ozone maxima of 80 ppb and more. (author)

  11. 3D Multisource Full‐Waveform Inversion using Dynamic Random Phase Encoding

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a multisource full‐waveform inversion algorithm using a dynamic phase encoding strategy with dual‐randomization—both the position and polarity of simultaneous sources are randomized and changed every iteration. The dynamic dual

  12. Dual Entwining Structures and Dual Entwined Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhlail, Jawad Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we introduce and investigate the concepts of dual entwining structures and dual entwined modules. This generalizes the concepts of dual Doi-Koppinen structures and dual Doi-Koppinen modules introduced (in the infinite case over rings) by the author is his dissertation.

  13. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  14. Acute puerperal uterine inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Liaquat, N.; Noorani, K.; Bhutta, S.Z; Jabeen, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)

  15. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

  16. The nuclear fluctuation width and the method of maxima in excitation curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burjan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The method of counting maxima of excitation curves in the region of the occurrence of nuclear cross section fluctuations is extended to the case of the more realistic maxima defined as a sequence of five points instead of the simpler and commonly used case of a sequence of three points of an excitation curve. The dependence of the coefficient b (5) (κ), relating the number of five-point maxima and the mean level width Γ of the compound nucleus, on the relative distance K of excitation curve points is calculated. The influence of the random background on the coefficient b (5) (κ) is discussed and a comparison with the properties of the three-point coefficient b (3) (κ) is made - also in connection with the contribution of the random background. The calculated values of b (5) (κ) are well reproduced by the data obtained from the analysis of artificial excitation curves. (orig.)

  17. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima . The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % ( P  maxima -is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements.

  18. Short Communication: Genetic linkage map of Cucurbita maxima with molecular and morphological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Y; Li, X; Yang, X X; Cui, C S; Qu, S P

    2015-05-22

    Cucurbita maxima is one of the most widely cultivated vegetables in China and exhibits distinct morphological characteristics. In this study, genetic linkage analysis with 57 simple-sequence repeats, 21 amplified fragment length polymorphisms, 3 random-amplified polymorphic DNA, and one morphological marker revealed 20 genetic linkage groups of C. maxima covering a genetic distance of 991.5 cM with an average of 12.1 cM between adjacent markers. Genetic linkage analysis identified the simple-sequence repeat marker 'PU078072' 5.9 cM away from the locus 'Rc', which controls rind color. The genetic map in the present study will be useful for better mapping, tagging, and cloning of quantitative trait loci/gene(s) affecting economically important traits and for breeding new varieties of C. maxima through marker-assisted selection.

  19. Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

    2011-09-01

    This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses.

  20. Plantago maxima leaves extract inhibits adipogenic action of a high-fat diet in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Gritsenko, Viktor A; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the content of biologically active compounds producing an antioxidant effect in Plantago maxima and their influence on main mechanisms of dietary obesity development. Biologically active compounds in P. maxima were tested using paper chromatography. In in vivo experiment, high-fat-fed Wistar rats obtained P. maxima water extract for 3 months. Morphometric parameters, weight gain, serum adipokines, and cytokines, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers in rats’ tissues were evaluated. Gut microflora was also examined. Plantago maxima leaves used in the experiment contained significant amount of flavonoids, iridoids, phenol carboxylic acids, and tannins and ascorbic acid. Our in vivo experiment data demonstrate that P. maxima water extract prevents excessive adiposity in a diet-induced model. P. maxima consumption reduced serum leptin (twofold), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (sevenfold), tumornecrosis factor-α (25%), and interleukine-6 (26%) levels. P. maxima water extract decreased adipose tissue oxidative stress biomarkers in rats fed a high-fat diet. In addition, increased bacterial growth in the diet-induced obesity model was reversed by the P. maxima extract treatment. Plantago maxima water extract possessed antiadipogenic, antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant activity, and normalized gut microflora in a rat model of diet-induced excessive adiposity due to a high content of biologically active compounds.

  1. Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva Kumar, V.; Bhavani Kumar, Y.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, P.B. [National MST Radar Facility, Tirupati (India); Krishnaiah, M. [Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Physics; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Yasui, M.; Itabe, T. [Communication Research Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E), India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms. (orig.)

  2. Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Siva Kumar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  3. Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Siva Kumar

    Full Text Available The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  4. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary ...

  5. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin) Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Sharma; Ashok Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.) at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg) was used as reference drug. Fasting blood g...

  6. Estimate of the cosmological bispectrum from the MAXIMA-1 cosmic microwave background map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M G; Balbi, A; Borrill, J; Ferreira, P G; Hanany, S; Jaffe, A H; Lee, A T; Magueijo, J; Rabii, B; Richards, P L; Smoot, G F; Stompor, R; Winant, C D; Wu, J H P

    2002-06-17

    We use the measurement of the cosmic microwave background taken during the MAXIMA-1 flight to estimate the bispectrum of cosmological perturbations. We propose an estimator for the bispectrum that is appropriate in the flat sky approximation, apply it to the MAXIMA-1 data, and evaluate errors using bootstrap methods. We compare the estimated value with what would be expected if the sky signal were Gaussian and find that it is indeed consistent, with a chi(2) per degree of freedom of approximately unity. This measurement places constraints on models of inflation.

  7. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G

    1996-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  8. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  9. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  10. An Example of Competence-Based Learning: Use of Maxima in Linear Algebra for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana; Garcia, Alfonsa; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in a model of learning based on competences. The proposal is an e-learning model Linear Algebra course for Engineering, which includes the use of a CAS (Maxima) and focuses on problem solving. A reference model has been taken from the Spanish Open University. The proper use of CAS is…

  11. Different AT-rich satellite DNAs in Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganal, M; Hemleben, V

    1986-11-01

    The AT-rich highly repeated satellite DNA of Cucurbita pepo (zucchini) and Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin) were cloned and their DNA structure was investigated. DNA sequencing revealed that the repeat length of satellite DNA in Cucurbita pepo is 349-352 base pairs. The percentage of AT-base pairs is about 61%. This satellite is highly conserved in restriction enzyme pattern and DNA sequence; sequence heterogeneity is about 10%. In contrast, the satellite DNA of Cucurbita maxima has a repeat length of 168-169 base pairs. This satellite is also rich in AT-base pairs (64%), existing in at least three different variants as revealed by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing. The sequence heterogeneity between these variants is about 15%. The two satellite DNAs showed no cross-hybridization to each other and sequence homology is only limited. Nevertheless, we found in the C. pepo genome a high amount of sequences resembling the satellite of C. maxima. In contrast, the satellite repeat of C. pepo is found in the C. maxima DNA only in a few copies. These observations were discussed with respect to satellite DNA evolution and compared to the data received from monocotyledonous species.

  12. The effect of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty (30) adult wistar rats were used to study the possible effects of ethanolic seed extract of Cucurbita maxima on lipid profile. The rats were divided randomly into two groups, that is, normal diet group and high fat diet group. Each group was further subdivided into three sub groups (A1,B1,C1 for the normal diet group and ...

  13. Antioxidative activity of water soluble polysaccharide in pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Maeda, Naomi; Koga, Hidenori

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the antioxidative activity of a water soluble polysaccharide fraction (WSP) from pumpkin fruits (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne). In the WSP, DPPH radical scavenging and superoxide dismutase-like activity increased depending on the total sugar content. Furthermore, the WSP can serve as an inhibitor of ascorbic acid oxidation. The efficacy was also affected by the total sugar content.

  14. Macro- and microelement distribution in organs of Glyceria maxima and biomonitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Agnieszka; Stankiewicz, Andrzej; Wisłocka, Magdalena; Polechońska, Ludmiła

    2014-07-01

    The content of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and of trace metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co and Ni) in water, bottom sediments and various organs of Glyceria maxima from 19 study sites selected in the Jeziorka River was determined. In general, the concentrations of nutrients recorded in the plant material decreased in the following order: leaf>root>rhizome>stem, while the concentrations of the trace elements showed the following accumulation scheme: root>rhizome>leaf>stem. The bioaccumulation and transfer factors for nutrients were significantly higher than for trace metals. G. maxima from agricultural fields was characterised by the highest P and K concentrations in leaves, and plants from forested land contained high Zn and Ni amounts. However, the manna grass from small localities showed high accumulation of Ca, Mg and Mn. Positive significant correlations between Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Co and Ni concentrations in water or sediments and their concentrations in plant indicate that G. maxima may be employed as a biomonitor of trace element contamination. Moreover, a high degree of similarity was noted between self-organizing feature map (SOFM)-grouped sites of comparable quantities of elements in the water and sediments and sites where G. maxima had a corresponding content of the same elements in its leaves. Therefore, SOFM could be recommended in analysing ecological conditions of the environment from the perspective of nutrients and trace element content in different plant species and their surroundings.

  15. Cryptic behaviour of juvenile turbot Psetta maxima L. and European flounder Platichthys flesus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Louise Dahl; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Christensen, Jens Tang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the burying behaviour of hatchery-reared European flounder Platichthys flesus and turbot Psetta maxima, and whether conditioning on a sandy substrate would improve burying efficiency. Both species buried shortly after release on a sandy substrate. However...

  16. A Sperm Spawn-Inducing Pheromone in the Silver Lip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A; Mills, D; Wang, T; Ntalamagka, N; Cummins, S F; Elizur, A

    2018-04-28

    Pheromones are considered to play an important role in broadcast spawning in aquatic animals, facilitating synchronous release of gametes. In oysters, the sperm has been implicated as a carrier for the spawn-inducing pheromone (SIP). In hatchery conditions, male pearl oysters (Pinctata maxima) can be stimulated to spawn through a variety of approaches (e.g. rapid temperature change), while females can only be induced to spawn through exposure to conspecific sperm, thus limiting development of targeted pairing, required for genetic research and management. The capacity for commercial production and improvement of genetic lines of pearl oysters could be greatly improved with access to a SIP. In this study, we prepared and sequenced crude and semi-purified P. maxima sperm extracts that were used in bioassays to localise the female SIP. We report that the P. maxima SIP is proteinaceous and extrinsically associated with the sperm membrane. Bioactivity from pooled RP-HPLC fractions, but not individual fractions, suggests that the SIP is multi-component. We conclude that crude sperm preparations, as described in this study, can be used as a sperm-free inducer of female P. maxima spawning, which enables for a more efficient approach to genetic breeding.

  17. Strong law and central limit theorem for a process between maxima and sums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Hooghiemstra, G.; Keane, M.S.; Resing, J.A.C.

    1991-01-01

    We prove an invariance principle for the random process (X n ) n1 given by where (Y n ) n1 are i.i.d. random variables and ( n ) n are nonrandom numbers tending upward to 1 (both in ). This process interpolates between maxima ( n 0) and sums ( n 1). Depending on the distribution ofY n and on the

  18. Potential antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Amoo, Stephen O; Stirk, Wendy A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-11-15

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors play a potential role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes by delaying glucose absorption in the small intestine. Ecklonia maxima, a brown alga which grows abundantly on the west coast of South Africa, is used to produce alginate, animal feed, nutritional supplements and fertilizer. The crude aqueous methanol extract, four solvent fractions and three phlorotannins: 1,3,5-trihydroxybenezene (phloroglucinol) (1), dibenzo [1,4] dioxine-2,4,7,9-tetraol (2) and hexahydroxyphenoxydibenzo [1,4] dioxine (eckol) (3) isolated from E. maxima were evaluated for antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. All the phlorotannins tested had strong antioxidant activities on DPPH free radicals with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 0.128μM. Compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated stronger antioxidant activity and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitory property than positive controls. These results suggest that E. maxima could be a natural source of potent antioxidants and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This study could facilitate effective utilization of E. maxima as an oral antidiabetic drug or functional food ingredient with a promising role in the formulation of medicines and nutrition supplements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity.

  20. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  1. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  2. Glyceria maxima as new test species for the EU risk assessment for herbicides: a microcosm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Hoenemann, L; Feibicke, M

    2015-03-01

    In its recent guidance document on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed to use Glyceria maxima as monocotyledonous grass species for the testing of special herbicide groups. However, published toxicity data for this species is very limited and there is no test guideline for Glyceria sp. For this reason a microcosm study was conducted in order to gain experience on the degree of sensitivity of G. maxima to the herbicidal substances clodinafop-propargyl (grass herbicide) and fluroxypyr (auxin) in comparison to the already established test organism water milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum and the duckweed species Landoltia punctata. Five concentrations without replicates were tested for each test substance using 10 microcosms and three microcosms served as controls. The experiment was run for 8 weeks. Morphological endpoints were used to determine growth and EC50 values. The results show that M. spicatum was most sensitive to fluroxypyr (37 days EC50 for roots: 62 µg/L) and G. maxima most sensitive to clodinafop-propargyl (22 days EC50 for total shoot length: 48 µg/L) whereas the duckweed species was considerable less sensitive. Hence, G. maxima turns out to be a good candidate for testing grass specific herbicides, supporting its inclusion as an additional macrophyte test for the risk assessment of herbicides as proposed by the EFSA.

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study for Response to Eimeria maxima Challenge in Broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Hérault, Frédéric

    Use of genetic tools for improvement of host’s response is considered as a promising complementary approach for coccidiosis control. Therefore, we performed genome wide association study (GWAS) for response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. The challenge was done on 2024 Cobb500 broilers. We...

  4. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment

  5. Estimating return levels from maxima of non-stationary random sequences using the Generalized PWM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ribereau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work of Landwehr et al. (1979, Hosking et al. (1985 and their collaborators, the Probability Weighted Moments (PWM method has been very popular, simple and efficient to estimate the parameters of the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV distribution when modeling the distribution of maxima (e.g., annual maxima of precipitations in the Identically and Independently Distributed (IID context. When the IID assumption is not satisfied, a flexible alternative, the Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE approach offers an elegant way to handle non-stationarities by letting the GEV parameters to be time dependent. Despite its qualities, the MLE applied to the GEV distribution does not always provide accurate return level estimates, especially for small sample sizes or heavy tails. These drawbacks are particularly true in some non-stationary situations. To reduce these negative effects, we propose to extend the PWM method to a more general framework that enables us to model temporal covariates and provide accurate GEV-based return levels. Theoretical properties of our estimators are discussed. Small and moderate sample sizes simulations in a non-stationary context are analyzed and two brief applications to annual maxima of CO2 and seasonal maxima of cumulated daily precipitations are presented.

  6. Maxima soovib kukkuval turul kiiret kasvu jätkata / Katre Pilvinski, Kadri Bank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pilvinski, Katre

    2009-01-01

    Kuigi tarbimise vähenemise tulemusel vähenes 2008. aastal jaemüügi kasv, suutis Maxima kaubanduskett kasvatada siinsel turul käivet pea poole võrra. Vt. samas: Kiratsevat jaemüüki hoidsid üleval ravimid ja toit. Diagramm

  7. Rikkad ja ilusad protestivad Maxima säästupoe vastu / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2008-01-01

    Tallinnas Pirital asuva Merivälja tee 80e kinnistu eskiisprojektist, mis ei vasta kehtestatud detailplaneeringule. Elanikud protestivad plaani vastu rajada elukohta lähedale Maxima säästuketi pood. Hoone arhitektuurse lahenduse autor on Tõnis Tarbe Arhitektuuribüroo

  8. Is Maxima a Wal-Mart in sheep's clothing? / Todd Graham

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Graham, Todd

    2007-01-01

    Nii USA-s kui Leedus tegutsev teadlane Randy Richards uuris Ida-Euroopas jõudsalt laienenud kaubaketi Maxima ja USA Wal-Mart-i turu hõivamise, -positsiooni ja -strateegiate sarnasusi ja erinevusi. Vt. samas: Baltic retail continues to thrive. Kaubanduskeskuste ehitusbuum Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus

  9. Microeconomic theory and computation applying the maxima open-source computer algebra system

    CERN Document Server

    Hammock, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a step-by-step tutorial for using Maxima, an open-source multi-platform computer algebra system, to examine the economic relationships that form the core of microeconomics in a way that complements traditional modeling techniques.

  10. Stability at Potential Maxima: The L-4 and L-5 Points of the Restricted Three-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard; Davis, Donald R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a dynamical system which is stable at potential maxima. The maxima, called L-4 and L-5, are stable locations of the restricted three-body problem. Energy loss from the system will tend to drive it away from stability. (GA)

  11. Maxima of the scattering cross section, the wave vector being quasi orthogonal to the confining magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.-L.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of the scattering cross section maximas of an electromagnetic wave by a magnetoplasma, the angle between the wave vector and the confining magnetic field approaching π/2 were computed. It is shown that the maximas are shifted toward the roots of the electrostatic dispersion relation in perpendicular propagation. These roots are not exactly the electron cyclotron harmonics [fr

  12. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  13. Some properties of dual and approximate dual of fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar; Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of approximate dual to fusion frames and present some approaches to obtain dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames. Also, we study the stability of dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames.

  14. Dose-response curves for fish MFO induction: How do we interpret different maxima and slopes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Induction of hepatic mixed function oxygenase (MFO) activity has been useful for screening effluents from pulp mills and oil refineries. Effluents and pure compounds can be assessed by direct fish exposure or by concentration with semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and by measuring MFO in fish liver cell lines exposed to SPMD extracts. In these experiments, both fish and fish cells showed differences in slopes of dose-response curves, and in the maximal ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity. For example, TCDD elicits an EROD maxima of over 500 pmol/mg/min in PLHC-1 (Poeciliopsis lucida hepatocellular carcinoma cell line), while pulp mill and oil refinery effluent extracts showed maxima of 40 to 200 pmol/mg/min. Substituted phenanthrenes caused induction maxima of 100 pmol/mg/min. Similarly, in rainbow trout in vivo, TCDD and other chlorinated dioxins and furans induced up to 500 pmol/mg/min, whereas pulp mill and refinery effluents and substituted phenanthrenes produced EROD maxima of up to 100 pmol/mg/min. Differences in the slopes of dose-response curves were also common. In the current assessment of potencies, these diverse response curves are boiled-down to one number, the EC50 or other threshold-type of concentration. Comparisons of EC50s cannot express these differences and instead, ignore them. However, the authors realize there must be a better approach that takes into account these large differences in dose-response curve shape, slope and maxima. Interaction and discussions with modelers in the session will allow them to discuss various approaches to expressing the potencies of MFO inducers in fish

  15. Molecular characterisation and the protective immunity evaluation of Eimeria maxima surface antigen gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqi; Huang, Jingwei; Li, Yanlin; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Zhouyang; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-05-30

    Coccidiosis is recognised as a major parasitic disease in chickens. Eimeria maxima is considered as a highly immunoprotective species within the Eimeria spp. family that infects chickens. In the present research, the surface antigen gene of E. maxima (EmSAG) was cloned, and the ability of EmSAG to stimulate protection against E. maxima was evaluated. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic plasmids expressing EmSAG were constructed. The EmSAG transcription and expression in vivo was performed based on the RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The expression of EmSAG in sporozoites and merozoites was detected through immunofluorescence analyses. The immune protection was assessed based on challenge experiments. Flow cytometry assays were used to determine the T cell subpopulations. The serum antibody and cytokine levels were evaluated by ELISA. The open reading frame (ORF) of EmSAG gene contained 645 bp encoding 214 amino acid residues. The immunoblot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that the EmSAG gene were transcribed and expressed in vivo. The EmSAG proteins were expressed in sporozoite and merozoite stages of E. maxima by the immunofluorescence assay. Challenge experiments showed that both pVAX1-SAG and the recombinant EmSAG (rEmSAG) proteins were successful in alleviating jejunal lesions, decreasing loss of body weight and the oocyst ratio. Additionally, these experiments possessed anticoccidial indices (ACI) of more than 170. Higher percentages of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells were detected in both EmSAG-inoculated birds than those of the negative control groups (P maxima.

  16. A genetic linkage map for the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Eimeria maxima and comparison with Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Oakes, Richard; Smith, Adrian L

    2011-02-01

    Eimeria maxima is one of the seven Eimeria spp. that infect the chicken and cause the disease coccidiosis. The well characterised immunogenicity and genetic diversity associated with E. maxima promote its use in genetics-led studies on avian coccidiosis. The development of a genetic map for E. maxima, presented here based upon 647 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers typed from 22 clonal hybrid lines and assembled into 13 major linkage groups, is a major new resource for work with this parasite. Comparison with genetic maps produced for other coccidial parasites indicates relatively high levels of genetic recombination. Conversion of ∼14% of the markers representing the major linkage groups to sequence characterised amplified region markers can provide a scaffold for the assembly of future genomic sequences as well as providing a foundation for more detailed genetic maps. Comparison with the Eimeria tenella genetic map produced 10years ago has revealed a less biased marker distribution, with no more than nine markers mapped within any unresolved heritable unit. Nonetheless, preliminary bioinformatic characterisation of the three largest publicly available genomic E. maxima sequences suggest that the feature-poor/feature-rich structure which has previously been found to define the first sequenced E. tenella chromosome also defines the E. maxima genome. The significance of such a segmented genome and the apparent potential for variation in genetic recombination will be relevant to haplotype stability and the longevity of future anticoccidial strategies based upon multiple loci targeted by novel chemotherapeutic drugs or recombinant subunit vaccines. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of common immunodominant antigens of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima by immunoproteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianrui; Huang, Xinmei; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Wenyu; Ji, Yihong; Tian, Di; Tian, Lu; Yang, Xinchao; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui; Song, Xiaokai

    2017-05-23

    Clinical chicken coccidiosis is mostly caused by simultaneous infection of several Eimeria species, and host immunity against Eimeria is species-specific. It is urgent to identify common immunodominant antigen of Eimeria for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines. In this study, sporozoite proteins of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Western bot analysis was performed on the yielded 2DE gel using antisera of E. tenella E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Next, the detected immunodominant spots were identified by comparing the data from MALDI-TOF-MS/MS with available databases. Finally, Eimeria common antigens were identified by comparing amino acid sequence between the three Eimeria species. The results showed that analysis by 2DE of sporozoite proteins detected 629, 626 and 632 protein spots from E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Western bot analysis revealed 50 (E. tenella), 64 (E. acervulina) and 57 (E. maxima) immunodominant spots from the sporozoite 2DE gels of the three Eimeria species. The immunodominant spots were identified as 33, 27 and 25 immunodominant antigens of E. tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima respectively. Fifty-four immunodominant proteins were identified as 18 ortholog proteins among the three Eimeria species. Finally, 5 of the 18 ortholog proteins were identified as common immunodominant antigens including elongation factor 2 (EF-2), 14-3-3 protein, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme domain-containing protein (UCE) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). In conclusion, our results not only provide Eimeria sporozoite immunodominant antigen map and additional immunodominant antigens, but also common immunodominant antigens for developing multivalent anticoccidial vaccines.

  18. Optimization of the digestion process of Scenedesmus sp. and Opuntia maxima for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Suárez, Juan Luis; Martínez, Alejandro; Carreras, Nely

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Scenedesmus biomass showed low biodegradability and biogas production. • Methane yield and kinetics of the batch process were improved by co-digestion. • Scenedesmus and Opuntia maxima were successfully co-digested in CSTR. • High biogas yields were obtained and no inhibition by ammonia was observed. - Abstract: Scenedesmus biomass is not an adequate substrate for anaerobic digestion due to its low biodegradability and low biogas yield. This study aims to evaluate the anaerobic co-digestion of Scenedesmus microalgal biomass and Opuntia maxima cladodes, the latter added in order to improve the digestion process. Batch assays were conducted to evaluate possible synergistic effects in different mixtures of both substrates. Mixture with highest methane yield was digested in semi-continuous mode at different VS concentrations. Feedstock composed of 75% O.maxima and 25% Scenedesmus (VS basis) showed the highest methane yield increasing 66.4% and 63.9% that of Scenedesmus and O.maxima, respectively. In semi-continuous mode, ideal organic loading rate (OLR) with 6%VS feed concentration was 4 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 292 ± 39 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). In the case of 8%VS feed concentration ideal OLR was 5.33 gVS L −1 d −1 , which yielded 308 ± 22 L CH4 kgVS −1 (15 days HRT). The co-digestion of O.maxima and Scenedesmus biomass enhanced the anaerobic digestion process and avoided inhibition caused by low C/N ratio of microalgae

  19. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  20. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  1. Vibrational relaxation induced population inversions in laser pumped polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamah, I.; Flynn, G.; Columbia Univ., New York

    1981-01-01

    Conditions for population inversion in laser pumped polyatomic molecules are described. For systems which exhibit metastable vibrational population distributions, large, long lived inversions are possible even when the vibrational modes are strongly coupled by rapid collisional vibration-vibration (V-V) energy transfer. Overtone states of a hot mode are found to invert with respect to fundamental levels of a cold mode even at V-V steady state. Inversion persists for a V-T/R relaxation time. A gain of 4 m -1 for the 2ν 3 → ν 2 transition in CH 3 F (lambda approx. 15.9 μ) was found assuming a spontaneous emission lifetime of 10 s for this transition. General equations are derived which can be used to determine the magnitude of population inversion in any laser pumped, vibrationally metastable, polyatomic molecule. A discussion of factors controlling the population maxima of different vibrational states in optically pumped, V-V equilibrated metastable polyatomics is also given. (orig./WL)

  2. Inverse Satake transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Sakellaridis, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    Let H be a split reductive group over a local non-archimedean field, and let H^ denote its Langlands dual group. We present an explicit formula for the generating function of an unramified L-function associated to a highest weight representation of the dual group, considered as a series of elements in the Hecke algebra of H. This offers an alternative approach to a solution of the same problem by Wen-Wei Li. Moreover, we generalize the notion of "Satake transform" and perform the analogous ca...

  3. Voith Maxima: simulation-based throttle parameterisation; Voith Maxima: Simulationsbasierte Reglerparametrierung. Bei der Elektronik-Entwicklung der Lokomotive Voith Maxima wurden Methoden der Hardware-in-the-Loop-Simulation zur Reglerparametrierung eingesetzt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Thorsten; Hanke, Bjoern [IAV GmbH, Gifhorn (Germany). Powertrain Mechatronik; Jung, Eggert [Voith Turbo Lokomotiv Technik, Kiel (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For fine-tuning of the diesel engine throttle control on the new Voith Maxima, IAV GmbH developed a physical Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation (HiL), whose parameterisation is based chiefly on easily obtainable construction design data. With the aid of the HiL simulation, the software functions of the of the engine's ECU could already be parameterised and verified in the lab, before a running prototype was available. As a result, a throttle application was available at an early stage, needing only to be further optimised during subsequent test runs. This enabled the number of driving trials, with the cost and effort involved, to be reduced. Looking to the future, an extended HiL simulation with an optimisation algorithm for automatic throttle parameterisation will allow for a further reduction in application development costs. (orig.)

  4. Complementary Speckle Patterns: Deterministic Interchange of Intrinsic Vortices and Maxima through Scattering Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateau, Jérôme; Rigneault, Hervé; Guillon, Marc

    2017-01-27

    Intensity maxima and zeros of speckle patterns obtained behind a diffuser are experimentally interchanged by applying a spiral phase delay of charge ±1 to the impinging coherent beam. This transform arises from the expectation that tightly focused beams, which have a planar wave front around the focus, are so changed into vortex beams and vice versa. The statistics of extrema locations and the intensity distribution of the so-generated "complementary" patterns are characterized by numerical simulations. It is demonstrated experimentally that the incoherent superposition of the three "complementary speckle patterns" yield a synthetic speckle grain size enlarged by a factor of sqrt[3]. A cyclic permutation of optical vortices and intensity maxima is unexpectedly observed and discussed.

  5. Extended-Maxima Transform Watershed Segmentation Algorithm for Touching Corn Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibo Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Touching corn kernels are usually oversegmented by the traditional watershed algorithm. This paper proposes a modified watershed segmentation algorithm based on the extended-maxima transform. Firstly, a distance-transformed image is processed by the extended-maxima transform in the range of the optimized threshold value. Secondly, the binary image obtained by the preceding process is run through the watershed segmentation algorithm, and watershed ridge lines are superimposed on the original image, so that touching corn kernels are separated into segments. Fifty images which all contain 400 corn kernels were tested. Experimental results showed that the effect of segmentation is satisfactory by the improved algorithm, and the accuracy of segmentation is as high as 99.87%.

  6. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.J.; Freeman, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi(q) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2(2π/a) in momentum space--in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q) calculated for both ZrC and HfC--for which no phonon anomalies have been observed--fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are thus interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons

  7. Genome-wide association study and biological pathway analysis for response to Eimeria maxima in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamzic, Edin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Hérault, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is the most common and costly disease in the poultry industry and which caused by protozoans from the genus of Eimeria. The current control of coccidiosis, based on the use of anticoccidial drugs and vaccination, faces serious obstacles such as drug resistance and the high...... costs for development of efficient vaccines, respectively. Therefore, the present control programs must be expanded with complementary approaches such as the use of genetics for improvement of the host’s response to Eimeria infections. Recently, we have performed a large-scale challenge study on Cobb500...... of the measured traits in the response to Eimeria maxima in broilers. Furthermore, we conducted a post-GWAS functional analysis with the aim of gaining a better biological understanding of the underlying response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers. Results In total, we identified 22 single nucleotide...

