Sample records for mavi dil hastaligi

  1. MAVIS: An integrated system for live microscopy and vitrification

    Koning, Roman I., E-mail: [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Faas, Frank G. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Boonekamp, Michael; Visser, Bram de; Janse, Jan [Department of Instrumental Development, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Wiegant, Joop C. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Breij, Anna de [Department of Infectious Diseases, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Willemse, Joost [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Nibbering, Peter H. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Tanke, Hans J.; Koster, Abraham J. [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)


    Cryo-electron microscopy of vitrified biological samples can provide three-dimensional reconstructions of macromolecules and organelles within bacteria and cells at nanometer scale resolution, even in native conditions. Localization of specific structures and imaging of cellular dynamics in cellular cryo-electron microscopy is limited by (i) the use of cryo-fixation to preserve cellular structures, (ii) the restricted availability of electron dense markers to label molecules inside cells and (iii) the inherent low contrast of cryo electron microscopy. These limitations can be mitigated to a large extend by correlative light and electron microscopy, where the sample is imaged by both light and electron microscopy. Here we present a Microscopy and Vitrification Integrated System (MAVIS) that combines a light microscope with a plunger to vitrify thin specimens. MAVIS provides the capability for fluorescence light microscopic imaging of living cells and bacteria that are adhered to an electron microscopy grid and subsequent vitrification within a time frame of seconds. The instrument allows targeting of dynamic biological events in time and space by fluorescence microscopy for subsequent cryo light and electron microscopy. Here we describe the design and performance of the MAVIS, illustrated with biological examples. - Highlights: • We developed new plunger: a Microscopy and Vitrification Integrated System (MAVIS). • The MAVIS is a new tool for integrating of live microscopy and vitrification. • The MAVIS allows fluorescence LM of living cells and vitrification within seconds. • Here we describe the MAVIS design and performance, and show biological examples.

  2. The use of MAVIS II to integrate the modeling and analysis of explosive valve interactions

    Ng, R.; Kwon, D.M.


    The MAVIS II computer program provides for the modeling and analysis of explosive valve interactions. This report describes the individual components of the program and how MAVIS II is used with other available tools to integrate the design and understanding of explosive valves. The rationale and model used for each valve interaction is described. Comparisons of the calculated results with available data have demonstrated the feasibility and accuracy of using MAVIS II for analytical studies of explosive valve interactions. The model used for the explosive or pyrotechnic used as the driving force in explosive valves is the most critical to be understood and modeled. MAVIS II is an advanced version that incorporates a plastic, as well as elastic, modeling of the deformations experienced when plungers are forced into a bore. The inclusion of a plastic model has greatly expanded the use of MAVIS for all categories (opening, closure, or combined) of valves, especially for the closure valves in which the sealing operation requires the plastic deformation of either a plunger or bore over a relatively large area. In order to increase its effectiveness, the use of MAVIS II should be integrated with the results from available experimental hardware. Test hardware such as the Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) and Velocity Generator test provide experimental data for accurate comparison of the actual valve functions. Variable Explosive Chamber (VEC) and Constant Explosive Volume (CEV) tests are used to provide the proper explosive equation-of-state for the MAVIS calculations of the explosive driving forces. The rationale and logistics of this integration is demonstrated through an example. A recent valve design is used to demonstrate how MAVIS II can be integrated with experimental tools to provide an understanding of the interactions in this valve.

  3. Radiological chest manifestations in diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS

    F Ismail


    Full Text Available This report focuses on the radiological manifestations of diffuse interstitial lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS in the chest. Awareness of this entity and early diagnosis by radiologists will enable timeous intervention by clinicians.

  4. Biological optimization of simultaneous boost on intra-prostatic lesions (DILs): sensitivity to TCP parameters.

    Azzeroni, R; Maggio, A; Fiorino, C; Mangili, P; Cozzarini, C; De Cobelli, F; Di Muzio, N G; Calandrino, R


    The aim of this investigation was to explore the potential of biological optimization in the case of simultaneous integrated boost on intra-prostatic dominant lesions (DIL) and evaluating the impact of TCP parameters uncertainty. Different combination of TCP parameters (TD50 and γ50 in the Poisson-like model), were considered for DILs and the prostate outside DILs (CTV) for 7 intermediate/high-risk prostate patients. The aim was to maximize TCP while constraining NTCPs below 5% for all organs at risk. TCP values were highly depending on the parameters used and ranged between 38.4% and 99.9%; the optimized median physical doses were in the range 94-116 Gy and 69-77 Gy for DIL and CTV respectively. TCP values were correlated with the overlap PTV-rectum and the minimum distance between rectum and DIL. In conclusion, biological optimization for selective dose escalation is feasible and suggests prescribed dose around 90-120 Gy to the DILs. The obtained result is critically depending on the assumptions concerning the higher radioresistence in the DILs. In case of very resistant clonogens into the DIL, it may be difficult to maximize TCP to acceptable levels without violating NTCP constraints.

  5. Mission Composeable C2 in DIL Information Environments Using Widgets and App Stores


    18th ICCRTS “Mission Composeable C2 in DIL Information Environments using Widgets and App Stores ” Topics: Topic 3: Data, Information, and...operational concept, or force.” 43 (emphasis in original) A Technology to Enable Agile C2: Widget & App Stores One recent innovation, both in the...the warfighter. Mission Composeable C2 in DIL Information Environments using Widgets and App Stores 18th ICCRTS Presenter: Ms. Amanda

  6. Dil Sorunu Olan Çocuklar İçin Bütüncül Dil Yaklaşımı

    Figen Turan


    Full Text Available Bütüncül dil kavramı dilin özellikle okul sistemlerinde öğretilmesi konusunda bir eğitim felsefesini tanımlamak için kullanılmaktadır (Goodman, 1986. Bu yaklaşım, doğal dil öğrenimini temel alarak, hem sözel hem de yazılı dilin, tum bileşenleri açısından (sözdizimi, sesbilgisi, vb öğretimde öğretim programı ile bir bütün olarak ve çocuk için anlamlı etkinlikler çerçevesinde ele alınması gereğini savunmaktadır. Bu yazıda, bütüncül dil yaklaşımının felsefesi, sınıf ortamında kullanımı ve dil sorunu olan çocuklara uygulanması ve yararları tartışılmıştır. Whole language is an approach to language teaching, particularly in school settings (Goodman, 1986 Based on natural language learning, it advocates that language, with both its components (e g syntax, phonology and spoken and written forms, should be integrated with the curriculum and presented in meaningful activities for the child. This paper describes the philosophy of whole language, its applicatıon in a classroom setting and its implementation and benefits for children with language impairments.

  7. Analysis of Organelle Targeting by DIL Domains of the Arabidopsis Myosin XI Family

    Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Schmelzer, Elmon; Hanson, Maureen R.


    The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 13 myosin XI motor proteins. Previous insertional mutant analysis has implicated substantial redundancy of function of plant myosin XIs in transport of intracellular organelles. Considerable information is available about the interaction of cargo with the myosin XI-homologous yeast myosin V protein myo2p. We identified a region in each of 12 myosin XI sequences that correspond to the yeast myo2p secretory-vesicle binding domain (the “DIL” domain). Structural modeling of the myosin DIL domain region of plant myosin XIs revealed significant similarity to the yeast myo2p and myo4p DIL domains. Transient expression of YFP fusions with the Arabidopsis myosin XI DIL domain resulted in fluorescent labeling of a variety of organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, Golgi, and nuclear envelope. With the exception of the YFP::MYA1 DIL fusion, expression of the DIL–YFP fusions resulted in loss of motility of labeled organelles, consistent with a dominant-negative effect. Certain fusions resulted in localization to the cytoplasm, plasma membrane, or to unidentified vesicles. The same YFP-domain fusion sometimes labeled more than one organelle. Expression of a YFP fusion to a yeast myo2p DIL domain resulted in labeling of plant peroxisomes. Fusions with some of the myosin XI domains resulted in labeling of known cargoes of the particular myosin XI; however, certain myosin XI YFP fusions labeled organelles that had not previously been found to be detectably affected by mutations nor by expression of dominant-negative constructs. PMID:22645548

  8. Nonlinear Observer Design of the Generalized Rössler Hyperchaotic Systems via DIL Methodology

    Yeong-Jeu Sun


    Full Text Available The generalized Rössler hyperchaotic systems are presented, and the state observation problem of such systems is investigated. Based on the differential inequality with Lyapunov methodology (DIL methodology, a nonlinear observer design for the generalized Rössler hyperchaotic systems is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Meanwhile, the guaranteed exponential decay rate can be accurately estimated. Finally, numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed approach.

  9. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Weiming, Xiao [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Juqun, Xi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Yanbing, Ding [Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Li, Qian [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Xingyuan, Pan [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Mingchun, Ji [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Weijuan, Gong, E-mail: [Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Clinical Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Prevention and Treatment of Senile Diseases, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009 (China); Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009 (China)


    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8{sup +} T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Generation of a nanoparticle for delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene. • Characterization of the gene nanoparticle. • Antitumor activity mediated by the gene nanoparticle.

  10. Genotyping the future: scientists' expectations about race/ ethnicity after BiDil.

    Tutton, Richard; Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul A; Ashcroft, Richard; Ellison, George T H


    The ongoing debate about the FDA approval of BiDil in 2005 demonstrates how the first racially/ethnically licensed drug is entangled in both Utopian and dystopian future visions about the continued saliency of race/ethnicity in science and medicine. Drawing on the sociology of expectations, this paper analyzes how scientists in the field of pharmacogenetics are constructing certain visions of the future with respect to the use of social categories of race/ethnicity and the impact of high-throughput genotyping technologies that promise to transform scientific practices.

  11. Delivery of human NKG2D-IL-15 fusion gene by chitosan nanoparticles to enhance antitumor immunity.

    Yan, Chen; Jie, Leng; Yongqi, Wang; Weiming, Xiao; Juqun, Xi; Yanbing, Ding; Li, Qian; Xingyuan, Pan; Mingchun, Ji; Weijuan, Gong


    Nanoparticles are becoming promising carriers for gene delivery because of their high capacity in gene loading and low cell cytotoxicity. In this study, a chitosan-based nanoparticle encapsulated within a recombinant pcDNA3.1-dsNKG2D-IL-15 plasmid was generated. The fused dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene fragment consisted of double extracellular domains of NKG2D with IL-15 gene at downstream. The average diameter of the gene nanoparticles ranged from 200 nm to 400 nm, with mean zeta potential value of 53.8 ± 6.56 mV. The nanoparticles which were loaded with the dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene were uptaken by tumor cells with low cytotoxicity. Tumor cells pre-transfected by gene nanopartilces stimulated NK and T cells in vitro. Intramuscular injection of gene nanoparticles suppressed tumor growth and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice through activation of NK and CD8(+) T cells. Thus, chitosan-based nanoparticle delivery of dsNKG2D-IL-15 gene vaccine can be potentially used for tumor therapy.

  12. Suitability of the retrograde tracer Dil for electrophysiological studies of brainstem neurons: adverse ramifications for G-protein coupled receptor agonists.

    Zhang, Liang; Jongeling, Amy C; Hammond, Donna L


    Despite the acknowledged advantages of studying identified populations of neurons, few studies have convincingly established that fluorescent retrograde tracers do not alter the passive membrane properties, action potential characteristics, or effects of drugs on the labeled neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from spinally-projecting serotonergic neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and spinally-projecting noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) that were retrogradely labeled with 1,1'-dioactadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbodyanine perchlorate (Dil). The passive membrane and the action potential properties of Dil-labeled (0.2%) and non-labeled serotonergic neurons in the RVM did not differ. Similarly, the passive membrane and action potential properties of non-labeled noradrenergic LC neurons did not differ from neurons labeled with 0.2% or 5% Dil. Although the mu opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2)-NMePhe(4)-Gly-ol(5)]enkephalin (DAMGO) produced equivalent outward currents in non-labeled noradrenergic LC neurons and those labeled with 0.2% Dil, significantly smaller currents were recorded in LC neurons labeled with 5% Dil. Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutryic acid(B) receptor agonist, also produced smaller currents in RVM neurons labeled with 5% Dil compared to 0.2% Dil. These results indicate that 0.2% Dil is suitable for retrograde labeling of brainstem neurons in vivo for subsequent in vitro electrophysiological study. However, 5% Dil is likely to confound studies of the postsynaptic actions of G-protein coupled receptor ligands.

  13. Communication Strategies Must Be Tailored to a Medication's Targeted Population: Lessons from the Case of BiDil

    Hawkins-Taylor, Chamika; Carlson, Angeline M


    Background The American population's diversity continues to grow, and its racial and ethnic mixes are changing. The US healthcare system must confront this changing reality. The introduction of isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine hydrochloride (BiDil) to the US marketplace was a move toward recognizing these changing consumer needs. BiDil was approved specifically as a secondary treatment for heart failure in African-American patients. It remains the first and only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a race-based indication. To ensure commercial success, a drug must be made “visible” to healthcare providers and to consumers. Objectives To describe and analyze the case of BiDil and its potential implications for drugs developed for targeted populations to help them avoid a similar fate of market withdrawal because of commercial considerations. Method This analysis is based on 12 comprehensive interviews with 5 clinical investigators, 1 minority healthcare provider, and 5 pharmaceutical representatives, as well as a review of the literature. Overall, 12 one-hour semistructured interviews were conducted. Of the 11 interviewees, 10 were interviewed once and 1 was interviewed once early in the process and then had a second interview by the end of the study. When the 12 scheduled interviews were completed, the recordings were transcribed and subjected to analysis through the use of a readily available computer software package, using concepts and themes collected from the literature and the interviewees' responses. Results The interviewees lacked consensus regarding the unique nature of BiDil. The clinical researchers considered it innovative in identifying that taking the 2 drugs together produced the greatest clinical effect in African-American patients with heart failure. For them, BiDil represented an innovation in the emerging field of personalized medicine. However, they were dismayed to see that these beliefs were challenged by the medical

  14. Communication Strategies Must Be Tailored to a Medication's Targeted Population: Lessons from the Case of BiDil.

    Hawkins-Taylor, Chamika; Carlson, Angeline M


    The American population's diversity continues to grow, and its racial and ethnic mixes are changing. The US healthcare system must confront this changing reality. The introduction of isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine hydrochloride (BiDil) to the US marketplace was a move toward recognizing these changing consumer needs. BiDil was approved specifically as a secondary treatment for heart failure in African-American patients. It remains the first and only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for a race-based indication. To ensure commercial success, a drug must be made "visible" to healthcare providers and to consumers. To describe and analyze the case of BiDil and its potential implications for drugs developed for targeted populations to help them avoid a similar fate of market withdrawal because of commercial considerations. This analysis is based on 12 comprehensive interviews with 5 clinical investigators, 1 minority healthcare provider, and 5 pharmaceutical representatives, as well as a review of the literature. Overall, 12 one-hour semistructured interviews were conducted. Of the 11 interviewees, 10 were interviewed once and 1 was interviewed once early in the process and then had a second interview by the end of the study. When the 12 scheduled interviews were completed, the recordings were transcribed and subjected to analysis through the use of a readily available computer software package, using concepts and themes collected from the literature and the interviewees' responses. The interviewees lacked consensus regarding the unique nature of BiDil. The clinical researchers considered it innovative in identifying that taking the 2 drugs together produced the greatest clinical effect in African-American patients with heart failure. For them, BiDil represented an innovation in the emerging field of personalized medicine. However, they were dismayed to see that these beliefs were challenged by the medical community and their physician colleagues

  15. Feasibility of safe ultra-high (EQD{sub 2}>100 Gy) dose escalation on dominant intra-prostatic lesions (DILs) by Helical Tomotheraphy

    Maggio, Angelo; Fiorino, Claudio; Mangili, Paola; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro; Del Maschio, Alessandro; Calandrino, Riccardo (Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Inst., Milano (Italy)), e-mail:; Muzio, Nadia Di; Cozzarini, Cesare (Radiotherapy, San Raffaele Scientific Inst., Milano (Italy)); Cobelli, Francesco de (Radiology, San Raffaele Scientific Inst., Milano (Italy)); Rancati, Tiziana (Programma Prostata, National Inst. of Cancer, Milano (Italy))


    Purpose. To verify the possibility of using Helical Tomotherapy to safely escalate dose to single or multiple highly radioresistant dominant intra-prostatic lesions (DILs) as assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material. In seven intermediate/high risk patients, T2WI, T1WI and DWI MRI imaging showed evidence of one DIL in four patients and two DILs in three patients in the peripheral zone of the prostate. The planning strategy was to deliver median doses of 80, 90, 100 and 120 Gy to PTVDIL while delivering 71.4 Gy/28 fractions (EQD{sub 2}=75 Gy) to the remaining portion of PTV. A higher priority was assigned to rectal constraints relative to DIL coverage. Rectal NTCP calculations were performed using the most recently available model data. Results. The median dose to DIL could safely be escalated to at least 100 Gy (EQD{sub 2,{alpha}/{beta}=10}=113 Gy) without violating safe constraints for the organs at risk. Typical rectal NTCP values were around or below 1-3% for G3 toxicity and 5-7% for G2-G3 toxicity. For the 100 Gy DIL dose boost strategy, mean D95% of DIL and PTVDIL were 98.8 Gy and 86.7 Gy, respectively. The constraints for bladder, urethra and femoral heads were always respected. Conclusions. IGRT by Helical Tomotherapy may permit the safe escalation of EQD{sub 2,{alpha}/{eta}=10} to at least 113 Gy to DILs without significantly increasing rectal NTCP compared to plans without dose escalation. A Phase I-II clinical study is warranted

  16. Temperature Excursion Analysis of DIL5520 Dual Induction Logging Tool%DIL5520双感应测井仪温漂及测井问题分析

    陈草棠; 吕超英; 徐忠清


    DIL5520双感应测井仪在测井时存在温漂问题,即在高电阻率井段测井曲线重复性不好.对DIL5520双感应测井仪的基值温漂指标进行分析,认为常规感应仪器遇高电阻率地层重复性不好是仪器本身指标无法满足要求,DIL5520双感应测井仪器可通过改变加温工艺提高其稳定性.提出了解决温漂问题的方法,如改变加温工艺流程,增加100℃记录点;在各温度点恒温30min;在仪器加温前,将线圈系用硅油充分浸泡;进行软件温度补偿等.DIL5520双感应测井仪在中高电阻率地层存在测井值偏低或偏高及有时出现跳尖和重复性不好的问题,可通过在井下布置多个发射和接收线圈改善感应测井的探测性能.为保证仪器的重复性,在感应测井时要按规定安装扶正器;对于井径较大的井段,只有通过校正图版校正.%The logging curve repeatability of DIL5520 dual induction logging tool is unsatisfactory in high resistivity formation because of the temperature excursion in logging. Conventional induction logging tool with bad repeatability is due to its configuration, but for DIL5520 dual induction logging tool, we can improve its stability by changing warming processes. Proposed is 4 ways to improve its repeatability:① increase 100 "C reporting spot; ② keep each temperature for 30 min; ③ fully soap the coil array in silicone oil before warming the tool, and do software temperature compensation, etc. To solve the problems such as abnormal log values and unsatisfactory curve repeatability in middle and high resistivity formation logging with the DIL5520 tool, the ideal solution is to put several emission and receiving coils downhole to improve its detection performance. For induction logging, we should assemble centralizer according to regulation to ensure logging curve repeatability. As for wells with bigger borehole diameter, the calibration chart is needed to guarantee the log data correction.

  17. Zihin Kuramı ve Dil Arasındaki İlişki: Bir Derleme

    Bahar Keçeli Kaysılı


    Full Text Available Diğerlerinin duygularını, düşüncelerini ve isteklerini anlama yani zihin kuramı başarılı bir iletişim için gereklidir. Bu derleme çalışmasında normal gelişen çocuklarda zihin kuramı ve dil ilişkisi ele alınmıştır. Zihin kuramı kazanımını açıklayan teorilerden biri sözdizimi ve zihinsel durum ifade eden eylemlerin, yanlış inancın temsiline olanak sağladığını belirterek bu ilişkiyi incelemektedir. Bu varsayım dil ile zihin kuramı arasındaki ilişkinin doğasını tanımladığı için önemli görülmektedir. Alanyazından derlenen bu çalışmanın çocukların iletişim ve dil gelişimlerini desteklemede, öğretmenlere yol göstereceği düşünülmektedir. Understanding of others’ feelings, thoughts and wishes or a ‘theory of mind’ is essential for competent communication. This study described how language and theory of mind development are related in typically developing children. One of the hypothesis that explains the acquisition of theory of mind, proposed that syntax and mental states verbs provides children to understand representational thoughts like false belief. Because this hypothesis aimed to identify more specifically the nature of this role it is thought to be important. This review of selected literature will help teachers enhance children’s communication and language development.

  18. Yabancı Dil Olarak Arapça Öğretiminde WhatsApp Kullanımı

    ŞEN YAMAN, Gül


    Bilgi ve İletişim Teknolojileri (BİT) kullanmak dil öğrenme becerilerini geliştirme açısından büyük bir etkiye sahiptir. Yabancı dil eğitiminde kullanılan son eğilimlerden birisi de WhatsApp gibi sosyal ağların kullanılmasıdır. Bu durum son yıllarda özellikle yabancı dil eğitiminde çok popüler hale gelmiştir. WhatsApp kullanımı hayatımızda önemli bir role sahiptir. Aynı zamanda eğitim alanında bize yardımcı olmaktadır. WhatsApp uygulaması çeşitli özellikleri yanı sıra işbirlikçi dil öğrenimin...

  19. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Çocukların Sosyal İletişim Becerileri ve Dil Gelişim Özellikleri

    Meral Çilem Ökcün-Akçamuş


    Full Text Available Dil ve iletişim alanında yaşanan güçlükler, otizm spektrum bozukluğunun (OSB tanı ölçütlerinden birisidir ve bu güçlükler OSB olan çocuklarda otizmin şiddetini belirleyen önemli bir değişken olarak ele alınmaktadır. OSB olan çocukların dil gelişiminde heterojen bir yapı olduğu kabul edilmektedir. OSB olan bazı çocuklar sözel dili hiç edinemezken, bazı çocuklarda normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına yakın bir sözel dil kullanım örüntüsü görülebilmektedir. Bu derleme çalışmasında OSB olan çocukların dil ve iletişim becerilerine ilişkin gelişimsel özellikleri incelenmiştir. OSB olan çocuklarda söz öncesi dönemde sözel olmayan sosyal iletişim becerilerine, sözel dil döneminde dilin bileşenlerine ilişkin sendroma özgü gelişimsel özellikler/bozukluklar görülmektedir. Bu nedenle bu derleme çalışmasında OSB olan çocukların söz öncesi dönemde sözel olmayan sosyal iletişim becerilerine yönelik gelişimleri ele alınacaktır. Bunun yanı sıra sözel dil döneminde olan OSB olan çocukların dilin biçimbirim bilgisi/sözdizimi, anlam bilgisi ve kullanım bilgisi bileşenlerine yönelik gelişimsel özellikleri incelenecektir. Alanyazından derlenen bu çalışmanın OSB olan çocuklarda dil gelişimi üzerine çalışan öğretmenlere ve araştırmacılara yol göstereceği düşünülmektedir. Difficulties in language and communication are diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD and these difficulties are taken as an important variable in determining the severity of the disorder for the children with ASD. It is accepted that language development of children with ASD is heterogeneous. While some of the children can never acquire language, some of them may show language use similar to their peers with typical development. In this review developmental characteristics of children with ASD in language and communication skills are examined. Children with ASD show

  20. İskenderun Körfezi'nde Dağılım Gösteren Kum Yengeci [Portunus pelagicus (Linneaus, 1758] ve Mavi Yengeç (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 Populasyonları ve Morfometrisi Üzerinde Araştırmalar.

    Tahir Özcan


    Full Text Available Bu çalışma ile İskenderun Körfezi’nden Temmuz 2002- Haziran 2003 tarihleri arsında elde edilen örnekler incelenerek Atlantik kökenli mavi yengeç ( Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 ve İndo-Pasifik kökenli kum yengeci (Portunus pelagicus Linneaus, 1758’nin boy dağılımları, erkek-dişi oranları belirlenmiştir. Toplam 467 birey (139 adet mavi yengeç ve 328 adet kum yengeci incelenmiştir. İskenderun Körfezi’ndeki kum yengeci populasyonunda %58 ile erkeklerin baskın olduğu, dişi bireylerin ortalama uzun karapas genişlikleri 119,9±2,8 mm genişliğinde, erkek bireylerin ortalama 104,9±2,1 mm uzun karapas genişliğinde oldukları belirlenmiştir. Mavi yengeç populasyonunda ise yaklaşık olarak populasyonun %69’unu dişi bireylerin oluşturduğu ve ortalama uzun karapas genişliği 148,9±2,5 mm, %31’ini oluşturan erkek bireylerin ise ortalama 123,3±3,4 mm uzun karapas genişliğinde oldukları belirlenmiştir

  1. Türk Dil Kurumu Kütüphanesi Yz. A. 210 Numarada Kayıtlı Lügat Mecmuası Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme
    An Assessment On Dictıonary Corpus Registered On Yz. A 210 Turk Dil Kurumu Library

    Arslan, Mustafa


    In this study we mention dictionary corpuses that have not been studied much before. It is possible to find that dictionary corpuses in which some of the dictionaries memorized and studied as text books in medresseh are brought together in the same manuscript. Manuscripts found in Turk Dil Kurumu Library are fully sufficient in dictionaries and dictionary corpuses. In this paper the most voluminous one is chosen and studied. Dictionaries are specialised dictionaries and works written to teach...

  2. Minimizing risks and monitoring safety of an antenatal care intervention to mitigate domestic violence among young Indian women: The Dil Mil trial.

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Subbiah, Kalyani; Chandra, Prabha; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari


    Domestic violence - physical, psychological, or sexual abuse perpetrated against women by one or more family members - is highly prevalent in India. However, relatively little research has been conducted on interventions with the potential to mitigate domestic violence and its adverse health consequences, and few resources exist to guide safety planning and monitoring in the context of intervention research. Dil Mil is a promising women's empowerment-based intervention developed in India that engages with young women (daughters-in-law) and their mothers-in-law to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes. This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial of Dil Mil in Bengaluru, India, with a focus on strategies used to minimize study-related risks and monitor safety. A phase 2 randomized controlled trial using a parallel comparison of the Dil Mil intervention versus standard care will be implemented in three public primary health centers in Bengaluru. Young pregnant women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited from antenatal services at study health centers and through community outreach. If eligible and willing, their mother-in-law will also be recruited. Once enrolled, dyads will participate in a baseline interview and then randomized either to the control arm and receive standard care or to the intervention arm and receive standard care plus the Dil Mil intervention. Additional evaluations will be conducted at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analyzed to examine the feasibility and safety of the intervention and the effect of the intervention on intermediary outcomes (the empowerment of daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law), incidence of domestic violence among daughters-in-law, and health outcomes including perceived quality of life, psychosocial status and maternal and infant health outcomes. This study offers approaches that may help guide safety planning and monitoring in other

  3. Minimizing risks and monitoring safety of an antenatal care intervention to mitigate domestic violence among young Indian women: The Dil Mil trial

    Krishnan Suneeta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence - physical, psychological, or sexual abuse perpetrated against women by one or more family members – is highly prevalent in India. However, relatively little research has been conducted on interventions with the potential to mitigate domestic violence and its adverse health consequences, and few resources exist to guide safety planning and monitoring in the context of intervention research. Dil Mil is a promising women’s empowerment-based intervention developed in India that engages with young women (daughters-in-law and their mothers-in-law to mitigate domestic violence and related adverse health outcomes. This paper describes the design of a randomized controlled trial of Dil Mil in Bengaluru, India, with a focus on strategies used to minimize study-related risks and monitor safety. Methods/design A phase 2 randomized controlled trial using a parallel comparison of the Dil Mil intervention versus standard care will be implemented in three public primary health centers in Bengaluru. Young pregnant women in the first or second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited from antenatal services at study health centers and through community outreach. If eligible and willing, their mother-in-law will also be recruited. Once enrolled, dyads will participate in a baseline interview and then randomized either to the control arm and receive standard care or to the intervention arm and receive standard care plus the Dil Mil intervention. Additional evaluations will be conducted at 3 months and 6 months postpartum. Data will be analyzed to examine the feasibility and safety of the intervention and the effect of the intervention on intermediary outcomes (the empowerment of daughters-in-law and mothers-in-law, incidence of domestic violence among daughters-in-law, and health outcomes including perceived quality of life, psychosocial status and maternal and infant health outcomes. Discussion This study offers

  4. Cemal Süreya Şiirinde Dil Sapmaları Linguistic Deviation In The Poetries Of Cemal Süreya

    Abdullah HARMANCI


    Full Text Available It is a fact that one of the most frequently referred methods to raise colloquial language and ordinary language to the literal and fictional language level and to expand literary text/poetry opportunities is “language deviations” Especially, since 1950s, it was started tobenefit from “language deviations” in our poetries that we may defineordinary language rules as writing, phonetic, word, expression,grammar, change in semantic levels. The Second New Poetry that hasbeen effective in our literature for some researchers between 1954 and1959 and for some researchers between 1953 and 1963 put the literaryarts, imaginative pronunciation, abstract language, closed-formexpression and language experience deliberatively ignored by the GaripPoetry Movement at forefront and pushed the limits of language. Heattempted to expand opportunities of Turkish, so largely benefited fromlinguistic deviations. Cemal Süreya who had been one of the importantrepresentatives of the Second Poetry applied these methods in hispoems. In this article, after the theoretical knowledge about the SecondNew Poetry and linguistic deviations, all the poems of Cemal Süreyawere reviewed and linguistic deviations we determined in poetries weresampled, and it was attempted to discuss why the poet needed thismethod, what kind of effects of linguistic deviations have been in hispoetry. Deviations used from the poetry of Cemal Süreya; wereattempted to be examined under seven titles; writing deviations,phonetic deviations, word deviations, grammar deviations,interventions to borrowed texts, meaning deviations or extraordinarysyncretism. Gündelik, ortalama dili; edebi, kurmaca dil seviyesine yükseltmek, edebî metnin/şiirin imkânlarını genişletmek amacıyla şair ve yazarlar tarafından sıkça başvurulan yöntemlerden birinin de “dil sapmaları” olduğu bir gerçektir. Dilin alışılmış kurallarını; yazım, ses, kelime, ifade, dilbilgisi, anlam düzeylerinde de

  5. Gelişimsel Yetersizliği Olan Çocukların Annelerinin, Dil Edinimine ve Dilin Desteklenmesine İlişkin Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi

    Ceyhun Servi


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, annelerin gelişimsel yetersizliği olan çocuklarının dil edinimine, dil gelişimlerinin desteklenmesine ve çocuklarının iletişim ve dil performanslarına ilişkin düşünceleri incelenmiştir. Çalışmaya, gelişimsel geriliği bulunan ve yaşları 30-60 aylar arasında çocuğu olan 14 anne katılmıştır. Annelerin eğitim düzeyleri en az lise mezunu olarak belirlenmiştir. Çocukların hepsinde iletişim ve dil ile ilgili gerilik bulunmaktadır. Araştırmada yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği ile veriler toplanmıştır. Annelere, dil edinimine, çocuklarının dil ve iletişim performanslarına ve dil gelişimi desteklenmesine yönelik görüşleri sorulmuştur. Anneler, dil ve iletişim becerilerinin çocuklar tarafından taklitle, herhangi bir etki olmadan kendi başlarına ya da çevre ile sosyal etkileşime girilerek edinildiğini ifade etmişlerdir. Dil ve iletişim becerilerini desteklemede, taklide dayalı tekniklerin, çocuğun ilgisini çeken etkinliklerin ve doğal yöntemlerin etkili olduğunu dile getirmişlerdir. Çocuklarının dil ve iletişim performanslarını ise alıcı dili iyi ifade edemiyor, sözel dili tercih etmiyor ve söylediklerimizi anlamıyor Ģeklinde belirtmişlerdir. Sonuç olarak anneler, çocukların dil ediniminde taklidin etkili olduğunu ve çocuklarının söylenenleri anladıklarını ancak sözel olarak ifade edemediklerini düşünmektedirler. This study examined the views of mothers on the language acquisition and their children‟s language performance. Also mothers‟ views in supporting language development and communication skills has been investigated. The participants were 14 mothers who had children having developmental disabilities and their children aged between 30-60 months old. The education levels of the mothers were at least high school. All children had disability related to communication and language. In the study, the data were gathered

  6. Farklılıklar Kapsamında Davranış Tarzları ve Bireysel Performans: Beyaz ve Mavi Yakalı Çalışan Perspektifi(Individual Performance and Behaviors in The Context of Diversities: White-Collar and Blue-Collar Employee Perspective

    Z. Nuray NİŞANCI


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to identify the impact of behaviors on individual performance and the correlation between the two in the context of diversities among white-collar and blue-collar employees working in the advertising sector. The survey prepared within this framework was applied to 182 individuals (98 white-collar and 84 blue-collar within sixteen businesses located in the city of Izmir between May 2013 and August 2013. It was determined that ‘being in positive tendency’, ‘awareness’ and ‘not being in negative tendency’ attitudes towards diversity increase the individual performance. No difference was stated between white-collar and blue-collar employees in terms of these dimensions. A positive relationship was observed among ‘being in positive tendency’, ‘awareness’ and ‘not being in negative tendency’ attitudes towards diversity. Araştırmanın temel amacı, reklamcılık sektöründe çalışan beyaz ve mavi yakalı personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzlarının bireysel performansa etkisi ve ilişkiselliğinin belirlenmesidir. Bu kapsamda hazırlanan anket formu Mayıs 2013 - Ağustos 2013 tarihleri arasında İzmir ilinde on altı işletme kapsamında 182 bireye (98 beyaz yakalı ve 84 mavi yakalı uygulanmıştır. Personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzları çerçevesinde “pozitif eğilimde bulunma”, “farkındalık” ve “negatif eğilimde bulunmama”nın birey performansını artıracağı belirlenmiştir. Bu boyutlar açısından beyaz ve mavi yakalı çalışanlar arasında bir farklılık tespit edilmemiştir. Personelin farklılıklar kapsamında davranış tarzları çerçevesinde “pozitif eğilimde bulunma”, “farkındalık” ve “negatif eğilimde bulunmama” arasında pozitif bir ilişki görülmüştür.

  7. Dil Öğreniminde ve Öğretiminde Tiyatronun Kullanımı ve Tiyatronun Temel Dil Becerilerine Katkısı The Use Of Theatre In Teaching Of Language And The Contributions Of Theatre To Basic Language Skills

    Müzeyyen ALTUNBAY


    ıkmıştır. Bunlardan bir tanesi olan dil öğrenimi ve öğretimi, son yıllarda üzerinde en çok durulan ve en çok çalışılan konularından bir tanesi olup dünyayla ve diğer toplumlarla anlaşmanın en önemli yolu olarak algılanmaktadır. Dil öğreniminde ve öğretiminde çok değişik yöntem ve tekniklerin varlığı mevcuttur. Dil öğreniminde ve öğretiminde önemli olan uygun öğrenme modelinin ve yönteminin tespit edilebilmesidir. Öğrenmede asıl başarı bilinçli çabalarla ve doğru yöntemin tespitiyle sağlanabilir. Bu nedenle çağımızın en önemli konularından bir tanesi olan dil öğretiminde ve öğreniminde çeşitli yöntem ve teknikler geliştirilmiştir. Mevcut yöntem ve tekniklerle beraber her geçe gün yeni yaklaşımlar da ortaya çıkmakta ve kullanılmaktadır. Bunlardan bir tanesi de tiyatro ile öğrenimdir. Tiyatro aracılığı ile dil öğrenimde ve öğretiminde tiyatronun kullanımı üzerinde çok durulmamakta, ancak tiyatronun temel dil becerilerini etkilediği ve geliştirdiği bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada dil öğreniminde ve öğretiminde tiyatronun kullanımı ile tiyatronun temel dil becerilerine katkısı ele alınmıştır.

  8. Mantıku’t-Tayr’da Temel Dil Becerilerinin Kullanımı Basic Language Skills In Mantıku’t-Tayr

    Selcen ÇİFÇİ


    and fruitful to utilise this kind of sources in thedesign and execution of the relevant curricula. Günümüzde, temel dil becerileri örgün eğitim kurumlarında Türkçe öğretimi programı içerisinde verilirken; geçmişte, ana dili öğretimi yapan okulların henüz var olmadığı dönemlerde, edebî metinlerde örtük olarak yer almıştır. Anlama becerilerinden dinleme ve okuma ile anlatma becerilerinden konuşma ve yazma becerileri kültür aktarımı yoluyla edebî metinlerden okuyucusuna ulaşmayı başarmıştır.Bu çalışmada XIV. yüzyıl Eski Anadolu Türkçesi eserlerinden olan Mantıku’t-tayr’daki temel dil becerileri tespit edilmiş ve tespit edilen becerilerin Türkçe Dersi (6, 7, 8. sınıflar Öğretim Programı’ndaki kazanımlarla örtüşme düzeyi ortaya konmuştur. Çalışma doküman incelemesine dayalı olarak yapılmış, eserdeki 4440 beytin tamamı taranmış, bu tarama sonucunda temel dil becerileriyle ilgili 878’i konuşma, 38’i yazma, 76’sı dinleme ve 79’u okuma olmak üzere toplam 1070 beyit tespit edilmiş, ilgili olmayan beyitler değerlendirmeye alınmamıştır. Eserde dinleme becerisinin daha çok işitme/duyma (49 beyit yönüyle kullanıldığı görülmüştür. Dinleme sırasında söylenen sözlerin dikkate alınması ve dikkatle dinlenmesi gerektiği vurgulanmıştır. Yine iyi dinlemenin, söyleneni anlamanın temeli olduğu belirtilmiştir. Eserde en çok, konuşma becerisiyle ilgili beyit tespit edilmiştir. Söz söylerken güzel konuşmanın önemi, sorulara düzgün ve vaktinde cevap verme, sorunlara konuşarak çözüm arama, kendi konuşmasını değerlendirme vurgulanmıştır. Okuma sırasında sadece aynı eseri okumak yerine bu eseri destekleyecek başka eserleri de okumanın önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. Yazma becerisi daha çok yazı türleri ve yazı materyallerinden bahsedilerek işlenmiştir. Eserde yer alan temel dil becerileriyle ilgili beyitler incelendiğinde, bu becerilerin T

  9. İşitme Engelli Bir Çocuğun Okuma Yazma Becerilerinin Dil Deneyim Yaklaşımı İle Desteklenmesi

    H. Pelin Karasu


    Full Text Available Dil Deneyim Yaklaşımı; dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma becerilerinin bir arada kullanılması ve okuma materyallerinin öğrencilerin deneyimleriyle oluşturulması temeline dayanmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, işitme engelli bir çocuğun okuma yazma becerilerinin gelişiminin Dil Deneyim Yaklaşımı ile desteklenme sürecinin incelenmesidir. Araştırma, bu amaç doğrultusunda, eylem araştırması şeklinde desenlenmiştir. Araştırmanın katılımcıları; araştırmacı öğretmen, geçerlik komitesi üyeleri, ilkokul 2. sınıfa devam eden işitme engelli bir öğrenci ve sınıf öğretmenidir. Araştırma verileri; araştırmacı günlüğü, belgeler, görüşmeler, uygulama planları, uygulama videoteyp kayıtları ve formel olmayan değerlendirmeler kullanılarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırma bulguları, sürecin iki evrede gerçekleştiğini göstermektedir. Bu evreler; sıralı kartlardaki olayların sözlü ve yazılı dille paylaşılması ile kelime bankası ve sözdizimi etkinliğidir. Araştırma sonuçları; dil deneyim uygulamalarının sözlü dilin gelişmesi için fırsatlar sağladığını, sözel ipuçlarının kullanılmasına, düşüncelerin sözlü ve yazılı dille ifade edilmesine olanak verdiğini, sözcük dağarcığı ve sözdizimine ilişkin ihtiyaçların belirlenmesini sağlayarak öğrencinin düzeyine uygun etkinliklerin hazırlanmasına fırsat sağladığını göstermektedir.Anahtar Sözcükler: Dil deneyim yaklaşımı, okuma yazma becerileri, işitme engelli çocuk Supporting a Hearing Impaired Child’s Literacy Development With Language Experience Approach Abstract Language Experience Approach (LEA emphasizes the synergy among listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and suggests considering learners’ experiences while preparing reading materials. The aim of the current study is to investigate LEA’s supportive role in a hearing impaired child’s literacy development. In

  10. Modelo DIL-D ©: diagnosticando las acciones de responsabilidad social corporativa centradas en la integración laboral de personas con discapacidad

    Marina Romeo Delgado


    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de la presente investigación es analizar y diagnosticar el grado de implantación y desarrollo de las acciones de responsabilidad social corporativa que facilitan la integración laboral de personas con discapacidad (RSC-D. Para ello hemos desarrollado un modelo clasificatorio (Modelo DIL-D © y un instrumento diagnóstico que dota de herramientas objetivas a los profesionales, en aras de fomentar la integración laboral de personas con discapacidad. El instrumento desarrollado se ha administrado a responsables RSC y/o de RRHH de 42 empresas. Los resultados nos muestran la confiabilidad del instrumento, así como el ajuste del Modelo. Dos tercios de las empresas obtienen niveles altos de desarrollo en todas las dimensiones, si bien un 34,5 % bajos. El modelo establece las pautas de intervención que la empresa ordinaria debe seguir en aras de promover la integración laboral, facilitando las herramientas de diagnóstico que promueven la creación de entornos integradores.

  11. Türkçenin Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğretimi Ders Kitaplarında Kültür Aktarımı Cultural Transmission Through Teaching Turkish As a Foreign Language Course Books

    Fatih YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Communication in foreign language teaching is gaining more importance in today’s world. Language students find that learning the vocabulary and grammatical structures of a particular language is not enough to gain proficiency in the language. The close relationship between language and culture reveals the fact that it is impossible to master a language without learning its culture. Therefore, the course books used for teaching a foreign language must improve students’ communication skills by raising their cultural awareness. In this study, culture transfer through course books is analyzed and evaluated within the context of teaching Turkish to foreigners. The Yeni Hitit Yabancılar için Türkçe series, the course books used in the Turkish Studies Department at Jagiellonian University, are evaluated according to the following cultural transfer criteria: a subject area, (b type of text and (c visuality. The evaluation of the Yeni Hitit Yabancılar için Türkçe course book series from the perspective of cultural transmission has revealed that they contain elements that present Turkish culture to students with its different aspects and succeed in transmitting the Turkish culture to students for whom they are intended. Course books that promote communicative and intercultural competence should be chosen to teach Turkish as a foreign language at Polish universities. Günümüzde yabancı dil öğretiminde iletişimin önemi gittikçe artmaktadır. Dil öğrenenler için sadece o dilin kelime ve dilbilgisi yapılarını öğrenmek dil yeterliliği açısından yeterli değildir. Dil ve kültür arasındaki yakın ilişki, bir dile o dilin kültürünü öğrenmeden hâkim olunamayacağı gerçeğini ortaya koymaktadır. Bundan dolayı, yabancı dil öğretimi için kullanılan ders kitapları da kültürel farkındalığı artırarak iletişim becerilerini geliştirmesi beklenmektedir.

  12. Alphabet Issues in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language / Türkçenin Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğretiminde Alfabe Sorunu

    Kübra ŞENGÜL


    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the extent of alphabet problems experienced by foreigners as they learn Turkish and offer solutions. Even though the literature includes numerous studies that focus on alphabet issues in the teaching of Turkish to foreigners, the topic has never been studied independently. In order to do this, 45 foreign students attending Atatürk University Language Education Training and Research Center, Gaziantep University Turkish Education Training and Research Center and Fırat University Language Education Training and Research Center to learn Turkish at C1 level were asked to respond to an 8-item semi-structured interview and write a dictated text. The data showed that most students had difficulty vocalizing and writing the following letters/sound of the Turkish alphabet: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü, c, ç, ğ, l, ş, y. Usually, they were confused between back and front vowels. Bu çalışmanın amacı, yabancıların Türkçe öğrenirken yaşadıkları alfabe sorununun hangi boyutlarda olduğunu ortaya koymak, yaşanan sıkıntılara yönelik çözüm önerileri sunmaktır. Alan yazınına bakıldığında birçok çalışmada yabancılara Türkçe öğretiminde alfabe sorunundan bahsedildiği fakat konunun bağımsız olarak ele alınmadığı görülmüştür. Bu doğrultuda, Atatürk Üniversitesi Dil Eğitimi Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezinde, Gaziantep Üniversitesi Türkçe Öğretimi Uygulama ve Araştırma Merkezinde ve Fırat Üniversitesi Dil Eğitim-Öğretim ve Araştırma Merkezinde Türkçe öğrenen C1 düzeyindeki 45 yabancı öğrenciye 8 maddelik yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu uygulanmış ve dikte yöntemiyle metin yazdırılmıştır. Elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda öğrencilerin çoğunluğunun Türk alfabesinde yer alan a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü, c, ç, ğ, l, ş, y

  13. Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğretiminde Konuşma Becerisi Kazandırmada Filmlerin Kullanımı / The Use of Films to Help Students Gain Speaking Abılıty in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language

    İşcan, Adem; KARAGÖZ, Beytullah


    Dil öğretiminde işitsel ve görsel araçların kullanımı ve faydaları bilinen bir olgudur. Bu araçların başında da filmler gelmektedir. Yapılan araştırmalarda dil öğretiminde filmleri kullanmanın yabancı dil öğrencilerinin diğer dil becerilerinde olduğu gibi konuşma becerilerinin gelişmesinde de etkili olduğu görülmüştür. Yapılan alan yazın taramasında filmlerin yabancı dil öğretiminde kullanımı ve bu konuda yapılan bir çok çalışma varken ülkemizde çok az çalışma yapıldığı ve bunun da yeterli ol...

  14. Toplumsal ve Ferdi Düşüncenin Dile Yansımaları (Dil Düşünce İlişkisi The Reflections of Social and Individual Thoughts to Language (Relationship between Language and Thought

    Nadir İLHAN


    örülmektedir. Milleti meydana getiren, millî kimliği ayakta tutan en önemli unsur olan dil sayesinde kişi en özel duygularını ifade edebildiği gibi yine dil sayesinde sosyalleşmekte, toplumun-milletin bir bireyi olmaktadır. Dil düşüncenin evi olduğuna göre insan diliyle düşünmekte, diliyle yaşamaktadır. Toplumsal değerlerin taşıyıcısı olan dile sahip çıkılmadığı zaman değerlere yabancılaşma ortaya çıkacak; değerlere yabancılaşma da millî kimliğe yabancılaşmayı millî kimliği kaybetmeyi beraberinde getirecektir. Kelimelerin kullanımı sırasında onlara yüklenen anlamlara, sanatlı anlatımlara bağlı olarak farklı şekillerde karşımıza çıkan dil,. Günlük işlerimizde kullandığımız konuşma dili ile ilmî çalışmalarda kullanılan terimlerle yüklü bilimsel dil veya kişilerin duygularını, heyecanlarını anlatırken kullandıkları edebî dil şeklinde birbirinden farklı şekillerde nitelendirilebilmektedir. Dil sistemi içerisinde kelimeler, kullanılışı, onlara yüklenen anlamlar ve ifade şekilleri açısından farklılıklar göstermektedir. Dil düşüncenin evi olduğuna göre insan diliyle düşünmekte, diliyle yaşamaktadır. İnsan düşündüğünü ve düşüncelerini ifade edebildiği müddetçe insandır. Toplumsal alandaki herşey dilde de anlatım bulduğu için onu sürekli değişken kılmaktadır. Kısaca “Evrende değişmeyen tek şey herşeyin değiştiğidir” kuralı toplum ve dil ilişkisinde de değişmez bir gerçektir. İsanlık var olduğu sürece geilşim değişim içeisnde olacak bu deiğişimler de dile yansıyacaktır.

  15. Okul müdürlerine yönelik motivasyonel dil ölçeği: Türk kültürüne uyarlama, dil geçerliği ve faktör yapısının incelenmesi / Motivational language scale for school principals: Adaptation for Turkish culture, language validity, and examination of factor structure

    Hamit Özen


    Full Text Available ÖZETAraştırmanın amacı, Motivasyonel Dil Ölçeği’nin Türk kültürüne uyarlanmasıdır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 219 ilkokul ve ortaokul öğretmeni oluşturmaktadır. Ölçeğin uyarlaması İngilizce dilinden Türkçe’ye çeviri ile başlamış sonra geri çeviri ile İngilizceye dönüştürülmüştür. Çeviri geçerliği amacıyla İngilizce uzmanlarına test-tekrar test uygulaması yapılmış, her iki testin maddeleri arasında korelâsyon yoluyla Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Katsayısı belirlenmiştir. Yapı geçerliği için Açımlayıcı Faktör Analizi (AFA yapılmıştır. AFA sonucunda ölçeğin üç boyutta oluştuğu görülmüş ve yönlendirici dil, cesaret verici dil ve aitlik yaratıcı dil olarak adlandırılmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirlik düzeyi ve maddelerin ayrışıklığı Cronbach Alfa Katsayısı, Düzeltilmiş Madde-Toplam Korelâsyon ve % 27’lik alt-üst grup farkına ilişkin t- değerleri hesaplanarak sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca ölçeğin alt faktörlerinin ortalama ve standart sapma değerleri ile alt ölçekleri arasındaki ilişkinin tespitinde Pearson Momentler Çarpımı korelâsyon analizi uygulanmıştır. Bu işlemlerden sonra ölçeğin geçerli ve güvenilir olduğu görülmüştür.


    Dhamija Isha


    Full Text Available Sesame seeds have been grown in tropical regions throughout the world since pre-historic times. Sesame seeds look like tiny and simple pieces of nature. Sesame seeds seem to have originated in the Indian subcontinent. These nutty flavored and crunchy seeds of sesame have become a prominent cooking ingredient in different parts of the world. Sesamin and Sesamolin are two unique phytoconstituents present in these seeds, which help in correcting hypertension and hyperlipidemia. They serve as a good source of manganese, calcium, copper and vitamin B. Ayurveda recommends seed oil for body massage. The Sesame oil shows mildly laxative, emollient, hypolipidemic, anticancer, and hepato-protective actions. Sesame oil is incredibly popular for its nutritional antioxidant and medicinal properties.

  17. The analysis of perception levels of elemantary school teachers with regard to organizational commitment: Şırnak / İdil case

    Şenay Nartgün


    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the organizational commitment levels of the teachers that work in primary schools regarding different variables. In the context of this aim, the answers to the question below were investigated; do the ideas of primary school teachers about organizational commitment show a meaningful difference according to the variables below: according to gender, according to marital status, according to years spent at the job, according to age, according to their subject matter, according to employment status?The universe of the study was made up of teachers in the 6 central primary schools in the Şırnak/İdil district and primary schools of its 66 neighboring villages in 2008-2009 educational year.The results in the light of the findings of the study are as follows: There were no meaningful differences between gender and affective (willing, continuance (due to necessity and normative (due to obligation commitment teachers expressed. The perceptions of teachers related to affective, normative and continuance commitment had no relation to their marital status. Although years of experiences of teaching indicated a meaningful difference in the affective commitment felt by the teachers, it did not show any meaningful differences on continuance and normative commitment dimensions.EXTENDED ABSTRACTIntroduction:In the school organization, the teachers who feel committed to their institutions strongly believe in the mission and vision of their school and willingly follow the orders and expectations. They also exert more effort than the minimum requirements in order to implement the mission of the school and show determination in staying among the staff. Organizational commitment is the most important element that holds the school organization intact and that can further the institution in its efforts to establish an effective organization.When teachers feel an earnest and ethical commitment to being a member of their schools and see

  18. Grammatical gender in German language and the acquisition of this systemAlmancada dilbilgisel cinsiyet sitemi ve bu sistemin yabancı dil olarak edinimi

    Mehmet Halit Atlı


    Full Text Available It is said that the learning/acquisition of German language as L2 is difficult. The possible reason for this opinion is German grammatical gender system, because it has a very unorderly and complex nature system. By each grammatical rules of this language has got a series of exception rules. We are witnessed that, both linguists and educators, who are expert in languages, as well as the people, who are not experts in the language, are often commented the multitude of exceptions in grammatical rules and the difficulty of grammatical gender system of this language. Some modern linguists say that, this language has no rules to determine the grammatical gender system and goes further and say, each substantive should be memorized with its definite article. However, it is not correct to say that the language occurred from irregular structures, above all there is no language in the world, particularly the natural language occurs from a number of irregular structures. The modern linguistics says the building of words and sentence is not arbitrary, they occur in a certain harmony. However, many of the studies of descriptive linguistics analysis showed that, the leaner of German language acquired the grammatical gender system; during they handled the words in a process of morphological, semantic and phonological according some inductive rules. But in which extent the acquirers use the rules of this language as L2 and how they use exactly the rules is unknown. In this study, we have showed the concept of grammatical gender, the use of its in German language, its specifications, functions and we have made a detailed examination of the various studies conducted on this issue. Furthermore, we have got soughed the answer of acquisition process of grammatical gender system and the formulated grammatical gender determination process by L2 learner.   Özet Almancanın yabancı dil (L2 olarak öğrenilmesi/edinilmesi zor bir dil olduğu söylenilir. Bu d

  19. CM-DIL和DAPI标记的骨髓间充质干细胞%Comparison of CM-DIL and DAPI labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    商青青; 李凯; 周建业; 胡盛寿


    背景:在有关“细胞移植”的实验研究中,细胞标记技术被广泛应用。CM-DIL与DAPI是细胞标记实验中常用的荧光染料,目前两者的对比研究报道较少。  目的:从体外实验与体内实验两方面,探讨两种荧光染料CM-DIL与DAPI在标记大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞方面的差异。  方法:用贴壁培养法获取、培养、扩增大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,分别用CM-DIL与DAPI进行标记,锥虫蓝计数检测骨髓间充质干细胞的活力;MTS法检测骨髓间充质干细胞的增殖能力并绘制增殖曲线;倒置相差荧光显微镜下动态观察标记后1,2,3代骨髓间充质干细胞的荧光衰减情况。结扎SD大鼠冠状动脉前降支致心肌梗死。1周后于心肌梗死边缘处注射CM-DIL与DAPI标记的细胞,细胞移植后3 d取材观察骨髓间充质干细胞的分布情况。  结果与结论:体外实验中,CM-DIL与DAPI标记的骨髓间充质干细胞两者的早期增殖能力均低于对照组;两种染料标记后的第1代细胞的荧光阳性率均为100%,但DAPI标记后的第3代细胞的荧光强度明显减弱。体内实验中,CM-DIL组与DAPI组心肌组织冰冻与石蜡切片均检测到集中分布的荧光;CM-DIL组冰冻切片红色荧光比DAPI组的蓝色荧光边界清晰并且背景低;CM-DIL组还可以通过含细胞核染色的封片剂封片排除荧光假阳性。可见,CM-DIL染料比DAPI更适合对骨髓间充质干细胞进行体内示踪。%BACKGROUND:cellmarker technology has been widely applied in many studies concerning celltransplantation. Chlormethylbenzamido-1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3’3’-tetramethylin-docarbocyamine (CM-DIL) and 4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) are commonly used for labeling cells. To our knowledge, there are few reports on comparing the two fluorescent dyes. OBJECTIVE:To compare the effects of CM-DIL and DAPI on labeling bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in

  20. Derin Yapı Yüzey Yapı İlişkisi Bağlamında Temel Dil Becerileri Üzerine Bir Analiz Çalışması

    Bilginer ONAN


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, derin yapı yüzey yapı ilişkileri bağlamında, ana dili eğitiminde temel dil becerileri olarak kabul edilen dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma kavramları analiz edilmiştir. Birinci bölümde, ilk kez Port Royal Gramer Okulu tarafından ortaya konan ve 1960’larda Noam Chomsky tarafından Üretimci Dönüşümsel Dil Bilgisi kuramıyla tekrar gündeme getirilen derin yapı ve yüzey yapı kavramları hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde ise derin yapı ve yüzey yapı ilişkileri çerçevesinde dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma becerileri analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, dilin iki temel boyutu olan anlam ve biçim ilişkileri bağlamında, temel dil becerilerinin eğitimi sürecinde belirleyici olan unsurları tespit ederek, sürecin programlanmasına yönelik öneriler geliştirmektir. Çalışma çerçevesinde yapılan analizlerde boğumlama, bürün olguları, beden dili, üretici kelime hazinesi, alıcı kelime hazinesi, akıcılık, metin türü, yazım ve noktalama, bağdaşıklık, tutarlılık, ön bilgi, kelime tanıma, kelime ayırt etme, edinilmiş bilgi, önvarsayım, sezdirim kavramlarının derin yapı yüzey yapı ilişkileri bağlamında temel dil becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde süreci etkileyen unsurlar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bu kavramlar arasında boğumlama, bürün olgusu, beden dili, akıcılık, bağdaşıklık, metin türü, kelime tanıma, kelime ayırt etme, yazım ve noktalama, doğrudan yüzey yapıyla ilgilidir. Üretici kelime hazinesi, akıcılık, alıcı kelime hazinesi, tutarlılık, ön bilgi, edinilmiş bilgi, önvarsayım ve sezdirim kavramları ise derin yapıyı ilgilendirmektedir. Akıcılık kavramının bütün dil becerileriyle ilgili olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  1. CM-Dil标记大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特性探讨%Effect of CM-Dil labeling on biological characteristics of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    张雅妮; 于美娟; 冯善伟; 王淑辉; 李美山; 熊符; 张成


    背景:目前已有部分实验采用CM-Dil标记间充质干细胞开展体内外实验,取得良好成果。  目的:观察CM-Dil标记大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的生物学特性及其定向迁移能力。  方法:分离培养大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,通过流式细胞技术分析其特异性细胞表面标记抗原(CD29, CD44,CD11b,CD45)的表达。用CM-Dil标记大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞,继续培养细胞,观察细胞的形态及增殖情况,及传代后荧光的强度与持久性。采用Transwell小室进行标记后大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞向mdx鼠腓肠肌匀浆液的迁移实验。  结果与结论:所培养细胞均一性好,均表达CD29和CD44,不表达CD11b和CD45,符合骨髓间充质干细胞的特点。经CM-Dil标记后对大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的形态、增殖无明显影响,传代后仍可保持荧光强度,但随传代有所减弱。标记前后大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的迁移能力无显著性差异(P>0.05)。结果说明,CM-Dil标记过程安全、简单、高效,对大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞的形态、增殖及迁移能力无明显影响,体外细胞传代后仍可保持荧光,是大鼠骨髓间充质干细胞标记与示踪的理想试剂。%BACKGROUND:Existing evidence has shown that CM-Dil-labeled mesenchymal stem cel s have delivered better results in experiments in vivo and in vitro. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of in vitro CM-Dil labeling on biological characteristics and directed migration of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s. METHODS:Mesenchymal stem cel s were isolated and cultured from the bone marrow of Sprague-Dawley rats. The specific surface antigens, CD29, CD44, CD11b, CD45, were detected by flow cytometry. The rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s were labeled with CM-Dil, and then were cultured and passed continual y. Thereafter the morphology and proliferation ability of labeled cel s were assessed. The strength and

  2. Öğretmen Adaylarının Yabancı Dil Kavramına İlişkin Metaforik Algıları Metaphorical Perceptions Of Prospective Teachers Regarding Foreign Language

    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ


    Full Text Available Teaching a foreign language has been included in curriculum at every education stage and it has been given priority for the individuals to learn. Attitudes and perceptions play an important role in learning a foreign language as well as having an effective study process. While positive attitudes and perceptions affect foreign language learning process positively, negative ones affect the process negatively. The aim of this study is to explore metaphorical images of prospective teachers toward the concept of foreign language. The study was conducted on prospective teachers enrolled at Faculty of Education in Fırat University during the Spring term of 2012-2013 academic year. Volunteer students were included in the study. Of the 542 prospective teachers, 289 were female and 253 were male. Data of the study were collected through the use of the prompt “Foreign language is like ………….. because ………….”.The metaphor sheets were handed the participants in their classrooms. The prospective teachers were asked to write the first metaphor that they came up with. Upon completing the metaphor sheet, all the participants were asked to write the reasons of the metaphors they developed regarding foreign language. The participants were given sufficient time to write their metaphors and their reasons in their classrooms. To do that, a single session of any class hour was used and the sheets were collected in the same way. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Eight categories were identified based on the 54 metaphorical images toward the concept of foreign language. The categories are as follows: Future, necessity, power, joy, travel, despair, difficulty and colonialism. Based on the study results, some useful recommendations are offered. Yabancı bir dil öğretme her düzeyde eğitim kurumunun programında yer alan ve bireylerin öğrenmesinde öncelik verilen bir alan olmuştur. Yabancı dil öğrenmede etkili çalışma s

  3. The analysis of perception levels of elemantary school teachers with regard to organizational commitment: Şırnak / İdil case

    Şenay Nartgün


    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the organizational commitment levels of the teachers that work in primary schools regarding different variables. In the context of this aim, the answers to the question below were investigated; do the ideas of primary school teachers about organizational commitment show a meaningful difference according to the variables below: according to gender, according to marital status, according to years spent at the job, according to age, according to their subject matter, according to employment status? The universe of the study was made up of teachers in the 6 central primary schools in the Şırnak/İdil district and primary schools of its 66 neighboring villages in 2008-2009 educational year.The results in the light of the findings of the study are as follows: There were no meaningful differences between gender and affective (willing, continuance (due to necessity and normative (due to obligation commitment teachers expressed.  The perceptions of teachers related to affective, normative and continuance commitment had no relation to their marital status. Although years of experiences of teaching indicated a meaningful difference in the affective commitment felt by the teachers, it did not show any meaningful differences on continuance and normative commitment dimensions.EXTENDED ABSTRACTIntroduction: In the school organization, the teachers who feel committed to their institutions strongly believe in the mission and vision of their school and willingly follow the orders and expectations. They also exert more effort than the minimum requirements in order to implement the mission of the school and show determination in staying among the staff. Organizational commitment is the most important element that holds the school organization intact and that can further the institution in its efforts to establish an effective organization. When teachers feel an earnest and ethical commitment to being a member of their schools and

  4. Trol ve uzatma ağları ile İzmir körfezinden yakalanan dil (Solea solea balığının yaşama yüzdesi; kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı.

    Doç.Dr. Fatih Başaran


    Full Text Available Trol ve uzatma ağları ile İzmir körfezinden yakalanan dil (Solea solea balığının yaşama yüzdesi; kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı. Bu araştırmada, doğal ortamdan yakalanan dil balığının (Solea solea, kültür şartlarına adaptasyonu ve beslenme davranışı incelenmiştir. Dil balıkları, 2007 Mart-Nisan döneminde, İzmir Körfezi’nden trol ve uzatma ağlarıyla yakalanmıştır. 270 adet dil balığının ön adaptasyonu sırasında, ilk beş gün boyunca, karanlık ortamda antibiyotik (100 ppm fruzolidon ilavesi, 60 dak/gün uygulaması gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kültür şartlarında ilk besleme için, kalamar (Loligo vulgaris, boru kurdu (Diopatra neopolitana, kara midye (Mytilus galloprovincialis, sülünes (Solen marginatus, istiridye (Ostrea edulis, japon şapkası (Patella spp., deniz salyangozu (Monodonta turbinata ve taze sardalya (Sardina pilchardus kullanılmıştır. Dil balıkları 0-2 gün içinde beslenmeye başlamıştır ve boru kurdu, en çok tercih ettikleri tür olmuştur. Bir aylık adaptasyon dönemi sonunda, uzatma ağlarıyla yakalanan dil balıklarının yaşama oranının (%58, trol ile yakalananların yaşama oranından (%29 önemli düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur (p

  5. The place of affect and emotion in the theories of first language acquisitionİlk dil edinim kuramlarında duygulanım ve duygu olgularının yeri

    Yunus Pınar


    Full Text Available In the basic theories of first-language acquisition that attempt to explain how infants learn their primary languages children are treated some- times as a ‘black box’, at times as a ‘universal grammarian”, and at times almost as a ‘processor’, and they are seen as objects in a laboratory where emotional factors are ignored.  This article is the outcome of a thorough survey of literature and primarily it aims to present the most widely accepted language acquisition theories. In addition, we shall try to describe the restrained position of first language acquisition theories towards the impact of affects and emotional factors on the acquisition process.  Apart from that, our study aims to find out whether or not the classical and popular theories of language acquisition have empirical or theoretical answers as to the effect variables like joy, happiness, worry, anxiety, introversion, aggression or loneliness have on linguistic development.  In the centre of the research are the most widely accepted first-language acquisition theories. In this article, behaviorist (Burrhus F. Skinner, nativist (Noam Chomsky, interactionist (Jerome Brunner, usage-based (Michael Tomasello and linear (William O’Grady theories of first-language acquisition will be generally examined and the connection of affect and emotion with linguistic development will be discussed in detail as to the place it occupies in the literature.   Özet Çocukların anadillerini nasıl öğrendiklerini açıklamaya çalışan temel ilk dil edinim kuramlarında çocuklar kimi zaman: “kara kutu”, kimi zaman: “evrensel bir gramerci”, bazen de adeta bir: “işlemci” olarak ele alınmış ve duygusal faktörlerin sürekli göz ardı edildiği bir laboratuvar objesi olarak görülmüşlerdir.  Elinizdeki bu makale, derinlemesine bir alan yazın taramasının ürünüdür ve herşeyden önce en çok kabul görmüş/gören dil edinim kuramlarını ana hatlar

  6. Programación de un sistema de adquisición de datos utilizando el sistema embebido DNP/1110; Programming of a data acquisition system using the embedded system dil/netpc DNP/1110

    Josnier Ramos Guardarrama


    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una alternativa económica de un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD basado en el kit dedesarrollo DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, el cual esta formado por un microcontrolador de INTEL SA-1110 StrongARM quetrabaja a 206 MHz y que tiene incorporado un controlador de Ethernet que permite desarrollar aplicaciones con el usode la red. El sistema embebido dispone de un sistema operativo Linux, kernel versión 2.4.18. Como parte del diseñose incorporan de forma compacta los elementos necesarios para que el SAD sea capaz de muestrear ocho señalescapturadas simultáneamente. De particular interés resulta la programación, presentándose dos variantes de solución:cuando se ejecuta la aplicación con un software que corre en el área de usuario y cuando el control se logra con unmódulo del sistema operativo específico para el trabajo del SAD. El sistema está soportado por la integración desoftware libre y propietario.  This work focuses on an economic alternative for developing a data acquisition system (DAS which is made up forThe DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, which provides a very compact Intel 206 MHz SA-1110 StrongARM-based low powerembedded controller with TCP/IP stack and web server for high-speed embedded networking applications. Theembedded system has an operating system Linux, kernel version 2.4.18. The built data acquisition system has thenecessary elements to take charge of governing the sampling process of eight signals. Of particular interest it is theprogramming, being presented two solution variants: when the application is executed with software that it runs inuser's area and when the control is achieved with a specific build module of the operating system for the work of theDAS.. The system is supported by the integration of free software and property software.

  7. Programación de un sistema de adquisición de datos utilizando el sistema embebido DNP/1110;Programming of a data acquisition system using the embedded system dil/netpc DNP/1110

    Josnier Ramos - Guardarrama,et al.


    Full Text Available En el trabajo se presenta una alternativa económica de un sistema de adquisición de datos (SAD basado en el kit de desarrollo DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, el cual esta formado por un microcontrolador de INTEL SA-1110 StrongARM que trabaja a 206 MHz y que tiene incorporado un controlador de Ethernet que permite desarrollar aplicaciones con el uso de la red. El sistema embebido dispone de un sistema operativo Linux, kernel versión 2.4.18. Como parte del diseño se incorporan de forma compacta los elementos necesarios para que el SAD sea capaz de muestrear ocho señales capturadas simultáneamente. De particular interés resulta la programación, presentándose dos variantes de solución: cuando se ejecuta la aplicación con un software que corre en el área de usuario y cuando el control se logra con un módulo del sistema operativo específico para el trabajo del SAD. El sistema está soportado por la integración de software libre y propietario.This work focuses on an economic alternative for developing a data acquisition system (DAS which is made up for The DIL/NetPC DNP/1110, which provides a very compact Intel 206 MHz SA-1110 StrongARM-based low power embedded controller with TCP/IP stack and web server for high-speed embedded networking applications. The embedded system has an operating system Linux, kernel version 2.4.18. The built data acquisition system has the necessary elements to take charge of governing the sampling process of eight signals. Of particular interest it is the programming, being presented two solution variants: when the application is executed with software that it runs in user's area and when the control is achieved with a specific build module of the operating system for the work of the DAS.. The system is supported by the integration of free software and property software.