  8. THE BIOLOGY OF FISSURELLA MAXIMA SOWERBY (MOLLUSCA: ARCHAEOGASTROPODA) IN NORTHERN CHILE. 2. NOTES ON ITS REPRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretos, Marta; Tesorieri, Italo; Alvarez, Luis

    1983-12-01

    For 14 months, monthly samples were collected to study reproduction in Fissurella maxima at Huayquique. Results indicate that F. maxima is a dioecious species; no sign of hermaphroditism has been observed. The sex ratio is 1:1 in the different size classes analyzed. Ovaries are green and testis are median brown to yellowish white. Eggs in the ovary measure from 120-280 µ without envelopes. The gonads are parasitized by adult digenea trematods of the genus Proctoeces. Some effects of parasitism are discussed. Variations in mean monthly gonadosomatic index suggest that there is a main spawning period in late November-December (late spring-early summer) and a secondary period in July-August (winter). Fluctuations in mean gonad index show a close correlation with sea water temperature variations. The youngest mature specimens detected were about 5 cm in shell length (over two years old), but the majority of mature animals were over 6.5 cm.

  9. Accuracy assessment of tree crown detection using local maxima and multi-resolution segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N; Hamid, J R A; Latif, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Diversity of trees forms an important component in the forest ecosystems and needs proper inventories to assist the forest personnel in their daily activities. However, tree parameter measurements are often constrained by physical inaccessibility to site locations, high costs, and time. With the advancement in remote sensing technology, such as the provision of higher spatial and spectral resolution of imagery, a number of developed algorithms fulfil the needs of accurate tree inventories information in a cost effective and timely manner over larger forest areas. This study intends to generate tree distribution map in Ampang Forest Reserve using the Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation algorithm. The utilization of recent worldview-2 imagery with Local Maxima and Multi-Resolution image segmentation proves to be capable of detecting and delineating the tree crown in its accurate standing position

  10. Precipitation areal-reduction factor estimation using an annual-maxima centered approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, W.H.; Famiglietti, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are often computed by multiplying point depths by areal-reduction factors (ARF). ARF range from 0 to 1, vary according to storm characteristics, such as recurrence interval; and are a function of watershed characteristics, such as watershed size, shape, and geographic location. This paper presents a new approach for estimating ARF and includes applications for the 1-day design storm in Austin, Dallas, and Houston, Texas. The approach, termed 'annual-maxima centered,' specifically considers the distribution of concurrent precipitation surrounding an annual-precipitation maxima, which is a feature not seen in other approaches. The approach does not require the prior spatial averaging of precipitation, explicit determination of spatial correlation coefficients, nor explicit definition of a representative area of a particular storm in the analysis. The annual-maxima centered approach was designed to exploit the wide availability of dense precipitation gauge data in many regions of the world. The approach produces ARF that decrease more rapidly than those from TP-29. Furthermore, the ARF from the approach decay rapidly with increasing recurrence interval of the annual-precipitation maxima. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.The adjustment of precipitation depth of a point storm to an effective (mean) depth over a watershed is important for characterizing rainfall-runoff relations and for cost-effective designs of hydraulic structures when design storms are considered. A design storm is the precipitation point depth having a specified duration and frequency (recurrence interval). Effective depths are

  11. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our......-heuristics are inefficient for large-scale, non-linear inverse problems, and that the 'no-free-lunch' theorem holds. We discuss typical objections to the relevance of this theorem. A consequence of the no-free-lunch theorem is that algorithms adapted to the mathematical structure of the problem perform more efficiently than...... pure meta-heuristics. We study problem-adapted inversion algorithms that exploit the knowledge of the smoothness of the misfit function of the problem. Optimal sampling strategies exist for such problems, but many of these problems remain hard. © 2012 Springer-Verlag....

  12. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  13. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  14. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered.

  15. Large-scale investigation of the parameters in response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzic, E; Bed'Hom, B; Juin, H; Hawken, R; Abrahamsen, M S; Elsen, J M; Servin, B; Pinard-van der Laan, M H; Demeure, O

    2015-04-01

    Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract caused by members of the genera Eimeria and Isospora, is one of the most common and costly diseases in chicken. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the challenge and level of variability of measured parameters in chickens during the challenge with Eimeria maxima. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate which parameters are the most relevant indicators of the health status. Finally, the study also aimed to estimate accuracy of prediction for traits that cannot be measured on large scale (such as intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count) using parameters that can easily be measured on all animals. The study was performed in 2 parts: a pilot challenge on 240 animals followed by a large-scale challenge on 2,024 animals. In both experiments, animals were challenged with 50,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts at 16 d of age. In the pilot challenge, all animals were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit, and rectal temperature and, in addition, a subset of 48 animals was measured for oocyst count and the intestinal lesion score. All animals from the second challenge were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, and hematocrit whereas a subset of 184 animals was measured for intestinal lesion score, fecal oocyst count, blood parameters, and plasma protein content and composition. Most of the parameters measured were significantly affected by the challenge. Lesion scores for duodenum and jejunum (P Eimeria maxima. Prediction of intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count using the other parameters measured was not very precise (R2 Eimeria maxima has a strong genetic determinism, which may be improved by genetic selection.

  16. Antioxidant activity and antiaging gel formulation grapefruit peel (Citrus maxima Merr.) ethanolic extract

    OpenAIRE

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Febrika, Nilsya

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to conduct the antioxidant activity test of grapefruit peel ethanolic extracts and gel formulation. Grapefruit (Citrus maxima Merr.) is a plant of the Rutaceae family, which has been known to contain ph enolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins). Grapefruit skin was very thick (>30% of the total weight of the fr uit) and always considered as waste that has not been utiliz ed properly....

  17. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, R.A.; Rothballer, M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Engel, M.; Schulz, M.; Hartmann, A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) w...

  18. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P. B. T. B.; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode–rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) w...

  19. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima) FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    OpenAIRE

    Wasmo Wakmana; M.S. Kontong; D.S. Teakle; D.M. Persley

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  20. Watermelon Mosaic Virus Of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima) From Sulawesi: Identification, Transmission, And Host Range

    OpenAIRE

    Wakmana, Wasmo; Kontong, M.S; Teakle, D.S; Persley, D.M

    2002-01-01

    A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven di...

  1. Maxima and Octave in Development of Online Applications: Service Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Zakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a way for fast development of interactive online applications that can be used in teaching process. It introduces the web service implemented in PHP programming language for two free computer algebra systems Maxima and Octave. It can be later used for building web applications that need to solve some mathematical tasks during their running. The example of such implementation is also shown.

  2. Generalized inverses theory and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guorong; Qiao, Sanzheng

    2018-01-01

    This book begins with the fundamentals of the generalized inverses, then moves to more advanced topics. It presents a theoretical study of the generalization of Cramer's rule, determinant representations of the generalized inverses, reverse order law of the generalized inverses of a matrix product, structures of the generalized inverses of structured matrices, parallel computation of the generalized inverses, perturbation analysis of the generalized inverses, an algorithmic study of the computational methods for the full-rank factorization of a generalized inverse, generalized singular value decomposition, imbedding method, finite method, generalized inverses of polynomial matrices, and generalized inverses of linear operators. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the area of the generalized inverses with an undergraduate-level understanding of linear algebra.

  3. Some results on inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)

  4. Voxel inversion of airborne electromagnetic data for improved model integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Vest Christiansen, Anders

    2014-05-01

    Inversion of electromagnetic data has migrated from single site interpretations to inversions including entire surveys using spatial constraints to obtain geologically reasonable results. Though, the model space is usually linked to the actual observation points. For airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys the spatial discretization of the model space reflects the flight lines. On the contrary, geological and groundwater models most often refer to a regular voxel grid, not correlated to the geophysical model space, and the geophysical information has to be relocated for integration in (hydro)geological models. We have developed a new geophysical inversion algorithm working directly in a voxel grid disconnected from the actual measuring points, which then allows for informing directly geological/hydrogeological models. The new voxel model space defines the soil properties (like resistivity) on a set of nodes, and the distribution of the soil properties is computed everywhere by means of an interpolation function (e.g. inverse distance or kriging). Given this definition of the voxel model space, the 1D forward responses of the AEM data are computed as follows: 1) a 1D model subdivision, in terms of model thicknesses, is defined for each 1D data set, creating "virtual" layers. 2) the "virtual" 1D models at the sounding positions are finalized by interpolating the soil properties (the resistivity) in the center of the "virtual" layers. 3) the forward response is computed in 1D for each "virtual" model. We tested the new inversion scheme on an AEM survey carried out with the SkyTEM system close to Odder, in Denmark. The survey comprises 106054 dual mode AEM soundings, and covers an area of approximately 13 km X 16 km. The voxel inversion was carried out on a structured grid of 260 X 325 X 29 xyz nodes (50 m xy spacing), for a total of 2450500 inversion parameters. A classical spatially constrained inversion (SCI) was carried out on the same data set, using 106054

  5. Immunocytochemical localisation of phloem lectin from Cucurbita maxima using peroxidase and colloidal-gold labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L M; Sabnis, D D; Johnson, R P

    1987-04-01

    Antibodies were raised against lectin purified from the sieve-tube exudate of Cucurbita maxima. Immunocytochemistry, using peroxidase-labelled antibodies and Protein A-colloidal gold, was employed to determine the location of the lectin within the tissues and cells of C. maxima and other cucurbit species. The anti-lectin antibodies bound to P-protein aggregates in sieve elements and companion cells, predominantly in the extrafascicular phloem of C. maxima. This may reflect the low rate of translocation in these cells. Under the electron microscope, the lectin was shown to be a component of P-protein filaments and was also found in association with the sieve-tube reticulum which lines the plasmalemma. The anti-lectin antibodies reacted with sieve-tube proteins from other species of the genus Cucurbita but showed only limited reaction with other genera. We suggest that the lectin serves to anchor P-protein filaments and associated proteins to the parietal layer of sieve elements.

  6. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg.

  7. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Wong, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basolateral and brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. The current study investigated the expression of amino acid transporters (AAT) and other genes in the intestine of chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. At 7-day postinfection (PI), tissue from each intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was taken from birds inoculated with 3 × 10(3) oocysts/bird and processed to recover RNA. Analysis of gene expression was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results were given as relative expression using β₂-microglobulin as an endogenous control. All the genes studied were expressed in three segments of the intestines, and expression of the genes was altered by infection with E. maxima. Even though the jejunum is considered the parasite's primary predilection site, there was no segment-related difference in expression of most of the genes studied. The antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2) was downregulated in all three segments of the intestine. The results also demonstrate that transporters associated with brush border membranes were downregulated while transporters associated with the basolateral membranes were upregulated and that E. maxima alters the expression of AAT and LEAP2 throughout the small intestine.

  8. Re-evaluation of the life cycle of Eimeria maxima Tyzzer, 1929 in chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C

    2017-12-14

    A time-course study was conducted to resolve discrepancies in the literature and better define aspects of the Eimeria maxima life cycle such, as sites of development and both morphology and number of asexual stages. Broiler chickens were inoculated orally with five million E. maxima oocysts (APU1), and were necropsied at regular intervals from 12 to 120 h p.i. Small intestine tissue sections and smears were examined for developmental stages. The jejunum contained the highest numbers of developmental stages. At 12 h p.i., sporozoites were observed inside a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) in the epithelial villi and the lamina propria. By 24 h, sporozoites enclosed by a PV were observed in enterocytes of the glands of Lieberkühn. At 48 h p.i., sporozoites, elongated immature and mature schizonts, were all seen in the glands with merozoites budding off from a residual body. By 60 h, second-generation, sausage-shaped schizonts containing up to 12 merozoites were observed around a residual body in the villar tip of invaded enterocytes. At 72 and 96 h, profuse schizogony associated with third- and fourth-generation schizonts was observed throughout the villus. At 120 h, another generation (fifth) of schizonts were seen in villar tips as well as in subepithelium where gamonts and oocysts were also present; a few gamonts were in epithelium. Our finding of maximum parasitization of E. maxima in jejunum is important because this region is critical for nutrient absorption and weight gain.

  9. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104  E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  10. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.

  11. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic alterations in broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5 × 10³ sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrus maxima peel extract and their catalytic/antibacterial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Gui, Bing; Cao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    The peel of Citrus maxima ( C. maxima ) is the primary byproducts during the process of fruit or juice in food industries, and it was always considered as biomass waste for further treatments. In this study, the authors reported a simple and eco-friendly method to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using C. maxima peel extract as reducing and capping agents. The synthesised AuNPs were characterised by UV-visible spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The UV-visible spectrum of the AuNPs colloid showed a characteristic peak at 540 nm. The peaks of XRD analysis at (2 θ ) 38.30°, 44.28°, 64.62°, 77.57° and 81.75° were assigned to (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) planes of the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of gold. The TEM images showed that AuNPs were nearly spherical in shape with the size of 8-25 nm. The FTIR spectrum revealed that some bioactive compounds capped the surface of synthesised AuNPs. The biosynthesised AuNPs performed strong catalytic activity in degradation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and good antibacterial activity against both gram negative ( Escherichia coli ) and gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacterium. The synthesis procedure was proved simple, cost effective and environment friendly.

  14. Study on the prediction of visible absorption maxima of azobenzene compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-na; Chen, Zhi-rong; Yuan, Shen-feng

    2005-01-01

    The geometries of azobenzene compounds are optimized with B3LYP/6-311G* method, and analyzed with nature bond orbital, then their visible absorption maxima are calculated with TD-DFT method and ZINDO/S method respectively. The results agree well with the observed values. It was found that for the calculation of visible absorption using ZINDO/S method could rapidly yield better results by adjusting OWFπ-π (the relationship between π-π overlap weighting factor) value than by the TD-DFT method. The method of regression showing the linear relationship between OWFπ-π and BLN-N (nitrogen-nitrogen bond lengths) as OWF π-π=−8.1537+6.5638BL N-N, can be explained in terms of quantum theory, and also be used for prediction of visible absorption maxima of other azobenzne dyes in the same series. This study on molecules’ orbital geometry indicates that their visible absorption maxima correspond to the electron transition from HOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital) to LUMO (the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital). PMID:15909349

  15. The Nature of Grand Minima and Maxima from Fully Nonlinear Flux Transport Dynamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inceoglu, Fadil; Arlt, Rainer [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Rempel, Matthias, E-mail: finceoglu@aip.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We aim to investigate the nature and occurrence characteristics of grand solar minimum and maximum periods, which are observed in the solar proxy records such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 14}C, using a fully nonlinear Babcock–Leighton type flux transport dynamo including momentum and entropy equations. The differential rotation and meridional circulation are generated from the effect of turbulent Reynolds stress and are subjected to back-reaction from the magnetic field. To generate grand minimum- and maximum-like periods in our simulations, we used random fluctuations in the angular momentum transport process, namely the Λ-mechanism, and in the Babcock–Leighton mechanism. To characterize the nature and occurrences of the identified grand minima and maxima in our simulations, we used the waiting time distribution analyses, which reflect whether the underlying distribution arises from a random or a memory-bearing process. The results show that, in the majority of the cases, the distributions of grand minima and maxima reveal that the nature of these events originates from memoryless processes. We also found that in our simulations the meridional circulation speed tends to be smaller during grand maximum, while it is faster during grand minimum periods. The radial differential rotation tends to be larger during grand maxima, while it is smaller during grand minima. The latitudinal differential rotation, on the other hand, is found to be larger during grand minima.

  16. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tridacna maxima

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related to substrate affinity by two giant clam species found on the Mauritian coral reefs. Giant clams .... (Marine Protected Areas (Amendment) Act, 2007) with clear water and an ..... Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. (CITES) ...

  18. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Betzel, Christian; Lindley, Peter F.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R free = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO 2 substituents

  20. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild

    2002-07-01

    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  1. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  2. Efeito de extratos de plantas do Cerrado em Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae Effect of Cerrado plant extracts on Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler (Hemiptera, Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. M. Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A transmissão da doença de Chagas ocorre, principalmente, por meio de fezes de hemípteros hematófagos (Triatominae, os quais ingerem o Trypanosoma cruzi ao se alimentarem do sangue de pessoas ou outros mamíferos infectados. Para o controle dos triatomíneos, os piretróides são os principais inseticidas utilizados. Entretanto, algumas populações de insetos demonstraram resistência a determinados piretróides, indicando a necessidade do desenvolvimento de novos inseticidas eficazes no controle desses vetores. Assim, foi avaliada a atividade inseticida de 83 extratos vegetais, pertencentes a 35 espécies diferentes, em ninfas do primeiro estádio de Dipetalogaster maxima (Uhler, 1894 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, triatomíneo encontrado no México. Para o teste tópico, foram aplicados 50 ìg de cada extrato nos tergitos abdominais de dez ninfas, em duplicata. Como controles, foram utilizados insetos tratados com etanol, acetona ou sem nenhum tipo de tratamento. Os triatomíneos foram observados durante 28 dias. Nenhum extrato apresentou atividade inseticida significativa, entretanto, o extrato hexânico do fruto e o etanólico da casca do caule de Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae inibiram a taxa de ecdise em D. maxima (40% e 25%, respectivamente. Sugere-se que estes extratos sejam quimicamente investigados e monitorados por ensaios biológicos a fim de determinar os componentes, para que estes possam ser utilizados como modelos moleculares ou como compostos biorracionais nos programas de controle de insetos.Chagas disease, also known as American Trypanosomiasis, is chiefly transmitted by faeces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or other mammals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of

  3. Evaluation of anaerobic digestates from different feedstocks as growth media for Tetradesmus obliquus, Botryococcus braunii, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Arthrospira maxima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massa, Marina; Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Castaldo, Luigi; Martello, Anna; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, two freshwater microalgae (Tetradesmus obliquus and Botryococcus braunii), a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and a photosynthetic cyanobacterium (Arthrospira maxima) were investigated for their ability to grow on liquid digestates (LDs). Three LDs were obtained from

  4. Calcium Montmorillonite-based dietary supplement attenuates Necrotic Enteritis induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide the first description of Dietary Supplement of sorbent minerals attenuates Necrotic Enteritis Induced by Eimeria maxima and Clostridium perfringens in Broilers. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a poultry disease caused by Clostridium perfringens and characterized by severe intestinal necrosis....

  5. On the Duality of Forward and Inverse Light Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraker, Manmohan; Bai, Jiamin; Ng, Tian-Tsong; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

    2011-10-01

    Inverse light transport seeks to undo global illumination effects, such as interreflections, that pervade images of most scenes. This paper presents the theoretical and computational foundations for inverse light transport as a dual of forward rendering. Mathematically, this duality is established through the existence of underlying Neumann series expansions. Physically, it can be shown that each term of our inverse series cancels an interreflection bounce, just as the forward series adds them. While the convergence properties of the forward series are well known, we show that the oscillatory convergence of the inverse series leads to more interesting conditions on material reflectance. Conceptually, the inverse problem requires the inversion of a large light transport matrix, which is impractical for realistic resolutions using standard techniques. A natural consequence of our theoretical framework is a suite of fast computational algorithms for light transport inversion--analogous to finite element radiosity, Monte Carlo and wavelet-based methods in forward rendering--that rely at most on matrix-vector multiplications. We demonstrate two practical applications, namely, separation of individual bounces of the light transport and fast projector radiometric compensation, to display images free of global illumination artifacts in real-world environments.

  6. Proteomic analysis of protein interactions between Eimeria maxima sporozoites and chicken jejunal epithelial cells by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Liu, Tingqi; Li, Ke; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-04-04

    Eimeria maxima initiates infection by invading the jejunal epithelial cells of chicken. However, the proteins involved in invasion remain unknown. The research of the molecules that participate in the interactions between E. maxima sporozoites and host target cells will fill a gap in our understanding of the invasion system of this parasitic pathogen. In the present study, chicken jejunal epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. Western blot was employed to analyze the soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay was used to separate the E. maxima proteins that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Shotgun LC-MS/MS technique was used for proteomics identification and Gene Ontology was employed for the bioinformatics analysis. The results of Western blot analysis showed that four proteins bands from jejunal epithelial cells co-cultured with soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites were recognized by the positive sera, with molecular weights of 70, 90, 95 and 130 kDa. The co-IP dilutions were analyzed by shotgun LC-MS/MS. A total of 204 proteins were identified in the E. maxima protein database using the MASCOT search engine. Thirty-five proteins including microneme protein 3 and 7 had more than two unique peptide counts and were annotated using Gene Ontology for molecular function, biological process and cellular localization. The results revealed that of the 35 annotated peptides, 22 (62.86%) were associated with binding activity and 15 (42.86%) were involved in catalytic activity. Our findings provide an insight into the interaction between E. maxima and the corresponding host cells and it is important for the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying E. maxima invasion.

  7. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman

  8. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Canchihuamán, Johny C; Pérez-Méndez, Oscar; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2010-03-31

    Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina.

  9. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-04

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Hossain, Hemayet; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (-)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  11. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4 Treated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Riaz Hasan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA, nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP, and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats.

  12. Block copolymer/homopolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hilke, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We manufactured the first time block copolymer dual-layer hollow fiber membranes and dual layer flat sheet membranes manufactured by double solution casting and phase inversion in water. The support porous layer was based on polystyrene and the selective layer with isopores was formed by micelle assembly of polystyrene-. b-poly-4-vinyl pyridine. The dual layers had an excellent interfacial adhesion and pore interconnectivity. The dual membranes showed pH response behavior like single layer block copolymer membranes with a low flux for pH values less than 3, a fast increase between pH4 and pH6 and a constant high flux level for pH values above 7. The dry/wet spinning process was optimized to produce dual layer hollow fiber membranes with polystyrene internal support layer and a shell block copolymer selective layer.

  13. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyösti

    2007-09-01

    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for.

  14. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions...... are considered and the relation with the dual Youla parameter given. Some applications of the dual Youla parameterisation are considered in connection with the design of controllers and model/performance validation....

  15. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  16. Reactivity in inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochette, Pascal

    1987-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the use of micro-emulsions of water in oil as reaction support. Only the 'inverse micelles' domain of the ternary mixing (water/AOT/isooctane) has been studied. The main addressed issues have been: the micro-emulsion disturbance in presence of reactants, the determination of reactant distribution and the resulting kinetic theory, the effect of the interface on electron transfer reactions, and finally protein solubilization [fr

  17. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  19. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.

    1998-10-01

    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  20. Dual affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities for the dual -centroid bodies which are the dual forms of the results by Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. Further, we establish a Brunn-Minkowski-type inequality for the polar of dual -centroid bodies.

  1. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.; Mai, Paul Martin; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data

  2. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed.

  3. Biosynthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Extracts of Callus Cultures of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R Indira; Panda, Tapobrata

    2018-08-01

    The potential of callus cultures and field-grown organs of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles of the noble metals gold and silver has been investigated. Biosynthesis of AuNPs (gold nanoparticles) and AgNPs (silver nanoparticles) was obtained with flowers of C. maxima but not with pulp and seeds. With callus cultures established in MS-based medium the biogenesis of both AuNPs and AgNPs could be obtained. At 65 °C the biogenesis of AuNPs and AgNPs by callus extracts was enhanced. The AuNPs and AgNPs have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, TEM, DLS and XRD. Well-dispersed nanoparticles, which exhibited a remarkable diversity in size and shape, could be visualized by TEM. Gold nanoparticles were found to be of various shapes, viz., rods, triangles, star-shaped particles, spheres, hexagons, bipyramids, discoid particles, nanotrapezoids, prisms, cuboids. Silver nanoparticles were also of diverse shapes, viz., discoid, spherical, elliptical, triangle-like, belt-like, rod-shaped forms and cuboids. EDX analysis indicated that the AuNPs and AgNPs had a high degree of purity. The surface charges of the generated AuNPs and AgNPs were highly negative as indicated by zeta potential measurements. The AuNPs and AgNPs exhibited remarkable stability in solution for more than four months. FTIR studies indicated that biomolecules in the callus extracts were associated with the biosynthesis and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs could catalyse degradation of methylene blue and exhibited anti-bacterial activity against E. coli DH5α. There is no earlier report of the biosynthesis of nanoparticles by this plant species. Callus cultures of Cucurbita maxima are effective alternative resources of biomass for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  4. DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL AND DUAL TIMELIKE SPHERICAL CURVES IN DUAL MINKOWSKI SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we give characterizations of dual timelike normal and dual timelike spherical curves in the dual Minkowski 3-space and we show that every dual timelike normal curve is also a dual timelike spherical curve. Keywords: Normal curves, Dual Minkowski 3-Space, Dual Timelike curves. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2000): 53C50, 53C40. DUAL MINKOWSKI UZAYINDA DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL VE DUAL TIMELIKE KÜRESEL EĞRİLER Özet: Bu çalışmada, dual Minkowski 3-...

  5. Three New Multiflorane-Type Triterpenes from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1, 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2, and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3, were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  6. Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Takebayashi, Mika; Shinto, Mayumi; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-05-14

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpenes; 7a-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7-oxomultiflor-8-ene-3a,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (2), and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a,29-diol 3-p-hydroxybenzoate-29-benzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with three known compounds. Compound 3 and multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3a-29-diol 3-benzoate (5) exhibited potent inhibitory effects on melanogenesis, with low cytotoxicities, and 2 exhibited single-digit micromolar cytotoxicity against HL-60 and P388 cells.

  7. P-protein distribution in mature sieve elements of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evert, R F; Eschrich, W; Eichhorn, S E

    1972-09-01

    Portions of the hypocotyls of 16-day-old Cucurbita maxima plants, from which the cotyledons and first foliage leaves had been removed 2 days earlier, were fixed in glutaraldehyde and postfixed in osmium tetroxide for electron microscopy. In well over 90% of the mature sieve elements examined the P-protein was entirely parietal in distribution in both the lumina and sieve-plate pores. In addition to the parietal P-protein, the unoccluded sieve-plate pores were lined by narrow callose cylinders and the plasmalemma. Segments of endoplasmic reticulum also occurred along the margins of the pores.

  8. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations.

  9. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  10. Improving mass candidate detection in mammograms via feature maxima propagation and local feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Jaime; Sánchez, Clara I; van Ginneken, Bram; Karssemeijer, Nico

    2014-08-01

    Mass candidate detection is a crucial component of multistep computer-aided detection (CAD) systems. It is usually performed by combining several local features by means of a classifier. When these features are processed on a per-image-location basis (e.g., for each pixel), mismatching problems may arise while constructing feature vectors for classification, which is especially true when the behavior expected from the evaluated features is a peaked response due to the presence of a mass. In this study, two of these problems, consisting of maxima misalignment and differences of maxima spread, are identified and two solutions are proposed. The first proposed method, feature maxima propagation, reproduces feature maxima through their neighboring locations. The second method, local feature selection, combines different subsets of features for different feature vectors associated with image locations. Both methods are applied independently and together. The proposed methods are included in a mammogram-based CAD system intended for mass detection in screening. Experiments are carried out with a database of 382 digital cases. Sensitivity is assessed at two sets of operating points. The first one is the interval of 3.5-15 false positives per image (FPs/image), which is typical for mass candidate detection. The second one is 1 FP/image, which allows to estimate the quality of the mass candidate detector's output for use in subsequent steps of the CAD system. The best results are obtained when the proposed methods are applied together. In that case, the mean sensitivity in the interval of 3.5-15 FPs/image significantly increases from 0.926 to 0.958 (p < 0.0002). At the lower rate of 1 FP/image, the mean sensitivity improves from 0.628 to 0.734 (p < 0.0002). Given the improved detection performance, the authors believe that the strategies proposed in this paper can render mass candidate detection approaches based on image location classification more robust to feature

  11. Inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions during 2006-2012 using different inverse models and reassessed atmospheric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Peter; Karstens, Ute; Manning, Alistair J.; Saunois, Marielle; Tsuruta, Aki; Berchet, Antoine; Vermeulen, Alexander T.; Arnold, Tim; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Hammer, Samuel; Levin, Ingeborg; Schmidt, Martina; Ramonet, Michel; Lopez, Morgan; Lavric, Jost; Aalto, Tuula; Chen, Huilin; Feist, Dietrich G.; Gerbig, Christoph; Haszpra, László; Hermansen, Ove; Manca, Giovanni; Moncrieff, John; Meinhardt, Frank; Necki, Jaroslaw; Galkowski, Michal; O'Doherty, Simon; Paramonova, Nina; Scheeren, Hubertus A.; Steinbacher, Martin; Dlugokencky, Ed

    2018-01-01

    We present inverse modelling (top down) estimates of European methane (CH4) emissions for 2006-2012 based on a new quality-controlled and harmonised in situ data set from 18 European atmospheric monitoring stations. We applied an ensemble of seven inverse models and performed four inversion experiments, investigating the impact of different sets of stations and the use of a priori information on emissions. The inverse models infer total CH4 emissions of 26.8 (20.2-29.7) Tg CH4 yr-1 (mean, 10th and 90th percentiles from all inversions) for the EU-28 for 2006-2012 from the four inversion experiments. For comparison, total anthropogenic CH4 emissions reported to UNFCCC (bottom up, based on statistical data and emissions factors) amount to only 21.3 Tg CH4 yr-1 (2006) to 18.8 Tg CH4 yr-1 (2012). A potential explanation for the higher range of top-down estimates compared to bottom-up inventories could be the contribution from natural sources, such as peatlands, wetlands, and wet soils. Based on seven different wetland inventories from the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Inter-comparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), total wetland emissions of 4.3 (2.3-8.2) Tg CH4 yr-1 from the EU-28 are estimated. The hypothesis of significant natural emissions is supported by the finding that several inverse models yield significant seasonal cycles of derived CH4 emissions with maxima in summer, while anthropogenic CH4 emissions are assumed to have much lower seasonal variability. Taking into account the wetland emissions from the WETCHIMP ensemble, the top-down estimates are broadly consistent with the sum of anthropogenic and natural bottom-up inventories. However, the contribution of natural sources and their regional distribution remain rather uncertain. Furthermore, we investigate potential biases in the inverse models by comparison with regular aircraft profiles at four European sites and with vertical profiles obtained during the Infrastructure for Measurement of the European Carbon

  12. Biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição” = Pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima Duch. var. “Exposição”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se estudar a biologia floral em moranga (Cucurbita maxima, variedade Exposição, realizaram-se dois ensaios, utilizando-se 128 plantas, numa área de 2.000 m2. A abertura e o murchamento das flores ocorreu, em média, às 6h35 e 13h52, respectivamente. Havia, em média, 2,26 flores masculinas para cada flor feminina. As flores femininas produziram, em média, 138,9% mais néctar que as masculinas. A produção de néctar foi menor no segundo ensaio devido à menor precipitação e menor umidade relativa do ar. A concentração total de açúcares do néctar foi 0,3 e 3,8% maior nas flores femininas em relação às masculinas, respectivamente, para o primeiro e segundo ensaios. As flores masculinas produziram, em média, 129.021 grãos de pólen por flor, com 91,2% viáveis às 9h00. O estigma das flores femininas foi receptivo aos grãos de pólen, em média, até às 13h40. As flores femininas foram mais atrativas que as masculinas.In order to study pumpkin floral biology (Cucurbita maxima var. “Exposição”, were conduced two tests, using 128 plants, in 2,000 m2. The opening and the withering of the flowers happened, on average, 6h35 and 13h52, respectively. There were, on average, 2.26male flowers for each female flower. The female flowers produced, on average 138.9% more nectar than the male ones. The nectar production was smaller in the second test because of a lesser due precipitation and smaller relative humidity of the air. The sugar concentration in the nectar was 0.3 and 3.8% larger in the female flowers in relation to the male ones, respectively for the 1st and 2nd tests. The male flowers produced 129,021 pollen grains for flower, with 91.2% viable at 9h00. The stigma of the female flowers was receptive to the pollen grains, on average, to the 13h40. The female flowers were more attractive than the male ones.