  8. Dil Biliminin Kelime Öğretimine Açılan Kapısı: Bağlam Türleri Linguistic Gateway to the Vocabulary Teaching: Types of Context

    Havva YAMAN


    ğretiminde işe koşulabilecek bağlam türlerine yönelik farklı sınıflandırmaları ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaçla öncelikle, tümdengelimci bir yaklaşımla, dil biliminin alt dallarından olan anlam biliminin ve metin dil biliminin kelime öğretimiyle ilişkisi kurulmuştur. Farklı araştırmacıların bağlam türlerini nasıl sınıflandırdığı incelenmiştir. Bağlam türlerine yönelik farklı sınıflandırmaları ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılan bu araştırmanın sonucunda, yerli kaynaklarda bağlama yönelik çalışmalar olmakla birlikte, bağlam türlerinin ayrı bir başlık olarak açılmadığı ve sistemli bir şekilde incelenmediği görülmüştür. Kelime öğretimi amacıyla, zayıf bağlamlı kelimelerin bağlamının kasıtlı olarak güçlendirildiği çalışmalar dikkati çekmiştir. Buna göre bir metinde öğretilmek istenen kelime veya kelime grubu, kasıtlı olarak güçlendirilmiş bir bağlamla sunulmalıdır. Farklı sınıflandırmalar arasında karşılaşılan pedagojik bağlam türü, anlamı bilinmeyen kelime ile ilgili özenle hazırlanmış ipuçları içermesi sebebiyle ve metin içerisinde yalnızca ilgili cümlenin yazı alanıyla sınırlı olması sebebiyle diğer bağlam türlerinden üstün görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak bağlam türlerine yönelik kuramsal bilgilerin uygulama boyutuna aktarılmasıyla, kelime öğretimi sürecinin daha planlı ve bilinçli bir seviyeye ulaşacağı beklenmektedir. Ana dili öğretimi sürecinde ve yabancı dil öğretimi sürecinde, kelime/kelime grubu bağlamlarının kasıtlı olarak önceden güçlendirildiği bağlama dayalı etkinlikler yapılması önerilmiştir. Türkçe öğretiminde, kelime öğretimi çalışmalarında, cümle düzeyinde çalışılıyorsa pedagojik bağlamlardan, paragraf düzeyinde çalışılıyorsa yönlendirici bağlamlardan yararlanılması önerilmiştir. Ayrıca sözlük hazırlayıcılarına, madde başı birimlerin temel ve yan anlamlarını

  9. Social Studies for the Visually Impaired Child. MAVIS Sourcebook 4.

    Singleton, Laurel R.

    Suggestions are made in this sourcebook for adapting teaching strategies and curriculum materials in social studies to accomodate the needs of the visually impaired (VI) student. It is presented in eight chapters. Chapter one explains why elementary grade social studies, with its emphasis on visual media, presents difficulties for VI children.…

  10. CM-Dil与DAPI联合标记人羊膜上皮细胞的可行性研究%Feasibility of CM-Dil combined with DAPI double-labeling human amniotic epithelial cells

    王黎; 周清; 杨艳; 陈剑; 徐锦堂


    目的 建立人羊膜上皮细胞(human amniotic epithelial cell,HAEC)的体外培养方法,并探讨氯甲基苯甲酰胺(CM-Dil)与4’,6-二脒基-2-苯基吲哚(DAPI)对HAEC进行联合标记示踪的可行性.方法 运用酶消化法获取HAEC,收集第2代细胞,流式细胞仪检测CD29、CD34、CD44、CD45和CD105的表达率,SP免疫化学法鉴定HAEC.CM-Dil与DAPI对HAEC进行体外标记,荧光倒置显微镜下观察1d、7d和14 d的标记情况,台盼蓝染色检测细胞活力,CCK-8法检测细胞增殖以明确联合标记对体外培养HAEC生长特性的影响.结果 HAEC贴壁培养后呈扁平多角形,CD29、CD34、CD44、CD45和CD105的阳性率分别为99.64%、2.21%、32.41%、0.84%、36.70%,细胞角蛋白Keratin阳性表达.HAEC在CM-Dil和DAPI联合标记1d后,荧光显微镜下可观察到细胞膜和细胞核分别在不同波长下呈红色和蓝色荧光,标记率为100%;14 d后,经传代培养的HAEC荧光强度与1d时相近,细胞形态无改变.台盼蓝染色显示标记细胞存活率为96.8% ~ 98.9%,CCK-8检测标记细胞的增殖力较未标记组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CM-Dil和DAPI可有效标记HAEC,染色简单、无细胞毒性,荧光衰减较慢,可作为HAEC的标记及示踪方法.

  11. Sembol, Sembolik Dil ve Bu Bağlamda Mesnevî’nin İlk 18 Beytindeki Sembolik Unsurlar Symbol, Symbolical Language and in This Sense Symbolical Elements in the First 18 Couplet of Mesnevî

    Şener DEMİREL


    Full Text Available One of the issues which draw attraction in the studies that have been conducted on Mevlana’s Mesnevi up to now is that quite rich symbolical language was used in Mesnevi. Mevlana was attracted by the smybolical narration included in various religious and literary works which had been written before him – being Koran in the first place - and tried to express many issues, notably narrations, through symbolical language. Symbolical language and narration is the kind of narration whichcan be found and referred to nearly at all religions and literature.Although such kind of discourse false/lacking understandings;expressing feelings and thoughts implicitly but not directly, in otherwords conveying them through some symbolical values enablesexpressions to be more attractiv and readers to think creatively.This paper is basically composed of three sections. In the firstsection, based on the meanings of terms such as symbol, allegory,metaphore and figure of speeches, their similarities and differences willbe discussed; in the second section it will be expressed throughexamples that symbolical language or similar usages were used invarious religious and literary texts before Mesnevi; in the third and lastsection some of the symbolical elements of the first 18 couplets ofTurkish paraphrase of Mesnevi which were especially emphasized andexplained by the commentators will be discussed. Geçmişten günümüze Mevlânâ’nın Mesnevî’si üzerine yapılan çalışmalarda dikkat çekilen hususlardan biri de Mesnevî’de oldukça zengin bir sembolik dilin kullanılmış olmasıdır. Mevlânâ, başta Kur’ân-ı Kerîm olmak üzere, kendisinden önce kaleme alınmış birçok dinî ve edebî eserdeki sembolik anlatımı, kendisi de benimsemiş ve başta hikâyeler olmak üzere dile getirmeye çalıştığı birçok konuyu sembolik dil aracılığıyla ifade etmeye çalışmıştır. Sembolik dil veya anlatım, hemen hemen bütün dinlerde ve

  12. EGFP和CM-Dil示踪骨髓间充质干细胞构建组织工程骨的体内研究%The in vivo study of tissue engineered bone constructed with EGFP and CM-Dil labeled BMSCs

    武京国; 谢方南; 马慧雨; 王黔; 曹谊林; 肖苒


    目的:应用增强型绿色荧光蛋白(Enhanced green fluorescent protein,EGFP)和CM-Dil标记技术,观察组织工程骨在体内形成过程中种子细胞的变化和转归.方法:分别用EGFP慢病毒表达和CM-Dil染料的方法标记比格犬骨髓间充质干细胞(Bone mesenchymal stem cells,BMSCs),MTT法检测标记细胞的体外增殖能力.BMSCs接种珊瑚支架体外成骨诱导7天后,将未标记组、EGFP组和CM-Dil组分别植入裸鼠背部皮下,空白支架作为阴性对照.术后4、8、12周取材,HE染色观察成骨情况,EGFP组采用GFP免疫组化、CM-Dil组冰冻切片荧光显微镜下示踪BMSCs在体内的变化.结果:两种标记技术能高效标记BMSCs,标记前后细胞的体外增殖无显著性差异(P>0.05).细胞-支架复合物植入体内12周后有新生骨形成,标记细胞数量随时间延长而逐渐减少,12周后仍显示有部分标记细胞存活.结论:EGFP和CM-Dil可用于示踪组织工程种子细胞,通过示踪说明BMSCs在体内组织工程骨成骨过程中发挥了重要作用.%Objective To observe the effect of BMSCs in fabricating tissue engineering bone in vivo using EGFP andCM-Dil labeling technology. Methods BMSCs isolated from Beagle Dogs were labeled using EGFP and CM -Dilseparately and the proliferation abilities were analyzed by MTT assay. BMSCs were seeded onto the coral scaffolds andcultured in the osteogenic medium for 7 days.Then the BMSCs/Coral constructs were implanted into the nude micessubcutaneously.The constructs were divided into three groups:Unlabeled group,EGFP group,CM -Dil group.Thespecimens were collected respectively at 4,8 and 12 weeks after implantation and tissue engineered bone wasevaluated by HE staining.The seeded BMSCs were traced by immunohistochemistry staining of GFP in the EGFP groupand directly observed in the frozen section under the fluorescence microscope in the CM-Dil. Results BMSCs werelabeled efficiently by both GFP and CM-Dil labeling technology and

  13. Yabancı Dil Türkçe Öğreten İngilizce Öğretmenleri İle Bir Durum İncelemesi: “Türkçe Balta Girmemiş Orman" A Case Study With English Teachers Teaching Turkish As A Foreign Languge: “Turkish An Untouched Forest”

    Serra YAVUZ


    Full Text Available Learning Turkish as a foreign language has gained importanceand popularity in the past few decades around the world. As aconsequence of this growing demand, institutions are obliged to offermore courses for learners and train more effective educators of Turkishas a foreign language. Turkish is still being taught widely byacademicians who mostly have not received any training courses,seminars, teaching practice opportunities or even lesson observationopportunities before they enter this area of teaching. Turkish as aforeign language courses are mostly being taught by educators whohold Linguistics, Turkish Language and Literature, Turkish, English,French or German Language Education degrees. In this study, selfefficacybelief levels of English teachers who are teaching their nativelanguage, Turkish, as a foreign language was measured. Data wascollected through a survey, personal interviews and block lessonobservations. Collected data was used to determine the levels of selfefficacybeliefs, the effects of being a native speaker of the targetlanguage, and difficulties in teaching Turkish grammar. Results showthat even though they are the native speakers of Turkish, Englishteachers’ self-efficacy belief levels were low, and this state affects thechoice of in-class activities and other educational decisions of theparticular teachers. Son yıllarda dünyada yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenmek isteyenlerin sayısındaki artış, ilgili eğitim kurumlarının bu alanda daha çok arzda bulunmasını, bu arzı sağlayabilmek için de donanımlı öğretmen yetiştirmesini zorunlu kılmıştır. Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe eğitimi günümüzde hâlâ anadili Türkçe olan ancak çoğunluğu Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesine yönelik bir eğitim almamış akademisyenler tarafından yürütülmektedir. Bu akademisyenler çoğunlukla Dilbilim, Türk Dili ve Edebiyatı, Türkçe, İngilizce, Fransızca, Almanca Öğretmenlikleri b

  14. İkinci/Yabancı Dil Öğretiminde Özgün ve Değiştirilmiş Dilsel Girdi Üzerine On The Authentic And Modified Input In The Second/Foreign Language Teaching

    Mustafa DURMUŞ


    Full Text Available In the language teaching, the subject of input presented to learnersand comprehension level of these inputs by learners are one of thesignificant fields. Because of this, how these inputs are presented tolearners are also important. These inputs learners exposed can be authentictexts which are produced in natural communication environment of thosewho speak target language as native language and also can be modifiedtexts which are produced by modifying authentic texts according toproficiency level of target group or by natural way considering the anxiety oflearners. Modified texts also can be presented as simplified or elaboratedtexts. In this paper, significance of reading comprehension, selection ofauthentic or modified text and types of modification in the process oflanguage teaching will be discussed. It should be noted that it is notpossible to find a particular usage area for each of these text types in thesecond/foreign language teaching process. However, while creating teachingmaterials, the teaching process can be enchanced by using authentic,simplified or elaborated texts because simplified and elaborated textsupgrade the level of learners and positively influence their learning motives.Authentic texts, because of their natural language material, help learners topractise their communication skills in the target language. The articlereveals the theoretical features that produce authentic texts or types ofmodified texts, and the aspects of these text types that may be foundbenefical or that make them difficult to understand by pointig to theprincipal literature on the subject. In this regard, the article is a theoreticaland descriptive study that produce framework that provides basis forimplementations of the publishers who have to prepare texts for targetgroups and of the faculty members who have to prepare texts for theirsecond/foreign language learners. Dil öğretiminde öğreniciye sunulan dilsel girdi (input ve bu dilsel girdinin

  15. Hindistan’da Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğrenen Genç-Yetişkinlerin Öğrenme Geçmişlerinin Bazı Değişkenlere Göre İncelenmesi The Investigation Of Learning Histories Of Young-Adult Turkish As A Foreign Language Learners In India According To Some Variables

    Adem İŞCAN


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate Turkish as ForeignLanguage learners’ learning histories and their Turkish learning casesby associating with many variables such as age, and nationality. Thisinquiry, then, figured out the existing Turkish learning cases in India.The languages acquired by Indians students learning Turkish as aForeign Language (TFL are shown the proportion. In this scale, the caseof learning Turkish was shown. The portion of gender, race and agefactors of TFL learners were taken into consideration.In this study, non-relational descriptive research technique wasused. The sampling of this research consists of 110 Turkish as foreignlanguage learners in India. As a data collection tool, a questionnairewas used developed by researchers by inspiring from the study of Buran(2008 for the acquisition and learning processes in Kyrgyzstan.The data were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 software. As a result of theexisting findings, it was seen that Turkish language was learnt as aforeign language after English as a second language. It was also seenwith the reference of learning histories of the participants that at leasttwo foreign languages were learnt besides Hindu and English. There aremany factors orienting the foreign language learning process. Weunderline from these factors the biological conditions, cognitive andsentimental notions, teaching methods and social and environmentalfacts. In light of these facts, it was seen that the language teaching inIndia was influenced by all of them in a positive way. This case showsus the advance level of strategically developing India about secondlanguage acquisition. Bu çalışmada Hindistan’da yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen genç-yetişkin öğrencilerin dil öğrenme geçmişlerinin yaş ve ulus gibi bazı değişkenlerin temel alınarak araştırılması amaçlanmaktadır. Böylece Hindistan���da Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğrenilmesi ile ilgili durum ortaya konulmaya çal

  16. Derleme Sözlüğü'ndeki Gizli Dil Verileri Üzerine On The Data From Some Secret Languages In Derleme Sözlüğü

    Faruk YILDIRIM


    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to frame the term “secret language,” to discuss the secret languages in Turkey and narrow regions‟ jargons, and to reflect upon some data transferred from secret languages to the Derleme Sözlüğü.In the Derleme Sözlüğü the words cıvır „woman, teenage girl‟; geben „foreigner‟; geder „donkey‟; gerez „ornate, elegant, stylish, cute, belle, cocotte‟; gıyla, gıylam „sexual organ of a male‟; hersit „bread‟; heziklemek „to beat up‟; manış „the third person who the other twospeak behind his/her back‟; and yeken „money‟ were analyzed. Thesewords in the Abdal secret language are as cıvır „woman, teenage girl‟;geder „donkey‟; gerez „ornate, elegant, stylish, cute, belle, cocotte‟; gıyla,gıylam „sexual organ of a male‟; hersit „bread‟; heziklemek „to beat up‟;manış „man‟; yeken „money‟ respectively. Not only in the Abdal secretlanguage, but some of these words considered can be seen in thevocabulary of other Turkish origin secret languages such as the Çepnisecret language, Tokat Geygel secret language, the secret language ofEastern Anatolian nomads, and Cyprus Gurbets‟ secret language. Somewords are also used in narrow regions‟ tradesmen jargon, other secretlanguages with no Turkish background and in secret languages usedoutside of Turkey. In the paper, the etymology of the words which arenot originally Turkish was analyzed, the secret languages which thesewords are used in were determined, and the data obtained wereinterpreted, and conclusions were reached. Bu makalede; gizli dil teriminin çerçevesi çizilmeye çalışılmış, Türkiye‟deki gizli diller ve dar bölge meslek argolarından söz edilmiş ve gizli dillerden Türkiye‟de Halk Ağzından Derleme Sözlüğü‟ne yansıyan bazı veriler üzerinde durulmuştur. Yazının temel amacı, Derleme Sözlüğü‟nde yer alan bazı kelimelerin gerçekte T

  17. Bilmecelerin Dil-Düşünme Bağlamında Eğitimdeki Yeri ve Önemi The Place and Importance of Riddles in the Context of Language and Thinking

    Elif Emine BALTA


    bilmeceler, eski popülerliğini kaybetmiştir. Yaşam koşullarının farklılaşması, sosyal ortamların niteliğini değişmesi, bireyselleşme ve benzer sebepler, insanların ihtiyaçları ve anlayışlarında olduğu gibi ilgi ve zevklerini de değiştirdiği için bu durum normal karşılanabilir.Akademik anlamda, bilmeceler ile ilgili çalışmalar halkbilim sahasında sınırlı kalmıştır. Bu sahada yapılmış olan değerli çalışmalar ise eğitim-öğretim boyutunda yeteri kadar değerlendirilmemiştir. Eğitim öğretim alanında da bilmecelere yeteri kadar yer verilmediği görülmektedir. Oysa bilmeceler, dil ve kavram öğretiminde, bunlarla yakından ilişkili olan düşünme öğretiminde de başarı sağlamada araç olarak kullanılabilecek zenginlik ve derinlik özelliğine sahiptir. Eğitim-öğretim sürecinde, bilmecelerin en önemli katkısı, anadili eğitiminde görülür. Kavram öğretiminde ve kelime hazinesini zenginleştirmede bilmeceler yardımcı araç olarak görülebilir. Bilmecede cevabı arama süreci dinamiktir; birey, zihninden geçen tüm kavramları soruda belirtilen özellikleri ile karşılaştırır. Açık bir ifadeyle bilmeceler üst düzey düşünme becerilerinden olan yaratıcı düşünme, eleştirel düşünme ve problem çözme becerileri ile ilişkilidir. Bilmecelerin eğitsel ve düşünsel bağlamda değerinin farkına varılmalı ve diğer edebi türler gibi eğitim ortamlarına dahil edilmelidir. Bu çalışmada, bilmece türünün eğitim-öğretimde etkili bir araç, zengin bir uyaran olarak yeri ve önemi belirlenmiş ve açıklanmıştır.

  18. The Effect of Using Different Lexical Sets in Vocabulary Teaching to the Learners of Turkish as a Foreign Language / Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğrenenlere Kelime Öğretiminde Farklı Kelime Gruplarının Kullanımının Etkisi

    Mehmet Volkan DEMİREL


    Full Text Available This study aims to examine whether presenting vocabulary using semantically-related, thematically-related, and semantically-unrelated word sets has an effect on Turkish as a foreign language learners’ receptive vocabulary learning. The sample of this quantitative study were 21 students studying Turkish at the Dokuz Eylul University Center of Language Education and Research as of 2012-2013 academic year. Post-tests and delayed post-tests designed in line with the research topic constituted the data gathering instruments. In the study, the participants were presented 8 words in each lesson during 9 lesson hours of intervention, piling up 72 words. At the end of each lesson, post-tests on the target vocabulary were administered to the participants, and after the intervention period, delayed post-tests were applied in equal time intervals. Bu çalışmanın amacı Türkçe kelimelerin anlamsal bağıntılı, bir konu etrafında dönen ve anlamca birbirinden bağımsız kelime grupları ile sunulmasının yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen öğrencilerin algısal kelime öğreniminde hangisinin daha etkili olduğunu araştırmaktır. Nicel bir çalışma olan araştırmanın örneklemini 2012 – 2013 öğretim yılında Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Dil Eğitimi ve Araştırmaları Merkezi’nde Türkçe öğrenen 21 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Çalışmanın konusuna uygun olarak belirlenen alt problemlere yönelik hazırlanmış son testler ve ötelenmiş son testler veri toplama araçları olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmada öğrencilere her bir derste 8 kelime olmak üzere 9 saatlik uygulama sonunda 72 kelime sunulmuştur. Her dersin sonunda öğrencilere öğrendikleri kelimeler ile ilgili son test uygulanmış ve ders anlatımları bittikten sonra da eşit zaman aralıklarında ötelenmiş son testler uygulanmıştır.

  19. Temel Söz Varlığı Bağlamında Türkçe Ve Almancada En Sık Kullanılan Elli Eylemin Söz-Eylem Kuramı Çerçevesinde Dil-Yapısal Ve Kültürel Açıdan Karşılaştırılması Basic Vocabulury In Context Comparison Of Perspective Lingua-Structure And Culture Most Frequently Used Fifty Actions In Turkish And German In The Frame Of Statement-Action Theory

    Faik KANATLI


    Full Text Available It is a common point linguists and language trainers agree on thatbasic vocabulary plays a determinant role in both native and secondlanguage acquisition and teaching. Another point on which thosescientists agree is that language acquisition and teaching is also anacquisition and teaching of culture. By leading aforementionedassumptions, in this study, most frequently used fifty verbs in Turkishand German will be classified according to statement-action theory andcompared in terms of lingua-structure and culture. Through thecomparison based on frequency and statement-action theory, this studyaims to make inferences that will probably contribute to both teachingGerman to Turkish speaker as a foreign language and teaching Turkishto German speaker as a foreign language. The study will be built ondata from Tschirner 2008 and Ozkan 2012. Correspondence and noncorrespondencebetween Turkish and German will be interpreted andjustified in most frequently used first fifty verbs.Main thesis of the study is that determination and comparison ofmost frequently used fifty verbs in native and foreign language will beeffective in teaching basic vocabulary gradually through action focusedgrammar (Valanzgrammatik. Another emphasis of the study is thatsequencing of first fifty verbs reflects the cultural priority of nativespeakers. Findings and inference of the study Turkish education,Turkish education as a foreign language and foreign language educationis expected to contribute. Findings and inference will be based onprogressive teaching of the word. In this regard, this study may resolvesome of the shortcomings in the literature. Gerek birinci gerek ikinci dil edinimi ve öğretiminde temel söz varlığının belirleyici bir rol oynadığı dilbilimci ve dil eğitimcilerinin ortaklaştığı noktadır. Söz konusu bilimcilerin görüş birliği içinde olduğu bir başka nokta, dil edinimi ve öğretiminin aynı zamanda bir kültür edinimi ve öğretimi oldu

  20. Türkçeyi Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğrenenlerin Konuşma Kaygılarının Değerlendirilmesi An Evaluation of Speaking Anxiety for Learners of Turkish as A Foreign Language

    Muhammed Eyyüp SALLABAŞ


    Full Text Available Language, a tool for maintaining transmission of feelings, thoughts and desires, has two dimensions, such as understanding and telling. Talking, which is oral transmission of information, opinions andimpressions of the mankind over his life to the opposing person, iswithin the telling dimension of the language and composing the basictool of self-expressing. Oral expression has an important position inlanguage training both for society and as a skill. Speaking skill is leaststudied language skill and it is of great importance in teaching Turkishas a foreign language. The aim of this study is to determine anxieties oflearners of Turkish as a foreign language and to assess them in terms ofvarious variables. The study was carried out with survey model. Thestudy group is composed of 68 students attending C level (HighTurkish courses at Taksim branch of Ankara University Center forTeaching Turkish as a Foreign Language. Data for the study wascollected via Speaking Anxiety Scale, which was developed by Özdemirand Personal Information Form. Data collected in line with the aims ofthe study was analyzed with analysis techniques suitable for thecharacteristics of the data using SPSS - 16.0 program. Findings werepresented in tables and interpreted. T-test was administrated to findout if data show significant difference in terms of two variables and oneway variance analysis (ANOVA was used to test if data show significantdifference in terms of more than two variables. In this study, it wasdetermined that anxiety levels of learners who think that Turkish is nota difficult language were significant lower than those of learners whothink that it is a difficult language and that there was not a significantdifference in terms of other variables. Dil duygu, düşünce ve isteklerin aktarılmasını sağlayan bir araçtır. Dilin anlama ve anlatma olarak iki boyutu vardır. İnsanın hayatı boyunca edindiği bilgi, görüş, izlenim ve düşüncelerini kar

  1. Tablet PC Destekli Türkçe Öğretiminin Temel Dil Becerilerine Etkisini Belirlemeye Yönelik Ölçek Çalışması A Scale Study Of Tablet PC Based Teaching Turkish Language To Determine The Effect On Basic Language Skills

    Süleyman BALCI


    Full Text Available In this study, the use of Turkish language course based on tabletpc is aimed to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale whichdetermines the impact of language skills, In the process of creation anddevelopment of the draft scale, item pool was created and consultedexperts with scaning. In 5-point Likert- type scale which has thenumber of questions the premise of the draft 20 item, the use of tabletpc basic language skills in Turkish language course (reading, listening,speaking and writing contains substances to determine whether thereis an effect. Substances, were obtained by transforming the pattern oflanguage skills achievements into question that were determined inTurkish curriculum. Draft scale was applied to 114 students studyingat year 5 of Uşak City Center of Yaşar Akar and Bingol City CenterIMKB Fatih Elementary School of which were selected as pilot area ofFatih Project. Content validity of the scale were based on expert opinion.As a result of factor analysis to determine the validity of the structureconsisting of 16 items, factor loadings .50 - .84 between the threedimensions of explaining covering 56% of the total variance wereobtained from a scale. 9 of the scale items were positive, 7 of themcontains negative expression. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin value of the scale was.85, .00 and the Bartlett test of significance value of the Cronbach'salpha internal consistency coefficient was found to be .90. As a result ofthe review of the literature to determine the impact of language skills inTurkish language course based on the use of tablet pc in the sense ofbeing seen as a lack of scale, lack of validity and reliability of this scaleprovided is thought to contribute to the field. Bu çalışmada, Türkçe dersinde tablet pc kullanımının temel dil becerilerine etkisini belirlemeye yarayan, geçerli ve güvenilir bir tutum ölçeği geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Taslak ölçek oluşturma ve geliştirme sürecinde alan taraması yap

  2. Tezkire-i Buğra Han’ın Çağatayca Yazılmış Bir Nüshası Metin- Dil İncelemesi- Tıpkıbasım A Manuscript Of Tazkira-i Bughra Khan Written In Chagatay Turkısh Texte- Grammar Notes- Facsimile



    ındaki bilgiler oldukça sınırlıdır. Bu dönem hakkındaki bilinmezliklerin benzeri, İslamiyet’in Türkler arasında yayılmasında büyük bir yeri bulunan ve efsanevi özellikler taşıyan Satuk Buğra Han için de geçerlidir.Bu makale, Türklerin İslamiyeti kitle hâlinde kabul edişlerini ve ilk Müslüman Türk hükümdarının efsanevi hayatını anlatan Tezkire-i Buğra Han kitabının 19. yüzyılda Çağatayca olarak kaleme alınmış bir nüshasının çeviri yazı ve dil incelemesini içermektedir.Çalışmamıza konu olan eser, Klasik Çağataycanın dil özelliklerini taşımakla beraber, Özbekçe ve Çağdaş Uygurcanın ses ve şekil bilgisi özelliklerini de barındırmaktadır. Tezkire-i Buğra Han kitabı gerek ses gerekse şekil bilgisi bakımından Çağatayca öncesi arkaik örnekleri de içermektedir. Eser bu özellikleriyle, hem Çağataycadan çağdaş Türk lehçelerine geçişi yansıtmakta hem de içerdiği arkaik yapılarla dikkat çekmektedir.Yazmanın Çağatayca dışında en çok Çağdaş Uygurcanın dil özelliklerini barındırdığı görülmektedir. Kitabın ilk sayfasındaki karışık bir hâlde yazılmış ifadelerin içinden tespit edebildiğimiz tārįħķa bir min g iki yüz yėtmiş1 ….. inal aķsuluķ taĥrįri āħir boldı cümlesi eserin Çağdaş Uygurcayla olan bağını da açıklar niteliktedir.Bu makalede söz konusu yazma eserin bütünü hakkında, yazarı, yazıldığı yüzyıl, diğer nüshaları vb. özellikleri bakımından bilgi verilmiş olup yalnızca Satuk Buğra Han menkabesinin geçtiği kısmın çeviri yazılı metni sunulmuştur. Ayrıca incelenen kısmın tıpkıbasımı da makalenin sonuna eklenmiştir.Bu yazıda, British Library’deki Or. 8161 numaralı metnin 83a-102b varakları arasındaki Satuk Buğra Han menkabesini esas almakla birlikte, dil incelemesinde gerek duyuldukça yazmanın bütünü göz önünde bulundurularak açıklamalar yapılmıştır.

  3. Impact of Dictionary Type and Usage to Enhance Turkish Vocabulary in Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language Yabancı Dil Türkçe Öğretiminde Sözlük Türleri ve Kullanımlarının Türkçe Sözvarlığını Geliştirmeye Etkisi

    Gülden TÜM


    Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges for many learners as it is an essential part of foreign language learning. Words are important linguistic parts to convey meanings and even to eliminate misunderstandings in communication. Currently, a new attitude on vocabulary learning is that it is not memorizing words in the contexts of serial lists (Fallahchai, 2011 and vocabulary instruction must be redefined to include more than just memorizing the meanings of words; therefore, some suggestion about learning vocabulary is utilizing dictionaries since they play a vital role to empower users to find appropriate usage of words and to continue communication as well. The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent dictionaries satisfy needs of foreign learners of Turkish, what type of dictionary is more beneficial, the role of dictionary type in the retention of meaning, whether the type of dictionary used will influence learners' Turkish learning attitudes and improve their learning outcomes, and finally to evaluate the effects of implementing dictionary skills instruction. The participants are 42 Erasmus students majoring at different faculties at Çukurova University, Adana, Turkey and also learning Turkish as a foreign language. The results indicated learning new Turkish word is complicated but it can be overcome by using appropriate dictionaries (bilingual, multilingual and electronic dictionaries etc.. Sözvarlığı öğrenimi dil öğrenmenin en önemli parçası ve aynı zamanda da birçok öğrenci için en temel zorluklardan birisidir. Sözcükler manaları aktaran hatta iletişimde yanlış anlaşılmaları ortadan kaldıran canlı ve önemli dil parçalarıdır. Sözvarlığı ile ilgili yapılmış olan birçok çalışma olmasına rağmen son zamanlarda sözvarlığının öğrenilmesi ve iletişimde kullanılmasıyla ilgili yeni bir eğilim ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu eğilim, dil öğretiminde sözcüklerin listeler

  4. Almancada ve Türkçede Davetiye Örneklerinin Biçim, İçerik ve Dil İşlevi Açısından Karşılaştırmalı Olarak İncelenmesi Comparative Analysis of Invitation Card Samples in Terms of Design, Text Type and Linguistic Function in German and Turkish

    Faik ÖMÜR


    incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmada ele alınan davetiye örneklerinin bir kısmı elde bulunan, biriktirilmiş davetiyelerden, bir kısmı da internet ortamında çok sık kullanılan davetiye örneklerinden seçilmiştir. Türkçe davetiyelerde geçen metinler, veciz sözler ve diğer sözceler Almancaya çevrilmiştir. Metinlerde yer alan dizeler, nazım özelliği taşıdığı için biçimsel olarak birebir çevrilemeyeceğinden dolayı, anlam bütünlüğü veya anlam eşdeğerliliği göz önünde bulundurularak çevirinin kolayca görülebilmesi için tablo biçiminde verilmiştir. Türkçe ve Almancada davetiye örnekleri üzerinde çok fazla çalışma olmadığından bu çalışmanın önemli bir boşluğu dolduracağı düşünülmüş olup davetiyelerin kapsamı belirli konu ve bakış açısıyla sınırlandırılmıştır. Çalışma daha ziyade sosyokültürel ve sosyodilbilimsel açıdan ele alınmıştır. Kullanmalık metin özelliği taşıyan davetiyeler; içerik, biçim ve dil işlevleri açısından incelenmiştir. Çalışma dört bölümden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın birinci bölümünde davetiye metin tanımları verilmiştir. İkinci bölümde Türkçe sünnet ve evlenme, Almancada vaftiz ve evlenme ile ilgili davetiye örnekleri seçilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde davetiye örnekleri; tasarım, metin türü, dil ve içerik bakımından karşılaştırılmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde davetiye örneklerinin kültürel, kültürlerarasılık, ekonomik, yabancı dil öğretimi, edebi yönü, tarihsel gelişimi ve değişimi bakımından benzerlikleri ve farklılıkları ortaya konulmuştur.

  5. Necip Fazıl Kısakürek’in “Kaldırımlar” Şiiri Üzerine Dil Bilimsel Bir Çözümleme A Linguistic Analysis On Necip Fazıl Kısakurek’s Poem Called As ‘Kaldırımlar’

    Yusuf TEPELİ


    Full Text Available Language is the basic material of poetry as it is for any otherliterary types and in terms of this view, it has a big share on thepermenance of the poetry. As the poetry can not be considered apart fromthe language, critization of poetry can not be practiced apart from thelanguage, either. Instead of transferring the feelings which poetry gives,the atmosphere which poetry makes readers feel to the readers with a setof subjective considerations, explaining with a scientific method whichdepends on the core of the poetry was influential on the coming out of thisstudy. The poet's creating original images with variations andtransferrings, utilization of literal elements and the easy goingconverzation which is given by the spoken language has an influence onthe choice of the poem of Necip Fazıl Kısaku rek for this study. The poetput down on paper mystic poems which he transferred his intense internalfeud, the reflections of the turbulents of his soul with the reality of theouter world. The poem "Kaldırımlar" serves us ideal language materials interms of all those facilities inside it.In this work, the poem of Necip Fazıl Kısaku rek which is namedKaldırımlar is tried to be analyzed with a linguistic view. In order to dothis, Dog an Aksan's method of poet examination which is shown ondifferent poems is practiced on a text while his work named "S iir Dili veTu rk S iir Dili" is taken as base.In the first chapter of the study which is composed by two chapters,it is basically dwelled on the types on the words; in the second chapter, thesemantical and semiological examination of the words which composes thetext was made and the findings were transferred with tabulating. Thewords mentioned in the text were examined in terms of kind, meaningdirection, literal elements with analysing the degree of the value of thefeelings, frequency and the setting of the relations among them. Dil, diğer edebi türler gibi şiirin de temel malzemesidir ve bu y

  6. University and Flipped Learning TIC & DIL Project: Framework and Design

    Pinnelli, Stefania; Fiorucci, Andrea


    The flipped classroom approach (FC) is for the educational world a chance of recovery and improvement of pedagogical student-centered model and collaborative teaching methods aimed at optimizing the time resource and to promote personalization and self-learning in a perspective of autonomy. The paper moving from a pedagogical reflection on…

  7. Majanduspatriotism rajaneb müüdil / Nicolas Veron

    Veron, Nicolas


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. nov. lk. 10, Molodjozh Estonii 17. nov. lk. 8-9 (täistekst). Majandusliku patriotismi mõiste. Euroopa suurfirmade kodumaal teenitud kogutulude maht väheneb. Tabel

  8. Majanduspatriotism rajaneb müüdil / Nicolas Veron

    Veron, Nicolas


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. nov. lk. 10, Molodjozh Estonii 17. nov. lk. 8-9 (täistekst). Majandusliku patriotismi mõiste. Euroopa suurfirmade kodumaal teenitud kogutulude maht väheneb. Tabel

  9. Israel’s Blockade of Gaza, the Mavi Marmara Incident, and Its Aftermath


    constructively to “legitimate” international criticism and to lift the blockade.23 German Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed her “deep concern” to both...British PM Tells Netanyahu Israeli Raid on Ship was ‘Unacceptable’,” Agence France Presse, June 1, 2010. 24 “ Merkel tells Israeli, Turkish Leaders of... Interview by Francesco Battistini, “The Only Mistake Lay in Underestimating the Pacifists,” Milan Corriere della Sera, June 9, 2010, Open Source Center

  10. The language of poverty or the effects of language codes of lower social class children on educational processYoksulluğun dili ya da alt sosyal sınıf çocuklarının dil kodlarının eğitim sürecine etkileri

    Müjdat Avcı


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal the relations between the problems of children abandoning secondary education in family and educational processes and their sociolinguistic features due to their academic failure. In particular, Basil Bernstein’s opinion related to children belonging to different social classes on their having different language codes because of their socioeconomic and cultural properties was the starting point in our study. The research sheds light on the socio-linguistic dimension underlying school failure of 8 students suspended from the school due to absenteeism while studying at compulsory educational institutions within the vicinity of Erzincan province in 2012-2013 school terms. Theoretical background of the study concentrates on communication problems and failure related to family structure and school environment of the students. The research realized as a focus work is a descriptive study in which qualitative data collection and evaluation methods were performed. The preliminary preparation of the study, including literature review lasted six months while the field study lasted two months. Through focus group and in-depth interviews, data were collected related to the problems of children in the family and school lives and their expectations from parents, teachers and other institutions and suggestions on the subject were proposed related to theoretical background and the relevant literature. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı akademik başarısızlık nedeniyle ortaokuldan ayrılan çocukların aile ve eğitim sürecindeki sorunlarının sahip oldukları sosyo-linguistik özelliklerle olan bağlantısını ortaya koymaktır. Özellikle Basil Bernstein’ın farklı sosyal sınıflara mensup çocukların sahip oldukları sosyo-ekonomik ve kültürel özelliklerinden dolayı farklı dil kodlarına sahip oldukları görüşü çalışmamızın ana eksenini oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma, 2012–2013 Öğretim Y

  11. 78 FR 14114 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW181233, WY


    ... South Main Street, Suite 700, Salt Lake City, UT 84101, and BLM, Wyoming State Office, Branch of Solid Minerals, Attn: Mavis Love, P.O. Box 1828, Cheyenne, WY 82003. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mavis Love...

  12. 78 FR 14114 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW181235, WY


    ... South Main Street, Suite 700, Salt Lake City, UT 84101, and BLM, Wyoming State Office, Branch of Solid Minerals, Attn: Mavis Love, P.O. Box 1828, Cheyenne, WY 82003. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mavis Love...

  13. 78 FR 14116 - Notice of Invitation to Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW181234, WY


    ... South Main Street, Suite 700, Salt Lake City, UT 84101, and BLM, Wyoming State Office, Branch of Solid Minerals, Attn: Mavis Love, P.O. Box 1828, Cheyenne, WY 82003. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mavis Love...

  14. Primary school teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors about childhood epilepsy

    Huseyin Ucer


    Full Text Available Amac: Bu calismada ilkokul ogretmenlerinin cocukluk cagi epilepsi hastaligi konusunda bilgi, tutum ve davranislarinin belirlenerek koruyucu halk sagligi politikalarina katki saglanmasi amaclanmistir. Gerec ve Yontem: Calismamiza 02.11.2015 - 07.12.2015 tarihleri arasinda Kahramanmaras il merkezinde gorevli 463 ilkokul ogretmeni dahil edildi. Bilgilendirilmis onam veren ogretmenlere cocukluk cagi epilepsilerine yonelik bilgi, tutum ve davranislarinin sorgulandigi anket uygulandi. Katilimcilarin epilepsi konusunda bilgi duzeyleri toplam 29 puan uzerinden degerlendirildi. Bulgular: Ogretmenlerin %62.2'sinin daha once epileptik kriz gecirmekte olan bir cocukla karsilastigi belirlendi. Ogretmenlerin cocukluk cagi epilepsileri konusunda bilgi duzeyi puan ortalamasi 14.34 iken, erkek ogretmenlerin bilgi puani 14.4+/-4.6 ve kadin ogretmenlerin bilgi puani ise 14.2+/-4.0 olarak saptandi. Kadin ve erkek ogretmenlerin epilepsi konusunda bilgi duzeyi benzerdi. Epilepsi hastaligi sebepleri sorgulandiginda ogretmenlerin sirasiyla 263'u (%56.8 beyin hastaligi, 236'si (%51 genetik nedenler ve 153'u (%33 kafa travmasini neden olarak belirtti. Katilimcilarin 367'si (%79.3 vucutta istemsiz kasilmalar, 366 kisi (%79 bayilma ve 325 kisi (%70.2 bilinc kaybinin epilepsi belirtisi oldugunu ifade etti. Sonuc: Calismamizda ilkokul ogretmenlerinin cocukluk cagi epilepsi hastaligi konusunda sorguladigimiz hususlara gore bilgi duzeyinin yetersiz oldugu belirlendi. Ayrica ogretmenlerin epilepsi konusunda ciddi tutum ve davranis yanlisliklarinin oldugu tespit edildi. Ogretmenlere cocukluk cagi epilepsi hastaligi ve epileptik nobet konusunda egitimlerin verilmesi, cocuklarin biyolojik, sosyal ve psikolojik sagliklarinin korunmasinda etkin onlemler alinmasi acisindan buyuk onem arz etmektedir. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 491-497

  15. Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs V. Proceedings of the MAVI-5 Workshop (August 22-25, 1997). Research Report 184.

    Hannula, Markku, Ed.

    This report includes all of the presentations from the fifth annual workshop on the Current State of Research on Mathematical Beliefs held in Helsinki, Finland, on August 22-25, 1997. The papers, all of which were presented in English, are as follows: "Between Formalism and Creativity: Teachers' Conceptions of a Good Computer Science…

  16. et Simp thanol ple and l by dil p d enhan luted a peel (A nced p acid ...



    Sep 7, 2010 ... should be concentrated for obtaining hydrous ethanol. (Maiorella et al., 1984). ... value to this waste for the canned fruit industries. The main components ..... very high gravity fermentation by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) flour.

  17. Üniversitelerde Ortak Zorunlu Yabancı Dil I Dersine Yönelik Bir Akademik Başarı Testinin Geliştirilmesi

    Adıgüzel, Oktay Cem; Özdoğru, Fatma


    In this research, an achievement test consisting of multiple choice questions is aimed to develop for Foreign Language I course within the scope of common compulsory courses of the universities. For validity and reliability purposes, the achievement test was applied to 102 freshmen studying in two different departments in the last week of fall semester of 2011-2012 academic year. Having consulted two field experts working in the field of language teaching in order to ensure the validity of ac...

  18. Temel Dil Becerileri Eğitiminde Kullanılabilecek Aktif Öğrenme Öğretimsel İş/Taktikleri

    Sedat Maden


    Full Text Available Rapidly increasing of knowledge makes the reaching to knowledge more important than having of it. For this purpose, in education field it has been started to use strategies, methods and techniques in which the learner is active and provides reaching to the knowledge. One of these methods is active learning which make students more active in learning process. When the significance of basic language arts, on reaching the knowledge, is considered, it has to build a connection between Turkish language teaching and active learning. By means of this connection, it can be contributed to develop language arts of the learners, and be useful to learn the learning. Therefore, in this study it has been matched educational works and tactics of active learning method and the aims/acquisition of basic language arts (reading, listening/watching, speaking, and writing in 2005 Turkish Language Curriculum. Besides it has been given some examples about how these tactics can be used in Turkish teaching.


    Veysel ŞAHİN (M.A.H.


    Full Text Available Namık Kemal is our first critic who has criticized the Worksof the young in his period by writing them letters. His private lettersare the rich metarial sources of Tanzimat (Reorganization Period andof the thought-word, and are of the character of an importantdocument regarding the history of language, literature, art culture-Namık Kemal is the booming and leading voice of our literature-Fromthat point of view, his privatet letters are multi-sided wiht respect tothe contents.In this study we have appricaited his criticism about Arabicliterature, Persien literature, Western literature, Classical TurkishLitareture and Neo-Turkish literature by dealing with his criticism onlanguage and literature in his private letters.

  20. Comparison of seed priming techniques with regards to germination ...

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin


    Nov 16, 2016 ... (Demir and Mavi, 2004), which causes a great concern for growers that growing ... economies, and labor-saving attributes compared with methods in which the ... roots, lateral root initiation, stem elongation, leaf and cotyledon ...

  1. Balkan Ülkelerinin Anayasalarında Dil Kullanımı İle İlgili Düzenlemeler The Regulation As For Language Usage In The Constitutions Of Balkan States

    Bilgehan Atsız GÖKDAĞ


    Full Text Available One of the regions of interest for multiculturalism andmultilingualism is the Balkans in southeastern Europe. Region includesGreece, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, on the European side of Turkey asindependent states that emerged after the collapse of Yugoslavia,Macedonia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia andMontenegro. System ruled by the Communist countries of the regionuntil 1990, except for Greece. The breakup of Yugoslavia and theemergence of new states created new constitutions. The constitution ofcountries which multi-ethnic and multi-lingual include freedom oflanguage use.Status of local languages in countries with ethnic diversity isalways a problem for the standard and established. Nations as a resultof partnerships formed by a long common law without nationalassociations is an important question how to solve this problem.Encountered this situation in many countries of the world, how theBalkan countries were effected. Especially in the Balkan region containsmany ethnic groups and languages. This is the most importantdeterminant of geography, religion, ethnic identity, then, has been thelanguage. The world's most well-known linguistic regions of the BalkanPeninsula. Ethnic diversity in the region from time to time in history,religion, and language differences have been exploited by some statesand using these features to their own interests, these countries incitedthe people of the region. This article examined the constitutions of theBalkan countries respond to the needs of its neighborhoods given instandard language, as well as other languages will be investigated.Some of these population groups, there are now in a minority in theirregions and countries are demanding the right language. However, thelanguage policies vary from country to country. For example, the formerYugoslavia, in time, many languages spoken in the country have legalequality, established new states constitutions created a special place forthe language of the majority.

  2. O letramento literário na formação de professores de Ensino Religioso - uma leitura do Mito do Dilúvio em um conto de Machado de Assis

    Araceli Sobreira Benevides


    Full Text Available This article takes as theoretical lenses to dialogical conception of language and theories of reading and literary literacy within the context of training teachers of Religious Education. The aim is to bring to the teacher’s education field litterary texts whose theme discusses Transcendent and religious phenomenon, in order to create moments of reading to understand the different ways in which religious discourses that are constituted by language. For this, we chose the short story "Na Arca – três capítulos inéditos do Genesis", wroten by Machado de Assis, relating it to the Myth of the Flood, in this sacred narratives to dialogue with the discourses that circulate in the literary’s field and epistemological knowledges from Sciences of Religion. The analysis shows how literature can re-upgrade myths to give new interpretations and questions, as does Machado de Assis, the positioning of the characters of the biblical narrative as subjects of everyday life, approaching the characteristics of the more mythical than real. We understand that subsidizes training future teachers of these insights can contribute to more efficient reading practices.

  3. İngilizce Öğretiminde Sözlü İletişim Hatalarının Düzeltilmesi: Farklı Dil Düzeylerindeki Türk Öğrencilerin Tercihleri

    Genç, Zübeyde Sinem


    Understanding the process of correcting spoken errors in language classrooms is quite important because there is always the risk of disturbing the flow of communication and the risk of decreasing motivation and willingness of students to communicate in the target language. The proficiency level of language learners is an important factor on their anxiety and self-confidence in oral communication. For this reason, insights about the preferences of students at different proficiency levels will ...

  4. Yabancı dil öğretmen adaylarının anadil ve yabancı dilde internet üzerinden okuma alanları ve sıklıkları

    Erdoğan Kartal


    Full Text Available The change in the approaches relative to reading has inevitably influenced all parts of society, including the future teacher candidates. This change of situation will not only be influential over teacher candidates teaching methodology but also in the shaping of their students way of reading. In respect to this situation, the present study was conducted in order to display the foreign language teacher candidates’ reading domains and frequencies of net reading in both the native and foreign language. The study comprised of a total of 228 teacher candidates enrolled in the fourth/final year at Uludag University, Faculty of Education, Foreign Languages Department, Language Teaching Division (English, French, and German. The data of the research belonging to the general survey model was collected through administering the third section of Shen’s (2006 Weekly Reading Habits questionnaire. This section is formed of the main question what do you usually read on the Internet? and it’s sub-items. The teacher candidates’ answers were analyzed and the findings revealed that the teacher candidates from all three divisions most frequently read on the net in their native language; online news, vocational and health issues. The candidates also preferred to most frequently read on the net; online news and vocational issues in the foreign language. The point that the native and foreign language reading areas are mostly vocational issues, and that the frequency of readings in this area are also notably high, can be associated to the candidates being at the stage of graduation and the point that they frequently use internet resources in order to enhance their professional development.

  5. Türkçenin Eğitimi ve Öğretiminde Dört Temel Dil Becerisinin Geliştirilmesi Sürecinde Kullanılabilecek Etkinlik Örnekleri

    Esra Lüle Mert


    Full Text Available Due to the fact that the basic aim in Turkish education and teaching is to develop listening, reading and writing skills, the aim in this study is to introduce the activity examples; which are considered to achieve development of the above mentioned skills in the process of Turkish education and teaching; in a suitable theoretical frame. This is a descriptive study in scanning model. The data was obtained from local-international scientific publications including Turkish teaching, mother language teaching and four basic linguistic skills, from computer, Turkish text and study books in every level and Turkish lesson teaching program. In the process of education and teaching Turkish, rather practical studies should be performed and more efficiency gain from Turkish lessons (which is a skill lesson should be achieved. In this study, the aim is to increase the efficiency and amusement that students gain from Turkish lessons by the introduced activity suggestions related with four basic linguistic skills.

  6. Derin Yapı Yüzey Yapı İlişkisi Bağlamında Temel Dil Becerileri Üzerine Bir Analiz Çalışması

    Bilginer ONAN


    Full Text Available This study examines the concepts of speaking, writing, reading and listening called as basic language skills in mother tongue education in regard to the relationship of deep structure and surface structure. The first chapter provides information on the concepts of deep structure and surface structure originally developed by Port Royal Grammar School and brought to the agenda by the theory of Transformational Generative Grammar put forward by Noam Chomsky in 1960s. The second chapter analysed the skills of speaking, writing, reading and listening in the context of the relationship of deep structure and surface structure. The purpose of the study is to determine the decisive elements in the process of the training of basic language skills within the context of meaning and form relationships, which are two fundamental dimensions of the language, and to develop proposals for scheduling the process. In the analyses of the study, it has been revealed that the concepts of articulation, prosody phenomena, body language, productive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, fluency, text type, spelling and punctuation, coherence, consistency, prior knowledge, word recognition, word discrimination ability, acquired knowledge, presupposition, implication are the elements that have an impact on the development of basic language skills within the context of deep structure and surface structure relationships. The concepts of articulation, prosody phenomena, body language, fluency, coherence, text type, word recognition, word discrimination ability, spelling and punctuation are directly linked to surface structure. On the other hand, the concepts of productive vocabulary, receptive vocabulary, consistency, prior knowledge, acquired knowledge, presupposition and implication are related to deep structure. It has been determined that the concept of fluency is related to all language skills


    Hayrullah KAHYA (M.A.H.


    Full Text Available Caramanians were Orthodox Christian in Anatolia.They used to both speak Turkish and use Greek alphabetin their texts. They particularly lived in Anatolia, forinstance; in Karaman, Konya, Kayseri, Isparta, Burdur,Aydın, Black Sea area. In addition, Istanbul, Syria andthe Balkans etc. Although they were Turkish (particularlyPechenek, Kuman Turks, they were managed byByzantion as paid soldiers in Anatolian area in 11.century, espacially in the Toros Mountains and after thattime, they began to adopt Orthodox Christian. Now, Theyhave lived in Greece since the population replacement in1923.In this study, spelling and phonetic of aCaramanian book with the name Yeñi Hazne which wasprinted in Venice in 1756 is examined.

  8. Toplam Kalite Yönetiminin Mavi Yakalı İşgören Motivasyonu Üzerindeki Etkisi: Mobilya Sektöründe Ampirik Bir Araştırma(The Impact of “Total Quality Management” on the Labours’ Motivation: An Empirical Research in the Furniture Industry

    Aysun KANBUR


    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of “Total Quality Management” on “motivation” which is thought as one of the factors which motivate the organization workers, is examined with a survey conducted on the sector of furniture industry and data of the survey was collected by a questionnaire developed by the researchers. The results of the analysis demonstrated that “Total Quality Management” has an impact on satisfaction taken from social–psychological and organizational–managerial motivation factors but, there wasn’t found same impact on satisfaction taken from economical motivation factors.

  9. Toplam Kalite Yönetiminin Mavi Yakalı İşgören Motivasyonu Üzerindeki Etkisi: Mobilya Sektöründe Ampirik Bir Araştırma(The Impact of “Total Quality Management” on the Labours’ Motivation: An Empirical Research in the Furniture Industry)

    Aysun KANBUR; KANBUR, Engin


    In this study, the impact of “Total Quality Management” on “motivation” which is thought as one of the factors which motivate the organization workers, is examined with a survey conducted on the sector of furniture industry and data of the survey was collected by a questionnaire developed by the researchers. The results of the analysis demonstrated that “Total Quality Management” has an impact on satisfaction taken from social–psychological and organizational–managerial motivation factors but...

  10. Predictive value of tumor markers in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma in different vascular invasion pattern

    Feng Gao; Shu-Sen Zheng; Heng-Kai Zhu; Yang-Bo Zhu; Qiao-Nan Shan; Qi Ling; Xu-Yong Wei; Hai-Yang Xie; Lin Zhou; Xiao Xu


    BACKGROUND: Four tumor markers for hepatocellular car-cinoma (HCC), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), glypican-3 (GPC3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), are closely associated with tumor invasion and patient’s survival. This study estimated the predict-ability of preoperative tumor marker levels along with patho-logical parameters on HCC recurrence after hepatectomy. METHODS: A total of 140 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy between January 2012 and August 2012 were enrolled. The demographics, clinical and follow-up data were collected and analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with macroscopic vascular invasion (MaVI +) and those without MaVI (MaVI-). The predictive value of tumor markers and clinical parameters were evaluated by uni-variate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: In all patients, tumor size (>8 cm) and MaVI were closely related to HCC recurrence after hepatectomy. For MaVI+ patients, VEGF (>900 pg/mL) was a signiifcant predic-tor for recurrence (RR=2.421; 95% CI: 1.272-4.606;P=0.007). The 1- and 2-year tumor-free survival rates for MaVI+ pa-tients with VEGF≤900 pg/mL versus for those with VEGF>900 pg/mL were 51.5% and 17.6% versus 19.0% and 4.8%(P445 mAu/mL and tumor size >8 cm were two independent risk factors for tumor recur-rence (RR=2.307, 95% CI: 1.132-4.703,P=0.021; RR=3.150, 95% CI: 1.392-7.127,P=0.006; respectively). The 1- and 2-year tumor-free survival rates for the patients with DCP≤445 mAu/mL and those with DCP >445 mAu/mL were 90.4% and 70.7% versus 73.2% and 50.5% respectively (P=0.048). The 1-and 2-year tumor-free survival rates for the patients with tu-mor size≤8 cm and >8 cm were 83.2% and 62.1% versus 50.0%and 30.0%, respectively (P=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The MaVI+ patients with VEGF≤900 pg/mL had a relatively high tumor-free survival than those with VEGF >900 pg/mL. In the MaVI- patients, DCP >445 mAu/mL and tumor size >8 cm were predictive factors

  11. Caspase inhibitors of the P35 family are more active when purified from yeast than bacteria.

    Ingo L Brand

    Full Text Available Many insect viruses express caspase inhibitors of the P35 superfamily, which prevent defensive host apoptosis to enable viral propagation. The prototypical P35 family member, AcP35 from Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, has been extensively studied. Bacterially purified AcP35 has been previously shown to inhibit caspases from insect, mammalian and nematode species. This inhibition occurs via a pseudosubstrate mechanism involving caspase-mediated cleavage of a "reactive site loop" within the P35 protein, which ultimately leaves cleaved P35 covalently bound to the caspase's active site. We observed that AcP35 purifed from Saccharomyces cerevisae inhibited caspase activity more efficiently than AcP35 purified from Escherichia coli. This differential potency was more dramatic for another P35 family member, MaviP35, which inhibited human caspase 3 almost 300-fold more potently when purified from yeast than bacteria. Biophysical assays revealed that MaviP35 proteins produced in bacteria and yeast had similar primary and secondary structures. However, bacterially produced MaviP35 possessed greater thermal stability and propensity to form higher order oligomers than its counterpart purified from yeast. Caspase 3 could process yeast-purified MaviP35, but failed to detectably cleave bacterially purified MaviP35. These data suggest that bacterially produced P35 proteins adopt subtly different conformations from their yeast-expressed counterparts, which hinder caspase access to the reactive site loop to reduce the potency of caspase inhibition, and promote aggregation. These data highlight the differential caspase inhibition by recombinant P35 proteins purified from different sources, and caution that analyses of bacterially produced P35 family members (and perhaps other types of proteins may underestimate their activity.

  12. Prostate Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy Using Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy to Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions

    Murray, Louise J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Lilley, John; Thompson, Christopher M.; Cosgrove, Vivian [Department of Medical Physics, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Mason, Josh [Department of Medical Physics, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sykes, Jonathan [Department of Medical Physics, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Franks, Kevin [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sebag-Montefiore, David [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Henry, Ann M., E-mail: [Department of Clinical Oncology, Leeds Cancer Centre, St. James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)


    Purpose: To investigate boosting dominant intraprostatic lesions (DILs) in the context of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) and to examine the impact on tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate datasets were selected. DILs were defined using T2-weighted, dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Four plans were produced for each dataset: (1) no boost to DILs; (2) boost to DILs, no seminal vesicles in prescription; (3) boost to DILs, proximal seminal vesicles (proxSV) prescribed intermediate dose; and (4) boost to DILs, proxSV prescribed higher dose. The prostate planning target volume (PTV) prescription was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions. DILs were initially prescribed 115% of the PTV{sub Prostate} prescription, and PTV{sub DIL} prescriptions were increased in 5% increments until organ-at-risk constraints were reached. TCP and NTCP calculations used the LQ-Poisson Marsden, and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman models respectively. Results: When treating the prostate alone, the median PTV{sub DIL} prescription was 125% (range: 110%-140%) of the PTV{sub Prostate} prescription. Median PTV{sub DIL} D50% was 55.1 Gy (range: 49.6-62.6 Gy). The same PTV{sub DIL} prescriptions and similar PTV{sub DIL} median doses were possible when including the proxSV within the prescription. TCP depended on prostate α/β ratio and was highest with an α/β ratio = 1.5 Gy, where the additional TCP benefit of DIL boosting was least. Rectal NTCP increased with DIL boosting and was considered unacceptably high in 5 cases, which, when replanned with an emphasis on reducing maximum dose to 0.5 cm{sup 3} of rectum (Dmax{sub 0.5cc}), as well as meeting existing constraints, resulted in considerable rectal NTCP reductions. Conclusions: Boosting DILs in the context of SABR is technically feasible but should be approached with caution. If this therapy is adopted, strict rectal

  13. Motivasyonel Dil (MD Teorisi ve Ölçme Aracının Türkçede Geçerlik ve Güvenilirlik Analizi = The Relaibility and Validity Analyses of Motivational Language Theory and Scale

    Türker BAŞ


    Full Text Available When the literature of leadership and communication is examined, it can be identified that until 1990s, there was not enough study on the effects of a leader’s language and its content on motivation and performance of employees. This gap was filled in theoretical dimension by the Motivating Language Theory by Sullivan (1988 and as an extension of this theory, the Motivating Language Scale developed by Mayfield, Mayfield and Kopf (1995 based on the former study closed in practical dimension. In this study, the scale developed by Mayfield, Mayfield and Kopf (1995 has been tested for its validity and reliability. As a result of analyses carried out, it has been determined that the scale has a high rate of validity and reliability. Therefore, it is assessed that this scale can contribute to empirical studies in the future.


    İbrahim Halil TUĞLUK


    Full Text Available Divan poetry has been developed around some certain aspects such as lover, love and adversary. Lover is the most important one among these aspects. Lover is the one that directs the poem. There are different views about the role of the lover because of the relationship of the lover with the text and social life. The age of the lover is an important feature within the framework of the concept of lover in Divan poetry. The deternination of the age of the lover is going to be helpful about the evaluation of her role. In this study, the concepts about the age of the lover has been evaluated and has put an emphasis on the features of the usages of these concepts. Divan şiiri; sevgili, âşık ve rakip gibi belli tipler etrafında gelişmiştir. Bu tiplerden en önemlisi sevgilidir. Sevgili, rolü itibariyle şiire yön veren bir konumadadır. Tasavvuf, kurmaca metin ve sosyal hayatla olan ilişkisinden dolayı sevgilinin rolü ve buna bağlı gelişen diğer özellikleri hakkında farklı görüşler ileri sürülmüştür. Sevgilinin rolüne bağlı olarak gelişen yönlerinden biri de onun yaşıdır. Şiirlerde sözü edilen sevgilinin yaşının ortaya konması onun rolü hakkında yapılacak olan değerlendirmelere yardımcı olacaktır.Bu çalışmada divanlarda sevgilinin yaşı ile ilgili kullanılan kavramlar ele alınmış, bu kavramların kullanılış özellikleri üzerinde durulmuştur.

  15. CM-Dil及DAPI联合标记示踪人脐血单核细胞细胞膜及细胞核的可行性%CM-Dil combined with DAPI label cellular membrane and nucleus of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells

    何金英; 杨丽敏; 马玉珍; 孙文芳; 岑尧; 姚星宇


      背景:氯甲基-1,1十八烷基-3,3,3’,3’-四甲基-吲哚-羧花青-高氯酸盐(chlormethylbenzamido-1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3’,3’-tetramethylin-docarbocyamine,CM-DiI)和4’,6-联脒-2-苯基吲哚二盐酸盐(4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole,DAPI)是常用的活细胞示踪剂,分别用来标记细胞膜和细胞核.目的:观察应用细胞膜及细胞核标记物CM-DiI及DAPI联合示踪人脐血单核细胞的可行性及双标后人脐血单核细胞体外培养过程中细胞形态及活性的变化.方法:将新鲜分离的人脐血单核细胞用示踪剂CM-DiI及DAPI进行双标记,体外培养双标后的人脐血单核细胞,倒置相差显微镜下观察细胞形态变化,锥虫蓝染色检测不同时间细胞活性,同时倒置荧光显微镜观察不同时间经CM-DiI和DAPI双标的人脐血单核细胞荧光染色阳性数.结果与结论:人脐血单核细胞在CM-DiI和DAPI联合标记15 min后,荧光显微镜下可见标记细胞的细胞膜、细胞核分别在不同波长下分别呈现红色和蓝色的荧光.CM-DiI/DAPI双标后的人脐血单核细胞体外培养1,3,7,14,21 d, CM-DiI和DAPI双染的阳性细胞数各时间点比较差异无显著性意义.锥虫蓝染色观察人脐血单核细胞存活率为95.6%-98.8%.双标后的人脐血单核细胞体外培养过程中细胞形态变化与未经示踪标记的脐血单核细胞相比差异不明显,仍保持了良好的生长状态、贴壁能力和细胞增殖能力.由此证实,CM-DiI和DAPI可有效标记人脐血单核细胞,两种示踪剂对活细胞无毒不良反应,荧光衰减较慢,适用于干细胞标记及示踪.%10.3969/j.issn.2095-4344.2012.41.007

  16. Communication strategies: Implications for EFL university students [İletişim stratejileri: İngilizceyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen üniversite öğrencilerine yönelik çıkarımlar

    Şaziye YAMAN


    Full Text Available Oral communication is an interactive process in which an individual alternately takes the roles of speaker and listener. Thus, rather than focusing on each skill separately, these skills should be considered integratedly. In order for students to overcome the burdens in listening and speaking skills, they need to develop communicative competence, especially strategic competence. With reference to speaking, strategic competence points out the ability to know how to keep a conversation going, how to terminate the conversation, and how to clear up communication breakdowns and comprehension problems (Shumin, 1994. Therefore, the aim of this quantitative study is to investigate both speaking and listening strategies (so called “communication strategies” used by EFL students to cope with problems during communication so they can be integrated into language teaching in order to develop students’ strategic competence. Two hundred ninety-one Turkish EFL university students participated in this study. Researchers used the “Communication Strategy Inventory”, a 5 point Likert-type scale developed by Yaman, Irgin and Kavasoglu (2011. The findings of this study revealed that EFL students used negotiation for meaning, compensatory, and getting the gist strategies in communication. It also found that female students used communication strategies more than males and advanced level students.

  17. Yabancı Dil Olarak Türkçe Öğrenen Öğrencilerin Yazılı Anlatımlarının Yanlış Çözümleme Yaklaşımına Göre Değerlendirilmesi

    Kadir Kaan Büyükikiz


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate written expression of students learning Turkish as a foreign language at B2 (intermediate level according to error analysis approach. The data of the study have been obtained by essay writing of forty two students. These students have been learning Turkish at B level in Gaziantep University TÖMER. The data collected have been classified as grammar errors, syntactical errors, spelling-punctuation errors and lexical errors. The errors determined have been evaluated as an error analysis approach. The evaluation of errors has been limited by intralingual and developmental errors. As a result of evaluation, total error number has been determined as 1282. Errors made are 31% grammatical error, 9,9 % syntactical error, 44,46 % spelling-punctuation error and 14,4 % lexical error. According to the results obtained, the solutions have been proposed concerning writing skill errors of foreign students.

  18. The Place of Games in Teaching Grammar and Vocabulary Activities (Sample of 5th Grade Textbooks / Oyunların Dil Bilgisi Öğretiminde ve Kelime Serveti Etkinliklerindeki Yeri (Yenilenen İlköğretim 5. Sınıf Ders Kitapları Örneği



    Full Text Available Turkish Language lesson exists at all levels of elementary curriculum. Grammar education and vocabulary enhancement activities are the most common acquisitions at elementary level. The first part of elementary level is consisted of students aged between 6–11, second part of students between 11–15. Elementary education starting at the age when students are fond of playing games continue until adolescence. These students acquire what they learn through games more easily and keep them in their memories for long. Some activities are organized to this end, and these activities draw attention of students, in turn, the learning process is faster as the attention level of students is quite high. When we study the game samples in Turkish Language textbooks, we will see that they are not adequate. The function of games in teaching grammar and vocabulary enhancement activities should be increased by having new games, so learning will be more efficient and permanent. Türkçe dersi ilköğretimin her kademesinde müfredatta yer alan bir derstir. Dilbilgisi öğretimi ve kelime serveti geliştirme çalışmaları ilköğretim aşamasında en çok karşımıza çıkan kazanımlardır. İlköğretimin birinci kademesi 6–11, ikinci kademesi ise 11–15 yaş arasındaki öğrencileri kapsamaktadır. Oyun çağında başlayan ilköğretim eğitimi gelişme dönemine kadar devam etmektedir. Bu yaş grubundaki öğrenciler, oyunla öğrendiklerini çok daha kısa sürede belleklerine yerleştirmekte ve bu kazanımları çok daha uzun süre hafızalarında tutmaktadırlar. Bu amaçla ilköğretimde bazı etkinlikler bu yönde düzenlenmektedir. Bu etkinlikler öğrencilerin dikkatini çekmekte ve öğrencilerin ilgi düzeyi yüksek olduğu için de öğrenme süreci hızlanmakta, daha kalıcı olmaktadır. Günümüzde okullarda kullanılan Türkçe ders kitaplarında bulunan oyun örnekleri incelenip değerlendirildiğinde oyunların kısıtlı kaldığı görülmektedir. Yeni oyun örnekleri ile oyunların dilbilgisi öğretimi ve kelime serveti kazandırma açısından işlevselliği arttırılmalıdır. Böylelikle kalıcılık ve öğrenme kolaylığı üst düzeye çıkacağından, öğrenme verimli ve kalıcı bir şekilde gerçekleşecektir.

  19. PEG1000-DIL/甲苯温控两相体系催化四氢-β-咔啉类化合物的合成研究%Study on the Synthesis of Tetrahydro-β-carb-oline Derivatives in PEG1000-DAIL/toluene Temperature-dependent Biphasic System

    胡玉林; 陆明; 方东


    一种有效的离子液体PEG1000-DAIL/甲苯温控两相体系催化Pictet-Spengler反应体系,能够有效的将一系列醛类化合物与色胺反应转化为相应的四氢-β-咔啉类化合物,产品收率都在88%以上.当色胺用量为5 mmol,醛用量为5 mmol,PEG1000-DAIL用量为10 mL,甲苯用量为10 mL时,收率可达88%~93%.催化剂可以方便的回收循环使用,PEG1000-DAIL重复使用5次而催化活性基本保持不变.反应条件温和,收率较高,操作方便,后处理简单,该工艺符合绿色化学的发展方向,具有良好的应用前景.