  13. Introduction to Schroedinger inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Schroedinger inverse scattering uses scattering coefficients and bound state data to compute underlying potentials. Inverse scattering has been studied extensively for isolated potentials q(x), which tend to zero as vertical strokexvertical stroke→∞. Inverse scattering for isolated impurities in backgrounds p(x) that are periodic, are Heaviside steps, are constant for x>0 and periodic for x<0, or that tend to zero as x→∞ and tend to ∞ as x→-∞, have also been studied. This paper identifies literature for the five inverse problems just mentioned, and for four other inverse problems. Heaviside-step backgrounds are discussed at length. (orig.)

  14. Qualitative and quantitative differences in carotenoid composition among Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Meleiro, Cristiane H; Rodriguez-Amaya, Delia B

    2007-05-16

    Squashes and pumpkins are important dietary sources of carotenoids worldwide. The carotenoid composition has been determined, but reported data have been highly variable, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In the present work, the carotenoid composition of squashes and pumpkins currently marketed in Campinas, Brazil, were determined by HPLC-DAD, complemented by HPLC-MS for identification. Cucurbita moschata 'Menina Brasileira' and C. moschata 'Goianinha' had similar profiles, with beta-carotene and alpha-carotene as the major carotenoids. The hybrid 'Tetsukabuto' resembled the Cucurbita pepo 'Mogango', lutein and beta-carotene being the principal carotenoids. Cucurbita maxima 'Exposição' had a different profile, with the predominance of violaxanthin, followed by beta-carotene and lutein. Combining data from the current study with those in the literature, profiles for the Cucurbita species could be observed. The principal carotenoids in C. moschata were beta-carotene and alpha-carotene, whlereas lutein and beta-carotene dominate in C. maxima and C. pepo. It appears that hydroxylation is a control point in carotenoid biosynthesis.

  15. Synthesis of P-protein in mature phloem of Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, J; Eschrich, W

    1976-01-01

    Cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima Duch. seedlings were provided with (14)C-labeled amino acids for 12 h. Besides the bulk of labeled amino acids the sieve-tube exudate also carried labeled proteins. 80% of the incorporated radioactivity was found in the P-protein, 20% in a neutral protein, and traces were found in acidic proteins after fractionation on diethyl-aminoethyl cellulose columns. The radioactive elutes were characterized by autoradiographs of both disc- and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gelelectropherograms, and by isoelectric focusing. The P-protein fraction appeared with the void volume from the diethylaminoethyl-cellulose column. Obviously, this is the protein that gels when oxidized and that is reversibly precipitable giving rise to filaments when processed for electron microscopy. Its main component has a molecular weight of 115,000 Dalton. By isoelectric focusing this fraction separated into 3 proteins with isoelectric points of 9.8, 9.4, and 9.2. The isoelectric point 9.2-protein probably is identical with an oligomer of a 30,000 Dalton protein with neutral isoelectric point, which keeps 20% of the incorporated label. Microautoradiographs suggest that the labeled proteins were synthesized in companion cells. The results indicate that P-protein of Cucurbita maxima is synthesized continuously in mature phloem. It can be assumed that P-protein has a relatively high turn-over rate. Therefore it seems unlikely that P-protein is a "structural" protein.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of pomelo (Citrus maxima) seed and pulp ethanolic extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlan, Muhamad; Damayanti, Vina; Tristantini, Dewi; Hermansyah, Heri; Wijanarko, Anondho; Olivia, Yuko

    2018-02-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) seed extract is generally used as naturopathic medications, supplements, antiseptic and disinfecting agents and also as preservatives in food and cosmetics products. In vitro studies have demonstrated that grapefruit seed extract has anti bacterial properties against a range of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Indonesian grapefruit, known as pomelo (C. maxima), has similar characteristics, contents and is under the same genus (Citrus) as grapefruit; however it has not been completely utilized as a preservative. In this work we analyze the antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima) seeds and pulp compared to the grapefruit (C. paradisi) seeds and pulp ethanolic extract. Ethanolic extracts of pomelo and grapefruit seeds and pulp are investigated for activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The level of antimicrobial effects is established using agar diffusion method. Both of the ethanolic do not show any antimicrobial activities against C. albicans. The ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp used in this research give positive results with growth inhibition effect on B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli. The zones of inhibition ranges from 22 - 30 mm in diameter, which is higher to grapefruit seeds and pulp ethanolic extract (17 - 25 mm). Ethanolic extract of pomelo seeds and pulp has an antimicrobial effect, which makes it a natural preparation for use as an alternative preservative for food and cosmetic.

  17. Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae, Bivalvia Fed Gambierdiscus polynesiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Roué

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs. Ciguatera-like poisoning events involving giant clams (Tridacna maxima are reported occasionally from Pacific islands communities. The present study aimed at providing insights into CTXs tissue distribution and detoxification rate in giant clams exposed to toxic cells of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, in the framework of seafood safety assessment. In a first experiment, three groups of tissue (viscera, flesh and mantle were dissected from exposed individuals, and analyzed for their toxicity using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS analyses. The viscera, flesh, and mantle were shown to retain 65%, 25%, and 10% of the total toxin burden, respectively. All tissues reached levels above the safety limit recommended for human consumption, suggesting that evisceration alone, a practice widely used among local populations, is not enough to ensure seafood safety. In a second experiment, the toxin content in contaminated giant clams was followed at different time points (0, 2, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. Observations suggest that no toxin elimination is visible in T. maxima throughout 6 days of detoxification.

  18. Changes in fatty acid composition in the giant clam Tridacna maxima in response to thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousquet, Vaimiti; Gros, Emmanuelle; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Viguier, Bruno; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Bertrand, Cédric; Lecellier, Gaël J

    2016-10-15

    Temperature can modify membrane fluidity and thus affects cellular functions and physiological activities. This study examines lipid remodelling in the marine symbiotic organism, Tridacna maxima, during a time series of induced thermal stress, with an emphasis on the morphology of their symbiont Symbiodinium First, we show that the French Polynesian giant clams harbour an important proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA), which reflects their tropical location. Second, in contrast to most marine organisms, the total lipid content in giant clams remained constant under stress, though some changes in their composition were shown. Third, the stress-induced changes in fatty acid (FA) diversity were accompanied by an upregulation of genes involved in lipids and ROS pathways. Finally, our microscopic analysis revealed that for the giant clam's symbiont, Symbiodinium, thermal stress led to two sequential cell death processes. Our data suggests that the degradation of Symbiodinium cells could provide an additional source of energy to T maxima in response to heat stress. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog

  20. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  1. Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae, Bivalvia) Fed Gambierdiscus polynesiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué, Mélanie; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Ung, André; Viallon, Jérôme; Sibat, Manoella; Hess, Philipp; Amzil, Zouher; Chinain, Mireille

    2018-05-10

    Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Ciguatera-like poisoning events involving giant clams ( Tridacna maxima ) are reported occasionally from Pacific islands communities. The present study aimed at providing insights into CTXs tissue distribution and detoxification rate in giant clams exposed to toxic cells of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis , in the framework of seafood safety assessment. In a first experiment, three groups of tissue (viscera, flesh and mantle) were dissected from exposed individuals, and analyzed for their toxicity using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. The viscera, flesh, and mantle were shown to retain 65%, 25%, and 10% of the total toxin burden, respectively. All tissues reached levels above the safety limit recommended for human consumption, suggesting that evisceration alone, a practice widely used among local populations, is not enough to ensure seafood safety. In a second experiment, the toxin content in contaminated giant clams was followed at different time points (0, 2, 4, and 6 days post-exposure). Observations suggest that no toxin elimination is visible in T. maxima throughout 6 days of detoxification.

  2. Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiling and Functional Analysis of the Frog (Bombina maxima) Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Yan, Chao; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Yang; Wang, Guangyin; Lee, Wenhui; Xiang, Yang; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians occupy a key phylogenetic position in vertebrates and evolution of the immune system. But, the resources of its transcriptome or genome are still little now. Bombina maxima possess strong ability to survival in very harsh environment with a more mature immune system. We obtained a comprehensive transcriptome by RNA-sequencing technology. 14.3% of transcripts were identified to be skin-specific genes, most of which were not isolated from skin secretion in previous works or novel non-coding RNAs. 27.9% of transcripts were mapped into 242 predicted KEGG pathways and 6.16% of transcripts related to human disease and cancer. Of 39 448 transcripts with the coding sequence, at least 1501 transcripts (570 genes) related to the immune system process. The molecules of immune signalling pathway were almost presented, several transcripts with high expression in skin and stomach. Experiments showed that lipopolysaccharide or bacteria challenge stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and activation of pro-inflammatory caspase-1. These frog's data can remarkably expand the existing genome or transcriptome resources of amphibians, especially immunity data. The entity of the data provides a valuable platform for further investigation on more detailed immune response in B. maxima and a comparative study with other amphibians. PMID:23942912

  3. Natural selection on thermal preference, critical thermal maxima and locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Anthony L; Miles, Donald B

    2017-08-16

    Climate change is resulting in a radical transformation of the thermal quality of habitats across the globe. Whereas species have altered their distributions to cope with changing environments, the evidence for adaptation in response to rising temperatures is limited. However, to determine the potential of adaptation in response to thermal variation, we need estimates of the magnitude and direction of natural selection on traits that are assumed to increase persistence in warmer environments. Most inferences regarding physiological adaptation are based on interspecific analyses, and those of selection on thermal traits are scarce. Here, we estimate natural selection on major thermal traits used to assess the vulnerability of ectothermic organisms to altered thermal niches. We detected significant directional selection favouring lizards with higher thermal preferences and faster sprint performance at their optimal temperature. Our analyses also revealed correlational selection between thermal preference and critical thermal maxima, where individuals that preferred warmer body temperatures with cooler critical thermal maxima were favoured by selection. Recent published estimates of heritability for thermal traits suggest that, in concert with the strong selective pressures we demonstrate here, evolutionary adaptation may promote long-term persistence of ectotherms in altered thermal environments. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Interactive processing of x-ray diffraction maxima (exchange of experience)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabolotnyi, V.A.; Moroz, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    A program package for primary processing of the curve of intensity of x-ray dispersion has been developed and tested within the framework of creating computer programs that are compatible with IBM/PC/XT/AT computers for calculation and modeling of randial distributions of atoms. The following calculations have been included in this package: determination of the positions of maxima; separation of the maxima; and calculation of the integral characteristics of components. This paper describes the main feature of the algorithm, which is the procedure for varying the form of components, each of which is represented as a sum of two Gaussians with differing half-width ad amplitude. Use of the described method of modeling of the x-ray diffraction maximum was found effective in most of the practically important cases. To illustrate the operation of the program the results of approximation of a pentaplet of quartz obtained in CuKα-radiation with 0.01 degrees scanning step and 20 sec build-up time (40 kV; 40 mA; HZG-4C) are presented. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. Protective immunity against Eimeria maxima induced by vaccines of Em14-3-3 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingqi; Huang, Jingwei; Ehsan, Muhammad; Wang, Shuai; Fei, Hong; Zhou, Zhouyang; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-04-15

    Eimeria maxima 14-3-3 (Em14-3-3) open reading frame (ORF) which consisted of 861 bp encoding a protein of 286 amino acids was successfully amplified and sequenced. Subsequently, the Em14-3-3 ORF was subcloned into pET-32a (+) and pVAX1, respectively. RT-PCR and immunoblot analyses confirmed that the target gene was successfully transcribed and expressed in vivo. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Em14-3-3 was expressed in both the sporozoites and merozoites. The animal experiments demonstrated that both rEm14-3-3 and pVAX1-14-3-3 could clearly alleviate jejunum lesions and body weight loss. The Em14-3-3 vaccines could increase oocyst decrease ratio, as well as produce an anticoccidial index of more than 165. The percentages of CD4 + in both the Em14-3-3 immunized groups were much higher, when compared with those of PBS, pET32a (+), and pVAX1 controls (P maxima. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. WATERMELON MOSAIC VIRUS OF PUMPKIN (Cucurbita maxima FROM SULAWESI: IDENTIFICATION, TRANSMISSION, AND HOST RANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmo Wakmana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A mosaic disease of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima was spread widely in Sulawesi. Since the virus had not yet been identified, a study was conducted to identify the disease through mechanical inoculation, aphid vector transmission, host range, and electron microscopic test. Crude sap of infected pumpkin leaf samples was rubbed on the cotyledons of healthy pumpkin seedlings for mechanical inoculation. For insect transmission, five infective aphids were infected per seedling. Seedlings of eleven different species were inoculated mechanically for host range test. Clarified sap was examined under the electron microscope. Seeds of two pumpkin fruits from two different infected plants were planted and observed for disease transmission up to one-month old seedlings. The mosaic disease was transmitted mechanically from crude sap of different leaf samples to healthy pumpkin seedlings showing mosaic symptoms. The virus also infected eight cucurbits, i.e., cucumber (Cucumis sativus, green melon (Cucumis melo, orange/rock melon (C. melo, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo, pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima, water melon (Citrulus vulgaris, Bennicosa hispida, and blewah (Cucurbita sp.. Aphids  transmitted the disease from one to other pumpkin seedlings. The virus was not transmitted by seed. The mosaic disease of pumpkin at Maros, South Sulawesi, was associated with flexious particles of approximately 750 nm length, possibly a potyvirus, such as water melon mosaic virus rather than papaya ringspot virus or zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

  7. Direct correlation of observed phonon anomalies and maxima in the generalized susceptibilities of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.; Freeman, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The generalized susceptibility, chi(q vector), of both NbC and TaC determined from APW energy band calculations show large maxima to occur at precisely those q vector/sub max/ values at which soft phonon modes were observed by Smith. Maxima in chi (q vector) are predicted for other directions. The locus of these q vector/sub max/ values can be represented by a warped cube of dimension approximately 1.2 (2π/a) in momentum space, in striking agreement with the soft mode surface proposed phenomenologically by Weber. In sharp contrast, the chi(q vector) calculated for both ZrC and HfC (for which no phonon anomalies have been observed) fall off in all symmetry directions away from the zone center. The phonon anomalies in the transition metal carbides are interpreted as due to an ''overscreening'' effect resulting from an anomalous increase of the response function of the conduction electrons. 8 figures, 41 references

  8. Tree detection in urban regions from aerial imagery and DSM based on local maxima points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgür; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we propose an automatic approach for tree detection and classification in registered 3-band aerial images and associated digital surface models (DSM). The tree detection results can be used in 3D city modelling and urban planning. This problem is magnified when trees are in close proximity to each other or other objects such as rooftops in the scenes. This study presents a method for locating individual trees and estimation of crown size based on local maxima from DSM accompanied by color and texture information. For this purpose, segment level classifier trained for 10 classes and classification results are improved by analyzing the class probabilities of neighbour segments. Later, the tree classes under a certain height were eliminated using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). For the tree classes, local maxima points are obtained and the tree radius estimate is made from the vertical and horizontal height profiles passing through these points. The final tree list containing the centers and radius of the trees is obtained by selecting from the list of tree candidates according to the overlapping and selection parameters. Although the limited number of train sets are used in this study, tree classification and localization results are competitive.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the wild orchid Cattleya maxima Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusta Yadira Cueva-Agila

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocorms are unique anatomical structures; they are akin to rhizoids and are formed by young orchid seedlings under physiological conditions. Explanted orchid tissues produce similar structures called protocorm-like bodies (PLBs when exposed to appropriate in vitro growing conditions. Both the propagative nature of PLBs and the easiness by which they can be generated, make these structures an attractive alternative to seed-mediated production for growing large numbers of plants. To increase somatic embryogenesis and optimize the procedure, PLBs of Cattleya maxima were transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. The T-DNA carried a Hygromycin-resistance gene, a visible marker (GFP5-GUSA and a rice gene encoding the Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase, deemed to be important for somatic embryogenesis. Treated PLBs generated somatic embryos developing Hygromycin-resistant plantlets. The insertion of T-DNA was confirmed by PCR, and GFP expression was observed using a fluorescent stereomicroscope. Transformed Cattleya maxima PLBs were more efficient in forming somatic embryos (60 - 80 % than untransformed controls (45 - 57 %, and this contrast was maximized in hormone-free, Murashige and Skoog (MS medium (80 % of the transformed plants compared to 57 % of the untransformed ones. This finding supports the notion that SERK plays an important role in Orchid embryogenesis

  10. Biodiesel production from microalgae Spirulina maxima by two step process: Optimization of process variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from green energy source is gaining tremendous attention for ecofriendly and economically aspect. In this investigation, a two-step process was developed for the production of biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima and determined best operating conditions for the steps. In the first stage, acid esterification was conducted to lessen acid value (AV from 10.66 to 0.51 mgKOH/g of the feedstock and optimal conditions for maximum esterified oil yielding were found at molar ratio 12:1, temperature 60°C, 1% (wt% H2SO4, and mixing intensity 400 rpm for a reaction time of 90 min. The second stage alkali transesterification was carried out for maximum biodiesel yielding (86.1% and optimal conditions were found at molar ratio 9:1, temperature 65°C, mixing intensity 600 rpm, catalyst concentration 0.75% (wt% KOH for a reaction time of 20 min. Biodiesel were analyzed according to ASTM standards and results were within standards limit. Results will helpful to produce third generation algal biodiesel from microalgae Spirulina maxima in an efficient manner.

  11. Inverse Faraday Effect Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. T.; Ali, S.; Davies, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The inverse Faraday effect is usually associated with circularly polarized laser beams. However, it was recently shown that it can also occur for linearly polarized radiation [1]. The quasi-static axial magnetic field by a laser beam propagating in plasma can be calculated by considering both the spin and the orbital angular momenta of the laser pulse. A net spin is present when the radiation is circularly polarized and a net orbital angular momentum is present if there is any deviation from perfect rotational symmetry. This orbital angular momentum has recently been discussed in the plasma context [2], and can give an additional contribution to the axial magnetic field, thus enhancing or reducing the inverse Faraday effect. As a result, this effect that is usually attributed to circular polarization can also be excited by linearly polarized radiation, if the incident laser propagates in a Laguerre-Gauss mode carrying a finite amount of orbital angular momentum.[4pt] [1] S. ALi, J.R. Davies and J.T. Mendonca, Phys. Rev. Lett., 105, 035001 (2010).[0pt] [2] J. T. Mendonca, B. Thidé, and H. Then, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 185005 (2009).

  12. Sensitive and specific identification by polymerase chain reaction of Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima, important protozoan pathogens in laboratory avian facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-A; Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kim, Okjin

    2011-09-01

    Eimeria tenella and Eimeria maxima are important pathogens causing intracellular protozoa infections in laboratory avian animals and are known to affect experimental results obtained from contaminated animals. This study aimed to find a fast, sensitive, and efficient protocol for the molecular identification of E. tenella and E. maxima in experimental samples using chickens as laboratory avian animals. DNA was extracted from fecal samples collected from chickens and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was employed to detect E. tenella and E. maxima from the extracted DNA. The target nucleic acid fragments were specifically amplified by PCR. Feces secreting E. tenella and E. maxima were detected by a positive PCR reaction. In this study, we were able to successfully detect E. tenella and E. maxima using the molecular diagnostic method of PCR. As such, we recommended PCR for monitoring E. tenella and E. maxima in laboratory avian facilities.

  13. Comparative study of tranavirus isolates from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) with reference to other ranaviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Holopainen, Riikka; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity in immun......Two iridovirus isolates recovered from cod (Gadus morhua) and turbot (Psetta maxima) in Denmark were examined in parallel with a panel of other ranaviruses including frog virus 3 (FV3), the reference strain for the genus Ranavirus. The isolates were assessed according to their reactivity......). The challenge trials indicate that rainbow trout fry cultured at 15A degrees C are not target species for the virus isolates in the present panel. We suggest that the two isolates belong in the genus Ranavirus and propose the name Ranavirus maxima (Rmax) for the turbot isolate....

  14. Inverse fusion PCR cloning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Spiliotis

    Full Text Available Inverse fusion PCR cloning (IFPC is an easy, PCR based three-step cloning method that allows the seamless and directional insertion of PCR products into virtually all plasmids, this with a free choice of the insertion site. The PCR-derived inserts contain a vector-complementary 5'-end that allows a fusion with the vector by an overlap extension PCR, and the resulting amplified insert-vector fusions are then circularized by ligation prior transformation. A minimal amount of starting material is needed and experimental steps are reduced. Untreated circular plasmid, or alternatively bacteria containing the plasmid, can be used as templates for the insertion, and clean-up of the insert fragment is not urgently required. The whole cloning procedure can be performed within a minimal hands-on time and results in the generation of hundreds to ten-thousands of positive colonies, with a minimal background.

  15. Inverse plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model

  16. Establishment, characterization and immortalization of a fibroblast cell line from the Chinese red belly toad Bombina maxima skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Gao, Qian; Su, Weiting; Zeng, Lin; Wang, Jinhuan; Hu, Yi; Nie, Wenhui; Ma, Xutong; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The skin of the amphibian Bombina maxima is rich in biologically active proteins and peptides, most of which have mammalian analogues. The physiological functions of most of the mammalian analogues are still unknown. Thus, Bombina maxima skin may be a promising model to reveal the physiological role of these proteins and peptides because of their large capacity for secretion. To investigate the physiological role of these proteins and peptides in vitro, a fibroblast cell line was successfully established from Bombina maxima tadpole skin. The cell line grew to form a monolayer with cells of a uniform shape and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, which are typical characteristics of fibroblasts. Further identification at a molecular level revealed that they strongly expressed the fibroblast marker protein vimentin. The chromosome number of these cells is 2n = 28, and most of them were diploid. Growth property analysis showed that they grew well for 14 passages. However, cells showed decreased proliferative ability after passage 15. Thus, we tried to immortalize the cells through the overexpression of SV40 T antigen. After selecting by G418, cells stably expressed SV40 large T antigen and showed enhanced proliferative ability and increased telomerase activity. Signal transduction analysis revealed functional p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in immortalized Bombina maxima dermal fibroblasts. Primary fibroblast cells and the immortalized fibroblast cells from Bombina maxima cultured in the present study can be used to investigate the physiological role of Bombina maxima skin-secreted proteins and peptides. In addition, the methods for primary cell culturing and cell immortalization will be useful for culturing and immortalizing cells from other types of amphibians.

  17. The novel role of fungal intracellular laccase: used to screen hybrids between Hypsizigus marmoreus and Clitocybe maxima by protoplasmic fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Junlan; Zhang, Weiguo; Hu, Kaihui

    2012-08-01

    Laccase has been proved important in decolorization of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), oxidation of 2, 2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, lignin degradation and fruiting-body formation. The decolorization of RBBR by laccase was firstly used to screen protoplast fusants. Fusants were obtained by protoplast fusion between the strains of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Clitocybe maxima, and two fusants (IM1 and IIIM5) were screened on PDA medium containing RBBR. These fusants were significant higher in laccase activity than H. marmoreus, nearly 413 and 395 times, respectively. Their hyphal growth rates were also remarkable higher than H. marmoreus, nearly 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed these fusants contained the laccase, and the molecular mass of the laccase was consistent with the laccase of C. maxima, nearly 62 kDa. The pileus color of the IM1 and IIIM5 also showed partial recombined characteristics comparing to the parental strains, while biological efficiency ratios were prominent higher than that of H. marmoreus, up to 14.58 and 10.87 %, respectively. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA bands of fusants not only were similar to parental bands, but presented new non-parental bands. Using the Unweighted pair-group method together with mathematic averages method to gain a dendrogram, in which the fusants showed intra-cluster variations. Significantly, H. marmoreus was the dominant parent, while C. maxima were distant from the fusants. The differences among IM1, IIIM5 and H. marmoreus, and the similarities among IM1, IIIM5 and C. maxima indicated IM1 and IIIM5 were somatic hybrids of H. marmoreus and C. maxima. Accordingly, it is feasible to use laccase to screen fusants of H. marmoreus and C. maxima.

  18. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  19. Toxicologic evaluation of acute and subacute oral administration of Cucurbita maxima seed extracts to rats and swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz-Neto, A; Mataqueiro, M I; Santana, A E; Alessi, A C

    1994-06-01

    The extract prepared from dried seeds of Cucurbita maxima was administered to rats and pigs. Following a single dose or 4 weeks of daily oral administration, the extract produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, uric acid, GOT, GPT, LDH or blood counts. Urine analysis (urea, uric acid, creatinine, total protein, Na and K), as well as histopathological investigation, showed no abnormalities. These results taken as a whole indicate that the seeds of C. maxima as used in Brazilian folk medicine are not toxic for rats and swine.

  20. Algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianduo; Xiao Gang; Di Yuming; Han Feng; Qiu Xiaoling

    1999-01-01

    The γ energy spectrum is expanded in allied energy-frequency space. By the different characterization of the evolution of wavelet transform modulus maxima across scales between energy spectrum and noise, the algorithm for removing the noise from γ energy spectrum by analyzing the evolution of the wavelet transform maxima across scales is presented. The results show, in contrast to the methods in energy space or in frequency space, the method has the advantages that the peak of energy spectrum can be indicated accurately and the energy spectrum can be reconstructed with a good approximation

  1. Transmuted Generalized Inverse Weibull Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Merovci, Faton; Elbatal, Ibrahim; Ahmed, Alaa

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the generalized inverse Weibull distribution so-called transmuted generalized inverse Weibull dis- tribution is proposed and studied. We will use the quadratic rank transmutation map (QRTM) in order to generate a flexible family of probability distributions taking generalized inverse Weibull distribution as the base value distribution by introducing a new parameter that would offer more distributional flexibility. Various structural properties including explicit expression...

  2. Flowering, nectar production and insects visits in two cultivars of Cucurbita maxima Duch. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.

  3. A new protein inhibitor of trypsin and activated Hageman factor from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Gong, Y X; Richardson, M

    1990-10-29

    A protein inhibitor (CMTI-V; Mr 7106) of trypsin and activated Hageman factor (Factor XIIa), a serine protease involved in blood coagulation, has been isolated for the first time from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds by means of trypsin-affinity chromatography and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The dissociation constants of the inhibitor complexes with trypsin and Factor XIIa have been determined to be 1.6 x 10(-8) and 4.1 x 10(-8) M, respectively. The primary structure of CMTI-V is reported. The protein has 68 amino acid residues and one disulfide bridge and shows a high level of sequence homology to the Potato I inhibitor family. Furthermore, its amino terminus consists of an N-acetylates Ser. The reactive site has been established to be the peptide bond between Lys44-Asp45. The modified inhibitor which has the reactive site peptide bond hydrolyzed inhibits trypsin but not the Hageman factor.