  20. Türkçenin Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğretimi Türkçe Bileşik Tümcelerin Özelliği Üzerine Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language Characteristics of Compound Sentences in Turkish

    Xhemile ABDIU


    Full Text Available Actually, an important feature of Turkish syntax, is the usage of participle and gerund in sentences. This shows interest in the meaning,but the usage of gerund with different functions reflects differentmeanings.According to linguists unlike the Indo-European languages, wherein general the main sentence is connected to subordinate sentenceswith conjunctions or conjunctional pronouns, in the Turkish, thesentences are connected by participle or by gerund. With this structurewithout the need of pronoun or conjunctions is performed anembedding.It is known that in the agglutinative languages to the root of aname or verb is added different morphemes. These morphemes carryout all kinds of conjunction or derivations. In this case, in Turkish, themorphemes carry out very important functions in terms of semantics.Such as encountered in Western Languages, Albanian is the languageof second-order transfers. These transfers are emerging to compoundsentences and the entire sentence is transfered to another node that isattached to it and gives it a function.-(yıp, -ip, -up, -üp morpheme has interesting morphologicalcharacteristics. -ip is one of the most frequently used adverb-verbsuffixes. This morpheme connects the verb to the second one.Sometimes this morpheme connects the main predicate of the sentenceto the side of the predıcate of the second sentence.The construction with -arak, -erek explains the way in which theaction is done. The basic sentence, linking with the subordinatesentence at the same time allows the grammatical transformation ofadverbalization.The aim of this work is to describe these types of clauses and toaddress emerging problems. In particular in translating from Albanianto Turkish and viceversa from Turkish to Albanian we will try toemphasize the difficulty encountered by foreign students. Bilindiği gibi Türkçenin sözdizimin önemli bir özelliğini oluşturan ortaç ve ulaçların kullanılışı tümce anlamı açısından ilgi çekici nitelikler göstermekte, ulaç biçimbirimleri değişik işlevlerle birlikte çeşitli anlamları da yansıtmaktadır. Dilcilere göre Hint-Avrupa dillerinde görülenin tersine, genel olarak yan tümceler ana, temel tümcelere ilgi adıllarıyla değil, ortaç ve ulaçlarla bağlanmakta. Bu kuruluşta herhangi bir ilgi adılı ya da bir bağlaç kullanılmasına gereksinme duyulmadan temel tümce içine çeşitli yan tümceler yerleştirilir, üretken dönüşümlü dilbilgisindeki yerleştirme (embedding gerçekleştirilir. Bilindiği gibi bağlantılı dillerin bir ad ya da eylem köküne değişik biçimbirimleri eklenir. Bu biçimbirimler her türlü türetme ve çekim işlemlerini gerçekleştirirler. Bu durumda Türkçede tümce anlambilimi açısından eklerinin çok önemli işlevleri yerine getirilir. Batı dillerinde rastlandığı gibi, Arnavutçada da ikinci dereceden aktarmalar görülür. Bu aktarmalar bütün bir tümceyi bir başka düğüme aktarak ona bağlı bir işlev verir ve bileşik tümceler ortaya çıkıyor. -(yıp, -ip, -up, -üp ulaç biçimbirimin ilginç nitelikleri bulunduğu görülür. -(yıp, -ip, -up, -üp biçimbirimi sıkça kullanılan zarf-fiil eklerinden biridir. Eklendiği fiili ikinci bir fiile bağlar. -erek, -arak ulaç biçimbirimine gelince iki fiili birbirine bağlarken yüklemin nasıl, ne tarzda yapıldığını açıklamaktadır. Yan tümceyi temel tümceye, iki önermeyi birbirine bağlayan bu biçimbirim aynı zamanda belirteç göreviyle üretken dönüşümsel dilbilgisindeki belirteçleştirmeyi sağlar. Bu makalenin amacı bu tür yan tümceleri açıklamak ve ortaya çıkan sorunları ele almaktadır. Bir Hint-Avrupa dili olan Arnavutçadan Türkçeye ve aksine Türkçeden Arnavutçaya çeviri sırasında karşılanan zorunlukları vurgulamaya çalışacağız.

  1. Domain of culture in foreign language teachers’ competency: A comparison of Turkey and China [Yabancı dil öğretmeni yeterliklerinde kültür öğesi: Türkiye ve Çin karşılaştırması

    Kadriye Dilek AKPINAR


    Full Text Available This study reviews comparatively Foreign Language (FL teacher competency studies conducted both in Turkey and China. The main concern is to reveal how culture as an important domain of language education is handled both in Turkish and Chinese contexts. Document analysis through a survey of literature is conducted to investigate the similarities and differences between the Turkish and the Chinese standards set for FL teachers. Online databases of Ministry of National Education (MONE and Beijing Education for Chinese Government were analyzed comparatively for documentation. As a result both similarities and differences were found between the two countries’ FL teacher education competencies and qualities regarding to their cultural, social, historical, geographical, political and economic contexts. Moreover, the study reveals that different educational policies of the countries mutually affect each other in improving the quality of education in general.

  2. Antinuclear antibody-negative, drug-induced lupus caused by lisinopril.

    Carter, J D; Valeriano-Marcet, J; Kanik, K S; Vasey, F B


    The clinical symptoms of drug-induced lupus (DIL) are similar to those of idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus. The literature indicates that in patients with DIL, sera generally contain antinuclear antibodies (ANAs); however, ANA-negative DIL has been reported. The list of medications implicated as etiologic agents in DIL continues to grow. This list includes two different types of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors--captopril and enalapril. We report the first case of DIL caused by lisinopril. Our patient had negative results on ANA testing and had histone antibodies (IgG anti-[H2A-H2B]-DNA) mirroring the disease course. Antibodies to the (H2A-H2B)-DNA complex are seen in more than 90% of patients with active DIL, excluding those with DIL due to hydralazine. Thus, it is important to recognize the clinical significance of IgG anti-(H2A-H2B)-DNA antibodies and that negative ANA test results do not preclude the diagnosis of DIL.

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSG524 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 4. 4 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N AZ930107 |AZ930107.1 479.dil5...8g12.s1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyces kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil58g12.s1, DNA sequence.

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFA236 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 28 2 AX489150 |AX489150.1 Sequence 6450 from Patent WO02053728. 78 3e-13 2 AZ930018 |AZ930018.1 479.dil57g06....s1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyces kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil57g06.s1, DNA sequence. 54 2e-10 3 BF

  5. Dicty_cDB: CFH223 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 0.009 12 AZ930073 |AZ930073.1 479.dil58d12.s1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyce...s kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil58d12.s1, DNA sequence. 40 0.009 2 dna update 2004. 1.31 Homology vs Protein

  6. Dicty_cDB: CFG508 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available |AE014842.1 Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chromosome 11 section 7 of 8 of the complete sequence. 38 7e-04 9 AZ9...30073 |AZ930073.1 479.dil58d12.s1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyces kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil5

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFE486 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available from Patent WO0200932. 40 0.008 10 AZ930073 |AZ930073.1 479.dil58d12.s1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyces... kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil58d12.s1, DNA sequence. 40 0.009 2 AE014842 |AE014842.1 Plasmodium falciparum

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00893-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available NCING IN PROGRE... 44 6.6 1 ( AC009409 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 2 clone RP11-327D3, WORKI... 44 6.6 1 ( AZ929983 ) 479.dil5...7c11.s1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Lachancea ... 44 6.6 1 ( AZ929945 ) 479.dil5

  9. Dicty_cDB: CFB894 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available romosome 2 map 2097701-2233941 strain AX4, complete sequence. 38 0.001 7 AZ930073 |AZ930073.1 479.dil58d12.s...1 Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyces kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil58d12.s1, DN

  10. Dicty_cDB: CFI231 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available chromosome 12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 34 0.005 11 AZ930073 |AZ930073.1 479.dil58d12.s1... Saccharomyces kluyveri Saccharomyces kluyveri genomic clone 479.dil58d12.s1, DNA sequence. 40 0.007 2 AC116


    Aksu Ataç, Bengü


    Yabancı Dil Ögretimi alanında degerlendirme yöntemlerinin egitim ve ögretimsürecine katkıları baglamında özellikle geleneksel degerlendirme yöntemlerinealternatif olarak sunulan özgün degerlendirme yöntemlerinin bu alanda giderekartan bir öneme sahip olması ve Avrupa Konseyi’nin destekledigi bir dil ögretimprojesi olarak gelistirilen Avrupa Dil Gelisim Dosyası uygulamalarının dil ögrenimive ögretimine etkileri, bu çalısmanın temellerini olusturmustur.Arastırmada, gerek Avrupa Dil Gelisim Dosy...

  12. Compilation of Abstracts of Dissertations, Theses, and Research Papers Submitted by Candidates for Degrees


    Launched Guided Missile Program __ China Lake, CA Geibel, B. B., LCDR, Solar Energy for the Naval Shore 53 Civil Engineer Establishment Corps, USN...electro-optic laser communication systems operating in the middle ultraviolet region of the spectrum called the solar blind. By assuming various source...OceratinQ System- for a Shared Microcomrnuter Environment Stephen J. Carro liebutenant, Umitod States Mavy B.S.* United States Naval Academ~y, 1971 and I3~rry

  13. Immigration and Unemployment Application of Game Theory on Diyarbakir: Istanbul Samples

    Özgönül, Müge; Kaplan, Aslı

    The aim of this poster is to make a research about the relationship between unemployment and immigration. A mathematical model for the relationship between unemployment and immigration to İstanbul and Diyarbakır will be suggested by grade 11 International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme students, Boran Çıplak, Teoman Kenn Küçük, Emre Orhan, Meriç Tansi, Aysu Bulak, Özgün Karataş, Mavi Deniz Koçak.

  14. Instructional Design Literature Review for EDeP (Extended Design Procedure)


    Skills. However, mavy prescriptions for Psychomotor Skills have been included within the intellectual skills dom,-.n because Landa has argued... Landa has proposed a variation on the forward chaining approach which he calls the "snowball’ approach. According tu Landa , after the second step has...Research and Development Center, San Diego , CA, Oct. 1976. Classification of Strategies Prescribed -Fictions., Organizational Managmt De].ivry Micro Macro

  15. Radiotherapy Boost for the Dominant Intraprostatic Cancer Lesion-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    von Eyben, Finn Edler; Kiljunen, Timo; Kangasmaki, Aki; Kairemo, Kalevi; von Eyben, Rie; Joensuu, Timo


    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer can be performed with a high dose of 86 Gy; however, one-tenth or more of the patients will develop recurrence. Prostate cancer is mainly multifocal, but a dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) is often the site of local recurrence after EBRT. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify whether functional imaging might identify the DIL and whether a RT boost to the DIL might be increased to an ultrahigh dose level of ≥ 90 Gy without increased toxicity. Of 62 selected studies, 13 reported the size of the DIL. The mean of the median DIL volumes was 2.4 cm(3) (95% confidence interval, 0.9-4.4 cm(3)). Eighteen diagnostic studies with 1205 patients evaluated the diagnostic accuracy using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging for intraprostatic cancer lesions. Evaluating 14,654 prostate segments, the diagnostic accuracy was 77%. Eleven therapeutic studies with 988 patients reported a RT boost for the DIL. The summary boost dose for the DIL was a mean of 89 Gy in 5 studies using intensity modulated RT (calculated as the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions) and a mean of 141 Gy in 4 studies using a combination of EBRT and brachytherapy (P = .018, t test). In 1 therapeutic study, 239 patients had a 98% 10-year disease-free survival rate. Many of our therapeutic studies used a boost dose to the DIL of > 90 Gy. The reported boost for DIL is effective and safe.

  16. 73 Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(1 ...



    Oct 31, 2013 ... sponsored and owned by Dangote Industries. Limited (DIL), a leading producer ... cement industry was commenced by the Kogi ... inhabited by Bassa kwomu people, Oyo Iwa,. Nyamaku ..... Hotel Abuja, July, 2003. Ibrahim, M.

  17. FDA Response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Facility Incident

    ... What are the principal radionuclides involved in a nuclear reactor accident? Iodine-131 (I-131), Cesium-134 (Cs- ... a safety concern? FDA uses Derived Intervention Levels (PDF) (DILs) to help determine whether food presents a ...

  18. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    Key Words: Sciatic nerve palsy, intramuscular injections, children, quinine dil~ ... adverse effects which include ototoxicity resulting .... quinine injection into the gluteal muscles of his right ... to maintain joint movement and avoid damage to.

  19. Kadrioru juubeliaasta avalöök


    Tallinnas Kadrioru luigetiigil toimuvatest kontsertidest: 1. juunil esineb Liis Jürgens harfil ja Leonora Palu flöödil, Kadrioru juubeliaasta avakontserdil 5. juunil esinevad külalised Peterburist ja Moskvast

  20. 50 CFR Table 14a to Part 679 - Port of Landing Codes 1, Alaska


    ... DUT Chefornak 189 CHF Chignik 113 CHG Cordova 115 COR Craig 116 CRG Dillingham 117 DIL Douglas 136 JNU... 168 SIT Skagway 169 SKG Soldotna 318 SOL St. George 170 STG St. Mary 319 STM St. Paul 172 STP...

  1. The Role of a Learner - Centred Approach in Language Teaching on the Development of Learner Autonomy: A Model Course Design = Yabancı Dil Öğretimi'nde Öğrenci - Merkezli Yaklaşımın Bağımsız Öğrenmenin Gelişimindeki Rolü : Model Bir Ders Tasarımı



    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the role of a "Learner-centred" approach in language teaching on the development of learner autonomy. It is argued in this paper that a foreign language course designed with a learner-centred focus not only helps learners increase their competence in the use of the language but also allows them to develop some strategies on "learning how to learn". This, in effect, promotes the development of learner autonomy and encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning and to become independent learners, the two important requirements of university education. This is illustrated through the design of a model course, namely English -2, offered to freshman year students at Doğuş University. This course takes students through the stages of conducting academic research and presenting the findings of their research in the form of a written project which appropriately fulfills academic standards. The design of the course requires much of the work to be done outside class and by the learners themselves. Hence, this paper develops the idea that students who take this course increase their confidence in working on their own as well as learning to take the responsibility for their own learning, which are the two major demands of academic study in university education.

  2. Overexpression of IL-10 in C2D macrophages promotes a macrophage phenotypic switch in adipose tissue environments.

    Xie, Linglin; Fu, Qiang; Ortega, Teresa M; Zhou, Lun; Rasmussen, Dane; O'Keefe, Jacy; Zhang, Ke K; Chapes, Stephen K


    Adipose tissue macrophages are a heterogeneous collection of classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, secreted by a variety of cell types including M2 macrophages. We generated a macrophage cell line stably overexpressing IL-10 (C2D-IL10) and analyzed the C2D-IL10 cells for several macrophage markers after exposure to adipocytes compared to C2D cells transfected with an empty vector (C2D-vector). C2D-IL10 macrophage cells expressed more CD206 when co-cultured with adipocytes than C2D-vector cells; while the co-cultured cell mixture also expressed higher levels of Il4, Il10, Il1β and Tnf. Since regular C2D cells traffic to adipose tissue after adoptive transfer, we explored the impact of constitutive IL-10 expression on C2D-IL10 macrophages in adipose tissue in vivo. Adipose tissue-isolated C2D-IL10 cells increased the percentage of CD206(+), CD301(+), CD11c(-)CD206(+) (M2) and CD11c(+)CD206(+) (M1b) on their cell surface, compared to isolated C2D-vector cells. These data suggest that the expression of IL-10 remains stable, alters the C2D-IL10 macrophage cell surface phenotype and may play a role in regulating macrophage interactions with the adipose tissue.

  3. Updated Drainable Interstitial Liquid Volume Estimates for 119 Single Shell Tanks (SST) Declared Stabilized

    FIELD, J.G.


    This document assesses the volume of drainable interstitial liquid (DIL) and pumpable liquid remaining in 119 single-shell tanks (SSTs) that were previously stabilized. Based on the methodology and assumptions presented, the DIL exceeded the stabilization criterion of less than 50,000 gal in two of the 119 SSTs. Tank 241-C-102 had an estimated DIL of 62,000 gal, and the estimated DIL for tank 241-BY-103 was 58,000 gal. In addition, tanks 241-BX-103, 241-T-102, and 241-T-112 appear to exceed the stabilization criterion of 5,000 gal supernatant. An assessment of the source of the supernatant in these tanks is beyond the scope of this document. The actual DIL and pumpable liquid remaining volumes for each tank may vary significantly from estimated volumes as a result of specific tank waste characteristics that are not currently measured or defined. Further refinement to the pumpable liquid and DIL volume estimates may be needed as additional tank waste information is obtained.


    Mahmut ÖZACAR


    Full Text Available Alunit-ZnO karışımı üzerine Asit Mavi 40 ve AsitSarı 17 nin adsorpsiyonları araştırıln1ış ve Alunit-ZnOnun perforınansı granül aktif karbona karşıdeğerlendirilmiştir. Alunit-ZnO oranları, pH, temas süresive başlangıç boya konsantrasyonunun etkisi incelenmiştir.Maksimum boya giderme alunit-ZnO için pH 6 da ve aktifkarbon için pH 1 de olmuştur. 45 dakikadan az bir sürede%95 lik denge değerine ulaşılmıştır. Asit Mavi 40 ve AsitSan 17 nin alunit-ZnO ile adsorpsiyonu için sırasıyla 99ve 95.7 mg boya/g adsorban gibi oldukça yüksekadsorpsiyon kapasiteleri gözlenmiştir. Asit Mavi 40 veAsü Sarı 17 nin aktif karbon ile adsorpsiyonu içinadsorpsiyon kapasiteleri sırasıyla 33 ve 95.5 mg boya!gadsorbandır. Adsorpsiyon kapasitesi temelindekarşılaştırıldığında alunit-ZnO nun daha etkili olduğugörülmüştür. Langmuir ve Freundlich izotermleri içinadsorpsiyon parametreleri belirlenmiş ve tartışılmıştır.

  5. Comparison of the marker effects of two different fluorescent dyes in labeling endogenous neural stem cells in the central nervous system

    Bo-tao TAN


    Full Text Available Objective To observe the marker effects of two different fluorescent dyes, DIL and DAPI, in labeling endogenous neural stem cells (ENSCs in rat central nervous system. Methods Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into staining groups, comprising DIL group and DAPI group, and the corresponding control groups, including DMSO group for DIL group and PBS group for DAPI group. 0.2% DIL 10μl or 10μg/ml DAPI 10μl was stereotactically injected into the lateral ventricle of rats of DIL group or DAPI group, while DMSO or PBS 10μl was introduced into that of DMSO group or PBS group. Neurological severity score (NSS was determined 2 hours and 24 hours respectively after the operation. Rats were sacrificed at day 1, 3, 7 after the injection. Serial coronal sections of the brain and spinal cord were carried out on a cryostat, and then they were observed under a confocal microscope. The fluorescence intensity of the targeted area, which highlighted by labeled ependymal cells, in the brain and spinal cord of cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae and lumbar vertebrae were semi-quantified. Fluorescence intensity of each section was measured in triplicate, and a mean value was obtained. Statistical analysis was performed on 3 data sets, randomly selected from sections of brain and spinal cord obtained at day 1, 3, 7. Results Two hours after DIL injection, the rats showed no evident neurological defect. NSS value was very low, and there was no significant difference compared with the DMSO group (P>0.05. Twenty-four hours later, normal neurological function recovered in all the rats. Red fluorescence could be seen in the cytoplasm of ependymal cells in the lateral ventricle and each spinal cord segment at day 1 after the DIL injection, and it did not disappear until the 7th day. Nuclei of DAPI-labeled lateral ventricle cells were blue, with clear nuclear morphology. Choroid plexus cells of the ventricle were also labeled. However, there was no

  6. SIRT1 regulates accumulation of oxidized LDL in HUVEC via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.

    Zhang, Yanlin; Sun, Juanjuan; Yu, Xiaoyan; Shi, Luyao; Du, Wenxiu; Hu, Lifang; Liu, Chunfeng; Cao, Yongjun


    Autophagy is involved in the degradation of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a new anti-atherosclerotic factor, can induce autophagy in cardiac myocytes. In the present study, we observed the effect of SIRT1 on the accumulation of ox-LDL in HUVECs, and elucidated whether its effect is relative with the autophagy-lysosomal pathway. The results showed that treatment with either SIRT1 siRNA or SIRT1 inhibitor nicotinamide (NAM) increased Dil-labelled-ox-LDL (Dil-ox-LDL) accumulation in HUVECs, and the SIRT1 inducer resveratrol (RSV) decreased it. Knockdown of autophagy-related protein 5 or inhibit the lysosomal degradation by chloroquine (CQ) decreased the effect of RSV. In HUVECs with ox-LDL, expression of LC3II and LC3 puncta was decreased by treatment with SIRT1 siRNA or NAM, but increased by RSV treatment; sequestosome 1 p62 expression showed the opposite effects. Moreover, Dil-ox-LDL combined with SIRT1 siRNA or NAM showed a much smaller degree of overlap of Lamp1 or Cathepsin D with Dil-ox-LDL than in cells with Dil-ox-LDL alone, and RSV treatment resulted in a greater degree of overlap. These results suggest that SIRT1 can decrease the accumulation of ox-LDL in HUVECs, and this effect is related to the autophagy-lysosomal pathway.


    İlhan ERDEM


    Full Text Available Grammar as an area of linguistics intends to find and study the rules that form the language system. For someone to know his mother tongue requires a familiarity with the system of rules forming that language. Grammar is an integral part of instruction in developing the language skills e.g. reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Teaching grammar includes the provision of linguistic knowledge and comprehension and expression skills in Turkish, as well as the instructional activities supporting, explaining, and organizing these language areas. Therefore, teaching grammar cannot be considered as isolated from other language skills. Thus, the main purpose of grammar teaching is to use mother tongue well. It is observed that this point is not considered well in teaching grammar in Turkey. It is necessary to use a method in which grammar can be taught more functionally based on contextual texts or at least sentences in order to improve the other language skills. In order to avoid memorization in grammar teaching, an inductive method in which students discover the rule intuitively through examples rather than a method in which students learn the rule first and examples next. Dil bilgisi, sistemi oluşturan kuralları bulmayı, bunları tutarlı bir biçimde açıklamayı amaçlayan çalışma alanıdır. Bireyin ana dilini bilmesi, o dili oluşturan dil dizgelerinden haberdar olmasıyla mümkündür. Dil bilgisi, dil becerilerinin (okuma, dinleme, konuşma, yazma geliştirilmesinde öğretimin vazgeçilmez bir parçasıdır. Dil bilgisi öğretimi, dille ilgili bilgilerin verildiği, Türkçenin anlama ve anlatma dil becerileriyle birlikte, bu alanları destekleyici, açıklayıcı ve örgütleyici öğretim etkinliklerini içerir. Dolayısıyla dil bilgisi öğretiminin diğer dil becerilerinden ayrı ele alınması düşünülemez. Bu yüzden dil bilgisi öğretiminden amaç ana dili iyi kullanmaktır. Türkiye’de dilbilgisi öğretim y

  8. İlköğretim 6. Sınıf Türkçe Ders Kitaplarının Kelime Serveti Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi

    Açıkgöz, Berna


    Düşünceyi aktarmada dil ne kadar önemliyse bu önem toplumları yaklaştırmada da söz konusudur. Aynı zamanda toplum içinde insanların düşünceleri dil yolu ile şekillenir çünkü dil sayesinde düşünceler paylaşılır ve toplumsal düşünce ortaya konulur. Toplumsal düşünceler bir toplumun ya da toplumsal kesimin gereksinimlerinden doğar. Bu toplumsal düşünceler, toplumsal yaşamda etkin olarak işlev görürler. Bu toplumsal düşüncelerdir kültürün sürekliliğini sağlayan....

  9. The effects of dication symmetry on ionic liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors

    Li, Song; Zhu, Mengyang; Feng, Guang


    The effects of dication symmetry on the structure and capacitance of the electrical double layers (EDLs) of dicationic ionic liquids (DILs) near graphene electrodes were investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in this work. Symmetrical 1-hexyl-3-dimethylimidazolium di[bis(trifluoromethyl)imide]([C6(mim)2](Tf2N)2) and asymmetrical 1-(1-trimethylammonium-yl-hexyl)-3-methylimidazolium di[bis(trifluoro-methanesulfonyl)-imide] ([C6(tma)(mim)](Tf2N)2) were both employed. Radial distribution function (RDF) analysis of the two DILs revealed a shorter distance between the cation-anion pairs in symmetrical [C6(mim)2](Tf2N)2), which was attributed to the closely packed imidazolium ring-anion pairs. In contrast, the trimethylammonium head groups and anions exhibit a relatively longer distance, but a stronger correlation in asymmetrical [C6(tma)(mim)](Tf2N)2. In addition, it was illustrated that more symmetrical DIL ions in EDLs are distributed near graphite electrodes and exhibit closer distances to the electrode, which is most probably due to the parallel orientation of imidazolium rings, reducing the distance between the cation and the graphene. In contrast, asymmetrical DILs, with one trimethylammonium head group and one imidazolium ring in the dications, are loosely packed due to their tilting orientation near graphene surfaces. However, the capacitance-potential (C-V) curves of the two DILs are almost the same, regardless of the opposite sign of potential of zero charge (PZC), indicating the insignificant influence of dication symmetry on the capacitance of DIL-based supercapacitors.


    Mustafa ALTUN


    Full Text Available The analyzes of syntactic structures of Turkish Language are discussed in the article. These syntactic structures of Turkish Language are mainly analyzed by axis of philological-grammar and linguistics. Especially impact of Muharrem Ergin's word group classification influences philological-grammar. Examples of sentence are usually selected from literary texts. On the other hand, grammatical structures have been examined by influences of Generative-Transformational Grammar of Noam Chomsky. According to his theory, a linguist can "produce" most matured examples of sentences for any language without referred to any text. Makalede, Türk dilinin söz dizimsel yapılarının çözümlemeleri ele alınmıştır. Türk dilinin söz dizimsel yapılarının ağırlıklı olarak filolojik-dil bilgisi ve dil bilimi ekseninde çözümlendiği ifade edilebilir. Filolojik-dil bilgisinde özellikle Muharrem Ergin’in kelime grupları sınıflandırmasının etkisi görülmektedir. Verilen örnekler genellikle edebi metinlerden seçilmektedir. Dil biliminde ise ağırlıklı olarak Noam Chomsky’nin Üretici-Dönüşümcü Dil Bilgisi Kuramı’nın etkisiyle bu yapıların ele alındığı görülebilir. Bu kurama göre dil bilimci, metne dayanmadan bir dilin en olgun cümle örneklerini “üretebilir.”

  11. Improved Understanding of Sources of Variability in Groundwater Sampling for Long-Term Monitoring Programs


    Lab Sample ID: 600-44501-11 Acetone 1100 RL 1000 ug/L 8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 200 Analyte Result Qualifier Unit Dil Fac D Method Prep Type Benzene 8260B...8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 22 Analyte Result Qualifier Unit Dil Fac D Method Prep Type Trichloroethene - DL 8260B Total/NA1100 200 ug/L 20036 cis-1,2...L 8260B Total/ NA200 MDL 200 Benzene 8260B Total/NA7100 200 ug/L 20016 Chlorobenzene 8260B Total/NA2200 200 ug/L 20024 Chloroform 8260B Total/NA57 J

  12. Directional Ocean Wave Spectra


    rpecra. Dil terent wkas e wind forecasts and thle adecomn of water \\ aport for the models used tl the toreca~st icenters arid anah’.ed at The release of...Goda, Y., "On Wave Groups," in An International Conference on the Be-4 Watson , K. MI., and West, B. J., "A Transport Equation Desciption of Non- honiour

  13. State of Washington, Aquatic Plant Management Program: Design Memorandum.


    those on others who dil not receive it (G. K. Zemansky , our mailing list for the Aqtrt ic Plant Maa nagmenr Friends of the Earth). Study. This includes...added to the Mai ling list. Precisely what was the purpose of this survey? The purpose of the questionnaire was to provide a (G. M. Zemansky , Friends of

  14. Determining Data Information Literacy Needs: A Study of Students and Research Faculty

    Carlson, Jacob; Fosmire, Michael; Miller, C. C.; Nelson, Megan Sapp


    Researchers increasingly need to integrate the disposition, management, and curation of their data into their current workflows. However, it is not yet clear to what extent faculty and students are sufficiently prepared to take on these responsibilities. This paper articulates the need for a data information literacy program (DIL) to prepare…

  15. On Multi-ethnicity, Multilingualism and Language Policy in The Republic of Macedonia

    Tufan, Şirin


    ÖzetBu çalışmada Makedonya Cumhuriyeti`nin (bundan sonra Makedonya olarak anılacaktır) çok etnikliğe ve çok dilliliğe dayalı yapısı ele alınmaktadır. Özellikle de dil politikaları üzerinde durulmaktadır. Slav kökenli Makedonlar, Arnavutlar, Türkler, Ulahlar, Romanlar ve daha başka grupların ülkesi olan Makedonya’da, dil kullanım hakları her zaman yasayla belirlenmiştir. 2001 yılında yürürlüğe giren Ohri Dil Antlaşması bu ülkede yaşayan halkların dil haklarını çoğulculuk ilkesi üzerine belirle...

  16. Pharmaceutical meaning-making beyond marketing: racialized subjects of generic thiazide.

    Pollock, Anne


    In contrast to discussions of BiDil, this paper explores racial meaning-making processes around an old generic hypertension drug. By unpacking a vignette about race and thiazide outside marketing or medicine, it shows that racialization of drugs exceeds those spheres and moves in unpredictable ways.

  17. Different effects of bisoprolol on heart rate in patients with ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (A 24-hour Holter substudy of the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study [CIBIS])

    Anthonio, RL; Brouwer, J; Lechat, P; Haaksma, J; van der Ven, L; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Crijns, HJGM; van Gilst, WH


    The effect of beta blockade on heart rate in patients with either idiopathic or ischemic cardiomyopathy was studied. It was found that beta blockade reduced the early morning increase in heart rate to a greater extent in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy than in those with ischemic dil




    Using a modified flow cytometer we have induced electrofusion of K562 and L1210 cells in flow. The two cell types are stained with two different fluorescent membrane probes, DiO and Dil, to facilitate optical recognition, and then coupled through an avidin-biotin bridge. In the flow cytometer, the h

  19. Kõlavad laulud Eestile / Silja Joon

    Joon, Silja, 1966-


    Narva linna sümfooniaorkester ja Pärnu kammerkoor annavad 15. ja 16. nov. Pärnus ja Pärnumaal kontserdi "Palju õnne, meie Eesti!", esitatakse eesti heliloojate teoseid, flöödil soleerib Leonora Palu, dirigeerivad Ave Sopp ja Anatoli Shtshura

  20. A New Collapsing Technique for Star Identification Using Sensors with Nonsimultaneous Acquisition Times


    ivision (4) Dil cctor l)cense Mapping Agency Wvahington, DC 20305 Attn: Mr. John Unverferth (STA) (4) Mr. Robert Barrett (STA) Mr. James Johnson (STA...of a star [SGI The direction cosine matrix that orients ensor axes relative to the vehicle reference frame Pa) A unit vector triad constructed from the

  1. Determination of three physical properties of quinoline ionic liquids with hexafluorophosphate

    Tang Dan


    Full Text Available Densities of one acidic ionic liquid (IL Quinolinum hexafluorophosphate ([HBpy][PF6], and four neutral dicationic ionic liquids (ILs based on quinoline and hexafluoro-phosphate and linked with poly(ethylene glycol (PEG: ([PEG200-DIL][PF6]2, [PEG400-DIL][PF6]2, [PEG800-DIL][PF6]2 and [PEG1000-DIL][PF6]2 were determined. In addition, the solubilities of six ILs in six lower alcohols, water, acetonitrile and diethyl ether were measured at 288.15 K; and the hydroscopicity of above five ILs were measured at the temperature of 298.15 K and relative humidity of 79% for 24 h. Densities of five ionic liquids were determined between 283.15 and 333.15 K. Then the densities of five binary system (ILs/acetonitrile were explored between 283.15 and 333.15 K, the type of the ionic liquid, the concentration of five ILs in CH3CN, and the effect of temperature on the binary systems, were correlated with the measured data.

  2. Verest saab vein : [luuletused] / Mare Osi

    Osi, Mare


    Sisu: "Must üü nigu kaaren ..." ; Metamorfoos ; Pettumus ; Skeptiline ; Talisman ; Unetet latsepõli ; Meie kaits ; Sannaõhtu ; "Külmä süä lüüdi lõhki ..." ; "Egäl kevädil ...". Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 193

  3. Assessing Digital Information Literacy in Higher Education: A Review of Existing Frameworks and Assessments with Recommendations for Next-Generation Assessment. Research Report. ETS RR-16-32

    Sparks, Jesse R.; Katz, Irvin R.; Beile, Penny M.


    Digital information literacy (DIL)--generally defined as the ability to obtain, understand, evaluate, and use information in a variety of digital technology contexts--is a critically important skill deemed necessary for success in higher education as well as in the global networked economy. To determine whether college graduates possess the…

  4. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans With Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer


    western blot analysis against rh-3αSHD. The immunoblot analysis was performed by washing (PBS/Tween20) and blocking ( Licor ), followed by primary (1:1,000 dil) and secondary (1/10,000). The membranes were scanned using Licor Odyssey system. As shown in Fig. 6, the transduced cells

  5. I&W (Indications and Warning) Data Base Management Systems Analysis.


    negotiations 21Order personnel out of country; deport 2.SEIZE 211 Seize position or possessions 212 Detain or arrest person(s) *22. FORCE 221 Non...CALLED BY FUNCTIONS WHICH$$n C $TTARE ISSQING A DIL PLOT CONAD WITHOUT A SELECTION LISTIIIU "’ C C

  6. Verest saab vein : [luuletused] / Mare Osi

    Osi, Mare


    Sisu: "Must üü nigu kaaren ..." ; Metamorfoos ; Pettumus ; Skeptiline ; Talisman ; Unetet latsepõli ; Meie kaits ; Sannaõhtu ; "Külmä süä lüüdi lõhki ..." ; "Egäl kevädil ...". Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 193

  7. Voltage-gated potassium channels involved in regulation of physiological function in MrgprA3-specific itch neurons.

    Tang, Min; Wu, Guanyi; Wang, Zhongli; Yang, Niuniu; Shi, Hao; He, Qian; Zhu, Chan; Yang, Yan; Yu, Guang; Wang, Changming; Yuan, Xiaolin; Liu, Qin; Guan, Yun; Dong, Xinzhong; Tang, Zongxiang


    Itch is described as an unpleasant or irritating skin sensation that elicits the desire or reflex to scratch. MrgprA3, one of members of the Mrgprs family, is specifically expressed in a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). These MrgprA3-expressing DRG neurons have been identified as itch-specific neurons. They can be activated by the compound, chloroquine, which is used as a drug to treat malaria. In the present study, we labeled these itch-specific neurons using the method of molecular genetic markers, and then studied their electrophysiological properties. We also recorded the cutaneous MrgprA3(-) neurons retrogradely labeled by Dil dye (MrgprA3(-)-Dil). We first found that MrgprA3(+) neurons have a lower excitability than MrgprA3(-) neurons (MrgprA3(-)-non-Dil and MrgprA3(-)-Dil). The number of action potential (AP) was reduced more obviously in MrgprA3(+) neurons than that of in MrgprA3(-) neurons. In most cases, MrgprA3(+) neurons only generated single AP; however, in MrgprA3(-) neurons, the same stimulation could induce multiple AP firing due to the greater voltage-gated potassium (Kv) current existence in MrgprA3(+) than in MrgprA3(-) neurons. Thus, Kv current plays an important role in the regulation of excitability in itch-specific neurons.

  8. Unravelling the mystery of reality : typical Canadian elements in the short stories of Alice Munro

    Aleksander Kustec


    Full Text Available The contemporary Canadian short story has a specific place among literary genres in Canadian literature. It culminated in the sixties of this century, when the Canadians looked to their literature with greater interest. Canadian short story writers started to write in a different tone, and showed special interest for new themes. After 1960 authors, such as Henry Kreisel, Norman Levine, Anne Hebert, Mavis Gallant, Ethel Wilson, Joyce Marshall, Hugh Hood, Hugh Garner, Margaret Laurence, Audrey Callahan Thomas, Mordecai Richler, and Alice Munro, refused to use the traditional plot, and showed more interest for characterisation. By using a typical Canadian setting, their stories began to reflect social events of their time. A new awareness of identity stepped forward, and above all their stories became a reflection of the diversity of life in all Canadian provinces. The contemporary Canadian short story writers began to overstep the boundaries of their imagination.

  9. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Sara W. Bird


    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  10. 几种药物对肺主动脉平滑肌细胞增殖作用影响的比较研究%Comparative study of the effects of several drugs on pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation

    陶慧林; 王怀良; 郭伟; 高山红


    目的研究钙拮抗剂硝苯地平(Nif)、地尔硫(艹卓)(Dil)、ACEI类卡托普利(Cap)、依那普利(Ena)抑制肺主动脉平滑肌细胞(PASMC)增殖的作用,比较两类药物对抑制肺主动脉平滑肌细胞增殖作用的影响.方法培养大鼠肺主动脉血管平滑肌细胞并观察钙拮抗剂、ACEI类及药物合用对细胞增殖作用的影响.结果 Nif,Dil,Cap,Ena在10-4,10-5,10-6,10-7mol/L浓度下,对15%胎牛血清(FBS)所致的PASMC增殖均有明显抑制,且呈剂量依赖性的关系(P<0.05,与对照组相比);Nif+Cap及Dil+Ena合用,在10-10mol/L药物浓度下,能明显抑制15%FBS所致的PASMC增殖(P<0.05,与对照组相比);Dil与Nif,Cap,Ena相比较,对15%FBS所致的PASMC增殖作用的影响更明显(P<0.01,与对照组相比);结论钙拮抗剂Mf,Dil,ACEI类Cap,Ena能够浓度依赖性地抑制PASMC的增殖且作用显著.与其他药物相比,Dil抑制PASMC增殖的作用非常显著.Nif+Cap,Dil+Ena合用,在较低药物浓度下具有抑制PASMC增殖的协同作用.


    Fatma BÖLÜKBAŞ


    Full Text Available In this study the place and the significance of written texts which are among cultural transferring instruments and at the same time which have been used in Turkish as a foreign language courses are questioned and various sample exercises on texts have been prepared. Language is not only a significant part of culture but also the transmitter of the culture. Therefore the transferring of the elements consisting of Turkish culture has positive effects on language learning process. With this point of view in mind, it is necessary to transfer Turkish culture in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. Bu çalışmada, dil öğretiminin kültürler arası karşılaşma alanı olduğu düşüncesinden yola çıkılarak yabancı dil olarak Türkçe derslerinde kullanılan, aynı zamanda kültür aktarım araçlarından olan metinlerin bu süreçteki yeri ve önemi sorgulanarak sınıf içi uygulama örneklerine yer verilmiştir. Dil, sadece kültürün önemli bir parçası değil aynı zamanda kültürün aktarıcısıdır. Bu nedenle yabancı dil öğretiminde kültürel ögelerin aktarılması dil öğrenme sürecini olumlu yönde etkiler. Bu görüşten hareketle, yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde Türk kültürünü içeren ögelerin ders ortamına aktarılması gerekmektedir.

  12. Proposed method to calculate FRMAC intervention levels for the assessment of radiologically contaminated food and comparison of the proposed method to the U.S. FDA's method to calculate derived intervention levels

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Hunt, Brian D.


    This report reviews the method recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for calculating Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) and identifies potential improvements to the DIL calculation method to support more accurate ingestion pathway analyses and protective action decisions. Further, this report proposes an alternate method for use by the Federal Emergency Radiological Assessment Center (FRMAC) to calculate FRMAC Intervention Levels (FILs). The default approach of the FRMAC during an emergency response is to use the FDA recommended methods. However, FRMAC recommends implementing the FIL method because we believe it to be more technically accurate. FRMAC will only implement the FIL method when approved by the FDA representative on the Federal Advisory Team for Environment, Food, and Health.

  13. Sympathetic and parasympathetic pupillary dysfunction in familial dysautonomia.

    Dütsch, M; Hilz, M J; Rauhut, U; Solomon, J; Neundörfer, B; Axelrod, F B


    Objective assessment of autonomic dysfunction in familial dysautonomia (FD) is largely based on the analysis of cardiovascular responses to challenge maneuvers such as orthostatic stress. Infrared pupillometry (IPM) provides an additional reliable method for cranial autonomic evaluation and has the advantage of requiring minimal cooperation.This study was performed to determine whether IPM contributes to the assessment of autonomic function in FD patients. In 14 FD patients and 14 healthy controls, we studied absolute and relative light reflex amplitude, pupillary constriction velocity (v(constr)), pupillary diameter, early and late pupillary re-dilatation velocity (v(dil 1), v(dil 2)) after dark adaptation. Prior to IPM, all patients had an ophthamological examination to evaluate refraction and corneal integrity. In comparison to controls, patients had a significant reduction of the parameters reflecting parasympathetic pupillary function (absolute light reflex amplitude 1.34 +/- 0.21 vs. l.86 +/- 0.14 mm, relative light reflex amplitude 22.74 +/- 7.11% vs. 30.76 +/- 3.57%, v(constr) 3.75 +/- 1.09 vs. 5.80 +/- 0.59 mm/s) and of the parameters reflecting sympathetic pupillary function (diameter 5.69 +/- 0.66 vs. 6.35 +/- 0.60 mm, v(dil 1) 1.29 +/- 0.23 vs. 1.95 +/- 0.23 mm/s, v(dil 2) 0.64 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.l2 mm/s; Mann-Whitney U-test: p<0.05). The non-invasive technique of IPM demonstrates dysfunction not only of the cranial parasympathetic, but also of the cranial sympathetic nervous system and, thus, further characterizes autonomic dysfunction in FD.

  14. A randomized, single-center double-blinded trial on the effects of diltiazem sustained-release capsules in patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon at 6-month follow-up.

    Lun Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to observe the chronic effects of diltiazem release capsules on patients with coronary slow flow (CSF phenomenon. METHODS: From 2004 to 2009, 80 consecutive patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteries evidenced by coronary angiography and CSF were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. CSF patterns were evaluated by the corrected TIMI frame count. Patients were randomly assigned at 1:1 ratio to diltiazem sustained-release capsules treatment group (Dil, 90 mg twice daily or placebo control group. Holter, liver and kidney function, treadmill exercise test, coronary angiography and left ventricular angiography were measured at baseline and after 6 months. The incidence of cardiovascular events (re-admission or progress in coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, malignant arrhythmia or cardiac death was evaluated during the 6 months follow up. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients in control and 40 patients in Dil group completed the 6 months follow-up. There was no medication induced drug withdraw during follow up. Left ventricular ejection fraction was similar between the 2 groups at baseline and during follow up. Heart rate was significantly lower in Dil group than in control group and there was no symptomatic bradycardia and II and III degree atrioventricular conduction block in both groups. Significant improvement was observed in the onset of chest pain, treadmill exercise test and coronary blood flow in Dil group while these parameters remained unchanged in control group at the end of 6 months follow up. The incidence of cardiovascular events was similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Diltiazem slow-release capsules improved coronary blood flow and alleviated angina in patients with CSF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TCC-11001864.

  15. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Derivatives of Eudesmanolides from Inula Helenium as Toxicants against Aedes Aegypti Larvae and Adults


    bioassay was performed on compounds representing many classes of natural compounds including polyacetylenes, phytosterols, flavonoids ... flavonoids , sesquiterpenoids, and triterpenoids, among others, were CHEMISTRY & BIODIVERSITY – Vol. 7 (2010)1682 Table 1. Larvicidal Activities of Various...Dil. chemicals (10 ml) were then added to each well containing a total volume of 1 ml of larvae, food, and H2O. As control treatments, 10 ml of

  16. TRPM8 function and expression in vagal sensory neurons and afferent nerves innervating guinea pig esophagus.

    Yu, Xiaoyun; Hu, Youtian; Ru, Fei; Kollarik, Marian; Undem, Bradley J; Yu, Shaoyong


    Sensory transduction in esophageal afferents requires specific ion channels and receptors. TRPM8 is a new member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family and participates in cold- and menthol-induced sensory transduction, but its role in visceral sensory transduction is still less clear. This study aims to determine TRPM8 function and expression in esophageal vagal afferent subtypes. TRPM8 agonist WS-12-induced responses were first determined in nodose and jugular neurons by calcium imaging and then investigated by whole cell patch-clamp recordings in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in nodose and jugular C fiber neurons using ex vivo esophageal-vagal preparations with intact nerve endings in the esophagus. TRPM8 mRNA expression was determined by single neuron RT-PCR in Dil-labeled esophageal nodose and jugular neurons. The TRPM8 agonist WS-12 elicited calcium influx in a subpopulation of jugular but not nodose neurons. WS-12 activated outwardly rectifying currents in esophageal Dil-labeled jugular but not nodose neurons in a dose-dependent manner, which could be inhibited by the TRPM8 inhibitor AMTB. WS-12 selectively evoked action potential discharges in esophageal jugular but not nodose C fibers. Consistently, TRPM8 transcripts were highly expressed in esophageal Dil-labeled TRPV1-positive jugular neurons. In summary, the present study demonstrated a preferential expression and function of TRPM8 in esophageal vagal jugular but not nodose neurons and C fiber subtypes. This provides a distinctive role of TRPM8 in esophageal sensory transduction and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of esophageal sensation and nociception.

  17. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Silver Nanoparticles: Biogenic Synthesis Utilizing Apple Extract

    Upendra Nagaich; Neha Gulati; Swati Chauhan


    The advancement of the biological production of nanoparticles using herbal extracts performs a significant role in nanotechnology discipline as it is green and does not engage harsh chemicals. The objective of the present investigation was to extract flavonoids in the mode of apple extract and synthesize its silver nanoparticles and ultimately nanoparticles loading into hydrogels. The presence of flavonoids in apple extract was characterized by preliminary testing like dil. ammonia test and c...

  18. Hydralazine Induced Lupus Syndrome Presenting with Recurrent Pericardial Effusion and a Negative Antinuclear Antibody

    Praneet Iyer; Ahmed Dirweesh; Ritika Zijoo


    Drug induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE) is an autoimmune disorder caused by chronic use of certain drugs. We report a unique case of hydralazine induced lupus syndrome (HILS) with a negative antinuclear antibody in a female patient who was on hydralazine for a period of 1.5–2 years and developed recurrent pericardial effusion as a result of it. Initially her condition was managed with a pericardial window. The recurrence of a massive pericardial effusion necessitated a right hemiperica...

  19. Asaf Halet Çelebi's Nurusiyah Poem

    APAYDIN, Mustafa


    In this article, we analyzed the poem "Nûrusiyâh" written by Asaf Halet Çelebi, one of the contemporary Turkish poets. While analyzing this article, we aimed to find out the real meanings, attributed by the poet, to the following concepts in the poem; "nur-ı siyâh", "sûz-ı dil-âra", "tambur", "Selim-i Salis". Wealso wanted to see the relationships in the intertextuality.

  20. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    Martínez, A.; Garza, L. L.; L. M. Torres; Vázquez, F.; López, W.


    A kaolin obtained from Villa de Reyes, a region near to San Luis Potosí (México) was characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), thermal analysis (DTA/TGA), dilatometry (DIL), and chemical analysis. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phase...

  1. Assessment of prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs for patients attending outpatient department of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia

    Shukrala F; Gabriel T


    Fedila Shukrala,1 Tesfaye Gabriel2 1Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a global concern and is one of the key preventable risk factors for cardiovascular events, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing, dispensing and patient use pattern of antih...

  2. Irradiated integrated circuits dose-attenuation mapping using optically stimulated phosphors for packaging dosimetry

    Dusseau, L.; Polge, G.; Albert, L.; Magnac, Y.; Fesquet, J.; Gasiot, J. [Univ. Montpellier II (France); Bessiere, J.C. [CORAD P.I.T. Pompignane, Montpellier (France)


    The feasibility of a dose mapping system using Optically Stimulated Luminescent (OSL) Phosphors is demonstrated. The OSL technique is briefly reviewed as well as its interest for calculation codes calibration. The sensors and the reading apparatus are presented. An example of attenuation dose map obtained for a Dual In Line Plastic Package (DIL) is given and the results compared to calculations with the code EGS4 PRESTA. Results obtained by experiment and simulation are discussed as well as the potentialities of the method.

  3. Innovative Decentralized Decision-Making Enabling Capability on Mobile Edge Devices


    capability requirements, hardware/software technology innovations are necessary to operate a mobile device in a D-DIL environment? 7  What is...benefits gained by the USMC when adapting a cloud model to host C2 developed applications available to the warfighter via mobile device technology in...deployment of a cloud model and the hosted applications accessible by mobile devices, nor attempt to define security parameters or policies needed to be in

  4. Complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies distinguish drug-induced lupus from systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Rubin, R L; Teodorescu, M; Beutner, E H; Plunkett, R W


    The immunofluorescence antinuclear antibody (ANA) test has been widely used to monitor autoimmune disease, but its value for diagnostic purposes is compromised by low specificity and high prevalence in disease-free individuals. The capacity of autoantibodies to fix serum complement proteins when bound to antigen is an important effector function because this property is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory processes. The current study evaluates the complement-fixing properties of antinuclear antibodies (CANA) in three well-defined and clinically-related patient groups: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), drug-induced lupus (DIL) and drug-induced autoimmunity (DIA). Of 20 patients diagnosed with SLE, 90% displayed complement-fixing ANA while this feature was present in only two of 18 patients with DIL and no patients with DIA without associated disease even though the mean ANA titres were similar among these patient groups. CANA was significantly correlated with anti-Sm activity. Because SLE but not DIL or DIA can be a life-threatening disease associated with complement consumption in vivo, these results demonstrate that measurement of CANA is a diagnostically useful tool and may have immunopathologic implications.

  5. Antibiotic resistance and enterotoxin genes in Staphylococcus sp. isolates from polluted water in Southern Brazil



    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the species distribution, antibiotic-resistance profile and presence of enterotoxin (SE genes in staphylococci isolated from the Dilúvio stream in South Brazil. Eighty-eight staphylococci were identified, 93.18% were identified as coagulase-negative (CNS and 6.82% coagulase-positive (CPS. Fourteen Staphylococcus species were detected and the most frequently were Staphylococcus cohnii (30.48% and S. haemolyticus (21.95%. Resistance to erythromycin was verified in 37.50% of the strains, followed by 27.27% to penicillin, 12.50% to clindamycin, 6.81% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.68% to chloramphenicol and 2.27% to norfloxacin. None of the investigated strains showed gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance. The strains were tested for the presence of sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes by PCR and only CNS strains (43.18% showed positive results to one or more SE genes. The scientific importance of our results is due to the lack of data about these topics in polluted waters in Brazil. In conclusion, polluted waters from the Dilúvio stream may constitute a reservoir for disseminating antibiotic-resistance and enterotoxin into the community. In addition, the detection of staphylococci in the polluted waters of the Dilúvio stream indicated a situation of environmental contamination and poor sanitation conditions.


    Adem İŞCAN


    Full Text Available Suggestopedia is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. It is used in different fields, but mostly in the field of foreign language learning. Lozanov has claimed that by using this method a teacher students can learn a language approximately three to five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods. In this paper presents to knowledge suggestopedia and use of suggestopedia in Turkish teaching as foreign language. Suggestopedia (telkin yöntemi, Bulgar psikoterapist Georgi Lozanov tarafından geliştirilen bir öğretim yöntemidir. Pek çok alanda tercih edilen bu yöntem genellikle yabancı dil öğretimi alanında kullanılmaktadır. Lozanov, dil öğretiminde bu yöntemi kullanan bir öğretmenin öğrencilerinin, geleneksel öğretim yöntemleriyle dil öğrenen öğrencilere göre yaklaşık 3-5 kat daha hızlı öğrenebileceklerini iddia eder. Bu makalede, suggestopedia (telkin yöntemi ve bu yöntemin yabancılara Türkçe öğretiminde kullanımıyla ilgili bilgiler verilmektedir.

  7. YABANCI DİL ÖĞRETİMİNDE BEDEN DİLİ KULLANIMININ ÖNEMİ / Importance of Body Language in Teaching Foreign Language Use

    DEREGÖZÜ, Aysel; KUYUMCU, Nihal


    ÖzetGünümüzde çeşitli alanlarda gelişen teknolojilerle dünya küçülmüş, sosyal, kültürel ve ticari ilişkilerin artmasıyla bir hatta birden fazla yabancı dil bilmek bir zorunluluk haline gelmiştir. Bu gelişmeler sonucu Yabancı Dil Eğitimi ve öğretimi alanlarında çalışanlar yeni arayışlara yönelmiştir. Yabancı dil öğrenmenin temelde iki amacı vardır. Başka kültürlerdeki insanlarla iletişim ve başka kültürleri tanımak. İletişim sözlü ve sözsüz iletişim olmak üzere iki şekilde gerçekleşir. Biz bu ...

  8. Bidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility caused by Wolbachia in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio dilatatus.

    Sicard, Mathieu; Bouchon, Didier; Ceyrac, Laura; Raimond, Roland; Thierry, Magali; Le Clec'h, Winka; Marcadé, Isabelle; Caubet, Yves; Grève, Pierre


    In the terrestrial isopod species Porcellio dilatatus, unidirectional Cytoplasmic Incompatibility (CI) between two morphs (P. d. dilatatus and P. d. petiti) caused by a Wolbachia strain (wPet) infecting the morph P. d. petiti has been previously described by experiments initiated four decades ago. Here, we studied another Wolbachia that has been recently detected in a population of the morph P. d. dilatatus. The MLST markers reveal that this Wolbachia is a new strain called wDil distinct from wPet also belonging to the isopod clade of Wolbachia. Quantifications of both Wolbachia strains in the gonads of the two P. dilatatus morphs revealed that all males exhibit similar Wolbachia titers while the titers in females depend on the Wolbachia strain they host. Crossing experiments showed that both wDil and wPet induced partial unidirectional CI with different intensities. Moreover, these two strains induced bidirectional CI when individuals were both infected with one of the two different Wolbachia strains. This way, we demonstrated that P. dilatatus can be infected by two closely related Wolbachia strains (wDil and wPet), that seem to have different modification-rescue systems.


    Nilüfer YILDIRIM


    Full Text Available Folk narratives, as for language, are the products of the common experiences. Narratives ascertain the agony, life style or pleasure of the society and therefore it is also flourished. They are inherited from generation to generation by means of language and above mentioned language is the main carrier of the cultural elements. However, the language emerges differently from these function. In folk narratives, there are also language functions that communicate the heroes. This language is constituted various symbolical expressions. The purpose of this study is to exemplify the symbolical communication language in folk narratives and give general information about the usages of symbolical functionof language. Halk anlatıları da tıpkı dil gibi ortak yaşanmışlığın ürünüdür. Anlatılar, toplumun acısını, hayat tarzını, zevklerini gözler önüne serer, gün ışığına çıkarır ve buna bağlı olarak zenginleşir. Halk anlatıları, dil sayesinde nesilden nesle aktarılır, anlatıların içinde bulunan kültürel unsurların taşıyıcısı yine dildir. Ancak dil, anlatılarda bu işlevlerinden farklı olarak karşımıza çıkar. Çeşitli konuların işlendiği halk anlatılarında kahramanlar arasında iletişimi sağlayan dil unsurları mevcuttur. Bu dil, çeşitli sembolik ifadelerle oluşturulmuştur. Bu çalışmanın amacı, halk anlatılarından verilecek örneklerle kahramanlar arasındaki sembolik iletişim dilini ortaya çıkarmak ve dilin sembolik işlevinin anlatılardaki kullanım şekilleri hakkında genel bilgi vermektir.


    Ekrem ARIKOĞLU


    Full Text Available Nostratic language of the theory of names Holger Pedersen his paternity, İlliç Svıtiç theory developed by the Afro-Asiatic, Kartvel, Elam-Dravid, Indo-European, Ural-Yukagir, Eskimo-Aleut, Altai, Korea, the Japanese language group of the common historical roots a defense theory. According to the theory of our day with each other within the same family or language group are not considered languages, at an earlier date (14 -10 thousands BC was based on the same origin. 8 thousand years ago, was separated from the main group of the Altaic language group. But today, many elements of restructuring through leksic history helps to establish ties. Altaic languages or language groups, with the above-mentioned links between the evaluation of the studies, examples are given in words. These links have been limited to elements leksical notice. Nostratik dil teorisi, isim babalığını Holger Pedersen’in yaptığı ve İlliç Svitıç tarafından geliştirilen; Afro-Asyatik, Kartvel, Elam-Dravit, Hint-Avrupa, Ural-Yukagir, Eskimo-Aleut, Altay, Kore ve Japon dillerinin aynı kökene dayandığını savunan bir teoridir.Bu teoriye göre, günümüzdeki pek çok dil ailesi MÖ 14-10 bin yıllarında aynı kökene dayanıyordu. 8 bin yıl önce Altay dil grubu ana gruptan ayrıldı. Fakat günümüzde pek çok leksik unsur tarihî bağların tespit edilmesine yardımcı olmaktadır. Altay dilleri veya dil grubunun diğer dil aileleriyle olan bağları, örnek kelimelerle gösterilmektedir. Bu bağlantılar daha çok leksik unsurlarla sınırlı tutulmuştur.

  11. Araplara Türkçe Öğretmek Amacıyla Hazırlanmış Kaşgarlı Mahmut Türkçe Öğretim Seti’nde Kültür Aktarımı Cultural Transfer In Mahmud Al Kashgari Turkish Teaching Set Prepared For Teaching Turkish To Arabs

    İsa YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Language is a communication tool in its simplest definition.Culture can be defined as everything that has become the symbol andnational value of a nation. Relationship between language and culturehas been known since their existence. Language feeds culture while theculture feeds the language. There is a connection in between a languageand a culture in this manner. This relationship should be paid attentionin all mentioned areas about the language and culture. Relationshipbetween language and culture should be on the screen at every stage oflanguage teaching as it is one of these areas. As language teaching is tomean cultural transmission at the same time. For this reason, it isfocused on importance of culture transmission in language teaching inthe Common Framework Text for Education of European Languages.In this study, first it is focused on the position and importance ofprepared textbooks in the process of culture transferring throughteaching Turkish, accepting the idea “language teaching is a tool inintercultural interaction”. Later, Mahmud Al Kashgari Turkish TeachingSet which was prepared for teaching Turkish to Arabs was discussed inthe context of cultural transmission and evaluated according to certaincriteria. As a result of these analyzes, it is come out that the transferwas done more in the texts of the main level than in the mid-rangeones, and also the transforming were often found to be direct. It wasobserved that there were more literary and historical texts in the midleveltransmissions. According to these results it is thought that thereshould be given more feature related items of Turkish life andtraditions. Dil, en basit tanımıyla bir iletişim aracıdır. Kültür ise bir toplumun simgesi hâline gelmiş ve millî değeri olan her şey olarak tanımlanabilir. Dil ile kültür arasındaki ilişkinin varlığı da dil ve kültür var olduğundan bu yana bilinmektedir. Dil, kültürü beslerken kültür de dili beslemektedir

  12. Chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine tracker labeling for rat adipose-derived stem cells%氯甲基苯甲酰氨和5-乙炔基-2'-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷标记示踪大鼠脂肪干细胞的研究

    转黎; 王涛; 李明超; 张岩; 刘继红; 叶章群


    Objective To compare the labeling effects of chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-Dil) vs.5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) on rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs),and seek the optimal stem cell labeling technique applied to erectile dysfunction (ElD) therapy.Methods Rat ADSCs were isolated and cultured from the adipose tissue of inguinal region.The ADSCs at the fourth passage were labeled with 10 μmol/L CM-Dil or 50 μmol/L EdU,and the positive cell rate and fluorescence intensity were detected by using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope at 7th,14th,21st and 28th day,respectively.Results CM-Dil and EdU had no effects on the proliferation of ADSCs.The positive rate of CM-Dil labeling was (99.6 ±0.2)%,and fluorescence decay began at 21st day,and the positive rate was (64.2 ± 3.3) % at 35th day.The positive rate of EdU labeling was (87.1 ± 1.8) %,and decreased at 7th day,and the positive rate was only (14.4 ± 2.7) % at 28th day.Conclusion CM-Dil and EdU were suitable for ADSCs tracker labeling.However,CM-Dil gains much more advantages than EdU in long-term tracing,which may be an ideal ADSCs tracing technology in the future treatment of ED.%目的 比较研究氯甲基苯甲酰氨(CM-Dil)和5-乙炔基-2’-脱氧尿嘧啶核苷(EdU)对大鼠脂肪干细胞(ADSCs)的体外标记示踪效果,为ADSCs移植治疗勃起功能障碍体内研究寻找最佳的干细胞示踪剂.方法 分离和培养SD大鼠ADSCs,分别采用10μmol/L CM-Dil荧光活性染料和50 μmol/L EdU标记第4代ADSCs,并通过流式细胞术和荧光显微镜检测标记后第7、14、21、28天细胞阳性率.结果 CM-Dil和EdU两者对ADSCs生物学特性均无明显影响.CM-Dil标记ADSCs阳性率达(99.6±0.2)%,第21天后荧光开始衰减,第35天细胞阳性率仍达(64.2±3.3)%;EdU标记ADSCs阳性率为(87.1±1.8)%,7d后细胞阳性率逐渐降低,第14天后急剧降低,第28天细胞阳性率为(14.4±2.7)%.结论 CM-Dil和EdU两者均适用

  13. A phosphatidylcholine hyaluronic acid chitin–nanofibrils complex for a fast skin remodeling and a rejuvenating look

    Morganti P


    Full Text Available Pierfrancesco Morganti,1 Paolo Palombo,2 Marco Palombo,3 Giuseppe Fabrizi,4 Antonio Cardillo,5 Fabiano Svolacchia,5 Luis Guevara,6 Paolo Mezzana71Department of Applied Cosmetic Dermatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Saint Eugenio Hospital, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, CTO Hospital, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Dermatology, University of Parma, Parma, Italy; 5Centre of Nanoscience, Mavi Sud, Aprilia, Italy; 6Hospimedical, Pyrmont, Australia; 7IRCCS GB Bietti Eye Foundation, Rome, ItalyBackground: The reduction of mortality worldwide has led older individuals to seek intervention modalities to improve their appearance and reverse signs of aging.Objective: We formulated a medical device as innovative block-polymer nanoparticles based on phosphatidylcholine, hyaluronan, and chitin nanofibrils entrapping amino acids, vitamins, and melatonin.Methods: Viability and collagen synthesis were controlled on fibroblasts ex vivo culture while adenosine triphosphate production was evaluated on keratinocytes culture. Subjective and objective evaluations were performed in vivo on selected volunteer patients.Results: In accordance with our previous studies, both the in vitro and in vivo obtained results demonstrate the efficacy of the injected block-polymer nanoparticles in reducing skin wrinkling and ameliorating the signs of aging.Keywords: antiaging agent, scar correction, stretch marks, signaling molecules, photoaging, biostimulation

  14. Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society

    Morganti P


    Full Text Available P Morganti1, G Morganti2, A Morganti3,41Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Centre of Nanoscience, Mavi Sud s.r.l, Aprilia, Italy; 3Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Munich, Germany; 4Lextray, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named "chitin nanofibrils" (CN for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm. Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy.Keywords: chitin nanofibrils, biomimetic cosmetics, biomedical products, food, nanotechnology, waste

  15. Resetting U.S.-Turkish Relations: Charting a New Way Forward

    Aaron Stein


    Full Text Available After nearly nine decades of benign neglect, Turkey has set about reestablishing its influence in the Middle East. Although most observers agree that the United States and Turkey share a number of overlapping goals in the Middle East, Turkey's recent rapprochement with Iran has drawn the ire of the United States. In tandem, Turkey's relations with Israel, Washington's closest ally in the region, have deteriorated rapidly following Israel's war in Gaza and the events aboard the Mavi Marmara. These coinciding events have further complicated U.S.-Turkish relations and have led a number of pundits in Washington to openly question Turkey's ideological orientation. If Ankara and Washington want to mend relations they should acknowledge that their disagreements are not about their overall vision or intention for the region, but over how to implement and carry out foreign policy. Both Ankara and Washington should do a better job of enumerating their long-term regional policy goals and engage in a broader dialogue to clearly transmit these ideas to each other, while working together to achieve them.


    Gülden TÜM


    Full Text Available In teaching Turkish as a foreign language (TFL, grammar and teacher centered techniques and method are used and communicative approach is neglected. Thus, even though learners coming from different language families feel safe when traditional methods are used in the classroom, they have difficulties with expressing themselves in real communication.The results of the achievement tests indicate that learners of Turkish as a foreign language use certain and familiar phrases in short sentences during communication. Course books are sometimes insufficient to introduce various language patterns and learners lack motivation in class. However, TFL has gained a considerable importance lately and if the drama technique is taken into consideration during teaching process, learners can reach their target very easily. So far, there has been encountered no study on drama technique in TFL.Therefore, the aim of this survey is to investigate how drama technique can help students to learn Turkish language and cultural values. Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesinde genellikle öğretmen merkezli ve dilbilgisi odaklı geleneksel teknikler kullanıldığı için dilin en önemli işlevlerinden biri olan iletişimsel boyut göz ardı edilebilmektedir. Bu yüzden yabancı öğrenciler Türkçeyi öğrenirken, geleneksel metotların kullanımında kendilerini güvende hissetseler de iletişimsel anlamda kendilerini ifade etmekte zorluk çekmektedirler. Belirli bir öğrenim sürecinin sonunda ise öğrencilerin genellikle belirli kalıplar içerisinde kısa ve basit konuşmaları yerine getirdikleri gözlenmektedir. Ders kitapları da öğrencilerin dil örneklemlerini sunmada yetersiz kaldığından öğrencilerin ders içi ve dışı isteklendirmeleri düşük düzeyde kalmaktadır. Hâlbuki son yıllarda gittikçe daha çok önem kazanan Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesinde hedefe ulaşmak için iletişimsel boyutun da göz önüne al


    Prof. Dr. Zeki KARAKAYA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to enlighten the definition of translation acquisition, the differentiation from language acquisition by comparing translations of two authors having translation acquisition in different levels and through using these differences how can it be used in language teaching.In the first section, translation acquisition issue has been accentuated; by giving place to the definitions of different Scientifics a general survey about translation acquisition has been elicited. Moreover, in this section, in order to see how translation acquisition will be differentiated from language acquisition and bring out the difference; an application has been conducted on Students and the results have been ascertained.As it is known, translation comparison is a appliance for bringing in language teaching, comparative linguistics, comparative graphology, translation criticism and translation acquisition. However, in this study it has been tried out representing some suggestions and examples about translation on the subject of how can be benefited only in language teaching with translation comparison which is one of the medium of methodology. In the study comparative translation method has been applied and examples and suggestions about its functions on language teaching have been presented. Bu çalışmanın amacı çeviri edincinin tanımına, dil edincinden ayrışımına, farklı düzeylerde çeviri edincine sahip iki yazarın çevirilerinin karşılaştırılmasıyla bu farklılıklardan yararlanarak nasıl dil öğretiminde kullanılabileceğine ışık tutmaktır.İlk bölümde çeviri edinci konusu üzerine durulmuş, farklı bilim adamlarının tanımlarını yer vererek, çeviri edincine yönelik genel bir bakış sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu bölümde çeviri edincinin dil edincinden nasıl ayırt edileceğini görmek, aradaki farkı göz önüne sermek için öğrencilerle uygulama yapılmış ve sonuçları tespit edilmi

  18. Arsenic augments the uptake of oxidized LDL by upregulating the expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor in mouse aortic endothelial cells

    Hossain, Ekhtear [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Ota, Akinobu, E-mail: [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Karnan, Sivasundaram; Damdindorj, Lkhagvasuren [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Takahashi, Miyuki [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan); Konishi, Yuko; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Hosokawa, Yoshitaka [Department of Biochemistry, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute, Aichi (Japan)


    Although chronic arsenic exposure is a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, the molecular mechanism underlying arsenic-induced atherosclerosis remains obscure. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate this molecular mechanism. We examined changes in the mRNA level of the lectin-like oxidized LDL (oxLDL) receptor (LOX-1) in a mouse aortic endothelial cell line, END-D, after sodium arsenite (SA) treatment. SA treatment significantly upregulated LOX-1 mRNA expression; this finding was also verified at the protein expression level. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy analyses showed that the cellular uptake of fluorescence (Dil)-labeled oxLDL was significantly augmented with SA treatment. In addition, an anti-LOX-1 antibody completely abrogated the augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL. We observed that SA increased the levels of the phosphorylated forms of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NF-κB)/p65. SA-induced upregulation of LOX-1 protein expression was clearly prevented by treatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or an NF-κB inhibitor, caffeic acid phenethylester (CAPE). Furthermore, SA-augmented uptake of Dil-oxLDL was also prevented by treatment with NAC or CAPE. Taken together, our results indicate that arsenic upregulates LOX-1 expression through the reactive oxygen species-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway, followed by augmented cellular oxLDL uptake, thus highlighting a critical role of the aberrant LOX-1 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced atherosclerosis. - Highlights: • Sodium arsenite (SA) increases LOX-1 expression in mouse aortic endothelial cells. • SA enhances cellular uptake of oxidized LDL in dose-dependent manner. • SA-induced ROS generation enhances phosphorylation of NF-κB. • SA upregulates LOX-1 expression through ROS-activated NF-κB signaling pathway.


    Adem İŞCAN


    Full Text Available The film as an audio-visual art, it truly reflects the society's cultural, aesthetic images by shape to express certain thoughts and feelings, reflecting the national spirit. Film is a mirror to reflect real life, popular culture and the art. The usage Turkish movies in Turkish teaching as foreign language, students will easily to improve their Turkish oral communication, Turkish speaking skills and listening skills. The paper deal with the use of films in foreign language teaching and Turkish teaching as foreign language and depending on these, makes some of recommendations Film, işitsel-görsel bir sanat olarak -millî ruhu yansıtan düşünce ve duygularla şekillenen-toplumun kültürel ve estetik imgelerini gerçekçi bir şekilde yansıtır. Film, gerçek yaşamı, popüler kültürü ve sanatı yansıtan bir aynadır. Yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde Türk filmlerinin kullanılması, öğrencilerin kolaylıkla Türkçe sözlü iletişimlerini, konuşma ve dinleme becerilerini geliştirecektir. Makalede, yabancı dil öğretimi ve yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde filmlerin kullanılması ele alınmış ve buna bağlı olarak bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur. .

  20. Studies on applicability of press-coated tablets using hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) in the outer shell for timed-release preparations.

    Fukui, E; Uemura, K; Kobayashi, M


    Press-coated tablets, containing diltiazem hydrochloride (DIL) in the core tablet and coated with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as the outer shell, were examined for applicability as timed-release tablets with a predetermined lag time and subsequent rapid drug release phase. Various types of press-coated tablets were prepared using a rotary tabletting machine and their DIL dissolution behavior was evaluated by the JP paddle method. The results indicated that tablets with the timed-release function could be prepared, and that the lag times were prolonged as the viscosity of HPC and the amount of the outer shell were increased. The lag times could be controlled widely by the above method, however, the compression load had little effect. Two different kinds of timed-release press-coated tablets that showed lag times of 3 and 6 h in the in vitro test (denoted PCT(L3) and PCT(L6), respectively) were administered to beagle dogs. DIL was first detected in the plasma more than 3 h after administration, and both tablets showed timed-release. The lag times showed a good agreement between the in vivo and in vitro tests in PCT(L3). However, the in vivo lag times were about 4 h in PCT(L6) and were much shorter than the in vitro lag time. The dissolution test was performed at different paddle rotation speeds, and good agreement was obtained between the in vivo and in vitro lag times at 150 rpm. This suggested that the effects of gastrointestinal peristalsis and contraction should also be taken into consideration for the further development of drug delivery systems.

  1. inserción nacional e internacional

    Mariana Calvento


    Full Text Available La presente investigación analiza la factibilidad de construir una mar-ca-regional y/o marca-ciudad para las localidades argentinas de Tan-dil, Olavarría y Azul (TOA. Para ello se analiza la valoración de laimagen de la región en los grandes medios gráficos argentinos. Eltrabajo propone indagar las particularidades de una de las estrategiasllevadas a cabo en Argentina con la intención de funcionar como víaalternativa al desarrollo de ciudades y regiones.

  2. Obtaining shape memory alloy thin layer using PLD technique

    Cimpoeşu N.


    Full Text Available Copper-based shape memory alloy (SMA was obtained through a classic melting method. The material was analyzed in heat treated and deformed states using scanning electrons microscopy (SEM, dilatometry (DIL, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA and energy dispersive X-ray analyze (EDAX to establish the material microstructure, memory properties like martensitic transformation domain and rate or damping capacity. The material exhibits a good shape memory effect and high internal friction and it is proposed as target in a pulsed laser deposition (PLD process for obtaining thin films. The deposition process is described in this paper through presented experimental results on the layer.


    Mehmet SOLMAZ


    Full Text Available Course books are the most widely used sources by both students and teachers in attaining knowledge. Researches show that in language teaching classes also the most widely used materials are the course books. The purpose of this study was to appraise the grammar course books in the secondary schools, where at least four million students go on, on the account of phonetics and aspects related to phonetics. Three different grammar books prepared for different programs were analyzed and many lackings and shortcomings were realized related to phonetics and issues related to phonetics. The findings of the study showed that scientific principles and methods are not applied enough in the preparation of the grammar course books Ders kitapları, bilgiye ulaşma konusunda öğrenciler ve öğretmenler tarafından günümüzde en sık başvurulan ders araçlarıdır. Yapılan araştırmalar, dil bilgisi öğretiminde de en çok kullanılan öğretim malzemelerinin ders kitapları olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Bu araştırmada, dört milyondan fazla öğrencinin öğrenim gördüğü ortaöğretim basamağında kullanılan dil bilgisi ders kitapları, dil biliminin ses bilgisi ve ses bilimi alanıyla ilgili konular açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Farklı öğretim programları için hazırlanmış olan üç ayrı ders kitabının incelendiği çalışmada, söz konusu ders kitaplarında ses bilgisi ve ses bilimiyle ilgili çeşitli eksikliklerle ele alınan konularda birçok problem tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, ortaöğretim basamağında kullanılan dil bilgisi ders kitaplarının hazırlanmasında bilimsel ilke ve yöntemlere yeterince uyulmadığını ortaya koymaktadır.

  4. Influence of Interfacial Carbide Layer Characteristics on Thermal Properties of Copper-Diamond Composites (Postprint)


    wettability of diamond is not an issue. Moreover, the solid-state processing can, in principle , be carried out at relatively low temperatures even for non...capacity. q was mea- sured using Archimedes ’ method, and D was measured with laser flash technique per ASTM E1461. The speci- mens for D measurement...respectively. The CTE of composites was measured with a push -rod dilatometer DIL 402 C (Manufacturer: NET- ZSCH-Gerätebau GmbH, Selb, Germany) per ASTM E228

  5. Fluorescent dye CM-DiI labeled rat adipose derived stem cells%CM-DiI标记大鼠脂肪干细胞的效力

    宋起滨; 刘晓燕; 曹惠鹃; 于冬梅; 黄昕昕


    BACKGROUND: Dil derivative CM-Dil easily insets, disperses and stably binds to the whole cell membrane because of water-solubility and chloromethylated active sulfydryl, which leads to rapid, even and long-lasting staining.OBJECTIVE: To further validate the feasibility of fluorescent dye CM-Dil in labeling rat adipose derived stem cells.METHODS: Rat inguinal fat tissue was resected and adipose derived stem cells were isolated in vitro by collagenasedigestion. Passage 3 cells were divided into a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group cellswere labeled with 4 mg/L CM-Dil. At 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours, CM-Dil-labeled adipose derived stem cells were traced in vivo.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under fluorescent microscope, CM-Dil labeled cells showed cytoplasm and cellmembrane with red fluorescence, CM-Dil labeled adipose derived stem cells exhibited a shuttle-shaped normalappearance. CM-Dil positive rate was 100%. In the early period, the cells were fluorescent ring-shaped, and 48 hours later,fluorescent granules increased and fluorescence intensity enhanced. No fluorescence was found in cell nucleus. Therewas no significant difference in cell morphology, content of lactic dehydrogenase in supernatant and MTT value betweenexperimental group and control group (P > 0.05). At 4 hours after cell transplantation, cells with red fluorescence could beobserved in the heart and lung tissue. CM-DiI can effectively label adipose derived stem cells cultured in vitro and expressstably in cells. CM-Dil-labeled cells have good morphology and no toxicity to living cells.%背景:CM-DiI是DiI的衍生物,因具有一定的水溶性,且含有氯甲基化活性巯基部分,使其更易嵌入、弥散并稳固地结合到整个细胞膜上,使染色更快捷、均匀、持久.目的:进一步验证荧光染料CM-DiI标记大鼠脂肪干细胞的可行性.方法:切取大鼠腹股沟区皮下脂肪组织,采用胶原酶消化法体外分离培养脂肪干细胞,取第3代

  6. Hydralazine Induced Lupus Syndrome Presenting with Recurrent Pericardial Effusion and a Negative Antinuclear Antibody

    Iyer, Praneet; Zijoo, Ritika


    Drug induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE) is an autoimmune disorder caused by chronic use of certain drugs. We report a unique case of hydralazine induced lupus syndrome (HILS) with a negative antinuclear antibody in a female patient who was on hydralazine for a period of 1.5–2 years and developed recurrent pericardial effusion as a result of it. Initially her condition was managed with a pericardial window. The recurrence of a massive pericardial effusion necessitated a right hemipericardiectomy. After hydralazine was stopped, she never had any further episodes of pericardial effusion or tamponade. PMID:28194293


    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君


    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  8. Two-electron bound state formation in the t-J-U model for exchange-coupled planes

    Morriss-Andrews, A.; Gooding, R. J.


    An anisotropic t-J-U model Hamiltonian is used to model electron behaviour in quasi-2d materials in the dilute limit, and as a highly simplified representation of the weakly coupled CuO2 planes of the high-Tc cuprates we model the very poor out-of-plane conductivity via the complete suppression of interplanar hopping. However, we do include the very weak interplanar superexchange, and are thus considering a model of exchange-coupled planes. For an isotropic three-dimensional system in the dil...

  9. Hydralazine Induced Lupus Syndrome Presenting with Recurrent Pericardial Effusion and a Negative Antinuclear Antibody

    Praneet Iyer


    Full Text Available Drug induced lupus erythematosus (DIL or DILE is an autoimmune disorder caused by chronic use of certain drugs. We report a unique case of hydralazine induced lupus syndrome (HILS with a negative antinuclear antibody in a female patient who was on hydralazine for a period of 1.5–2 years and developed recurrent pericardial effusion as a result of it. Initially her condition was managed with a pericardial window. The recurrence of a massive pericardial effusion necessitated a right hemipericardiectomy. After hydralazine was stopped, she never had any further episodes of pericardial effusion or tamponade.

  10. Comparison of the marker effects of two different fluorescent dyes in labeling endogenous neural stem cells in the central nervous system%两种荧光标记物对中枢神经系统内源性神经干细胞的标记效果比较

    谭波涛; 虞璟; 刘媛; 伍亚民; 龙在云; 贾功伟; 虞乐华


    目的 观察DIL和DAPI两种不同的标记物对中枢神经系统内源性神经干细胞的标记效果.方法 清洁级健康成年SD大鼠36只,随机分为实验组(DIL组,DAPI组)和对照组(DMSO组,PBS组).使用立体定位仪,向实验组大鼠侧脑室注入0.2% DIL或10μg/ml DAPI各10μl,对照组大鼠侧脑室相应注入DMSO或PBS各10μl.注射后2h和24h对动物进行神经功能损伤评分(NSS).采用激光共聚焦显微镜观察注射后1、3、7d脑室及脊髓颈、胸、腰段室管膜细胞的荧光标记情况,对目标区域荧光强度进行半定量分析,并对不同组别和时间点的脑室及脊髓标本测定结果进行比较.结果 注射DIL及DAPI后2h,大鼠NSS评分很低,与相应对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),24h后基本恢复正常.DIL注射后1d,侧脑室及各节段的脊髓室管膜细胞胞质均显示红色荧光,一直持续到注射后7d.DAPI注射后1d,侧脑室内标记的细胞核形态清晰,呈蓝色,脑室脉络丛大量细胞亦可见蓝色荧光标记,但脊髓各节段室管膜区的细胞均未见蓝色荧光,注射后3、7d的情况与1d类似.两种试剂标记后,目标区域内各时间点的荧光强度差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 DIL可对内源性神经干细胞的细胞质进行标记,适合作为侧脑室和脊髓室管膜内源性神经干细胞的标记物.DAPI可标记细胞核,适合用于侧脑室内源性神经干细胞的标记.脑室注射荧光染料对动物影响小,是一项相对安全的操作.%Objective To observe the marker effects of two different fluorescent dyes, DIL and DAPI, in labeling endogenous neural stem cells (ENSCs) in rat central nervous system. Methods Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into staining groups, comprising DIL group and DAPI group, and the corresponding control groups, including DMSO group for DIL group and PBS group for DAPI group. 0.2% DIL 10 μ1 or 10 ΜL g/ml DAPI 10 μ1 was stereotactically injected

  11. Thin wall ductile and austempered iron castings

    E. Fraś; M. Górny


    It has been shown that it is possible to produce thin wall castings made of ductile iron with wall thickness in the range of 1.2 to 2.9 mm(without chills, cold laps and misruns). Thin wall ductile iron castings can be lighter (380 g) than their substitutes made of aluminium alloys (580g). The kinetics of austenitising transformation was studied in unalloyed ductile iron. The advance of transformations during austenitising was monitored by measurement the fraction of martensite and also by dil...

  12. Effects of in vitro selenium addition to the semen extender on the spermatozoa characteristics before and after freezing in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

    Kamran Dorostkar; Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari; Aram Mokarizadeh


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in vitro supplementation of selenium on fresh and frozen spermatozoa quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg mL-1 sodium selenite and the sperm motility and viability were evaluated at 0 (T0) (immediately after dilution), 60 (T1) and 120 (T2) min after dil...

  13. [Mn(SCZ)3](PA)2·H2O在DMF中的溶解焓%Enthalpies of Dissolution of [Mn(SCZ)3](PA)2·H2O in DMF

    裴琴; 杨利; 张同来; 张建国; 孙远华; 邵风雷


    The molar enthalpies of dissolution of [Mn(SCZ)3](PA)2·H2O in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 298.15 K were measured by means of a SETARAM C80Ⅱ calorimeter. The standard molar enthalpy of dissolution was determined to be ΔdissHθm=-43.607 kJ·mol-1. The empirical formulae for calculating the enthalpies of dissolution (ΔdissH=-43.607-454.98b+9378.2b1/2) of the title coordination complex at different concentrations b (mol·kg-1) was obtained. Relative apparent molar enthalpy (Φli), relative partial molar enthalpy (Li) and enthalpy of dilution (ΔdilH1, 2) were obtained respectively from the experimental data of the enthalpies of dissolution of the coordination compound: Φli =-454.98b+9378.2b1/2, Li=-909.96b+14067.3b1/2 and ΔdilH1, 2=-454.98(b1/22-b1/21)+9378.2(b2-b1).%用微热量仪对配合物[Mn(SCZ)3](PA)2·H2O在溶剂N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)中不同浓度(b)时的溶解焓进行了测定,用计算机拟合的方法求得该配合物的标准摩尔溶解焓(ΔdissHθm=-43.607 kJ·mol-1)及溶解焓(ΔdissH)的经验公式(ΔdissH=-43.607-454.98b+9378.2b1/2).由此得到配合物的相对表观摩尔焓(Φli)、相对偏摩尔焓(Li)以及配合物的稀释焓(ΔdilH1,2)的经验公式: Φli=-454.98b+9378.2b1/2,Li=-909.96b+14067.3b1/2和ΔdilH1,2=-454.98(b1/22-b1/21)+9378.2(b2-b1).

  14. El sistema acusatorio oral en Costa Rica

    Hernández Barrantes, Jessica María; Rodríguez Montoya, Carmen María; Tenorio Jara


    El 1.° de enero de 1998 entra en vigencia el nuevo Código Procesal Penal, con lo cual se experimenta una de las reformas más importantes en materia de Administración de Justicia Penal, que implica el paso de un Sistema Procesal Inquisitivo a un Sistema Acusatorio que procura la adversarialidad entre partes. El antiguo Sistema Penal Inquisitivo se caracterizaba en que las funciones de investigar y juzgar se ejercían por el Juez de instrucción, el proceso era escrito y las dil...

  15. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program. In Situ Repair of Deteriorated Concrete in Hydraulic Structures: Epoxy Injection Repair of a Bridge Pier


    bearing seat. In addition, the top of the con- crete seat was sealed with fiber -reinforced "Black Jack" roof cement that was sloped toward the... fiber reinforced roof cement applied so that the surface slopes to the openings made in the curtain walls. 3. This work should be accomplished before...sox ORt REMARKS ELEATONDEPH EG RaCOV. SAMPLE (DUUWlbj *Am*. moto Jose. dilAh of ENT_ No IM66ifid dt- It60W* glp1 ,r-7vsPe -R TORO, Cra~eA. - CA/c r

  16. Foulois and the U.S. Army Air Corps 1931-1935,


    possess fle kinlds of a i rralft nuit able to r hauii ing lteas \\ mail load,,. Pursuit, obsers ation. and attack planes,, used e~esseybecause of’ their as...iic iincediaw order, In, ilic Arrm Air ( orp, .tiI"Pt,1Iiii .1 MIll !di\\l 01 Ml maid. c\\,epi ’il tidi roiics. uniidc ich s"cathet niioiii and. tinidci...Indian uprisings, but ax a backup f"Or (thc e st Coast installations.) Hius bill set a ceiling of S 19 million per base and authorized S190( mill ion

  17. Efecto del extracto acuoso de maca sobre la función cognitiva en ratas recién destetadas

    Raquel Oré; Silvia Suárez; Luis Rojas; Rubén Valdivieso; Rosa Oriondo; Fernando Tapia; Juan Trabuco


    Introducción: La maca, Lepidium meyenii walp, es una planta que crece en las alturas de los andes peruanos; es usada como alimento, por su valor nutricional y sus propiedades etnomedicinales, unidos a la fertilidad y vitalidad. En la actualidad, se ha incrementado el interés público en los polifenoles, que tendrían efecto inhibitorio sobre la actividad acetilcolinesterasa y butirilcolinesterasas, y de esta manera se mejoraría las funciones cognitivas, aunque los mecanismos aún no han sido dil...

  18. Directional sensing and streaming in Dictyostelium aggregation.

    Almeida, Sofia; Dilão, Rui


    We merge the Kessler-Levine simple discrete model for Dictyostelium cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and diffusion with the Dilão-Hauser directional sensing aggregation mechanism. The resulting compound model describes all the known transient patterns that emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation, which include the spontaneous formation of cAMP self-sustained target and spiral waves and streaming. We show that the streaming patterns depend on the speed of the amoebae, on the relaxation time for the production of cAMP, on the cAMP degradation rate, and on directional sensing. Moreover, we show that different signaling centers emerge during Dictyostelium aggregation.


    Emre ÜNAL


    Full Text Available To learn a language doesn’t mean to learn the words of that language and tell them in sequential order. Without learning the meanings, structures and types of the words, they cannot be used properly and in a meaningful way in a sentence. Therefore, grammar teaching becomes vital in that condition. It is possible to claim the same understanding for Turkish language teaching. A person who wants to learn Turkish cannot use it properly and effectively without learning its grammar structures. A person, who knows the grammar of the language can understand better the spoken person, can explain better what he wants from him, can understand better what he reads and also while writing he can enunciate himself clearly and better. So grammar teaching is an indispensable resource for teaching a language.In this study, levels of second primary education students towards understanding the grammar subjects were searched and a scale was applied to teachers who studied in primary schools, therefore.As a result of the study, it has been found that Turkish teachers have negative opinion about teaching of grammatical rules, there is no significant difference between opinions about teaching of grammatical rules according to the seniority of teachers, genders, departments that teachers graduated and the school that they work. Bir dili öğrenmek demek o dildeki sözcükleri öğrenip bunları yan yana dizip söylemek anlamına gelmemektedir. O sözcüklerin anlamını, yapısını, türünü öğrenmeden sözcükler cümle içinde doğru ve anlamlı olacak şekilde kullanılamamaktadır. Bu noktada da devreye dil bilgisi öğretimi girmektedir. Türkçe öğretimi için de aynı şeyi söylemek mümkündür. Türkçe öğrenmek isteyen bir kişi Türkçenin dil bilgisi özelliklerini öğrenmeden Türkçeyi doğru ve etkili bir biçimde kullanamamaktadır. Konuştuğu dilin dil bilgisi kurallarını iyi bilen bir insan, karşısındakinin söylediklerini doğru bir

  20. Indian marine bivalves: Potential source of antiviral drugs

    Chatterji, A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Bichurina, M.A.; Sovetova, M.; Boikov, Y.A.

    . The evaluation of viral inhibition activity of the e x tr - acts prepared from bivalves was conducted in vivo in the neutralization test on infected chicken eggs with developing embryos (10 ? 13 - day - old). Ten - fold dil u tion of influenza virus type... was removed from each egg with the help of a pipette by m aking a small hole on the shell and transferred into the respective well of the multi - well plates. In the neutralization test, HA assay was performed with 1% suspension of chicken erythrocytes...


    Umut BAŞAR


    Full Text Available Türk dili, gerek yurt içinde ve gerekse yurt dışında yabancı dil olarak öğretilmektedir. Gürcistan da Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak ilgi gördüğü ülkelerden biridir. Bu araştırmanın amacı Yunus Emre Enstitüsü Tiflis Türk Kültür Merkezinde yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenenlerin dil öğrenme ihtiyaçlarını saptamak ve bu ihtiyaçların yaş, cinsiyet, eğitim gibi değişkenlere göre farklılık gösterip göstermediğini ortaya koymaktır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Iwai ve diğerleri (1998 tarafından hazırlanan ve Çangal (2013 tarafından geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması yapılarak Türkçeye uyarlanan Dil İhtiyaç Analizi Anketi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini 2016 yılında Yunus Emre Enstitüsü Tiflis Türk Kültür Merkezinde yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen 401 kursiyer ve örneklemini ise B ve üzeri seviyesinde olan 85 kursiyer oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmada toplanan veriler SPSS 21.0 programı ile analiz edilmiş ve yüzde, aritmetik ortalama, t-testi ve tek yönlü varyans analizinden (ANOVA faydalanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulardan hareketle Yunus Emre Enstitüsü Tiflis Türk Kültür Merkezinde yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenenlerin dil öğrenme ihtiyaçları sırasıyla bireysel ilgi ve ihtiyaçlar, eğitim ve iş imkânı, ticaret yapma ve sınıf içi etkileşim kurma olmak üzere dört alt boyutta kendini göstermiştir. Araştırmanın sonunda ise elde edilen bulgulardan hareketle Gürcistan’da yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminin niteliğini arttırabilmek adına bazı öneriler sunulmuştur. Turkish language, both domestically and abroad, is taught as a foreign language. Georgia is also of Turkish as a foreign language is one of the countries that it considers of interest. The aim of this Research Institute of Tbilisi Yunus Emre, Turkish as a foreign language learners of Turkish Cultural Center language learning needs

  2. Modélisation et simulation efficaces du canal de propagation optique sans fil en environnement réel.

    COMBEAU, Pierre; Aveneau, Lilian; Behlouli, Abdeslam


    National audience; Ce papier présente nos travaux concernant la simulation du canal optique sans fil. Cel le-ci repose sur l'utilisation d'un lancé de rayons 3D associé à des méthodes de Monte-Carlo visant à résoudre efficacement, en environnement réel, l'équation d'il lumination globale modélisant la propagation de la lumière.

  3. Drug: D04390 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D04390 Drug Dilute hydrochloric acid (JP16); Hydrochloric acid lemonade (JP16); Dil...ute hydrochloric acid (TN) Therapeutic category: 2335 ATC code: A09AB03 B05XA13 Hydrochloric acid [DR:D02057...nts D04390 Dilute hydrochloric acid (JP16); Hydrochloric acid lemonade (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemica...ESTIVES, INCL. ENZYMES A09AB Acid preparations A09AB03 Hydrochloric acid D04390 D...ilute hydrochloric acid (JP16); Hydrochloric acid lemonade (JP16) B BLOOD AND BLOOD FORMING ORGANS B05 BLOOD

  4. O analiză semantică a vocii duale într-un stil literar

    Ștefan Oltean


    Full Text Available Lucrarea își propune să dea seamă de vocea duală articulată de discursului indirect liber (DIL, un mod discursiv întrebuințat cu precădere în proza narativă pentru reprezentarea evenimentelor verbale și a evenimentelor mentale verbale sau nonverbale (vezi Oltean, 1993. Mai întîi vom discuta problema conceptualizării discursului indirect liber, fără însă a intra în detalii privind deosebirile dintre acesta și discursul direct (DD sau cel indirect (DI (vezi, pentru acest aspect, Ehrlich, 1990; McHale, 1978; Oltean, 1993. Apoi vom aborda problema vocii duale cuplate cu modul discursiv în discuție, mai apoi vom schița cadrul teoretic, iar în final vom descrie forma logică a unui fragment de DIL selectat din literatura narativă de limbă engleză, în scopul specificării valenței amintite a procedeului.

  5. Citation Errors in the Masters’ Theses of the Library and Information Science and Information Engineering

    Chia-Ju Lee


    Full Text Available To investigate the conditions of citation errors in different graduate programs, this study analyzed a total of 3,564 references cited in 125 master’s theses, endorsed respectively by the Departments of Information and Library Science (DILS as well as Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering (CSIE of Tamkang University in 2007 and 2011. The analyses focused on citation error rates, citation errors associated with different reference types, and the types of citation errors, i.e., numeric errors, textual errors, or both. The overall citation error rate within the sample theses was 22.8% (21% and 24.4% for the academic years of 2007 and 2011, respectively. Error rate for DILS was 20.1% and 24.3% for CSIE. Citation errors occurred mostly in references to books, followed by conference papers and theses. Citation error rates for each individual thesis ranged from 4% to 81.3%. The study results showed that citation instruction in graduate programs is highly needed to promote better citation behavior. The use of reference management tools combined with citation instruction via research methods and library instruction courses may effectively reduce the occurrence of citation errors. [Article content in Chinese

  6. Anadolu liselerine devam eden öğrencilerin yabancı dile yönelik başarılarında kaygı ve inançlarının etkisinin incelenmesi

    ER, Sühendan Semine


    Bu çalışma, Anadolu Liselerine devam eden ve zorunlu yabancı dili Almanca, Fransızca ve İngilizce olan dokuzuncu, onuncu, on birinci ve on ikinci sınıf öğrencilerinin yabancı dil öğrenmeye karşı kaygılarının, inançlarının ve başarılarının belirlenmesi, yabancı dil öğrenmeye karşı kaygı, inanç ve başarı düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkinin saptanması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmaya, Çankaya Anadolu lisesine devam eden ve zorunlu yabancı dili Almanca olan 181 çocuk, Ankara Anadolu li...

  7. Two Chitotriose-Specific Lectins Show Anti-Angiogenesis, Induces Caspase-9-Mediated Apoptosis and Early Arrest of Pancreatic Tumor Cell Cycle.

    Ruby Singh

    Full Text Available The antiproliferative activity of two chito-specific agglutinins purified from Benincasa hispida (BhL and Datura innoxia (DiL9 of different plant family origin was investigated on various cancer cell lines. Both lectins showed chitotriose specificity, by inhibiting lectin hemagglutinating activity. On further studies, it was revealed that these agglutinins caused remarkable concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on human pancreatic cancerous cells but not on the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells even at higher doses determined using MTT assay. The GI50 values were approximately 8.4 μg ml(-1 (0.247 μM and 142 μg ml(-1 (14.8 μM for BhL and DiL9, respectively, against PANC-1 cells. The growth inhibitory effect of these lectins on pancreatic cancer cells were shown to be a consequence of lectin cell surface binding and triggering G0/G1 arrest, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, sustained increase of the intracellular calcium release and the apoptotic signal is amplified by activation of caspases executing cell death. Interestingly, these lectins also showed anti-angiogenic activity by disrupting the endothelial tubulogenesis. Therefore, we report for the first time two chito-specific lectins specifically binding to tumor glycans; they can be considered to be a class of molecules with antitumor activity against pancreatic cancer cells mediated through caspase dependent mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

  8. Beitrag Der Überzetzung Zu Den Rezeptiven Srachfertigkeiten The contribution of translation to perceptual language skills

    Ayşe UYANIK


    Full Text Available The aim of foreign language teaching is to make students gain thebasic language skills such as reading, speaking, writing and listeningcomprehension. The preparation of subject content and configuration ofmaterials are formed in line with this purpose. Translation contributesto these developments of skills significantly. But this translation’scontribution has been ignored all the time in teaching process of foreignlanguage. But being made in support of teaching methods are thetalents translations in the native language as well as the targetlanguage. Besides, thanks to translation events, simplify the transferfrom gain grammatical instructions. Next to it is the transmission ofgrammatical structures, which is also supported by the EuropeanFramework, facilitates. The aim of this study is to point out the positivecontributions to the development of translation event so perceptualskills that including listening and reading comprehension in teaching offoreign language. How to improve both types of skills has been showedwith applicable examples in the class environment. It’s beenexperienced that translation events improve reading and listeningcomprehension skills in main language as well as target language andalso enriches foreign language student’s vocabulary. And it has beenseen that translation makes them gain grammatical instructions moreconsciously. It was determined that translation exercises from readingand listening texts expand the perception fortune, of learners andfacilitate sense-from the text context. Also be obtained by reading andlistening to their language skills in both languages continued visuallearners, using these assets, rather than memorized expressions canmake personal remarks. The enrichment of the vocabulary of learnersin the reciprocal languages is another contribution of the translation. Yabancı dil öğretiminde amaç, öğrenciye duyduğunu anlama, okuduğunu anlama, konuşma ve yazma gibi temel dil becerilerini

  9. Degradation kinetics and pathways of three calcium channel blockers under UV irradiation.

    Zhu, Bing; Zonja, Bozo; Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damia; Esplugas, Santiago; Xu, Ke; Qiang, Zhimin


    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a group of pharmaceuticals widely prescribed to lower blood pressure and treat heart diseases. They have been frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream river waters, thus inducing a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the behavior and fate of CCBs under UV irradiation, which has been adopted as a primary disinfection method for WWTP effluents. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of three commonly-used CCBs, including amlodipine (AML), diltiazem (DIL), and verapamil (VER), under UV (254 nm) irradiation. The chemical structures of transformation byproducts (TBPs) were first identified to assess the potential ecological hazards. On that basis, a generic solid-phase extraction method, which simultaneously used four different cartridges, was adopted to extract and enrich the TBPs. Thereafter, the photo-degradation of target CCBs was performed under UV fluences typical for WWTP effluent disinfection. The degradation of all three CCBs conformed to the pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.031, 0.044 and 0.011 min(-1) for AML, DIL and VER, respectively. By comparing the MS(2) fragments and the evolution (i.e., formation or decay) trends of identified TBPs, the degradation pathways were proposed. In the WWTP effluent, although the target CCBs could be degraded, several TBPs still contained the functional pharmacophores and reached peak concentrations under UV fluences of 40-100 mJ cm(-2).

  10. Organic/Organic Heterointerface Engineering to Boost Carrier Injection in OLEDs

    Fathollahi, Mohammadreza; Ameri, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Mehrparvar, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammadrasoul


    We investigate dynamic formation of nanosheet charge accumulations by heterointerface engineering in double injection layer (DIL) based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Our experimental results show that the device performance is considerably improved for the DIL device as the result of heterointerface injection layer (HIIL) formation, in comparison to reference devices, namely, the current density is doubled and even quadrupled and the turn-on voltage is favorably halved, to 3.7 V, which is promising for simple small-molecule OLEDs. The simulation reveals the (i) formation of dynamic p-type doping (DPD) region which treats the quasi Fermi level at the organic/electrode interface, and (ii) formation of dynamic dipole layer (DDL) and the associated electric field at the organic/organic interface which accelerates the ejection of the carriers and their transference to the successive layer. HIIL formation proposes alternate scenarios for device design. For instance, no prerequisite for plasma treatment of transparent anode electrode, our freedom in varying the thicknesses of the organic layers between 10 nm and 60 nm for the first layer and between 6 nm and 24 nm for the second layer. The implications of the present work give insight into the dynamic phenomena in OLEDs and facilitates the development of their inexpensive fabrication for lighting applications. PMID:28218246

  11. Interactive, multi-modality image registrations for combined MRI/MRSI-planned HDR prostate brachytherapy

    Galen Reed


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study presents the steps and criteria involved in the series of image registrations used clinically during the planning and dose delivery of focal high dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy of the prostate. Material and methods: Three imaging modalities – Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI, and Computed Tomography (CT – were used at different steps during the process. MRSI is used for identification of dominant intraprosatic lesions (DIL. A series of rigid and nonrigid transformations were applied to the data to correct for endorectal-coil-induced deformations and for alignment with the planning CT. Mutual information was calculated as a morphing metric. An inverse planning optimization algorithm was applied to boost dose to the DIL while providing protection to the urethra, penile bulb, rectum, and bladder. Six prostate cancer patients were treated using this protocol. Results: The morphing algorithm successfully modeled the probe-induced prostatic distortion. Mutual information calculated between the morphed images and images acquired without the endorectal probe showed a significant (p = 0.0071 increase to that calculated between the unmorphed images and images acquired without the endorectal probe. Both mutual information and visual inspection serve as effective diagnostics of image morphing. The entire procedure adds less than thirty minutes to the treatment planning. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the utility of image transformations and registrations to HDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord ameliorate testicular dysfunction in a male rat hypogonadism model

    Zhi-Yuan Zhang


    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is a physical disorder that not only affects adults but can also jeopardize children′s health. Because there are many disadvantages to using traditional androgen replacement therapy, we have herein attempted to explore the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of androgen deficiency. We transplanted CM-Dil-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testes of an ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS-induced male rat hypogonadism model. Twenty-one days after transplantation, we found that blood testosterone levels in the therapy group were higher than that of the control group (P = 0.037, and using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we observed that some of the CM-Dil-labeled cells expressed Leydig cell markers for cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We then recovered these cells and observed that they were still able to proliferate in vitro. The present study shows that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord may constitute a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of male hypogonadism patients.

  13. Organic/Organic Heterointerface Engineering to Boost Carrier Injection in OLEDs

    Fathollahi, Mohammadreza; Ameri, Mohsen; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Mehrparvar, Ebrahim; Babaei, Mohammadrasoul


    We investigate dynamic formation of nanosheet charge accumulations by heterointerface engineering in double injection layer (DIL) based organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Our experimental results show that the device performance is considerably improved for the DIL device as the result of heterointerface injection layer (HIIL) formation, in comparison to reference devices, namely, the current density is doubled and even quadrupled and the turn-on voltage is favorably halved, to 3.7 V, which is promising for simple small-molecule OLEDs. The simulation reveals the (i) formation of dynamic p-type doping (DPD) region which treats the quasi Fermi level at the organic/electrode interface, and (ii) formation of dynamic dipole layer (DDL) and the associated electric field at the organic/organic interface which accelerates the ejection of the carriers and their transference to the successive layer. HIIL formation proposes alternate scenarios for device design. For instance, no prerequisite for plasma treatment of transparent anode electrode, our freedom in varying the thicknesses of the organic layers between 10 nm and 60 nm for the first layer and between 6 nm and 24 nm for the second layer. The implications of the present work give insight into the dynamic phenomena in OLEDs and facilitates the development of their inexpensive fabrication for lighting applications.


    Gülden TÜM


    Full Text Available Literature, philosophy, art, culture, thoughts, traditions, and values are important components taking part in any language and are hardly separated from the language. Besides, language is one of the important devices to transfer all these values from generation to generation and from culture to culture. Especially, when any language is learnt as a foreign language, it plays an important role to strengthen or to establish cultural awareness. Erasmus students, speaking different languages continue their education for one term or academic year in Turkiye. During their education, they also take Turkish lessons to learn culture and language. While learning Turkish, they have difficulties to produce Turkish structure as it has linguistic differences. Thus, the main question of this study is that if their difficulty with learning Turkish comes from the differences in the language families or the lack of cultural components in curriculum for language courses. In this study, it is aimed at a sorting out how Erasmus students become aware of cultural values; how they perceive the linguistic differences; if they could make comparisons with their native language and Turkish language; and b preparing a new curriculum to integrate proverbs, sayings and cultural values in the Turkish course books. Toplumun edebiyatı, felsefesi, sana¬tı, kültürü, düşünceleri, âdet ve gelenekleri dil ile bir bağ¬lılık içinde olduğundan dil toplumdan ve kültürden ayrı tutulamaz. Bu değerlerin başka kültürler tarafından öğrenilmesi ya da gelecek nesillere aktarılması bir bil¬dirmeyle gerçekleşir ki bunu da ancak dil başarır. Kültürler arası bilinçlenmenin de oluşmasına yardımcı olan dil, yabancı dil olarak öğrenildiği zaman da büyük önem taşır çünkü dil toplumu oluşturan değerlerin taşıyıcısıdır. Farklı dilleri konuşan yabancı Erasmus öğrencileri eğitim almak üzere eğitimlerinin bir bölümünü Türk


    Şen, Can


    1980 kuşağı şairlerinden olan Seyhan Erözçelik, şiirlerindeki şekil ve dil sapmaları ile kendisine “farklı/orijinal” bir yer elde etmeye çalışmıştır. Bu sapmalar onun eserlerini pek çok noktada “deneysel şiir”e taşımaktadır. Erözçelik, şiirlerinde görülen deneysellik ile kuşağındaki diğer şairlerden farklı bir konumda durur. Seyhan Erözçelik’in şiirlerinde gördüğümüz deneysel unsurlardan birisi de Bartın ağzının kullanımıdır. Şair, memleketinin konuşma dilini şiire taşıyarak standart şiir dil...

  16. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Eğitsel Yazılım Ekran Tasarımı Seçimlerinin Değerlendirilmesi

    Ümit DEMİR


    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, üniversite öğrencilerinin eğitsel yazılım arayüz tasarım tercihlerini ve bu tercihlerinin öğrencilerin kişisel özelliklerine göre farklılaşma durumunu ortaya çıkarmaktır. Bu çalışmada, katılımcıların kendilerini rahat hissedecekleri kendilerini yansıtan arayüz tasarımlarını oluşturmaları sağlanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart, Dokuz Eylül ve Ege Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültelerinde bilgisayar dersi almakta olan 545 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma modeli olarak ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde; aritmetik ortalama, standart sapma, kay-kare testleri kullanılmıştır.  Araştırma kapsamında kullanıcıların eğitsel yazılım arayüz tercihlerini belirlemek amacıyla Adobe Flash programında tasarım seçim yazılım hazırlanmıştır. Bu yazılımda, katılımcılar kendi ekran arka plan/yazı rengi ve görsel öğe (tablo, grafik, resim tercihlerine göre tasarım oluşturma olanağı verilmiştir. Araştırmada sonucunda; katılımcı üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyetlerine, öğrenim gördükleri bölüme, alan türüne (sayısal, eşit ağırlık, sözel göre eğitsel yazılım arayüz tasarım seçimlerinin farklılaştığı saptanmıştır. Bayanlar; pembe, açık pembe ve açık mavi gibi sıcak ve sıcak etkisi olan renkleri arka plan olarak tercih ederlerken erkekler mavi gibi soğuk ve siyah gibi nötr renk değerlerini daha fazla tercih etmişlerdir. Ayrıca; erkekler tabloyu bayanlar ise resmi metni destekleyen görsel öğe olarak daha fazla tercih etmişlerdir.

  17. Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Eğitsel Yazılım Ekran Tasarımı Seçimlerinin Değerlendirilmesi

    Ümit DEMİR


    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, üniversite öğrencilerinin eğitsel yazılım arayüz tasarım tercihlerini ve bu tercihlerinin öğrencilerin kişisel özelliklerine göre farklılaşma durumunu ortaya çıkarmaktır. Bu çalışmada, katılımcıların kendilerini rahat hissedecekleri kendilerini yansıtan arayüz tasarımlarını oluşturmaları sağlanmıştır. Araştırmanın örneklemini Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart, Dokuz Eylül ve Ege Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültelerinde bilgisayar dersi almakta olan 545 üniversite öğrencisi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma modeli olarak ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde; aritmetik ortalama, standart sapma, kay-kare testleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında kullanıcıların eğitsel yazılım arayüz tercihlerini belirlemek amacıyla Adobe Flash programında tasarım seçim yazılım hazırlanmıştır. Bu yazılımda, katılımcılar kendi ekran arka plan/yazı rengi ve görsel öğe (tablo, grafik, resim tercihlerine göre tasarım oluşturma olanağı verilmiştir. Araştırmada sonucunda; katılımcı üniversite öğrencilerinin cinsiyetlerine, öğrenim gördükleri bölüme, alan türüne (sayısal, eşit ağırlık, sözel göre eğitsel yazılım arayüz tasarım seçimlerinin farklılaştığı saptanmıştır. Bayanlar; pembe, açık pembe ve açık mavi gibi sıcak ve sıcak etkisi olan renkleri arka plan olarak tercih ederlerken erkekler mavi gibi soğuk ve siyah gibi nötr renk değerlerini daha fazla tercih etmişlerdir. Ayrıca; erkekler tabloyu bayanlar ise resmi metni destekleyen görsel öğe olarak daha fazla tercih etmişlerdir.

  18. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Elie A.Dannon; Manuele Tamò; Cyriaque Agboton; Arnold van Huis; Marcel Dicke


    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera:Crambidae) on development time,longevity,fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions.The larvae were parasitized when in the second instar.Maruca vitrata larvae were fed with flowers of four legumes,that is,Vigna unguiculata (cowpea),Sesbania rostrata,Lonchocarpus sericeus and Pterocarpus santalinoides,or an artificial diet both before and after parasitization.The parasitoid did not develop in hosts feeding on L.sericeus or V.unguiculata at 25℃,or on P.santalinoides at 25℃ or 29℃.Apanteles taragaraae had the shortest development time on artificial diet at both 25℃ and 29℃ while the longest development time was recorded on L.sericeus at 29℃.Female wasps took longer to develop compared to males at the two temperatures,regardless of the feeding substrate of their host.The longevity of the wasps at 25℃ varied among feeding substrates,but not at 29℃.Survival rate of parasitized larvae depends on the feeding substrate.Moreover,infection of host larvae with Maruca vitrata multi-nucleopolyhedrovirus (MaviMNPV) killed larger proportions of parasitized larvae at 25℃ than at 29℃,which was likely caused by the difference in parasitoid developmental rate.The proportion of female parasitoids was lowest on L.sericeus.The daily fecundity showed a nonlinear trend regardless of the feeding substrate,indicating that A.taragaraae is a pro-ovigenic species.The data support the slow growth-high mortality hypothesis.

  19. Resonances—lost and found

    Froese, Richard; Herbst, Ira


    We consider the large L limit of one dimensional Schrödinger operators H_L=-d^2/dx2 + V_1(x) + V2, L(x) in two cases: when V2, L(x)=V_2(x-L) and when V2, L(x)=e-cLδ(x-L) or more generally μ(L)V_2(x-L) . This is motivated by some recent work of Herbst and Mavi where V2, L is replaced by a Dirichlet boundary condition at L. The Hamiltonian H L converges to H = -d^2/dx2 + V_1(x) as L\\to ∞ in the strong resolvent sense (and even in the norm resolvent sense for our second case). However, most of the resonances of H L do not converge to those of H. Instead, they crowd together and converge onto a horizontal line: the real axis in our first case and the line \\renewcommand{\\Im}{\\mathopIm} \\Im(k)=-c/2 in our second case. In the region below the horizontal line resonances of H L converge to the reflectionless points of H and to those of -d^2/dx2 + V_2(x) . It is only in the region between the real axis and the horizontal line (empty in our first case) that resonances of H L converge to resonances of H. Although the resonances of H may not be close to any resonance of H L we show that they still influence the time evolution under H L for a long time when L is large.

  20. PR 2.0 and interaction of Turkish Brands in Terms of Brand Awareness

    Ece BABAN


    Full Text Available Today, under the affect of market conditions, companies prefer social media channel with the aim of reaching their target population, interacting with their customers directly and expressing their brands more powerfully in the market. Companies are trying to perform new strategies for creating close relationships between brand and customers, while the differentiation attempts of the companies. Nowadays, the Internet phenomenon is one of the most important factors in this regard. People spend most of their times at the computer and internet networks. In the 1990s, with the spread of internet and mobile phones, public relations activities moved to electronic and digital media of mass communication as a one-way by using e-mail, SMS and fax machine tools (Jalali, 2009:32. In the 2000s, by the development in web area, with the help of 2.0 patches, people can also edit the pages instead of just reading the written pages through the web pages. In today's competitive environment and the developments that followed the progress of technology companies and companies with a progressive web influenced by these developments and the opportunities created by social media, they introduce their products and services and increase customer satisfaction for better uses. PR activities which use Web 2.0 and technological developments in social media environment are called PR 2.0 (Jalali, 2009:45. Throughout the research, PR 2.0 activities within the scope of the contribution of brand awareness through social media, especially in comparison with traditional PR will be discussed. Brands will be examined regarding the brands which are actively using the social media in terms of the public relations and brand awareness. Brands can be listed in four different business sectors such as; Mavi Jeans, Anadolu Efes Pilsen, Garanti Bankası and ETI.

  1. Kayseri Ve Yöresi Tarih Araştırmaları Merkezi’nde Bulunan Ebrû Kaplı Defterler The Marbled Paper In The Notebooks That Is Being At History Of Kayseri And Neighboring Areas Research And Implementation Center

    Neval SAKİN


    ımızdan olan Ebrû’nun geçmişine ait örneklerin yer aldığı arşivlerden biri de Kayseri ve Yöresi Tarih Araştırmaları Merkezi (KAYTAM Arşivi’dir. Arşiv, müze ve kütüphanelerde çeşitli konularda yazılmış yazma eserler ve resmi belgeler hem süsleme hem de koruma amaçlı olarak döneminin sanat anlayışıyla bezenmiştir. İşte bu anlayıştan yola çıkarak yazımızda KAYTAM Arşivi’nde bulunan ve Osmanlı Devleti’nin son 100 yılı ile Türkiye Cumhuriyeti’nin ilk yıllarını içeren çeşitli konulardaki defterlerden ebrû kaplı olanlar ele alınarak incelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda tespit edilen 153 adet Ebrû kaplı defterin 25’i aşırı tahrip olmuştur. Kalan 128 adet Ebrû kaplı defterde ise 26 Battal ebrû ve 102 Dalgalı ebrû olmak üzere iki ebrû çeşidi görülmektedir.Makalemizde söz konusu ebrûlardan benzer örnekler elenerek 20 ebrû örneği alınmıştır. Ele aldığımız ebrû kaplı 20 defterden 10 tanesi Battal ebrû, 10 tanesi Dalgalı ebrûdur. Bu ebrû örneklerinde kullanılan renkler; lahor çividi, çivid mavi, oksit sarı, oksit kırmızı, koyu kahverengi, kahverengi, vişne çürüğü’dür. Bir iki örnekte de siyah, mavi, açık mavi, oksit yeşil ve gri renkleri görülmektedir. Ebrûların genel olarak tarihlendirilmesi sıkıntılı olsa da incelediğimiz ebrûların yer aldığı defterler 1842-1876 ve 1886-1889 tarih aralıklarını kapsamaktadır.


    Nilüfer SERİN


    Full Text Available Yabancı dil öğretiminde temel kaynak olarak ders kitaplarının kullanılması, kitaplarda yer verilen metinlerin seçimini önemli kılmaktadır. Avrupa Ortak Dil Çerçevesi’nde de yabancı dil öğretiminde metinlerin önemine dikkat çekilmekte, metinlerin sadece okuma becerisinin değil aynı zamanda konuşma ve yazma becerisinin de gelişmesine yardımcı olmasından ötürü öğrencilerin fazla sayıda metinle karşılaşması gerektiği üzerinde durulmaktadır. Bunun dışında dil öğrenenlerin söz varlığının gelişmesine, öğrendikleri dilin taşıdığı kültürü tanımalarına, hedef dilin konuşulduğu ülke/ülkeler hakkında bilgi edinmelerine de katkı sağlamaktadır. Bu hususta etkili ve verimli bir yabancı dil dersi için ders kitaplarına seçilecek metinlerin de öğrencilerin seviyesine, dersin hedef ve amaçlarına uygun olması gerekmektedir. Muhakkak ki edebî türler, metnin özgünlüğü ve teması ders kitaplarında yer alan metinlerin seçiminde göz önünde bulundurulacak önemli kıstaslardandır. Bu bağlamda, bu çalışmada yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretilen merkezler tarafından gerek yurt içinde gerekse yurt dışında sıklıkla tercih edilen Yunus Emre Türkçe Öğretim Seti’nde yer alan metinler nitel araştırmaya hizmet edebilecek şekilde doküman analizi tekniğiyle tür, tema ve özgünlük bakımından incelenmiş, elde edilen veriler içerik analizi yöntemiyle çözümlenmiştir. Böylece bu sette yer alan metinlerin hangi edebî tür ve temalar üzerinde yoğunlaştığı, hangi seviyede hangi edebî türe ağırlık verildiği, özgün metin kullanımına ne ölçüde yer verildiği ve kitaplarda bulunan metinlerin Avrupa Ortak Dil Çerçevesi’nde yer verilen metinsel ölçütlere uygunluğu tespit edilmiştir. / The use of textbooks as the primary source of foreign language teaching makes the selection of texts included in books important. The Common European

  3. Zihin Kuramı: Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan ve Normal Gelişen Çocukların Performanslarının Karşılaştırılması



    Full Text Available Nedensel karşılaştırma deseni kullanılarak planlanan bu araştırmada, otizm spektrum bozukluğu (OSB olan ve normal gelişen (NG çocukların, zihin kuramı performansları ve bu alandaki performansların genel dil ve kronolojik yaşla ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırma grubunu, Türkçe Erken Dil Gelişimi Testi (TEDİL ifade edici dil eşdeğer yaşları en az 4 olan 30 OSB olan ve 30 NG çocuk oluşturmuştur. OSB olan ve NG çocuklar ortalama sözce uzunluğuna (OSU göre eşleştirilmişlerdir. Zihin kuramı becerileri bir grup işlemle değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, dilde OSU’ ya göre eşleştirilen OSB olan çocuklarla NG çocukların zihin kuramı performanslarının benzer olduğunu, her iki grupta da dilin, zihin kuramı ile ilişkili olduğunu ancak NG çocuklarda dile ek olarak kronolojik yaşın da zihin kuramı ile ilişkili olduğunu göstermiştir. This study examined the theory of mind (ToM performance and the relationship between language, chronological age and theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and in typically developing (TD children by utilizing the ex-post-facto design. The participants were 30 children with ASD and 30 TD children whose Test of Early Language Development (TELD - Turkish Version expressive language age scores were at least 4 years old. Children with ASD and TD children were matched on mean length of utterance (MLU. ToM ability was assessed on a battery of tasks that have developmental sequence. The findings revealed that the children with ASD and TD children who were matched according to MLU, performed similarly on ToM tasks. Besides language was related to the performance on ToM tasks in children with ASD and in TD children whereas also chronological age is related to the performance on ToM tasks in TD children.

  4. Reduced numbers of regulatory B cells are negatively correlated with disease activity in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis.

    Ma, Liang; Liu, Bin; Jiang, Zhenyu; Jiang, Yanfang


    This study is aimed at determining the numbers of circulating Treg and Breg cells in patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis and during subsequent drug therapies. Patients were treated orally with 10 mg methotrexate weekly, and 20 mg leflunomide and 60 mg common threewingnut root daily (Lei Gong Teng) for 12 weeks, but received no steroid therapy. Basal measurements were performed of serum C-reactive protein, anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the numbers of cluster of differentiation CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells, interleukin 10 (IL10)-expressing on CD5(+)CD1d(+) and TIM1(+) B cells. Compared with the healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly less numbers of circulating CD19(+)TIM1(+)IL10(+), CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(+)IL10(+) B cells and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (P numbers of CD19(+)TIM1(+)IL10(+) and CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(+)IL10(+) B cells correlated positively with the numbers of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells in these patients (r = 0.707, P = 0.001; r = 0.481, P = 0.007, respectively). The values of DAS28 were negatively correlated with the numbers of CD19(+)TIM1(+)IL10(+) and CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(+)IL10(+) B cells, and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (r = -0.533, P = 0.023; r = -0.442, P = 0.016; and r = -0.444, P = 0.014, respectively). Of note, TIM1(+) B cells identified more circulating IL10(+) B cells than CD5(+)CD1d(+) B cells. Our data indicate that Breg and Treg cells have a potentially crucial role in controlling disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients, and TIM1(+) Breg cells may be a viable therapeutic target for these patients.


    M. Selda KARAŞLAR


    Full Text Available The Dīvānu Luġāti’t-Türk which is the first source about the Turkish world’s literature, language, cultural, social situation in the eleventh century gives us very important and original knowledges for Turcology researching. It is always main source for the researchers. Besides rich information about the language of Karahanid Turkish in the eleventh century, the book also includes ınformation the language, culture and history of numerous Turkish dialects especially Oġhuz language.In this study, the Oġhuz objects’ names in Kâşgarlı Mahmud’s Dīvān and from this viewpoint the improving of Oġhuz rhetoric will be examined. XI. yüzyıl Türk dünyasının dil, edebiyat, kültür ve sosyal durumuyla ilgili zengin ve özgün ilk bilgileri veren Dīvānu Luġāti’t-Türk, Türkoloji araştırmalarında her zaman temel kaynak olmuş ve araştırmacılar tarafından çok yönlü olarak ele alınmıştır. XI. yüzyıl Karahanlı Türkçesinin dil durumuyla ilgili zengin bilgiler içeren eser, Oğuzca başta olmak üzere birçok Türk diyalekt alanı ile ilgili dil, kültür, tarih malzemesi de içermektedir.Bu çalışmada Kâşgarlı Mahmud’un Dīvānındaki Oğuzca eşya adları ele alınacak, bu noktadan Oğuz söz varlığının gelişimi incelenecektir.

  6. Chloroplast Dynamics and Photosynthetic Efficiency: Final Technical Report

    Hanson, Maureen [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    This project investigated the mechanism by which chloroplasts position themselves to maximize solar energy utilization, to enhance gas exchange, to minimize environmental stress, and to promote efficient exchange of metabolites with other compartments within the plant cell. Chloroplasts move within leaf cells to optimize light levels, moving toward levels of light useful for photosynthesis while moving away from excess light. Plastids sometimes extend their reach by sending out projections (stromules) that can connect anchor chloroplasts in position within the cell or provide close contacts with plasma membrane, mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the nucleus. The intracellular location of chloroplasts in relation to other organelles with which they share biosynthetic pathways, such as peroxisomes and mitochondria in photorespiration, affects metabolite flow. This work contributed to the knowledge of the mechanisms of organelle movement and anchoring in specific locations in plant cells and how proteins traffic within the cell. We identified two domains on 12 of the 13 Arabidopsis myosins that were similar to the vacuole-binding (V) domain characterized in yeast and to the DIL domain characterized in yeast and mouse as required for secretory vesicle or melanosome movement, respectively. Because all of the Arabidopsis regions with homology to the V domain contain the amino acid sequence PAL, we refer to this region as the Arabidopsis PAL domain. We have used the yeast Myo2p tail structural information to model the 12 myosin XI tail domains containing the homologous PAL and DIL domains. Eight YFP::DIL domain fusions labeled peroxisomes; none labeled mitochondria or chloroplasts. Six myosin XI Vacuole domains labeled mitochondria and seven labeled Golgi bodies. The Arabidopsis myosin XI-F PAL domain and the homologous myosin XI-F PAL domain from N. benthamiana labels chloroplasts and stromules in N. benthamiana leaves. Using an Arabidopsis line




    İletişimin tam olarak gerçekleşebilmesi göndericinin düşüncelerini alıcıya tam olarak aktarabileceği sözcükleri bilme/kullanma yeterliliğini gerektirir. Sözcük dağarcığı ne kadar genişse insanın kendini anlatma ve iletileri anlayabilme yetisi o kadar gelişmiştir. Günlük yaşamda hayatı devam ettirebilecek sayıda sözcük kullanılır. İnsanlar; bilişsel gelişimleri ve entelektüel düşünebilmeleri için kurumsal boyutta, kavram alanlarını genişletici bir eğitime gereksinim duyarlar. Dil derslerinde d...

  8. Lúpus induzido por drogas: da imunologia básica à aplicada Drug-induced lupus: from basic to spplied immunology

    Licia Maria Henrique da Mota


    Full Text Available O lúpus induzido por drogas (LID é descrito como o desenvolvimento de sintomas semelhantes ao do lúpus eritematoso sistêmico idiopático, temporalmente relacionado à exposição a drogas, havendo, comumente, a resolução do quadro com a suspensão do medicamento desencadeante. A associação mais clássica é feita com a procainamida e a hidralazina. Recentemente, com a introdução de novas drogas na prática clínica, tem sido relatado um aumento no número de medicamentos implicados como causadores da doença, e a lista atual inclui quase uma centena de drogas relacionadas à ocorrência de LID. Embora descrito há mais de 60 anos, o mecanismo imunológico básico do LID ainda não está totalmente compreendido. Há várias hipóteses para o processo de indução de auto-imunidade pelas drogas, e o fenômeno geralmente é interpretado como uma inapropriada ativação do sistema imunitário. Entre as diversas teorias propostas, as mais aceitas são: a inibição da metilação do ácido desoxirribonucléico (DNA por algumas drogas, o que permitiria a ativação das células T; a oxidação de certas substâncias pelos monócitos, gerando metabólitos ativos que ocasionariam ativação das células apresentadoras de antígenos e/ou a interferência dos metabólitos de determinadas drogas com a tolerância do sistema imune. Novos estudos são necessários para a melhor compreensão da imunopatogenia do LID, objetivando desenvolver tratamentos específicos com base no melhor conhecimento dos mecanismos patogênicos.Drug-induced lupus (DIL has been described as the development of idiopathic systemic lupus erythematous-like symptoms, temporarily associated to the exposition to drugs, and as a rule, the condition is improved with the suspension of the triggering medication. The most classical association is with procainamide and hydralazine. Recently, with the introduction of new drugs in the clinical practice, an increase on the number of

  9. On the extinction of radiation by a homogeneous but spatially correlated random medium: reply to comment

    Kostinski, Alexander B.


    In response to comments by Borovoi [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2517 (2002)] on my earlier work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 1929 (2001)], the kinetic approach to extinction is compared with the traditional radiative transfer formalism and advantages of the former are illustrated with concrete examples. It is pointed out that the basic differential equation dI(l)=- cσI(l)dl already implies perfect randomness (absence of correlations) on small scales. One of the consequences is that the extinction of radiation in a negatively correlated random medium cannot be treated within the traditional framework. This limits the usefulness of the Jensen inequality. Also, simple counterexamples to theorems given in the first reference above and in Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 276, 1374 (1984) are presented.


    Mehmet Volkan DEMİREL


    Full Text Available Çalışmada Türkçenin öğretiminde kip kategorisinin ele alınış biçimleri incelenmiştir. Araştırma yöntemi olarak tarama modelinin kullanıldığı bu çalışmada verilerin toplanması için doküman analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada öncelikle dil bilgisi ve dilbilim kitaplarındaki kip tanımları ve sınıflandırmaları değerlendirilmiştir. Dil bilgisi kitaplarında kip ve zaman konusunun birlikte ele alındığı, kip ve zaman arasında tam bir ayrım yapılamadığı, konunun birbirine karıştırıldığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. İkinci olarak İzmir ve çevresinde kullanılan 7. sınıf Türkçe dersi öğretmen kılavuz kitaplarında, ortaöğretim 9. sınıf dil ve anlatım kitabında ve yabancılara Türkçe öğretmek için hazırlanmış kitaplarda kiplerin tanımlanması ve işlenişi incelenmiştir. Türkçe öğretiminde kiplerin tanımlanması ve sınıflandırılmasında dil bilgisi kitaplarındaki gelenekselleşen yaklaşımın izlendiği görülmüştür. Ayrıca kip sınıflandırma ve adlandırmalarında çelişen ifadeler tespit edilmiş, bunlarla ilgili değerlendirmeler yapılmıştır. / The focus of this study is teaching modality in Turkish. Firstly, definitions and classifications of modality in grammar and linguistics books were examined. It was found that in these books, modality and tense was presented together, there was no clear distinction between modality and tense, and the terms were confused with each other. Secondly, the definition and covering of modal expressions in the teacher's books of 7th grade Turkish course used in the İzmir region and in the books prepared for teaching Turkish to foreigners were examined. A traditional approach was observed to be adopted in the grammar books in defining and classifying modality in teaching Turkish. In addition, there were contradictory statements regarding the terminology and classifications.

  11. Carbide Dissolution during Intercritical Austenitization in Bearing Steel

    LI Hui; MI Zhenli; ZHANG Xiaolei; TANG Di; WANG Yide


    In order to investigate the carbide dissolution mechanism of high carbon-chromium bearing steel during the intercritical austenitization, the database of TCFE7 of Thermo-calc and MOBFE of DICTRA software were used to calculate the elements diffusion kinetic and the evolution law of volume fraction of carbide. DIL805A dilatometer was used to simulate the intercritical heat treatment. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and the micro-hardness was tested. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution of carbide is composed of two stages:initial austenite growth governed by carbon diffusion which sharply moves up the micro-hardness of quenched martensite, and subsequent growth controlled by diffusion of Cr elements in M3C. The volume fraction of M3C decreases with the increasing holding time, and the metallographic analysis shows a great agreement with values calculated by software.

  12. Summary of Meteorological Observations, Surface (SMOS) for Moffett Field, California


    0* 0. e N W I a U 3 - 01, 0.~C Of CI 0. N I ILA LUz C6 I .. a Ia . . . a a a a . 0 * .al 0.. A I21, 11% 9- -4 CL) for 0n In~ %.AI D4 1a ,’ .24 o o0 0...Di N i Ci3 i-4 0 𔃺 L 0 0 4.0 0 iO .in cp. 4.0 .1I 4 - Dn D in D in Din D&n D In DiL in;i k- -4 o in- 00. Z D N Oi#AN N4 co N .4 cINe n N N N 0 At 0

  13. Magnetic field generation and amplification in an expanding plasma

    Schoeffler, K M; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O


    Particle-in-cell simulations are used to investigate the formation of magnetic fields, B, in plasmas with perpendicular electron density and temperature gradients. For system sizes, L, comparable to the ion skin depth, d_i, it is shown that B ~ d_i/L, consistent with the Biermann battery effect. However, for large L/d_i, it is found that the Weibel instability (due to electron temperature anisotropy) supersedes the Biermann battery as the main producer of B. The Weibel-produced fields saturate at a finite amplitude (plasma \\beta \\approx 100), independent of L. The magnetic energy spectra below the electron Larmor radius scale is well fitted by power law with slope -16/3, as predicted in Schekochihin et al., Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser 182, 310 (2009).

  14. Hot Deformation Of 6xxx Series Aluminium Alloys

    Mrówka-Nowotnik G.


    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of the 6xxx aluminum alloys was investigated by compression tests in the temperature range 100°C-375°C and strain rate range 10−4s−1 and 4×10−4s−1 using dilatometer DIL 805 BÄHR Thermoanalyse equipped with accessory attachment deformation allows the process to execute thermoplastic in vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Associated microstructural changes of characteristic states of examined alloys were studied by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results show that the stress level decreases with increasing deformation temperature and deformation rate. And was also found that the activation energy Q strongly depends on both, the temperature and rate of deformation. The results of TEM observation showing that the dynamic flow softening is mainly as the result of dynamic recovery and recrystallization of 6xxx aluminium alloys.

  15. Influence of Chemical Composition on Phase Transformation Temperature and Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Hot Work Die Steel

    XIE Hao-jie; WU Xiao-chun; MIN Yong-an


    On the basis of the uniform design method,six kinds of martensitie hot work die steels were designed.The phase transformation temperatures including Ac1,Ac3,and M,were measured by DIL805A quenching dilatometer.The influences of the main elements on phase transformation temperatures were analyzed by quadratic stepwise regression analysis,and three corresponding equations were obtained.These equations,in which the interactions of the elements were considered,showed more effectiveness than the traditional ones.In addition,the thermal expansion coefficients of these steels in annealed state and quenched state were also obtained during the tests.The influences of chemical composition and temperature on the thermal expansion coefficient were analyzed;the equations obtained Were verified by using several kinds of steels.The predicted values were in accordance with the results of the experiments.

  16. Deception Integration in the U.S. Army


    lemon of Information Siend cormentif ear q th~b~4%e~mt rayo ~~IOIo ,. (OIleeI,on of .nfor-on.on. Including lu99C~L.Of for reou’l In’s burdem, t0 o~an~n1 n...London: 1936) pp. 106-7. 72 SITATINA6PM 8T OCT. 191 7 .73 Wtd&ERRA N 4-1 a Q PMV rAMw: M XXI xx Sh GA W X . mp. SL Detachment F"’, a-- dIL 4f N *44 Yoe. d...guile and cunning and putting together the concept of operations. It’s not a mechanical thing, its not this guy’s got X and I’ve Y and force balance of

  17. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Ya-jing Zhou


    Full Text Available Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administration via the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve fibers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and fluorogold-labeled nerve fibers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was markedly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  18. Propofol promotes spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation

    Ya-jing Zhou; Jian-min Liu; Shu-ming Wei; Yun-hao Zhang; Zhen-hua Qu; Shu-bo Chen


    Propofol is a neuroprotective anesthetic. Whether propofol can promote spinal cord injury repair by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains poorly understood. We used rats to investigate spinal cord injury repair using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with propofol administrationvia the tail vein. Rat spinal cord injury was clearly alleviated; a large number of newborn non-myelinated and myelinated nerve ifbers appeared in the spinal cord, the numbers of CM-Dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and lfuorogold-labeled nerve ifbers were increased and hindlimb motor function of spinal cord-injured rats was mark-edly improved. These improvements were more prominent in rats subjected to bone marrow mesenchymal cell transplantation combined with propofol administration than in rats receiving monotherapy. These results indicate that propofol can enhance the therapeutic effects of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on spinal cord injury in rats.

  19. Entre o Sagrado e o Fantástico: as (desconstruções imagéticas em Noé = Between the Sacred and the Fantastic: the imagistic (unconstructions in Noah

    Rodrigues, Fabiana


    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar a relação do elemento Fantástico com a temática do Sagrado, presentes no filme Noé (Darren Aronofsky, 2014. O Sagrado, aqui, deve ser entendido literalmente como a história bíblica de Noé, que começa no Gênesis, bem antes da conhecida reunião dos animais que antecede o dilúvio divino. Desta forma, para além do contexto bíblico, há o elemento Fantástico, no filme, que vem a transformar o elemento Sagrado da narrativa em somente um pano de fundo para o desencadeamento de ações ditas do gênero Fantástico

  20. Hematologia comparada entre diplóides e triplóides de truta arco-íris, Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum (Pisces, Salmonidae Comparated hematology between diploids and triploids of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss waibaum (Pisces, Salmonidae

    Maria José Tavares Ranzani-Paiva


    Full Text Available This Study was carried out at the Salmoniculture Experimental Station "Dr. Ascanio de Faria", in Campos do Jordão, São Paulo. Brazil. The aim was to compared the hematology of triploid and diploid rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792, by sex and gonadal maturation stages. Blood was obtained from 144 individuais for determinati-ons of: haemoglobin rate (Hb, haematocrit (Ht, erythrocyte count (Er, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MHC, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, and differential leucocyte counts. The ploid was determinated by measuring the erythrocyte major axis, in fresh and stainncd smears. Triploid rainbow trout had a large eiythrocyte diameter, mean erythrocyte volume and mean haemoglobin concentration, but lower erythrocyte count than diploid. Lymphocytes was the most frequent cell in peripherical blood.There was no dilTerence between males and females for ali parameters here analysed. The haematological analyses showcd signiffleant increase with the dcvelopment of gonadal maturation stages.

  1. Effect of Curcumin on the Gene Expression of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors


    Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms and effective target ponits of lipid-lowering drug, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, and study the effect of curcumin on the expression of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in macrophages in mice. Methods: Macrophages in mice were treated with curcumin, which was purified from the ethanolly extraction of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae for 24 h. The LDL receptors expressed in the macrophages were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assay of Dil labeled LDL uptake by flow cytometer. Results: It was found for the first time that 10 μmol/L-50μmol/L curcumin could obviously up-regulate the expression of LDL receptor in macrophages in mice, and a dose-effect relationship was demonstrated. Conclusion: One of the lipid-lowering mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, was completed by the effect of curcumin through the up-regulation of the expression of LDL receptor.


    Özber CAN


    Full Text Available Dil öğrenme imkânları giderek yaygınlaşmasına rağmen, Türk insanı Doğu klasikleri gibi Batı klasiklerini de daha çok çeviri eserler yoluyla okumaktadır. Bu süreç, okuru yazarın söylemek istediğine götürürken kayıplara neden olmakta; eserleri özgün dillerinde okuyabilenlerin sayısı ise sınırlı kalmaktadır. Bu makale ile edebiyat eseri okuma süreci bağlamında Franz Kafka anlatısının nasıl okunabileceği, algılanabileceği ve yorumlanabileceği incelenmektedir.

  3. İzmir ve Aliağa Körfezinde Mevsimsel Olarak Avlanan Bazı Ekonomik Balık Türlerinde Organik Klorlu Pestisit Kalıntılarının Araştırılması.

    Belgin H. Uluocak


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Aliağa, Foça, Tuzla (Homa, Urla İskele ve Mordoğan’dan dört tür balık (Kefal, Barbun, Çipura, Dil balığı mevsimsel olarak toplanmış ve analize alınmıştır. Balık dokusunda Organik Klorlu (OC pestisitler GC-ECD ile analiz edilmiş ve GCMS ile doğrulanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre tüm numunelerde OC’lu pestisitlerden DDT nin metaboliti olan DDE bulunmuştur.DDE daha kararlı bir bileşik olup, DDT nin eskiden kullanılmış olduğunu göstermektedir

  4. Comparación de tres técnicas de trazado retrógrado para la identificación del origen espinal del nervio ciático en ratón.

    Myriam L. Velandia


    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se compararon tres técnicas para la aplicación de dos tipos de trazadores retrógrados fluorescentes (Dil y Fluorogold, con el fin de identificar las neuronas motoras y sensoriales que contribuyen con fibras al nervio ciático en ratones adultos. Se ensayó la aplicación de cristales directamente en el nervio, la inyección intraneural y la impregnación del nervio seccionado usando una cámara de silicona. La localización específica de las neuronas motoras en la médula espinal y las neuronas sensoriales en los ganglios de la raíz dorsal que aportan al nervio ciático de ratón se logró aplicando el Fluorogold mediante una cámara en el cabo proximal de los nervios previamente seccionados. Al utilizar el trazador Dil, la misma técnica no permitió hacer la identificación específica de las neuronas. Se encontró que al nervio ciático de ratón podrían contribuir el ganglio de la raíz dorsal más rostrales que los informados para ratas. Estos resultados muestran que la metodología de aplicación de neurotrazadores en cápsula y la descalcificación de tejidos es útil para la localización de neuronas de ganglios de raíz dorsal y de la médula espinal que componen el nervio ciático de ratón adulto, lo que en el futuro permitirá obtener mayor información sobre la neuroanatomía básica del ratón.