  4. Atlas of depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) cooperatively funded project was to develop a simple-to-use atlas of precipitation depths in Texas for selected storm durations and frequencies on the basis of the research results and unpublished digital archives of Asquith (1998). The selected storm durations are 15 and 30 minutes; 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours; and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. The selected storm frequencies or annual recurrence intervals are 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years. Depth-duration frequency (DDF) of annual precipitation maxima is important for cost-effective, risk-mitigated hydrologic design. DDF values are in common and wide-spread use by public and private entities throughout Texas.

  5. Tests for Gaussianity of the MAXIMA-1 cosmic microwave background map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Balbi, A; Borrill, J; Ferreira, P G; Hanany, S; Jaffe, A H; Lee, A T; Rabii, B; Richards, P L; Smoot, G F; Stompor, R; Winant, C D

    2001-12-17

    Gaussianity of the cosmological perturbations is one of the key predictions of standard inflation, but it is violated by other models of structure formation such as cosmic defects. We present the first test of the Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on subdegree angular scales, where deviations from Gaussianity are most likely to occur. We apply the methods of moments, cumulants, the Kolmogorov test, the chi(2) test, and Minkowski functionals in eigen, real, Wiener-filtered, and signal-whitened spaces, to the MAXIMA-1 CMB anisotropy data. We find that the data, which probe angular scales between 10 arcmin and 5 deg, are consistent with Gaussianity. These results show consistency with the standard inflation and place constraints on the existence of cosmic defects.

  6. Cosmological Parameters and Hyper-Parameters: The Hubble Constant from Boomerang and Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Ofer

    Recently several studies have jointly analysed data from different cosmological probes with the motivation of estimating cosmological parameters. Here we generalise this procedure to allow freedom in the relative weights of various probes. This is done by including in the joint likelihood function a set of `Hyper-Parameters', which are dealt with using Bayesian considerations. The resulting algorithm, which assumes uniform priors on the log of the Hyper-Parameters, is very simple to implement. We illustrate the method by estimating the Hubble constant H0 from different sets of recent CMB experiments (including Saskatoon, Python V, MSAM1, TOCO, Boomerang and Maxima). The approach can be generalised for a combination of cosmic probes, and for other priors on the Hyper-Parameters. Reference: Lahav, Bridle, Hobson, Lasenby & Sodre, 2000, MNRAS, in press (astro-ph/9912105)

  7. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Ruud A; Rothballer, Michael; Strik, David P B T B; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees

    2012-04-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors.

  8. Wavelet maxima curves of surface latent heat flux associated with two recent Greek earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cervone

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi sensor data available through remote sensing satellites provide information about changes in the state of the oceans, land and atmosphere. Recent studies have shown anomalous changes in oceans, land, atmospheric and ionospheric parameters prior to earthquakes events. This paper introduces an innovative data mining technique to identify precursory signals associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology is a multi strategy approach which employs one dimensional wavelet transformations to identify singularities in the data, and an analysis of the continuity of the wavelet maxima in time and space to identify the singularities associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology has been employed using Surface Latent Heat Flux (SLHF data to study the earthquakes which occurred on 14 August 2003 and on 1 March 2004 in Greece. A single prominent SLHF anomaly has been found about two weeks prior to each of the earthquakes.

  9. Wavelet maxima curves of surface latent heat flux associated with two recent Greek earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.; Napoletani, D.; Singh, R. P.

    2004-05-01

    Multi sensor data available through remote sensing satellites provide information about changes in the state of the oceans, land and atmosphere. Recent studies have shown anomalous changes in oceans, land, atmospheric and ionospheric parameters prior to earthquakes events. This paper introduces an innovative data mining technique to identify precursory signals associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology is a multi strategy approach which employs one dimensional wavelet transformations to identify singularities in the data, and an analysis of the continuity of the wavelet maxima in time and space to identify the singularities associated with earthquakes. The proposed methodology has been employed using Surface Latent Heat Flux (SLHF) data to study the earthquakes which occurred on 14 August 2003 and on 1 March 2004 in Greece. A single prominent SLHF anomaly has been found about two weeks prior to each of the earthquakes.

  10. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  11. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation on ascorbate oxidase activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Tatiana S; Porto, Camila S; Cavalcanti, Maria T H; Filho, José L Lima; Perego, Patrizia; Porto, Ana L F; Converti, Attilio; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of ascorbate oxidase (AO) activity and stability of a Cucurbita maxima extract were investigated. Activity tests performed at 25 degrees C using initial ascorbic acid concentration in the range 50-750 M allowed estimating the Michaelis constant for this substrate (Km = 126 microM) and the maximum initial rate of ascorbic acid oxidation (A0,max = 1.57 mM min-1). The main thermodynamic parameters of the enzyme reaction (DeltaH* = 10.3 kJ mol-1; DeltaG* = 87.2 kJ mol-1; DeltaS* = -258 J mol-1 K-1) were estimated through activity tests performed at 25-48 C. Within such a temperature range, no decrease in the initial reaction rate was detected. The long-term thermostability of the raw extract was then investigated by means of residual activity tests carried out at 10-70 degrees C, which allowed estimating the thermodynamic parameters of the irreversible enzyme inactivation as well (DeltaH*D = 51.7 kJ mol-1; DeltaG*D = 103 kJ mol-1; S*D = -160 J mol-1 K-1). Taking into account the specific rate of AO inactivation determined at different temperatures, we also estimated the enzyme half-life (1047 min at 10 degrees C and 21.2 min at 70 degrees C) and predicted the integral activity of a continuous system using this enzyme preparation. This work should be considered as a preliminary attempt to characterize the AO activity of a C. maxima extract before its concentration by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.

  12. Cosmological implications of the MAXIMA-1 high-resolution cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stompor, R.; Abroe, M.; Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Barbosa, D.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V.; Jaffe, A.H.; Lee, A.T.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Wu, J.H.P.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological implications of the new constraints on the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy derived from a new high-resolution analysis of the MAXIMA-1 measurement. The power spectrum indicates excess power at lsimilar to 860 over the average level of power at 411 less than or equal to l less than or equal to 785. This excess is statistically significant at the similar to 95 percent confidence level. Its position coincides with that of the third acoustic peak, as predicted by generic inflationary models selected to fit the first acoustic peak as observed in the data. The height of the excess power agrees with the predictions of a family of inflationary models with cosmological parameters that are fixed to fit the CMB data previously provided by BOOMERANG-LDB and MAXIMA-1 experiments. Our results therefore lend support for inflationary models and more generally for the dominance of adiabatic coherent perturbations in the structure formation of the universe. At the same time, they seem to disfavor a large variety of the nonstandard (but inflation-based) models that have been proposed to improve the quality of fits to the CMB data and the consistency with other cosmological observables. Within standard inflationary models, our results combined with the COBE/Differential Microwave Radiometer data give best-fit values and 95 percent confidence limits for the baryon density, Omega (b)h(2)similar or equal to 0.033 +/- 0.013, and the total density, Omega =0.9(-0.16)(+0.18). The primordial spectrum slope (n(s)) and the optical depth to the last scattering surface (tau (c)) are found to be degenerate and to obey the relation n(s) similar or equal to (0.99 +/- 0.14) + 0.46tau (c), for tau (c) less than or equal to 0.5 (all at 95 percent confidence levels)

  13. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Baroty, Gamal S.

    2016-01-01

    L-asparaginase (L-AsnA) is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM) were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form) concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L) for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2) showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU), total protein (405 mg/g), specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein), and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L) compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima. PMID:27525017

  14. Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Carrying Eimeria maxima Gam56 Antigen Gene against Coccidiosis in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To control coccidiosis without using prophylactic medications, a DNA vaccine targeting the gametophyte antigen Gam56 from Eimeria maxima in chickens was constructed, and the immunogenicity and protective effects were evaluated. The ORF of Gam56 gene was cloned into an eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(zeo)+. Expression of Gam56 protein in COS-7 cells transfected with recombinant plasmid pcDNA-Gam56 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The DNA vaccine was injected intramuscularly to yellow feathered broilers of 1-week old at 3 dosages (25, 50, and 100 µg/chick). Injection was repeated once 1 week later. One week after the second injection, birds were challenged orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. maxima, then weighed and killed at day 8 post challenge. Blood samples were collected and examined for specific peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation activity and serum antibody levels. Compared with control groups, the administration of pcDNA-Gam56 vaccine markedly increased the lymphocyte proliferation activity (P<0.05) at day 7 and 14 after the first immunization. The level of lymphocyte proliferation started to decrease on day 21 after the first immunization. A similar trend was seen in specific antibody levels. Among the 3 pcDNA-Gam56 immunized groups, the median dosage group displayed the highest lymphocyte proliferation and antibody levels (P<0.05). The median dosage group had the greatest relative body weight gain (89.7%), and the greatest oocyst shedding reduction (53.7%). These results indicate that median dosage of DNA vaccine had good immunogenicity and immune protection effects, and may be used in field applications for coccidiosis control. PMID:23710081

  15. Optimization of Growth Conditions for Purification and Production of L-Asparaginase by Spirulina maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa H. Abd El Baky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (L-AsnA is widely distributed among microorganisms and has important applications in medicine and in food technology sectors. Therefore, the ability of the production, purification, and characterization of AsnA from Spirulina maxima (SM were tested. SM cultures grown in Zarrouk medium containing different N2 (in NaNO3 form concentrations (1.25, 2.50, and 5.0 g/L for 18 days contained a significant various quantity of dry biomass yields and AsnA enzyme levels. MS L-AsnA activity was found to be directly proportional to the N2 concentration. The cultures of SM at large scales (300 L medium, 5 g/L N2 showed a high AsnA enzyme activity (898 IU, total protein (405 mg/g, specific enzyme activity (2.21 IU/mg protein, and enzyme yield (51.28 IU/L compared with those in low N2 cultures. The partial purification of crude MS AsnA enzyme achieved by 80% ammonium sulfate AS precipitated and CM-Sephadex C-200 gel filtration led to increases in the purification of enzyme with 5.28 and 10.91 times as great as that in SM crude enzymes. Optimum pH and temperature of purified AsnA for the hydrolyzate were 8.5 and 37 ± 0.2°C, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on L-asparaginase production in S. maxima.

  16. Possibility of multiple temperature maxima in geologic repositories for spent fuel from nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, S.W.; Claiborne, H.C.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer studies show that two temperature maxima at the disposal horizon could be experienced in CANDU spent fuel repositories - one at about 60 years and another slightly higher one at 13,000 years. Because CANDU spent fuels display a monotonically decreasing heat generation rate, it is not immediately obvious why this behavior should occur. This report investigates this behavior, confirms the Canadian results, demonstrates that the double peak phenomenon is due to the presence of the right mixture of short- and long-lived nuclides in the fuel, and concludes that the 13,000-year maximum is largely an artifact of the infinite or very large plane source model. When more realistic repository geometries are used, the second peak disappears for repository sizes less than about 1 km 2 . Over the long term, radial and surface heat transfer causes the thermal history of the disposal region to deviate from that predicted by infinite plane (or large finite) source models by reducing the magnitude of the second peak. Beyond a 1000-year time horizon, care should be exercised in modeling spent fuel repositories to include the proper boundary conditions. For the first few centuries after emplacement, however, the infinite source model is consistent with the finite disk source model as well as with arrays of spherical and point sources. The second temperature peak can be avoided by restricting the size of the repository and/or partitioning out the long-lived components of the fuel. When spent fuel from PWRs was examined for multiple temperature maxima, only one peak was found, even for the infinite plane source model

  17. Highly restricted gene flow and deep evolutionary lineages in the giant clam Tridacna maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuryanto, A.; Kochzius, M.

    2009-09-01

    The tropical Indo-West Pacific is the biogeographic region with the highest diversity of marine shallow water species, with its centre in the Indo-Malay Archipelago. However, due to its high endemism, the Red Sea is also considered as an important centre of evolution. Currently, not much is known about exchange among the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and West Pacific, as well as connectivity within the Indo-Malay Archipelago, even though such information is important to illuminate ecological and evolutionary processes that shape marine biodiversity in these regions. In addition, the inference of connectivity among populations is important for conservation. This study aims to test the hypothesis that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution by studying the genetic population structure of the giant clam Tridacna maxima. This study is based on a 484-bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene from 211 individuals collected at 14 localities in the Indo-West Pacific to infer lineage diversification and gene flow as a measure for connectivity. The analysis showed a significant genetic differentiation among sample sites in the Indo-West Pacific (Φst = 0.74, P < 0.001) and across the Indo-Malay Archipelago (Φst = 0.72, P < 0.001), indicating restricted gene flow. Hierarchical AMOVA revealed the highest fixation index (Φct = 0.8, P < 0.001) when sample sites were assigned to the following regions: (1) Red Sea, (2) Indian Ocean and Java Sea, (3) Indonesian throughflow and seas in the East of Sulawesi, and (4) Western Pacific. Geological history as well as oceanography are important factors that shape the genetic structure of T. maxima in the Indo-Malay Archipelago and Red Sea. The observed deep evolutionary lineages might include cryptic species and this result supports the notion that the Indo-Malay Archipelago and the Red Sea are important centres of evolution.

  18. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from

  19. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  20. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  1. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  2. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  3. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inverse problem in hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.

    2005-03-01

    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  5. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang

    2013-01-01

    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  6. An interpretation of signature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Naoki; Tajima, Naoki

    1988-01-01

    An interpretation in terms of the cranking model is presented to explain why signature inversion occurs for positive γ of the axially asymmetric deformation parameter and emerges into specific orbitals. By introducing a continuous variable, the eigenvalue equation can be reduced to a one dimensional Schroedinger equation by means of which one can easily understand the cause of signature inversion. (author)

  7. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, V G

    1994-01-01

    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  8. Feeding behavior and capture success of turbot Psetta maxima larvae during the transition from upright to tilted swimming position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora; Mahjoub, Mohamed Sofiane; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2017-01-01

    larvae. In order to ascertain changes in feeding during metamorphosis of flatfish, we here compared feeding behavior when larvae of turbot Psetta maxima were either swimming upright or tilted. Using video recordings, we compared the attack rate and prey capture success between flexion (12-13 days...

  9. Some new retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral inequalities with maxima in two variables and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Run; Ma, Xiangting

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we establish some new retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral inequalities with maxima in two independent variables, and we present the applications to research the boundedness of solutions to retarded nonlinear Volterra-Fredholm type integral equations.

  10. Eimeria maxima microneme protein 2 delivered as DNA vaccine and recombinant protein induces immunity against experimental homogenous challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    E. maxima is one of the seven species of Eimeria that infects chicken. Until now, only a few antigenic genes of E. maxima have been reported. In the present study, the immune protective effects against E. maxima challenge of recombinant protein and DNA vaccine encoding EmMIC2 were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. The experimental group of chickens was immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC2 or 200 μg rEmMIC2 protein while the control group of chickens was injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile PBS. The results showed that the anti-EmMIC2 antibody titers of both rEmMIC2 protein and pVAX1-MIC2 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (Pmaxima challenge and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Speech Recognition with the Advanced Combination Encoder and Transient Emphasis Spectral Maxima Strategies in Nucleus 24 Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Laura K.; Vandali, Andrew E.; Skinner, Margaret W.; Fourakis, Marios S.; Holden, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the difficulties faced by cochlear implant (CI) recipients is perception of low-intensity speech cues. A. E. Vandali (2001) has developed the transient emphasis spectral maxima (TESM) strategy to amplify short-duration, low-level sounds. The aim of the present study was to determine whether speech scores would be significantly higher with…

  12. A note on the almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We prove some almost sure central limit theorems for the maxima of strongly dependent nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences under some mild conditions. The results extend the ASCLT to nonstationary Gaussian vector sequences and give substantial improvements for the weight sequence obtained by Lin et al. (Comput. Math. Appl. 62(2:635-640, 2011.

  13. First characterisation of flavonoid- and diarylheptanoid-type antioxidant phenolics in Corylus maxima by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergő; Alberti, Ágnes; Végh, Krisztina; Burlini, Ilaria; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Kéry, Ágnes

    2015-03-25

    Corylus maxima Mill. (Betulaceae) leaves have been used in traditional medicine both internally and externally, nevertheless phytochemical exploration of the plant remains incomplete. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity and polyphenolic composition of the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of C. maxima leaves and bark are reported for the first time. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were investigated by the ABTS and DPPH assays. All the extracts of C. maxima possessed notable antioxidant activity. By mean of a HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF and a HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS method, altogether twenty-two phenolics were tentatively characterised: one flavan derivative (1), seven flavonol derivatives (4, 6, 12, 13, 16, 20 and 21) and fourteen diarylheptanoids (2, 3, 5, 7-11, 14, 15, 17-19 and 22). The amount of the two main flavonoids - myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (6) and quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (13) - and two diarylheptanoids - oregonin (3) and hirsutenone (15) - in the extracts were determined by a validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Our results showed that C. maxima could be considered as a valuable source of pharmacologically important natural products that might contribute to the revaluation of the phytotherapeutical potential of the plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycoextraction by Clitocybe maxima combined with metal immobilization by biochar and activated carbon in an aged soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Cheng, Guanglei; Jiao, Kai; Shi, Wenjin; Wang, Can; Xu, Heng

    2016-08-15

    To develop an eco-friendly and efficient route to remediate soil highly polluted with heavy metals, the idea of mycoextraction combined with metal immobilization by carbonaceous sorbents (biochar and activated carbon) was investigated in this study. Results showed that the application of carbonaceous amendments decreased acid soluble Cd and Cu by 5.13-14.06% and 26.86-49.58%, respectively, whereas the reducible and oxidizable fractions increased significantly as the amount of carbonaceous amendments added increased. The biological activities (microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities) for treatments with carbonaceous sorbents were higher than those of samples without carbonaceous amendments. Clitocybe maxima (C. maxima) simultaneously increased soil enzyme activities and the total number of microbes. Biochar and activated carbon both showed a positive effect on C. maxima growth and metal accumulation. The mycoextraction efficiency of Cd and Cu in treatments with carbonaceous amendments enhanced by 25.64-153.85% and 15.18-107.22%, respectively, in response to that in non-treated soil, which showed positive correlation to the augment of biochar and activated carbon in soil. Therefore, this work suggested the effectiveness of mycoextraction by C. maxima combined the application of biochar and activated carbon in immobilising heavy metal in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian Jijel province poultry farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in Eimeria recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and ITS1 PCR revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely E. acervulina and E. maxima. A pool of these is...

  16. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL – a water soluble concentrate was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality. Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Ecklonia maxima, Kelpak SL, Nutrients, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Yield

  17. Salinity maxima associated with some sub-surface water masses in the upper layers of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varadachari, V.V.R.; Murty, C.S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    The distribution of some sub-surface water masses in the western bay of Bengal during the south-west monsoon period is presented. Based on the salinity maxima and sigma t values the existence of waters of Persian Gulf and Red Sea origin could...

  18. Algebraic properties of generalized inverses

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...

  19. Representation of functions as the Post-Widder inversion operator of generalized functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Manandhar

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A study is made of the Post-Widder inversion operator to a class of generalized functions in the sense of distributional convergence. Necessary and sufficient conditions are proved for a given function to have the representation as the rth operate of the Post-Widder inversion operator of generalized functions. Some representation theorems are also proved. Certain results concerning the testing function space and its dual are established. A fundamental theorem regarding the existence of the real inversion operator (1.6 with r=0 is proved in section 4. A classical inversion theory for the Post-Widder inversion operator with a few other theorems which are fundamental to the representation theory is also developed in this paper.

  20. Seasonality in sub-surface chlorophyll maxima in the Arabian Sea: Detection by IRS-P4/OCM and implication of it to primary productivity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Matondkar, S.G.P.; Parab, S.G.; Dwivedi, R.M.

    various seasons. During November at St. 1 surface chlorophyll a was 1.503 mgm-3and subsurface chlorophyll maxima was 12.692 mgm-3. Similarly, at St. 13 surface chlorophyll a was 0.584 mgm-3and surface chlorophyll maxima was 8.517 mgm-3. During upwelling...

  1. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or without

  2. The influence of Glyceria maxima and nitrate input on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijburg, J.W.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of nitrate addition and the presence of Glyceria maxima (reed sweetgrass) on the composition and nitrate metabolism of the dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterial community was investigated. Anoxic freshwater sediment was incubated in pots with or without G. maxima and with or

  3. Antioxidant effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima in a neurotoxic model caused by 6-OHDA in the rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón-Velasco, J C; Palafox-Sánchez, Victoria; Mendieta, Liliana; García, E; Santamaría, A; Chamorro-Cevallos, G; Limón, I Daniel

    2013-08-01

    There is evidence to support that an impaired energy metabolism and the excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to brain injury in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas diets enriched in foods with an antioxidant action may modulate its progression. Several studies have proved that the antioxidant components produced by Spirulina, a microscopic blue-green alga, might prevent cell death by decreasing free radicals, inhibiting lipoperoxidation and upregulating the antioxidant enzyme systems. In our study, we investigated the protective effect of the Spirulina maxima (S. maxima) against the 6-OHDA-caused toxicity in the rat striatum. The S. maxima (700 mg/kg/day, vo) was administered for 40 days before and 20 days after a single injection of 6-OHDA (16 μg/2 μL) into the dorsal striatum. At 20-day postsurgery, the brain was removed and the striatum was obtained to evaluate the indicators of toxicity, such as nitric oxide levels, ROS formation, lipoperoxidation, and mitochondrial activity. These variables were found significantly stimulated in 6-OHDA-treated rats and were accompanied by declines in dopamine levels and motor activity. In contrast, the animals that received the chronic treatment with S. maxima had a restored locomotor activity, which is associated with the decreased levels of nitric oxide, ROS, and lipoperoxidation in the striatum, although mitochondrial functions and dopamine levels remained preserved. These findings suggest that supplementation with antioxidant phytochemicals (such as contained in S. maxima) represents an effective neuroprotective strategy against 6-OHDA-caused neurotoxicity vía free radical production to preserve striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo.

  4. Induction of protective immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria acervulina infections using multivalent epitope DNA vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaokai; Ren, Zhe; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-06-04

    Avian coccidiosis is mostly caused by mixed infection of several Eimeria species under natural conditions and immunity to avian coccidiosis is largely dependent on T-cell immune response. In this study, 14 T-cell epitope fragments from eight antigens of Eimeria tenella (E. tenella), Eimeria necatrix (E. necatrix), Eimeria maxima (E. maxima) and Eimeria acervulina (E. acervulina) were ligated with pVAX1 producing 14 monovalent DNA vaccines, respectively. Protective immunity of the monovalent DNA vaccines was assessed by in vivo challenge experiments and then four most protective fragments of each species were chosen to construct multivalent epitope DNA vaccines with or without chicken IL-2 as genetic adjuvant. Protective efficacies of the epitope DNA vaccines on chickens against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina were evaluated. The results showed that the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds. Especially, the multivalent epitope DNA vaccines of pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1 and pVAX1-NA4-1-TA4-1-LDH-2-EMCDPK-1-IL-2 not only significantly increased body weight gain, alleviated enteric lesions and reduced oocyst output of the infected birds, but also resulted in anti-coccidial index (ACI) more than 170 against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina, which indicated they could induce protective immunity against E. tenella, E. necatrix, E. maxima and E. acervulina. Our findings suggest the constructed multivalent epitope DNA vaccines are the potential candidate multivalent vaccines against mixed infection of Eimeria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.

  6. Inverse Cerenkov experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report describes work performed to investigate inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) as a promising method for laser particle acceleration. In particular, an improved configuration of ICA is being tested in a experiment presently underway on the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). In the experiment, the high peak power (∼ 10 GW) linearly polarized ATF CO 2 laser beam is converted to a radially polarized beam. This is beam is focused with an axicon at the Cherenkov angle onto the ATF 50-MeV e-beam inside a hydrogen gas cell, where the gas acts as the phase matching medium of the interaction. An energy gain of ∼12 MeV is predicted assuming a delivered laser peak power of 5 GW. The experiment is divided into two phases. The Phase I experiments, which were completed in the spring of 1992, were conducted before the ATF e-beam was available and involved several successful tests of the optical systems. Phase II experiments are with the e-beam and laser beam, and are still in progress. The ATF demonstrated delivery of the e-beam to the experiment in Dec. 1992. A preliminary ''debugging'' run with the e-beam and laser beam occurred in May 1993. This revealed the need for some experimental modifications, which have been implemented. The second run is tentatively scheduled for October or November 1993. In parallel to the experimental efforts has been ongoing theoretical work to support the experiment and investigate improvement and/or offshoots. One exciting offshoot has been theoretical work showing that free-space laser acceleration of electrons is possible using a radially-polarized, axicon-focused laser beam, but without any phase-matching gas. The Monte Carlo code used to model the ICA process has been upgraded and expanded to handle different types of laser beam input profiles

  7. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  8. Bistable switching in dual-frequency liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palto, S. P., E-mail: palto@online.ru; Barnik, M I [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2006-06-15

    Various bistable switching modes in nematic liquid crystals with frequency inversion of the sign of dielectric anisotropy are revealed and investigated. Switching between states with different helicoidal distributions of the director field of a liquid crystal, as well as between uniform and helicoidal states, is realized by dual-frequency waveforms of a driving voltage. A distinctive feature of the dual-frequency switching is that the uniform planar distribution of the director field may correspond to a thermodynamically equilibrium state, and the chirality of an LC is not a necessary condition for switching to a helicoidal state.

  9. The physiology and biochemistry of the Laminaria pallida/Carpoblepharis minima and Ecklonia maxima/Suhria vittata associations from south-western Cape waters, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, V.J.

    1984-01-01

    The two laminarian brown algae Laminaria pallida Grev. ex. J. Ag. and Ecklonia maxima were studied. The red algae, growing attached to the brown algae namely, Carpoblepharis minima Bart. and Suhria vittata (L.) J. Ag. Pallida/C. minima and E. maxima/S. vittata associations were studied. Carpoblepharis minima has only been observed on L. pallida, whereas S. vittata has been found attached to various substrates as well as to E. maxima. Physiological studies were undertaken on both brown and red algae. Translocation was found to occur in the brown algae at a velocity of 50-100mm h- 1 in L. pallida and 240-300mm h- 1 in E. maxima after incubation in seawater containing 14 C-sodium bicarbonate (1μCi ml- 1 ). Movement of 14 C-assimilates in L. pallida was slower than in E. maxima probably due to a difference in the medulla structure. The only 14 C-labelled assimilates in the brown/red algal association were the acyclic polyol mannitol and certain amino acids. Mannitol was the major translocant in L. pallida and E. maxima. The mannitol concentration varied seasonally. Studies using 15 N-potassium nitrate showed that the major 'free' amino acids in L. pallida were alanine, glutamic acid and histadine, whereas in E. maxima they were alanine, glutamic acid and glutamine. The red algae contained mannitol and the major 'free' aminoacids were alanine, glutamine and histadine in C. minima and glutamine, glutamic acid and glycine in S. vittata. Both red algae were found to possess photosynthetic pigments, undergo 14 C-assimilation and to incorporate exogenously supplied mannitol. There was transfer of the 14 C-labelled assimilates of photosynthesis from the brown to the red algal partner in the L. pallida/C. minima association, but this did not occur in th E. maxima/S. vittata relationship

  10. A Generalization of the Spherical Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we introduce a generalization of the spherical inversion. In particular, we define an inversion with respect to an ellipsoid, and prove several properties of this new transformation. The inversion in an ellipsoid is the generalization of the elliptic inversion to the three-dimensional space. We also study the inverse images…

  11. Producción de pigmentos procedentes de Arthrospira maxima cultivada en fotobiorreactores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolymar de los Ángeles Romero Maza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de cianobacterias, como Arthrospira, puede realizarse en sistemas abiertos y sistemas cerrados o fotobiorreactores. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar la producción de pigmentos de Arthrospira maxima cultivada en dos tipos de fotobiorreactores. El cultivo se realizó de forma discontinua (Batch bajo ambiente controlado, en fotobiorreactores helicoidales y cilíndricos, durante 30 días, en medio Zarrouk. La determinación de los pigmentos se realizó en las fases de crecimiento exponencial y estacionario. Para los pigmentos liposolubles, la biomasa se sometió a extracción con acetona 90%, y posterior determinación por Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Eficiencia, y para la extracción de los pigmentos ficobiliproteínicos se ensayaron cuatro métodos: 1. regulador de fosfatos/enzimas; 2. solución alcalina, previo tratamiento con CaCl2; 3. buffer de fosfato, previo tratamiento con hielo seco y 4. agua (4ºC, y posterior determinación por Espectrofotometría UV-Visible. Los mayores valores de pigmentos liposolubles fueron obtenidos en los cultivos realizados en fotobiorreactor helicoidal durante la fase exponencial (clorofila a 11,08±0,006 µg mL-1; β-caroteno 1,82±0,003 µg mL-1; zeaxantina 0,72±0,002 µg mL-1; mientras que los mayores contenidos de los pigmentos ficobiliproteínicos se obtuvieron en fotobiorreactor cilíndrico, durante la fase estacionaria, utilizando el buffer de fosfato tratado con hielo seco para la extracción. Dentro de las ficobiliproteínas, fue la ficocianina la que se encontró en mayor proporción (FC = 77,74±0,767 mg L-1, seguido por la aloficocianina y ficoeritrina. Se concluye que la biomasa de Arthrospira maxima presenta potencial biotecnológico por sus altos contenidos de pigmentos.