  5. Farklı Engel Gruplarının İletişim Özellikleri ve Öğretmenlere Öneriler

    Pınar Ege


    Full Text Available Dil ve Konuşma (İletişim Bozuklukları bireylerde tek başına bulunabildikleri gibi, işitme engeli, otizm, zihinsel engel gibi pek çok engel gurubunda da farklı biçimlerde görülürler. Özellikle okul öncesi ve ilköğretim sınıflarında engelli öğrencilerle karşılaşan öğretmenlerin, bu çocukların iletişim özelliklerini bilemedikleri ve onlara yardımcı olmak için neler yapabilecekleri konusunda yeterli donanıma sahip olmadıkları gözlenmektedir. Bu yazı, dilin ve konuşmanın temel unsurları hakkında bilgi verdikten sonra, farklı engel gruplarındaki öğrencilerin dil ve konuşmaları ile ilgili özelliklerini belirtip, öğretmenlere bu öğrencilerin iletişim becerilerinin desteklenmesi konusunda temel bilgiler sunmaktadır. While speech and language disorders are manifested in various ways by themselves, they are also widely observed in children with other disabilities such as hearing disorders, autism, mental retardation and others. It has been observed that most teachers who have children with disabilities in preschool and elementary school classrooms are not familiar with how these children communicate and have insufficient knowledge about how to help them. This article aims to provide basic information about language and speech and communication characteristics of various disability groups and what teachers can do to enhance communicative abilities of these children.

  6. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: “Ideal” Tearing and the Hall Effect

    Pucci, Fulvia; Velli, Marco; Tenerani, Anna


    One of the main questions in magnetic reconnection is the origin of triggering behavior with on/off properties that, once it is activated, accounts for the fast magnetic energy conversion to kinetic and thermal energies at the heart of explosive events in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Over the past decade, progress has been made on the initiation of fast reconnection via the plasmoid instability and what has been called “ideal” tearing, which sets in once current sheets thin to a critical inverse aspect ratio {(a/L)}c. As shown by Pucci & Velli, at {(a/L)}c∼ {S}-1/3, the timescale for the instability to develop becomes of the order of the Alfvén time and independent of the Lundquist number (here defined in terms of current sheet length L). However, given the large values of S in natural plasmas, this transition might occur for thicknesses of the inner resistive singular layer that are comparable to the ion inertial length d i . When this occurs, Hall currents produce a three-dimensional quadrupole structure of the magnetic field, and the dispersive waves introduced by the Hall effect accelerate the instability. Here we present a linear study showing how the “ideal” tearing mode critical aspect ratio is modified when Hall effects are taken into account, including more general scaling laws of the growth rates in terms of sheet inverse aspect ratio: the critical inverse aspect ratio is amended to a/L≃ {({di}/L)}0.29{(1/S)}0.19, at which point the instability growth rate becomes Alfvénic and does not depend on either of the (small) parameters {d}i/L,1/S. We discuss the implications of this generalized triggering aspect ratio for recently developed phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection.


    Hakan ÖZDEMİR


    Full Text Available Like every artist poet aims at immortality with his works. While doing this, poet acts in two fundamentally: First his subject, second functioning form of matter. The first topic which is dealed in competent work will be discussed shortly. The topic which is the main focus on is functioning form of matter can be named as “presentation” indeed. In this study, a linguistic point of view of the poet's poetry will be studied. Her sanatçı gibi şair de verdiği eserle, yani şiirleriyle ölümsüzlüğü hedefler. Bunu yaparken iki temelden hareket eder: Birincisi “işlediği konu”, ikincisi ise “ele aldığı konuyu işleyiş şeklidir”. Alanında yetkin çalışmalara konu olmuş bu birinci başlığa, yine bu eserlerden faydalanarak çalışmada kısaca değinilecektir. Asıl üzerinde durulacak başlığı ise “Sunuluş” olarak da adlandırılabilecek “konunun ele alınış şekli” oluşturacaktır. Bu çalışmada, dil biliminin ele aldığı anlam olayları içinde benzetme, aktarma, karşıtlama ve alışılmamış bağdaştırmalar gibi konular üzerinden Şair Hasan Hüseyin Korkmazgil’in şiirine dil bilimsel bir bakış getirilmeye çalışılacaktır.

  8. A novel and feasible way to cultivate and purify endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow of children with congenital heart diseases

    WU Yong-tao; LI Jing-xing; LIU Shuo; XIN Yi; WANG Zi-jian; GAO Jin; JI Bing-yang; FAN Xiang-ming; ZHOU Qi-wen


    Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are used in vascular tissue engineering and clinic therapy.Some investigators get EPCs from the peripheral blood for clinic treatment,but the number of EPCs is seldom enough.We have developed the cultivation and purification of EPCs from the bone marrow of children with congenital heart disease,to provide enough seed cells for a small calibre vascular tissue engineering study.Methods The 0.5-ml of bone marrow was separated from the sternum bone,and 5-ml of peripheral blood was collected from children with congenital heart diseases who had undergone open thoracic surgery.CD34+ and CD34+/VEGFR+cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood were quantified by flow cytometry.CD34+NEGFR+ cells were defined as EPCs.Mononuclear cells in the bone marrow were isolated by Ficoll(R) density gradient centrifugation and cultured by the EndoCult Liquid Medium KitTM.Colony forming endothelial cells was detected.Immunohistochemistry staining for Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UEA-1 confirmed the endothelial lineage of these cells.Results CD34+ and CD34+NEGFR+ cells in peripheral blood were (0.07±0.05)% and (0.05±0.02)%,respectively.The number of CD34+ and CD34+NEGFR+ cells in bone marrow were significantly higher than in blood,(4.41±1.47)% and (0.98±0.65)%,respectively (P <0.0001).Many colony forming units formed in the culture.These cells also expressed high levels of Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UEA-1.Conclusion This is a novel and feasible approach that can cultivate and purify EPCs from the bone marrow of children with congenital heart disease,and provide seed cells for small calibre vascular tissue engineering.

  9. Memory immune response and safety of a booster dose of Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) in JE-CV-primed children.

    Feroldi, Emmanuel; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Boaz, Mark; Gailhardou, Sophia; Meric, Claude; Bouckenooghe, Alain


    Japanese encephalitis chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV) is a licensed vaccine indicated in a single dose administration for primary immunization. This controlled phase III comparative trial enrolled children aged 36-42 mo in the Philippines. 345 children who had received one dose of JE-CV in a study two years earlier, received a JE-CV booster dose. 105 JE-vaccine-naïve children in general good health were randomized to receive JE-CV (JE-vaccine naïve group; 46 children) or varicella vaccine (safety control group; 59 children). JE neutralizing antibody titers were assessed using PRNT50. Immunological memory was observed in children who had received the primary dose of JE-CV before. Seven days after the JE-CV booster dose administration, 96.2% and 66.8% of children were seroprotected and had seroconverted, respectively, and the geometric mean titer (GMT) was 231 1/dil. Twenty-eight days after the JE-CV booster dose seroprotection and seroconversion were achieved in 100% and 95.3% of children, respectively, and the GMT was 2,242 1/dil. In contrast, only 15.4% of JE-CV-vaccine naïve children who had not received any prior JE vaccine were seroprotected seven days after they received JE-CV. One year after receiving the JE-CV booster dose, 99.4% of children remained seroprotected. We conclude that JE-CV is effective and safe, both as a single dose and when administrated as a booster dose. A booster dose increases the peak GMT above the peak level reached after primary immunization and the antibody persistence is maintained at least one year after the JE-CV booster dose administration. Five year follow up is ongoing.

  10. Autologous bone marrow stromal cell transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis induced by a moderate dose of radiation in dogs.

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Liu, Xu; Li, Hongyu; Qi, Xingshun; Guo, Xiaozhong


    Radiation enteritis is one of the most common complications of cancer radiotherapy, and the development of new and effective measures for its prevention and treatment is of great importance. Adult bone marrow stromal stem cells (ABMSCs) are capable of self-renewal and exhibit low immunogenicity. In this study, we investigated ABMSC transplantation as a treatment for acute radiation enteritis. We developed a dog model of acute radiation enteritis using abdominal intensity-modulated radiation therapy in a single X-ray dose of 14 Gy. ABMSCs were cultured in vitro, identified via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and double labeled with CM-Dil and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) before transplantation, which took place 48 hours after abdominal irradiation in a single fraction. The dog model of acute radiation enteritis was transplanted with cultured ABMSCs labeled with CM-Dil and SPIO into the mesenteric artery through the femoral artery. Compared with untreated control groups, dogs treated with ABMSCs exhibited substantially longer survival time and improved relief of clinical symptoms. ABMSC transplantation induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and the recovery of intestinal function. Furthermore, ABMSC transplantation resulted in elevated serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-11 (IL10) and intestinal radioprotective factors, such as keratinocyte growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and platelet-derived growth factor-B while reducing the serum level of the inflammatory cytokine IL17. ABMSCs induced the regeneration of the intestinal epithelium and regulated the secretion of serum cytokines and the expression of radioprotective proteins and thus could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective mitigators of and protectors against acute radiation enteritis.

  11. Solution Heat of Potassium Styphnate and Caesium Styphnate in Water and DMF at 298.15 K%298.15 K时斯蒂芬酸钾盐和铯盐在水和DMF中的溶解热

    刘影; 佟文超; 杨利; 张同来; 冯长根


    The dissolution and thermochemical properties of potassium styphnate [K2(TNR) (H2O)]n and cesium styphnate [Cs2(TNR)(H2O)2]n in water and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at 298.15 K were studied by calorimetry. The processes are endothermic in water, and exothermic in DMF because of the different molecular structure and polarity of the solutes and solvents. Empirical formulas for the solution enthalpies (ΔsolH), relative apparent molar solution enthalpies (ФLi), relative partial molar enthalpies (Li), and dilution enthalpies (ΔdilH1,2) are deduced by polynomial expressions, and standard solution enthalpies (ΔsolHm) are also calculated.%  在298.15 K时,采用微热量热仪测定斯蒂芬酸钾盐[K2(TNR)(H2O)]n和斯蒂芬酸铯盐[Cs2(TNR)(H2O)2]n两种含能配合物在水和N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)溶剂中的溶解热,研究其溶解过程和溶解热化学性质.结果表明,两种配合物溶解于水是吸热过程,而溶解于DMF则为放热过程,这主要是由于溶质和溶剂的分子结构及其极性不同而导致的.通过对实验数据计算拟合,求得这两种配合物的溶解焓(ΔsolH)、相对表观摩尔焓(ФLi)、相对偏摩尔焓(Li)及稀释焓(ΔdilH1,2)的经验公式和标准溶解焓值(ΔsolHm).

  12. 加热温度对TRIP钢连续冷却转变曲线及室温组织的影响%Effect of heating temperature on the continuous cooling transformation and microstructure of TRIP steel

    范东亮; 米振莉; 李志超; 刘强


    采用膨胀法在DIL805热膨胀仪上测定了不同加热温度下实验钢的连续冷却转变(CCT)曲线,通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜分析不同加热温度对CCT曲线和冷却试样显微组织的影响.结果表明:当加热温度由完全奥氏体化温度降低到两相区内较高温度时,CCT曲线中铁素体转变区左移;当加热温度处在两相区范围内时,随着加热温度的降低,铁素体转变被推迟,使得CCT曲线右移;新生铁素体外延生长方式和奥氏体中碳富集程度的差异是导致上述变迁的主要因素.%The continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves of experimental steel were determined by thermal dilation method with a DIL805 thermal dilatometer. Optical microscopy and scan electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the effect of heating temperature on the CCT curves and the microstructure of cooled samples. Experimental results show that when the heating temperature decreases from the complete austenitizing temperature to a higher temperature of the two-phase region, the ferrite transformation of the CCT curve shifts to the left. And when the heating temperature changes in the two-phase region, the ferrite transformation is postponed with the heating temperature decreasing, leading to that the CCT curve shifts to the right. The epitaxial growth mode of new ferrite and the carbon enrichment difference of austenite are principal factors that cause the shifts mentioned above.


    Engin YILMAZ


    Full Text Available In this article, definition of the name are discussed. In traditional definitions, name is in the form of tangible or intangible assets due to have an approach. But, According to modern linguistics the name is on our minds as a result of the naming process appears to be concrete or abstract concepts, the linguistic equivalents. Bu makalede, adın anlamı tartışılmıştır. Geleneksel tanımlarda ad, somut veya soyut varlıkların karşılığıdır şeklinde bir yaklaşım vardır. Bir sözcük türü olan adın tanımıyla ilgili başlıca dil bilgisi, dil bilimi kaynaklarında yapılan tanımlara bakıldığında, ontolojik bir yaklaşımın hakim olduğu görülmektedir. Bu çerçevede ad tanımlanırken daha çok “canlı ya da cansız, somut ya da soyut, varlıkları karşılayan sözcükler” olduğu belirtilmektedir. Mevcut tanımlar, modern dilbiliminin verileriyle uyuşmamaktadır. Modern dilbiliminde, adlar ontolojik değil, kavramsal (conceptual bir bakış açısıyla ele alınmakta ve tanımlanmaktadır.

  14. Planning of External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer Guided by PET/CT.

    von Eyben, Finn Edler; Kairemo, Kalevi; Kiljunen, Timo; Joensuu, Timo


    In this paper, we give an overview of articles on non-choline tracers for PET/CT for patients with prostate cancer and planning of radiotherapy guided by PET/CT. Nineteen articles described (11)C-Acetate PET/CT. Of 629 patients 483 (77%, 95% CI 74% - 80%) had positive (11)C-Acetate PET/CT scans. Five articles described (18)F-FACBC PET/CT. Of 174 patients, 127 (73%, 95% CI 68% - 78%) had positive scans. Both tracers detected local lesions, lesions in regional lymph nodes, and distant organs. Ten articles described (18)F-NaF PET/CT and found that 1289 of 3918 patients (33%) had positive reactive lesions in bones. PET/CT scan can guide external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) planning for patients with loco-regional prostate cancer. In six studies with 178 patients with localized prostate cancer, PET/CT pointed out dominant intraprostatic lesions (DIL). Oncologists gave EBRT to the whole prostate and a simultaneously integrated boost to the DIL. Four studies with 254 patients described planning of EBRT for patients with PETpositive lymph nodes. After the EBRT, 15 of 29 node-positive patients remained in remission for median 28 months (range 14 to 50 months). Most articles describe (11)C- and (18)F-Choline PET/CT. However, (11)C-Acetate and (18)F-FACBC may also be useful tracers for PET/CT. Planning of radiotherapy guided by MRI or PET/CT is an investigational method for localized prostate cancer. Current clinical controlled trials evaluate whether the method improves overall survival.

  15. Immature development of the malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles gambiae S.L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in relation to soil-substrate organic matter content of larval habitats in northcentral Nigeria.

    Olayemi, I K; Ojo, V O


    This study elucidated the relationships between larval habitat soil-substrate Organic Matter Content (OMC) and immature development of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae S.L. Day-old larvae of the mosquito were reared in media substrated with typical soil samples (i.e., sandy, silt, clayey and loamy soils), from established anopheline breeding sites, to provide a gradient in soil-substrate OMC. The OMC of the soil samples were determined by ignition to a constant weight; while the developing A. gambiae mosquitoes in the culture media were monitored daily for survivorship and duration of immature life stages. The results indicated significant (p OMC of the soil types (range = 11.21 +/- 2.91% in sandy to 29.83 +/- 2.96% in loamy soils). However, though Daily Larval Survival Rates (DLSR) were relatively high (range = 95.21 +/- 2.96 to 96.70 +/- 1.44%), as influenced by OMC, such values were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the soil-substrate types; results contrary to those of Larval Success Rates (LSR) (i.e., range = 52.07 +/- 13.64 to 74.39 +/- 6.60%). Daily Pupation Rate (DPR) of the mosquitoes varied significantly among the soil-substrates, ranging from 13.87 +/- 2.39% in clayey to 25.00 +/- 4.30% in loamy substrates. Soil-substrate OMC significantly extended the Duration of Immature Life Stages (DILS) of the mosquitoes only in the sandy soil type (range = 12.76 +/- 1.74 to 15.81 +/- 2.40 days). On the whole, DILS was inversely related to soil-substrate OMC. Cross-correlational analysis revealed significant positive association among most of the variables tested. The findings of this study should serve as baseline information for the development of effective environmental management strategies for malaria larval-vector control.

  16. Uncertainty evaluation of the thermal expansion of simulated fuel

    Park, Chang Je; Kang, Kweon Ho; Song, Kee Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseung-gu, Daejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)


    Thermal expansions of simulated fuel (SS1) are measured by using a dilatometer (DIL402C) from room temperature to 1900K. The main procedure of an uncertainty evaluation was followed by the strategy of the UO{sub 2} fuel. There exist uncertainties in the measurement, which should be quantified based on statistics. Referring to the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) guide, the uncertainties of the thermal expansion are quantified in three parts: the initial length, the length variation, and the system calibration factor. Each part is divided into two types. The A type uncertainty is derived from the statistical iterative measurement of an uncertainty and the B type uncertainty comes from a non-statistical uncertainty including a calibration and test reports. For the uncertainty evaluation, the digital calipers had been calibrated by the KOLAS (Korea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme) to obtain not only the calibration values but also the type B uncertainty. The whole system, the dilatometer (DIL402C), is composed of many complex sub-systems and in fact it is difficult to consider all the uncertainties of sub-systems. Thus, a calibration of the system was performed with a standard material (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which is provided by NETZSCH. From the above standard uncertainties, the combined standard uncertainties were calculated by using the law of a propagation of an uncertainty. Finally, the expanded uncertainty was calculated by using the effective degree of freedom and the t-distribution for a given confidence level. The uncertainty of the thermal expansion for a simulated fuel was also compared with those of UO{sub 2} fuel. (author)

  17. [Long-term subculture and biological characterization of the murine bone marrow endothelial cell line].

    Huang, Chang; Zhu, Wen-Biao; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Wang, Bao-He; Wang, Qi-Ru


    The murine bone marrow endothelial cell line (mBMEC) has been maintained by means of subculture and cryopreservation for over 10 years since it was established in our laboratory. This study was aimed to newly identify biological characteristics of this cell line for further study. The cultured mBMEC cells were observed by inverted microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PECAM-1 (CD31) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were detected by immunofluorescent staining. The phagocytotic activity of the cells in culture was tested by using fluorescent acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Dil-Ac-LDL). The cell growth kinetics analysis and karyotype analysis were performed. The results showed that the adherent cells were mostly elliptical, rounded and spindle-shaped, and some of them connected to each other to form cord- and network-like arrangements in mBMEC cultures at subconfluence. The adherent cells grew up to confluence as a cobblestone-like monolayer. Several ultrastructural features of the endothelial cells could be observed in TEM sections of the cultured cells. More than 94% of mBMEC cells were positive for either CD31 or vWF. The phagocytotic ingestion of Dil-Ac-LDL occurred in 98.5% of cells. In normal culture conditions, the cells grew with a mean population doubling time of 54.6 hours and the maximal mitotic index was 38 per thousand in the rapid growth period. The colony yields were 4.33% to 7.40% depending on the plating density of cells. Karyotypes of all the cells were aneuploidy with a greater percentage of hyperdiploid. It is concluded that mBMEC cells retain the fundamental properties of endothelial cells, but the growth kinetics and biological behaviors are slightly different from those in the early days after the establishment of this cell line.

  18. Frequency domain phase noise analysis of dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators.

    Jahanbakht, Sajad


    Dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators (DIL-OEOs) have been introduced as a means to achieve very low-noise microwave oscillations while avoiding the large spurious peaks that occur in the phase noise of the conventional single-loop OEOs. In these systems, two OEOs are inter-injection locked to each other. The OEO with the longer optical fiber delay line is called the master OEO, and the other is called the slave OEO. Here, a frequency domain approach for simulating the phase noise spectrum of each of the OEOs in a DIL-OEO system and based on the conversion matrix approach is presented. The validity of the new approach is verified by comparing its results with previously published data in the literature. In the new approach, first, in each of the master or slave OEOs, the power spectral densities (PSDs) of two white and 1/f noise sources are optimized such that the resulting simulated phase noise of any of the master or slave OEOs in the free-running state matches the measured phase noise of that OEO. After that, the proposed approach is able to simulate the phase noise PSD of both OEOs at the injection-locked state. Because of the short run-time requirements, especially compared to previously proposed time domain approaches, the new approach is suitable for optimizing the power injection ratios (PIRs), and potentially other circuit parameters, in order to achieve good performance regarding the phase noise in each of the OEOs. Through various numerical simulations, the optimum PIRs for achieving good phase noise performance are presented and discussed; they are in agreement with the previously published results. This further verifies the applicability of the new approach. Moreover, some other interesting results regarding the spur levels are also presented.

  19. Modulation of host immunity and reproduction by horizontally acquired Wolbachia.

    Pigeault, Romain; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Marcadé, Isabelle; Mappa, Gaëtan; Mottin, Elmina; Sicard, Mathieu


    The Wolbachia are symbiotic bacteria vertically transmitted from one host generation to another. However, a growing amount of data shows that horizontal transfers of Wolbachia also frequently occur within and between host species. The consequences of the arrival of new symbionts on host physiology can be studied by their experimental introduction in asymbiotic hosts. After experimental transfers of the eight major isopod Wolbachia strains in the isopod Porcellio dilatatus only two of them (wCon and wDil) were found to (1) have no pathogenic effect on the host and (2) be able to pass vertically to the host offspring. In the present work, we studied the influence of these two strains, able to complete an horizontal transfer, on immunity and reproduction of P. dilatatus at two stages of the transfer: (1) in recipient hosts that encounter the symbionts: to test the influence of symbiont when acquired during host life and (2) in vertically infected offspring: to test the influence of a symbiotic interaction occurring all lifelong. The impact of Wolbachia varied depending on the stage: there were clearer effects in vertically infected individuals than in those that acquired the symbionts during their lives. Moreover, the two Wolbachia strains showed contrasted effects: the strain wCon tended to reduce the reproductive investment but to maintain or increase immune parameters whilst wDil had positive effects on reproductive investment but decreased the investment in some immune parameters. These results suggest that horizontally acquisition of Wolbachia can influence the balance between host immune and reproductive traits.

  20. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.


    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  1. 糖基化终产物对脉络膜微血管内皮细胞增生和管腔形成的影响%Advanced glycation endproducts enhance proliferation, but not tube formation in choroidal microvascular endothelial cells

    王雨生; Ulrike Friedrichs; Wolfram Eichler; Stephan Hoffmann; Peter Wiedemann


    ● AIM: To investigate the role of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD).● METHODS: Bovine choroidal endothelial cells (CEC:)were isolated by the modified protocol using lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin coated Dynabeads, and identiffed by immunocytochemical staining with anti-Factor Ⅷ antibody and uptaking of dil-acetylated low-density lipoprotein (dil-ac-LDL). AGEs were prepared by incubating 50g/L bovine serum albumin and 150g/L glucose at 37℃ for 6wk, which were characterized by dot blot assay with anti-AGEs antibody. CEC proliferation was evaluated using 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and tube formation in CEC was determined by a Vitrogen system.● RESULTS: More than 90% of the cultured cells were positive to Factor V immunostaining and had the ability to uptake dil-ac-LDL, which were the features of endothelial cells. AGEs we prepared were affinitive to anti-AGEs antibody. After treatment with AGEs for a time course of 3d, CEC proliferation was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner by AGEs at concentrations between 62.5 and 500mg/L. The cytokine,basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), enhanced strongly tube-like structure formation in CEC to 124% (P<0.05)above that of untreated controls. In this condition, AGEs at the concentrations of 500 and 50mg/L showed no effect on CEC tube formation (P>0.05).● CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that CEC proliferation was increased by AGEs, however, regarding there was no statistically effect on CEC tube formation. These findings confirm and extend that AGEs could be a potential initiator in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization in exudative AMD, at least in part, through enhancement of CEC proliferation.%目的:研究糖基化终产物(advanced glycationendproducts,AGEs)在年龄相关性黄斑变性发生中的作用.方法:使用lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin包


    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Muhsine BÖREKÇİ


    Full Text Available Language has been considered as an object oflinguistics since the beginning of the 20th century. It isan obligation to organize all processes includingeducation philosophy in the light of scientific andtechnological developments in order that the education ofTurkish and Turkish Language and Literature can keeppace with this development. The field that the educationof language and literature should depend on is previouslylinguistics. Nowadays, studies on lingustics have tendedto application and have had a purpose in order todevelop theories which make easier the language learningand teaching. Lacking of this discipline in the educationof Turkish and Turkish Language and Literature willlead to continue the situation which is always a matterof complaint.Teachers of Turkish are expected to constitute asense of language in their students’ perception and toguide them not only for their acquisation of positiveattitudes and behaviors towards language and also fortheir acquisation of reading habit and ability to be able tothink and express their ideas both in written and oralforms. It is difficult to meet expectations for the teacherswho can’t acquire that kind of information and skills intheir education processes. Due to this situation, theeducation of Turkish and Turkish Language andLiterature should be in an applied form and be fullfilled in the light of scientific perspective aiming at tointerrogate information while composing it.In the study, scientific perspectives consideredthat teachers of Turkish and Turkish Language andLiterature have to acquire during their educationprocesses will be tried to be compared with traditionalperspectives and illustrated. Dil, 20. yüzyılın basından beri bilimin bir nesnesiolarak kabul edilmektedir. Türkçe ve Türk Dili Edebiyatıeğitiminin bu gelismeye ayak uydurabilmesi için eğitimfelsefesinden baslayarak bütün süreçlerin bilimsel veteknolojik gelismelerin ısığında d




    Full Text Available Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, Turkish history, as well as in terms of the history of Turkish grammar is extremely important. Western elements to enter the Turkish language is written at the beginning has been a pioneer for all the grammar books. At the same time to learn our language, written language, the language of the new concepts to meet the difference between the elimination of speech, has addressed various issues such as driving innovation in the Arabic alphabet. Western elements to enter the Turkish language is written at the beginning has been a pioneer for all the grammar books. Pasha, the only language for writing the book not only our language to learn, meet new concepts that come with the Westernization of the difference between the elimination of written language as colloquial Arabic alphabet, has addressed various issues such as driving innovation in a team. Grammar books written in terms of grammar, has pioneered the use of terms. Cevdet Pasha has gained importance with the Tanzimat period in terms of language teaching. Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, the madrasa education and the culture was grown due to trans while under the influence of the Arabic language, Turkish language as a teaching language development, enrichment and spent great efforts on purifying. Western-style, the author of the first language, Ahmet Cevdet Pasha, the sample itself was next in line. Cevdet Pasha, Turkish schools, the learning of grammar books, speaking the language to consider the difference between the written language, the operation of cleansing Turkish, Arabic and Persian, and it refers to the problems which is used with Arabic alphabet by Turkish. Ahmet Cevdet Paşa, Türk tarihi için olduğu kadar Türk dil bilgisi tarihi bakımından da son derece önemlidir. Türk diline batılı unsurların girmeye başladığı dönemde yazılmış bütün dil bilgisi kitapları için bir öncü olmuştur. Aynı zamanda dilimizin öğrenilmesi, yeni kavramların kar

  4. The Study on Biological Change of BMSCs During the Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone in Vivo: the Feasibility of CM-DiI as a Long-Term Tracer of BMSCs%体内构建组织工程骨的示踪观察:CM-DiI长效示踪骨髓间充质干细胞的可行性研究

    解芳; 靳小雷; 徐家杰; 卢建建; 张超; 曾海峰; 许美邦; 田甜; 滕利


    Objective To investigate the feasibility of CM-Dil on long-term tracing the biological change of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) during osteogenesis of tissue engineered bone (TEB) in vivo, and to offer an alternative labeling method for tracing seed cells in vivo in future. Methods After BMSCs were separated from bone marrow in Beagle dogs and osteo -induced to the second generation (P2), the cells were labeled with the fluorescent dye CM -Dil. The morphologic change of BMSCs after labeling was observed by fluorescence convert microscope. The proliferative ability was tested by MTT colorimetric between the labeling and un-labeling groups. The expression of Collagen I, BMP-2, BGLAP, and SPARC were detected through RT-PCR between the two groups. Lastly, CM-Dil-labeling BMSCs and beta-TCP were co-cultured into TEB which was implanted subcutaneously into Beagle dogs. Eight weeks later, the implant was harvested and the biological change of BMSCs was observed by fluorescence convert microscope. At the same time, the ectopic osteogenesis of the TEB was tested by HE staining. Results Shortly after being labeled with CM-Dil, ringlike red fluorescence was present in the cytoplasm of BMSCs, 48 hours later, the fluorescence was enhanced and was not weaken during 72 hours. The morphology of labeled BMSCs was consistent with unlabeled ones. There was no significant difference in the proliferative ability between the labeled and unlabeled groups. The expression of Col- I , BMP-2, BGLAP, SPARC revealed that the CM-Dil labeled BMSCs were induced into osteoblasts successfully either. After seeding into β-TCP, the proliferation of labeled BMSCs was normal and abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) was observed in the pores of the ceramic by scanning electron microscope (SEM). After harvesting the composite of labeled cells and ceramic 8 weeks later, the cells with red fluorescence were observed by fluorescent microscope. HE staining revealed deposited osteoid in the pores of

  5. Seboreik keratozun dermatoskopik görüntüleri ile histopatolojik alt tipleri arasında korelasyon

    Rukiye Yasak


    Full Text Available Amaç. Seboreik keratoz daha çok yaşlılarda görülen benign karakterli epidermal bir tümördür. Akantotik, hiperkeratotik, irrite, retiküler, klonal tip ve melanoakantoma olmak üzere 6 farklı histopatolojik alt tipi vardır. Dermatoskopi (epiluminans mikroskopi pigmente deri lezyonlarının çıplak göz ile görülemeyen klinik morfolojik özelliklerini gösteren in vivo, non-invaziv bir tekniktir. Bu çalışmadaki amacımız seboreik keratozun dermatoskopik özelliklerinin, histopatolojik alt grupları ile korelasyonu olup olmadığını saptamaktı. Yöntem. Çalışmaya alınan 53 hastanın toplam 80 adet SK lezyonu alındı. Dermatoskopik bulgular tanımlandı. 77 lezyondan insizyonel biyopsi alınırken üç lezyona total rezeksiyon yapıldı ve histopatolojik alt tipler velirlendi. Bulgular. SK alt tipleri; komedon benzeri açıklıklar, mila benzeri kistler, fissür, polimorf damar, ekzofitik papiller, dot/globül ve mavi beyaz yapı açısından değerlendirildiklerinde istatiksel olarak aralarındaki fark önemsiz bulunmuştur (p>0,05. Alt tiplerde sosis parmak hiperkeratotik tip ve irrite tip SK’da, milia-bulut irrite tip SK en fazla gözlenirken (p<0,05, psödostreaks ve psödoretiküler patern en çok retiküler tip SK’da saptanmıştır (p<0,05. Sonuç. Dermatoskopi, seboreik keratoz olgularında histopatolojik alt tiplerin belirlenebilmesine yardımcı bir tanı aracı olarak kullanılabilir.


    Özge TAN


    Full Text Available Özet: Bu makalenin amacı, performans değerlendirme sistemine ilişkin örgütsel adalet algısını dağıtım adaleti, prosedür adaleti ve etkileşim adaleti olmak üzere üç boyuta ayırarak; bu boyutların sistemden duyulan memnuniyet üzerindeki etkilerini incelemektir. Çalışmanın amacını gerçekleştirmek üzere tasarlanan araştırma gıda sektöründe faaliyet gösteren bir işletmede 91 mavi ve beyaz yakalı çalışan üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre bu üç boyut ile katılımcıların sistemden duydukları memnuniyet algıları arasında güçlü ve pozitif yönlü ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Özellikle, prosedür adaletinin katılımcıların memnuniyet algıları üzerinde diğer adalet boyutlarına göre daha güçlü bir etkiye sahip olduğu saptanmıştır.A RESEARCH ON IDENTIFYING THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE PERCEPTION ON THE SATISFACTION BASED ON THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEMAbstract: The aim of this article is to divide organizational justice perceptions into three dimensions as distributive justice, procedural justice and interact ional justice and search the effects of these dimensions on the satisfaction gained by the system. In order to conceive the aim of the study, the planned research is applied on 91 blue and white-collar employees in an enterprise which operating in the food sector.According to the research results, it has been found out that there are positive and strong correlation between these three dimensions and the satisfaction perceptions of the participants. Especially, it is detected that procedural justice has stronger effect than any other justice dimensions on the satisfaction perceptions of the participants.

  7. Der Einsatz der Präsentationssoftware ‚PowerPoint‘ als Lehrmethode im Fremdsprachenunterricht The Use of Presentation Software 'PowerPoint' as a Teaching Method in Foreign Language Learning

    Yasemin DARANCIK


    how toteach German in the future better. In the preparation phase of thepresentations, the teacher candidates have not only grasped theneccessary elements from the German grammar and culture beside thefour basic skills but they have also conveyed them to the children whoare the target the target group. Günümüzde yabancı dil eğitiminde görsel materyallerin önemi ve gerekliliği tartışılamaz bir hal almıştır. Görsel materyal veya unsurlar öğrencilerin konuyu daha iyi anlamasını ve konunun akılda kalmasını sağlamaktadır. Görsel materyallerin yabancı dil eğitimininde kullanımı, önemi ve öğrenci üzerinde etkisi gibi konular çerçevesinde bir çok çalışma bulunmaktadır. Bu makalede görsel materyal olan ‚PowerPoint Sunu ve Slayt Programı‘nın yabancı dil dersine yönelik nasıl hazırlanması gerektiği, yabancı dil öğretiminde görsel sunu hazırlanırken nelere dikkat edilmesi gerektiği ve büyük bir önem taşıyan dört temel beceriye ne gibi katkı sağladığı ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Sunular Almanca olmak üzere, hedef kitle çocuklar olarak belirlenmiş ve Çukurova Üniversitesi Alman Dili Eğitimi Anabilim Dalı ‚YDA-417 Almanca Öğretiminde Görsel Materyal Kullanımı‘ adlı derste birer öğretmen adayı olan 4. sınıf öğrencileri tarafından hazırlanmıştır.Çalışma ilk bölümde eğitimde ‚PowerPoint Sunu’nun durumuna ve önemine değinmekte, sonraki bölümlerde ise hazırlanan sunuların yabancı dil eğitiminde dikkate alınması gereken dört temel beceri olan ‚okuma, duyma, konuşma ve yazma’ya ne gibi katkıları olduğu ortaya çıkartılmaya çalışılmakta ve vurgulanmaktadır. Ayrıca öğrencilerin sunularını bu becerileri göz önünde bulundurarak nasıl şekillendirdikleri üzerinde durulmaktadır. Öğrencilerin yaptıkları bu sunular daha sonra animasyon programına dönüştürülerek video barındırma sitesi olan Youtube’a yüklenerek g


    İhsan Yılmaz BAYRAKTARLI


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the Turk languages, respectively the Altai languages from the important aspects as classification, transcription as well as distribution and history. The family relationships among the Ural-Altaic are also an important aspect. The classification, distribution and number of speaker of the Uralic is also anchored, intentional and irrespective of the existence of a relationship.Especially the classification of the ur- Altaic and its derivates are treated illustratively. Hereby, perspectives different experts are briefly outlined. These perspectives as well as the illustrations are based on the turkology, respectively on the accepted sources in the field of UralAltaic.The paper comprises new constructive ideas as well as contrastive comparisons. The linguistic records of experts were treated preferential. Despite intented to analyse the development, distribution and classification of the Ural-Altaic language group in general, the Turk languages are favored due to their spread, high number of speaker and their varying transcription. Furthermore, the demographic significance of the turk languages are not fully understood. Turkologists treat this subject justifiably subject-specific and mostly very complicated. Hence, the paper is expected to fill a gap through its different perspective Bu çalışmada Türk Dillerinin, daha doğrusu Altay Dilllerinin tarihi, yayıldığı coğrafya, bu dillerin yazı sistemleri ve sınıflandırılmaları ve bu konuda yapılan tartışmalar bütün yönleri ile incelenmektedir. Aynı zamanda altay ve ural dil gruplarının akrabalığı konu edilmektedir. Burada Ural dil grubu ile Altay dil grubu kökenleri itibari ile sanki ayni bir İlk-Dilden geliyormuş gibi sınıflandırıldı, yayıldığı coğrafya ve bu dilleri konuşanların sayısal dağılımı da aynı şekilde bu çalışmada incelendi. Özellikle İlk-Altayca ve onun türevlerinin sınıflandırılması çizimlerle desteklendi.


    Ahmet GÜNŞEN


    Full Text Available In spite of the fact that the Turkish clans, nomads and tribes who settled in the Thrace and the Balkans starting from the mid-fourteenth century did not make concessions from their own languages and dialects, within the centuries they also had a mutual interaction language-wise with the Slavic tribes who were the local people of the conquered land. The language interaction experienced within a bilingual or a multilingual environment through the centuries both included many Turkish elements in the Bulgarian, Greek, Serbian, Croatian, Albanian, etc. languages and led to many foreign inclusions in the Rumelian Turkish dialects in terms of vocabulary and syntax. Therefore, in that land Rumelian Turks lived through a process of forming dialect(s which are new and different from the Anatolian dialects under the influence of various foreign languages mostly of Slavic origin. The Rumelian Turkishness, which was the dominant factor of the region in political and demographic terms until the Balkan Wars and the First World War, was turned into a minority in every aspect in that land after those dates. This eventually brought about a process that was not in favor of the Turkish language. In this paper, Macedonian and Kosovian Turkish dialects which make up the western branch of the Rumelian dialects differentiating from the Anatolian ones in many ways are dealt with in terms of language interaction and bilingualism/multilingualism; language interference or code change observed in the phonetics, morphology, vocabulary and syntax of these dialects are highlighted as well. 14. yüzyılın ortalarından itibaren Trakya ve Balkanlar coğrafyasına yerleşmiş olan Türk boy, oymak ve aşiretleri, kendi dil veya ağız özelliklerinden ödün vermemiş olmakla birlikte, yüzyıllar içinde fethedilen coğrafyanın yerli halkı olan Slav kavimleriyle karşılıklı dil etkileşiminde de bulunmuşlardır. Yüzyıllar içinde iki veya çok dilli bir ortamda g

  10. Cumhuriyet’in İlk Yıllarında Yazılan Tiyatro Eserlerinde Atatürk ve Atatürkçülük An Examination of Atatürk and Kemalism in the Works of Theater in the Early Years of the Republic

    Ertan EROL


    Full Text Available A new move of renovation started with the foundation of the Republic of Turkey after the country was freed from enemy invasion. At that time it was the Western nations who made up the modern worldand owned the cutting edge science and technology. Consequently thenew Turkish republic looked to the Western civilization whichrepresented "the modern". Renovation involved not only the fields ofscience and technology which were deemed as the catalysts ofmodernization but also cultural issues. In the aftermath of thefoundation of the republic modernization was directed toward culturalissues. Various cultural activities were organized in order to make thepublic adopt the new regime through and increase public interest in art.Among these cultural activities production and staging on theaters ofnew plays are remarkable.The aim in this study is to examine the works of theater producedafter the proclamation of the Republic, between 1923-1938 from thepoint of view of Kemalism. In this paper, those theater works whichwere produced between 1923 and 1938 (the year when M.KemalAtatürk passed away are examined. It was observed that the “MaviYıldırım/Blue Lightening” by Aka Gündüz “Gavur İmam/Infidel Imam”by Burhan Cahit, “Destan/Legend” by Galip Naşit, “Kahraman/Hero”and “Akın/Raid” by Faruk Nafiz, “On Yılın Destanı/The Legend of theDecade” by Halit Fahri, “Beş Devir/Five Eras” by Yaşar Nabi,“Bayönder/Mr. Leader” by Münir Hayri, “Oğuz Destanı/Oğuz Legend”by Vehbi Cem Aşkun were produced during the aforementioned period.In this study, the question as to what extend these works oftheater reflect Kemalist thinking and Kemalism with respect to theirthemes, characters and the characteristics is examined. Türk ulusunun düşman işgalinden kurtuluşundan sonra Cumhuriyet’in ilanıyla birlikte yeni bir çağdaşlaşma hamlesi başlamıştır. O dönemin şartları içinde çağdaş dünya ülkeleri arasında yer


    İbrahim KARAHANCİ


    Full Text Available Bilimsel bir araştırma için vazgeçilmez olan nesnellik, akademik üslup çalışmalarını yakından ilgilendirmektedir. Dil bilimi, sistemli inceleme düzlem ve yöntemleriyle bu nesnelliği oluşturabilir. Belirli sıklık, dağılım ve birleşimler sonucunda oluşan üslup, özellikle sözcük ve cümle düzeyinde belirginleşmektedir. Bu dil birimleri, dilin mevcut olanakları içinde tercihe açıklık ve seçmeli dil değişkenliği göstermesi açısından zengin malzeme içeriğine sahiptir ve eserde yansıtılan özgün yapıyı -üslubu- doğrudan etkilemektedirler. Sözcük bilgisinin alt inceleme birimlerinden adlar ve sıfatlar, yaygın kullanım alanlarıyla önemli üslup belirleyicileri olarak öne çıkmaktadır. Adlarda özel / cins, tekil / çoğul / topluluk, soyut / somut / iş- oluş; sıfatlarda niteleme ve belirtme (gösterme özellikleri işlevsel ve kategorik inceleme alanları oluştururlar. Bunların metin bağlamında değerlendirilip sayısal verilerin somut aracılıklarıyla yorumlanması kapsamlı üslup tasviri için önemlidir. / The objectivity that is indispensable for a scientific research is closely related to academic style studies. Linguistics, with its systematic levels and methods can create this objectivity. The style that occurs as a result of certain frequencies, distributions and combinations become especially evident at the level of words and sentences. These language units have rich material content in terms of its preference for openness and selective language variability within the available possibilities of language, and directly influencing the originality of the author's work, style. Nouns and adjectives of sub-study units of lexicology stand out as important stylists with their widespread use. The features of nouns proper / common, singular / plural, collective, abstract / concrete, action-process; of adjectives qualification and assertion (representation form functional and categorical


    Ahmet GÜNŞEN


    Full Text Available Since mid-14th Century in Balkans Turkish clans and tribes have established an area of relatively different new dialects with the influence of the local minority languages together with protecting their own Anatolian dialects characteristics.The Rumelian dialects which actually have been divided into two main branches have been in language interaction with various languages, especially with Slavic origins, which are the member of Indo-European language family on account of the historical, geographical and socio-cultural circumstances in more than one hundred and fifty years. As a result of this reciprocal language influence, while some language elements were transfered from Turkish to the other languages, there has been some influences regarding phonetics, word presence, grammatical structures and even syntax from these languages to Turkish as well.In this study, dealing with the “word order” of Macedonian and Kosovan Turkish dialects which constitude the western branch of Rumelian dialects, we tried to bring up that Rumelian dialects which happened to be minority languages in this geographical area have influenced enormously word orders of the foreign languages and therefore various sentence types which were not formerly present in Turkish language were established. 14. yüzyıl ortalarından itibaren Balkanlarda değişik Türk boy ve oymaklarınca, bölgenin yerlisi azınlık dillerinin de etkisiyle, Anadolu ağızlarından farklı ve yeni bir ağızlar bölgesi oluşturulmuştur. Batı ve Doğu Rumeli ağızları olarak iki kola ayrılan Rumeli ağızları; tarihî, coğrafî ve sosyo-kültürel şartları dolayısıyla altı yüz yılı aşkın bir sürede aynı coğrafyadaki, başta Slav kökenliler olmak üzere, Hint-Avrupa dil ailesine mensup birçok dille etkileşimde bulunmuştur. Karşılıklı gerçekleşen bu dil etkileşimi sonucu, Türkçeden diğer Balkan dillerine birtakım dil unsurları geçerken, bu dillerden de T

  13. 人胚胎三叉神经节神经元的躯体定位%Somatotopic organization of trigeminal ganglion neurons in human fetus

    吴励; 古丽尼沙·克力木; 吐尔逊江·达地汗; 甘子明


    目的:应用1,1′-双十八烷-3,3,3′,3′-四甲基吲哚羰花青-高氯酸盐(DiI)追踪技术研究人胚胎发出眼神经、上颌神经及下颌神经的神经元在三叉神经节内的解剖定位.方法:对胎龄20周以上的6个胎儿标本进行灌注固定后,分别于标本的眼、上颌、下颌神经处植入DiI染色晶体.37℃恒温箱放置3个月,等待DiI染色晶体扩散,再根据神经走向切片,荧光显微镜下观察发出3支神经的神经元在三叉神经节内的解剖定位.结果:人胚胎三叉神经节是沿内外方向分布的细胞团.发出眼神经的神经元位于神经节的前内侧,下颌神经的神经元位于神经节的后外侧,上颌神经的神经元位于两者之间.结论:人胚胎发出眼神经、上颌神经及下颌神经的神经元在三叉神经节内以内外局部定位方式排列.%Objective: To investigate the localization of neuronal cells originating from the ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve in human fetus by 1, 1 '-dioctadecyl-3, 3, 3', 3'-tetramethylin-docarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) within the trigeminal ganglion. Methods: Dil was embedded into the ophthalmic nerve, maxillary nerve and mandibular nerve in fixed postmortem human tissues of 6 fetuses. The tissue was incubated at 37℃ for 3 months, and then sectioned, mounted and observed under a fluorescence microscope after Dil had satisfactorily diffused. Results:The cells in the trigeminal ganglion of human fetus originating branches were arranged in the medio-lateral direction. Namely, the ophthalmic ganglion cells were distributed in the anterio-median part of the ganglion. The mandibular ganglion cells were distributed in the posterio-lateral part of the ganglion. The maxillary ganglion cells were distributed in the intermediant part between the cells originating the ophthalmic and mandibular branches. Conclusion:The cells in the trigeminal ganglion have been considered to be organized somatotopically in a


    Fatma BÖLÜKBAŞ


    Full Text Available This study has been conducted with the aim of identifying the effects of Jigsaw-IV technique, which is one of the cooperative learning techniques, on the students learning Turkish as a foreign language skill of learning basic tenses. To this study in which as an experimental pattern post-test control group pattern is used, 32 students consisting of 16 experimental and 16 control group students who learn Turkish as a foreign language at Istanbul University Language Center attended. While Jigsaw-IV technique is used in grammar activities of teaching basic tenses in the experimental group, in the control group traditional teaching methods are used. As teaching of basic tenses start from A1 level (present continuous tense and continue until the end of A2 level (simple past tense, future tense, reported past tense and simple present tense, this study lasted for 16 weeks in the grammar activities of basic tenses. The data of the study has been collected with “The Use of Present Continuous Tense Achievement Test”, “The Use of Simple Past Tense Achievement Test”, “The Use of Future Tense Achievement Test”, “The Use of Reported Past Tense Achievement Test”, and “The Use of Simple Present Tense Achievement Test” developed by the researcher. As a result of the study, it has been observed that in all tests in which basic tense knowledge of students is tested, the average achievement of the experimental group in which Jigsaw-IV technique is used is higher than the achievement of the control group. Bu çalışma, Jigsaw-IV tekniğinin yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen öğrencilerin Türkçedeki temel zamanları öğrenme becerileri üzerindeki etkisini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Son-test kontrol gruplu modelin kullanıldığı bu çalışmaya, İÜ Dil Merkezi’nde yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğrenen 32 öğrenci katılmıştır. Deney grubunda Jigsaw-IV tekniği kullanılırken; kontrol grubunda geleneksel

  15. Incubation and application of transgenic green fluorescent nude mice in visualization studies on glioma tissue remodeling

    DONG Jun; LAN Qing; HUANG Qiang; DAI Xing-liang; LU Zhao-hui; FEI Xi-feng; CHEN Hua; ZHANG Quan-bin; ZHAO Yao-dong; WANG Zhi-min; WANG Ai-dong


    Background The primary reasons for local recurrence and therapeutic failure in the treatment of malignant gliomas are the invasion and interactions of tumor cells with surrounding normal brain cells.However,these tumor cells are hard to be visualized directly in histopathological preparations,or in experimental glioma models.Therefore,we developed an experimental human dual-color in vivo glioma model,which made tracking solitary invasive glioma cells possible,for the purpose of visualizing the interactions between red fluorescence labeled human glioma cells and host brain cells.This may offer references for further studying the roles of tumor microenvironment during glioma tissue remodeling.Methods Transgenic female C57BL/6 mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were crossed with male Balb/c nude mice.Then sib mating was allowed to occur continuously in order to establish an inbred nude mice strain with 50% of their offspring that are EGFP positive.Human glioma cell lines U87-MG and SU3 were transfected with red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene,and a rat C6 glioma cell line was stained directly with CM-Dil,to establish three glioma cell lines emitting red fluorescence (SU3-RFP,U87-RFP,and C6-CM-Dil).Red fluorescence tumor cells were inoculated via intra-cerebral injection into caudate nucleus of the EGFP nude mice.Tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed when their clinical symptoms appeared,and the whole brain was harvested and snap frozen for further analysis.Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed to monitor the mutual interactions between tumor cells and host brain cells.Results Almost all the essential tissues of the established EGFP athymic Balb/c nude mice,except hair and erythrocytes,fluoresced green under excitation using a blue light-emitting flashlight with a central peak of 470 nm,approximately 50% of the offsprings were nu/nu EGFP+.SU3-RFP,U87-RFP,and C6-CM-Dil almost 100% expressed red fluorescence under the fluorescence

  16. Örgütsel Çekicilik : Bir Ölçek Uyarlama Çalışması

    Seda DURAL


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Highhouse vd. (2003 tarafından geliştirilen Örgütsel Çekicilik Ölçeğini (ÖÇÖ Türkçe’ye kazandırmak ve geçerlik ve güvenirlik analizlerini yapmaktır. Ölçek, öncelikle araştırmacılar ve bir dil uzmanı tarafından Türkçe’ye çevrilmiş, ardından ifadeler iki dilli 15 uzmanın görüşüne başvurularak dil ve anlam uygunluğu bakımından değerlendirilmiştir. Öneriler doğrultusunda son şeklini alan Türkçe form iki aşamada uygulanmıştır. İlk aşamada, test-tekrar test güvenirliğini sınamak amacıyla ölçek iki hafta ara ile 50 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Test tekrar-test güvenirlik katsayısı birincil değerlendirme için 0,85, ikincil değerlendirme için 0,89 olarak bulunmuştur. Uygulamanın ikinci aşamasında anket 257 öğrenciye uygulanarak ölçeğin iç tutarlılık katsayısı 0,89 olarak bulunmuştur. Yapılan analizler sonucunda ÖÇÖ’nün özgün ölçekte olduğu gibi üç faktörlü bir yapı gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Hiçbir madde atılmadan 15 madde ile üç boyutu ölçen geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek elde edilmiştir.

  17. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of santalbic acid and a study of triacylglycerol species in Santalum album (Linn.) seed oil.

    Lie Ken Jie, M S; Pasha, M K; Ahmad, F


    Methyl ricinoleate (1) was treated with bromine and the dibromo derivative (2) was reacted with ethanolic KOH under ultrasonic irradiation to give 12-hydroxy-octadec-9-ynoic acid upon acidification with dil. HCI. The latter compound was methylated with BF3/methanol to give methyl 12-hydroxy-octadec-9-ynoate (3). Compound 3 was treated with methanesulfonyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine in CH2Cl2 to give methyl 12-mesyloxy-octadec-9-ynoate (4). Reaction of methyl 12-mesyloxy-octadec-9-ynoate with aqueous KOH under ultrasonic irradiation (20 kHz) gave (11E)-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (5, santalbic acid, 40%) and (11Z)-octadecen-9-ynoic acid (6, 60%) on acidification with dil. HCI. These isomers were separated by urea fractionation. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic properties of the methyl ester and the triacylglycerol (TAG) esters of these enynoic fatty acid isomers were studied. The carbon shifts of the unsaturated carbon nuclei of the methyl ester of the E-isomer were unambiguously assigned as 88.547 (C-9), 79.287 (C-10), 109.760 (C-11), and 143.450 (C-12) ppm, while the unsaturated carbon shifts of the (Z)-enynoate isomer appeared at 94.277 (C-9), 77.561 (C-10), 109.297 (C-11), and 142.668 (C-12) ppm. In the 13C NMR spectral analysis of the TAG molecules of type AAA containing either the (Z)- or (E)-enyne fatty acid, the C-1 to C-6 carbon atoms on the alpha- and beta-acyl positions were differentiated. The unsaturated carbon atoms in the alpha- and beta-acyl chains were also resolved into two signals except that of the C-11 olefinic carbon. Sandal (Santalum album) wood seed oil (a source of santalbic acid) was separated by silica chromatography into three fractions. The least polar fraction (7.2 wt%) contained TAG which had a random distribution of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, of which oleic acid (69%) was the predominant component. The second fraction (3.8 wt%) contained santalbic acid (58%) and oleic acid (28%) together


    Filiz ERBAY


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify the relation between parents’ general ideas about children books and children’s perceptive language development level. The study is conducted with randomly chosen 112 six year old children attending preschool classes and their parents. Parents’ and Teachers’ General Ideas about Children Books Questionnaire, and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT are used as data collection devices. In this study in addition to descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, arithmetic average, and standard deviation, as an analysis technique Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient is also used. At the end of the study is found that there is no significant relation between parents’ ideas about children books and children’s perceptive language development level. Bu araştırmanın amacı, anne ve babaların çocuk kitapları hakkındaki genel görüşleri ile çocukların alıcı dil gelişimi düzeyleri arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemektir. Araştırma tesadüfî örneklem yoluyla seçilen ilköğretim okullarının ana sınıflarına devam eden altı yaşındaki 112 çocuk ile bu çocukların anne ve babaları üzerinde yapılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Anne Baba ve Öğretmenlerin Çocuk Kitapları ile İlgili Genel Görüşleri Anketi ve Peabody Resim-Kelime Testi (PRKT kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada frekans, yüzde, aritmetik ortalama ve standart sapma gibi betimsel istatistiklerin yanında, Pearson momentler çarpımı korelasyon katsayısı analiz tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda, anne ve babaların çocuk kitapları hakkındaki genel görüşleri ile çocukların dil gelişimi düzeyleri arasında anlamlı bir ilişki saptanamamıştır.

  19. Antibody persistence after primary and booster doses of a pentavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine among Thai children at 18-19 months of age.

    Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Thisyakorn, Usa; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; Ortiz, Esteban


    The World Health Organization recommends a booster dose of a pertussis-containing vaccine for children aged 1-6 years, preferably during the second year of life. This study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of a pentavalent combination vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, and conjugated-Hib polysaccharide antigens, [(DTaP-IPV//PRP-T (Pentaxim)], as a booster at 18-19 months of age. Participants had received primary doses of the same vaccine at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Antibody concentrations were measured immediately before and one month after the booster dose. Adverse events were evaluated from parental reports. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) or titers (GMTs) decreased from post-primary to pre-booster vaccination; however, at least 94.4% of children had protective levels of anti-tetanus (> or = 0.01 IU/ml), antipoliovirus (> or = 81/dil) and anti-PRP (Hib, > or = 0.15 microg/ml) antibodies prior to the booster. Anti-diphtheria antibody titers > or = 0.01 IU/ml were also observed in the majority of children pre-booster. One month after the booster, seroprotection rates were 99.4% for PRP (> or = 1.0 microg/ml), 95.0% for diphtheria (> or = 0.10 IU/ml) and 100% for tetanus (> or = 0.1 IU/ml) and poliovirus types 1, 2, 3 (> or = 81/dil). At least 93.1% of subjects had 4 fold post-booster increases in anti-pertussis antibody titers. GMCs increased from 14.0 to 307.3 EU/ml and from 13.9 to 271.9 EU/ml for anti-PT and anti-FHA, respectively. Anti-PRP GMC increased from 1.2 to 62.2 microg/ml. The booster was well tolerated. A booster dose during the second year of life was safe and induced a strong immune response, indicative of long-term protection.

  20. 丙基硫氧嘧啶引起抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体相关小血管炎并非药物性狼疮%Vasculitis associated with propylthiouracil-induced antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody is not drug induced lupus

    高莹; 赵明辉; 郭晓蕙; 高妍


    目的检测药物性狼疮(DIL)的血清学标志抗组蛋白抗体在抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体(ANCA)阳性的甲亢患者中的阳性率,并探讨丙基硫氧嘧啶(PTU)引起的ANCA相关小血管炎与DIL的关系.方法以34例ANCA阳性的原发甲亢患者为研究对象,其中18例确诊为PTU引起的ANCA相关小血管炎;同时选取10例原发性ANCA相关小血管炎患者及10例初发未治疗的甲亢患者为对照,应用ELISA法检测抗组蛋白抗体.将我院确诊的PTU引起的ANCA相关小血管炎患者的临床资料与文献中抗甲状腺药物引起的DIL相比较.结果所有原发性ANCA相关小血管炎的患者及初发未治疗的甲亢患者均未检测到抗组蛋白抗体;在34例PTU引起的ANCA阳性患者中仅1例(2.9%)抗组蛋白抗体阳性,此例患者为18例有血管炎临床表现中的1例(5.6%).PTU引起的ANCA相关小血管炎不同于DIL,寡免疫复合物的坏死性新月体性肾炎及肺出血为前者的特征性表现.结论 PTU引起的ANCA相关小血管炎患者中抗组蛋白抗体的低发生率提示其与DIL可能不完全相同.


    Ali GÖÇER


    Full Text Available Turkey was opened to the world in many respects. Recently, the teaching of Turkish as a foreign language has gained more importance. Divanü Lugati’t-Türk is the first work of teaching Turkish to foreigners. At the teaching of Turkish as a foreign language has been a long time, but a complete theoretical framework in this area has not been developed yet. This also reveals some difficulties such as inability to work in a systematic way. At the screening of this literature, are addressed a general look at studies about teaching Turkish to foreigners and developments in this area, and has been pointed out the problems encountered and suggestions for solutions taking into account the developments in this field. Türkiye’nin birçok açıdan dünyaya açıldığı son dönemde Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretimi daha fazla önem kazanmıştır. Yabancılara Türkçe Öğretiminin ilk eseri Divanü Lugati’t-Türk adlı eserdir. Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretiminde her ne kadar uzun bir süre geçmiş olsa da henüz bu alanda tam bir kuramsal bir çerçeve oluşturulamamıştır. Bu durum da çalışmaların sistemli bir şekilde yürütülememesi gibi birtakım zorlukları ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bu alanyazın taramasında, yabancılara Türkçe öğretimiyle ilgili çalışmalara genel bir bakışla değinilmiş ve bu alandaki gelişmeleri dikkate alarak karşılaşılan sorunlara ve çözüm önerilerine işaret edilmiştir.

  2. The Functions of 'i-ken' Verbal Adverb (Gerindium in Thracian and Rumelian Turkish Dialect / Trakya ve Rumeli Türkçesi Ağızlarında İken Zarf Fiilinin İşlevleri

    Fatma Sibel BAYRAKTAR


    Full Text Available “-iken”, “-ken” suffix is adverb form of “i-“ complementary verb. The suffix don’t include convergence in written language since it preserves its qualitative characteristics froms its primary structure in lingual memory. Also, word stress is on previous syllable of “–iken / -ken”. However, harmony in language becomes difficult in terms of dialects and are encountered in various usage styles. For example, Bulgarian Turkish dialects includes this suffix as –ken, -kene, -ka, -kan, -kana, -kansi, -kedın, -kedin, etc. This study examines verbal adverb “–ken” in terms of both morphological differentiations and semantic changes. This study also profoundly examines the aformentioned verbal adverb with its usages as idiom, conjunction, reduplicaiton; its usage with other verbal adverbs and its usages indicating time and space and its usages with synchronic, diachronic and process indicating functions. İken ? -ken eki; i- ek fiilinin zarf biçimidir. Dil hafızasında ilk yapısından gelen nicelik özelliğini koruduğundan, yazı dilinde dil benzeşmesine de girmemiştir. Ayrıca kelime vurgusu da iken ? -ken’den önceki hece üzerindedir. Ancak ağızlarda uyum konusu zorlanmakta ve birçok değişik kullanım şekliyle karşımıza çıkabilmektedir. Örneğin Bulgaristan Türk ağızlarında –ken, -kene,-ka, -kan, -kana, -kansi, -kedın, -kedin vs. şekilleri bulunmaktadır. Biz bu çalışmamızda –ken zarf fiilini hem şekil olarak farklılaşmaları açısından, hem de anlam değişmeleri açısından inceleyeceğiz. Deyim, bağlaç, ikileme olarak kullanımları, başka zarf fiillerle kullanımları, zaman, mesafe gösterme işlevleriyle, eş zamanlı, art zamanlı ve süreç bildirme fonksiyonları ile kullanımları Trakya bölgesinde ve onun uzantısı olan Balkanlarda ayrıntılı olarak incelenecektir.

  3. M(NTO)n·mH2O在水中的溶解行为%Dissolution Properties of M(NTO)n · mH2O in Water

    胡荣祖; 赵凤起; 高红旭; 邢晓玲; 孟子晖


    借助M(NTO)n·mH 2O(M=Ba,n=1,m=3;M=Li,n=1,m=2;M=Ca,n=2,m=4;M=Na,n=m=1;M=Co,Mg,n=2,m=8;M=Ce,Pr,Gd,n=3,m=7;M=Tb,Dy,n=3,m=5;M=Y,Yb,n=3,m=6;NTO=3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoI-5-one)的摩尔用量(a)、水溶液浓度(6)及由Calvet微热量计所得的溶解过程热效应(Q)和摩尔溶解焓(△dissH),得到了描述这些NTO金属配合物的微分溶解焓(△difHθm)、标准摩尔溶解焓[△dissHθm(b=0)]、相对表观摩尔焓(△diss Happarent)、相对偏摩尔焓(△diss,Hpartial)和稀释焓(△dilH1,2)的5个经验式.%With the help of the amount of the complex ( a), the concentration of the solution ( b), the heat effect of dissolution process (Q) and the molar enthalpy of dissolution in water (△diss H) of M(NTO)n· mH2O (M=Ba, n=1, m=3; M=Li, n=1, m=2; M=Ca, n=2, m=4; M=Na, n=m=1; M =Co, Mg, n =2, m =8; M =Ce, Pr, Gd, n=3, m=7; M =Tb, Dy, n=3, m =5; M =Y, Yb, n=3, m=6; NTO =3-nitro-1,2, 4-triazol-5-one) obtained by a Calvet microcalorimeter, five empirical formulae describing the differential enthalpy of dissolution( △difH8m ), standard molar enthalpy of dissolution [△dissH8m ( b = 0 )], relative apparent molar enthalpy ( △diss Happarent ), relative partial molar enthalpy ( △diss Hpanial )and enthalpies of dilution ( △dilH1,2 ) in water of these metal complexes of NTO were obtained.




    Full Text Available Söz konusu çalışmamızda, Fransız Hükümeti’nin Doğu dilleri tercümanları yetiştirmek amacıyla 1669’da İstanbul’da kurduğu Doğu Dilleri Oğlanları okulunun yaklaşık olarak bir yüzyıla kadar yayılan tarihi, Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesinde kullanılan yöntemler ve okulun amaç ve hedefleri incelenmiştir. Hiç kuşkusuz adı geçen okul Türkçenin yabancı dil olarak öğretilmesi tarihinin en önemli yapı taşını oluşturmaktadır. Doğu dilleri okulunun en önemli özelliği Fransız uyruklu öğrencilerine küçük yaşlardan itibaren İstanbul’da Türk dili ve kültürünü öğretmektir. Söz konusu öğrenciler ilerleyen yıllarda uluslararası ilişkilerde diplomat ve çevirmen olarak önemli görevler almış ve Osmanlı kültürü ile Avrupa kültürü arasında bir köprü oluşturmuşlardır. This study is intended to analyze the nearly one-century history of the School of Infants of Eastern Languages, which was founded by the French government in Istanbul in 1669 with the aim of training interpreters of eastern languages, and the methods employed to teach Turkish as a foreign language as well as the purposes and targets of the school. Doubtless, the school in question forms the most important cornerstone of the history of teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The most significant quality of the school of eastern languages is that it teaches its students, who are citizens of France, the Turkish culture and language in Istanbul from their early ages onwards. These students have undertaken important tasks and positions in the forthcoming years as diplomats and interpreters in field of international affairs, thus bridging the Ottoman culture and European culture.

  5. Bukkal mukozada lipom: vaka raporu

    İsmail Şener


    Full Text Available

    Lipomas are benign mesenchymal neoplasms composed of mature adipocytes, usually surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule. The most common location for lipomas in the maxillofacial region has been reported as the buccal mucosa and the peak incidence age for lipoma is 40 years and above. In the oral cavity, the most common sites are the cheek, tongue, palate, mandible and lip where lipomas occur as sessile or encapsulated masses.

    The present study reports a case of a 58-year-old man presented with a painless mass in the right vestibule that had been present for 6 months. The lesion was covered by normal mucosa, seemed to be circumscribed. Under local anesthesia, excision was performed. Histopathological examination was consistence with the diagnosis of a lipoma.

    Keywords: Lipoma, mature adipocytes, painless mass in vestibule.



    Lipomlar, çoğunlukla ince bir fibröz kapsül ile çevrili olgunlaşmış adipositlerden oluşan benign mezenşimal neoplazmlardır. Lipomlar en yoğun olarak 40  yaş ve üzerinde görülür. Maksilofasiyal bölgede en sık yerleştiği kısım bukkal mukoza olarak bildirilmiştir. Bunu sırasıyla dil, ağız tabanı, dudaklar izler. Oral kavitede lipomların en sık görüldüğü  bölgeler yanak, dil, damak, mandibula ve dudaktır ve genellikle sapsız ya da kapsüllü bir kitle olarak  gözlenirler.

    Bu olgu raporunda 6 aydır sağ alt vestibülde ağrısız şişliği bulunan, 58 yaşında erkek hasta sunulmuştur. Lezyon normal mukoza ile çevrili ve sınırlanmış olarak görülmekteydi. Hasta lokal anestezi altında opere edildi. Histopatolojik inceleme sonucunda lipom tanısı doğrulandı.


    Özden APAYDIN


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the features of image, language and style in the poems of Kemalettin Kamu, a poet of Turkish literature in Armistice era. These features are quite important to reveal the poetic structure in Kamu’s poems. As the poet reflected his inner world to the outer world via literature, images in his poems are classed under certain headings in accordance with the common features. These headings derived from the evaluation of images in his poems are also deemed to have value in reflecting his inner world more concretely. The language and style used by Kemalettin Kamu, a.k.a. the poet of the motherland and faraway places from the motherland, in his poems will be analysed and evaluated in a separate section. Bu çalışma, Türk edebiyatının mütareke dönemi şairlerinden Kemalettin Kamu’nun şiirlerindeki imaj, dil ve üslup özelliklerini değerlendirmeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu özellikler, Kamu’nun şiirlerindeki poetik yapıyı ortaya çıkarması bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Şiirlerdeki imajlar ortak özelliklerine göre belli başlıklar altında toplanarak sınıflandırılmıştır. Eserlerinde yer verdiği imajların değerlendirilmesi ile ortaya çıkan bu başlıkların, Kamu’nun iç dünyasını daha somut bir biçimde yansıtması bakımından ayrıca bir değeri olduğu düşünülmektedir. Kemalettin Kamu’nun şiirlerinde kullandığı dil ve üslup ise ayrı bir bölümde incelenmiştir.

  7. Thermodynamics of the interactions of a homologous series of some amino acids with trimethylamine N-oxide: Volumetric, compressibility, and calorimetric studies

    Choudhary, Sinjan [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Kishore, Nand, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)


    Highlights: > Thermodynamics of interaction of amino acids with trimethy N-oxide (TMAO) studied. > Partial molar properties in aqueous osmolyte provide interaction details. > Volumes, compressibilites, enthalpies indicate predominant hydrophobic interactions. > TMAO exerts its effect both by preferential hydration and hydrophobic interactions. > Results suggest hydrophobic interactions lead to destabilization of the protein. - Abstract: The values of apparent molar volume V{sub 2,{phi}} and apparent molar compressibility K{sub S,2,{phi}} of glycine, L-alanine, DL-{alpha}-amino-n-butyric acid, L-valine, and L-leucine have been determined in the aqueous solution of 1 mol . kg{sup -1} and 2 mol . kg{sup -1} trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) solutions by density and sound velocity measurements. Isothermal titration calorimetry has been employed to determine the values of heats of dilution q of the aqueous solutions of these amino acids in TMAO at temperatures from T = 288.15 K to T = 308.15 K. These data have been used to calculate values of the infinite dilution standard partial molar volume (V{sub 2,m}{sup 0}), standard partial molar isentropic compressibility (K{sub S,2,m}{sup 0}) and limiting enthalpy of dilution ({Delta}{sub dil}H{sup o}) of the amino acids in aqueous TMAO solutions. The standard partial molar volumes of transfer ({Delta}{sub tr}V{sub 2,m}{sup 0}), isentropic compressibility of transfer ({Delta}{sub tr}K{sub S,2,m}{sup 0}), and enthalpy of dilution of transfer ({Delta}{sub tr{Delta}dil}H{sup o}) of amino acids from water to aqueous TMAO solutions have been calculated from the measured quantities for these thermodynamic quantities. The linear correlation of V{sub 2,m}{sup 0} for a homologous series of amino acids has been utilized to calculate the contribution of the charged end groups (NH{sub 3}{sup +}, COO{sup -}), CH{sub 2} groups, and the other alkyl chains of the amino acids to V{sub 2,m}{sup 0}. The results for the partial molar properties of


    Muzaffer MALKOÇ


    Full Text Available IC analysis is a method of sentence analysis first explicitly introduced by American linguist Leonard Bloomfield in his book, Language, in 1933, though the underlying principle is common both to the traditional practice of parsing and to many modern systems of grammatical analysis. In IC analysis, a sentence is divided up into major divisions or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents. This process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or meaningful part of a word. The important tests used to analyze the sentences are deletion, permutation, transformation, and substitution tests.The end result of an IC analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of a sentence Direkt bileşenler analiz metodu Amerikalı dil bilimci Leonard Bloomfield tarafından 1933 yılında sentaks alanında başlatılmış, daha sonraki yıllarda fonetik ve morfoloji alanlarında da uygulanmıştır. Bu analiz metodunun amacı tümce veya kelime gruplarının parçalanması ve tasnif edilmesi işleminden ibarettir. Tümcelerin parçalanması en küçük dil birimine kadar kademe kademe yapılmalı ve bileşenlerin sınıflandırılmasında ise ana öbeğe veya ana gövdeye daha yakın olan unsurlar ile ikincil öğeler analizin amacına uygun olarak belirtilmelidir. Bu işlemler yapılırken Yok Etme Testi, Yer Değiştirme Testi, Dönüştürme Testi, Yerine Koyma Testi gibi metotlardan faydalanılır. Bu prensipler çerçevesinde yapılan analizin sonuçları hiyerarşik yapıları göstermek için bir grafikle özetlenir

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy


    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot \\'\\'\\'= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. İngilizce Öğrencilerinin Arka Koltuk TV Sistemleri ve Altyazılı Filmlere olan Tutumları English Language Learners’ Attitudes to Back-seat TV Systems and Subtitled Movies

    Buğra ZENGİN


    Full Text Available Given the limited exposure to the target language typical ofEnglish as a foreign language setting, English language movies or seriesare needed as sources of authentic input, especially concerning chunks.However, numerous factors may get in the way of their utilization insideand outside the classroom. Even though all classrooms are transformedinto technologically advanced, media enhanced learning environments;other constraints (especially time limits make it necessary to seek outways of benefiting from movies in informal settings. Nevertheless, evenpresuming their availability is within the budget of people of everysocio-economic background, the company they keep in this social andfun activity may induce a shift to the version dubbed into the learner’snative language. Likelihood of such interference is not low at all.Focusing on a university context with high-frequency intercitystudent commuting, this study tries to tackle the attitudes of thecommuter students to back-seat TV systems and subtitled movies.Using a five-point Likert-scale to assess the attitudes of Englishpreparation students, the questionnaire findings indicated that such aservice would be welcome once initiated. It is hoped that this study mayinduce the government, educational institutions, broadcasting andtravel companies to collaborate for a solution. İngilizcenin yabancı dil olarak öğretildiği konumlarda genel olarak görülen bir durum olan hedef dil girdisinin çok sınırlı olması gerçeği düşündüğünde, İngilizce film ya da dizilerine, özellikle dil kalıpları bakımından, doğal girdi kaynakları olarak ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Ancak öğrencilerin bu kaynaklardan faydalanmalarına engel teşkil eden, sınıf içi ve sınıf dışı birçok etken vardır. Bütün sınıflar gelişmiş teknolojilere sahip multi-medyalı öğrenme ortamlarına dönüştürülse dahi, diğer kısıtlamalar (özellikle zaman sınırlılıkları, İngilizce öğrenimi i


    Goltsev, A N; Babenko, N N; Gaevskaya, A; Chelombitko, O V; Bondarovich, N A; Dubrava, T G; Ostankov, M V; Klochkov, V K; Kavok, N S; Malyukin, Yu V


    Tumor development is the consequence of expanding the population of low differentiated cells with unlimited self-maintenance potential, i.e. cancer stem cells (CSCs). Application of new forms of nanocomposites capable of binding to CSCs and inducing the tumor destruction is perspective direction for treating this pathology. There have been developed the methods of obtaining hybrid nanocomplexes containing rare-earth orthovanadates GdYVO4:Eu³⁺, cholesterol and luminescent dye Dil. By immune fluorescence method using monoclonal antibodies to CD44, CD24, CD117 and Sca-1 markers there has been established the change in the ratio of tumor progenitors of various differentiation levels in a general pool of Ehrlich carcinoma (EC) after treatment with hybrid nanocomplexes. Essential reduction in the concentration of the most tumorogenic CD44high cells with simultaneous rise in the number of CD117⁺-cells resulted in an increased index of CD44high/CD117⁺ ratio. It has been demonstrated that application of hybrid nanocomplexes suppressed the tumor growth almost by 80%. The value of cooperative interactions of the cells with different phenotype signs in tumor sites has been proved. The index of CD44high/CD117⁺ ratio can be used as one of diagnostic and prognostic parameters of development and inactivation rate of tumor process when using different types of anti-tumor therapy.




    Debbağ Ergin, Derya, İngilizce’nin Yabancı Dil Olarak Öğretimi Bağlamında Ortaöğretim 10. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Rastlantısal ve Öğretim Yoluyla Sözcük Öğrenme Süreçlerine İlişkin Bir Uygulama, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Danışman Yrd. Doç. Dr. Seda Gökmen, 121 s. TÜRKÇE ÖZET Çalışmamızın konusunu, rastlantısal ve öğretim yoluyla sözcük öğrenmenin nasıl gerçekleştiğinin incelendiği kuramsal bir çerçeve ve rastlantısal ve öğretim yoluyla sözcük öğrenme süreçleri sonunda 10. sınıf öğrencilerinin sözcük b...

  13. Evaluating QoS-enabled information management services in a Navy operational context

    Paulos, Aaron M.; Sinclair, Asher; Loyall, Joseph P.


    Information Management (IM) services support the discovery, brokering, and dissemination of mission-critical information based on the information's content and characteristics. IM services support the dissemination of future information (through subscriptions) and past information (through queries) regardless of its source. To be useful across enterprise and tactical environments, IM services need mission-driven Quality of Service (QoS) features as part of their core functionality. We have developed QoS management features, QoS Enabled Dissemination (QED), that extend an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) developed set of IM services, Phoenix. This paper describes the results of a joint services experiment evaluating QED and Phoenix in a US Navy scenario involving multiple ships connected by a Disconnected, Intermittent, Limited (DIL) satellite network. Experiments evaluate QED and Phoenix's ability to (1) provide IM in the Wide Area Network (WAN) context of the satellite communications, which includes long latencies and background traffic not under QED control; (2) control and utilize active-precedence and queue management features provided by the WAN; (3) handle severe network overload, network disruptions, and dynamic changes in policies; and (4) successfully enforce deadlines and information replacement policies.

  14. Identifying the factors governing attitude towards the e-Agriservice among dairy farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Sagar Kisan Wadkar


    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT projects have a great potential to revolutionise the information delivery system by bridging the gap between farmers and extension personnel. aAQUA (Almost All Questions Answered portal was launched by the Developmental Informatics Laboratory (DIL at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Mumbai, Maharashtra, India in 2003 as an information providing system to deliver technology options and tailored information for the problems and queries raised by Indian dairy farmers. To measure the effectiveness of this service the attitudinal dimensions of the users of aAQUA e-Agriservice were investigated using a 22 item scale. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 dairy farmers from which data were collected and subjected to factor analysis to identify the underlying constructs in this research. From the attitude items, four components were extracted and named as the pessimistic, utility, technical and efficacy perspective, which influenced the development of varied level of attitudinal inclination towards the e-Agriservice. These components explained 64.40 per cent of variation in the attitude of the users towards the aAQUA e-Agriservice. This study provides a framework for technically efficient service provision that might help to reduce the pessimistic attitude of target population to adopt e-Agriservice in their farming system. The results should also be helpful for researchers, academics, ICT based service providers and policy makers to consider these perspectives while planning and implementing ICT projects.

  15. Modelo de intervención de la Fundación Social: caso localidad de Kennedy

    Carlos Arturo Grosso Rincón


    Full Text Available Este artículo se plantea como un estudio de caso, cuyo propósito se orienta en conocer los procesos de intervención que ha venido adelantando la Fundación Social (FS en la localidad de Kennedy (Bogotá D. C., unidad de planificación zonal (UPZ Patio Bonito, a través de uno de sus instrumentos: los proyectos sociales directos. Dicha intervención se remonta al año 2001, fecha en la cual la entidad inició su acercamiento a este territorio y culmina en el año 2010. Para adelantar el proceso, la FS define unos lineamientos enmarcados en lo que denomina el modelo de “desarrollo integral local” (DIL. El artículo describe dicho modelo, las diferentes fases que se ejecutaron para su aplicación en la zona, la forma como se percibe la intervención desde la visión de algunos actores y la nueva lógica de intervención que desde el año 2011 asume la entidad en las localidades de Bosa y Kennedy, a través de la agenda interlocal de desarrollo. Se concluye sobre la exitosa labor que desempeña la entidad en la zona y la manera como contribuye a fortalecer procesos organizativos y de gestión.


    Ali GÖÇER


    Full Text Available Vocabulary is to affect the success of education, teaching and the skills of language of students. Words have important function in communication. In this study the importance of vocabulary is emphasized, the techniques need to be application during education of the students on new words and word training techniques are being investigated. Söz varlığı, öğrencilerin dil becerilerini, eğitim ve öğretim başarılarını doğrudan etkilemektedir. Bireyler arası iletişimde de söz varlığının önemi büyüktür. Bu çalışmada söz varlığının önemi üzerinde durulmakta, öğrencilere yeni kelimelerin kazandırılmasında takip edilmesi gereken teknikler ve kelime öğretimine yönelik gerçekleştirilebilecek etkinliklere işaret edilmektedir.

  17. The fallacy of racial pharmacogenomics

    S.D.J. Pena


    Full Text Available Personalized pharmacogenomics aims to use individual genotypes to direct medical treatment. Unfortunately, the loci relevant for the pharmacokinetics and especially the pharmacodynamics of most drugs are still unknown. Moreover, we still do not understand the role that individual genotypes play in modulating the pathogenesis, the clinical course and the susceptibility to drugs of human diseases which, although appearing homogeneous on the surface, may vary from patient to patient. To try to deal with this situation, it has been proposed to use interpopulational variability as a reference for drug development and prescription, leading to the development of "race-targeted drugs". Given the present limitations of genomic knowledge and of the tools needed to fully implement it today, some investigators have proposed to use racial criteria as a palliative measure until personalized pharmacogenomics is fully developed. This was the rationale for the FDA approval of BiDil for treatment of heart failure in African Americans. I will evaluate the efficacy and safety of racial pharmacogenomics here and conclude that it fails on both counts. Next I shall review the perspectives and the predicted rate of development of clinical genomic studies. The conclusion is that "next-generation" genomic sequencing is advancing at a tremendous rate and that true personalized pharmacogenomics, based on individual genotyping, should soon become a clinical reality.

  18. Ortaöğretim 9. Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Yazılı Anlatım Alan Bilgisi Başarı Düzeyleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma A Research On 9th Grade Of Secondary Education Students ' Achievement Levels Of Field Knowledge Of Writing Expression

    Hasan BAĞCI


    ğretimin son aşamasına kadar bu becerilerinin geliştirildiği süreci içine alan bir dönemdir. Yazma becerisi bilgi, birikim ve dili etkili kullanmayı gerektirdiğinden bu sürecin okuma, dinleme/izleme, konuşma ve dil bilgisi etkinlikleriyle de desteklenmesi gerekir.Öğrencilerin yazılı anlatım metinlerini inceleyen araştırmacılar, öğrenci metinlerinde birçok eksikliğin olduğunu, öğrencilerin yazma becerilerinin beklenen yeterliliğe ulaşamadığını ifade etmektedir. Bu becerideki eksikliklerin bilgi aşamasından bilgilerin beceriye dönüştürülememesine kadar geniş bir çerçeveye dağıldığı düşünülmektedir. Bu yüzden bu çalışmanın amacı, ortaöğretim 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin Dil ve Anlatım Ders Programı’nda da ifade edilen yazma becerisine yönelik kazanım cümleleri doğrultusunda yazılı anlatım alan bilgisi düzeylerini belirlemektir. Araştırmada ayrıca öğrencilerin yazılı anlatım alan bilgisi yeterlilik düzeylerinin başta cinsiyet olmak üzere diğer değişkenlere göre de değişip değişmediği tespit edilmiştir.Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre, ortaöğretim 9. sınıf öğrencilerin Yazılı Anlatım Alan Bilgisi Testi genel başarı puanları ortalamaları 100 tam puan üzerinden 59 puanla sınırlı kalmıştır. Yine 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin yazılı anlatım alan bilgisi başarı düzeyleri, cinsiyet değişkenine göre anlamlı bir farklılık göstermezken öğrencilerin akademik başarına, serbest yazma etkinliği yapmalarına, günlük tutmalarına, Dil ve Anlatım dersini sevmeleri ile yazma etkinliklerinden memnun olmalarına göre ise değişmektedir. Araştırmanın sonunda elde edilen sonuçlara bağlı kalınarak Dil ve Anlatım derslerini veren öğretmenlere bazı önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

  19. The Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in Caustic Esophagus Injury: An Experimental Study

    Murat Kantarcioglu


    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion of corrosive substances may lead to stricture formation in esophagus as a late complication. Full thickness injury seems to exterminate tissue stem cells of esophagus. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate into specific cell lineages and have the capacity of homing in sites of injury. Aim and Methods. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of MSC transplantation, on prevention of esophageal damage and stricture formation after caustic esophagus injury in rats. 54 rats were allocated into four groups; 4 rats were sacrificed for MSC production. Group 1, untreated controls (n: 10. Group 2, membrane labeled MSCs-treated rats (n: 20. Group 3, biodistribution of fluorodeoxyglucose labeled MSCs via positron emission tomography (PET imaging (n: 10. Group 4, sham operated (n: 10. Standard caustic esophageal burns were created and MSCs were transplanted 24 hours after. All rats were sacrificed at the 21st days. Results. PET scan images revealed the homing behavior of MSCs to the injury site. The histopathology damage score was not significantly different from controls. However, we demonstrated Dil labeled epithelial and muscle cells which were originating from transplanted MSCs. Conclusion. MSC transplantation after caustic esophageal injury may be a helpful treatment modality; however, probably repeated infusions are needed.

  20. Konuşma Eğitimini Etkileyen Faktörler

    Uçgun, Duygu


    İnsanın sosyal ilişkilerini sürdürebilmesi için en fazla ihtiyaç duyduğu beceri olan konuşma, günlük hayatın ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır. İletişim konusunda yapılan araştırmaların sonuçları, konuşmanın iletişimde ne kadar önemli olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. Ne yazık ki taşıdığı öneme rağmen bu dil becerisinin geliştirilmesi için yapılan çalışmalar yeterli değildir. Bu çalışmada konuşma eğitimini etkileyen faktörler üzerinde durulmuş ve bu becerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur....


    Mehmet Nuri GÖMLEKSİZ


    Full Text Available Speaking skill should be given special importance within the four language skills as it is an important aspect of communication. Therefore, the English education given should be in favor of developing the students’ speaking skills, considering all of the process; including the materials used as well as the classroom context. Moreover, the evaluation aspect of speaking skill is another important point to consider. European Language Portfolio is a document which puts the standards for this aspect of education and files individual information in terms of their language experience and knowledge. Moreover, it uses the Common European Framework as a criterion for the language competence. The aim of this study is to determine views of students, who enrolled at English preparatory class at the School of Foreign Languages in İnonü University, towards their English speaking skill competency. The study was conducted on 150 preparatory school students. Data were collected through a questionnaire prepared considering the Common European Framework. Independent samples t-test and one way ANOVA were used to analyze the data. As a result, it was determined that students’ views towards their English speaking skill did not differ in terms of gender and the high school type variables. Students’ views on their speaking skills differed significantly in terms of taking English as compulsory or willingly. Konuşma, iletişimde önemli bir yer tuttuğundan, dört dil becerisi içerisinde üzerinde önemle durulması gereken bir beceridir. İngilizce derslerinin sınıf ortamı, kullanılan materyaller ve bütün süreç dâhil olmak üzere İngilizce konuşma becerisini geliştirici nitelikte olması önemlidir. Bununla birlikte, bu becerinin değerlendirilmesi de önemlidir. Avrupa Dil Portfolyosu bu duruma standart getiren, bireylerin dil öğrenmede deneyim ve bilgilerini kayıt altına alan bir dokümandır. Buna göre, bireylerin dil seviyeleri ortaya

  2. L'ironie dans l'allégorie chez Rutebeuf

    Špela Žakelj


    Full Text Available Occupant une place très importante parmi les auteurs français du XIII siècle, Rutebeuf se sert dans sa poésie morale et satirique de l'allégorie, figure rhétorique typique pour le Moyen Age, dans la poésie liée surtout à la thématique du voyage. Dans les suvres de Rutebeuf l'allégorie est jointe le plus souvent à la satire, genre de prédiléction du discours ironique. Se dressant de manière symbolique contre l'écroulement des valeurs traditionnelles l'auteur prend pour l'objet de son ironie la corruption de la société contemporaine, surtout celle des ordres mendinats, coupables selon lui pour l'emprise des vices sur l'humanité. Pour éviter la généralization avec laquelle le systeme allégorique des personifications empreint perspective satirique et ironique Rutebeuf combine les modèles allégoriques différents, créant ainsi une situation a priori dramatique dont témoignent par exemple ses suvres Le débat du croisé et du décroisé, la Leçon sur Hypocrisie et Humilité ou Le dit du mensonge.

  3. Türkiye-Fransa İlköğretim Eğitim Sistemlerinin ve İngilizce Ders Programlarının Karşılaştırılması A Comparison Of Primary Education Systems And English Instruction Program In Turkey And France

    Senem Seda ŞAHENK ERKAN


    Fransa’da 1-5. sınıflar (1 ve 2. sınıf: yabancı dil + sanat ve sanat tarihi + dünyanın keşfi: haftalık ders saati: 9 saat dağılımlar okuldan okula değişmektedir (3.-5. sınıf: yabancı dil + fen/teknoloji+hümanistik kültür: 11 saat dağılımlar okuldan okula değişmektedir dahilinde okutulan İngilizce dersinin kapsam ve içerikleri karşılaştırılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda Türkiye ve Fransa ilköğretim eğitim sistemleri genel özellikleri ve İngilizce ders programları karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir. Bu çalışmanın problem cümlesi şu şekilde gösterilebilir: “Türkiye ve Fransa’nın ilköğretim kademesi eğitim sistemleri ve İngilizce ders amaçları ve programları arasındaki benzerlik ve farklılıklar nelerdir?” Bu çalışmada litteratür tarama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışmanın sonucunda Türkiye ve Fransa’da yabancı dil derslerinde okutulan ortak konular ele alınacaktır. Aynı zamanda Türkiye ve Fransa’da yabancı dil derslerinde işlenilen farklı konulardan bahsedilecektir.

  4. 玻璃化转变温度测试方法对测试结果的影响%Influence of Glass Transition Temperature Test Methods on Test Results

    张霞; 王从科; 郑素萍; 凡丽梅; 夏敏


    The glass transition temperature of fiber glass reinforced nylon 66 and PE-HD was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC ) and dilatomery (DIL ) .The results showed that the glass transition temperature changed with the different measurement methods and conditions, the glass transition temperature obtained by means of different measurement methods wasn't comparable. The adopted measurement methods and conditions should be specified in the description of glass transition temperature.%以玻纤增强尼龙66、高密度聚乙烯为样品,分别采用差示扫描量热法和热膨胀法测试了样品的玻璃化转变温度(Tg).结果表明,材料的Tg随测试方法、测试条件的不同而变化,采用不同的测试方法所得的Tg结果之间不具有可比性,在说明某种材料的Tg时,应注明所采用的测试方法和测试条件.

  5. ATP Synthase β-Chain Overexpression in SR-BI Knockout Mice Increases HDL Uptake and Reduces Plasma HDL Level

    Kexiu Song


    Full Text Available HDL cholesterol is known to be inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease due to its diverse antiatherogenic functions. SR-BI mediates the selective uptake of HDL-C. SR-BI knockout diminishes but does not completely block the transport of HDL; other receptors may be involved. Ectopic ATP synthase β-chain in hepatocytes has been previously characterized as an apoA-I receptor, triggering HDL internalization. This study was undertaken to identify the overexpression of ectopic ATP synthase β-chain on DIL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes in vitro and on plasma HDL levels in SR-BI knockout mice. Human ATP synthase β-chain cDNA was delivered to the mouse liver by adenovirus and GFP adenovirus as control. The adenovirus-mediated overexpression of β-chain was identified at both mRNA and protein levels on mice liver and validated by its increasing of DiL-HDL uptake in primary hepatocytes. In response to hepatic overexpression of β-chain, plasma HDL-C levels and cholesterol were reduced in SR-BI knockout mice, compared with the control. The present data suggest that ATP synthase β-chain can serve as the endocytic receptor of HDL, and its overexpression can reduce plasma HDL-C.

  6. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh.

    Deng, Meng; Gu, Yunpeng; Liu, Zhenjun; Qi, Yue; Ma, Gui E; Kang, Ning


    Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA) mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34- when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.


    A. Nuri BAŞOĞLU


    Full Text Available İlişkisel veri tabanları bilgiişlem uygulamalarında standart olmaya başlamasına rağmen, karmaşık veri modellemesinin gereklerini yerine getirmek için nesne yönelimli sistemler geliştirilmektedir. Bu makalede, hızlı program geliştirmek için kullanılabilecek, nesne-tabanlı bir sistem, xPROT tanıtılmaktadır. Sistem bazı önceden tanımlanmış metod ve Menu, Report, View, Table gibi sınıfları içermektedir. xPROT'da veri şeması olduğu kadar, veri işleme de aynı komut bazlı dil ile ifade edilmektedir. Sistemin ifade yeterliliği, kolaylığı ve esnekliği, veri modelleme gücü açısından incelenmektedir.

  8. Sosyal Medya Dilinin Görüntüsel Gösterge Boyutu Ve Bunun Dile Etksi The Iconic Semiotic Dimension Of The Language Of Social Media And Its Influence To The Language



    şınabilir/mobil cihazlar üzerinden de internet erişiminin sağlanabilmesi ve sosyal medya ağlarının kullanılabilmesi, sosyal medyadaki akışın sürekliliğine yardım eder. Sosyal paylaşım ağları ve sözlükler, ansiklopedi veri tabanları, forumlar, arkadaşlık siteleri gibi sosyal medyayı oluşturan alanlardaki iletişim dil ile gerçekleşmektedir. Bu dilin tüm sosyal ağlar için ortaklaştığı yönler olduğu gibi her bir sosyal ağ için ayrı kullanımları ve söz dağarcığı da mevcuttur. Sosyal medyada kullanılan dil yalnızca işitim imgesi ve harflerden oluşmamaktadır. Dilsel göstergeler ve dil dışı göstergeler sosyal medyada hem tek başlarına hem de birlikte kullanılmaktadırlar. Bu makalede, neredeyse tamamıyla göstergelerden oluşan sosyal medyanın göstergebilim ile incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Saussure ve Peirce’ün göstergebilimde kurdukları metotlar makalenin yöntemini oluşturmaktadır. Sosyal medyada göstergeler; dilsel göstergeler ve dil dışı göstergeler olmak üzere birkaç farklı biçimde kullanılmaktadır. Makalemizde dilsel göstergeler Saussure’ün ortaya koyduğu ikili gösterge sistemi ile değerlendirilmiştir.

  9. The adaptation of Flow Short Scale to Turkish: A validity and reliability studyFlow Yaşantısı Ölçeği Kısa Formunun Türkçeye uyarlama, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması

    Bahar İşigüzel


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Flow Short Scale that was developed by Rheinberg, Vollmeyer ve Engeser (2003 in Germany, for Turkey’s conditions. 222 university prep class students (124 female; 98 male participated in the study. The validity of scale was investigated by construct and criterion related validity methods and the reliability analysis of the scale, measured by assessing the internal consistency parameter. The factor structure of the scale was investigated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA. The results of the analysis showed that the factor structures of the scale, which has two complementary sub- scales (flow- anxiety, were similar with the original scale.  It is found that the adapted scales internal reliability co- efficient was .78. The foreign language achievement final points of the semester were used for the criterion validity. There was r=.21 correlation between flow experience and the language achievement final points and r=.34 correlation between anxiety and the language achievement final points (p<.01. The findings revealed that the Flow Short Scale was a reliable and valid instrument for measuring university students’ Flow Experiences by the foreign language lessons in prep- classes. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, Rheinberg, Vollmeyer ve Engeser (2003 tarafından geliştirilen Flow Yaşantısı Ölçeği Kısa Formu’nun (Flow Kurz Skala Türkçeye uyarlama, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasını yapmaktır. Araştırmaya 124’ü kadın, 98’i erkek toplam 222 yabancı dil hazırlık sınıfı üniversite öğrencisi katılmıştır. Ölçeğin geçerliğine yapı geçerliği ve ölçüt bağlantılı geçerlik yaklaşımlarıyla bakılmıştır. Aracın güvenirliği ise iç tutarlık katsayısı hesaplanarak incelenmiştir. Ölçeğin basit ve kararlı bir yapıya sahip olup olmadığını anlamak için Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi uygulanmıştır.

  10. Intervention development for the indicated prevention of depression in later life: The “DIL” protocol in Goa, India

    Amit Dias, MD


    Full Text Available Because depression is a major source of the global burden of illness-related disability, developing effective strategies for reducing its incidence is an important public health priority, especially in low-income countries, where resources for treating depression are scarce. We describe in this report an intervention development project, funded by the US National Institute of Mental Health, to address “indicated” prevention of depression in older adults attending rural and urban primary care clinics in Goa, India. Specifically, participants in the “DIL” (“Depression in Later Life” trial were older adults living with mild, subsyndromal symptoms of depression and anxiety and thus at substantial risk for transitioning to fully syndromal major depression and anxiety disorders. Building upon the MANAS treatment trial (“Promoting Mental Health” led by Patel et al. in the same locale, we present here lessons learned in the development and implementation of a protocol utilizing lay health counsellors (LHCs who deliver a multi-component depression prevention intervention organized conceptually around Problem Solving Therapy for Primary Care (PST, with additional components addressing brief behavioural treatment of sleep disturbances such as insomnia, meeting basic social casework needs, and education in self-management of prevalent comorbid chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus. To our knowledge, DIL is the first randomized clinical trial addressing the prevention of depressive disorders ever conducted in a low- or middle-income country.




    Full Text Available The discussion of compound nouns with no suffixes has an important place in Turkish grammar writing. Recently, it is seen that this discussion has come to an end and the constructions like tahta kaşık “wooden spoon”, altın kolye “golden necklace” are accepted as adjective complements. In this study, firstly these discussions are evaluated and then the roles of word classes in phrases are discussed with regard to nouns and adjectives. Takısız ad tamlaması tartışması Türkçe dil bilgisi yazımında önemli bir yere sahiptir. Son yıllarda bu konuyla ilgili tartışmaların azaldığı ve akademik yayınların çoğunda tahta kaşık, altın kolye dizilişindeki yapıların sıfat tamlaması kabul edildiği görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada takısız ad tamlaması tartışmaları değerlendirildikten sonra, kelime türlerinin öbek kurmadaki rolleri sıfat ve ad türleri temelinde tartışılmaktadır.

  12. Transplantation of Nurr1 gene transfected neural stem cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease%核受体相关因子1基因转染神经干细胞移植治疗帕金森病

    田美玲; 谭雪锋; 金国华; 秦建兵; 李浩明; 朱蕙霞; 张蕾


    目的 探讨转染核受体相关因子1(Nurr1)基因的神经干细胞(NSCs)移植至帕金森病(PD)大鼠纹状体后向多巴胺能神经元的分化及对PD大鼠行为的影响.方法 应用脑立体定位技术构建单侧PD大鼠模型.将PD大鼠随机分为3组,每组8只.假手术组注射生理盐水,NSCs组移植未转染的NSCs,Nurr1组先将重组质粒载体pEGFP-N1-Nurr1转染NSCs,用RT-PCR方法及免疫荧光染色检测Nurr1基因的表达效果,然后用转染Nurr1 基因的NSCs进行移植.细胞用DIL标记后移植至PD大鼠右侧纹状体中,术后2周起用阿朴吗啡诱发旋转试验观测移植后大鼠行为改善情况,12周后用免疫荧光技术检测移植细胞中酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)的表达.结果 重组质粒转染后Nurr1基因能在NSCs中过表达.移植后假手术组和NSCs组PD大鼠的旋转圈数均无下降趋势,两者差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);NSCs组移植区可见DIL阳性细胞,但TH免疫阳性细胞较少,平均每视野为(3.21±0.40)个;Nurr1组移植后PD大鼠的旋转圈数从第6周开始下降,移植区DIL/TH双标神经元每视野达(9.28±1.09)个.结论 Nurr1基因过表达能诱导NSCs在PD大鼠纹状体内分化为TH阳性的多巴胺能神经元,并在一定程度上改善大鼠的行为功能.%Objective To study the differentiation of neural stem cells ( NSCs ) transfected with nuclear receptor related factor 1 ( Nurr1 ) gene into dopaminergic neurons and its behavioral exertion after transplanted into the striatum of Parkinson' s disease ( PD ) rats. Methods The unilateral PD rats were prepared by the rat brain stereotaxic technology.The successful PD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups with 8 rats in each group. The rats in the sham group were injected with normal saline. Untransfected NSCs were grafted into the rats in NSCs group. In Nurr1group, the recombinant pEGFP-N1-Nurr1 was transfected into NSCs first, the expression of Nurr1 gene was detected by RT-PCR and

  13. Study of hydroxyapatite behaviour during sintering of 316L steel

    A. Szewczyk-Nykiel


    Full Text Available 316L stainless steel – hydroxyapatite composite biomaterials with different hydroxyapatite weight fraction in the composite wereinvestigated. Hydroxyapatite (HAp – Ca10(PO46(OH2 is well known biomaterial. HAp reveals excellent chemical and biological affinitywith bony tissues. On the other hand hydroxyapatite shows low mechanical properties. The combination of very good biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite and high mechanical properties of stainless steel seems to be a good solution. In presented research natural originhydroxyapatite and 316L austenitic stainless steel were used. In this work, metal-ceramics composites were fabricated by the powdermetallurgy technology (involving pressing and sintering process. Sintering was carried out at 1250oC in hydrogen atmosphere. Thedensity, porosity and hardness were investigated. Metallographic microscope and SEM were carried out in order to investigate themicrostructure. The horizontal NETZSCH DIL 402E dilatometer was used to evaluate the dimensional changes and phenomena occurringduring sintering. The research displayed that physical properties of sintered 316L-HAp composites decrease with increase ofhydroxyapatite content. Microstructure of investigated composites consists of austenitic and probably inclusions of hydroxyapatite andheterogeneous eutectic occurring on the grain boundaries. It was shown that amount of hydroxyapatite in the powder mixtures influencethe dimensional changes occurring during sintering.

  14. Organismos estatales de justicia y policía en la ciudad de Bucaramanga, 1900 – 1950

    René Álvarez Orozco


    Full Text Available En este artículo se intenta establecer el proceso de implantación de aquellos entes estatales y burocráticos encargados de preservar el orden e impartir justicia en la ciudad de Bucaramanga, como fueron las autoridades de policía y los juzgados, durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, periodo de tiempo en el que la ciudad mantuvo un crecimiento urbano, económico y poblacional constante que la consolidaron como una importante ciudad-capital en la región oriental del país. El estudio de estas políticas y medidas de control social se sitúan dentro del marco del pensamiento criminológico así como también en el de las prácticas institucionales públicas, que permiten dilúcidar los dispositivos de control y prevención que se diseñaron para ejercer vigilancia, orden y castigo, a diversos sectores como parte de la formación y consolidación de la sociedad moderna.

  15. BIRADS 3 ve 4 Meme Lezyonlarına Yaklaşım: Hangi Olgulara Biyopsi Yapılmalı?

    Gazioğlu, Deniz; Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, A. Oğuz; Kargıcı, Hülagü


    Giriş ve amaç: Kadınlarda en sık meme kanseri görülmekte ve bu oran gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Son yıllarda meme kanserinin erken tanısı için ilgili klinikler arası ortak bir dil oluşturulması şart olmuştur. Bu amaçla geliştirilen BIRADS sistemi ülkemizde de yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bu çalışmada amaç, BIRADS 3 ve 4 olarak sınıflanan meme lezyonlarının değerlendirilmesi konusunda klinik deneyimimizin paylaşılmasıdır. Materyal ve metod: Bu çalışmaya Ocak 2005- Haziran 2008 tarihleri arasında genel ...


    Galip GÜNER


    Full Text Available Kipchak Turkic is one of the major branches of Middle Turkic which was spoken from XIII. century to XVI. century at steppes of southern Russia to Middle East (especially in Egyp and Syria.In this article it is intended to set professions from the texts which was written by Kipchak Turkic. In this way, the social, cultural, economical, military, political etc. life of Kipchak society was determined by the linguistic data. Kıpçak Türkçesi Türk dilinin XIII. yüzyıldan XVI. yüzyıla kadar Güney Rusya steplerinden, Orta Doğu coğrafyasına (başta Mısır ve Suriye olmak üzere kadar uzanan geniş bir coğrafyada konuşulmuş önemli kollarından biridir.Bu çalışmada Kıpçak Türkçesiyle yazılmış eserlerden hareketle meslek adlarının içerik ve yapı bakımından belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu sayede Kıpçak toplumunun sosyal, kültürel, iktisadi, askerî, siyasi vb. hayatının yansımaları elde edilen dil verileriyle ortaya konulmuştur.

  17. Almanca ve Türkçede Düz ve Dolaylı Tümleçler Direct And Indirect Objects In German And Turkish

    Umut BALCI


    distinction between directand indirect objects. Bu çalışmanın çıkış noktasını yabancı dil eğitiminde dört temel becerinin (dinleme, okuma, yazma, konuşma temel özellikleri ve bu becerilerin geliştirilmesi için kullanılabilecek yöntemler oluşturmaktadır. Dil öğrenimi dört temel becerinin eşit oranda kullanımı ve geliştirilmesine bağlı olmasına rağmen, bu çalışmada dilbilgisi öğretimi üzerine ağırlık verilmektedir. Özellikle konuşma ve yazma becerileriyle direk ilintili olan dilbilgisi öğretimi konusunda bazı yöntemlerde dil öğrenimini zorlaştıran gereksiz bilgilere yer verilmektedir. Bu noktadan hareketle bu çalışmada, dilbilgisinin alt konularından biri olan düz ve dolaylı tümleçlerin dilbilgisi kitaplarında ele alınış şekli üzerinde durulmaktadır.Nesneler, dilin kaynaşmalı, eklemeli ya da bükümlü oluşuna göre morfolojik, konumsal ya da yapısal olarak tanımlanan sözdizimsel işlevlerdir ve cümlede, yüklemin gösterdiği eylemle /oluşla /durumla ilgili olan kişi ya da konu olarak görünürler. Cümlede anlatılmak isteneni tümlerler, bu yüzden Türkçede tümleç diye adlandırılırlar. Geleneksel Türkolojide nesne, belirli ya da belirsiz akuzatif durumunda olabilen ve geçişli eylemi tümleyen cümle öğesi olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Almanca bilimsel dilbilgisi ile Türkçe bilimsel ve eğitsel dilbilgisi kitaplarında düz ve dolaylı tümleç ayrımı yapılmakta ve akuzatif tümleçler dolaylı tümleç, datif tümleçler ise düz / dolaysız tümleç olarak kabul edilmektedir. Ancak bu ayrım kimseye yaramamakta ve karışıklıklara neden olmaktadır; çünkü tutarlı ölçütlere dayanmamaktadır. Ayrıca Almanca öğretiminde düz tümleç / dolaylı tümleç ayrımı yapılmaz; buna karşılık Türkçe öğretiminde ve dilbilgisinde bu ayrıma çok önem verilmektedir. Tutarlı ölçütlere dayanmayan bu ayrım anadili Türkçe olan kişilerin yabancı dil öğrenimini de zorla

  18. Arapça ve İngilizce bağlaçların karşıtsal çözümleme yöntemiyle incelenmesi



    Çalışmamızda dilbilimin bir dalı olan karşıtsal çözümleme yönteminden hareketle Arapça ve İngilizcedeki bağlaçları inceledik. Karşıtsal çözümlemenin tanımıyla giriş yaptığımız çalışmamızın birinci bölümünde Arapçadaki bağlaçları, ikinci bölümünde ise İngilizcedeki bağlaçları ele aldık. Üçüncü bölümde iki dilin bağlaçları arasındaki benzerlik ve farklılıkları tespit ettik; bu farklılıklardan hareketle yabancı dil olarak İngilizce öğrenmek isteyen Arap öğrencilerin öğrenim sürecinde karşılaşmas...

  19. Etkili Eğitim Denetiminde Yaşanan İletişim Engelleri ve Bu Engelleri Aşma Yolları

    Yazıcı, Öznur; Gündüz, Yüksel


    Bu çalışmanın amacı, etkili bir denetimde iletişim engelleri oluşturan unsurların neler olduğunu ve bu unsurlardan meydana gelen engelleri aşmak için nelerin yapılması gerektiğini ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaçla yapılan çalışmada, etkili denetimde iletişim engelleri oluşturan unsurlar olarak, statü farklılıkları, kişisel engeller, dil güçlükleri, dinleme yetersizliğinden doğan güçlükler, ifade açıklığının bulunmamasından doğan engeller, geri beslemeden doğan güçlükler, empatik iletişim kuramama, ...

  20. DEPRElVl KlJVVı

    Hüseyin KASAP


    Full Text Available B u ç a l ış nıada , dep rem yükleri al t ı ndaki 4,6, 8 ve 10 katlı perdeli-çerçeveli 3 ayrı tip binanınperde e nkesi t değişinlinin sisteınin kesıne kuvYetidağ ı lı ını na etkisi incelenntiştir.Döşeme kalı n lı ğ ı, döşeme ağırlığı, kiriş a ğ ı r l ığı ,perde a ğırlığ ı duvar a ğır lı ğı ve bunlara b ağlıolarak kolon boyutu ta yi n e dil ıni ş ti r .Kolonboyutlarına bağlı olarak kat ağıı4hkları t ay inedilnıiştir.Hesaplanan kat a ğ ır lı kl a rı ile ta b ankesme kuv,

  1. [The anatomists who started anthropology in Turkey and their contributions].

    Uluçam, E; Gökçe, N; Başağaoğlu, J


    The Turkish Institute of Antropology was estabilished in 1925 as a unit of the Medical School of Istanbul University (Darülfünun), named the Antropology Research Center (Antropoloji Tetkikat Merkezi). It was a part of the medical faculty until 1932. After the university reform it was connected to the School of Science and in late 1935 it was transfered to the School of Languages History and Geography (Dil Tarih Coğrafya Fakültesi) in Ankara. The center started to publish "The Journal of Turkish Anthropology" with Dr. Nuretttin Ali Berkols researches in 1925. It was published in two languages, Turkish and French. The faculty members of the institute, Dr. Mouchet, Dr. Süreyya Ali and Dr. Ismail Hakki formed the editorial board of the journal. We see that from the first issue of the journal in 1925 until the special issue prepared for the XVIII. Anthropology and Prehistorical Archealogy Congress in 1939, Dr. Nurettin Ali Berkol and Dr. Mouchet were members of the administrative committee of the journal. In this article; we studied the contributions of the anatomists to the development of anthropology in Turkey.

  2. BIRADS 3 ve 4 Meme Lezyonlarına Yaklaşım: Hangi Olgulara Biyopsi Yapılmalı?

    Gazioğlu, Deniz; Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, A. Oğuz; Kargıcı, Hülagü


    Giriş ve amaç: Kadınlarda en sık meme kanseri görülmekte ve bu oran gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Son yıllarda meme kanserinin erken tanısı için ilgili klinikler arası ortak bir dil oluşturulması şart olmuştur. Bu amaçla geliştirilen BIRADS sistemi ülkemizde de yaygınlaşmaktadır. Bu çalışmada amaç, BIRADS 3 ve 4 olarak sınıflanan meme lezyonlarının değerlendirilmesi konusunda klinik deneyimimizin paylaşılmasıdır. Materyal ve metod: Bu çalışmaya Ocak 2005- Haziran 2008 tarihleri arasında genel ...

  3. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of proteins in plasma

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 microM) with dil......Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 micro......M) with diluted fresh human plasma has been shown to generate material that oxidizes 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid; these oxidants are believed to be chloramines formed from the reaction of HOCl with protein amine groups. Chloramines have also been detected with isolated plasma proteins treated with HOCl. In both....... These results are consistent with protein-derived chloramines, and the radicals derived from them, as contributing agents in HOCl-induced plasma protein oxidation....

  4. Effect of antihypertensive treatment on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with mild essential hypertension.

    de Ciuceis, Carolina; Pilu, Annamaria; Rizzoni, Damiano; Porteri, Enzo; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Paini, Anna; Belotti, Eugenia; Zani, Francesca; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Claudia Agabiti; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti


    It has been reported that the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) reflects the endogenous vascular repair ability, with the EPCs pool declining in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. However, their relationship with hypertension and the effects of anti-hypertensive treatment remain unclear. We randomized 29 patients with mild essential hypertension to receive barnidipine up to 20 mg or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) up to 25 mg. Circulating EPCs were isolated from peripheral blood at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Mononuclear cells were cultured with endothelial basal medium supplemented with EGM SingleQuots. EPCs were identified by positive double staining for both FITC-labeled Ulex europaeus agglutinin I and Dil-labeled acethylated low-density lipoprotein. After 3 and 6 months of treatment, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were significantly reduced. No difference was observed between drugs. An increase in the number of EPCs was observed after 3 and 6 months of anti-hypertensive treatment (p Barnidipine significantly increased EPCs after 3 and 6 months of treatment, whereas no effect was observed with HCT. No statistically significant correlation was observed between EPCs and clinical BP values. Our data suggest that antihypertensive treatment may increase the number of EPCs. However, we observed a different effect of barnidipine and HCT on EPCs, suggesting that, beyond its BP lowering effect, barnidipine may elicit additional beneficial properties, related to a healthier vasculature.

  5. Azerbaycan Kitap Mmedeniyeti Tarihinden



    Full Text Available Kültür mirasının önemli ürünleri olan el yazması eserler; tarih, din, dil, felsefe, coğrafya, astroloji, fen bilimleri gibi çeşitli konularda, yazıldığı dönem ve yere ait temel bilgileri bünyesinde toplayan, bilim ve sanat dünyasının ilk elden kaynaklarını oluşturmaktadır. Tarih, Azerbaycan kitabının tarihini, kitap kültürünü ve yazınının taş kalem, metal kalem, kemik kalem, çubuk kalem, kamış kalem, fırça gibi yazı aletlerinden yararlandığını göstermektedir. M.S. I.-II. binlerde Azerbaycan'da kil tabletler, taş levhalar (inek, keçi, ceylan, sırtlan derisi gibi malzemeler kullanılması da Azerbaycan Türklerinin kitap ve yazı kültürünün zenginliğinden kanıtlıyor. Ebülfez Elçibey’in bu makalesinde ise Azerbaycan kitap medeniyeti tarihi ele alınmıştır.

  6. Sivas’ta 40 yaş üzeri bireylerde ağız mukozası lezyonlarının yaygınlığının değerlendirilmesi

    Erdem Kilic


    (396 erkek, 156 kadın birey çalışmaya dahil edilmiştir. Bu bireylere yaş, cinsiyet, protez kullanım süresi, protez hijyen alışkanlıkları ve protez memnuniyeti konusunda bir anket uygulandıktan sonra sistematik olarak ağız muayeneleri yapılmıştır.

    Bulgular: Ağız mukozası lezyonlarından fissürlü dil % 7.9, kıllı dil % 23, lökoplaki % 3.3, sigara içimine bağlı olarak oluşan melanozis % 9, angular şelitis % 0.4, fibroepiteliyal polip % 3.3, liken planus % 1.8, friksiyonel keratozis % 7.8, aftöz ülser % 2.9, coğrafik dil % 1.2, nikotin stomatitis % 0.7, protez stomatiti % 5.6, epulis fissuratum % 2.5 ve mesnetsiz kret % 7.9 oranında tespit edilmiştir. Sigara içen bireylerde tespit edilen lökoplaki ve kıllı dil görülme oranının içmeyenlere göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı şekilde farklı olduğu belirlenmiştir (p<0.05. Bayanlarda protez stomatiti görülme oranının erkeklere göre belirgin olarak farklı olduğu ve protez kullanım süresi uzadıkça protez stomatiti görülme oranının arttığı tespit edilmiştir. (p<0.05.

    Sonuç: Elde edilen sonuçlar, sigara alışkanlığının, protezi uygun şekilde kullanmamanın ve oral hijyenin kötü olmasının ağız mukozası lezyonlarının oluşumu üzerine etkisi konusunda bireylerin bilgilendirilmelerinin gerekli olduğunu göstermektedir.

    Anahtar Sözcükler: Ağız epidemiyolojisi, ağız patolojisi, ağız mukozal lezyonları

  7. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury

    Hai-xiao Zhou; Zhi-gang Liu; Xiao-jiao Liu; Qian-xue Chen


    Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized lfuid (2.5–3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantationvia the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment. Compared with monotherapy, aquaporin 4 expression decreased in the injured rat brain, but growth-associated protein-43 expression, calaxon-like structures, and CM-Dil-positive cell number increased. Following combination therapy, however, rat cognitive and neurological function signiifcantly improved. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO therapyfor repair of traumatic brain injury shows better therapeutic effects than monotherapy and signiifcantly promotes recovery of neurological functions.


    Hakan SAZYEK


    1911 yılında başlayan Yeni Lisan hareketi, Türk edebiyatında ilk avangart toplu girişimdir. Millî bir edebiyat için öncelikle dilin Arapça ve Farsça ögelerden arındırılması gerektiğini savunan hareket, daha geniş plânda özellikle gençlerde milliyetçiliği uyandırmayı amaçlamıştır. Mevcut dil ve edebiyat anlayışını ısrarla yadsıyan ve bu anlayışı savunan kesimlerle sert tartışmalara giren hareket, başlayan savaşlar yüzünden sona ermekle birlikte, getirdiği yeni ilkeleri kendisinden sonraki süre...

  9. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M


    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  10. Klasik Urdu şiiri (Galib ve Zouk dönemi)

    YILMAZ, Havva


    Urdu Dili, Hint alt kıtasında fetihler sonucu hâkimiyet kurmuş ve beraberlerinde kültürlerini de getiren topluluklarla yerel dillerin bir kaynaşması sonucu ortaya çıkmış, adını Türkçe “Ordu” kelimesinden almıştır. Urdu Dili bir etnik dil değil, bir kültür dilidir; içinde Türkçe, Hintçe, Farsça, Arapça ve yerel dillerin öğelerini barındırır. Başlangıçta “Rihta”, “Hindvi” gibi isimlerle anılan Urdu Dili Dekkan’da “Dekkani”, Gucrat’ta “Gucri”, Pencab’da “Pencabi” gibi isimler de almıştı...




    Çalışmamızın adı 'Rasim Özdenören ve Feodor Dostoyevski Arasında Tahkiye Anlayışı Bakımından Bir Karşılaştırma'dır. Bu çalışma, Türk öykücülerinden biri olan Rasim Özdenören ile Rus klasiklerinden Feodor Dostoyevski'nin eserlerini inceleyen bir mukayeseli edebiyat araştırmasıdır. Adı geçen yazarların tahkiye metinleri incelenmiş; mekân, zaman, olay örgüsü, şahıs kadrosu, konular, dil ve üslûp açısından değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca çalışmamızın sonunda Rasim Özdenören ile yaptığımız bir sö...

  12. [Development of the habenulointerpeduncular tract in rats].

    Klepukov, A A; Makarenko, I G


    Development of the habenulointerpeduncular tract has been carried out on fixed brain preparations obtained from 21 day rat embryos and from neonatal animals on the 0 and 9 days of postnatal development by diffusion oflipophilic fluorescent carbocyanine dye DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate) through neuron membranes. The marker was introduced into the nuclei of the habenula, the interpeduncular nucleus, and into the area of raphe nuclei. Neurons and fibers that contained Dil were identified on vibratome sections by fluorescent and confocal microscopy. we have found that reciprocal links between the lateral habenula nucleus and raphe nuclei are formed in the prenatal period by stage E21. Raphe nuclei innervating neurons were located in dorso- and ventrocaudal parts of the lateral habenula nucleus. Projections of the medial habenula nucleus onto interpeduncular nucleus were found only in the postnatal P2 period. Neurons that provide a source of these projections form characteristic assemblies inside the medial habenula nucleus. Therefore, the present study for the first time describes heterogenic formation of different projection systems that are involved in the habenulointerpeduncular tract of rats at perinatal ontogenesis.

  13. Amasyalı Hüseyin Hüsameddin’in Temel Adlı Eserinin Birinci Cüz’ü First Section of Temel by Hüseyin Hüsameddin of Amasya

    Erol ÖZTÜRK


    Full Text Available Hussain Hüsameddin of Amasya is a writer carried out significant works on history and language. He wrote poems, made translations from Arabic and Persian. He came to Istanbul After the Constitution II and he was a translator of Arabic and Persian at Directorate of Foundations. He were also found official positions inprovinces such as Niksar, Köprü, Osmancık, Refahiye. He was amember of the Turkish Language Association and Turkish HistoricalSociety and he is known for his book, Temel, comprised of 12 volumes.He completed the first part of Temel in 1926 and published it inİstanbul at The Arsak publishing house. The author reflected theTurkish language from a different and new approach. He tried to explainthe origins of Turkish words according to the rules of the Arabiclanguage. He gave many examples of Turkish word roots and new roots.The Turkish language is considered the mother of world languages inTemel. It provided interesting information about the history of theTurkish language. This information is similar to The Sun LanguageTheory’s ideas put forward in the period of Atatürk. Maybe Temel waswritten by Hussein Hüsameddin and his other works supportedAtatürk's efforts to modernize and simplify the Turkish language. TheTemel explain such as vowel, sounds, voices groups, letters, lettersmeanings, etc. The last section contains an application from “ak” word.This book contains ideas outside of the well known in Turkish historyand grammar. In addition, new grammar terms are used in this piece.In this study, the first chapter of the Temel written by HussainHusameddin of Amasya was studied. This chapter includes the author'sideas and reviews. Amasyalı Hüseyin Hüsameddin tarih ve dil konularında önemli çalışmalar yapmış bir yazardır. Şiirler yazmış, Arapça ve Farsçadan tercümeler yapmıştır. II. Meşrutiyetin ilanından sonra İstanbul’a gelerek Evkaf Nezaretinde Arapça ve Farsça mütercimi olmuştur. Niksar, K


    Nafi YALÇIN


    ğerlendirilmesi sonucunda, yabancı sözcüklerin dilde kullanılma süresi ve kullanım sıklığının sözcüklere yönelik doğal dil konuşanlarının sezgi, tutum ve eğilimlerini doğrudan etkilediği; eğitim düzeyi arttıkça doğal dil konuşmacılarının yabancı sözcükleri daha düşük oranda benimsediği ve nitelikli bir dil bilinci geliştirdiği; yabancı sözcüklerin benimsenme ve yabancılık düzeyleri ile cinsiyet ve meslek grupları arasında anlamlı bir ilişkinin olmadığı, ancak dil bilincinin grup üyelerinin eğitim düzeyi ile yakından ilişkili olduğu görülmüştür.

  15. Emily Dean and The Foundation of First Department of Librarianship in Turkey Türkiye'de İlk Kütüphanecilik Bölümü'nün Kuruluşu ve Emily Dean

    Sekine Karakaş


    Full Text Available Foreign specialists played an eminent role in the foundation and growth of university department of library science in Turkey. Among those who pioneered the production and training of graduate librarians was Emily Dean, who was sure that an educational institution modelled on an American type library school would be developed by her Turkish colleagues. Emily Dean's valuable contribution which initiated library science lectures in Ankara University cannot be denied. Türkiye'de üniversite düzeyinde eğitim görmüş kütüphanecilerin yetişmesi için bir kütüphanecilik dalının kurulmasında ülkemize gelen yabancı uzmanlar önemli bir rol oynamışlardır. Bunlardan Emily Dean Amerika çizgisinde oluşturulacak bir eğitim kurumunun Türkler tarafından en iyi şekilde geliştirileceğine olan inançla Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesinde Kütüphanecilikle ilgili derslerin başlamasında büyük çaba göstermiştir.

  16. Directing Parthenogenetic Stem Cells Differentiate into Adipocytes for Engineering Injectable Adipose Tissue

    Wei Liu


    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate seed cells is crucial for adipose tissue engineering. Here, we reported the stepwise induction of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs to differentiate into adipogenic cells and its application in engineering injectable adipose tissue with Pluronic F-127. pESCs had pluripotent differentiation capacity and could form teratomas that include the three primary germ layers. Cells that migrated from the embryoid bodies (EBs were selectively separated and expanded to obtain embryonic mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs. The eMSCs exhibited similar cell surface marker expression profiles with bone morrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs and had multipotent differentiation capacity. Under the induction of dexamethasone, indomethacin, and insulin, eMSCs could differentiate into adipogenic cells with increased expression of adipose-specific genes and oil droplet depositions within the cytoplasm. To evaluate their suitability as seed cells for adipose tissue engineering, the CM-Dil labelled adipogenic cells derived from eMSCs were seeded into Pluronic F-127 hydrogel and injected subcutaneously into nude mice. Four weeks after injection, glistering and semitransparent constructs formed in the subcutaneous site. Histological observations demonstrated that new adipose tissue was successfully fabricated in the specimen by the labelled cells. The results of the current study indicated that pESCs have great potential in the fabrication of injectable adipose tissue.

  17. Almanca Öğretiminde Yazınsal Metin Çevirisinin Yeri Literary Text In German Teaching

    Ayşe UYANIK


    Full Text Available Contrary last years, using literary texts in foreign language classes are supported increasingly by more linguists. If these texts that have all structural and pragmatic properties of languages are chosen properly, for students groups and the subjects learned, they can influence teaching process positively. The aim of this study adopted a qualitative research method is to create awareness of language in source and target language by doing translation of literary text in classrooms. In line with this purpose in the study, the section studied the imperatives was chosen in the book named AHA (1B. In this study, since the textbook doesn’t include any literary texts, the book, Erziehung of Uwe Timm has been used for a translation exercise during the lesson. The entire of poem written in the imperatives has been translated from German to Turkish and structural properties have been characterized. It has been searched that how a contribution using of the educational translation exercise that made of literary texts as a teaching tool will make in German teaching. At the end of the practical lessons in the department of English Language and literature at Kafkas University, it has been seen that the translation exercise made from literary texts in German teaching has enriched learner’s thesaurus and structural awareness has occurred in reciprocal languages. Through translation of literary text, learners could have made firm the common and different features of the both languages. It has been seen that through these identified features, structural consciousness has been come into existence in the mutual languages. This consciousness has improved the usage abilities of learners in target language positively. Geçen yılların aksine, yabancı dil dersinde yazınsal metin kullanımı giderek daha çok dilbilimci tarafından desteklenmektedir. Dillerin tüm yapısal ve kullanımsal özelliklerini barındıran bu metinler, öğrenen grubuna ve




    Bu araştırma, bağımsız anaokuluna devam eden altı yaş grubu çocukların motor gelişim, dil gelişimi, bilişsel gelişim, günlük yaşam becerileri, sosyal/duygusal gelişim alanlarının belirlenmesi ve proje yaklaşımına dayalı eğitim alan ve almayan çocukların bu gelişim alanlarında farklılık olup olmadığının saptanması amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini, 2008-2009 eğitim-öğretim yılında Ankara il merkezinde Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı bağımsız anaokullarının altı yaş çocukları oluşturm...

  19. Strain Energy Density in the Elastodynamics of the Spacetime Continuum and the Electromagnetic Field

    Millette P. A.


    Full Text Available We investigate the strain energy density of the spacetime continuum in the Elasto- dynamics of the Spacetime Continuum by applying continuum m echanical results to strained spacetime. The strain energy density is a scalar. W e find that it is separated into two terms: the first one expresses the dilatation energy density (the “mass” longitu- dinal term while the second one expresses the distortion en ergy density (the “massless” transverse term. The quadratic structure of the energy rel ation of Special Relativity is found to be present in the theory. In addition, we find that the kinetic energy pc is car- ried by the distortion part of the deformation, while the dil atation part carries only the rest-mass energy. The strain energy density of the electrom agnetic energy-momentum stress tensor is calculated. The dilatation energy density (the rest-mass energy density of the photon is found to be 0 as expected. The transverse dis tortion energy density is found to include a longitudinal electromagnetic energy fl ux term, from the Poynting vector, that is massless as it is due to distortion, not dilatation, of the spacetime con- tinuum. However, because this energy flux is along the direct ion of propagation (i.e. longitudinal, it gives rise to the particle aspect of the el ectromagnetic field, the photon.

  20. 英语广告图示中隐喻与文化创意的传递%Translation of Metaphors and Innovative Culture in English Advertisement Illustrations

    卢曦; 刘著研


    This research employs modem metaphor theory and the real cultural dilIerences comparative theory to make a research in the metaphor and culture creativity aspects, analyses the advertising creative examples, and explores the transmission effect of the advertising in the media, business and commodity posters' fields. With the analysis on the meaning of advertising metaphor creativity between China and America, the research explores the value and influence of Chinese and American metaphor creative culture in advertising image.%文章运用现代隐喻理论和当今现实文化差异比较理论,从隐喻与文化创意研究入手,对比分析中美广告图示创意实例,探究其在媒体、商业以及商品海报中的传递效果,并对中芙广告隐喻创意进行意义的剖析,进而探讨中芙广告图示臆喻创意文化的价值和影响。

  1. Endothelial progenitor cell transplantation ameliorates elastin breakdown in a Kawasaki disease mouse model

    CHEN Zhi; DU Zhong-dong; LIU Jun-feng; LU Dun-xiang; LI Li; GUAN Yun-qian; WAN Sui-gui


    Background Coronary artery damage from Kawasaki disease (KD) is closely linked to the dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs).The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of EPCs transplantation in KD model.Methods Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced KD model in C57BL/6 mice was established.The model mice were injected intravenously with bone marrow-derived in vitro expanded EPCs.Histological evaluation,number of circulating EPCs and the function of bone marrow EPCs were examined at day 56.Results Inflammation was found around the coronary artery of the model mice after 14 days,Elastin breakdown was observed after 56 days.CM-Dil labeled EPCs incorporated into vessel repairing foci was found.At day 56,the number of peripheral EPCs in the KD model group was lower than in EPCs transplanted and control group.The functional index of bone marrow EPCs from the KD model group decreased in proliferation,adhesion and migration.Increased number of circulating EPCs and improved function were observed on the EPCs transplanted group compared with model group.Conclusion Exogenously administered EPCs,which represent a novel strategy could prevent the dysfunction of EPCs,accelerate the repair of coronary artery endothelium lesion and decrease the occurrence of aneurysm.

  2. Ressonância e dissonância judaicas: a diáspora e o exílio como objetos do literário

    Helena Lewin


    Full Text Available Este artigo centra-­se na gênese do povo judeu que, caminhando por sucessivas situações históricas primordiais, estabelece-­se enquanto nação/estado. Sua destruição e exílios, serão analisados aqui privilegiando o babilônico. Omitiu-­se, no entanto, o relato bíblico referente à criação do mundo, o Shabat, o dilúvio e seus desdobramentos e a chamada Torre de Babel e sua multiplicidade de línguas, para se entrar diretamente no ato da divina promessa a Abraão. Assim sendo, inicia-­se este texto a partir da afirmação de que a história judaica, conforme registrada na Bíblia, tem seu começo marcado por um irreversível ato de ruptura determinante para a construção do seu perfil identitário.

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis


    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  4. Türkiye Türkçesindeki Alıntı Sözcüklerde Görülen Ses Olayları Üzerine Bir İnceleme An Analysis On Phonetic Occurrences Which Of Loaned Words In Turkey Turkish

    Veysel İbrahim KARACA


    Full Text Available A society can not live without making contact with other communities. Every community must interact with each other except the non-primitive societies which have been isolated from the world. It is inevitable for languages of communities that have cultural,commercial and social connection not to effect one another.This interaction, taken place from upper culture to sub-culture,producer to consumer, provides the exchange of words through theloaned words. These loaned words as outcomes of communication andmodernity, exist more or less in every languages.Turkish is a language have an interaction with various languagesthrough its history. As in every language, socially, economically,diplomatically and culturally had an interaction, in Turksih also, thereare loaned words from the first written texts to today.In this study, we undertake phonetic occurrences of loaned wordsin Turkish. This study is an synchronic work, based on 10th edition ofTürkçe Sözlük (Türkish Dictionary published by Türk Dil Kurumu (TheInstitution of Turkish Language. The total loaned words which arebelonged to east languages (Arabic, Chines, Ermenian, Iranian,Georgian, Indian, Hebrew, Japanese, Malaysian, Mongolian, Russian,Sudgish, Tibetan and compose the scope of the study, is 8.991. Thedetermination of source of the loaned words are done based on theinformation in Türkçe Sözlük. Our study, limited geographically oneastern languages, is an analyze on %58.63 of total loaned words. Bir toplumun diğer toplumlarla herhangi bir ilişki kurmadan yaşaması mümkün değildir. Dünyadan izole olmuş ilkel toplumlar dışındaki her toplum birbiriyle etkileşimde bulunmak zorundadır. Siyasi, ticari, kültürel ve sosyal ilişkilerle birbirini tanıyan toplumların dillerinin de belli bir ölçüde birbirini etkilemesi kaçınılmazdır.Üst kültürden alt kültüre, üretenden tüketene doğru bir yol izleyen bu etkileşim alıntı sözcükler yoluyla sözcük alış veri

  5. Growth potential of human hepatocarcinoma cells in the liver of neonatal immunocompetent mice and its relation to immunological tolerance

    Ze Wang; Zengliang Bai; Hui Zhang; Tianxiao Huan; Juan Li; Xiumin Du; Jingping Zhang


    To determine the pathological behavior of human hepatocarcinoma cells in the liver microenvironment of neonatal non-immunode-ficient mice, three human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Be7402, HepG2, and SK-Hep-1), traced by Dil, were transplanted into the intrahepatic or subcutaneous tissue of neonatal and adult Kunming mice. Histopathological observations showed that cells in the adult liver induced a severe immune response as early as the second day after the implantation, while the subcutaneous neoplasm underwent extensive necrosis by the end of the study. Only the cells injected into the neonatal liver underwent a delayed immunologic rejection in the organ mieroenvironment. These cells retained recognizable tumor features over the first seven days, and displayed an intrahepatic inva-sive pattern. The expression of tumor markers including alpha-fetoprotein and survivin was maintained. The quantitative ELISA for the expression patterns of IL-2 and IL-10 also confirmed that the intrahepatic immunity was non-susceptive during this period. The high serum alpha-fetoprotein level was inversely correlated with the change in immune response. Our study provided a bio-system for the research of immune responses to xenografts in the liver.


    Şermin KALAFAT


    Full Text Available Özet Bu çalışmada Klasik Osmanlı Türkçesi ile yazılmış, Muhammed Konevî’nin Hediyyetü’l-Mülûk adlı eseri üzerine bir dil incelemesi (ses ve biçim özellikleri yapılmıştır. Ayrıca eserdeki mevcut astronomi terimleri de sözlük olarak verilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuna da eserin çeviri yazısı eklenmiştir. Abstract This study examines the phonetic and morphologic features of Muhammad Qunawī’s work named Hadiyyatu’l-Mulūk written in Classical Ottoman Turkish. The article has a brief dictionary listing the astronomical terms used in the work. Moreover, an English translation of the work has been added at the end.


    Serkan ÇAKMAK


    Full Text Available Doğu - batı hattında Çin’den başlayıp Anadolu’dan geçerek Avrupa’ya uzanan kadim ticaret rotası İpek Yolunun geçiş güzergâhında, Taklamakan Çölünün batı kıyısında yer alan kuzeyden güneye Kaşgar, Yarkend, Hotan çizgisi boyunca farklı şehir, ilçe ve köylerde dağınık hâlde yaşayan Abdallar, günlük yaşamlarında Uygurca konuşmakla beraber kendilerinden olmayan kimselerin onları anlamalarını istemedikleri durumlarda kendi aralarında ayrı bir dil kullanırlar. Bu dil, temel kelime hazinesi büyük oranda Farsça menşeli sözcüklerden oluşan ancak gramer hususiyetleri bakımından bütünüyle yerli Uygur ağızlarına benzeyen melez bir lisandır. Yerli ahalinin işaret edilen Abdal gruplarına verdiği isim Eynu olduğu için söz konusu dil literatürlerde sıklıkla Eynuca adıyla anılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle “Eynu” adıyla maruf Abdal zümrelerinin yaşadıkları coğrafya, nüfusları, günlük yaşamları ve kökenleri hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Daha sonrasında ise “Eynuca” adıyla tabir olunan Abdal dilinin ses bilgisi, şekil bilgisi, cümle bilgisi ve söz varlığı, bu dil üzerine yapılan etütlerden hareketle Uygurca ile karşılaştırmalı olarak tanıtılmıştır. Son olarak bu ilginç anlaşma vasıtasının niteliği ve menşei ile ilgili fikirler beyan edilmiş ve Anadolu Abdalları ile Eynuların sosyo - ekonomik durumları ve onların gizli dilleri ile Eynuca arasındaki benzerlikler dikkate sunularak Eynucanın Tarım Havzası Abdallarının gizli dili olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. The Abdals who live dispersedly in different cities, towns and villages where are located along Kashgar, Yarkand and Hotan from north to south at west edge of Taklamakan Desert located on the route of Silk Road, ancient commercial route of trade, where reached from China to Europe by passing Anatolia speak Uyghur in their daily life, however, in the case they want

  8. An Exact Method to Determine the Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions in Acid-Base Titrations

    Norma Rodríguez-Laguna


    Full Text Available Several works in the literature show that it is possible to establish the analytic equations to estimate the volume V of a strong base or a strong acid (Vb and Va, resp. being added to a solution of a substance or a mix of substances during an acid-base titration, as well as the equations to estimate the first derivative of the titration plot dpH/dV, and algebraic expressions to determine the buffer β capacity with dilution βdil. This treatment allows establishing the conditions of thermodynamic equilibria for all species within a system containing a mix of species from one or from various polyacid systems. The present work shows that it is possible to determine exactly the electric conductivity of aqueous solutions for these Brønsted acid-base titrations, because the functional relation between this property and the composition of the system in equilibrium is well known; this is achieved using the equivalent conductivity λi values of each of the ions present in a given system. The model employed for the present work confirms the experimental outcomes with the H2SO4, B(OH3, CH3COOH, and H3PO4 aqueous solutions’ titration.

  9. The Importance of Science Policy and its Challenges

    Preis, Benjamin


    I worked for physicist and Congressman Bill Foster (D-IL) as the Mather Public Policy Intern through the American Institute of Physics and the Society of Physics Students during the summer of 2014. This internship is meant to connect undergraduate physics students with the policy process in Washington DC. As a Mather Public Policy Intern, I worked for Congressman Foster researching policy initiatives such as science funding, STEM education, and environmental regulations. This talk will discuss my experience and many of the things that I learned as an undergraduate physicist working on Capitol Hill. For example, through my experience with the internship, I attended lectures and hearings that illuminated for me how members of Congress conceive of scientific research. I also met with many physicists on Capitol Hill working to improve government interest in physics research -- AAAS Fellows, Members of Congress, and Government Relations Specialists -- and I will talk about how I saw physicists impacting governmental policies relating to scientific research and development. This internship is part of the Society of Physics Students internship program and was funded by the John and Jane Mather Foundation for Science and the Arts. This work was part of the Society of Physics Students internship Program.


    Derya YILDIZ


    Çocuk ve gençlik edebiyatı, dil gelişimi ve anlama düzeyine uygun olarak hedef kitlenin duygu ve düşünce dünyalarını zenginleştiren ürünleri kapsamaktadır. Bir geçiş sürecinde olan çocuk ya da genç, çocuk ve gençlik yazını ürünlerinden yararlanarak okuma alışkanlığı kazanır, yazınsal duyarlığını geliştirir ve kimlik gelişimine katkı sağlar. Çeviri kitaplar sayesinde de farklı kültürlerdeki karakterlerle karşılaşarak yeni yaşantılar kazanır ve bu sayede duygu ve düşünce zenginliği edinir. Bu ç...


    Mehmet Vefa NALBANT


    Full Text Available Quran translations in terms of the history of the Turkish language are important works. We're working on Koran exegesis which have mixed-language informational feature. In this exegesis of the Quran have a examples related to vocal derivations. Both in these work and in the Kipchak dialects derivation of vocals suggests as a for differential feature for this Turkish dialectal groups. Kuran çevirileri Türk dili tarihi açısından önemli eserlerdir. Üzerinde çalıştığımız karışık dilli Kuran tefsiri içindeki birçok dil bilgisel özelliğiyle dikkat çekicidir. Bu tefsirdeki ünlü türemeleriyle ilgili örnekler sıra dışı örneklerdir. Gerek bu eserdeki gerekse başka Kıpçak lehçelerindeki ünlü türemeleri, bu türemelerinin bu lehçe grubu için ayırıcı bir özellik olabileceğini ortaya koymaktadır.