  12. Comparative impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles and ferric ions on the growth of Citrus maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Guo, Huiyuan; Li, Junli; Gan, Qiuliang; Wang, Yunqiang; Xing, Baoshan

    2017-02-01

    The impacts of iron oxide nanoparticles (γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs) and ferric ions (Fe 3+ ) on plant growth and molecular responses associated with the transformation and transport of Fe 2+ were poorly understood. This study comprehensively compared and evaluated the physiological and molecular changes of Citrus maxima plants as affected by different levels of γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ . We found that γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs could enter plant roots but no translocation from roots to shoots was observed. 20 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs had no impact on plant growth. 50 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs significantly enhanced chlorophyll content by 23.2% and root activity by 23.8% as compared with control. However, 100 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs notably increased MDA formation, decreased chlorophyll content and root activity. Although Fe 3+ ions could be used by plants and promoted the synthesis of chlorophyll, they appeared to be more toxic than γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs, especially for 100 mg/L Fe 3+ . The impacts caused by γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ were concentration-dependent. Physiological results showed that γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs at proper concentrations had the potential to be an effective iron nanofertilizer for plant growth. RT-PCR analysis showed that γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs had no impact on AHA gene expression. 50 mg/L γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ significantly increased expression levels of FRO2 gene and correspondingly had a higher ferric reductase activity compared to both control and Fe(II)-EDTA exposure, thus promoting the iron transformation and enhancing the tolerance of plants to iron deficiency. Relative levels of Nramp3 gene expression exposed to γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ were significantly lower than control, indicating that all γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs and Fe 3+ treatments could supply iron to C. maxima seedlings. Overall, plants can modify the speciation and transport of γ-Fe 2 O 3 NPs or Fe 3+ for self-protection and development by activating many physiological and molecular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Experiments on accumulation of phosphorus in the plants Myosotis palustris, Glyceria maxima and Nasturtium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Prokopchuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of availability of quality water is highly relevant today, so the technologies of prediction and prevention of water pollution and purification are very important. Biological methods of cleaning, in paticular cleaning water by the so-called method of biosorption, have been increasingly used in the last decade. This method means the removal of dangerous substances and improvement of water condition by using aquatic organisms, in particular plants. Therefore, in view of the rich experience of research conducted in the biosorption sphere, we decided to predict the effectiveness of this method by using the cumulative ability of higher water plants to absorb phosphorus compounds. For this purpose, we selected water and plant samples (Glyceria maxima (C. Hartm. Holmb., Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Myosotis palustris (L. L. from the river Seret (Ternopil, Ukraine. The plants were placed into sterilized glass jars filled with 3 liters of water from the river Seret (control samples and still tap water with addition of sodium phosphate with phosphorus concentration of 3.5 mg/dm³ (research sample, which were cultured in laboratory conditions for four months. We determined the content of phosphates, permanganate and dichromate oxidation in the water and the total content of phosphorus in the plants. We traced the dynamic of organic substances and the content of phosphates in the water, the accumulation of phosphorus in plants and the rate of accumulation of phosphorus in the plants and in the water. We calculated correlation coefficients to detect the dependence between phosphorus indicators in the aquatic plants and the concentration of phosphate ions in the water. We found that M. palustris had the greatest capacity to accumulate phosphorus and the highest rate of phosphorus accumulation from water, which allows us to consider it the most effective aquatic plant for absorption of elements and decreasing water pollution. We also established

  14. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  15. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  16. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  17. Dual Dynamic Programming - DDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Bermudez, Jesus M

    1998-01-01

    Objections are presented to the mathematical formulation of the denominated Dual Dynamic programming-PDD that is the theoretical base of several computational model available for the optimal formulation of interconnected hydrothermal systems

  18. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation......Inverse problems arise in many scientific disciplines and pertain to situations where inference is to be made about a particular phenomenon from indirect measurements. A typical example, arising in diffusion tomography, is the inverse boundary value problem for non-invasive reconstruction...

  19. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded

  20. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Feng, Zongcai; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-01-01

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained

  1. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  2. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H

    2005-01-01

    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  3. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  4. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C. U.; Zimmermann, Matthias R.; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring ∼10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30–40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca2+-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca2+ influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca2+ ions. PMID:20584788

  5. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2В±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3В±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0В±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5В±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1В±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2В±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1В±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0В±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2В±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material.

  6. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in the bread fortified with pomelo (Citrus maxima) fruit segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshmi, S K; Sudha, M L; Shashirekha, M N

    2017-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index in breads incorporated with pomelo fruit (Citrus maxima) segments. Volume of the white and brown breads supplemented with pomelo fresh segments increased, while the crumb firmness decreased. Bread with 20% fresh and 5% dry pomelo segments were sensorily acceptable. Bioactive components such as phenolics, flavonoids, naringin and carotenoids were retained to a greater extent in bread containing dry pomelo segments. The pomelo incorporated bread had higher levels of resistant starch fractions (3.87-10.96%) with low predicted glycemic index (62.97-53.13%), despite their higher total starch (69.87-75.47%) content compared to control bread. Thus pomelo segments in the product formulations lowered the glycemic index probably by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme activity which could be attributed to naringin. Hence fortified bread prepared from pomelo fruit segment is recommended to gain nutritional value and to decrease the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensory, chemical and morphological characterization of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata genotypes from different geographical origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pevicharova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita spp. is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. They are characterized by great polymorphism according plants and fruits traits. The fruits are consumed in different ways as boiled, baked, dried or processed in puree and juice. The aim of the study was to assess variation of fruit sensory, chemical and morphological characteristics of Cucurbita genotypes in order to find appropriate parental components for the future high quality breeding programme. During 2-year period nine winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and three pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. genotypes originating from different geographical regions were tested on their morphological characters, basic chemical components and sensory profile. Cluster analysis and Principle component analysis were applied in order to identify similarities of different genotypes. According to the fruit characteristics and plant habitus significant differences were recorded. Considerable variation in the content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total pigments, beta-carotene and sensory assessment of the boiled fruits was established. Accession Moskatna carotina had the best flavour and chemical composition. The studied Cucurbita genotypes are a good basis for performing a breeding program to improve the sensory quality of fruits and increase basic chemical components especially those with antioxidant effect.

  8. Physico-chemical studies and evaluation of diuretic activity of Cucurbita maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkattapuram Sampath Saravanan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study physico-chemical nature and diuretic activity was evaluated to establish the purity and diuretic activity by comparing with the standard acetazolamide. Pulp of Cucurbita maxima is a common cost effective Indian dish, rich in nutrients. Physico-chemical parameters like ash values, extractive values and loss on drying were performed to find the purity. The hydro-alcoholic extract was prepared by extracting the powder in soxhlet apparatus for 36 hrs. The laboratory qualitative analysis was done and constituents like carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, flavonoids, alkaloids and vitamin C were found. The two doses of extract (150 and 300 mg/kg were given to the rats. Group I served as control, Group II served as standard and Group III and IV served as test. Electrolytes and urine volume was measured after 5 hrs of treatment and the same was compared with the control and the standard drug acetazolamide. Physico-chemical parameters were in the limit and the extract shows significant (p<0.01 diuretic activity at the dose of 300 mg/kg when compared with control.

  9. Rapid affinity-purification and physicochemical characterization of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Akkaladevi; Swamy, Musti J

    2010-04-21

    The chito-oligosaccharide-specific lectin from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) phloem exudate has been purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on chitin. After SDS/PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, the pumpkin phloem lectin yielded a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa, whereas ESI-MS (electrospray ionization MS) gave the molecular masses of the subunit as 24645 Da. Analysis of the CD spectrum of the protein indicated that the secondary structure of the lectin consists of 9.7% alpha-helix, 35.8% beta-sheet, 22.5% beta-turn and 32.3% unordered structure. Saccharide binding did not significantly affect the secondary and tertiary structures of the protein. The haemagglutinating activity of pumpkin phloem lectin was mostly unaffected in the temperature range 4-70 degrees C, but a sharp decrease was seen between 75 and 85 degrees C. Differential scanning calorimetric and CD spectroscopic studies suggest that the lectin undergoes a co-operative thermal unfolding process centred at approx. 81.5 degrees C, indicating that it is a relatively stable protein.

  10. Localization of ascorbic acid, ascorbic acid oxidase, and glutathione in roots of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liso, Rosalia; De Tullio, Mario C; Ciraci, Samantha; Balestrini, Raffaella; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Bruno, Leonardo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice; Bonfante, Paola; Arrigoni, Oreste

    2004-12-01

    To understand the function of ascorbic acid (ASC) in root development, the distribution of ASC, ASC oxidase, and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in cells and tissues of the root apex of Cucubita maxima. ASC was regularly distributed in the cytosol of almost all root cells, with the exception of quiescent centre (QC) cells. ASC also occurred at the surface of the nuclear membrane and correspondingly in the nucleoli. No ASC could be observed in vacuoles. ASC oxidase was detected by immunolocalization mainly in cell walls and vacuoles. This enzyme was particularly abundant in the QC and in differentiating vascular tissues and was absent in lateral root primordia. Administration of the ASC precursor L-galactono-gamma-lactone markedly increased ASC content in all root cells, including the QC. Root treatment with the ASC oxidized product, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), also increased ASC content, but caused ASC accumulation only in peripheral tissues, where DHA was apparently reduced at the expense of GSH. The different pattern of distribution of ASC in different tissues and cell compartments reflects its possible role in cell metabolism and root morphogenesis.

  11. Interaction of xylem and phloem during exudation and wound occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias R; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E; Furch, Alexandra C U

    2013-01-01

    Collection of cucurbit exudates from cut petioles has been a powerful tool for gaining knowledge on phloem sap composition without full notion of the complex exudation mechanism. Only few publications explicitly mentioned that exudates were collected from the basal side of the cut, which exudes more copiously than the apical side. This is surprising since only exudation from the apical side is supposedly driven by phloem pressure gradients. Composition of carbohydrates and pH values at both wounding sides are equal, whereas protein concentration is higher at the basal side. Apparently, exudation is far more complex than just the delivery of phloem sap. Xylem involvement is indicated by lower protein concentrations after elimination of root pressure. Moreover, dye was sucked into xylem vessels owing to relaxation of negative pressure after cutting. The lateral water efflux from the vessels increases turgor of surrounding cells including sieve elements. Simultaneously, detached parietal proteins (PP1/PP2) induce occlusion of sieve plates and cover wound surface. If root pressure is strong enough, pure xylem sap can be collected after removal of the occlusion plug at the wound surface. The present findings provide a mechanism of sap exudation in Cucurbita maxima, in which the contribution of xylem water is integrated. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furch, Alexandra C U; Zimmermann, Matthias R; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B; van Bel, Aart J E

    2010-08-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring approximately 10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30-40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca(2+)-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca(2+) influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca(2+) ions.

  13. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)).

  14. Incorporation of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima biomass in pasta products. Part 1: Preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradique, Mónica; Batista, Ana Paula; Nunes, M Cristiana; Gouveia, Luísa; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Raymundo, Anabela

    2010-08-15

    Microalgae are able to enhance the nutritional content of conventional foods and hence to positively affect human health, due to their original chemical composition. The aim of the present study was to prepare fresh spaghetti enriched with different amounts of microalgae biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina maxima) and to compare the quality parameters (optimal cooking time, cooking losses, swelling index and water absorption), chemical composition, instrumental texture and colour of the raw and cooked pasta enriched with microalgae biomass with standard semolina spaghetti. The incorporation of microalgae results in an increase of quality parameters when compared to the control sample. The colour of microalgae pastas remained relatively stable after cooking. The addition of microalgae resulted in an increase in the raw pasta firmness when compared to the control sample. Of all the microalgae studied, an increase in the biomass concentration (0.5-2.0%) resulted in a general tendency of an increase in the pasta firmness. Sensory analysis revealed that microalgae pastas had higher acceptance scores by the panellists than the control pasta. Microalgae pastas presented very appellative colours, such as orange and green, similar to pastas produced with vegetables, with nutritional advantages, showing energetic values similar to commercial pastas. The use of microalgae biomass can enhance the nutritional and sensorial quality of pasta, without affecting its cooking and textural properties. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat.

  16. PERFORMA BENIH TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DARI HASIL PERSILANGAN INDUK ALAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Komang Wardana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tiram mutiara merupakan salah satu komoditas andalan dalam budidaya laut. Masalah utama yang dihadapi adalah pasok benih baik kuantitas maupun kualitas. Upaya perbaikan dilakukan dengan perkawinan silang antar varietas tiram dengan tujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas benih Tiram Mutiara (Pinctada maxima baik secara fenotip maupun genotip. Induk yang disilangkan secara resiprokal mempunyai karakter nacre putih (P dan kuning (K baik populasi Bali maupun Maluku. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa persilangan dua populasi tersebut menghasilkan tiga varietas yaitu: varietas I (K x P, varietas II (K x K dan varietas III (P x K. Nilai SR pada fase pediveliger dari ketiga varietas menghasilkan sintasan berturut-turut 65%, 59%, dan 45%. Pertumbuhan varietas III menunjukkan pertumbuhan yang cukup baik dengan kisaran panjang cangkang 3,0-4,5 cm pada umur dua bulan pemeliharaan. Analisis genetik dengan RAPD-DNA menunjukkan bahwa induk-induk yang berhasil memijah mempunyai variasi genetik 0,3755; 0,3938; dan 0,1600. Sedangkan turunan F1 mempunyai variasi genetik lebih rendah yaitu: 0,2738; 0,2667; dan 0,0924.

  17. Use of fluorescent nanoparticles to investigate nutrient acquisition by developing Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2016-06-29

    The enteric disease coccidiosis, caused by the unicellular parasite Eimeria, is a major and reoccurring problem for the poultry industry. While the molecular machinery driving host cell invasion and oocyst wall formation has been well documented in Eimeria, relatively little is known about the host cell modifications which lead to acquisition of nutrients and parasite growth. In order to understand the mechanism(s) by which nutrients are acquired by developing intracellular gametocytes and oocysts, we have performed uptake experiments using polystyrene nanoparticles (NPs) of 40 nm and 100 nm in size, as model NPs typical of organic macromolecules. Cytochalasin D and nocodazole were used to inhibit, respectively, the polymerization of the actin and microtubules. The results indicated that NPs entered the parasite at all stages of macrogametocyte development and early oocyst maturation via an active energy dependent process. Interestingly, the smaller NPs were found throughout the parasite cytoplasm, while the larger NPs were mainly localised to the lumen of large type 1 wall forming body organelles. NP uptake was reduced after microfilament disruption and treatment with nocodazole. These observations suggest that E. maxima parasites utilize at least 2 or more uptake pathways to internalize exogenous material during the sexual stages of development.

  18. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina Pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Montesano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp. has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L., was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively. The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%. The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  19. Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Domenico; Blasi, Francesca; Simonetti, Maria Stella; Santini, Antonello; Cossignani, Lina

    2018-03-01

    Pumpkin ( Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as "Berrettina" ( Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn -positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ 7,22,25 -stigmastatrienol, Δ 7,25 -stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals.

  20. SELEKSI BENIH TIRAM MUTIARA (Pinctada maxima DARI HASIL PEMIJAHAN INDUK ALAM DENGAN KARAKTER NACRE PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Komang Wardana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas induk secara fenotip dan genotif berpengaruh terhadap kualitas benih tiram mutiara yang akan dihasilkan. Penggunaan induk yang berasal dari habitat yang berbeda dalam kegiatan pembenihan diharapkan dapat menghasilkan benih tiram mutiara dengan kualitas fenotip dan genotif yang baik. Salah satu sifat yang menarik untuk dijadikan target dalam program pemuliaan tiram mutiara adalah warna mutiara yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kualitas benih tiram mutiaram(Pinctada maxima hasil pemijahan induk alam dengan karakter nacre putih dari tiga habitat yang berbeda dan mengetahui keragaan genetik induk (F0 dan turunannya (F1. Induk yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah tiram dengan karakter nacre putih dari tiga lokasi perairan (Bali, Karawang, dan Dobo serta dilakukan pemijahan dari masing-masing populasi tersebut. Keragaan genetik dari semua populasi dianalisa dengan menggunakan PCR RFLP. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa masa inkubasi telur hasil pemijahan induk alam dengan karakter nacre putih terlihat lebih lama dibandingkan dengan tiram mutiara pada umumnya. Benih yang dihasilkan pertumbuhannya bervariasi, didominasi dengan benih berukuran sedang dengan sintasan berkisar 0,4-9%. Keragaan genetik F0 dan F1 berdasarkan nilai heterozigositas, tiram dari perairan Bali menunjukkan nilai keragaman yang paling baik (0,2726. Sementara karakter nacre dari benih yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa 48% memiliki nacre putih, 24% kuning dan warna lain sebanyak 28%.

  1. Australia's arid-adapted butcherbirds experienced range expansions during Pleistocene glacial maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Anna M; Joseph, Leo; Toon, Alicia; Cook, Lyn G

    2014-05-30

    A model of range expansions during glacial maxima (GM) for cold-adapted species is generally accepted for the Northern Hemisphere. Given that GM in Australia largely resulted in the expansion of arid zones, rather than glaciation, it could be expected that arid-adapted species might have had expanded ranges at GM, as cold-adapted species did in the Northern Hemisphere. For Australian biota, however, it remains paradigmatic that arid-adapted species contracted to refugia at GM. Here we use multilocus data and ecological niche models (ENMs) to test alternative GM models for butcherbirds. ENMs, mtDNA and estimates of nuclear introgression and past population sizes support a model of GM expansion in the arid-tolerant Grey Butcherbird that resulted in secondary contact with its close relative--the savanna-inhabiting Silver-backed Butcherbird--whose contemporary distribution is widely separated. Together, these data reject the universal use of a GM contraction model for Australia's dry woodland and arid biota.

  2. Seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. depending on the presowing gamma irradiation and postradiational temperature treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranov, A.

    1977-01-01

    In field experiments the seed yield of Cucurbita maxima Duch. of the Big White 48/4 cultivar was determined after presowing gamma irradiation with 4000 R and 50000 R and postradiational temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes. The presowing gamma irradiation was carried out at the IRI-200O nuclear reactor with dose capacity of 630 R/min (1968 and 1969) and 504 R/min (1970), and the postradiational heating of the seeds in a drying oven at the laboratory. It is established that the presowing gamma radiation with 4000 R stimulates the seed yield of the large-fruited pumpkin (137.06%), and the 50000 R inhibits them (25.50%). The presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 90deg in the course of 30 minutes is stimulating or indicates tendency towards seed yield stimulation. The postradiational presowing temperature treatment with 80deg and 9Odeg C in the course of 30 minutes of the 4000 R stimulative variant decrease the seed yield stimulation, and with the 50000 R inhibitive variant - repairs or displays tendency towards seed yield reparation. (author)

  3. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Sung Hyen; Jang, Seung I; Lillehoj, Erik P; Bravo, David

    2013-10-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Dietary supplementation with C. longa enhanced coccidiosis resistance as demonstrated by increased BW gains, reduced fecal oocyst shedding, and decreased gut lesions compared with infected birds fed a nonsupplemented control diet. The chickens fed C. longa-supplemented diet showed enhanced systemic humoral immunity, as assessed by greater levels of serum antibodies to an Eimeria microneme protein, MIC2, and enhanced cellular immunity, as measured by concanavalin A-induced spleen cell proliferation, compared with controls. At the intestinal level, genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray hybridization identified 601 differentially expressed transcripts (287 upregulated, 314 downregulated) in gut lymphocytes of C. longa-fed chickens compared with nonsupplemented controls. Based on the known functions of the corresponding mammalian genes, the C. longa-induced intestinal transcriptome was mostly associated with genes mediating anti-inflammatory effects. Taken together, these results suggest that dietary C. longa could be used to attenuate Eimeria-induced, inflammation-mediated gut damage in commercial poultry production.

  4. Linear stochastic models for forecasting daily maxima and hourly concentrations of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollister, G M; Wilson, K R

    1975-04-01

    Two related time series models were developed to forecast concentrations of various air pollutants and tested on carbon monoxide and oxidant data for the Los Angeles basin. One model forecasts daily maximum concentrations of a particular pollutant using only past daily maximum values of that pollutant as input. The other model forecasts 1 hr average concentrations using only the past hourly average values. Both are significantly more accurate than persistence, i.e., forecasting for tomorrow what occurred today (or yesterday). Model forecasts for 1972 of the daily instantaneous maxima for total oxidant made using only past pollutant concentration data are more accurate than those made by the Los Angeles APCD using meteorological input as well as pollutant concentrations. Although none of these models forecast as accurately as might be desired for a health warning system, the relative success of simple time series models, even though based solely on pollutant concentration, suggests that models incorporating meteorological data and using either multi-dimensional times series or pattern recognition techniques should be tested.

  5. Experimental Pseudomonas anguilliseptica infection in turbot Psetta maxima (L.: a histopathological and immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Romalde

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection with Pseudomonas anguilliseptica was performed both by intraperitoneal (i.p. and bath route on juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima in order to evaluate the pathology induced. Turbot was found to be sensitive to i.p. challenge (1.7x106 CFU/fish but no to bath exposure. The i.p. challenge induced septicaemic infection and mortality. Externally, moribund fish showed distended abdomen and pale areas at day 9. The gross pathological internal signs present were abundant ascitic fluid in the peritoneal cavity, pale and enlarged spleen, pale and friable liver, and congestive and dilated gut with yellowish exudates. On histopathological examination, bacterial invasion was common in all the tissues studied but the most prominent pathological changes were observed in gut, spleen and kidney after 7 day with features of necrosis. The immunohistochemical findings support the widespread localization of the bacteria after the i.p. injection since the P. anguilliseptica was detected in spleen from day 1 post injection, in liver, kidney and gut from day 4, in muscle from day 7 and in brain from day 9. The difficulties in infecting healthy fish by bath challenge can be explained by the opportunistic nature of this pathogen.

  6. Microbial community structure elucidates performance of Glyceria maxima plant microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmers, Ruud A.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, Bert; Buisman, Cees [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Sub-dept. of Environmental Technology; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Dept. Microbe-Plant Interactions; Engel, Marion; Schulz, Stephan; Schloter, Michael [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Dept. Terrestrial Ecogenetics

    2012-04-15

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology in which living plant roots provide electron donor, via rhizodeposition, to a mixed microbial community to generate electricity in a microbial fuel cell. Analysis and localisation of the microbial community is necessary for gaining insight into the competition for electron donor in a PMFC. This paper characterises the anode-rhizosphere bacterial community of a Glyceria maxima (reed mannagrass) PMFC. Electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were located on the root surfaces, but they were more abundant colonising the graphite granular electrode. Anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria dominated the area where most of the EAB were found, indicating that the current was probably generated via the hydrolysis of cellulose. Due to the presence of oxygen and nitrate, short-chain fatty acid-utilising denitrifiers were the major competitors for the electron donor. Acetate-utilising methanogens played a minor role in the competition for electron donor, probably due to the availability of graphite granules as electron acceptors. (orig.)

  7. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  8. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inversion therapy: Can it relieve back pain? Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back ...

  9. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M

    2011-01-01

    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  10. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1981-10-01

    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed

  11. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.

  12. Vegetation Parameter Extraction Using Dual Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Chen, X.; Tang, Y.

    2009-04-01

    For vegetation parameter inversion, the single baseline polarimetric SAR interferometry (POLinSAR) technique, such as the three-stage method and the ESPRIT algorithm, is limited by the observed data with the minimum ground to volume amplitude ration, which effects the estimation of the effective phase center for the vegetation canopy or the surface, and thus results in the underestimated vegetation height. In order to remove this effect of the single baseline inversion techniques in some extend, another baseline POLinSAR data is added on vegetation parameter estimation in this paper, and a dual baseline POLinSAR technique for the extraction of the vegetation parameter is investigated and improved to reduce the dynamic bias for the vegetation parameter estimation. Finally, the simulated data and real data are used to validate this dual baseline technique.

  13. Gas exchange and growth responses to nutrient enrichment in invasive Glyceria maxima and native New Zealand Carex species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Fitridge, Isla

    2012-01-01

    We compared photosynthetic gas exchange, the photosynthesis-leaf nitrogen (N) relationship, and growth response to nutrient enrichment in the invasive wetland grass Glyceria maxima (Hartman) Holmburg with two native New Zealand Carex sedges (C. virgata Boott and C. secta Boott), to explore...... the ecophysiological traits contributing to invasive behaviour. The photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship was uniform across all three species, and the maximum light-saturated rate of photosynthesis expressed on a leaf area basis (Amaxa) did not differ significantly between species. However, specific leaf area (SLA...... the sedges, but correlations between leaf N, gas exchange parameters (Amaxa, Amaxm, Rd and gs) and RGR were all highly significant in G. maxima, whereas they were weak or absent in the sedges. Allocation of biomass (root:shoot ratio, leaf mass ratio, root mass ratio), plant N and P content, and allocation...

  14. Description of backward maxima in α-particle elastic scattering on 12C and 40Ca nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskaya, N.S.; Teplov, I.B.; Yushchenko, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The backward maxima in the cross section are described presenting the elastic scattering amplitude as a sum of an optical (potential) amplitude and an addition associated with exchange processes. The use of the simplified distorted wave variant (the eikonal) approximation with cutoff in integration over the interior of the nucleus for calculation of the matrix elements of exchange processes is numerically justified. The microscopic description allows not only to describe the backward maxima for both nuclei but as well to improve the agreement with the experiment in a wide angular range and to obtain a correct general behaviour of the excitation functions at the largest angles. Comparison of the microscopic and phenomenological reflection coefficients shows that these coefficients cannot be described in terms of a single phenomenological model [ru

  15. Complex, non-monotonic dose-response curves with multiple maxima: Do we (ever) sample densely enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvrčková, Fatima; Luštinec, Jiří; Žárský, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    We usually expect the dose-response curves of biological responses to quantifiable stimuli to be simple, either monotonic or exhibiting a single maximum or minimum. Deviations are often viewed as experimental noise. However, detailed measurements in plant primary tissue cultures (stem pith explants of kale and tobacco) exposed to varying doses of sucrose, cytokinins (BA or kinetin) or auxins (IAA or NAA) revealed that growth and several biochemical parameters exhibit multiple reproducible, statistically significant maxima over a wide range of exogenous substance concentrations. This results in complex, non-monotonic dose-response curves, reminiscent of previous reports of analogous observations in both metazoan and plant systems responding to diverse pharmacological treatments. These findings suggest the existence of a hitherto neglected class of biological phenomena resulting in dose-response curves exhibiting periodic patterns of maxima and minima, whose causes remain so far uncharacterized, partly due to insufficient sampling frequency used in many studies.

  16. Photometric and fluorometric continuous kinetic assay of acid phosphatases with new substrates possessing longwave absorption and emission maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, E; Wolfbeis, O S

    1984-11-15

    A direct and continuous kinetic method for the photometric and fluorometric determination of various acid phosphatases is described. It is based on new coumarin-derived phosphates, which after enzymatic hydrolysis undergo dissociation to form intensely colored and strongly fluorescent phenolate anions. The latter have absorption maxima ranging from 385 to 505 nm, and fluorescence maxima between 470 and 595 nm. The new substrates were compared with respect to their rate of enzymatic hydrolysis, optimum pH, and detection limits of acid phosphatase from potato and wheat germ. Detection limits of 0.001 unit/ml were found by photometry, and as low as 0.00006 unit/ml by fluorometry. The principal advantages of the new substrates over existing ones are longwave absorptions and emissions, large Stokes shifts, and the low pKa values of the corresponding phenols, thus allowing a direct and continuous assay of acid phosphatase even in weakly acidic solutions.

  17. Prior selection for Gumbel distribution parameters using multiple-try metropolis algorithm for monthly maxima PM10 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nor Azrita Mohd; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2014-09-01

    The Multiple-try Metropolis (MTM) algorithm is the new alternatives in the field of Bayesian extremes for summarizing the posterior distribution. MTM produce efficient estimation scheme for modelling extreme data in term of the convergence and small burn-in periods. The main objective is to explore the accuracy of the parameter estimation to the change of priors and compare the results with a classical likelihood-based analysis. Focus is on modelling the extreme data based on block maxima approach using Gumbel distribution. The comparative study between MTM and MLE is shown by the numerical problems. Several goodness of fit tests are compute for selecting the best model. The application is on the monthly maxima PM10 data for Johor state.