  12. Book Reviews

    Harry A. Poeze


    , Beiträge zur Südasien-Forschung, Südasien-Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Band 8S, Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1984. 236 pp. - Wolfgang Marschall, Pietro Scarduelli, L’isola degli antenati di pietra; Strutture sociali e simboliche dei Nias dell’Indonesia, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 1986. IX + 232 pp., 22 pl., 28 figs. - Nigel Phillips, C. Skinner, The battle for Junk Ceylon; The syair Sultan Maulana, Dordrecht: Foris, 1985. viii + 325 pp. - Harry A. Poeze, Mavis Rose, Indonesia free; A political biography of Mohammad Hatta. Ithaca, New York: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, viii + 245 pp. - D.J. Prentice, Elisabeth Tooker, Naming systems: The 1980 proceedings of the American Ethnological society, The American Ethnological society, 1984. vii + 107 pp., Harold C. Conklin (eds. - Patricia D. Rueb, Christine Dobbin, Islamic revivalism in a changing peasant economy; Central Sumatra, 1784-1847, London/Malmö; Scandinavian Institute of Asian studies, Monograph series no. 47, 1987, 300 pages, illustrated. - P.C. Verton, Ank Klomp, Politics on Bonaire; An anthropological study. Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum, 1986.' [Translated by Dirk H. van der Elst] - Leontine E. Visser, Elisabeth Traube, Cosmology and social life; Ritual exchange among the Mambai of East Timor, Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1986. xxiii + 298 pp., figs., photos, index.


    Derya YILDIZ


    Full Text Available Çocuk ve gençlik edebiyatı, dil gelişimi ve anlama düzeyine uygun olarak hedef kitlenin duygu ve düşünce dünyalarını zenginleştiren ürünleri kapsamaktadır. Bir geçiş sürecinde olan çocuk ya da genç, çocuk ve gençlik yazını ürünlerinden yararlanarak okuma alışkanlığı kazanır, yazınsal duyarlığını geliştirir ve kimlik gelişimine katkı sağlar. Çeviri kitaplar sayesinde de farklı kültürlerdeki karakterlerle karşılaşarak yeni yaşantılar kazanır ve bu sayede duygu ve düşünce zenginliği edinir. Bu çalışmada Konya’nın merkez ilçeleri olan Karatay, Meram ve Selçuklu’da üç okul belirlenmiş ve her bir okuldan kırk olmak üzere toplamda yüz yirmi 8. sınıf öğrencisine en son okudukları çeviri kitaplar sorulmuştur. Klasik kitaplar çıkarıldığında en fazla okunan ilk iki kitabın “Percy Jackson ve Olimposlular: Şimşek Hırsızı” ile “Gölgelerin Efendisi: Gorlan Harabeleri” olduğu belirlenmiştir. Araştırmada bu kitaplar içerik unsurları olan; konu, tema, kahramanlar, plan, dil ve üslup bakımından incelenmiştir. Veriler nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden doküman incelemesi tekniği kullanılarak elde edilmiş ve içerik analizi tekniğiyle çözümlenmiştir. Bulgulara göre popüler çeviri çocuk romanlarının, macera ve fantastik türde seri kitaplar olduğu ve bölümlerden oluştuğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca kitaplarda ana kahramanın çocuk olduğu ancak olağanüstü varlıkların da yer aldığı, kötülerle mücadelenin işlendiği ve çocukların hayatlarından unsurlara yer verildiği tespit edilmiştir.


    Oğuzhan SEVİM


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine and group thematically keywords in graduate dissertations written in the Turkish education. Meta-analysis method was used in research. The study was carried out on 335 graduate dissertations written between 2005-2010 in the field of Turkish education. The data werw collected from document analysis technique. Keywords listed by researcher was studied to group thematically. As a result of the study, it was understood that not only related to basic language skills but also literature,, teacher competence, children literature, textbook review were studied in the field of Turkish education. Looking at the master’s thesis on the basic language skills, it was seen that studies were concentrated in the field of reading and writing; areas of speeking and listening were neglected. Bu çalışmanın amacı Türkçe eğitimi alanında yazılmış yüksek lisans tezlerinde geçen anahtar kelimeleri incelemek ve tematik olarak gruplandırmaktır. Araştırmada olgubilim deseni kullanılmıştır. Çalışma, 2005-2010 yılları arasında Türkçe Eğitimi alanında yazılmış 335 yüksek lisans tezi üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın verileri doküman incelemesi tekniğiyle toplanmıştır. Listelenen anahtar kelimeler, tematik olarak gruplandırılmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda Türkçe eğitimi alanında yazılmış olan yüksek lisans tezlerinin yalnızca temel dil becerileriyle ilgili olmadığı; edebiyat, öğretmen yeterliliği, çocuk edebiyatı, ders kitabı incelemesi konularında da çalışıldığı anlaşılmıştır. Temel dil beceriyle ilgili olan yüksek lisans tezlerine bakıldığında çalışmaların okuma ve yazma alanlarında yoğunlaştığı, konuşma ve dinleme alanlarının ise ihmal edildiği görülmüştür.


    İ. Hakkı AKSOYAK


    Full Text Available The language of Divan literature has always been introduced as a synthesis of three languages: Arabic, Persian and Turkish. Indeed, Ottoman Turkish that is the combination of these three is the essential of Divan literature. However, Divan poets also used words from Greek, Armenian, Italian, and some languages of Balkans and Caucasus besides Arabic and Persian words. Especially poets who were Rumelian or worked as the state officers for years were finding different ways of usage in their works with the expressions they borrowed from the Balkan languages. In ten verses of a poem of Mustafa Âlî of Gallipoli who was a bureaucrat, an intellectual and at the same time a poet and who had served as a statesman for a long time in the Balkans in the 16th century, there are expressions of Arabic, Persian, Albanian, Franc, Serbian, Greek, Manav, Bosnian and Chagatai people in their own languages and dialects. Based on this example, it would not be wrong to say that Divan poetry is a part of “a literature of an empire” and that the language is “an imperial language”. In conclusion, the language of Divan literature is an entire entity that has basically Ottoman Turkish as a dominant factor but also comprises many elements from the languages of the nations all around the Ottoman Empire. Divan edebiyatının dili daima Arapça, Farsça ve Türkçe karışımı bir dil olarak tanıtılmıştır. Gerçekten de Türkçe Divan edebiyatının esasını oluşturur. Divan şairleri, Arapça ve Farsça kökenli kelimelerin yanında Yunanca, Ermenice, İtalyanca, Balkan ve Kafkas dillerinden sözcükler de kullanıyorlardı. Özellikle Rumelili olan veya oralarda uzun yıllar görev yapan şairler, Balkan dillerinden aldıkları ibarelerle değişik iletişim ve anlatım yolları buluyorlardı. Balkanlarda uzun yıllar görev yapan XVI. yüzyılda bürokrat, entelektüel ve aynı zamanda şair olan Gelibolulu Mustafa Âlî de bir manzumesinin 10 beytinde Arap

  16. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    Martínez, A.


    Full Text Available A kaolin obtained from Villa de Reyes, a region near to San Luis Potosí (México was characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES, thermal analysis (DTA/TGA, dilatometry (DIL, and chemical analysis. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phases were also detected such as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and dolomite. The high content of volcanic glass detected, by optical microscopy, revealed an incomplete kaolinization process of the raw material. The reddish color of the kaolin was associated with the free iron content in the form of limonite [FeO(OH], which was determined by XANES. The influence of the particle size on the whiteness of kaolin was evaluated. Dilatometric analysis revealed a strong thermal expansion between 110 y 240 °C, which would difficult the use of this material in traditional ceramic applications. On the other hand the presence of glass and high temperature phases of SiO2, such as cristobalite and tridymite will favor its use in the cement industry.El caolín obtenido de Villa de Reyes, una región cercana a San Luis Potosí, México, fue caracterizado por las siguientes técnicas: difracción de rayos-X en polvos (DRX, microscopía óptica (MO, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, fluorescencia de rayos-X (FRX, espectroscopía de absorción de rayos-X (XANES, análisis térmico (DTA/TGA, dilatometría (DIL y análisis químico. Los resultados del análisis mineralógico mediante DRX mostraron un mineral constituido principalmente de caolinita, con una contribución minoritaria de cuarzo, cristobalita, tridimita y dolomita. El análisis por microscopía óptica reveló un alto contenido de material amorfo volcánico, indicando una caolinización incompleta del material v

  17. TKT 7-11 sonuçlarına göre üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin yetenek alanlarının analizi [An analysis of gifted students’ capabilities according to the results of TKT 7-11 test

    Şenol SEZER


    Full Text Available Tarama modelinde gerçekleştirilen araştırmanın amacı, Bilim ve Sanat Merkezine devam etme hakkı kazanan, üstün yetenekli ve üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin, TKT 7-11 sonuçlarına göre yetenek alanlarının analizidir. Araştırmanın evreni 2007- 2013 yılları arasında, Giresun Bilim ve Sanat Merkezi’ne devam etme hakkı kazanan 243 öğrenciden oluşmaktadır. Örneklem alınmamış, evrenin tamamına ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin, TKT 7-11 testinde yer alan sorulara verdikleri yanıtlardan elde edilmiştir. Çalışma grubunun TKT 7-11 testinde yer alan sorulara verdiği yanıtlardan elde edilen verilerin frekans, yüzde, ortalama ve standart sapma puanları analiz edilmiştir. Değişkenlere ilişkin puanlar arasındaki farklılıkları belirlemede, bağımsız t-testinden ve ANOVA’dan yararlanılmıştır. Üstün yetenekli öğrenciler, TKT 7-11 testinde yer alan soruların %80’ini doğru yanıtlamıştır. Öğrencilerin TKT 7-11 testinde yer alan sorulara verdikleri yanıtlara göre yetenek alanları, ayırt etme yeteneği, akıl yürütme yeteneği, sayı yeteneği, dil yeteneği, şekil-uzay yeteneği şeklinde sıralanmaktadır. Bağımsız t-testi sonuçlarına göre, araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin yetenek alanlarına ilişkin puanlar arasında; cinsiyet ve yerleşim yeri değişkenleri açısından akıl yürütme yeteneği alt boyutunda, istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar görülmektedir. Yaş değişkeni açısından ise dil yeteneği, akıl yürütme yeteneği ve şekil-uzay yeteneği ve sayı yeteneği alt boyutlarında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklılıklar görülmektedir.


    Sezgin DEMİR


    Full Text Available In this study, nine Stories Texts in Main Turkish Course Books for 6th, 7th and 8th grades have been scrutinized by means of linguistic methods and techniques; and it has been aimed to determine the effects of these texts on primary school students’ comprehension-level. These Stories Texts have been studied at three levels surface-structure, narrative-structure and deep-structure, and these stories have been analyzed by syntagmatic and systemic reading methods. These texts have been evaulated as a whole in this examination from concrete to abstract; it has not been considered enunciation subject’s idea, life and other works. In this regard, the study differs from studies on traditional literature. Questionnaires suitable for classes at 6th, 7th and 8th grades have been prepared by associating the data obtained after the studies with gains in the Turkish teaching programme. The questionnaires have been applied in six primary schools with different social-economic status in the center of Malatya. The study has aimed to determine characteristics to constitute a certain frame for selecting stories to be used in teaching mother-tangue. Bu çalışmada 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflar Türkçe ders kitaplarındaki dokuz öykü metin dil bilim yöntem ve teknikleriyle incelenmiş; bu öykülerin öğrencilerin anlama düzeylerine etkileri belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu öyküler metin dil bilimin öngördüğü doğrultuda yüzeysel, anlatısal ve derin yapı olmak üzere üç düzeyde ele alınmış; dizimsel ve dizgesel okuma yöntemleriyle çözümlenmiştir. Somuttan soyuta doğru yapılan bu incelemede metin bir bütün olarak değerlendirilmiş; sözcelem öznesinin düşünce yapısı, yaşamı, diğer yapıtları dikkate alınmamıştır. Bu yönü ile bu çalışma geleneksel incelemelerden ayrılmaktadır. Yapılan inceleme sonucunda elde edilen veriler yeni Türkçe öğretim programındaki kazanımlarla da ilişkilendirilerek 6, 7 ve 8. s


    Emrah BOYLU


    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to examine the Turkish speaking anxieties of the students who are learning Turkish as a foreign language in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to evaluate it in terms of different variables. 63 students participated in this research. The data was collected from “the Speech Anxiety Scale” developed by Melanlıoğlu and Demir (2013 and “Personal Information Forms” conducted to students. Concerning this study, which examines the Turkish speaking anxieties of the students who are learning Turkish as a foreign in Yunus Emre Turkish Cultural Centre Sarajevo with several variables in terms of student learning as a foreign language speaking anxiety, it can be declared that the students feel anxiety up to some extent but the level of this anxiety is not high. According to the survey results, the average scores of the speaking anxiety of the male students are a little more than female students; but there is no significant difference between the sex, age, professions, levels continued, visiting Turkey before, and using the Turkish language out of class of the students’ and the Turkish speaking anxieties. Bu çalışmada, Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen Bosna-Hersekli öğrencilerin konuşma kaygıları belirlenmeye ve çeşitli değişkenler açısından değerlendirmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmaya 63 öğrenci katılmıştır. Araştırmaya temel teşkil eden veriler, Melanlıoğlu ve Demir (2013 tarafından geliştirilen “Konuşma Kaygısı Ölçeği” ve araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” ile toplanmıştır. Saraybosna TKM’de Türkçeyi yabancı dil olarak öğrenen öğrencilerin konuşma kaygılarının çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelendiği bu araştırmada, öğrencilerin Türkçe konuşurken belli bir oranda kaygı duydukları; fakat bu kaygının yüksek olmadığı söylenilebilir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, erkek öğrencilerin konu

  20. In vitro differentiation of rat bone marrow monocytes into endothelial cells induced by adding cell growth factors in the medium%体外培养基中加入细胞生长因子诱导大鼠骨髓单个核细胞向内皮细胞的分化

    陈文娜; 李大勇; 李曦明; 曲静; 马贤德; 孙宏伟


    背景:内皮祖细胞在骨髓中的含量高于外周血,但也仅占骨髓单个核细胞的1%.因此,在一般实验室培养过程中也需要解决提高内皮祖细胞体外扩增数量并保持其低分化状态的问题.目的:观察在含胎牛血清的M199培养基中加入血管内皮细胞生长因子和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子诱导内皮祖细胞的定向分化能力.设计、时间及地点:以细胞为观察对象的开放性实验,于2007-09/2008-02在辽宁中医药大学教学实验中心bsl-2级实验室完成.材料:体质量(200±20)g的健康成年Wistar大鼠.方法:无菌采集健康Wistar大鼠股骨骨髓,应用Ficoll密度梯度离心的方法获得单个核细胞,加入含胎牛血清+肝素+血管内皮细胞牛长因子和碱性成纤维细胞生长因子的M199实验培养液和不含诱导生长因子与肝素的M199培养液为对照组.主要观察指标:诱导骨髓细胞向内皮样细胞生长过程中,应用表面抗原免疫细胞化学染色鉴定细胞,以Dil-ac-LDL和FITC-UEA-1双荧光实验鉴定培养细胞向内皮细胞分化的程度.结果:贴壁细胞培养诱导后具有内皮细胞的形态学特征,细胞呈上皮细胞样铺路石状贴壁生长,贴壁时间相对缓慢.加入M199实验培养液诱导后的第9天Ⅷ因子、CD31阳性表达的细胞分别为(55.1±7.2)%、(45.64±5.8)%, Dil-ac-LDL和FITC-UEA-1双荧光染色阳性率为(78.2±5.4)%,提示为正在分化的内皮祖细胞.对照组相关抗原表达阴性,提示为分化早期的骨髓细胞.结论:结果显示骨體单个核细胞培养出可稳定扩增的内皮祖细胞,在体外特殊诱导环境下定向分化为内皮样细胞,且效果优于对照组.

  1. 糖基化终末产物对人外周血内皮祖细胞生物学特性的影响%Effects of advanced glycation end products on endothelial progenitor cells in the blood

    闫醒军; 施森; 姜隽; 何延政; 边忠平; 刘勇; 黄启荣; 崔驰; 周秀娟; 杨辉; 钟武; 曾宏


    Objective In addition to be involved in the angiogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have roles in endothelium repairing, wound healing, and for protecting blood vessels from restenosis, Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) facilitate the development and progression of atherosclerosis, diabetes associated vascular complications and uremia through various mechanisms such as damaging the endothelium, promoting leukocyte adhension, increasing the aggregation of platelets, and stimulating the proliferation of vascular smooth muscles. This study was designed to explore whether AGEs have effects on biological characteristics of EPCs in cultured human peripheral blood cells. Methods Total mononuclear cells (MNCs), isolated from human peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugatian and adherence cells filtration, were incuba-ted in fibronectin-coated culture dishes. Endothelial cells were identified by means of the adsorption of ulex eurepaeus-aggluti-nin- Ⅰ (UEA- Ⅰ) labelled with fluorescein isothiacyanate (FITC) and Dil-acLDL internalization. Four days later,various con-centrations of AGEs were added to the adherent cells and remained for48 hours. MTT assay and Boyden chamber were used for observing the proliferation and migration of EPCs. Human fibronectin was used to examine the adhesion ability of EPCs. Apop-tosis was induced in the EPCs with formaldehyde and Dnase Ⅰ as a positive control group. Annexin V-FITC/PI and TUNEL method of flow cytometry were used for evaluating the effects of AGEs on the rate of apeptosis in the EPCs. Results AGEs at high concentration decreased the number of EPCs independently (P < 0.01) ; reduced the proliferation (P < 0.01), migration (P<0.001) and adhesive capacity (P<0.05) of EPCs significantly,as well as increasing the apoptasis rate of EPCs in the early stage (P < 0.001). Conclusion AGEs may have adverse effects on EPCs from cultured human peripheral MNCs, such as decreasing their numbers and impairing their

  2. Preparation of platinum(IV) complexes with dipeptide and diimine. X-ray crystal structure and 195Pt NMR spectra.

    Watabe, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Hiroto; Kitsukawa, Koichiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Yasuhiko; Igarashi, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Takayama, Toshio


    We prepared platinum(IV) complexes containing dipeptide and diimine or diamine, the [PtCl(dipeptide-N,N,O)(diimine or diamine)]Cl complex, where -N,N,O means dipeptide coordinated as a tridentate chelate, dipeptide=glycylglycine (NH(2)CH(2)CON(-)CH(2)COO(-), digly, where two protons of dipeptide are detached when the dipeptide coordinates to metal ion as a tridentate chelate), glycyl-L-alanine (NH(2)CH(2)CON(-)CHCH(3)COO(-), gly-L-ala), L-alanylglycine (NH(2)CH CH(3)CON(-)CH(2)COO(-), L-alagly), or L-alanyl-L-alanine (NH(2)CHCH(3)CON(-)CHCH(3)COO(-), dil-ala), and diimine or diamine=bipyridine (bpy), ethylenediamine (en), N-methylethylenediamine (N-Me-en), or N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine (N,N'-diMe-en). In the complexes containing gly-L-ala or dil-ala, two separate peaks of the (195)Pt NMR spectra of the [PtCl(dipeptide-N,N,O)(diimine or diamine)]Cl complexes appeared in, but in the complexes containing digly or L-alagly, one peak which contained two overlapped signals appeared. One of the two complexes containing gly-L-ala and bpy, [PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3), crystallized and was analyzed. This complex has the monoclinic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a=9.7906(3)A, b=11.1847(2)A, c=16.6796(2)A, Z=4. The crystal data revealed that this [PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) complex has the near- (Cl, CH(3)) configuration of two possible isomers. Based on elemental analysis, the other complex must have the near- (Cl, CH(3))-[PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) configuration. The (195)Pt NMR chemical shifts of the near- (Cl, CH(3))-[PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) complex and the far- (Cl, CH(3))-[PtCl(gly-L-ala-N,N,O)(bpy)]NO(3) complex are 0 ppm and -19 ppm, respectively (0 ppm for the Na(2)[PtCl(6)] signal). The additive property of the (195)Pt NMR chemical shift is discussed. The (195)Pt NMR chemical shifts of [PtCl(dipeptide-N,N,O)(bpy)]Cl appeared at a higher field when the H attached to the dipeptide carbon atom was replaced with a

  3. Image-Guided High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Boost Localization Using MRI/MR Spectroscopy: A Correlation Study with Biopsy

    Mbodji, Khaly; Racine, Louis G; Chevrette, Eric; Lavallee, Marie C; Martin, André-Guy; Despres, Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc


    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the blind interpretations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mapping, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the prostate, in comparison to prostate biopsy to identify a valid dominant intraprostatic lesion (DIL) for dose escalation using high-dose rate brachytherapy. Methods: MRI/MRS were performed on 20 patients with intermediate risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. T1W, T2W, DWI-ADC, and MRS sequences were performed at 1.5 T with pelvic and endorectal coils. An experienced radiologist rated the presence of cancer in each sextant by using a dichotomic approach, first on MR standard acquisitions (T1W and T2W), then on DWI-ADC mapping, and later on MRS images. Areas under the receiver’s operating characteristic curve were calculated using a sextant as the unit of analysis. The transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy results were used as the reference standard. A table summarizing the MRI/MRS findings was made and compared to the corresponding area in the prostate biopsy report. A perfect match was defined to be the presence of cancer in the same sextant of the MRI/MRS exam and the prostate biopsy. Results: The interpretation of the MRI/MRS exams per sextant was compared to the diagnostic biopsy report. MRI readings were compared with the biopsy as a surrogate for the complete pathology specimen of the prostate. A sensitivity (Sn) of 98.6% (95% confidence interval, 92.2% - 99.9%) and specificity (Sp) of 60.8% (46.1% - 74.2%) were found. The positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were 77.3% (67.1% - 85.5%) and 96.9% (83.8% - 99.9%), respectively. When MRS readings were compared with biopsy, we found a Sn of 96.4% (87.7% - 99.6%) and Sp of 54.8% (38.7% - 70.2%). The PPV and NPV were 74% (62.4% - 83.6%) and 92% (74% - 99%), respectively. DWI-ADC mapping results were also compared with biopsy. We found a Sn and Sp of


    Musa KAYA


    Full Text Available Language, whose importance in building up the national identity and culture as well as in maintaining them cannot be ignored, is an essential and irreplaceable instrument to transmit all material possessions and moral values to the next generations. Therefore, teaching Turkish language, which is the transmitter of Turkish culture, not only to the learners in Turkey but also to the Turkish children living abroad and to the foreign people who want to learn Turkish is of great importance. As a result of the study, it was found that Turkish language instruction was available as an elective language course in 44 universities and colleges in total in the whole USA, where approximately 500.000 Turks live currently. However, it was also revealed that Turkish language instruction was unavailable in schools providing primary and secondary education, and all of the activities concerning the instruction of Turkish language and culture were conducted by the lecturers and teachers living in the USA, where there were no teachers and lecturers appointed from Turkey yet. Milli kimlik ve kültürün teşekkülünde olduğu gibi onun yaşatılmasında da önemi göz ardı edilemeyecek olan dil, sahip olunan maddi ve manevi bütün değerlerin sonraki nesillere aktarılması bakımından vazgeçilemez ve yeri doldurulamaz bir araçtır. Bu sebeple Türk kültürünün taşıyıcısı olan Türkçenin sadece yurt içinde değil aynı zamanda yurt dışındaki Türk çocuklarına ve Türkçeyi öğrenmek isteyen yabancılara öğretimi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Yapılan araştırmada, yaklaşık 500 bin Türk’ün yaşadığı ABD’de toplam 44 üniversite ve kolejde Türkçenin seçmeli yabancı dil olarak öğretiminin yapıldığı, temel eğitim ve lise seviyesindeki okullarda Türkçe öğretiminin yapılamadığı; Türkçe ve Türk kültürü öğretimi ile ilgili faaliyetlerin ABD’de bulunan öğretim görevlileri ve öğretmenler tarafından ger

  5. The Language of Paradox in the Ironic Poetry of Emily Dickinson

    Mustafa Zeki Cirakli


    Full Text Available The Language of Paradox in the Ironic Poetry of Emily Dickinson Abstract Emily Dickinson’s poetry is characterized by her emphasis on ironic use of discourse that amounts to her persistent manifestation of individuality against hypocrisy and vanity. She exerts her peculiar poetic language in a way that helps deplore as well as explore the paradoxical human condition. This paper argues that Dickinson produces a language of poetry, which, in Cleanth Brooks’ terms, provides the reader with the “language of paradox.” Dickinson’s ironic poetry exemplifies Brooks’ idea that ironic poetry is self-conscious and satiric in nature and is made up of a language of paradox. The study, therefore, aims to reveal how the language of paradox in Dickinson’s poetry yields to irony which is primarily associated with her salient assertiveness, isolation and strong individuality. Emily Dickinson’ın İronik Şiirlerinde Paradokslu Dil Öz Emily Dickinson’ın şiirlerini söylemin ironik kullanımı karakterize eder ve bu özellik onun şiirlerinin toplumdaki iki yüzlülük ve riyakârlığa karşı sürdürdüğü kararlı bireysel duruş ve isyanının dışavurumudur. Dickinson, kendine özgü şiirsel dili insanlık durumunun paradoksal niteliğini araştırmak için olduğu kadar eleştirmek için de etkili biçimde kullanmıştır. Dickinson’ın şiiri, Cleanth Brooks’un “paradokslu dil” olarak tanımladığı bir dil kullanır. Brooks, ironik şiirin öz-farkındalığı olan ve doğası gereği eleştirel tonu yüksek ve temelde paradokslu dilden oluşmuş olduğunu ileri sürer. Bu çalışma, Dickinson’ın ironik şiir dilinin Brooks’un bu kanısını doğruladığını ortaya koymaktadır. Dolayısıyla bu çalışma, Dickinson’un şiirlerindeki paradokslu dilin yazarın dikkat çekici sesi, kendini toplumdan soyutlaması ve toplum karşısındaki güçlü bireyselliğinin dışa vurumunu imleyen ironiyi incelemektedir.

  6. Effect of Acid Fibroblast Growth Factor on Apoptosis in HUCB-derived Endothelial Progenitor Cells%酸性成纤维细胞生长因子对人脐带血内皮祖细胞凋亡的影响

    张海峰; 戴华卫; 周瑞耀; 李金海


    Aim To explore the effect of acid fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) on the apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB). Methods Mononuclearcells (MNCs) were isolated from HUCB in vitro by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, then the cells were plated on fibronectin-coated culture dishes. Aftert 7 days, the attached cells were treated by aFGF with different concentrations (2, 5, 10 μg/L) for 24 hours. EPCs were characterized as adherent cells with double positive to Dil-acetylated low density lipoprotein ( Dil-acLDL) uptake and lectin binding by direct fluorescent staining under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Flow cytom-etry was used to detect cell apoptpsis. The expressions of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein were detected respectively by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot. Meanwhile, the attached cells in the group (5 μg/ L aFGF group) of the most obvious effects on EPCs were cultured for 6, 12, 24, 48 h respectively, accordingly, to explore the relationship between time and effect of 5 μg/L aFGF group. Results Compared with control group, aFGF can argument the number of EPCs and inhibit apoptosis of EPCs ( P < 0. 05 ). The increase and inhibition ratio of apoptosis reached the maximum at 24 h after administration of 5 μg/L aFGF ( P < 0. 05 ) . Expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein of EPCs in aFGF group was higher than that in control group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusions The results of the present study define a novel mechanism of the action of aFGF; aFGF can augment the number and inhibit apoptosis of EPCs from HUCB via up -regulating Bcl-2 expression.%目的 探讨酸性成纤维细胞生长因子(aFGF)对人脐带血中内皮祖细胞凋亡的影响及机制.方法 选择健康产妇脐带血,密度梯度离心法获取脐带血单个核细胞,培养7天后,收集贴壁细胞并加入不同浓度(2、5、10μg/L)aFGF干预24 h,流式细胞仪检测aFGF对细胞凋亡的影

  7. Anasınıfı Çocuklarına Yönelik Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT Geliştirme Çalışması

    Tevhide Kargın


    Full Text Available Bu araştırma, Türk çocuklarının erken okuryazarlık becerilerini geçerli ve güvenilir bir şekilde ölçecek kapsamlı bir ölçme aracına duyulan gereksinimle planlanmıştır. Araştırmanın amacını, bu nedenle, 5 yaş çocuklarına yönelik standardizasyonu yapılmış bir erken okuryazarlık testinin-Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT - geliştirilmesi ve geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin test edilmesi oluşturmuştur. Araştırmanın evrenini Ankara, örneklem grubunu ise Ankara ili kent merkezi sınırları içerisinde yer alan yedi merkez ilçede Milli Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı bağımsız anaokulları ile ilkokulların bünyesinde 5 yaş çocuklarına eğitim veren sınıflarda öğrenim gören 403 çocuk oluşturmuştur. Çalışma içerisinde çocukların erken okuryazarlık becerileri EROT kapsamında geliştirilen 7 alt test (Alıcı Dil, İfade Edici Dil, Genel İsimlendirme, İşlev Bilgisi, Harf Bilgisi, Sesbilgisel Farkındalık ve Dinlediğini Anlama ile değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan değerlendirmelerden elde edilen veriler ise EROT’un geçerlik ve güvenirlik hesaplamalarının yapılabilmesi için analiz edilmiştir. Analizlerden elde edilen bulgular, EROT’un 7 alt test ile erken okuryazarlık becerilerini geçerli ve güvenir şekilde ölçtüğünü göstermiştir. This study was planned due to the crucial need for a standardized measure of early literacy with demonstrated validity and reliability for Turkish children. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a standardized measure of early literacy-the Test of Early Literacy (TEL for kindergarten children and to test its validity and reliability. Participants were 403 kindergarten children selected from several schools located in neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses in Ankara. The early literacy skills of children were tested with seven sub-tests of TEL (Receptive Language, Expressive Language, Category Naming, Function Knowledge, Letter Knowledge


    Sedat MADEN


    Full Text Available Görsel okuma ve görsel sunu araçlarından biri olan grafik ve tablolar, günümüzde reklam sektöründen ticarete, sanattan eğitime kadar birçok alanda kullanılmaktadır. Grafik ve tabloların yaygın kullanımı insanın özgün bir biçimde anlama ve anlatma ihtiyacının sonucudur. Son yıllarda eğitimde, özellikle fen bilimlerinde, yaygın bir kullanım alanı bulan grafik ve tablolardan diğer disiplinlerde de giderek daha çok yararlanılmaktadır. Bu disiplinlerden bir tanesi olan Türkçe eğitimi, öğrencilere temel dil becerilerini (dinleme, okuma, konuşma, yazma kazandırmayı hedeflemesi açısından öne çıkar. Temel dil becerilerinin yanı sıra görsel sunu ve görsel okuma gibi yeni öğrenme alanlarının da kazandırıldığı Türkçe derslerinde grafik ve tabloların kullanımına ağırlık verilmesi gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmada Türkçe derslerinde öğrencilere grafik ve tablo okuma ile birlikte grafik ve tablo hazırlama becerisinin kazandırılmasının önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. / Graphs and tables as the visual reading and presentation tools have been used in many fields from advertising sector to trade, and art to education. The widespread use of graphs and tables results from man's needs of comprehension and expression. Recently, they have been used widely in education, especially in the field of science, and they are utilized more and more by other disciplines. Turkish Language Education, as one of these disciplines, distinguishes from others since it aims to help students gain basic language skills (listening, reading, speaking, and writing. It is necessary to focus on the use of graphs and tables in Turkish Language courses in which new learning domains such as visual reading and visual presentation are taught to the students in addition to the basic language skills. This study focuses on the importance of the acquisition of graph and table creation skills as well as graph and table

  9. Ferrite transformation kinetics of X70 pipeline steel during continuous cooling%连续冷却过程中 X70管线钢的铁素体相变动力学

    谢保盛; 蔡庆伍; 余伟; 曹嘉明; 杨云峰


    Thermal expansion curves of X 70 pipeline steel during continuous cooling process were tested on DIL 805 dilatometer .Based on experimental results , the start temperature of austenite to ferrite transformation among two models were analyzed , and the key parameters of ferrite transformation were obtained by reverse regression method with the JMAK equation , thus the kinetics during continuous cooling process were determined.The results show that, the optimal n and k can be obtained by the method mentioned above .In models, n is set as 0.5, 1, 1.5, 1-0.5X2 respectively to calculate the transformation kinetics , where X represents transformation volume fraction .In terms of n value characterized by 1-0.5X2 , it is higher precision and in better agreement with the experimental data than n value set as 0.5, 1, 1.5.In modelⅠ, the predicted results are deviated under high cooling rate , which results from the limitation of ferrite nucleation energy ΔGV . However , while modelⅡjust including two parameters is more availability .To X70 pipeline steel , the relationship between start temperature of ferrite transformation and cooling rate is indicated as Ts=Ae3 -39.1440φ0.4020 .%在DIL805膨胀仪上测量了X70管线钢在连续冷却过程中的热膨胀曲线。根据试验结果,分析比较了两种奥氏体-铁素体相变开始温度模型,并通过对JMAK方程采用逆向回归法确定了铁素体相变分数的关键性参数,从而确定了连续冷却过程中的相变动力学。结果表明,不同冷却速率下的最佳n值和k值可通过JKMA公式逆向回归得出,模型分别采用时间指数n为0.5、1、1.5、1-0.5X2的4种取值方法计算铁素体相变动力学曲线,通过与试验数据的对比发现,用相变体积分数X的函数表征n值的方法计算精度更高,与试验结果吻合更好。模型Ⅰ由于对铁素体体积形核功ΔGV的取值有局限性,使得模型在大冷却速率下的预测结果




    Full Text Available What composes the subject of this article is phonetic features of an Elif and Mahmud story, the beginning and ending part missing, written on a stone found around the district of Akcadag. The aim of this study is to detect which period this work belongs to and to contribute to the linguistic properties of that period by considering the phonetic features of this missing text whose author and date of writing are not known. This article is composed of two parts as phonetic features and the text itself. While handling the story especially consonant and vowel harmony and consonant and vowel mutation are focused on. It is seen in the text that back and front vowel harmony is strong and round and unrounded vowel harmony has not been completed yet, but it is in the phase of progress. n/, t/d and e/i changes in the text are among the features that draw attention.As a result of this study, we have found out that Elif and Mahmud story which we have investigated contains the linguistic features of 18th century. Considering this finding, we can say that this text belongs to 18th century and although it was printed at a later period this work can be said to be dating back to 18th century. Bu makalenin konusunu, Malatya’nın Akçadağ ilçesinde tarafımızdan bulunmuş olan başı ve sonu eksik, taş basması bir Elif İle Mahmud Hikâyesi’nin ses özellikleri oluşturmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı, müellifi, yazılış tarihi ve yeri belli olmayan, eksik bir metnin dil hususiyetlerinden yola çıkarak, eserin ait olduğu dönemin tespit edilmesi ve o dönemin dil özelliklerine katkı sağlanmasıdır. Makale, ses özellikleri ve metin olmak üzere iki kısımdan oluşmaktadır. Hikâye metninin ses özellikleri ele alınırken özellikle ünlü ve ünsüz uyumları ile ünlü ve ünsüz değişmeleri üzerinde durulmaktadır. Metinde kalınlık-incelik uyumunun kuvvetli, düzlük-yuvarlaklık uyumunun henüz tamamlanmamış olup gelişim evresinde

  11. 人脂肪干细胞向内皮细胞的定向分化%Directional differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells into endothelial cells

    杨旭芳; 何旭; 张丽红; 何牮; 刘学娟; 杨丽; 谭晓华; 李玉林


    Objective To investigate the possibility of directional differentiation of human adipose stem cells (hADSCs) into endothelial cells (EC), so as to provide seed cells for tissue engineered vessels.Methods hADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue by collagenase digestion, cultured and amplified by adherence to flasks. Then hADSCs were directionally induced to differentiate into EC by a combination of fibronectin ( FN ), endothelial cells support liquid ( EGM2-MV ) containing various growth factors and high concentration of VEGF165 (50 ng/ml). Then, the cells morphology, phenotype and function were identified. Results Highly homologous hADSCs were obtained, and then hADSCs were directionally differentiated into EC. CD31 and CD34, the specific markers for EC, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (KDR) were positive by immunohistochemical staining and RT-PCR. In addition,unique Weibel-Palade bodies in EC were observed under transmission electron microscope. Functionally,hADSCs could swallow Dil-Ac-LDL and form tube-like structures in matrigel after endothelial differentiation. Conclusions hADSCs can be successfully induced to differentiate into endothelial cells in vitro.%目的 为解决血管组织工程种子细胞来源不足问题,分离和培养人脂肪干细胞(hADSCs),并在体外定向诱导hADSCs分化为内皮细胞.方法 利用胶原酶消化法和贴壁筛选法从人脂肪组织中分离、培养及扩增hADSCs;应用纤维粘连蛋白(FN)与富含多种生长因子的内皮细胞支持液EGM2-MV及高浓度血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGFi6s)50 ng/ml,协同定向诱导hADSCs分化为内皮细胞,然后对其进行形态、表型及功能鉴定.结果 体外分离、培养出高度同源性的hADSCs,hADSCs定向内皮分化后免疫组化及RT-PCR结果显示,内皮特异性标志物CD31、CD34及血管内皮细胞生长因子受体(KDR)阳性表达,透射电镜下观察到内皮特异性结构怀布尔-帕拉德(Weibel-Palade)小

  12. Overlapping of mononuclear cells derived from bone marrow in rats' intervertebral discs: an in vitro study Sobreposição de células mononucleares provenientes da medula óssea em disco intervertebral de ratos: estudo in vitro

    Erica Batista Fontes


    Full Text Available In this study, bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNC derived from rats were used in order to promote intervertebral disc regeneration. These cells were isolated after centrifugation in a Ficoll-Paque™ PLUS density gradient and then placed in plastic dishes to proliferate during a period of 14 days. The BM-MNCs were previously labeled with the fluorescent membrane marker Chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-DIL, and thereafter were implanted in rats' intervertebral discs explants as an in vitro experimental model. Daily analyses of the cells under a fluorescence microscope revealed morphological changes, which assumed a thin and elongated shape similar to cells that originally form the annulus fibroses. Histopathological analysis demonstrated the presence of mononuclear cells interspersed within collagen fibers. The presence of viable cells, in which were found morphological changes and their disposal in the same pattern of the layers that originate the annulus fibrosus, is an indicator that they engrafted and proliferated on the intervertebral disc. Therefore, morphological changes presented by these cells indicate that they presented mesenchymal stem-like cell characteristics.Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas células mononucleares provenientes da medula óssea (MO de ratos para implantação em discos intervertebrais, a fim de estudar a sua participação em possível regeneração tecidual. Essas células foram obtidas por centrifugação, em gradiente de Ficoll-Paque™ PLUS, e cultivadas em frascos apropriados, por um período de 14 dias. Em etapa posterior, foram submetidas à marcação celular, em que foi utilizado o marcador citoplasmático CM-Dil, seguida de implantação em discos intervertebrais de ratos, em um sistema de cultivo in vitro. Foram feitas avaliações diárias dos discos com utilização de um microscópio de fluorescência, sendo constatadas alterações morfológicas com um formato alongado semelhante a c


    Bekir ÇINAR


    Full Text Available This study, has been prepeared for examining the advertisement texts creativities and artistic language particularities especially for literary arts. For this reason spoken, written and visual media advertisements has been used. Which media groups will publish this sample advertise ments has been confirmed. The literary arts published in the advertisements have been defined shortly then with this work how much literary arts has been used in the advertisement will be shown you. Bu çalışma, reklam metinlerinin yaratıcı ve sanatsal bir dil özelliğini edebî sanatlar bağlamında incelemek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Bu amaçla sözlü, yazılı ve görsel medyadaki reklamlardan ve bazı haber başlıklarından faydalanılmıştır. Örneklemeye alınan reklamların hangi basın yayın organında yayınlandığı belirtilmiştir. Reklamlarda yer alan edebî sanatların önce kısa bir tanımı yapılmış, daha sonra reklamla ilişkilendirerek açıklanmıştır. Bu çalışmayla reklam dilinde edebî sanatların ne ölçüde kullanıldığı gösterilmeye çalışılacaktır.


    Hakan ÖZDEMİR


    Full Text Available In this study the word düzen ‘system’ which is used in Turkey Turkish is discused in terms of morphology. Firstly the situation of word in the grammars is discussed. After denoting of the differents in these sources, it is quested that if there is a relationship between the word and the forms in Old Turkish period. After all of these process the formation of the word is tried to be explained by using the forms which are used in old texts and Anatolian dialects and in light of the foregoing of semantics Bu çalışmada Türkiye Türkçesi alanında kullanılan düzen ‘nizam’ sözcüğü yapı bilgisi açısından ele alınmıştır. Sözcük öncelikle dil bilgisi çalışmalarında nasıl değerlendirilmiş bunun üzerinde duruldu. Bu kaynaklardaki farklılıklar gösterildikten sonra Eski Türkçe döneminde karşılaşılan şekillerle sözcüğün ilgisinin olup olmadığı araştırıldı. Daha sonra anlam bilgisinden de faydalanılarak sözcüğün metinlerde ve ağızlarda karşılaşıldığı şekillerinden hareketle sözcüğün yapısı aydınlığa kavuşturulmaya çalışıldı.

  15. Impact of intraoperative MRI/TRUS fusion on dosimetric parameters in cT3a prostate cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate real-time brachytherapy.

    Gomez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Crook, Juanita; Casquero, Francisco; Carvajal, Claudia; Urresola, Arantxa; Canteli, Begoña; Ezquerro, Ana; Hortelano, Eduardo; Cacicedo, Jon; Espinosa, Jose Maria; Perez, Fernando; Minguez, Pablo; Bilbao, Pedro


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative MRI/TRUS fusion procedure in cT3a prostate cancer patients treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) real-time brachytherapy. Prostate gland, dominant intraprostatic lesions (DILs), and extracapsular extension (ECE) were delineated in the pre-brachytherapy magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 9 consecutive patients. The pre-implant P-CTVUS (prostate clinical target volume) was defined as the prostate seen in the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images. The CTVMR includedthe prostate with the ECE image (ECE-CTV) as defined on the MRI. Two virtual treatment plans were performed based on the MRI/TRUS fusion images, the first one prescribing 100% of the dose to the P-PTVUS, and the second prescribing to the PTVMR. The implant parameters and dose-volume histogram (DVH) related parameters of the prostate, OARs, and ECE were compared between both plans. Mean radial distance of ECE was 3.6 mm (SD: 1.1). No significant differences were found between prostate V100, V150, V200, and OARs DVH-related parameters between the plans. Mean values of ECE V100, V150, and V200 were 85.9% (SD: 15.1), 18.2% (SD: 17.3), and 5.85% (SD: 7) when the doses were prescribed to the PTVUS, whereas ECE V100, V150, and V200 were 99.3% (SD: 1.2), 45.8% (SD: 22.4), and 19.6% (SD: 12.6) when doses were prescribed to PTVMR (p = 0.028, p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively). TRUS/MRI fusion provides important information for prostate brachytherapy, allowing for better coverage and higher doses to extracapsular disease in patients with clinical stage T3a.

  16. Long-term immunogenicity assessment of a DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 4, 6 and 18-19 months of age, and immunogenicity and safety of a DTaP-IPV vaccine given as a booster dose at 4 to 6 years of age in Thai children.

    Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; Ortiz, Esteban


    Booster vaccination of infants aims to further reduce the burden of childhood infectious diseases. This study assessed the antibody persistence induced by a primary series vaccination at 2, 4, 6 months of age and a first booster at 18-19 months of age with a pentavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T) in 4-6 year-old Thai children (N=123). The safety and immunogenicity of a tetravalent acellular pertussis combined vaccine (containing the same DTaP-IPV antigens as the previous vaccine) given as a second booster at 4 to 6 years of age was also evaluated. Seroprotective antibody levels against diphtheria (> or = 0.01 IU/ml), tetanus (> or = 0.10 IU/ml), and polioviruses (> or = 8 1/dil) were maintained 4-6 years after primary-vaccination and first booster by > or = 92.7% of children, and anti-pertussis antibodies > or = 5 EU/ml were observed in the majority of children. The second booster with DTaP-IPV elicited a strong response for all antigens. GMT or GMC ratios for all antigens at the pre- and post-booster samples were from 4.7 to 52.5. Primary vaccination at 2, 4, 6 and a booster at 18-19 months of age with the DTaP-IPV//PRP-T vaccine induced satisfactory antibody persistence at 4-6 years of age. A second booster with DTaP-IPV induced a strong immune response and was well tolerated.

  17. Construction of engineering adipose-like tissue in vivo utilizing human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds.

    Li, Shi-Long; Liu, Yi; Hui, Ling


    We evaluated the use of a combination of human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUMSCs) with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering. In this study hUMSCs were isolated and cultured. HUMSCs infected with Ade-insulin-EGFP were seeded in fibroin 3D scaffolds with uniform 50-60 µm pore size. Silk fibroin scaffolds with untransfected hUMSCs were used as control. They were cultured for 4 days in adipogenic medium and transplanted under the dorsal skins of female Wistar rats after the hUMSCs had been labelled with chloromethylbenzamido-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (CM-Dil). Macroscopical impression, fluorescence observation, histology and SEM were used for assessment after transplantation at 8 and 12 weeks. Macroscopically, newly formed adipose tissue was observed in the experimental group and control group after 8 and 12 weeks. Fluorescence observation supported that the formed adipose tissue originated from seeded hUMSCs rather than from possible infiltrating perivascular tissue. Oil red O staining of newly formed tissue showed that there was substantially more tissue regeneration in the experimental group than in the control group. SEM showed that experimental group cells had more fat-like cells, whose volume was larger than that of the control group, and degradation of the silk fibroin scaffold was greater under SEM observation. This study provides significant evidence that hUMSCs transfected by adenovirus vector have good compatibility with silk fibroin scaffold, and adenoviral transfection of the human insulin gene can be used for the construction of tissue-engineered adipose. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Differential effectiveness of selected non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids on human sebocyte functions implicates their introduction in dry/seborrhoeic skin and acne treatment.

    Oláh, Attila; Markovics, Arnold; Szabó-Papp, Judit; Szabó, Pálma Tímea; Stott, Colin; Zouboulis, Christos C; Bíró, Tamás


    Acne is a common skin disease characterized by elevated sebum production and inflammation of the sebaceous glands. We have previously shown that a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid ((-)-cannabidiol [CBD]) exerted complex anti-acne effects by normalizing 'pro-acne agents'-induced excessive sebaceous lipid production, reducing proliferation and alleviating inflammation in human SZ95 sebocytes. Therefore, in this study we aimed to explore the putative anti-acne effects of further non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids ((-)-cannabichromene [CBC], (-)-cannabidivarin [CBDV], (-)-cannabigerol [CBG], (-)-cannabigerovarin [CBGV] and (-)-Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin [THCV]). Viability and proliferation of human SZ95 sebocytes were investigated by MTT and CyQUANT assays; cell death and lipid synthesis were monitored by DilC1 (5)-SYTOX Green labelling and Nile Red staining, respectively. Inflammatory responses were investigated by monitoring expressions of selected cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide treatment (RT-qPCR, ELISA). Up to 10 μm, the phytocannabinoids only negligibly altered the viability of the sebocytes, whereas high doses (≥50 μm) induced apoptosis. Interestingly, basal sebaceous lipid synthesis was differentially modulated by the substances: CBC and THCV suppressed it, and CBDV had only minor effects, whereas CBG and CBGV increased it. Importantly, CBC, CBDV and THCV significantly reduced arachidonic acid (AA)-induced 'acne-like' lipogenesis. Moreover, THCV suppressed proliferation, and all phytocannabinoids exerted remarkable anti-inflammatory actions. Our data suggest that CBG and CBGV may have potential in the treatment of dry-skin syndrome, whereas CBC, CBDV and especially THCV show promise to become highly efficient, novel anti-acne agents. Moreover, based on their remarkable anti-inflammatory actions, phytocannabinoids could be efficient, yet safe novel tools in the management of cutaneous inflammations.

  19. 钙拮抗剂阈下剂量对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤作用的研究

    凌震; 王远航; 蔡文锋; 汪彬; 林泓; 周巧玲; 石刚刚



  20. CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis is promoted by mesenchymal stem cells through VEGF.

    Zhang, Peng; Dong, Ling; Yan, Kang; Long, Hua; Yang, Tong-Tao; Dong, Ming-Qing; Zhou, Yong; Fan, Qing-Yu; Ma, Bao-An


    Chemokines and chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) play an important role in metastasis. CXCR4 is also expressed in the human osteosarcoma cell line 9607-F5M2 (F5M2), which has a high tumorigenic ability and potential for spontaneous pulmonary metastasis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to the formation of the tumor stroma and promote metastasis. However, mechanisms underlying the promotion of osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis by MSCs are still elusive. Our study co-injected the human MSCs and F5M2 cells into the caudal vein of nude mice. The total number of tumor nodules per lung was significantly increased in the F5M2+MSC group compared to the other groups (control, F5M2 cells alone and MSCs alone) at week six. Moreover, a high number of Dil-labeled MSCs was present also at the osteosarcoma metastasis sites in the lung. Using Transwell assays, we found that F5M2 cells migrate towards MSCs, while the CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 decreased the migration potential of F5M2 cells towards MSCs. Furthermore, upon treatment with F5M2-conditioned medium, MSCs expressed and secreted higher levels of VEGF as determined by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and ELISA, respectively. Importantly, co-cultured with F5M2 cells, MSCs expressed and secreted higher VEGF levels, while AMD3100 dramatically decreased the VEGF secretion by MSCs. However, CXCR4 expression on F5M2 cells was not significantly increased in the co-culture system. Additionally, VEGF increased the proliferation of both MSCs and F5M2 cells. These findings suggest that CXCR4-mediated osteosarcoma growth and pulmonary metastasis are promoted by MSCs through VEGF.

  1. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Silver Nanoparticles: Biogenic Synthesis Utilizing Apple Extract.

    Nagaich, Upendra; Gulati, Neha; Chauhan, Swati


    The advancement of the biological production of nanoparticles using herbal extracts performs a significant role in nanotechnology discipline as it is green and does not engage harsh chemicals. The objective of the present investigation was to extract flavonoids in the mode of apple extract and synthesize its silver nanoparticles and ultimately nanoparticles loading into hydrogels. The presence of flavonoids in apple extract was characterized by preliminary testing like dil. ammonia test and confirmatory test by magnesium ribbon test. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV spectroscopy, particle size and surface morphology, and zeta potential. Silver nanoparticles loaded hydrogels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, viscosity, spreadability, porosity, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and antibacterial (E. coli and S. aureus) and antioxidant studies (DPPH radical scavenging assay). Well dispersed silver nanoparticles below were observed in scanning electron microscope image. Hydrogels displayed in vitro release of 98.01%  ±  0.37% up to 24 h and ex vivo permeation of 98.81  ±  0.24% up to 24 h. Hydrogel effectively inhibited the growth of both microorganism indicating good antibacterial properties. The value of percent radical inhibition was 75.16%  ±  0.04 revealing its high antioxidant properties. As an outcome, it can be concluded that antioxidant and antiageing traits of flavonoids in apple extract plus biocidal feature of silver nanoparticles can be synergistically and successfully utilized in the form of hydrogel.

  2. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of Silver Nanoparticles: Biogenic Synthesis Utilizing Apple Extract

    Upendra Nagaich


    Full Text Available The advancement of the biological production of nanoparticles using herbal extracts performs a significant role in nanotechnology discipline as it is green and does not engage harsh chemicals. The objective of the present investigation was to extract flavonoids in the mode of apple extract and synthesize its silver nanoparticles and ultimately nanoparticles loading into hydrogels. The presence of flavonoids in apple extract was characterized by preliminary testing like dil. ammonia test and confirmatory test by magnesium ribbon test. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV spectroscopy, particle size and surface morphology, and zeta potential. Silver nanoparticles loaded hydrogels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, viscosity, spreadability, porosity, in vitro release, ex vivo permeation, and antibacterial (E. coli and S. aureus and antioxidant studies (DPPH radical scavenging assay. Well dispersed silver nanoparticles below were observed in scanning electron microscope image. Hydrogels displayed in vitro release of 98.01%  ±  0.37% up to 24 h and ex vivo permeation of 98.81  ±  0.24% up to 24 h. Hydrogel effectively inhibited the growth of both microorganism indicating good antibacterial properties. The value of percent radical inhibition was 75.16%  ±  0.04 revealing its high antioxidant properties. As an outcome, it can be concluded that antioxidant and antiageing traits of flavonoids in apple extract plus biocidal feature of silver nanoparticles can be synergistically and successfully utilized in the form of hydrogel.

  3. Comparative study of human erythrocytes by digital holographic microscopy, confocal microscopy, and impedance volume analyzer.

    Rappaz, Benjamin; Barbul, Alexander; Emery, Yves; Korenstein, Rafi; Depeursinge, Christian; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre


    Red blood cell (RBC) parameters such as morphology, volume, refractive index, and hemoglobin content are of great importance for diagnostic purposes. Existing approaches require complicated calibration procedures and robust cell perturbation. As a result, reference values for normal RBC differ depending on the method used. We present a way for measuring parameters of intact individual RBCs by using digital holographic microscopy (DHM), a new interferometric and label-free technique with nanometric axial sensitivity. The results are compared with values achieved by conventional techniques for RBC of the same donor and previously published figures. A DHM equipped with a laser diode (lambda = 663 nm) was used to record holograms in an off-axis geometry. Measurements of both RBC refractive indices and volumes were achieved via monitoring the quantitative phase map of RBC by means of a sequential perfusion of two isotonic solutions with different refractive indices obtained by the use of Nycodenz (decoupling procedure). Volume of RBCs labeled by membrane dye Dil was analyzed by confocal microscopy. The mean cell volume (MCV), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were also measured with an impedance volume analyzer. DHM yielded RBC refractive index n = 1.418 +/- 0.012, volume 83 +/- 14 fl, MCH = 29.9 pg, and MCHC 362 +/- 40 g/l. Erythrocyte MCV, MCH, and MCHC achieved by an impedance volume analyzer were 82 fl, 28.6 pg, and 349 g/l, respectively. Confocal microscopy yielded 91 +/- 17 fl for RBC volume. In conclusion, DHM in combination with a decoupling procedure allows measuring noninvasively volume, refractive index, and hemoglobin content of single-living RBCs with a high accuracy.

  4. Pyrolysis temperature affects phosphorus transformation in biochar: Chemical fractionation and (31)P NMR analysis.

    Xu, Gang; Zhang, You; Shao, Hongbo; Sun, Junna


    Phosphorus (P) recycling or reuse by pyrolyzing crop residue has recently elicited increased research interest. However, the effects of feedstock and pyrolysis conditions on P species have not been fully understood. Such knowledge is important in identifying the agronomic and environmental uses of biochar. Residues of three main Chinese agricultural crops and the biochars (produced at 300°C-600°C) derived from these crops were used to determine P transformations during pyrolysis. Hedley sequential fractionation and (31)P NMR analyses were used in the investigation. Our results showed that P transformation in biochar was significantly affected by pyrolysis temperature regardless of feedstock (Wheat straw, maize straw and peanut husk). Pyrolysis treatment transformed water soluble P into a labile (NaHCO3-Pi) or semi-labile pool (NaOH-Pi) and into a stable pool (Dil. HCl P and residual-P). At the same time, organic P was transformed into inorganic P fractions which was identified by the rapid decomposition of organic P detected with solution (31)P NMR. The P transformation during pyrolysis process suggested more stable P was formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. This result was also evidenced by the presence of less soluble or stable P species, such as such as poly-P, crandallite (CaAl3(OH)5(PO4)2) and Wavellite (Al3(OH)3(PO4)2·5H2O), as detected by solid-state (31)P NMR in biochars formed at a higher pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, a significant proportion of less soluble pyrophosphate was identified by solution (2%-35%) and solid-state (8%-53%) (31)P NMR, which was also responsible for the stable P forms at higher pyrolysis temperature although their solubility or stability requires further investigation. Results suggested that a relatively lower pyrolysis temperature retains P availability regardless of feedstock during pyrolysis process. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Eco-informatics and natural resource management

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Schnase, J.; Sonntag, W.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schweik, C.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.


    This project highlight reports on the 2004 workshop [1], as well as follow-up activities in 2005 and 2006, regarding how informatics tools can help manage natural resources and decide policy. The workshop was sponsored jointly by sponsored by the NSF, NBII, NASA, and EPA, and attended by practitioners from government and non-government agencies, and university researchers from the computer, social, and ecological sciences. The workshop presented the significant information technology (IT) problems that resource managers face when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. These IT problems fall into five categories: data presentation, data gaps, tools, indicators, and policy making and implementation. To alleviate such problems, we recommend informatics research in four IT areas, as defined in this abstract and our final report: modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. Additionally, we recommend that funding agencies provide infrastructure and some changes in funding habits to assure cycles of innovation in the domain were addressed. Follow-on activities to the workshop subsequent to dg.o 2005 included: an invited talk presenting workshop results at DILS 2005, publication of the workshop final report by the NBII [1], and a poster at the NBII All Hands Meeting (Oct. 2005). We also expect a special issue of the JIIS to appear in 2006 that addresses some of these questions. As we go to press, no solicitation by funding agencies has as yet been published, but various NASA and NBII, and NSF cyber-infrastructure and DG research efforts now underway address the above issues.

  6. 不同年龄大鼠坐骨神经损伤后Robo-2受体及白介素1表达的变化%The Expression of Robo-2 Protein and IL-1 after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Different Age's Rats

    刘媛; 王莉; 龙在云; 曾琳; 伍亚民; 王禾


    目的 观察不同年龄大鼠坐骨神经损伤后,神经导向因子受体Robo-2及白介素1(IL-1)在组织中的表达变化.方法 选取老年、成年和幼年大鼠各20只,建立左侧坐骨神经横断及硅胶管桥接模型.通过免疫荧光染色定性及定量观察Robo-2蛋白在损伤神经近端组织中的表达变化;ELISA方法检测损伤近端坐骨神经组织中IL-1含量,并进行统计学分析.结果 各组Robo-2受体在坐骨神经损伤后2和4周均有升高,其中老年鼠的表达明显高于成年和幼年组,差异有统计学意义(分别P<0.05,P<0.01).同时,老年组在损伤后1 dIL-1表达明显升高,且一直持续至7d,3d和7d时与其他两组比较,差异有显著统计学意义(均P<0.01).结论 不同年龄大鼠坐骨神经损伤后近端坐骨神经组织中Robo-2受体以及IL-1的差异表达可能对再生神经的靶向生长具有调节作用.


    Muhammet Fatih ALKAYIŞ*


    Full Text Available The El-Ferec Ba’de’ş-Şidde which has a meaning of relief coming after an annoyance is a book that translated to Turkish language from Persian in 15. century. There are many idioms in this book which was written by a simple language and prose style, and also reflecting the characteristics of The Old Anatolian Turkish language. The majority of these idioms exposing to some phonetical changes have reached today, but some of them disappeared. And also some idioms are used whith a different noun or auxiliary verb today. Sıkıntıdan sonra gelen rahatlama anlamını taşıyan El-Ferec Ba’de’ş-Şidde, 15. yüzyılda Farsçadan Türkçeye tercüme edilmiş bir eserdir. Sade bir dille ve nesir tarzında yazılan, aynı zamanda Eski Anadolu Türkçesi dil özelliklerini de yansıtan bu eserde çok sayıda deyim kullanılmıştır. Bu deyimlerin büyük çoğunluğu çeşitli ses değişikliklerine uğrayarak günümüze ulaşırken, bir kısmı da bugün tamamen kullanımdan düşmüştür. Bunun yanında, bazı deyimlerin ise öncekinden farklı bir isim veya yardımcı fiil alarak kullanıldığı görülmektedir.

  8. Long-term Immunogenicity of a Single Dose of Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Virus Vaccine in Toddlers and Booster Response 5 Years After Primary Immunization.

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Watanaveeradej, Veerachai; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Bouckenooghe, Alain


    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important mosquito-borne viral disease that is endemic in Asia, Western Pacific countries and Northern Australia. Although there is no antiviral treatment, vaccination is effective in preventing this disease. We followed a cohort of 596 children for 5 years after primary vaccination at 12-18 months of age with JE chimeric virus vaccine (JE-CV; IMOJEV) in a multicenter, phase III trial in Thailand and the Philippines to assess antibody persistence and safety. At the end of the 5 years, a subgroup of 85 participants, at 1 site in Thailand, was followed after administration of a JE-CV booster vaccination. JE antibody titers were measured annually after primary vaccination and 28 days after booster vaccination using a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test. Seroprotection was defined as a JE-CV neutralizing antibody titer ≥10 (1/dil). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the proportion of participants maintaining protective JE-CV neutralizing antibody titers. At 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years after vaccination with JE-CV, 88.5%, 82.9%, 78.2%, 74.0% and 68.6% of the participants followed remained seroprotected. Geometric mean titers in the subgroup assessed after receipt of a booster dose increased from 61.2 (95% confidence interval: 43.8-85.7) pre-booster to 4951 (95% confidence interval: 3928-6241) 28 days post-booster, with all participants seroprotected. There were no safety concerns identified. Protective immune responses persisted for at least 5 years after a JE-CV primary immunization in the majority of participants. JE-CV booster induced a robust immune response even after a 5-year interval.

  9. Growth of dendritic spines and its synapses in pyramidal neurons of visual cortex in mice%小鼠视皮质锥体神经元树突棘和突触的发育

    赵凯冰; 崔占军; 陈文静; 牛艳丽


    目的:通过观察小鼠视皮质锥体神经元正常发育过程中树突棘的形态变化,研究树突棘与突触的发生及其可塑性的关系.方法:利用DiI散射方法标记小鼠视皮质锥体神经元树突棘,使用共聚焦显微镜对其进行观察分析;同时利用透射电子显微镜技术,对树突棘的超微结构进行分析.结果:树突棘的形态大小及其密度随发育而变化;成熟树突棘内部存在滑面内质网与棘器;树突棘参与了大部分突触后成分的构成.结论:树突棘的发育过程与突触的形成以及突触可塑性密切相关.%Objective:To explore the relationship among the synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity and dendritic spines by observing the morphological changes of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the visual cortex of mice during development Methods: The dendritic spines of the pyramidal neurons of mouse visual cortex were labeled with Dil and observed under a confocal microscope. The ultrastructures of dendritic spines were observed by means of transmission electron microscopy. Results:The morphology and density of dendritic spines were changing with mouse growth in response to neuronal activity. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum and spine apparatus were detectable in matured dendritic spines. And, dendritic spines offered most parts of the postsynaptic element. Conclusion :These findings suggest that dendritic spines be close related synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity.

  10. Spatial and Working Memory Is Linked to Spine Density and Mushroom Spines.

    Rasha Refaat Mahmmoud

    Full Text Available Changes in synaptic structure and efficacy including dendritic spine number and morphology have been shown to underlie neuronal activity and size. Moreover, the shapes of individual dendritic spines were proposed to correlate with their capacity for structural change. Spine numbers and morphology were reported to parallel memory formation in the rat using a water maze but, so far, there is no information on spine counts or shape in the radial arm maze (RAM, a frequently used paradigm for the evaluation of complex memory formation in the rodent.24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, 8 were trained, 8 remained untrained in the RAM and 8 rats served as cage controls. Dendritic spine numbers and individual spine forms were counted in CA1, CA3 areas and dentate gyrus of hippocampus using a DIL dye method with subsequent quantification by the Neuronstudio software and the image J program.Working memory errors (WME and latency in the RAM were decreased along the training period indicating that animals performed the task. Total spine density was significantly increased following training in the RAM as compared to untrained rats and cage controls. The number of mushroom spines was significantly increased in the trained as compared to untrained and cage controls. Negative significant correlations between spine density and WME were observed in CA1 basal dendrites and in CA3 apical and basal dendrites. In addition, there was a significant negative correlation between spine density and latency in CA3 basal dendrites.The study shows that spine numbers are significantly increased in the trained group, an observation that may suggest the use of this method representing a morphological parameter for memory formation studies in the RAM. Herein, correlations between WME and latency in the RAM and spine density revealed a link between spine numbers and performance in the RAM.

  11. The effect of superovulation on the contributions of individual blastomeres from 2-cell stage CF1 mouse embryos to the blastocyst.

    Katayama, Mika; Roberts, R Michael


    It remains controversial whether blastomeres of 2-cell stage mouse embryos show bias in their contribution to the blastocyst and whether there is any effect of superovulation. Two-cell stage embryos from CF1 mice were derived by either natural breeding (N) or superovulation (S) and cultured in vitro. At blastocyst, inner cell mass and trophectoderm were distinguished by Cdx2 and Oct4 immunostaining. A fluorescent dye (CM-Dil) was also used to tag individual blastomeres at the 2-cell stage, and the descendant cells identified by their red fluorescence. S and N embryos developed to blastocyst at the same rate and contained a similar number of cells. However, with S embryos, the descendants of the blastomere labeled with CM-DiI contributed predominantly to either the embryonic or abembryonic pole about 70% of the time, whereas most N embryos displayed random patterning, with no restriction to one or other of the poles. In S-embryos, but not N-embryos, the leading blastomere at second cleavage contributed preferentially to the embryonic pole of the blastocyst and the lagging blastomere to the abembryonic pole and hence mural trophectoderm. In addition, a tetrahedral rather than a flat morphology at the 4-cell stage of S-embryos was strongly biased to displaying the embryonic/abembryonic pattern at blastocyst. In contrast, S-embryos lacking a zona pellucida resembled N embryos in their patterning. In CF1 mice, superovulation has little effect on development to blastocyst, but enforces a greater degree of lineage restriction than natural breeding, most likely through constraints imposed by the zona pellucida.


    Hakan YEKBAŞ


    Full Text Available Local factors which are important source of our classical literature in terms of contents were used more characteristicly by some classic poets. One of these poets, Şeyhülislam Yahya, although he has an identity of Muslim preacher, employed the delight and entertainment of life with elegant Turkish of Istanbul. Above all in his ghazals, he is highly successful in expressing the coloured stage chosen in daily life by using elegant Turkish, idioms proverbs, and folk sayings. Understanding of this art is effective in his being one of the most important represantative of naturalization at XVII. century. Klasik edebiyatımızın dil ve muhteva bakımından önemli kaynaklarından olan mahallî unsurlar, bazı klasik şairlerimiz tarafından daha belirgin bir şekilde kullanılmıştır.. Bu şâirlerden biri olan Şeyhülislam Yahya, bir din adamı kimliğine sahip olmasına rağmen hayatın zevk ve eğlencelerini sade İstanbul Türkçesini kullanarak şiirlerinde işlemiştir. Özellikle gazellerinde kullandığı sade Türkçesi, deyimleri, atasözleri ve halk deyişleri vasıtasıyla günlük hayatın içinden seçtiği canlı sahneleri anlatmada çok başarılıdır. Bu sanat anlayışı, onun mahallîleşmenin XVII. yüzyıldaki en önemli temsilcilerinden biri olmasına neden olmuştur.

  13. CD9-positive microvesicles mediate the transfer of molecules to Bovine Spermatozoa during epididymal maturation.

    Caballero, Julieta N; Frenette, Gilles; Belleannée, Clémence; Sullivan, Robert


    Acquisition of fertilization ability by spermatozoa during epididymal transit occurs in part by the transfer of molecules from membranous vesicles called epididymosomes. Epididymosomes are heterogeneous in terms of both size and molecular composition. Exosomes and other related small membranous vesicles (30-120 nm) containing tetraspanin proteins on their surface are found in many biological fluids. In this study, we demonstrate that these vesicles are present in bovine cauda epididymal fluid as a subpopulation of epididymosomes. They contain tetraspanin CD9 in addition to other proteins involved in sperm maturation such as P25b, GliPr1L1, and MIF. In order to study the mechanism of protein transfer to sperm, DilC12-labeled unfractionated epididymosomes or CD9-positive microvesicles were coincubated with epididymal spermatozoa, and their transfer was evaluated by flow cytometry. CD9-positive microvesicles from epididymal fluid specifically transferred molecules to spermatozoa, whereas those prepared from blood were unable to do so. The CD9-positive microvesicles transferred molecules to the same sperm regions (acrosome and midpiece) as epididymosomes, with the same kinetics; however, the molecules were preferentially transferred to live sperm and, in contrast to epididymosomes, Zn(2+) did not demonstrate potentiated transfer. Tetraspanin CD9 was associated with other proteins on the membrane surface of CD9-positive microvesicles according to coimmunoprecipitation experiments. CD26 cooperated with CD9 in the molecular transfer to sperm since the amount of molecules transferred was significantly reduced in the presence of specific antibodies. In conclusion, CD9-positive microvesicles are present in bovine cauda epididymal fluid and transfer molecules to live maturing sperm in a tissue-specific manner that involves CD9 and CD26.