  18. Approach to the Interaction Studies of Aristolochia maxima and the Caterpillars of Butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Claro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Most butterflies of the tribe Troidini (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae sequester aristolochic acids (AA for their protection. These acids are derived from their host plants -family Aristolochiaceae- upon which they feed on during their larval stages. Using analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC methods we were able to detect the presence of aristolochic acids I and II both in the young leaves of Aristolochia maxima (Aristolochiaceae and in the caterpillars of the butterflies Battus polydamas polydamas and Parides panares erythrus (Papilionidae, Papilioninae. Aristolochic acid I was the major constituent found, followed by lesser amounts of Aristoloquic acid II. These results confirm that the host-animal interaction among butterflies of the studied species and A. maxima plants is mediated, by aristolochic acids.

  19. Fractional-Order Total Variation Image Restoration Based on Primal-Dual Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dali; Chen, YangQuan; Xue, Dingyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a fractional-order total variation image denoising algorithm based on the primal-dual method, which provides a much more elegant and effective way of treating problems of the algorithm implementation, ill-posed inverse, convergence rate, and blocky effect. The fractional-order total variation model is introduced by generalizing the first-order model, and the corresponding saddle-point and dual formulation are constructed in theory. In order to guarantee $O(1/{N}^{2})$ conv...

  20. Phaseless tomographic inverse scattering in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estatico, C.; Fedeli, A.; Pastorino, M.; Randazzo, A.; Tavanti, E.

    2016-01-01

    In conventional microwave imaging, a hidden dielectric object under test is illuminated by microwave incident waves and the field it scatters is measured in magnitude and phase in order to retrieve the dielectric properties by solving the related non-homogenous Helmholtz equation or its Lippmann-Schwinger integral formulation. Since the measurement of the phase of electromagnetic waves can be still considered expensive in real applications, in this paper only the magnitude of the scattering wave fields is measured in order to allow a reduction of the cost of the measurement apparatus. In this respect, we firstly analyse the properties of the phaseless scattering nonlinear forward modelling operator in its integral form and we provide an analytical expression for computing its Fréchet derivative. Then, we propose an inexact Newton method to solve the associated nonlinear inverse problems, where any linearized step is solved by a L p Banach space iterative regularization method which acts on the dual space L p* . Indeed, it is well known that regularization in special Banach spaces, such us L p with 1 < p < 2, allows to promote sparsity and to reduce Gibbs phenomena and over-smoothness. Preliminary results concerning numerically computed field data are shown. (paper)

  1. Amino-acid sequence of two trypsin isoinhibitors, ITD I and ITD III from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, T; Wieczorek, M; Polanowski, A; Denton, A; Cook, J; Laskowski, M

    1983-01-01

    The amino-acid sequences of two trypsin isoinhibitors, ITD I and ITD III, from squash seeds (Cucurbita maxima) were determined. Both isoinhibitors contain 29 amino-acid residues, including 6 half cystine residues. They differ only by one amino acid. Lysine in position 9 of ITD III is substituted by glutamic acid in ITD I. Arginine in position 5 is present at the reactive site of both isoinhibitors. The previously published sequence of ITD III has been shown to be incorrect.

  2. The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima, GS and M6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Badri, Riadh; Barta, John Robert

    2012-11-01

    The kinetics of oocyst shedding and sporulation of two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima (GS and M6) were compared. Both strains had a prepatent period of approximately 120 h followed by peak oocyst shedding at 144-150 h post inoculation. Mean total oocyst output determined for each strain demonstrated that the fecundity of the M6 strain (12.8 × 10(3) ± 1.95) of E. maxima was roughly twice that of the GS strain (6.9 × 10(3) ± 3.33) when inoculated at the rate of 1,000 infective oocysts per bird. The process of oocyst sporulation was followed by repetitive sampling of sporulating oocysts at 26 °C with aeration over a 138 hour period. Sporulation was divided into five morphologically distinguishable stages whose abundance peaked at the following times during sporulation: unsporulated oocysts at 0 h; sporoblast anlagen at 18 h; sporoblasts without sporocyst walls at 22 h; and sporocysts without mature sporozoites at 38 h. The time to 50 % sporulation of E. maxima oocysts observed in the present study was approximately 53 h for both strains and all viable oocysts had completed sporulation by 60 h. In the present study, the prepatent periods, duration of oocyst shedding, and the relative kinetics of sporulation of the GS and M6 strains of E. maxima were found to be virtually identical despite the immunological distinctiveness of these two parasite strains.

  3. Ethanol extract grapefruit peel ( Citrus maxima Murr.) gel formulations with gelling agent durian seed gum and carboxy methyl cellulose

    OpenAIRE

    Nazliniwaty; Karsono; Zebua, Nilsya Febrika; Nerdy

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the best gel formula of grapefruit ethanol extracts (Citrus maxima Murr.) with gelling agent combination durian seed gum and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). Durian seed gum was isolated with centrifuge and then combined with CMC-Na in five formulas. Evaluation material of topical gel that is its homogeneity, pH, stability testing, and irritation of the volunteers. All formula gel preparations its ...

  4. Plant phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima: Responses induced by enhanced ozone atmospheric levels and nitrogen enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, J.; Bermejo, V.; Muntifering, R.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, I.; Gimeno, B.S.; Elvira, S.; Alonso, R.

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the effects of tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) levels and substrate nitrogen (N) supplementation, singly and in combination, on phenology, growth and nutritive quality of Briza maxima was carried out. Two serial experiments were developed in Open-Top Chambers (OTC) using three O 3 and three N levels. Increased O 3 exposure did not affect the biomass-related parameters, but enhanced senescence, increased fiber foliar content (especially lignin concentration) and reduced plant life span; these effects were related to senescence acceleration induced by the pollutant. Added N increased plant biomass production and improved nutritive quality by decreasing foliar fiber concentration. Interestingly, the effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. N supplementation counteracted the O 3 -induced senescence but did not modifiy the effects on nutritive quality. Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of herbaceous vegetation. - Research highlights: → Forage quality (foliar protein and fiber content) and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima. → The effects of N supplementation depended on meteorological conditions and plant physiological activity. → Increase in nitrogen supplementation counterbalanced the O 3 -induced increase in senescence biomass. → Nutritive quality and phenology should be considered in new definitions of the O 3 limits for the protection of natural herbaceous vegetation. - Forage quality and phenology are more O 3 -sensitive than growth parameters in the Mediterranean annual grass Briza maxima.

  5. Gas exchange and growth responses to nutrient enrichment in invasive Glyceria maxima and native New Zealand Carex species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans; Fitridge, Isla

    2012-01-01

    the sedges, but correlations between leaf N, gas exchange parameters (Amaxa, Amaxm, Rd and gs) and RGR were all highly significant in G. maxima, whereas they were weak or absent in the sedges. Allocation of biomass (root:shoot ratio, leaf mass ratio, root mass ratio), plant N and P content, and allocation......) in G. maxima (17 ± 6 m2 kg-1) was 1.3 times that of the sedges, leading to 1.4 times higher maximum rates of photosynthesis (350 – 400 nmol CO2 g-1 dry mass s-1) expressed on a leaf mass basis (Amaxm) when N supply was unlimited, compared to the sedges (mass s-1). Analysis......, the sedges had 2.4 times higher intrinsic water use efficiency (A/gs: range 20-70 c.f. 8-30 µmol CO2 mol-1 H2O) and 1.6 times higher nitrogen use efficiency (NUE: 25 – 30 c.f. 20 – 23 g dry mass g-1 N) under excess N supply. Relative growth rates (RGR) were not significantly higher in G. maxima than...

  6. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocira, Anna; Świeca, Michał; Kocira, Sławomir; Złotek, Urszula; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL - a water soluble concentrate) was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska) was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality.

  7. Evaluation of anaerobic digestates from different feedstocks as growth media for Tetradesmus obliquus, Botryococcus braunii, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Arthrospira maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marina; Buono, Silvia; Langellotti, Antonio Luca; Castaldo, Luigi; Martello, Anna; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2017-05-25

    In this paper, two freshwater microalgae (Tetradesmus obliquus and Botryococcus braunii), a marine diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and a photosynthetic cyanobacterium (Arthrospira maxima) were investigated for their ability to grow on liquid digestates (LDs). Three LDs were obtained from anaerobic digestion of different organic wastes: zootechnical (ZW LD), vegetable biomass (VW LD) and the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MW LD). All the strains showed the same growth performance on VW LD as on the respective standard media (SM), while ZW LD was efficient only for growth of T. obliquus and B. braunii. MW LD was the poorest growth medium for all the strains. Data on nutrient removal efficiency showed that A. maxima and T. obliquus made the best use of NH 4 + -N with removal values ranging between 98.9-99.8%, while P. tricornutum and B. braunii showed values of 79.0 and 88.5% respectively. Applying repeated batch cultivation in photobioreactors, the biochemical composition of A. maxima and T. obliquus biomass grown on ZW LD and VW LD, showed an increase of lipid, carbohydrates and ash in both microalgae. Biomass biochemical profiles suggest possible applications in feed, chemicals and energy sectors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Origin of two maxima in specific heat in enthalpy relaxation under thermal history composed of cooling, annealing, and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakatsuji, Waki; Konishi, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshihisa

    2016-12-01

    The origin of two maxima in specific heat observed at the higher and the lower temperatures in the glass-transition region in the heating process has been studied for polymethyl methacrylate and polyvinyl chloride using differential scanning calorimetry, and the calculation was done using the phenomenological model equation under a thermal history of the typical annealing experiment composed of cooling, annealing, and heating. The higher maximum is observed above the glass-transition temperature, and it remains almost unchanged independent of annealing time t_{a}, while the lower one is observed above an annealing temperature T_{a} and shifts toward the higher one, increasing its magnitude with t_{a}. The analysis by the phenomenological model equation proposed in order to interpret the memory effect in the glassy state clarifies that under a typical annealing history, two maxima in specific heat essentially appear. The shift of the lower maximum toward higher temperatures from above T_{a} is caused by an increase in the amount of relaxation during annealing with t_{a}. The annealing temperature and the amount of relaxation during annealing play a major role in the determination of the number of maxima in the specific heat.

  9. THE METHODICAL ASPECTS OF MAXIMA USING AS A TOOL FOR FUNDAMENTAL TRAINING OF BACHELORS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shyshkina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the formation of the information society, where the pace of scientific progress is rapidly growing, it is difficult to provide the training for immediate inclusion of the person into the production chain at a workplace or in an educational system. There is the way out and it is fundamentalization of informatics education. It is necessary to train the specialist so that he (she could be able to be adapted quickly to the changes occurring in the industry technological development; to give him knowledge, universal in nature, so as the expert may navigate quickly to resolve the professional tasks on this basis. The article describes the trends of systems of computer mathematics (SCM pedagogical use for teaching computer science disciplines. The general characteristics and conditions for effective use of the Maxima as a tool for fundamentalization of the bachelors learning process are outlined. The ways of informatics disciplines teaching methodology are revealed. The peculiarities of cloud based learning solutions are considered. The purpose of the article is the analysis of contemporary approaches to the use of systems of computer mathematics as a tool for fundamentalization of informatics disciplines training courses and identify methodological aspects of these systems application for the teaching of operations research as by the example of SCM Maxima. The object of investigation is the learning process of informatics bachelors with the use of SCM. The subject of investigation is the peculiarities of using the SCM Maxima as a learning tool for informatics courses support

  10. Cultivation, production and management techniques of broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima Roxb. in hilly areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammod Jahangir Alam

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results on appropriate cultivation, plantation, production and management techniques of Thysanolaena maxima for domestication at age 1–4 yr (grown 2007–2011. Rhizome cuttings were planted in research experimental plots at spacings of T1 = 1.0 m × 1.0 m, T2 = 1.5 m × 1.5 m and T3 = 2.0 m × 2.0 m in a randomized complete block design with six replications and three treatments. The results showed that the number of panicles produced was 1048, 41,237, 78,737 and 105,094 in year 1 to year 4, respectively. The average total green weight (kg/plot was 10.26, 632.15, 423.34 and 543.40 and the average dry weight (kg/plot was 9.88, 287.65, 216.93 and 241.60 in year 1 to year 4, respectively. Composite soil samples were collected and the soil pH values of the surface soil from the different treatments varied from 5.1 to 5.2. There was no significant difference among the treatments in the available P and S. The available Ca, Mg and K were higher in the T3 treatment compared with the other treatments. Planting rhizome cuttings at 2.0 m × 2.0 m spacing gave the maximum broom/panicle production.

  11. Subunit structure and interactions of the phloem proteins of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, S M; Northcote, D H

    1983-08-15

    The two major proteins from the phloem exudate of Cucurbita maxima (pumpkin), PP1 and PP2, were stable in the absence of reducing agents after modification of their accessible cysteine residues with iodoacetamide. This permitted their purification without precautions to prevent oxidation. PP2, a lectin specific for oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, was shown by sedimentation-equilibrium ultracentrifugation to be a dimer of Mr of 48000. Neither dithiothreitol nor tri-(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) altered this value. The constituent polypeptides were linked by two buried disulphide bridges. PP2 behaved aberrantly on gel-filtration on both Sephadex and Bio-Gel unless tri-(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) was added to the elution buffer; the Mr was then measured as 46000. Other proteins which bind oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are also retarded on gel-filtration. Soluble phloem filaments were prepared by collection of exudate into deaerated buffer containing iodoacetamide but no reducing agent. Oxidative gellation of the filaments was prevented by rapid modification of their many accessible cysteine residues, and is assumed to have maintained the degree of polymerisation found in vivo. Those disulphide bridges which were present allowed the incorporation of approximately 60% of the PP1 and 80% of the PP2 into polymeric material. It is concluded that PP1 and PP2 are both structural proteins present in the filaments observable in vivo. PP2 had an elongated binding-site for oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is suggested that this lectin immobilises bacteria and fungi to the cross-linked filaments which seal wounded phloem sieve-tubes, and thus maintains sterility.

  12. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-04-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA(9). Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA(4) levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA(4) (but not of its precursors GA(12)-aldehyde or GA(9)) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA(4) synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth.

  13. Purification and partial amino-acid sequence of gibberellin 20-oxidase from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from Cucurbita maxima endosperm by fractionated ammonium-sulphate precipitation, gel-filtration chromatography and anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Average purification after the last step was 55-fold with 3.9% of the activity recovered. The purest single fraction was enriched 101-fold with 0.2% overall recovery. Apparent relative molecular mass of the enzyme was 45 kDa, as determined by gel-filtration HPLC and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that GA 20-oxidase is probably a monomeric enzyme. The purified enzyme degraded on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, giving two protein spots: a major one corresponding to a molecular mass of 30 kDa and a minor one at 45 kDa. The isoelectric point for both was 5.4. The amino-acid sequences of the amino-terminus of the purified enzyme and of two peptides from a tryptic digest were determined. The purified enzyme catalysed the sequential conversion of [14C]GA12 to [14C]GA15, [14C]GA24 and [14C]GA25, showing that carbon atom 20 was oxidised to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and carboxylic acid in three consecutive reactions. [14C]Gibberellin A53 was similarly converted to [14C]GA44, [14C]GA19, [14C]GA17 and small amounts of a fourth product, which was preliminarily identified as [14C]GA20, a C19-gibberellin. All GAs except [14C]GA20 were identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The cofactor requirements in the absence of dithiothreitol were essentially as in its presence (Lange et al., Planta 195, 98-107, 1994), except that ascorbate was essential for enzyme activity and the optimal concentration of catalase was lower.

  14. Evidence based study of antidiabetic potential of C. maxima seeds - In vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushawaha, Devesh Kumar; Yadav, Manjulika; Chatterji, Sanjukta; Srivastava, Amrita Kumari; Watal, Geeta

    2017-10-01

    In vitro antidiabetic efficacy of Cucurbita maxima seed extract (CMSE) has already been studied in our previous findings. Thus, in order to validate these findings in biological system, in vivo antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract was investigated in normal as well as diabetic experimental models. Variable doses of extract were administered orally to normal and STZ induced mild diabetic rats during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test (GTT) studies. In order to determine the extract's antidiabetic potential long-term FBG and post prandial glucose (PPG) studies were also carried out. Most effective dose of 200 mg kg -1 of CMSE decreases the blood glucose level (BGL) in normal rats by 29.02% at 6 h during FBG studies and 23.23% at 3 h during GTT. However, the maximum reduction observed in BGL of mild diabetic rats during GTT the same interval of time was 26.15%. Moreover, in case of severely diabetic rats a significant reduction of 39.33% was observed in FBG levels whereas, in case of positive control, rats treated with 2.5 mg kg -1 of glipizide, a fall of 42.9% in FBG levels was observed after 28 days. Results of PPG level also showed a fall of 33.20% in severely diabetic rats as compared to the positive control showing a fall of 44.2% at the end of the 28 days. Thus, the present study validate the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of CMSE and hence this extract could be explored further for developing as a novel antidiabetic agent.

  15. Using interval maxima regression (IMR) to determine environmental optima controlling Microcystis spp. growth in Lake Taihu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Peng, Qiang; Xiao, Man

    2016-01-01

    Fortnightly investigations at 12 sampling sites in Meiliang Bay and Gonghu Bay of Lake Taihu (China) were carried out from June to early November 2010. The relationship between abiotic factors and cell density of different Microcystis species was analyzed using the interval maxima regression (IMR) to determine the optimum temperature and nutrient concentrations for growth of different Microcystis species. Our results showed that cell density of all the Microcystis species increased along with the increase of water temperature, but Microcystis aeruginosa adapted to a wide range of temperatures. The optimum total dissolved nitrogen concentrations for M. aeruginosa, Microcystis wesenbergii, Microcystis ichthyoblabe, and unidentified Microcystis were 3.7, 2.0, 2.4, and 1.9 mg L(-1), respectively. The optimum total dissolved phosphorus concentrations for different species were M. wesenbergii (0.27 mg L(-1)) > M. aeruginosa (0.1 mg L(-1)) > M. ichthyoblabe (0.06 mg L(-1)) ≈ unidentified Microcystis, and the iron (Fe(3+)) concentrations were M. wesenbergii (0.73 mg L(-1)) > M. aeruginosa (0.42 mg L(-1)) > M. ichthyoblabe (0.35 mg L(-1)) > unidentified Microcystis (0.09 mg L(-1)). The above results suggest that if phosphorus concentration was reduced to 0.06 mg L(-1) or/and iron concentration was reduced to 0.35 mg L(-1) in Lake Taihu, the large colonial M. wesenbergii and M. aeruginosa would be replaced by small colonial M. ichthyoblabe and unidentified Microcystis. Thereafter, the intensity and frequency of the occurrence of Microcystis blooms would be reduced by changing Microcystis species composition.

  16. Self-dual Hopf quivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hualin; Li Libin; Ye Yu

    2004-07-01

    We study pointed graded self-dual Hopf algebras with a help of the dual Gabriel theorem for pointed Hopf algebras. Quivers of such Hopf algebras are said to be self-dual. An explicit classification of self-dual Hopf quivers is obtained. We also prove that finite dimensional coradically graded pointed self-dual Hopf algebras are generated by group-like and skew-primitive elements as associative algebras. This partially justifies a conjecture of Andruskiewitsch and Schneider and may help to classify finite dimensional self-dual pointed Hopf algebras

  17. Inverse source problems in elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Hu, Guanghui; Kian, Yavar; Yin, Tao

    2018-04-01

    We are concerned with time-dependent inverse source problems in elastodynamics. The source term is supposed to be the product of a spatial function and a temporal function with compact support. We present frequency-domain and time-domain approaches to show uniqueness in determining the spatial function from wave fields on a large sphere over a finite time interval. The stability estimate of the temporal function from the data of one receiver and the uniqueness result using partial boundary data are proved. Our arguments rely heavily on the use of the Fourier transform, which motivates inversion schemes that can be easily implemented. A Landweber iterative algorithm for recovering the spatial function and a non-iterative inversion scheme based on the uniqueness proof for recovering the temporal function are proposed. Numerical examples are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions.

  18. Inversion of the star transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fan; Schotland, John C; Markel, Vadim A

    2014-01-01

    We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of conventional x-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically. (paper)

  19. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  20. Inverse photoemission of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Morrall, P.; Tull, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the itinerant-localised bonding role of the 5f electrons in the light actinides will afford an insight into their unusual physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the combination of core and valance band electron spectroscopies with theoretic modelling have already made significant progress in this area. However, information of the unoccupied density of states is still scarce. When compared to the forward photoemission techniques, measurements of the unoccupied states suffer from significantly less sensitivity and lower resolution. In this paper, we report on our experimental apparatus, which is designed to measure the inverse photoemission spectra of the light actinides. Inverse photoemission spectra of UO 2 and UO 2.2 along with the corresponding core and valance electron spectra are presented in this paper. UO 2 has been reported previously, although through its inclusion here it allows us to compare and contrast results from our experimental apparatus to the previous Bremsstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy investigations

  1. Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.

    2007-06-01

    The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)

  2. Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Tae-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…

  3. Dual source CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, Peter R.; Hofmann, Lars K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) in 2005 was an evolutionary leap in the field of CT imaging. Two x-ray sources operated simultaneously enable heart-rate independent temporal resolution and routine spiral dual energy imaging. The precise delivery of contrast media is a critical part of the contrast-enhanced CT procedure. This book provides an introduction to DSCT technology and to the basics of contrast media administration followed by 25 in-depth clinical scan and contrast media injection protocols. All were developed in consensus by selected physicians on the Dual Source CT Expert Panel. Each protocol is complemented by individual considerations, tricks and pitfalls, and by clinical examples from several of the world's best radiologists and cardiologists. This extensive CME-accredited manual is intended to help readers to achieve consistently high image quality, optimal patient care, and a solid starting point for the development of their own unique protocols. (orig.)

  4. 3D CSEM inversion based on goal-oriented adaptive finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Key, K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a parallel 3D frequency domain controlled-source electromagnetic inversion code name MARE3DEM. Non-linear inversion of observed data is performed with the Occam variant of regularized Gauss-Newton optimization. The forward operator is based on the goal-oriented finite element method that efficiently calculates the responses and sensitivity kernels in parallel using a data decomposition scheme where independent modeling tasks contain different frequencies and subsets of the transmitters and receivers. To accommodate complex 3D conductivity variation with high flexibility and precision, we adopt the dual-grid approach where the forward mesh conforms to the inversion parameter grid and is adaptively refined until the forward solution converges to the desired accuracy. This dual-grid approach is memory efficient, since the inverse parameter grid remains independent from fine meshing generated around the transmitter and receivers by the adaptive finite element method. Besides, the unstructured inverse mesh efficiently handles multiple scale structures and allows for fine-scale model parameters within the region of interest. Our mesh generation engine keeps track of the refinement hierarchy so that the map of conductivity and sensitivity kernel between the forward and inverse mesh is retained. We employ the adjoint-reciprocity method to calculate the sensitivity kernels which establish a linear relationship between changes in the conductivity model and changes in the modeled responses. Our code uses a direcy solver for the linear systems, so the adjoint problem is efficiently computed by re-using the factorization from the primary problem. Further computational efficiency and scalability is obtained in the regularized Gauss-Newton portion of the inversion using parallel dense matrix-matrix multiplication and matrix factorization routines implemented with the ScaLAPACK library. We show the scalability, reliability and the potential of the algorithm to deal with

  5. The Inverse of Banded Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower

  6. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele

    2014-01-06

    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  7. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  8. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-06-16

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  9. Inverse transport theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    Inverse transport consists of reconstructing the optical properties of a domain from measurements performed at the domain's boundary. This review concerns several types of measurements: time-dependent, time-independent, angularly resolved and angularly averaged measurements. We review recent results on the reconstruction of the optical parameters from such measurements and the stability of such reconstructions. Inverse transport finds applications e.g. in medical imaging (optical tomography, optical molecular imaging) and in geophysical imaging (remote sensing in the Earth's atmosphere). (topical review)

  10. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  11. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  12. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  13. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  14. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  15. Localization Accuracy of Distributed Inverse Solutions for Electric and Magnetic Source Imaging of Interictal Epileptic Discharges in Patients with Focal Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Marcel; Chowdhury, Rasheda A; Hedrich, Tanguy; Dubeau, François; Hall, Jeffery A; Lina, Jean-Marc; Grova, Christophe; Kobayashi, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Distributed inverse solutions aim to realistically reconstruct the origin of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) from noninvasively recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Our aim was to compare the performance of different distributed inverse solutions in localizing IEDs: coherent maximum entropy on the mean (cMEM), hierarchical Bayesian implementations of independent identically distributed sources (IID, minimum norm prior) and spatially coherent sources (COH, spatial smoothness prior). Source maxima (i.e., the vertex with the maximum source amplitude) of IEDs in 14 EEG and 19 MEG studies from 15 patients with focal epilepsy were analyzed. We visually compared their concordance with intracranial EEG (iEEG) based on 17 cortical regions of interest and their spatial dispersion around source maxima. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) maxima from cMEM were most often confirmed by iEEG (cMEM: 14/19, COH: 9/19, IID: 8/19 studies). COH electric source imaging (ESI) maxima co-localized best with iEEG (cMEM: 8/14, COH: 11/14, IID: 10/14 studies). In addition, cMEM was less spatially spread than COH and IID for ESI and MSI (p < 0.001 Bonferroni-corrected post hoc t test). Highest positive predictive values for cortical regions with IEDs in iEEG could be obtained with cMEM for MSI and with COH for ESI. Additional realistic EEG/MEG simulations confirmed our findings. Accurate spatially extended sources, as found in cMEM (ESI and MSI) and COH (ESI) are desirable for source imaging of IEDs because this might influence surgical decision. Our simulations suggest that COH and IID overestimate the spatial extent of the generators compared to cMEM.

  16. spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)

  17. Vortex dynamics in self-dual Chern-Simons-Higgs systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    1994-01-01

    We consider vortex dynamics in self-dual Chern-Simons-Higgs systems. We show that the naive Aharonov-Bohm phase is the inverse of the statistical phase expected from the vortex spin, and that the self-dual configurations of vortices are degenerate in energy but not in angular momentum. We also use the path integral formalism to derive the dual formulation of Chern-Simons-Higgs systems in which vortices appear as charged particles. We argue that in addition to the electromagnetic interaction, there is an additional interaction between vortices, the so-called Magnus force, and that these forces can be put together into a single ''dual electromagnetic'' interaction. This dual electromagnetic interaction leads to the right statistical phase. We also derive and study the effective action for slowly moving vortices, which contains terms both linear and quadratic in the vortex velocity. We show that vortices can be bounded to each other by the Magnus force

  18. Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.

    2007-01-01

    Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field

  19. Inverse problem of solar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present some preliminary results of numerical simulation to infer the sound velocity distribution in the solar interior from the oscillation data of the Sun as the inverse problem. They analyze the acoustic potential itself by taking account of some factors other than the sound velocity, and infer the sound velocity distribution in the deep interior of the Sun

  20. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-12-08

    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  1. Three-dimensional solution structure of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M; Gong, Y; Kao, J L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-04-18

    The solution structure of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V), which is also a specific inhibitor of the blood coagulation protein, factor XIIa, was determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy in combination with a distance-geometry and simulated annealing algorithm. Sequence-specific resonance assignments were made for all the main-chain and most of the side-chain hydrogens. Stereospecific assignments were also made for some of the beta-, gamma-, delta-, and epsilon-hydrogens and valine methyl hydrogens. The ring conformations of all six prolines in the inhibitor were determined on the basis of 1H-1H vicinal coupling constant patterns; most of the proline ring hydrogens were stereospecifically assigned on the basis of vicinal coupling constant and intraresidue nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) patterns. Distance constraints were determined on the basis of NOEs between pairs of hydrogens. Dihedral angle constraints were determined from estimates of scalar coupling constants and intraresidue NOEs. On the basis of 727 interproton distance and 111 torsion angle constraints, which included backbone phi angles and side-chain chi 1, chi 2, chi 3, and chi 4 angles, 22 structures were calculated by a distance geometry algorithm and refined by energy minimization and simulated annealing methods. Both main-chain and side-chain atoms are well-defined, except for a loop region, two terminal residues, and some side-chain atoms located on the molecular surface. The average root mean squared deviation in the position for equivalent atoms between the 22 individual structures and the mean structure obtained by averaging their coordinates is 0.58 +/- 0.06 A for the main-chain atoms and 1.01 +/- 0.07 A for all the non-hydrogen atoms of residues 3-40 and 49-67. These structures were compared to the X-ray crystallographic structure of another protein of the same inhibitor family-chymotrypsin inhibitor-2 from barley seeds [CI-2; McPhalen, C. A., & James, M. N. G. (1987) Biochemistry 26

  2. Factors affecting the bacterial community composition and heterotrophic production of Columbia River estuarine turbidity maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herfort, Lydie; Crump, Byron C; Fortunato, Caroline S; McCue, Lee Ann; Campbell, Victoria; Simon, Holly M; Baptista, António M; Zuber, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETM) function as hotspots of microbial activity and diversity in estuaries, yet, little is known about the temporal and spatial variability in ETM bacterial community composition. To determine which environmental factors affect ETM bacterial populations in the Columbia River estuary, we analyzed ETM bacterial community composition (Sanger sequencing and amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene) and bulk heterotrophic production ( 3 H-leucine incorporation rates). We collected water 20 times to cover five ETM events and obtained 42 samples characterized by different salinities, turbidities, seasons, coastal regimes (upwelling vs. downwelling), locations, and particle size. Spring and summer populations were distinct. All May samples had similar bacterial community composition despite having different salinities (1-24 PSU), but summer non-ETM bacteria separated into marine, freshwater, and brackish assemblages. Summer ETM bacterial communities varied depending on coastal upwelling or downwelling conditions and on the sampling site location with respect to tidal intrusion during the previous neap tide. In contrast to ETM, whole (>0.2 μm) and free-living (0.2-3 μm) assemblages of non-ETM waters were similar to each other, indicating that particle-attached (>3 μm) non-ETM bacteria do not develop a distinct community. Brackish water type (ETM or non-ETM) is thus a major factor affecting particle-attached bacterial communities. Heterotrophic production was higher in particle-attached than free-living fractions in all brackish waters collected throughout the water column during the rise to decline of turbidity through an ETM event (i.e., ETM-impacted waters). However, free-living communities showed higher productivity prior to or after an ETM event (i.e., non-ETM-impacted waters). This study has thus found that Columbia River ETM bacterial communities vary based on seasons, salinity, sampling location, and particle size, with the

  3. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  4. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  5. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  6. Dual QCD: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.; Ball, J.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1991-01-01

    We review the attempts to use dual (electric) vector potentials rather than the standard magnetic vector potentials to describe QCD, particularly in the infrared regime. The use of dual potentials is motivated by the fact that in classical electrodynamics, in a medium with a dielectric constant vanishing at small momenta (as is believed to be the case in QCD), electric potentials provide a far more convenient language than do magnetic potentials. To begin with, we outline attempts to construct the QCD Lagrangian in terms of dual potentials and describe the various possibilities, their shortcomings and advantages, which so far exist. We then proceed to use the most attractive (albeit consistent as a field theory only at the tree level) of these Lagrangians in a number of applications. We show that it describes a non-Abelian dual superconductor (so that it automatically confines color), derive the static quark-antiquark potential, and various temperature dependent effects, such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  7. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  8. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  9. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (http://salvus.io), a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  10. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  11. Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

  12. Some Plant Characteristics Of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne and Cucurbita moschata Duchesne Genotypes Collected From Western Anatolia Region

    OpenAIRE

    Babaoğlu, Dursun; Türkmen, Önder

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of 147 Cucurbita maxima Duchesne species collected from the cities of İstanbul, Tekirdağ, Edirne, Kırklareli, Balıkesir, Çanakkale, İzmir, Aydın, Denizli, Muğla, Manisa, Afyon, Kütahya, Uşak, Bursa, Eskişehir, Bilecik, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Düzce, Bolu, Yalova, Ankara, Konya, Karaman, Antalya, Isparta, Burdur where 76% of winter pumpkin production is made in Turkey and, a total of 54 Cucurbita moschata Duchesne were compiled. The pumpkins were sown on 23th of May 2013 in Ha...

  13. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  14. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Rao, Vadlamudi Lakshmana; Goud, Sivagouni Lachaa

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper

  15. Transcriptome analysis of the immune reaction of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata to xenograft from Pinctada maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jinfen; Fan, Sigang; Liu, Baosuo; Zhang, Bo; Su, Jiaqi; Yu, Dahui

    2017-08-01

    The pearl oyster Pinctada maxima exhibits great difficulty to culture pearls through nuclear insertion with an allograft, but it is easy for P. fucata to culture pearls after allografting. If P. fucata could be used as a surrogate mother to culture P. maxima pearls, it would benefit the pearl culture industry of P. maxima. However, this is blocked by the immune rejection of P. fucata against P. maxima mantle grafts. In this study, the immune responses of P. fucata hemocyte to allograft and xenograft were investigated after transplantation by transcriptome analysis. In total, 107.93 Gb clean reads were produced and assembled using the reference genome of P. fucata. Gene Ontology Term enrichment and KEGG enrichment analyses indicated that apoptosis, hippo signaling pathway, oxidation-reduction, MAPK signaling pathway, ribosome, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, purine metabolism, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, Ras signaling pathway, and ubiquitin mediated proteolysis were involved in response to transplantation. Many genes related to oxidation-reduction reactions, the MAPK signaling pathway, and apoptosis were identified by comparison of the allograft group and the xenograft group at 0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h post-transplantation. Among them, the expression levels of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and other dehydrogenases were increased significantly in the xenograft groups compared with allograft groups at 0 h post transplantation, indicating that a respiratory burst of neutrophils occurred immediately after xenograft transplantation. Additionally, HSP70 was highly expressed from 0 h to 96 h in the xenograft groups, indicating an oyster immune response to the xenograft. The genes enriched in the ribosome and hippo-signaling pathways were also identified, and expression patterns of these DEGs were different as compared between transplantation and control groups. Finally, altered

  16. Estimation of bone Calcium-to-Phosphorous mass ratio using dual-energy nonlinear polynomial functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, P; Koukou, V; Martini, N; Nikiforidis, G; Michail, C; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G; Kounadi, E

    2015-01-01

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO 4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors. (paper)

  17. Inverse photon-photon processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carimalo, C.; Crozon, M.; Kesler, P.; Parisi, J.

    1981-12-01

    We here consider inverse photon-photon processes, i.e. AB → γγX (where A, B are hadrons, in particular protons or antiprotons), at high energies. As regards the production of a γγ continuum, we show that, under specific conditions the study of such processes might provide some information on the subprocess gg γγ, involving a quark box. It is also suggested to use those processes in order to systematically look for heavy C = + structures (quarkonium states, gluonia, etc.) showing up in the γγ channel. Inverse photon-photon processes might thus become a new and fertile area of investigation in high-energy physics, provided the difficult problem of discriminating between direct photons and indirect ones can be handled in a satisfactory way

  18. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.

    1974-01-01

    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  19. Disulfide bond effects on protein stability: designed variants of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodszky, M; Chen, C W; Huang, J K; Zolkiewski, M; Wen, L; Krishnamoorthi, R

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to increase protein stability by insertion of novel disulfide bonds have not always been successful. According to the two current models, cross-links enhance stability mainly through denatured state effects. We have investigated the effects of removal and addition of disulfide cross-links, protein flexibility in the vicinity of a cross-link, and disulfide loop size on the stability of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V; 7 kD) by differential scanning calorimetry. CMTI-V offers the advantage of a large, flexible, and solvent-exposed loop not involved in extensive intra-molecular interactions. We have uncovered a negative correlation between retention time in hydrophobic column chromatography, a measure of protein hydrophobicity, and melting temperature (T(m)), an indicator of native state stabilization, for CMTI-V and its variants. In conjunction with the complete set of thermodynamic parameters of denaturation, this has led to the following deductions: (1) In the less stable, disulfide-removed C3S/C48S (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -4 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -22 degrees C), the native state is destabilized more than the denatured state; this also applies to the less-stable CMTI-V* (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -3 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = -11 degrees C), in which the disulfide-containing loop is opened by specific hydrolysis of the Lys(44)-Asp(45) peptide bond; (2) In the less stable, disulfide-inserted E38C/W54C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = -1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +2 degrees C), the denatured state is more stabilized than the native state; and (3) In the more stable, disulfide-engineered V42C/R52C (Delta Delta G(d)(50 degrees C) = +1 kcal/mole; Delta T(m) = +17 degrees C), the native state is more stabilized than the denatured state. These results show that a cross-link stabilizes both native and denatured states, and differential stabilization of the two states causes either loss or gain in protein stability. Removal of hydrogen

  20. Inverse problem in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariev, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    The method of reconstruction of interaction from the scattering data is formulated in the frame of the R-matrix theory in which the potential is determined by position of resonance Esub(lambda) and their reduced widths γ 2 lambda. In finite difference approximation for the Schroedinger equation this new approach allows to make the logics of the inverse problem IP more clear. A possibility of applications of IP formalism to various nuclear systems is discussed. (author)

  1. The reduction of summer sulfate and switch from summertime to wintertime PM2.5 concentration maxima in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elizabeth A. W.; Gantt, Brett; McDow, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been associated with health effects including cardiovascular disease and death. Here, we add to the understanding of urban and rural PM2.5 concentrations over large spatial and temporal scales in recent years. We used high-quality, publicly-available air quality monitoring data to evaluate PM2.5 concentration patterns and changes during the years 2000-2015. Compiling and averaging measurements collected across the U.S. revealed that PM2.5 concentrations from urban sites experienced seasonal maxima in both winter and summer. Within each year from 2000 to 2008, the maxima of urban summer peaks were greater than winter peaks. However, from 2012 to 2015, the maxima of urban summertime PM2.5 peaks were smaller than the urban wintertime PM2.5 maxima, due to a decrease in the magnitude of summertime maxima with no corresponding decrease in the magnitude of winter maxima. PM2.5 measurements at rural sites displayed summer peaks with magnitudes relatively similar to those of urban sites, and negligible to no winter peaks through the time period analyzed. Seasonal variations of urban and rural PM2.5 sulfate, PM2.5 nitrate, and PM2.5 organic carbon (OC) were also assessed. Summer peaks in PM2.5 sulfate decreased dramatically between 2000 and 2015, whereas seasonal PM2.5 OC and winter PM2.5 nitrate concentration maxima remained fairly consistent. These findings demonstrate that PM2.5 concentrations, especially those occurring in the summertime, have declined in the U.S. from 2000 to 2015. In addition, reduction strategies targeting sulfate have been successful and the decrease in PM2.5 sulfate contributed to the decline in total PM2.5.

  2. Eficiência de acessos de Cucurbita maxima como polinizadores de abóbora híbrida do tipo "Tetsukabuto" Efficiency of Cucurbita maxima accessions as pollinators in the commercial production of pumpkin ("Tetsukabuto" type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warley Marcos Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto” é um híbrido interespecífico, macho estéril, resultante do cruzamento entre Cucurbita maxima e C. moschata. Uma das estratégias utilizadas para produção comercial de frutos de “Tetsukabuto” tem sido o plantio adjacente e concomitante de acessos de C. maxima ou C. moschata como polinizadores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes acessos de C. maxima como fontes de pólen para produção comercial de abóbora tipo “Tetsukabuto”. A cultivar de moranga "Exposição" e o acesso "Nirvana" foram utilizados como polinizadores para produção de frutos de dois híbridos do tipo varietal “Tetsukabuto” ("Jabras" e "Kyoto". Foram avaliados os tratamentos (cruzamentos Jabras x Exposição, Jabras x Nirvana, Tetsukabuto x Exposição, Tetsukabuto x Nirvana, em quatro repetições. Foram determinados os parâmetros massa dos frutos, diâmetro dos frutos, espessura da polpa, número e massa de sementes. O acesso "Nirvana" (cultivar em fase de validação pode ser utilizado na produção comercial como polinizador de abóboras deste grupo varietal sem nenhum prejuízo quando comparado com a moranga "Exposição"."Tetsukabuto" pumpkins are interspecific hybrids between Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata accessions. Such hybrids, however, are often male-sterile due to the impaired ability of the staminate flowers to produce functional pollen. The use of intervening rows of staminate (pollen-donor plants is one strategy employed in order to have commercial fruit production. In the present work, two C. maxima accessions ["Exposição" (E and "Nirvana" (N] were employed as pollen-donors (staminate parents and their efficiency was compared considering fruit and seed yield parameters. Two pistillate Tetsukabuto hybrids ["Jabras" (J and "Kyoto Tetsukabuto" (KT] were employed in four possible unidirectional crosses (J x E, J x N, KT x E and KT x N. Fruits were produced using standard manual

  3. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  4. IAEA's dual function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    'A factor of paramount importance is the dual nature of atomic energy, which is reflected in the dual function of the Agency; not only to promote, but also to safeguard the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. In taking the above statement as a theme in his address to the 1474th Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (22nd November), the Director General, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, went on to speak of a few of the many areas in which society was feeling the impact of atomic energy. During the discussion which followed his report on the Agency's work nearly all speakers referred to the importance of the safeguards system as well as to positive achievements in developing nuclear potential for peaceful purposes

  5. Dual double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  6. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhenchun; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Guo, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion

  7. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  8. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  9. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...... as measured by legislative outputs and oversight differs, however, in line with differing committee system characteristics: the Finnish committee has more impact on legislative outputs while the Danish committee has more impact on overseeing government....

  10. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  11. On a complete topological inverse polycyclic monoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Bardyla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We give sufficient conditions when a topological inverse $\\lambda$-polycyclic monoid $P_{\\lambda}$ is absolutely $H$-closed in the class of topological inverse semigroups. For every infinite cardinal $\\lambda$ we construct the coarsest semigroup inverse topology $\\tau_{mi}$ on $P_\\lambda$ and give an example of a topological inverse monoid $S$ which contains the polycyclic monoid $P_2$ as a dense discrete subsemigroup.

  12. Production of haploid plant of 'Banpeiyu' pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] by pollination with soft X-ray-irradiated pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Masaki; Yasuda, Kiichi; Kunitake, Hisato; Nagasawa, Kohji; Harusaki, Seiichi; Komatsu, Haruki

    2010-01-01

    To induce haploid plants in Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. 'Banpeiyu', we evaluated the effect of pollination with soft X-ray-irradiated pollen on fruit set and seed development, and carried out ovule culture. When 'Banpeiyu' pummelo pistils were pollinated with X-ray-irradiated pollen of 'Fukuhara' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck], the exposure doses affected the fruit set. The number of seeds per fruit was also affected by the exposure dose, and tended to decrease as the dose increased; however, all developed seeds obtained from these crosses were diploid. In the ovule culture of 'Banpeiyu' pummelo, six embryoids shown haploidy were obtained in all treatments. One haploid plantlet with 9 chromosomes was regenerated from an embryoid in a culture of ovules established 40 days after pollination with 400 Gray (Gy)-irradiated pollen of 'Tosa-buntan' pummelo (C. maxima). This haploid was suggested to be derived from 'Banpeiyu' pummelo by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. (author)

  13. Spirulina maxima Extract Prevents Neurotoxicity via Promoting Activation of BDNF/CREB Signaling Pathways in Neuronal Cells and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-08-17

    Spirulina maxima is a microalgae which contains flavonoids and other polyphenols. Although Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has diverse beneficial effects, its effects on neurotoxicity have not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of SM70EE against trimethyltin (TMT)-induced neurotoxicity in HT-22 cells. SM70EE inhibited the cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Besides, ROS production was decreased by down-regulating oxidative stress-associated enzymes. SM70EE increased the factors of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/cyclic AMPresponsive elementbinding protein (CREB) signalling pathways. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was suppressed by SM70EE. Furthermore, we investigated whether SM70EE prevents cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice by applying behavioral tests. SM70EE increased step-through latency time and decreased the escape latency time. Therefore, our data suggest that SM70EE may prevent TMT neurotoxicity through promoting activation of BDNF/CREB neuroprotective signaling pathways in neuronal cells. In vivo study, SM70EE would prevent cognitive deficits against scopolamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

  14. The role of peptides derived from Spirulina maxima in downregulation of FcεRI-mediated allergic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Kang, Kyong-Hwa; Park, Sun-Joo; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2014-11-01

    Spirulina has been found suitable for use as a bioactive additive. It is an excellent source of protein that can be hydrolyzed into bioactive peptides. Two peptides LDAVNR (P1) and MMLDF (P2) purified from enzymatic hydrolysate of Spirulina maxima have been reported to be effective against early atherosclerotic responses. In this study, the intracellular mechanism involved in the downregulation of these peptides on high-affinity IgE receptor-mediated allergic reaction was further investigated. RBL-2H3 mast cells were pretreated with P1 or P2 and sensitized with dinitrophenyl-specific IgE antibody before stimulation of antigen dinitrophenyl-BSA. It was revealed that P1 and P2 exhibited significant inhibition on mast-cell degranulation via decreasing histamine release and intracellular Ca(2+) elevation. The inhibitory activity of P1 was found due to blockade of calcium- and microtubule-dependent signaling pathways. Meanwhile, the inhibition of P2 was involved in suppression of phospholipase Cγ activation and reactive oxygen species production. Moreover, the suppressive effects of P1 and P2 on generation of IL-4 were evidenced via depression of nuclear factor-κB translocation. These findings indicate that peptides P1 and P2 from S. maxima may be promising candidates of antiallergic therapeutics, contributing to development of bioactive food ingredients for amelioration of allergic diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Vaccination with Eimeria tenella elongation factor-1α recombinant protein induces protective immunity against E. tenella and E. maxima infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rui-Qing; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Lee, Seung Kyoo; Oh, Sungtaek; Panebra, Alfredo; Lillehoj, Erik P

    2017-08-30

    Avian coccidiosis is caused by multiple species of the apicomplexan protozoan, Eimeria, and is one of the most economically devastating enteric diseases for the poultry industry worldwide. Host immunity to Eimeria infection, however, is relatively species-specific. The ability to immunize chickens against different species of Eimeria using a single vaccine will have a major beneficial impact on commercial poultry production. In this paper, we describe the molecular cloning, purification, and vaccination efficacy of a novel Eimeria vaccine candidate, elongation factor-1α (EF-1α). One day-old broiler chickens were given two subcutaneous immunizations one week apart with E. coli-expressed E. tenella recombinant (r)EF-1α protein and evaluated for protection against challenge infection with E. tenella or E. maxima. rEF-1α-vaccinated chickens exhibited increased body weight gains, decreased fecal oocyst output, and greater serum anti-EF-1α antibody levels following challenge infection with either E. tenella or E. maxima compared with unimmunized controls. Vaccination with EF-1α may represent a new approach to inducing cross-protective immunity against avian coccidiosis in the field. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Evaluation of ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima isolated from the Algerian to Jijel province poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemai, Samir; Mekroud, Abdeslam; Jenkins, Mark C

    2016-07-15

    The present study represents the first description of ionophore resistance in recovered from commercial Algerian (Jijel-Algeria) broiler farms. Microscopy and intervening transcribed sequence 1 PCR (ITS1 PCR) revealed only 2 Eimeria species present in litter from these farms- namely Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima. A pool of these isolates were evaluated in broiler chickens (Cobb 500) for sensitivity to 5 anticoccidial compounds-diclazuril (1ppm), lasalocid (125ppm), monensin (125ppm), narasin (70ppm) and salinomycin (60ppm). As indicated by anticoccidial sensitivity profiles based on lesion scores and anticoccidial index (ACI), complete resistance to monensin and narasin, partial resistance to salinomycin and lasalocid, and complete sensitivity to diclazuril was observed. While lack of sensitivity to monensin is not surprising given its use for years as the sole anticoccidial compound, the resistance to monoether (narasin) and polyether (lasalocid) ionophores suggests that cross-resistance has developed in a segment of the Eimeria population. The fairly uniform Eimeria species composition among all poultry farms suggests that E. acervulina and E. maxima more rapidly develop resistance to ionophore drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE ECKLONIA MAXIMA EXTRACT ON SELECTED MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF YELLOW PINE, SPRUCE AND THUJA STABBING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski Sosnowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the impact of an extract of Ecklonia maxima on selected morphological features of yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex C. Lawson, prickly spruce (Picea pungens Engelm. Variety Glauca, thuja (Thuja occidentalis variety Smaragd. The experiment was established in April 12, 2012 on the forest nursery in Ceranów. April 15, 2013 was introduced research agent in the form of a spraying an aqueous solution extract of Ecklonia maxima with trade name Kelpak SL. Biologically active compounds in the extract are plant hormones: auxin and cytokinin. There were studied increment in plant height, needle length of yellow pine, twigs length in prickly spruce and thuja. The measurements of increment in length of twigs and needles were made in each case on the same, specially marked parts of plants and have carried them on the 27th of each month beginning in May and ending in September. The results were evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance. Medium differentiations were verified by Tukey's test at a significance level p ≤ 0.05. The study showed that the diversity of traits features in the experiment was depended on the extract, the tree species and the measurement time. The best results after the extract using showed a pine and spruce. Seaweed preparation contributed to increment increased of trees height for in the pine and spruce and the needles length of pine and twigs of spruce. The species showing no reaction to the extract was thuja.

  18. Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Vladimir

    1992-01-01

    The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)

  19. Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Probabilistic Geoacoustic Inversion in Complex Environments Jan Dettmer School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria BC...long-range inversion methods can fail to provide sufficient resolution. For proper quantitative examination of variability, parameter uncertainty must...project aims to advance probabilistic geoacoustic inversion methods for complex ocean environments for a range of geoacoustic data types. The work is

  20. From the Macro to the Micro: Gel Mapping to Differentiate between Sporozoites of Two Immunologically Distinct Strains of Eimeria maxima (Strains M6 and Guelph).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashram, Saeed; Yin, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Al Nasr, Ibrahim; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun; Barta, John

    2015-01-01

    Two immunologically distinct strains of E. maxima were examined in this study: the M6 strain and the Guelph strain. The differential expression between the sporozoites of the two strains of E. maxima was determined by image analysis of 100 μg of protein from each strain separated by standard one- and conventional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition to differences in both molecular weight and the electrophoretic mobility, differences in the intensity of polypeptide bands for example, GS 136.4 and M6 169 were explored. Pooled gels were prepared from each strain. A representative 2D-PAGE gel spanning a non-linear pH range of 3-10 of E. maxima strain M6 consisted of approximately 694 polypeptide spots with about 67 (9.6%) of the polypeptide spots being unique relative to the other strain. E. maxima strain GS had about 696 discernable polypeptide spots with 69 spots (9.9%) that differed from those of the M6 strain. In-depth characterization of the variable polypeptide spots; unique polypeptide spots (absence or presence) and shared polypeptide spots with modifications may lead to novel vaccine target in the form of multi-component, multi-stage, multi-immunovariant strains, multi-species subunit vaccine, and diagnostic probe for E. maxima.

  1. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  2. Point-source inversion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, Charles A.; Barker, Jeffrey S.; Pavlin, Gregory B.

    1982-11-01

    A variety of approaches for obtaining source parameters from waveform data using moment-tensor or dislocation point source models have been investigated and applied to long-period body and surface waves from several earthquakes. Generalized inversion techniques have been applied to data for long-period teleseismic body waves to obtain the orientation, time function and depth of the 1978 Thessaloniki, Greece, event, of the 1971 San Fernando event, and of several events associated with the 1963 induced seismicity sequence at Kariba, Africa. The generalized inversion technique and a systematic grid testing technique have also been used to place meaningful constraints on mechanisms determined from very sparse data sets; a single station with high-quality three-component waveform data is often sufficient to discriminate faulting type (e.g., strike-slip, etc.). Sparse data sets for several recent California earthquakes, for a small regional event associated with the Koyna, India, reservoir, and for several events at the Kariba reservoir have been investigated in this way. Although linearized inversion techniques using the moment-tensor model are often robust, even for sparse data sets, there are instances where the simplifying assumption of a single point source is inadequate to model the data successfully. Numerical experiments utilizing synthetic data and actual data for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake graphically demonstrate that severe problems may be encountered if source finiteness effects are ignored. These techniques are generally applicable to on-line processing of high-quality digital data, but source complexity and inadequacy of the assumed Green's functions are major problems which are yet to be fully addressed.

  3. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  4. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  5. Spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-02-01

    We study spinning self-dual particles in two dimensions. They are obtained from the chiral bosonic particle through the square root technique. We show that the resulting field theory can be either fermionic or bosonic and that the associated self-dual field reveals its Lorentz tensor structure which remains hidden in the usual formulations. We also calculate the spinning self-dual particle propagators using the BFV formalism. (author) [pt

  6. Health care utilization among Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles: a count data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jaeun

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles are the beneficiaries of both Medicare and Medicaid. Dual eligibles satisfy the eligibility conditions for Medicare benefit. Dual eligibles also qualify for Medicaid because they are aged, blind, or disabled and meet the income and asset requirements for receiving Supplement Security Income (SSI assistance. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between dual eligibility and health care utilization among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods The household component of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS 1996–2000 is used for the analysis. Total 8,262 Medicare beneficiaries are selected from the MEPS data. The Medicare beneficiary sample includes individuals who are covered by Medicare and do not have private health insurance during a given year. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB regression model is used to analyse the count data regarding health care utilization: office-based physician visits, hospital inpatient nights, agency-sponsored home health provider days, and total dental visits. Results Dual eligibility is positively correlated with the likelihood of using hospital inpatient care and agency-sponsored home health services and the frequency of agency-sponsored home health days. Frequency of dental visits is inversely associated with dual eligibility. With respect to racial differences, dually eligible Afro-Americans use more office-based physician and dental services than white duals. Asian duals use more home health services than white duals at the 5% statistical significance level. The dual eligibility programs seem particularly beneficial to Afro-American duals. Conclusion Dual eligibility has varied impact on health care utilization across service types. More utilization of home healthcare among dual eligibles appears to be the result of delayed realization of their unmet healthcare needs under the traditional Medicare-only program

  7. Dual symmetry in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshkarov, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative interpretation is the quasi-Maxwell linear theory with magnetic charge. Analogous approach is possible in the Yang-Mills theory. In this case the dual-invariant non-Abelian theory motion equations possess the same instanton solutions as the conventional Yang-Mills equations have. An Abelian two-parameter dual group is found to exist in gravitation. Irreducible representations have been obtained: the curvature tensor was expanded into the sum of twice anti-self-dual and self-dual parts. Gravitational instantons are defined as (real )solutions to the usual duality equations. Central symmetry solutions to these equations are obtained. The twice anti-self-dual part of the curvature tensor may be used for introduction of new gravitational equations generalizing Einstein''s equations. However, the theory obtained reduces to the conformal-flat Nordstroem theory

  8. Analysis of the dependence parametrization of the allocations of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering diffraction maxima from the projectile energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ponkratenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffraction range of available experimental differential cross sections of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering for 17 pairs of the interacting nuclei with 4 ≤ А ≤ 20 have been analyzed in the projectile energy wide interval from 1 to 100 МеV/nucleon. Diffraction maxima and minima positions in the transferred momentum coordinates depending on projectile energy demonstrate smooth behavior at energies higher 2 - 4 МeV/nucleon, and practically do not depend on energy at energies up to 30 - 40 МеV/nucleon. These energy dependences of maxima (minima positions can be parameterized by simple functions. It was found the suitable approximations that describe reasonably the energy dependence of the maxima (minima positions of the experimental elastic scattering differential cross sections. These approximations were evaluated with the same parameters for all colliding nuclei groups.

  9. Analysis of the dependence parametrization of the allocations of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering diffraction maxima from the projectile energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponkratenko, O.A.; Pyirnak, Val. M.; Rudchik, A.A.; Stepanenko, Yu.M.; Uleshchenko, V.V.; Shirma, Yu.O.

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction range of available experimental differential cross sections of heavy ions on light nuclei elastic scattering for the interactive nuclei 17 pairs with 4 ≤ A ≤ 20 have been analyzed in the projectile energy wide interval from 1 to 100 MeV/nucleon. Diffraction maxima and minima positions in the transferred momentum coordinates depending on projectile energy demonstrate smooth behavior at energies higher 2 - 4 MeV/nucleon and at energies to 30 - 40 MeV/nucleon - practically does not depend on energy. These energy dependences of maxima (minima) position. can be parameterized by simple functions. It was found the suitable approximations that describe reasonable the energy dependence of the maxima (minima) positions of the experimental elastic scattering differential cross sections. These approximations were evaluated with the same parameters for all colliding nuclei groups

  10. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  11. Dual energy cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gastón

    2017-06-01

    Conventional single energy CT suffers from technical limitations related to the polychromatic nature of X-rays. Dual energy cardiac CT (DECT) shows promise to attenuate and even overcome some of these limitations, and might broaden the scope of patients eligible for cardiac CT towards the inclusion of higher risk patients. This might be achieved as a result of both safety (contrast reduction) and physiopathological (myocardial perfusion and characterization) issues. In this article, we will review the main clinical cardiac applications of DECT, that can be summarized in two core aspects: coronary artery evaluation, and myocardial evaluation.

  12. Inverse problems in systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Heinz W; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Schuster, Peter; Kügler, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)

  13. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  14. Inversion theory and conformal mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, David E

    2000-01-01

    It is rarely taught in an undergraduate or even graduate curriculum that the only conformal maps in Euclidean space of dimension greater than two are those generated by similarities and inversions in spheres. This is in stark contrast to the wealth of conformal maps in the plane. The principal aim of this text is to give a treatment of this paucity of conformal maps in higher dimensions. The exposition includes both an analytic proof in general dimension and a differential-geometric proof in dimension three. For completeness, enough complex analysis is developed to prove the abundance of conformal maps in the plane. In addition, the book develops inversion theory as a subject, along with the auxiliary theme of circle-preserving maps. A particular feature is the inclusion of a paper by Carath�odory with the remarkable result that any circle-preserving transformation is necessarily a M�bius transformation, not even the continuity of the transformation is assumed. The text is at the level of advanced undergr...

  15. LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team

    2011-01-01

    The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total.   In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...

  16. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2018-03-01

    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  17. Instrument developments for inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenac, A.

    1987-02-01

    Experimental developments principally concerning electron sources for inverse photoemission are presented. The specifications of the electron beam are derived from experiment requirements, taking into account the limitations encountered (space charge divergence). For a wave vector resolution of 0.2 A -1 , the maximum current is 25 microA at 20 eV. The design of a gun providing such a beam in the range 5 to 50 eV is presented. Angle-resolved inverse photoemission experiments show angular effects at 30 eV. For an energy of 10 eV, angular effects should be stronger, but the low efficiency of the spectrometer in this range makes the experiments difficult. The total energy resolution of 0.3 eV is the result mainly of electron energy spread, as expected. The electron sources are based on field effect electron emission from a cathode consisting of a large number of microtips. The emission arises from a few atomic cells for each tip. The ultimate theoretical energy spread is 0.1 eV. This value is not attained because of an interface resistance problem. A partial solution of this problem allows measurement of an energy spread of 0.9 eV for a current of 100 microA emitted at 60 eV. These cathodes have a further advantage in that emission can occur at a low temperature [fr

  18. Sequence analysis of the PIP5K locus in Eimeria maxima provides further evidence for eimerian genome plasticity and segmental organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B K; Pan, M Z; Lau, Y L; Wan, K L

    2014-07-29

    Commercial flocks infected by Eimeria species parasites, including Eimeria maxima, have an increased risk of developing clinical or subclinical coccidiosis; an intestinal enteritis associated with increased mortality rates in poultry. Currently, infection control is largely based on chemotherapy or live vaccines; however, drug resistance is common and vaccines are relatively expensive. The development of new cost-effective intervention measures will benefit from unraveling the complex genetic mechanisms that underlie host-parasite interactions, including the identification and characterization of genes encoding proteins such as phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K). We previously identified a PIP5K coding sequence within the E. maxima genome. In this study, we analyzed two bacterial artificial chromosome clones presenting a ~145-kb E. maxima (Weybridge strain) genomic region spanning the PIP5K gene locus. Sequence analysis revealed that ~95% of the simple sequence repeats detected were located within regions comparable to the previously described feature-rich segments of the Eimeria tenella genome. Comparative sequence analysis with the orthologous E. maxima (Houghton strain) region revealed a moderate level of conserved synteny. Unique segmental organizations and telomere-like repeats were also observed in both genomes. A number of incomplete transposable elements were detected and further scrutiny of these elements in both orthologous segments revealed interesting nesting events, which may play a role in facilitating genome plasticity in E. maxima. The current analysis provides more detailed information about the genome organization of E. maxima and may help to reveal genotypic differences that are important for expression of traits related to pathogenicity and virulence.

  19. Genotyping by sequencing reveals the interspecific C. maxima / C. reticulata admixture along the genomes of modern citrus varieties of mandarins, tangors, tangelos, orangelos and grapefruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Luro, François; Vignes, Hélène; Mournet, Pierre; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The mandarin horticultural group is an important component of world citrus production for the fresh fruit market. This group formerly classified as C. reticulata is highly polymorphic and recent molecular studies have suggested that numerous cultivated mandarins were introgressed by C. maxima (the pummelos). C. maxima and C. reticulata are also the ancestors of sweet and sour oranges, grapefruit, and therefore of all the "small citrus" modern varieties (mandarins, tangors, tangelos) derived from sexual hybridization between these horticultural groups. Recently, NGS technologies have greatly modified how plant evolution and genomic structure are analyzed, moving from phylogenetics to phylogenomics. The objective of this work was to develop a workflow for phylogenomic inference from Genotyping By Sequencing (GBS) data and to analyze the interspecific admixture along the nine citrus chromosomes for horticultural groups and recent varieties resulting from the combination of the C. reticulata and C. maxima gene pools. A GBS library was established from 55 citrus varieties, using the ApekI restriction enzyme and selective PCR to improve the read depth. Diagnostic polymorphisms (DPs) of C. reticulata/C. maxima differentiation were identified and used to decipher the phylogenomic structure of the 55 varieties. The GBS approach was powerful and revealed 30,289 SNPs and 8,794 Indels with 12.6% of missing data. 11,133 DPs were selected covering the nine chromosomes with a higher density in genic regions. GBS combined with the detection of DPs was powerful for deciphering the "phylogenomic karyotypes" of cultivars derived from admixture of the two ancestral species after a limited number of interspecific recombinations. All the mandarins, mandarin hybrids, tangelos and tangors analyzed displayed introgression of C. maxima in different parts of the genome. C. reticulata/C. maxima admixture should be a major component of the high phenotypic variability of this germplasm opening

  20. Self-dual metrics with self-dual Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.; Ward, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Twistor methods are used to derive a class of solutions to Einstein's vacuum equations, with anti-self dual Weyl tensor. In particular, all metrics with a Killing vector whose derivative is anti-self-dual and which admit a real positive-definite section are exhibited and shown to coincide with the metrics of Hawking. (author)

  1. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  2. Changing the inhibitory specificity and function of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V by site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, L; Lee, I; Chen, G; Huang, J K; Gong, Y; Krishnamoorthi, R

    1995-02-27

    Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor-V (CMTI-V) is also a specific inhibitor of human blood coagulation factor beta-factor XIIa. A recombinant version of CMTI-V has allowed probing of roles of individual amino acid residues including the reactive site residue, lysine (P1), by site-directed mutagenesis. The K44R showed at least a 5-fold increase in inhibitory activity toward human beta-factor XIIa, while there was no change toward bovine trypsin. This result demonstrates that beta-factor-XIIa prefers an arginine residue over lysine residue, while trypsin is non-specific to lysine or arginine in its binding pocket. On the other hand, the specificity of CMTI-V could be changed from trypsin to chymotrypsin inhibition by mutation of the P1 residue to either leucine or methionine (K44L or K44M).

  3. Comparison of two methodologies to estimate microbial activity in a pumpkin crop (Cucurbita maxima) in blooming and maturity phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadena, Silvio F; Madrinan, Raul

    1999-01-01

    The measure of soil microbial activity is a significant feature in fertility and conservation diagnostic thinking about it, we compared two methodologies: volumetric Calcimeter that measures CO 2 released by soil into closed atmospheric system (glass tubes), cab method that retains CO 2 released during incubation phase in a closed system (glass bottles) at 23 degrades celsius subsequently titrate with HCL 0.5N. Results showed microbial activity in a pumpkin crop (Cucurbita maxima) in Palmira, Valle del Cauca - Colombia, is higher in maturity than blooming phase. It occurs beca use contribution of nutritive substances from pumpkin's roots as it is in physiological maturity and microclimate offered by full foliage of pumpkin. Because in CAB method, soil is put on trial with its natural wet the numeric results express as mgC-CO 2 .g 1 of soil are most reliable than volumetric Calcimeter method. The cost analysis showed that cab is twenty percent cheaper than volumetric Calcimeter method

  4. MARE2DEM: a 2-D inversion code for controlled-source electromagnetic and magnetotelluric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Kerry

    2016-10-01

    This work presents MARE2DEM, a freely available code for 2-D anisotropic inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data and frequency-domain controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data from onshore and offshore surveys. MARE2DEM parametrizes the inverse model using a grid of arbitrarily shaped polygons, where unstructured triangular or quadrilateral grids are typically used due to their ease of construction. Unstructured grids provide significantly more geometric flexibility and parameter efficiency than the structured rectangular grids commonly used by most other inversion codes. Transmitter and receiver components located on topographic slopes can be tilted parallel to the boundary so that the simulated electromagnetic fields accurately reproduce the real survey geometry. The forward solution is implemented with a goal-oriented adaptive finite-element method that automatically generates and refines unstructured triangular element grids that conform to the inversion parameter grid, ensuring accurate responses as the model conductivity changes. This dual-grid approach is significantly more efficient than the conventional use of a single grid for both the forward and inverse meshes since the more detailed finite-element meshes required for accurate responses do not increase the memory requirements of the inverse problem. Forward solutions are computed in parallel with a highly efficient scaling by partitioning the data into smaller independent modeling tasks consisting of subsets of the input frequencies, transmitters and receivers. Non-linear inversion is carried out with a new Occam inversion approach that requires fewer forward calls. Dense matrix operations are optimized for memory and parallel scalability using the ScaLAPACK parallel library. Free parameters can be bounded using a new non-linear transformation that leaves the transformed parameters nearly the same as the original parameters within the bounds, thereby reducing non-linear smoothing effects. Data

  5. Topology-optimized dual-polarization Dirac cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zin; Christakis, Lysander; Li, Yang; Mazur, Eric; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Lončar, Marko

    2018-02-01

    We apply a large-scale computational technique, known as topology optimization, to the inverse design of photonic Dirac cones. In particular, we report on a variety of photonic crystal geometries, realizable in simple isotropic dielectric materials, which exhibit dual-polarization Dirac cones. We present photonic crystals of different symmetry types, such as fourfold and sixfold rotational symmetries, with Dirac cones at different points within the Brillouin zone. The demonstrated and related optimization techniques open avenues to band-structure engineering and manipulating the propagation of light in periodic media, with possible applications to exotic optical phenomena such as effective zero-index media and topological photonics.

  6. Nutritional and anti-nutritional compositions of Cleome rutidosperma, Lagenaria siceraria, and Cucurbita maxima seeds from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojiako, O A; Igwe, C U

    2007-12-01

    Flours produced from the seeds of Cleome rutidosperma (DC), Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.), and Cucurbita maxima (Duch) were evaluated for proximate and elemental compositions. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the seed flours, which revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, pentose, and reducing sugars in all the seed types. Tannins, flavonoids, and cardiac glycosides were also detected in only C. rutidosperma seed. The results also showed that the seeds of C. rutidosperma, L. siceraria, and C. maxima contained carbohydrates (74.43%, 45.93%, and 24.30%), fats (7.20%, 38.92%, and 51.49%), and proteins (11.73%, 8.93%, and 16.80%), respectively. The major mineral contents of the three defatted seed flours were found to include potassium (39.00 ppm, 19.50 ppm, and 39.00 ppm), sodium (23.00 ppm, 11.50 ppm, and 11.50 ppm), and calcium (18.00 ppm, 12.00 ppm, and 15.00 ppm), respectively. They were also found to contain zinc (0.013 ppm, 0.04 ppm, and 0.084 ppm) and iron (0.014 ppm, 0.028 ppm, and 0.032 ppm), respectively. The proximate and mineral compositions suggest that the seeds are potential sources of carbohydrate, fats, protein, and micro- and macrominerals and may find use as human food or for incorporation into livestock feed. However, the seeds were revealed to also contain slight traces of lead, although at such very low concentrations they may be artifacts. This calls for further research into possible lead toxicity after prolonged consumption of these seeds.

  7. Gibberellin biosynthesis in cell-free extracts from developing Cucurbita maxima embryos and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathways from GA12-aldehyde, GA12 and GA53 were investigated in cell-free systems from developing embryos of Cucurbita maxima L. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde and GA12 were converted to GA25, putative 12α-hydroxyGA25, GA13 and GA39 as main products. Minor products were GA4, GA34 and, when GA12 was the substrate, putative 12α-hydroxyGA12. The intermediates GA15 and GA24 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The influence of various factors on GA12 metabolism was examined. At low 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at acid pH, 3β-hydroxylated products predominated, whereas with increasing 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate concentrations, or at neutral pH, the yield of 12α-hydroxylated GAs increased. Gibberellin A53 was metabolised mainly to the C20-GAs GA44, GA19, GA17, GA23 and GA28, with the C19-GAs GA20, GA1 and GA8 as minor products. Only C19-GAs were 2β-hydroxylated, which is a main characteristic of the embryo systems. In addition to GA13, GA25, GA39, GA43, GA49, GA58, GA74, 12α-hydroxyGA25 and GA39 3-isovalerate, which were known previously from embryos of C. maxima, GA1, GA4, GA17, GA28, GA37, GA38, GA48, GA85, 12α-hydroxyGA37 and putative 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified as endogenous components by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Evidence for putative 2β-hydroxyGA28 and GA23 was also obtained but it was less conclusive because of contamination.

  8. Genetic diversity and population differentiation of small giant clam Tridacna maxima in Comoros islands assessed by microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Mohamed, Nadjim; Yu, Qian; Chanfi, Mohamed Ibrahim; Li, Yangping; Wang, Shi; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-01-01

    Small giant clam, Tridacna maxima , widely distributed from French Polynesia to East Africa, has faced population declines due to over-exploitation. Comoros islands are an important biogeographic region due to potential richness of marine species, but no relevant information is available. In order to facilitate devising effective conservation management plan for T. maxima , nine microsatellite markers were used to survey genetic diversity and population differentiation of 72 specimens collected from three Comoros islands, Grande Comore, Moheli and Anjouan. A total of 51 alleles were detected ranged from 2 to 8 per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosity varied from 0.260 to 0.790 and from 0.542 to 0.830, respectively. All populations have high genetic diversity, especially the population in Moheli, a protected area, has higher genetic diversity than the others. Significant heterozygote deficiencies were recorded, and null alleles were probably the main factor leading to these deficits. F ST value indicated medium genetic differentiation among the populations. Although significant, AMOVA revealed 48.9 % of genetic variation within individuals and only a small variation of 8.9 % was found between populations. Gene flow was high ( Nm  = 12.40) between Grande Comore and Moheli, while lower ( Nm  = 1.80) between Grande Comore and Anjouan, explaining geographic barriers to genetic exchanges might exist in these two islands. Global gene flow analysis ( Nm  = 5.50) showed that larval dispersal is enough to move between the islands. The high genetic diversity and medium population differentiation revealed in the present study offer useful information on genetic conservation of small giant clams.

  9. Induction of Protective Immunity against Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria acervulina Infections Using Dendritic Cell-Derived Exosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Margarita; Lee, Sung Hyen; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon; Quilez, Joaquin; Lillehoj, Erik P.; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a novel immunization strategy against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from Eimeria parasite antigen (Ag)-loaded dendritic cells (DCs). Chicken intestinal DCs were isolated and pulsed in vitro with a mixture of sporozoite-extracted Ags from Eimeria tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina, and the cell-derived exosomes were isolated. Chickens were nonimmunized or immunized intramuscularly with exosomes and subsequently noninfected or coinfected with E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina oocysts. Immune parameters compared among the nonimmunized/noninfected, nonimmunized/infected, and immunized/infected groups were the numbers of cells secreting Th1 cytokines, Th2 cytokines, interleukin-16 (IL-16), and Ag-reactive antibodies in vitro and in vivo readouts of protective immunity against Eimeria infection. Cecal tonsils, Peyer's patches, and spleens of immunized and infected chickens had increased numbers of cells secreting the IL-16 and the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and gamma interferon, greater Ag-stimulated proliferative responses, and higher numbers of Ag-reactive IgG- and IgA-producing cells following in vitro stimulation with the sporozoite Ags compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and nonimmunized/infected controls. In contrast, the numbers of cells secreting the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 were diminished in immunized and infected chickens compared with the nonimmunized/noninfected and the nonimmunized/infected controls. Chickens immunized with Ag-loaded exosomes and infected in vivo with Eimeria oocysts had increased body weight gains, reduced feed conversion ratios, diminished fecal oocyst shedding, lessened intestinal lesion scores, and reduced mortality compared with the nonimmunized/infected controls. These results suggest that successful field vaccination against avian coccidiosis using exosomes derived from DCs incubated with Ags isolated from Eimeria species may be possible. PMID:22354026

  10. Effects of artemisinin in broiler chickens challenged with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella in battery trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Loredana; Györke, Adriana; Tǎbǎran, Alexandru Flaviu; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Mircean, Viorica; Zagon, Diana; Balea, Anamaria; Cozma, Vasile

    2015-12-15

    Four experiments were conceived in order to test the efficacy of artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from Artemisia annua, in single experimental infection of broiler chickens with Eimeria acervulina (1 × 10(5) oocysts), Eimeria maxima (5 × 10(4) oocysts) or Eimeria tenella (1 × 10(4) oocysts), and mixed infection with all 3 species (3.2 × 10(4) Eimeria spp. oocysts). For each experiment, three different dosages of artemisinin (5, 50 and 500 ppm) were compared with a negative control (uninfected, unmedicated), a positive control (infected, unmedicated) and a classical anticoccidial (monensin). The weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), oocysts shedded per gram of feces (OPG), lesion score, oocysts sporulation rates and mortality rate were recorded in all groups. The dosage of 5 ppm of artemisinin improved the WG and FCR for the chickens infected with E. acervulina. The OPG was significantly decreased in all the groups medicated with artemisinin and challenged with a mixed infection (p ≤ 0.01). The lesion score of the chickens challenged with Eimeria was reduced by different concentrations of artemisinin, depending on the species involved, but this compound did not have a positive effect on the lesions caused by E. acervulina. Histopathological analysis revealed superficial erosions of the intestinal mucosa, mixt. mononuclear and heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate in the lamina propria and intralesional presence of various developmental stages of parasite in groups infected with Eimeria spp.The sporulation rate of E. acervulina and E. maxima oocysts was significantly affected by 500 ppm of artemisinin, whilst the dosage of 5 ppm affected the sporulation of E. tenella oocysts. These data suggest that artemisinin is not effective against single eimerian infections but could be used as an alternative in mixed coccidiosis, especially if its effect on the oocysts sporulation would be fully investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  11. Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Lambert, Wallace

    1981-01-01

    Describes study which tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit comparison of the effects of bilingual encoding with verbal-nonverbal dual encoding items. Results provide strong support for a version of the independent or separate stories view of bilingual memory. (Author/BK)

  12. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  13. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  14. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald

    2008-01-01

    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  15. Inverse diffusion theory of photoacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Uhlmann, Gunther

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the reconstruction of diffusion and absorption parameters in an elliptic equation from knowledge of internal data. In the application of photoacoustics, the internal data are the amount of thermal energy deposited by high frequency radiation propagating inside a domain of interest. These data are obtained by solving an inverse wave equation, which is well studied in the literature. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines two constitutive parameters in diffusion and Schrödinger equations. Stability of the reconstruction is guaranteed under additional geometric constraints of strict convexity. No geometric constraints are necessary when 2n internal data for well-chosen boundary conditions are available, where n is spatial dimension. The set of well-chosen boundary conditions is characterized in terms of appropriate complex geometrical optics solutions

  16. Action understanding as inverse planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Chris L; Saxe, Rebecca; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2009-12-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents' actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents' behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. The mental states that caused an agent's behavior are inferred by inverting this model of rational planning using Bayesian inference, integrating the likelihood of the observed actions with the prior over mental states. This approach formalizes in precise probabilistic terms the essence of previous qualitative approaches to action understanding based on an "intentional stance" [Dennett, D. C. (1987). The intentional stance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press] or a "teleological stance" [Gergely, G., Nádasdy, Z., Csibra, G., & Biró, S. (1995). Taking the intentional stance at 12 months of age. Cognition, 56, 165-193]. In three psychophysical experiments using animated stimuli of agents moving in simple mazes, we assess how well different inverse planning models based on different goal priors can predict human goal inferences. The results provide quantitative evidence for an approximately rational inference mechanism in human goal inference within our simplified stimulus paradigm, and for the flexible nature of goal representations that human observers can adopt. We discuss the implications of our experimental results for human action understanding in real-world contexts, and suggest how our framework might be extended to capture other kinds of mental state inferences, such as inferences about beliefs, or inferring whether an entity is an intentional agent.

  17. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Wiak, Sławomir

    2003-01-01

    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  18. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new...... variant of the Universal Resolving Algorithm for inverse interpretation. The new variant outperforms the original algorithm in several cases, e.g., when unpacking a list using inverse interpretation of a pack program. It uses inverse driving as its main technique, which has not been described in detail...... before. Inverse driving may find application with, e.g., supercompilation, thus suggesting a new kind of program inverter....

  19. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm

    OpenAIRE

    DEBENEC, PRIMOŽ

    2015-01-01

    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  20. Automatic Flight Controller With Model Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan

    1992-01-01

    Automatic digital electronic control system based on inverse-model-follower concept being developed for proposed vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing airplane. Inverse-model-follower control places inverse mathematical model of dynamics of controlled plant in series with control actuators of controlled plant so response of combination of model and plant to command is unity. System includes feedback to compensate for uncertainties in mathematical model and disturbances imposed from without.

  1. Lectures on the inverse scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.E.

    1983-06-01

    In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)

  2. Bayesian approach to inverse statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Inverse statistical mechanics aims to determine particle interactions from ensemble properties. This article looks at this inverse problem from a Bayesian perspective and discusses several statistical estimators to solve it. In addition, a sequential Monte Carlo algorithm is proposed that draws the interaction parameters from their posterior probability distribution. The posterior probability involves an intractable partition function that is estimated along with the interactions. The method is illustrated for inverse problems of varying complexity, including the estimation of a temperature, the inverse Ising problem, maximum entropy fitting, and the reconstruction of molecular interaction potentials.

  3. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  4. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amici Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  5. Dual antagonists of integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah, K; Dolenc, M Sollner

    2005-01-01

    The roles of integrins in pathologies have been studied intensively and only partially explained. This has resulted in the development of several nanomolar antagonists to certain integrins. In most cases, the aim was to produce compounds which are highly selective towards specific integrins. This paradigm has recently shifted a little. Targeting two or more integrins with one compound has become a very attractive concept, especially since it has become clear that several severe disorders, such as pathological angiogenesis, cannot be treated just with highly specific integrin antagonists. This review is aimed to elucidate some aspects regarding the design of drugs with dual activity towards integrins. Integrin structure and tissue distribution will first be described, in order to provide the basis for their functions in various pathologies which will follow. Inhibitors of several pairs of integrins will be described.

  6. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  7. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  8. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  9. Baryons and dual unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.-I.

    1977-05-01

    Processes involving baryons are discussed in the scheme of dual unitarization. In particular, the topological expansion is generalized to any hadronic S-matrix elements involving baryons and/or mesons. The expansion is based on a model for the baryon propagator, which is a set of three planar Feynman diagrams joined at a junction line. The resulting expansion is a double expansion in 1/N (N = the number of quark flavours) and in the number of baryon loops. Based on this, several new observations are made in phenomenological problems, and a unifying point of view in stressed. The scheme is evidently crossing invariant, and unitarity constraints are imposed order by order in 1/N and in the baryon loop number. (author)

  10. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima . In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria . After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1's and E. maxima oocyst antigens' specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain.

  11. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. CDR3 analysis of TCR Vβ repertoire of CD8⁺ T cells from chickens infected with Eimeria maxima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chao; Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Suo, Jingxia; Lv, Qiyao; Xie, Li; Wang, Yunzhou; Huang, Xiaoxi; Chen, Yuchen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2014-08-01

    CD8(+) T cells play a major role in the immune protection of host against the reinfection of Eimeria maxima, the most immunogenic species of eimerian parasites in chickens. To explore the dominant complementarity-determining regions 3 (CDR3) of CD8(+) T cell populations induced by the infection of this parasite, sequence analysis was performed in this study for CDR3 of CD8(+) T cells from E. maxima infected chickens. After 5 days post the third or forth infection, intraepithelial lymphocytes were isolated from the jejunum of bird. CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were sorted and subjected to total RNA isolation and cDNA preparation. PCR amplification and cloning of the loci between Vβ1 and Cβ was conducted for the subsequent sequencing of CDR3 of T cell receptor (TCR). After the forth infection, 2 birds exhibited two same frequent TCR CDR3 sequences, i.e., AKQDWGTGGYSNMI and AGRVLNIQY; while the third bird showed two different frequent TCR CDR3 sequences, AKQGARGHTPLN and AKQDIEVRGPNTPLN. No frequent CDR3 sequence was detected from uninfected birds, though AGRVLNIQY was also found in two uninfected birds. Our result preliminarily demonstrates that frequent CDR3 sequences may exist in E. maxima immunized chickens, encouraging the mining of the immunodominant CD8(+) T cells against E. maxima infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Vaccine Delivery Model of the Apicomplexan Eimeria tenella Expressing Eimeria maxima Antigen Protects Chickens against Infection of the Two Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xinming; Liu, Xianyong; Yin, Guangwen; Suo, Jingxia; Tao, Geru; Zhang, Sixin; Suo, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Vaccine delivery is critical in antigen discovery and vaccine efficacy and safety. The diversity of infectious diseases in humans and livestock has required the development of varied delivery vehicles to target different pathogens. In livestock animals, previous strategies for the development of coccidiosis vaccines have encountered several hurdles, limiting the development of multiple species vaccine formulations. Here, we describe a novel vaccine delivery system using transgenic Eimeria tenella expressing immunodominant antigens of Eimeria maxima. In this delivery system, the immune mapped protein 1 of E. maxima (EmIMP1) was delivered by the closely related species of E. tenella to the host immune system during the whole endogenous life cycle. The overexpression of the exogenous antigen did not interfere with the reproduction and immunogenicity of transgenic Eimeria. After immunization with the transgenic parasite, we detected EmIMP1’s and E. maxima oocyst antigens’ specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In particular, we observed partial protection of chickens immunized with transgenic E. tenella against subsequent E. maxima infections. Our results demonstrate that the transgenic Eimeria parasite is an ideal coccidia antigen delivery vehicle and represents a new type of coccidiosis vaccines. In addition, this model could potentially be used in the development of malaria live sporozoite vaccines, in which antigens from different strains can be expressed in the vaccine strain. PMID:29375584

  14. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  15. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available dual-band dual-polarized (DBDP) antenna design for WLAN applications. The antenna is in the form of an array consisting of four double-dipole radiators. The basic radiating element consists of a rhombus shaped dipole above a planar ground plane... the ground planes and the respective feedlines. Substrate cuts and difierent heights for the horizontal feedlines were necessary to achieve the latter. The 2nd conflguration (for vertical polarization) has a slightly difierent feeding network layout...

  16. Optimal Design and Hybrid Control for the Electro-Hydraulic Dual-Shaking Table System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianpeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to develop an optimal electro-hydraulic dual-shaking table system with high waveform replication precision. The parameters of hydraulic cylinders, servo valves, hydraulic supply power and gravity balance system are designed and optimized in detail. To improve synchronization and tracking control precision, a hybrid control strategy is proposed. The cross-coupled control using a novel based on sliding mode control based on adaptive reaching law (ASMC, which can adaptively tune the parameters of sliding mode control (SMC, is proposed to reduce the synchronization error. To improve the tracking performance, the observer-based inverse control scheme combining the feed-forward inverse model controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is identified applying the recursive least squares (RLS algorithm and then the feed-forward inverse controller is designed based on zero phase error tracking controller (ZPETC technique. To compensate disturbance and model errors, disturbance observer is used cooperating with the designed inverse controller. The combination of the novel ASMC cross-coupled controller and proposed observer-based inverse controller can improve the control precision noticeably. The dual-shaking table experiment system is built and various experiments are performed. The experimental results indicate that the developed system with the proposed hybrid control strategy is feasible and efficient and can reduce the tracking errors to 25% and synchronization error to 16% compared with traditional control schemes.

  17. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  18. Inversion based on computational simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.M.; Cunningham, G.S.; Saquib, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    A standard approach to solving inversion problems that involve many parameters uses gradient-based optimization to find the parameters that best match the data. The authors discuss enabling techniques that facilitate application of this approach to large-scale computational simulations, which are the only way to investigate many complex physical phenomena. Such simulations may not seem to lend themselves to calculation of the gradient with respect to numerous parameters. However, adjoint differentiation allows one to efficiently compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to all the variables of a simulation. When combined with advanced gradient-based optimization algorithms, adjoint differentiation permits one to solve very large problems of optimization or parameter estimation. These techniques will be illustrated through the simulation of the time-dependent diffusion of infrared light through tissue, which has been used to perform optical tomography. The techniques discussed have a wide range of applicability to modeling including the optimization of models to achieve a desired design goal

  19. MODEL SELECTION FOR SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC INVERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martínez González, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchié, B.; Orozco Suárez, D.

    2012-01-01

    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  20. Inverse transport theory of photoacoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre; Jugnon, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We consider the reconstruction of optical parameters in a domain of interest from photoacoustic data. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) radiates high-frequency electromagnetic waves into the domain and measures acoustic signals emitted by the resulting thermal expansion. Acoustic signals are then used to construct the deposited thermal energy map. The latter depends on the constitutive optical parameters in a nontrivial manner. In this paper, we develop and use an inverse transport theory with internal measurements to extract information on the optical coefficients from knowledge of the deposited thermal energy map. We consider the multi-measurement setting in which many electromagnetic radiation patterns are used to probe the domain of interest. By developing an expansion of the measurement operator into singular components, we show that the spatial variations of the intrinsic attenuation and the scattering coefficients may be reconstructed. We also reconstruct coefficients describing anisotropic scattering of photons, such as the anisotropy coefficient g(x) in a Henyey–Greenstein phase function model. Finally, we derive stability estimates for the reconstructions