  14. Migration and distribution of bone marrow stromal cells in injured spinal cord with different transplantation techniques

    FAN Li; DU Fei; CHENG Bang-chang; PENG Hao; LIU Shi-qing


    To study the regularity of migration and distribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)in iniured spinal cord with intradural space transplantation.Methods:Forty Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups. The spinal cord injury,model was prepared according to the modified Allen method. BMSCs were labeled by CM-Dil. And 5.0×10 6 cells were transplanted by different channels including intraventricular injection(Group A),injured spinal cord intrathecally injection(Group B),remote intrathecally injection at the L3-L4 level(Group C),and intravenous injection(Group D). Spinal cord was dissected at 24 hours,1,2,3 and 4 weeks after transplantation.Sections of 4 μm were cut on a cryostat and observed under fluorescence microscopy.Results:No fluorescence was observed 24 hours after transplantation in spinal cord injury parenchyma except Group B. One week later,BMSCs in Groups A and C began to migrate to the injured parenchyma;2-4 weeks later,BMSCs penetrated into the injured parenchyma except Group D.The number of BMSCS decreased at 3-4 weeks after transplantation. The number of cells in Group B decreased faster than that of Groups A and C.Conclusions:BMSCs transplanted through intraventricular injection,injured spinal cord intrathecally injection and remote intrathecal injection could migrate to the injured parenchyma of spinal cord effectively. The number of BMSCs migrated into injured spinal cord parenchyma is rare by intravenous injection.

  15. Endothelial Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Polyglycolic Acid/Polylactic Acid Mesh

    Meng Deng


    Full Text Available Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC is considered as a cell source potentially useful for angiogenesis in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This study investigated the growth and endothelial differentiation of human ADSCs on polyglycolic acid/polylactic acid (PGA/PLA mesh compared to 2D plastic. Cell adhesion, viability, and distribution of hADSCs on PGA/PLA mesh were observed by CM-Dil labeling, live/dead staining, and SEM examination while endothelial differentiation was evaluated by flow cytometry, Ac-LDL/UEA-1 uptake assay, immunofluorescence stainings, and gene expression analysis of endothelial related markers. Results showed hADSCs gained a mature endothelial phenotype with a positive ratio of 21.4 ± 3.7% for CD31+/CD34− when induced in 3D mesh after 21 days, which was further verified by the expressions of a comprehensive range of endothelial related markers, whereas hADSCs in 2D induced and 2D/3D noninduced groups all failed to differentiate into endothelial cells. Moreover, compared to 2D groups, the expression for α-SMA was markedly suppressed in 3D cultured hADSCs. This study first demonstrated the endothelial differentiation of hADSCs on the PGA/PLA mesh and pointed out the synergistic effect of PGA/PLA 3D culture and growth factors on the acquisition of mature characteristic endothelial phenotype. We believed this study would be the initial step towards the generation of prevascularized tissue engineered constructs.

  16. CD9-positive microvesicles mediate the transfer of molecules to Bovine Spermatozoa during epididymal maturation.

    Julieta N Caballero

    Full Text Available Acquisition of fertilization ability by spermatozoa during epididymal transit occurs in part by the transfer of molecules from membranous vesicles called epididymosomes. Epididymosomes are heterogeneous in terms of both size and molecular composition. Exosomes and other related small membranous vesicles (30-120 nm containing tetraspanin proteins on their surface are found in many biological fluids. In this study, we demonstrate that these vesicles are present in bovine cauda epididymal fluid as a subpopulation of epididymosomes. They contain tetraspanin CD9 in addition to other proteins involved in sperm maturation such as P25b, GliPr1L1, and MIF. In order to study the mechanism of protein transfer to sperm, DilC12-labeled unfractionated epididymosomes or CD9-positive microvesicles were coincubated with epididymal spermatozoa, and their transfer was evaluated by flow cytometry. CD9-positive microvesicles from epididymal fluid specifically transferred molecules to spermatozoa, whereas those prepared from blood were unable to do so. The CD9-positive microvesicles transferred molecules to the same sperm regions (acrosome and midpiece as epididymosomes, with the same kinetics; however, the molecules were preferentially transferred to live sperm and, in contrast to epididymosomes, Zn(2+ did not demonstrate potentiated transfer. Tetraspanin CD9 was associated with other proteins on the membrane surface of CD9-positive microvesicles according to coimmunoprecipitation experiments. CD26 cooperated with CD9 in the molecular transfer to sperm since the amount of molecules transferred was significantly reduced in the presence of specific antibodies. In conclusion, CD9-positive microvesicles are present in bovine cauda epididymal fluid and transfer molecules to live maturing sperm in a tissue-specific manner that involves CD9 and CD26.

  17. Arap Dili Fonetiğinde Bazı Kavramların Yansıttığı ‘Ses Üretiminde Süre’ Olgusu Üzerine Bir Deneme

    Yrd.Doç.Dr. Nazife İnce


    Full Text Available Dünya üzerindeki hemen hemen bütün diller dil çalışmalarında fonetiğe bir şekilde yer ayırmıştır. Arap dilinin fonetiğe gösterdiği ihtimam ise birçok dile nazaran daha fazla olmuştur. Fonetik incelemeler umumiyetle seslerin artikülasyon nitelikleri yani mahreç ve sıfatlar üzerinde yoğunlaşır. Buna mukabil gerek sıfat gerçeğinin ima ettiği her bir ses için farklı güç ihtiyacı düşüncesi gerekse ünlü seslerin uzatmaya elverişli oluşu ses-süre ilişkisini de zihinlere getirmektedir. Bu çalışmada Arap dili geleneğinde artikülasyon sürelerini ifade eden kavramların ve buna benzer verilerin yardımıyla konuyu ele alan disiplinlerin ses miktarı konusundaki tutumunu aydınlatmayı amaçladık. Çalışmamızın sonunda bazı tecvit eserlerinin yer verdiği ve seslerin ölçülerini korumayı işleyen bölümlerde kullandığı kavramlardan ve diğer olgulardan hareketle en azından uygulama hedefi olarak ses sürelerinin korunması ile ses niteliklerinin korunmasına yönelik dengeli bir bakışın olduğu neticesine ulaştık.

  18. Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains of Different Ribotypes have Similar hlyA RFLP Patterns but Different Vacuolating Ability

    Jorge E. Vidal


    Full Text Available Extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation on Vero and HeLa cells in vitro by the Vibrio cholerae pore forming toxin HlyA, has been previously reported by our group. Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 pathogenic strains show differences in the potential to induce vacuolation, here we study occurring variations on vacuolating cytotoxic ability, related to changes in the nucleotide sequence of the hlyA-orf. A collection of eight toxigenic strains of V. cholerae O1 El Tor and a non-toxigenic one, all belonging to different ribotypes was tested for their vacuolating ability, and hlyA-orf similarity based on PCR and RFLPs. The strains had extremely different vacuolating capacities, those from the ribotype 2 isolated from the US Gulf Coast, showed the highest vacuolating titer (10240 dil, and the rest of the collection had considerably lower titers ranging among 40 to 360 dilutions. PCR of hlyA-orf, was performed and RFLPs were generated using seven restriction enzymes, this approach later revealed small changes of restriction maps, among the strains. The phenogram constructed from the RFLPs, showed two major branches, one of them included most of the strains, the other separates the only Mexican wild type non-O1 Vibrio cholerae. To test for vacuolating ability out of the Vibrio genetic context, the amplified hlyA-orfs from the collection of strains were cloned in pGEMT- vector system and supernatants from the recombinant E coli DH5-, showed no differences on vacuolating titers, the clones always were low producers. Results from the cloning, together with those from the phenogram indicated that the hlyA gene is mainly conserved and the differences on vacuolating activity are unrelated to minute changes seen in the hlyA-orf. Production of high vacuolating titers on Vibrio strains could be due to transcriptional regulation. Whether the high vacuolating titer would be related to increased virulence, is still to be found.


    Muzaffer MALKOÇ


    Full Text Available Time is a physical fenomenon, by means of which human beings can sense and record changes in the environment and in the universe. Time is also universal. Tense is a category of verbal inflection that indicates a relationship between the topic time and the time of speech. A verb tense can also give the topic time as past (TT. In comparison to time, tense is not universal; in many languages (mostly isolating languages, like Chinese the concept of time is expressed not by the verb but by other parts of speech (temporal adverbials or even nouns, for example. Zaman, insanların olayların akışında hissettiği, çevremizde ve evrende kaydedilen değişikliklerin var oluşunun gözlendiği fiziksel bir fenomendir. Dil biliminde zaman ise bir fiil çekimidir, bu şu demektir; fiil mecburi olarak bir zaman eki almalıdır. Görevi ise, olayın vuku bulduğu zamanı değil, konu zamanı, yani zaman ekiyle belirlenen zaman dilimini geçmiş zaman (TT olarak doğal zaman diliminde konuşlandırmaktır. Fiil zaman gramer kategorisi olması sebebiyle de doğal zamanın aksine evrensel değildir. Birçok dilde bulunmayan –özellikle Çince gibi tek heceli dillerde- fiil zamanın görevini her dilde mevcut olan farklı zaman belirteçleri yerine getirmektedir.


    Osman ERCİYAS


    Full Text Available The study, published in 1978 by the Turkish Language Assocaion considers Purification Guide purification works in Turkey during the ongoing debate as ‘origins of the purificated words’ is aimed to provide data regarding the problem. For this purpose, the origin of all words in the manual review is done and the results, based on numerical data were presented in tables. Also, different opinions and studies about purification by examining some important findings have been reached, and evaluations were made. Çalışmada, 1978 yılında Türk Dil Kurumunca yayımlanan Özleştirme Kılavuzu ele alınarak Türkiye’deki özleştirme çalışmaları sırasında sürekli tartışma konusu olan ‘özleştirilen kelimelerin kökenleri’ sorununa yönelik veri sağlanması hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla, Kılavuz’daki tüm kelimelerin köken incelemesi yapılmış ve çıkan sonuç, sayısal verilere dayalı tablolar halinde ortaya konulmuştur. Ayrıca, özleştirmeyle ilgili değişik görüş ve çalışmaların incelenmesi sonucunda dikkat çekici bulgulara ulaşılmış ve bazı değerlendirmelere gidilmiştir.

  1. Musculoskeletal and rheumatological disorders in HIV infection: Experience in a tertiary referral center

    Alakes Kumar Kole


    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal involvement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients are important disease manifestations, responsible for increased morbidity and also decreased quality of life. Objectives: To study the spectrum of different musculoskeletal involvement in HIV infected patients and its impact on quality of life. Patients and Methods: Three hundred (n = 300 HIV-1 reactive patients were evaluated in respect to different musculoskeletal involvement including the quality of life from January 2010 to January 2011. Results: Male to female ratio was 11:1 with a mean age of 35 (±6.4 years and mean duration of the disease was 3 (±1.54 years. Majority of cases were truck drivers, motel workers, and jewelry workers. Musculoskeletal disorders were observed in a total of 190 cases (63.33%. The spectrum of musculoskeletal involvement was: Body ache in 140 (46.7%, arthralgia in 80 (26.7%, mechanical low back pain in 25 (8.3%, osteoporosis in 20 (6.7%, painful articular syndrome in 10 (3.3%, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in two (0.7%, pyomyositis in two (0.7%, osteomyelitis in one (0.3%, and avascular bone necrosis in one patient (0.3%. Rheumatologic disorders associated were: Reactive arthritis in seven (2.3%, fibromyalgia in four (1.3%, septic arthritis in three (1%, acute gout in three (1%, spondyloarthropathy in two (0.7%, rheumatoid arthritis in two (0.7%, dermatomyositis in one (0.3%, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in one patient (0.3%. But HIV associated arthritis and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS were not detected. Most of the patients had decreased quality of life. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal involvement was common in HIV patients causing increased morbidity, so early detection and timely intervention is essential to improve quality of life.

  2. Endothelial reconstitution by CD34+ progenitors derived from baboon embryonic stem cells.

    Shi, Qiang; Schatten, Gerald; Hodara, Vida; Simerly, Calvin; VandeBerg, John L


    In this study, we used a large non-human primate model, the baboon, to establish a step-wise protocol to generate CD34+ endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to demonstrate their reparative effects. Baboon ESCs were sequentially differentiated from embryoid body cultures for 9 days and then were specified into EPCs by culturing them in monolayer for 12 days. The resulting EPCs expressed CD34, CXCR4 and UEA-1, but neither CD31 nor CD117. The EPCs were able to form intact lumen structures when seeded on Matrigel, took up Dil-LDL, and responded to TNF-α. Angioblasts specified in EGM-2 medium and ECGS medium had 6.41 ± 1.16% (n = 3) and 9.32 ± 3.73% CD34+ cells (n = 3). The efficiency of generating CD34+ EPCs did not differ significantly from ECGS to EGM-2 culture media, however, angioblasts specified in ECGS medium expressed a higher percentage of CD34+/CXCR4+ cells (3.49 ± 1.32%, n = 3) than those specified in EGM-2 medium (0.49 ± 0.52%, n = 3). To observe their reparative capacity, we purified CD34+ progenitors after specification by EGM-2 medium; inoculated fluorescently labelled CD34+ EPCs into an arterial segment denuded of endothelium in an ex vivo system. After 14 days of ex vivo culture, the grafted cells had attached and integrated to the denuded surface; in addition, they had matured further and expressed terminally differentiated endothelial markers including CD31 and CD146. In conclusion, we have proved that specified CD34+ EPCs are promising therapeutic agents for repairing damaged vasculature.

  3. Humoral immunity of dTap-IPV vaccine (REPEVAX®) administered one month after dT-IPV vaccine (REVAXIS®) in adults with unknown vaccination history.

    Larnaudie, Sylvie; Guiso, Nicole; Baptiste, Charles; Desaint, Corinne; Desforges, Lionel; Lebon, Pierre; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Launay, Odile


    This study was to assess the humoral immune response induced by a vaccination schedule routinely used in France in 18-50 year old adults with unknown vaccination history. In this monocentric, prospective study, subjects received one dose of REVAXIS® (dT-IPV, diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis (inactivated) vaccine (adsorbed, reduced antigen(s) content)) (Visit 1) followed by one dose of REPEVAX® (dTap-IPV, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular, component) and poliomyelitis (inactivated) vaccine (adsorbed, reduced antigen(s) content)) one month later (Visit 2). Antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis types 1, 2 and 3, and pertussis toxin (PT) were measured one month after the administration of REPEVAX® (Visit 3). A total of 136 subjects were included in the study, but blood samples were available for only 73 subjects. Their mean age at inclusion was 33.2 ± 7.3 years. 49.3% of the 73 subjects originated from the WHO African Region, 6.8% from the WHO Western Pacific Region and 5.5% from the WHO European Region. One month after REPEVAX® administration, all subjects had seroprotective antibody titers against diphtheria and tetanus (≥0.1 IU/mL), poliomyelitis types 2 and 3 (≥ 8 1/dil); one subject (1.4%) did not have antibodies against poliomyelitis type 1. The rate of anti-PT seropositivity (≥8 EU/mL) was 94.4%. One dose of REPEVAX® administered one month after a dose of REVAXIS® in subjects with unknown vaccination history induced a high humoral response. These results validate a vaccination schedule routinely used for years that rapidly elicits effective immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis.


    Cuma Kara


    Full Text Available Son yıllarda hızla gelişen bilişim teknolojileridünyasındaki gelişmelerde veritabanları önemli yertutmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ihtiyaç haline gelenveritabaniarında veri tammlama, veritabanıbütünlüğünün kontrolü, veri tabaniarına erişiminkontrolü ve veritabaniarının sorgulanması vegüncellenmesi için gerekli komutlara sahip olan biralt dil SQL (Yapılandırılmış V eritabanı SorgulamaDili ele alınınıştır. Bu çalışmada BilişimTeknolojileri dünyasında ki yerini alan ORACLEveritabanının üstün özellikleri araştırılmıştır. Oracleveritabanında, uygulama geliştirme, yedekleme,kurtarma, veritabanının güvenilirliliği, sunduğuçözümler, yenilikler, ihtiyaçlara cevap, performans,yönetme, veritabanına yönelik sunduğu ürünler veağ bağlantıları incelenmiştir.

  5. Curcumin retunes cholesterol transport homeostasis and inflammation response in M1 macrophage to prevent atherosclerosis.

    Chen, Fang-Yuan; Zhou, Juan; Guo, Ning; Ma, Wang-Ge; Huang, Xin; Wang, Huan; Yuan, Zu-Yi


    Lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism dysfunction in the arterial wall is a major contributor to atherosclerosis, and excessive lipid intake and failed cholesterol homeostasis may accelerate the atherogenic process. Curcumin exerts multiple effects by alleviating inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis; however, its role in cholesterol transport homeostasis and its underlying impact on inflammatory M1 macrophages are poorly understood. This work aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on cholesterol transport, the inflammatory response and cell apoptosis in M1 macrophages. RAW264.7 macrophages (M0) were induced with LPS plus IFN-γ for 12 h to develop a M1 subtype and were then incubated with curcumin at different concentrations (6.25 and 12.5 μmol/L) in the presence or absence of oxLDL. Then, cholesterol influx/efflux and foam cell formation as well as inflammation and apoptosis were evaluated. It was found that curcumin increased cholesterol uptake measured by the Dil-oxLDL binding assay, and simultaneously increased cholesterol efflux carried out by Apo-A1 and HDL in M1 cells. Curcumin further reinforced ox-LDL-induced cholesterol esterification and foam cell formation as determined by Oil Red O and BODIPY staining. Moreover, curcumin dramatically reduced ox-LDL-induced cytokine production such as IL-1β, IL-6 as well as TNF-α and M1 cell apoptosis. We also found that curcumin upregulated CD36 and ABCA1 in M1 macrophages. Curcumin increased PPARγ expression, which in turn promoted CD36 and ABCA1 expression. In conclusion, curcumin may increase the ability of M1 macrophages to handle harmful lipids, thus promoting lipid processing, disposal and removal, which may support cholesterol homeostasis and exert an anti-atherosclerotic effect.

  6. Characterization of vascular endothelial progenitor cells from chicken bone marrow

    Bai Chunyu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC are a type of stem cell used in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and regeneration. At present, most of the EPCs studied are from human and mouse, whereas the study of poultry-derived EPCs has rarely been reported. In the present study, chicken bone marrow-derived EPCs were isolated and studied at the cellular level using immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Results We found that the majority of chicken EPCs were spindle shaped. The growth-curves of chicken EPCs at passages (P 1, -5 and -9 were typically “S”-shaped. The viability of chicken EPCs, before and after cryopreservation was 92.2% and 81.1%, respectively. Thus, cryopreservation had no obvious effects on the viability of chicken EPCs. Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UAE-1 uptake assays and immunofluorescent detection of the cell surface markers CD34, CD133, VEGFR-2 confirmed that the cells obtained in vitro were EPCs. Observation of endothelial-specific Weibel-Palade bodies using transmission electron microscopy further confirmed that the cells were of endothelial lineage. In addition, chicken EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells upon induction with VEGF and PDGF-BB, respectively, suggesting that the chicken EPCs retained multipotency in vitro. Conclusions These results suggest that chicken EPCs not only have strong self-renewal capacity, but also the potential to differentiate into endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This research provides theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application of endothelial progenitor cells in the treatment of atherosclerosis, vascular injury and diabetic complications.

  7. Reconstruction of rat calvarial defects with human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblast-like cells in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffolds

    C Zong


    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can be used for xenogenic transplantation due to their low immunogenicity, high proliferation rate, and multi-differentiation potentials. Therefore, hMSCs are an ideal seeding source for tissue engineering. The present study evaluates the reconstruction effects of hMSCs and osteoblast-like cells differentiated from hMSCs in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds on the calvarial defect of rats. Two bilateral full-thickness defects (5mm in diameter were created in the calvarium of nonimmunosuppressed Sprague-Dawley rats. The defects were filled by PLGA scaffolds with hMSCs (hMSC Construct or with osteoblast-like cells differentiated from hMSCs (Osteoblast Construct. The defects without any graft (Blank Defect or filled with PLGA scaffold without any cells (Blank Scaffold were used as controls. Evaluation was performed using macroscopic view, histology and immunohistochemical analysis respectively at 10 and 20 weeks after transplantation. In addition, fluorescent carbocyanine CM-Dil was used to track the implanted cells in vivo during transplantation. The results showed that while both hMSC Construct and Osteoblast Construct led to an effective reconstruction of critical-size calvarial defects, the bone reconstruction potential of hMSC Construct was superior to that of Osteoblast Construct in non-autogenous applications. Our findings verify the feasibility of the use of xenogenic MSCs for tissue engineering and demonstrate that undifferentiated hMSCs are more suitable for bone reconstruction in xenotransplantation models.

  8. Endodonti pratiğinde alerjik reaksiyonlar

    Hale Cimilli


    Full Text Available

    Patients undergoing dental treatment can be exposed to a wide range of potential allergens. There are several categories of allergic reactions that have significant oral and facial involvement, including angioedema of the lips and tongue, urticaria of the face, and erythema

    multiforme of the skin, lips and oral mucosa. Therapeutic conditions of endodontic treatment require the use of a series of remedies and biomaterials with varying degrees of temporary or permanent soft tissue contact. The most common allergic reactions are immediate type allergy to latex, gutta percha, filling materials, disinfectants, metal restorations, resins and bonding agents. The purpose of the present paper is to identify potential allergens and review reports on materials/remedies related adverse effects of allergic nature.


    Dental tedavi gören hastalar geniş potansiyel alerjen alanına maruz kalabilirler. Alerjik reaksiyonlar, dil ve dudakların anjiyoödemi, yüzde ürtiker ve deri, dudaklar ve oral mukozada eritema multiforme gibi oral ve fasiyal tutulumu olan farklı kategorileri vardır. Endodontik tedavinin terapötik koşulları daimi ya da geçici olarak yumuşak doku temasında olan pek çok materyalin kullanımını gerektirmektedir. En yaygın alerjik reaksiyonlar, lateks, güta perka, dolgu maddeleri, dezenfektanlar, metal restorasyonlar, rezinler ve bonding ajanlarına karşı immediat tip alerjidir. Bu derlemenin amacı, potansiyel alerjenleri tanımlamak ve alerjik potansiyeli olan tedavi materyallerini içeren raporları derlemektir.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Alerji, diş hekimliği, endodonti.


    Adnan OFLAZ


    Full Text Available In this study, sorts of errors caused by mother tongue and learnt language are theoretically studied in the process of learning of German. Errors of interference are evaluated by error analysis employing comparative method. In addition suggestions on how to eliminate errors in syntax, lexical and grammatical levels are proposed.From the cognitive point of view, the effects learnt knowledge in terms of proactive and retroactive stages are commonly known. Learnt knowledge has either positive or negative effect on language learning process. The recognition, classification and solution of mentioned errors due to English as a first foreign language and mother language are performed in order. As a result of errors anaylsis students produce errors because of interference caused by languages. The interlingual errors are generally seen in word order and using prepositions and forming past verb forms, adjectives, and plural forms of nouns. Lexical errors and errors in using small or capital letters are also common. The intralingual errors are widely observed while forming verbs - past and present forms Bu çalışmada ikinci yabancı dil olarak Almanca öğrenme sürecinde, daha önceden öğrenilmiş birinci yabancı dile ve ana diline bağlı olarak ortaya çıkan hata türleri öncelikle teorik olarak ayrıntılı bir şekilde açıklanmış, daha sonra karşılaştırmalı yöntem kullanılarak hata analizleriyle bu girişim hataları belirlenmiş ve değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca, bu çözümleme sonunda görülen söz dizimsel, sözcük bilimsel ve doğru yazım bilgisi düzlemlerindeki hataların giderilmesi için öneriler sunulmuştur.Bilişsel açıdan bakıldığı zaman, öğrenilmiş ön bilgilerin ileriye ya da geriye ket vurmasının etkilere sebep olduğu herkesçe bilinmektedir. Bu ön bilgiler öğrenmeyi ya olumlu ya da olumsuz olarak etkilemektedir. Bu çıkış noktasından hareketle, çalışmamızda, öğrenilen ilk yabancı dil

  10. Türkçe Ders Kitaplarındaki Öykülerin Çocuğa Görelik İlkesi Açısından İncelenmesi The Research Of Stories In Turkish Coursebook In Terms Of The Suitability To The Child Principle

    Pınar ÇAKIR


    çocuğa görelik” ilkesi dikkate alınarak şu başlıklar altında incelenmiştir:1. Türkçe ders kitaplarındaki öykülerin çocuğa görelikler açısından taşıması gereken tasarım özellikleri: Kağıt, sayfa düzeni, ve resimlemeler.2. Türkçe ders kitaplarındaki öykülerin çocuğa görelikler açısından taşıması gereken içerik özellikleri: Konu, tema (izlek, karakter(ler, dil ve anlatım, ileti ve çevre.Tasarım özellikleri bakımından yapılan inceleme sonucunda öykülerde kullanılan resimlerin metin ile ilişkili olmasına karşılık, aynı resimlerdeki nesneler ve tiplemelerin çocuğun yaş grubuna uygun olmadığı, resimlerin gereğinden fazla kullanıldığı ve metnin önüne geçtiği saptanmıştır. Öykülerde, sayfa düzeni bakımından, sayfa kenarlarındaki boşluklarla okuma-izleme rahatlığı sağlanmış fakat, görsel özelliklerin fazlasıyla ön planda olması sebebiyle tasarımda sorunlar ortaya çıkmıştır. İçerik özelikleri bakımından yapılan inceleme sonucunda ise metinlerde, çocuğun dikkatini çeken ve ilgi alanına giren konulara değinilmemesi, otoriter yaklaşımın kullanıldığı dil ve anlatım yanlışlarının varlığı, metin seçiminde seviyenin, gelişim ve çocuk bakışının göz ardı edildiği, genel olarak “çocuğa görelik” ilkesine uyulmadığı bu sebeplerle de çocuğun ders kitabına ve dile olan yaklaşımının olumsuz etkileneceği tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak Türkçe ders kitaplarında yer alan bazı öykülerin özensiz yaklaşımlar sebebiyle özellikle dil ve tasarım yönünden hatalı ve çocuğa görelik ilkesine uygun olmadığı söylenebilir.

  11. Examining the Impact of Vocabulary Strategy Training on Adult EFL Students

    Nafiye AKTEKİN


    Full Text Available Abstract - This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of strategy instruction in vocabulary learning. To reach the goal of the study, 70 elementary level EFL learners at the Preparatory School of Mersin University were assigned as study and control groups. At the first stage of the study, through a Vocabulary Strategy Frequency Survey (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 and Taxonomy (Schmitt, 1997, conscious and/or unconscious use of vocabulary learning strategies in both groups was investigated. The study group received instruction on vocabulary learning strategies which was embedded to the course-book through a 10-week period. For the next stage, it was aimed to raise the teachers’ awareness of vocabulary strategy learning; therefore, discussion and feedback sessions were planned. For the follow-up stage of the study, 10 of the participant students who were then second grade medical students were interviewed in order to investigate the effects of strategy training after 2 academic years. Interviewees were asked about their opinions on strategy use during this period. The findings indicated that vocabulary strategy training can help students to learn and store more vocabulary. Keywords: language learning strategies, vocabulary learning strategies, strategy training, adult EFL learners Özet–Kelime Strateji Eğitiminin İngilizce Öğrenen Yetişkin Öğrenciler Üzerindeki Etkisinin Araştırılması. Bu çalışma kelime öğreniminde strateji kullanımının etkisini ölçmek için yapılmıştır. Bu amaçla, Mersin Üniversitesi Yabancı Diller Yüksekokulundan 70 başlangıç düzey yabancı dil öğrencisi çalışma ve kontrol grubu olarak seçilmişlerdir. İlk olarak, kelime stratejisi sıklık anketi (Cohen, Oxford & Chi, 2002 ve taksonomisi (Schmitt, 1997 ile her iki grubun bilinçli ve/veya bilinçdışı kullandıkları stratejiler araştırılmıştır. Çalışma grubu ders kitaplarına uygun olarak düzenlenmiş etkinliklerle

  12. An empirical study on the effects of smartboards on vocabulary learning in German preparatory classesAkıllı tahtaların Almanca hazırlık sınıflarında kelime öğrenimine etkileri üzerine deneysel bir çalışma örneği

    Özlem Tekin


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of smartboards on vocabulary learning of foreign language learners. For this, an empirical study was carried out at German preparatory classes of the Institute of German Language and Literature at Namık Kemal University. In this context the students were asked about their vocabulary work in foreign language learning by a questionnaire, which included 20 close-ended statements of a 5-point Likert scale. A pretest was held in the Summer Term 2013-2014 with a total of 78 subjects, whereas a posttest was conducted in the Winter Term 2014-2015 with a total of 86 subjects. The evaluation of the questionnaires was carried out with the statistical program SPSS PASW Statistics 18.0 NETWORK and the data was analyzed by the descriptive survey method. The results of the study show that vocabulary learning is affected by three basic factors: the role of testing, the need and importance of newly learned words in everyday use and the learner motivation. As the results of the study show furthermore, the last central factor, the motivation of the learners, can be supported by training different learning strategies, by providing and using material diversity and visuality, and by making the relationship between language and culture more understandable to the students. These fundamental desiderata can come to meet, by using technological tools such as smartboards, by which learners can be motivated and the vocabulary learning and teaching process can be made more effective. In this regard teachers play an important role, as they have to question themselves, the tools and materials used and the needs of learners in the process of vocabulary teaching, thus to optimize the teaching and learning process as a whole.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı, akıllı tahta kullanımının yabancı dil öğrenenlerin kelime bilgilerinin gelişimine olan muhtemel etkilerini incelemektir. Bu amaçla Namık Kemal

  13. Yeni Eğitim Sistemi (4+4+4 Değişikliği Kapsamında Türkçe Öğretmenliği Lisans Programının İncelenmesi ve Öneriler Investigating the Undergraduate Turkish Teaching Curriculum within the Context of the Recent Educational Policy Changes (4+4+4 and Some Suggestions

    Saadettin KEKLİK


    organise the contentof the teacher education curriculum in order to include and presentmore practical subject knowledge. Besides, the substance and creditsof undergraduate courses need to be reconsidered to fit into the scopeand objectives of Turkish Education department. Eğitim, toplumların geleceğini belirlemede en önemli unsurdur. Eğitim sisteminin en önemli konularının başında ise öğretmen yetiştirme gelmektedir. Öğretmen eğitimi hususunda Türkçe öğretmenlerinin eğitiminin ayrı bir önemi vardır. Bu önem, Türkçenin dinleme/izleme, okuma, konuşma ve yazmadan oluşan temel dil becerilerine dayanmasından ve bu becerilerin hayatın hemen her alanında kişiye gerekli olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Nitelikli öğretmenin yetişmesi nitelikli lisans programına bağlıdır. 2012 yılında yapılan değişiklikle ikinci kademe olan ortaokul dört seneye çıkarılmış, beşinci sınıf Türkçe derslerine Türkçe öğretmeni girmeye başlamıştır; ancak lisans programında bir değişiklik yapılmamıştır. Mevcut lisans programına göre Türkçe öğretmeni yetiştirilmeye devam edilmektedir. Eğitim sisteminde yapılan değişiklik, onu oluşturan parçaların tamamında yapılarsa verimli olur. Bu yüzden araştırmanın amacı, yeni eğitim sistemi (4+4+4 değişikliği kapsamında Türkçe öğretmenliği lisans programını incelemek ve bu doğrultuda önerilerde bulunmaktır. Araştırma betimleyici bir çalışma olup veriler doküman incelemesi yöntemiyle toplanmıştır. Araştırmada lisans programı, dil, edebiyat, dil bilimi, Türkçe eğitimi, meslek bilgisi ve genel kültür alanlarına göre analiz edilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda lisans derslerinin alanları açısından yetersiz olduğu, bazı derslerin ise uygun olmadığı belirlenmiş ve buna bağlı olarak yeni dersler ve içerikler önerilmiştir. Türkçe öğretmeni olacak kişilere verilmesi gereken bilgilerin daha çok uygulamaya dönük olması, lisans

  14. Zenica Üniversitesi Türkoloji Bölümündeki Boşnak Öğrencilerin Türkçe Metin Okumadaki Sorunları The problems of Bosnian students at Turkology Department of Zenica University in reading Turkish texts

    Mehmet KARA


    Full Text Available One of the basic skills of language teaching is reading. Readingskill briefly means vocalizing the symbols in text and comprehendingthe unity consisting of these symbols. Aim at reading skill iscomprehension of the reading text. In addition to that comprehension isoriginal purpose, pronunciation of the text is at least as crucial ascomprehending it in oral reading, one of the reading types. The reasonis that reader is not alone in oral reading. Audience exert effort fort hetext with the reader, either. In teaching Turkish to foreigners, generallyreading training and specifically oral reading are important just as inmother-tongue teaching.In the study, features of a successful oral reading are stated. Oralreading could be also thought as a reading skill scale in foreignlanguage teaching, as in mother-tongue, either. Oral reading skill of thestudents, learning Turkish as a foreign language, must be well.However, oral reading skill is within the other skills. Oral reading is areading skill activity. It is also a listening activity for the audience and aspeaking activity fort he reader. Teachers, teaching Turkish toforeigners, should make a point of oral reading because of the featuresof oral reading, stated here and below.In the study, Bosnian students’ basic oral reading mistakes havebeen tried to be identified. Within this scope, determined text has beenread by 19 students, composing the study group and their voice hasbeen recorded. Oral reading mistakes, word repetition, syncopation andvoice addings have been classified as misreading mistakes. Based ondefined mistakes, suggestions have been made upon solutions of them. Dil öğretiminin temel becerilerinden biri de okumadır. Okuma becerisi kısaca metindeki sembollerin seslendirilip, bu sembollerden oluşan bütünlüğün anlaşılması demektir. Okuma becerisinde amaç okunan metnin anlaşılmasıdır. Okuma türlerinden olan sesli okumada da anlamak asıl amaç olmakla birlikte metnin

  15. Visâlî Ali Çelebi ve Mevlid’i Visâlî Ali Çelebi And His Mevlid

    Abdülmecit İSLAMOĞLU


    Full Text Available Visali Ali Çelebi is one of the XVIth century poets. On the basis of the poet’s work, limited information of his life can be reached. Of this kind of information is that Visali’s name was Ali and hi lived in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent. Poet’s work entitled “Mevlid-i Fahr-i Kâ’inât Muhammedini’l-Mustafâ” is a work composed in the form of mawlid that dealt with the birth of the Prophet, his childhood until seven years of age and some miracles taking place in this period. The only known manuscript copy of Visali Mevlidi is recorded in Türk Dil Kurumu Kütüphanesi, manuscript A/99 numbered. Though the mawlidmost of which was written in the masnawi form of verse, in order toavoid monotony and catch the attention of readers, the verses in theform of qasida/gazel were interspersed throughout text. In the work,intensely, Fâ‘ilâtün Fâ‘ilâtün Fâ‘ilün aruz prosody was used. In theparts written in verse, the language becomes more difficult. It can besaid that in the parts written in the form of masnawi, a plainer lenguageis used. Nevertheless, Arabic-Persian words and phrases are also seenin the Masnawis. In the Mawlid, there also existed completely Arabic orPersian verses. Considering these features, poet’s style and his power inthe field of poetry, it can be said that the work is not simple and fluent.The fat that Mawlid was suddenly finished in the childhood period ofthe Prophet gives the impression that the works was left half finished.However, when the work is compared with other texts written in theform of mawlid, with 1715 verses, it can be categorized among thevoluminous works. In this article, after giving some information aboutthe form and contents of Visali Ali Çelebi’s Mawlid, the transliteratedtext of the only copy of work we could find so far has been presented. Visâlî Ali Çelebi XVI. yüzyıl şairlerindendir. Şairin bilinen tek eseri olan Mevlid’inden yola çıkılarak adının Ali oldu


    Hasan BAĞCI


    Full Text Available The main goal of both foreign language education and mother tongue education is develop individuals language skills (reading, listening, visual, reading, writing, speech and visual presentation. The mother tongue is carrier of emotions, thoughts, and culture that make up the most strong ties between the individual and society. In the echelon of primary education when base, love, and awareness of native language are formed teacher is the person who will furnish students with the love and sensitivity for mother tongue. At first Primary school teachers and other all teachers should develop and internalize this kind of sensitivity and awareness prior to graduation.This study has been completed through survey model in order to determine candidate teachers’ awareness of, sensitivity for, and opinions and suggestions regarding their mother tongue. Research universe consists of students studying at Turkish Language Teaching Department, English language Teaching Department, Elemantry Education Department, Elemantry Education Program and Social Sciences Education Program, Faculty of Education at Mehmet Akif Ersoy University while research sample is composed of senior students studying at the same program.This study is limited with the answers given by senior students who Faculty of Education at Mehmet Akif Ersoy University in the relevant sections of the spring semester of 2010-2011 academic year consisting of an open ended questions in the questionnaire. Open ended questions in the questionnaire have been analyzed through descriptive analysis method; and findings have been depicted quantitatively Gerek ana dili gerekse yabancı dil eğitiminin temel hedefi bireylerin dil becerilerini (okuma, dinleme, görsel okuma, yazma, konuşma ve görsel sunu geliştirmektir. Ana dil, bireyle toplum arasında en güçlü bağları oluşturan duygu, düşünce ve kültürün taşıyıcısıdır. Ana dili eğitiminin temellerinin atıldığı, ana dili sevgisi ve

  17. Orhun Yazıtlarında Anlama ve Anlatma Becerileri Comprehensive And Narrative Skills In Orkhon Inscriptions

    Zekerya BATUR


    çeren, Türk askeri geleneği, hükümdarlık anlayışı, devlet düzeni, Türk tarihi, kültür ve geleneği hakkında çeşitli bilgilere ulaşmamızı sağlayan Orhun Yazıtları hitabet niteliğinde yazılmış metinlerdir. Günümüzden yaklaşık 13 asır önce yazılmış olan bu eser gerek cümle yapısı, gerek kullanılan fiil ve kelimeler bakımından günümüz Türkçesinin temeline sahiptir. Yazıtların sahip olduğu işlek dil özellikleri geçmişten günümüze kadar dikkat çekmiş ve üzerinde çeşitli çalışmalar yapılmıştır. Yapılan bu çalışmalar içinde doğrudan dil eğitimi ve öğretimi üzerine bir çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Bu çalışmada ise yazıtlar dört temel dil becerisi yönünden incelenmiş olup yazıtlarda başvurulan anlama ve anlatma becerileri üzerinde durulmuştur. Anlama becerilerinden olan okuma ve dinleme ile anlatma becerilerinden olan konuşma ve yazma becerisine ait olan kelimeler tespit edilerek Orhun Yazıtları anlama ve anlatma becerileri bakımından incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma betimsel bir çalışma olup tarama modeli kullanarak yapılmıştır. Tarama sırasında yazıtlarda geçen anlama ve anlatma becerilerine ait kavram/kelime-kelime gruplarına ulaşılmaya çalışmıştır. Tespit edilen kavram/kelime-kelime grupları okuma, dinleme, konuşma, yazma alt kategorilerine göre sınıflandırılarak içerik analizine tabi tutulmuştur. Elde edilen verilere göre Orhun Yazıtları oluşturulurken anlama ve anlatma becerilerine başvurulduğu tespit edilmiştir.

  18. Eksiltim (Ellıpsıs Ve Türkçede Eksiltim Türleri Ellipsis And Ellipsis Types In Turkish

    Gürkan GÜMÜŞATAM


    ekillerinde başvurulan eksiltimler de incelemeye alınarak konunun farklı bir boyutuna parmak basılmıştır. Neticede eksiltimin, en küçükten en büyük yapıya kadar anlam üzerinde etki etmeyen, dilde tasarrufu esas alan bir gelişme olduğuna işaret edilmiştir. Eksiltim, dil bilgisi ve dil bilimi kaynaklarında değişik adlar altında işlenmiştir. Çalışmada, dilciler tarafından kullanılan diğer terimlere de işaret edilmiş ve bu incelemede ‘eksiltim’ adı tercih edilmiştir.En az çaba yasası, ses düzeyinde başlar metin boyutuna kadar ilerler. O açıdan eksiltimin tek bir türünden bahsetmek mümkün değildir. Birçok ayrı eksiltim çeşiti vardır. Kelime düzeyinde ses düşmeleri, eklerin konuşmada söylenmemesi şeklinde karşımıza çıkar. Bu dil olayı cümlede kelime veya kelime gruplarının eksiltimiyle neticelenir. Edebî metinlerde eksiltim bir söz sanatı olarak uygulanır. Amaç, anlatıyı gereksiz unsurlardan ayıklamak, onu daha etkili duruma sokmaktır. Sonuçta, genele bakarak tüm eksiltim örneklerinde ortak noktanın dilde tutumluluk olduğu söylenebilir.

  19. Türkçe Öğretmenleri İle Öğretmen Adaylarının Türkçe Bilinç Düzeyleri A Study On Measurement Of Turkish Consciousness Levels Of Turkish Teachers And Teacher Candidates

    Akif ARSLAN


    Full Text Available In this study Turkish consciousness of Turkish teachers andteacher candidates has been measured.Sampling of the study consistsof 60 Turkish teachers working in Ağrı province and 104 studentsstudying at Department of Turkish Teaching at Ağrı Ibrahim CecenUniversity.“Turkish Consciousness Scale" has been used to collectdata.The scale consists of total 17 items of three-factor.As a result ofthe study, taking into account the total earned points, it is possible tosay that Turkish use consciousness levels of both Turkish teachers andTurkish teacher candidates are high.In the study it has also beendiscovered that Turkish consciousness levels of Turkish teachers andteacher candidates are different in favor of teachers in respect to"individual use" but there is no difference in respect to “countryintegrity” and “mass media” aspects. Based on these findings it is likelyto express that in comparison to teacher candidates, the teachers aremore conscious in regard to paying attention to Turkish rules incorresponding via internet, not liking use of letters not included inTurkish alphabet such as x, w and wearing clothes having Englishprints, paying attention to use the words indicated as equivalent for theforeign words as specified by Turkish Language Authority, looking upthe dictionary when any unknown words are encountered, gettingdisturbed by use of foreign words in speaking and writing, and lookingup spelling book for spelling rules when required. This result might beindicate that the candidate teachers developed a positive attituderegarding language consciousness after becoming teacher and startingto teach “Turkish”. The study has also identified that there is nodifference Turkish use consciousness in respect to gender. Bu çalışmada Türkçe öğretmenleri ile öğretmen adaylarının Türkçe dil bilinçlerinin ölçülmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada Ağrı ilinde görev yapan 60 Türkçe öğretmeni ile Ağrı İbrahim

  20. Evliya Çelebi Seyahatnamesi’nde İki Dillilerin Türkçeleri Üzerine On The Turkish Of The Bilinguals In The Travel Book (Seyahatname Of Evliya Çelebi

    Gürer GÜLSEVİN


    etnologdur ne de sosyologdur. Evliya Çelebi’nin anlattığı diller, lehçeler ve ağızlar farklı farklı araştırmacılar tarafından incelenmiştir.Evliya Çelebi’nin Seyahatnamesinde, o dönemindeki edebî Türkçe, birçok yabancı dil, Türk dilinin bazı lehçeleri ve ağızları üzerine çok önemli bilgiler bulunmaktadır. Hatta Seyahatname’de tanıtılan dillerden bazıları hakkındaki mevcut en eski bilgilerimiz Evliya Çelebi’nin orada bahsettiklerine dayanmaktadır. Bunların yanı sıra, Osmanlı Devletinde yaşayan iki dilli halkların Türkçeleri hakkında sunduğu veriler ise başka kaynaklarda ulaşılamayacak zenginliktedir. Seyahatname’de, iki dilliler doğal olarak edebî Türkçe ile konuşturulmuştur. Ancak, bu hacimli eserde iki dillilerin azımsanamayacak ölçüde edebî dil dışındaki konuşma örnekleri de vardır.Bu makalede önce Evliya Çelebi’nin Seyahatnamesinde bulduğumuz yukarıdaki dil tipleri hakkında kısaca bilgi verilmiştir. Daha sonra, eserin muhtelif yerlerinde iki dillilerin Evliya Çelebi tarafından nakledildiği şekliyle Türkçe konuşmaları, cümleleri incelenmiştir. Seyahatname’de sunulan şekilleriyle, iki dillilerin ne zaman edebî Türkçe, ne zaman veya hangi şartlarda özel bir ağız ile konuşturuldukları anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Sonuç bölümünde ise iki dillilerin Türkçe konuşma tarzları sınıflandırılarak gösterilmiştir.

  1. 外源寡糖对奶山羊免疫机能的影响%Effect of different oligosaccharides in diet on the immune function of dairy goats

    肖宇; 程明; 汪文鑫; 王建华; 张孝凯; 祁茹; 褚永康; 李春蕾; 林英庭


    group was significantly increased(P0.05),AKP and LSZ in GMOS group were significantly increased(P0.05).2)IgA in FOS,MOS,GMOS groups were significantly increased(P0.05 or P0.01);at 7 d and 21 d,IgG and IgM in FOS group were significantly increased(P0.05 or P0.01);at 14 d and 21 d,IgG and IgM in GMOS group were significantly increased(P0.05 or P0.01);at 7 d and 14 d,IgM in MOS group was significantly increased(P0.01).3)at 7 d,IL-2,IL-4 and IL-6 in FOS group were significantly increased(P0.05 or P0.01);at 7 d and 21 d,IL-2 and IL-6 in GMOS group were significantly increased(P0.05);at 14 d,IL-4 in FOS and GMOS groups were significantly increased(P0.05).In conclusion,different oligosaccharides can enhance immune function of dairy goats,and GMOS and FOS are consider to be the best supplementation.

  2. 脂肪来源干细胞修复骨骼肌放射损伤的病理学研究%Influence of adipose-derived stem cell transplantation on irradiation-induced pathological changes in skeletal muscles of rabbit

    孙威; 倪新初; 孙苏平; 于静萍; 王坚; 聂斌; 孙志强; 倪昕晔; 蔡雷铭


    目的 观察CM-Dil标记的脂肪来源干细胞(adipose-derived stem cells,ASCs)植入放射损伤骨骼肌后的病理学改变,探讨ASCs对兔骨骼肌放射损伤的修复影响.方法 64只新西兰兔单侧臀部予9 MeV电子线单次照射80 Gy后采用随机数字表法分为ASCs组和磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS)组,每组32只,照射24 h后照射侧分别肌肉注射1 ml含5×107/ml标记后ASCs的PBS悬液和1 mlPBS缓冲液,未照射一侧作为各组正常对照.分别于照射后1、4、8和26周收集各组实验动物肌肉标本.观察标记后ASCs在骨骼肌组织中的分布及迁移,分析骨骼肌损伤病理学分级,观察4和26周时肌组织超微病理结构改变.结果 标记后的ASCs能在损伤部位迁移.ASCs组受照射骨骼肌组织病理损伤分级较PBS组在照射后1、4、8、26周显著减低(U=11.5、12.0、11.0,P<0.05).ASCs组26周时再生肌细胞数(27.01土9.36)显著高于PBS组(5.23 ±4.23)(t=15.12,P<0.05).ASCs组4和26周肌原纤维损伤程度较PBS组轻,26周ASCs组肌细胞肌间隙可见肌原纤维状结构增生.结论 ASCs能减轻受照射骨骼肌的病理组织学损伤,促进肌卫星细胞的代偿增生、再生肌组织,可能是修复骨骼肌放射损伤的部分机制.%Objective To observe the pathological changes of irradiated skeletal muscles in a rabbit model after CM-Dil fluorescence-labeled adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) transplantation and to explore the influence of ASCs on the pathological repair of radiation-induced skeletal muscle injury.Method Unilateral hips of 64 rabbits were randomly divided into ASCs group (n =32) and PBS group (n =32) and they were irradiated with a single dose of 80 Gy of 9 MeV electrons beam from a linear accelerator.The non-irradiated sides with normal skeletal muscle were used as controls.24 hours after irradiation,1 ml of the CM-Dil fluorescence-labeled ASCs (5 × 107) were locally transplanted into the irradiated side of the skeletal muscle,while PBS

  3. In vivo homing of chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation into a mouse model of immune-mediated bone marrow failure%氯甲基苯甲酰氨标记骨髓间充质干细胞在免疫介导骨髓衰竭小鼠模型体内的归巢

    王洋; 肖扬; 李力; 蒋祖军; 李勇华; 庞妍; 宋佳音


    BACKGROUND: Aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by pancytopenia and bone marrow (BM) hypoplasia. In most cases, AA is an immune-mediated disease, with active destruction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by T lymphocytes. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can support hematopoietic cells and have immunomodulatory effects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the homing of BMSCs transferred into mouse model of bone marrow failure. METHODS: BALB/C mice were randomly divided into normal control group, AA group and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation group. On day 6, chloromethyl-benzamidodialkylcarbocyanine (CM-Dil)-labeled BALB/c mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into mouse model of bone marrow failure vi a tail vein. The dynami c di stribution of CM-Di l- labeled cells in different tissues was observed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscope. On day 14 after bone marrow failure induction, the average survival time, peripheral blood hemogram and the morphological features of bone marrow of mice in each group were determined. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 24 hours after BMSC transplantation vi a tail vein, CM-Dil- labeled positive cells were observed in recipients' bone marrow, and the CM-Dil-labeled positive cells increased at 72 hours (P < 0.05). The white blood cells, hemoglobin, platelets and bone marrow mononuclear cells of the dying or executed mice in the transplantation group were significantly higher than those in the aplastic anemia group (P < 0.01). The average survival time of mice in aplastic anemia group was significantly shorter than that in the BMSC transplantation group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the transplanted BMSCs can home into the bone marrow of bone marrow failure model, promote the recovery of hematopoietic function, alleviate the degree of bone marrow failure, and significantly prolong survival time.%背景:再生障碍性贫血是T 淋巴细胞免疫亢进破坏造血干祖细胞的

  4. 门静脉高压时经脾移植骨髓间充质干细胞的分化与迁移%Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transplantation via spleen as a treatment for terminal liver disease in rats with portal hypertension

    孙松; 陈功; 郑珊


    Objective To study the efficacy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC)transplantation via spleen as a treatment for terminal liver disease in rats with portal hypertension.Methods Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells of Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and culture ex vivo in the medium containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4).The expressions of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) were detected by immunofluorescence staining in the fifth passage cells.Recipient rats were randomly divided into the experimental group (the common bile ducts were ligated and cut off) and the control group (underwent sham operations).The fifth passage cells were labeled with CM-Dil,and were transplanted via spleen injection.The BMMSC distribution was observed under the fluorescence microscope The integrated optical density (IOD) and cell distribution score were quantitated using the Image pro-Plus 6.0.Results After co-incubated with HGF and FGF-4,the Golgi apparatus,endoplasmic reticulum,ribosomes,and mitochondria were significantly increased in the 5th passage BMMSC cells.The immunofluorescence staining of the AFP and CK-18 found that the cells expressed both of the proteins.The CM-Dil staining could also be observed in BMMSC.And the CM-Dil labeling rate was as high as 99.5%.The integrated optical density (IOD) of transplanted cells in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (1 130 067 ± 209 464 vs 293 505 ± 88 383,P<0.01).In addition,the cell distribution score in the experimental group was lower than that of the control group (2.36 ±0.27 vs 1.99 ± 0.36,P<0.05).Conclusions HGF and FGF-4 can induce bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into the hepatocyte-like cells ex vivo.The BMMSC cells can migrate into the liver of the rats with portal hypertension via spleen injection.%目的 观察体外诱导骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSC)能否向肝样细胞分化,探讨经

  5. Kutadgu Bilig’in Dilinde Bilgi Kavramı ve İşlevi The Concept And Funcion Of Knowledge On Kutadgu Bilig’s Language

    Özgür Kasım AYDEMİR


    Full Text Available Language data, combines the features of the context of production is multi-faceted nature of the data. Considering this aspect of literary products, especially with the help of different disciplines, including linguistics and philosophy, in case of multi-faceted evaluation, which makes them valuable in wealth determined. In this context, siyasetnames have the important data base which is context of theindividual, society and the state. Especially 16 century onwards, theprevalence winning siyasetnames, statesmen of the period, written inorder to make recommendations regarding the functioning of the state.Considering this aspect, the siyasetname the cultural history of aliterary genre can be regarded as an important source of data. In thiscontext, the first known Turkish literature siyasetname the nature ofthe copyrighted work Kutadgu Bilig Balasagunlu Yusuf Has Hacib'swritten, Turkish culture in the universe considered as an important andleading to a data source. Kutadgu Bilig, based on the content itself mayinfluence the later centuries siyasetnames post. This is one of thepioneering works of the features that make effective use of the languageshould be regarded as a versatile believe. In this article, the TurkishCultural Universe Kutadgu Bilig important units in the recruitment ofthe eternal universe, the meaning of the concept of knowledgeimmortality, which which is immortal. Then, the concept of knowledgefunction was analyzed in a philosophical context. Thus, the use of theconcept of information payload in a language the ideal movement ofindividuals, society and the state to determine its place in fiction,resolve, and have been evaluated. Because the concept of knowledgehas an extremely important which is the name of the main work of thecultural history. Dil verileri, üretim bağlamının özelliklerini barındıran çok yönlü veri niteliği taşımaktadır. Bu yönüyle ele alındığında edebî ürünlerin, başta dilbilim ve felsefe

  6. Wear Calculation for Sliding Friction Pairs

    Springis, G.; Rudzitis, J.; Avisane, A.; Leitans, A.


    One of the principal objectives of modern production process is the improvement of quality level; this means also guaranteeing the required service life of different products and increase in their wear resistance. To perform this task, prediction of service life of fitted components is of crucial value, since with the development of production technologies and measuring devices it is possible to determine with ever increasing precision the data to be used also in analytical calculations. Having studied the prediction theories of wear process that have been developed in the course of time and can be classified into definite groups one can state that each of them has shortcomings that might strongly impair the results thus making unnecessary theoretical calculations. The proposed model for wear calculation is based on the application of theories from several branches of science to the description of 3D surface micro-topography, assessing the material's physical and mechanical characteristics, substantiating the regularities in creation of the material particles separated during the wear process and taking into consideration definite service conditions of fittings. ums Mūsdienu ražošanas procesa viens no pamatmērķiem ir produkcijas kvalitātes līmeņa paaugstināšana, tas nozīmē arī dažādu izstrādājumu nepieciešamā kalpošanas laika nodrošināšanu un nodilumizturības palielināšanu. Svarīga loma šī uzdevuma sasniegšanā ir salāgojamo detaļu kalpošanas laika prognozēšanai, kas ir ļoti aktuāls jautājums, jo attīstoties dažādām ražošanas, kā arī mēriekārtu tehnoloģijām, kļūst iespējams arvien precīzāk noteikt nepieciešamos datus, kuri vēlāk tiek izmantoti arī analītiskajos aprēķinos. Apskatot laika gaitā izstrādātās dilšanas procesa prognozēšanas teorijas, kuras var klasificēt, apkopojot tās noteiktās grupās, ņemot par pamatu līdzīgas teorētiskās pieejas, jāsaka, ka katrai no tām piemīt da


    Tahir KAHRAMAN


    Full Text Available In what sense ‘determiner phrase’ is used in Turkish grammar is explained in introduction.In the essay, under the heading ‘group’, how this term has been used in grammar sources, and how it is defined are explicated through summaries and with reference to literature. The resemblances and differences between those definitions are touched upon.The various meanings of those groups are defined, remarking that the term ‘group’ is used with a ‘narrow’ meaning as well as with a ‘broad’ meaning.It is put forward that ‘group’ and ‘compound word’ have different meanings, that they should be separated.Assessments are made on the definitions of this term given in grammar-syntax books analyzed under the heading ‘Set (Construction’.Explanations and examples are mentioned, which are taken from S. S. Mayzel’s ‘Türk Dilinde İzafet’, the broad summary of which was published.‘Set (Construction’ is defined, indicating in what sense this term should be used. In sources, it is generally pointed out that there are two types sets: ‘noun set (construction’ and ‘adjective set (construction’.It is asserted, under the heading ‘genitive set’, that a third set type, the first constituent of which is its pronoun, should be handled.Under the heading ‘adverb set (adverbial construction’, it is suggested, with its reasons, that the adverb groups, used in the form of ‘adverb + adjective’ and ‘adverb + adverb’, should be counted as ‘adverb set’.As a consequence, the essay is ended by indicating that there are four types of sets in Turkish, and they should be named as ‘genitive set, noun set, adjective set, adverb set’. Başlangıç bölümünde, Türkçe dil bilgisinde, “belirtme öbeği” teriminin ne anlamda kullanıldığı açıklanıyor.Yazıda; “öbek (grup” başlığı altında, bu terimin dil bilgisi kaynaklarında hangi anlamlarda kullanıldığı ve nasıl tanımlandığı, yayınlardan al


    Talip DOĞAN


    Full Text Available The proverbs that connected to lots of fields such as history,folklore, sociology, psychology, philosophy and morality are veryimportant language characteristics in terms of expression beauty,eloquence and conceptual richness. The proverbs which usually consistof one sentence with a brief language have the power of expressing thewide range of meanings. When said in the right time, these sayings give power to the thought and we can see that they are made use of the music of language. All kinds of events about the life with every aspects and colorfulness are present in proverbs, the products of oral literature. So we can see the religious, moral, understanding, common values, mental state, imagination and intelligence glitters of Turkish nation. Also it is seen that sayings in the proverbs have become stereotyped with the blend of national language and thought in the process of history.Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì was written by Mìrzā ‘Elineḳì Merāġì in Meraga city of Iran Azerbaijan in 1910. In the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì, there are proverbs ordered according to letters lined up of Arab Alphabet. In this manuscript it is important that the proverbs were written by saving the dialect characteristics.In this study, vocabulary of proverbs in the Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì have been examined. Thus, some words in the work have been compared with historical and modern Turkish dialects. Tarih, folklor, sosyoloji, psikoloji, felsefe, ahlak gibi birçok alanıilgilendiren atasözleri; deyiş güzelliği, anlatım gücü ve kavram zenginliğibakımından çok önemli dil unsularındandır. Kısa ve özlü bir dil ilegenellikle tek cümleden oluşan atasözleri, çok geniş manaları ifade etmekudretine sahiptir. Yerinde söylendiği zaman düşünceye kuvvet katanbu sözlerde, dilin bütün inceliklerinden ve musikisinden istifade edildiğigörülür. Sözlü edebiyat ürünlerinin başında gelen atasözlerinde hayatadair


    Mustafa ARSLAN


    Full Text Available This article provides information about the source of Mihr ü Müşterî mesnevîs and were written in Turkish literature Mihr ü Müşterîs have been mentioned briefly. Important part of the research constitutes Mîrî (Kiçi Mîr-zade Seyyid Yahya Hüseyin, died. 1008/1599’s Mihr ü Müşterî. That have not been done before any work on the full text mesnevî was read by us and published before the first stage in this article is presented to the attention of researchers. Mesnevî is Iranian poet Assâr (Sheikh Mohammed Assâr-i Tabrizi, died. 784/1382’s translation of the same name. The difference of classic hero mesnevî’s other couples heros classical love mesnevî, both heroes is the man. The work, in terms of interaction’s concrete example between Turkish literature and Iran literature is importance. Working with the same subject classical Eastern literature in Turkish literature in the context in which mesnevîs (copyright, translation, etc nazire should be evaluated in the matter may be a model. We stand on this mesnevi, language is important in terms of belonging to the Old Anatolian Turkish period, contains many archaic words. This aspect of the remarkable work with the scanned and obtained by Kilisli Muallim Rıfatand language materials is used Tarama Sözlüğü prepared by the Türk Dil Kurumu. Bu yazıda Mihr ü Müşterî mesnevîlerinin kaynağı ile ilgili bilgi verilmiş ve Türk edebiyatında yazılan Mihr ü Müşterî’lerden kısaca söz edilmiştir. Araştırmanın önemli bölümünü Mîrî (Kiçi Mîr-zade Seyyid Yahya Hüseyin, öl. 1008/1599’nin Mihr ü Müşterî’si oluşturmaktadır. Daha önce üzerinde herhangi bir çalışma yapılmamış olan mesnevînin tam metni tarafımızdan okunmuştur ve yayın aşamasından önce ilk defa bu yazıda araştırmacıların dikkatine sunulmaktadır. Mesnevî İranlı şair Assâr (Şeyh Muhammed Assâr-ı Tebrizî, öl. 784/1382’nin aynı addaki eserinin terc

  10. Türkçe Öğrenimi İçin Web Tabanlı Zeki Öğretim Sistemi (Türkzös Ve Değerlendirmesi Web Based Intelligent Tutoring System For Turkish Learning (Türkzös And Evaluation

    Nursal ARICI


    thestudents. Computer Adaptive Tests and student tracking compenentsare the original models which have been developed with using theArtificial Intelligence techniquies. These compenents determine thelevel of knowledge and competencies, suggest suitable contents and gives assistance and guidence. Contents Management System provides assistance in preparation and managing the course syllabus. This component has got a flexible and convenient structure. By this way it can be possible to prepare and manage the course syllabus in Turkish teaching both as native and second language. In order to test the system some course contents have been prepared. This contents have been selected units and subjects suitable to the primary school 5- 6. Turkish classes. This contents have been used in introducing the system and getting their feedbacks of the Turkish teachers and canditaes teachers. The system can be reached on internet address E-öğrenme, bilişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelerin ürünü olan bir öğrenme modelidir. Bu model, öğrenme içeriklerinin görsel-işitsel öğelerle zenginleştirilebilmesi ve bu içeriklerin istenildiği zaman, istenildiği yerden düşük maliyetle, hızlıca kişilere ulaştırılabilmesi gibi avantajlar sağlar. Başta İngilizce olmak üzere birçok dilin eğitiminde e-öğrenme modelinden yararlanılmaktadır. Bu modelin dil öğrenme ve öğretme alanındaki öneminin bilinciyle Türkçe dil eğitimi için bir e-öğrenme sistemi geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirdiğimiz bu sistem TÜRKZÖS olarak adlandırılmıştır. Bu makalede, geliştirdiğimiz e-öğrenme sistemi tanıtılmakta, dil öğrenimine katkıları Türkçe dersi veren öğretmen ve öğretmen adaylarının görüşleri doğrultusunda açıklanmaktadır. TÜRKZÖS’ü geliştirme amacımız; bilişim teknolojilerinin imkânlarını sunarak Türkçe öğrenen ve öğretenlere destek sağlamaktır.Sistem, genel ağ (Internet üzerinden hizmet verecek biçimde geli

  11. Book reviews

    Redactie KITLV


    W. Collinwood ,Modern Bahamian society. Parkersburg IA: Caribbean Books, 1989. 278 pp., Steve Dodge (eds -Peter Hulme, Pierrette Frickey, Critical perspectives on Jean Rhys. Washington DC: Three Continents Press, 1990. 235 pp. -Alvina Ruprecht, Lloyd W. Brown, El Dorado and Paradise: Canada and the Caribbean in Austin Clarke's fiction. Parkersburg IA: Caribbean Books, 1989. xv + 207 pp. -Ineke Phaf, Michiel van Kempen, De Surinaamse literatuur 1970-1985: een documentatie. Paramaribo: Uitgeverij de Volksboekwinkel, 1987. 406 pp. -Genevieve Escure, Barbara Lalla ,Language in exile: three hundred years of Jamaican Creole. Tuscaloosa AL: University of Alabama Press, 1990. xvii + 253 pp., Jean D'Costa (eds -Charles V. Carnegie, G. Llewellyn Watson, Jamaican sayings: with notes on folklore, aesthetics, and social control.Tallahassee FL: Florida A & M University Press, 1991. xvi + 292 pp. -Donald R. Hill, Kaiso, calypso music. David Rudder in conversation with John La Rose. London: New Beacon Books, 1990. 33 pp. -Mark Sebba, John Victor Singler, Pidgin and creole tense-mood-aspect systems. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1990. xvi + 240 pp. -Dale Tomich, Pedro San Miguel, El mundo que creó el azúcar: las haciendas en Vega Baja, 1800-873. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Huracán, 1989. 224 pp. -César J. Ayala, Juan José Baldrich, Sembraron la no siembra: los cosecheros de tabaco puertorriqueños frente a las corporaciones tabacaleras, 1920-1934. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Ediciones Huracán, 1988. -Robert Forster, Jean-Michel Deveau, La traite rochelaise. Paris: Kathala, 1990. 334 pp. -Ernst van den Boogaart, Johannes Menne Postma, The Dutch in the Atlantic slave trade, 1600-1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. xiv + 428 pp. -W.E. Renkema, T. van der Lee, Plantages op Curacao en hun eigenaren (1708-1845: namen en data voornamelijk ontleend aan transportakten. Leiden, the Netherlands: Grafaria, 1989. xii + 87 pp. -Mavis C. Campbell, Wim

  12. Book Reviews

    Redactie KITLV


    Full Text Available -Peter Hulme, Polly Pattullo, Last resorts: The cost of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Cassell/Latin America Bureau and Kingston: Ian Randle, 1996. xiii + 220 pp. -Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Édouard Glissant, Introduction à une poétique du Divers. Montréal: Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1995. 106 pp. -Bruce King, Tejumola Olaniyan, Scars of conquest / Masks of resistance: The invention of cultural identities in African, African-American, and Caribbean drama. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. xii + 196 pp. -Sidney W. Mintz, Raymond T. Smith, The Matrifocal family: Power, pluralism and politics. New York: Routledge, 1996. x + 236 pp. -Raymond T. Smith, Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Silencing the past: Power and the production of history. Boston: Beacon, 1995. xix + 191 pp. -Michiel Baud, Samuel Martínez, Peripheral migrants: Haitians and Dominican Republic sugar plantations. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1995. xxi + 228 pp. -Samuel Martínez, Michiel Baud, Peasants and Tobacco in the Dominican Republic, 1870-1930. Knoxville; University of Tennessee Press, 1995. x + 326 pp. -Robert C. Paquette, Aline Helg, Our rightful share: The Afro-Cuban struggle for equality, 1886-1912. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. xii + 361 pp. -Daniel C. Littlefield, Roderick A. McDonald, The economy and material culture of slaves: Goods and Chattels on the sugar plantations of Jamaica and Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1993. xiv + 339 pp. -Jorge L. Chinea, Luis M. Díaz Soler, Puerto Rico: desde sus orígenes hasta el cese de la dominación española. Río Piedras: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1994. xix + 758 pp. -David Buisseret, Edward E. Crain, Historic architecture in the Caribbean Islands. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. ix + 256 pp. -Hilary McD. Beckles, Mavis C. Campbell, Back to Africa. George Ross and the Maroons: From Nova Scotia to Sierra Leone. Trenton

  13. Kubad Abad Kazılarında (2005-2010 Bulunan Cam Kadehler Glass Goblet Found in Kubad Abad Excavations (2005-2010

    Zekiye UYSAL


    ıba üfleme teknikleri kullanılmıştır.Kapların kaideleri lif sarma ve katlama teknikleriyle yapılmıştır. Renkolarak, şeffaf renksiz, şeffaf yeşilimtrak, şeffaf açık yeşil, mavimtrak,açık mavi görülmektedir. İncelenen parçalar, silindirik ve ters konikgövdeli olmak üzere iki farklı forma sahiptir. Silindirik gövdelikadehlerde gövde silindire yakın bir form gösterir. Ağız kenarları dışataşkın ve yatıktır. Bu tipteki kadehlerin kaide kısmı lif sarma tekniğiyleoluşturulmuştur. Ters konik gövdeli kadehlerde ise gövde kaidedenitibaren yukarıya doğru ters koni biçiminde genişlemektedir. Ters konikgövdeli kadehler, kendi içlerinde dışa dönük ağızlı ters konik gövdeliler,dışa dönük ağızlı spiralli ters konik gövdeliler, ayaklı kaideli ters konikgövdeliler olmak üzere üç alt gruba ayrılabilmektedir.2005-2010 yıllarıarasında ele geçen kadehler üzerinde lif sarma, kalıplama, minelemeteknikleri kullanılarak süslemeler yapılmıştır. Bunlardan minelemetekniğinde bezenmiş parçanın üzerinde bir kuş figürü tasvir edilmiştir.Bu makalede ele alınan kadehler genel özellikleri bakımından öncekisezonlarda Kubad-Abad’da bulunan parçalarla paralellikgöstermektedirler ve onlar gibi XIII. yüzyıla tarihlenebilirler.

  14. Book Reviews

    Redactie KITLV


    the Spanish by Phillip Berryman. Maryknoll NY: Orbis, 1988. xii + 151 pp. -Fernando Picó, John M. Kirk, Between God and the party: religion and politics in revolutionary Cuba. Tampa FL: University of South Florida Press, 1989. xxi + 231 pp. -Andrés Serbin, Carmen Gautier Mayoral ,Puerto Rico en la economía política del Caribe, Río Piedras PR; Ediciones Huracán, 1990. 204 pp., Angel I. Rivera Ortiz, Idsa E. Alegría Ortega (eds -Andrés Serbin, Carmen Gautier Mayoral ,Puerto Rico en las relaciones internacionales del Caribe, Río Piedras PR: Ediciones Huracán, 1990. 195 pp., Angel I. Rivera Ortiz, Idsa E. Alegría Ortega (eds -Jay R. Mandle, Jorge Heine, A revolution aborted : the lessons of Grenada, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1990. x + 351 pp. -Douglas Midgett, Rhoda Reddock, Elma Francois: the NWCSA and the workers' struggle for change in the Caribbean in the 1930's, London: New Beacon Books, 1988. vii + 60 pp. -Douglas Midgett, Susan Craig, Smiles and blood: the ruling class response to the workers' rebellion of 1937 in Trinidad and Tobago, London: New Beacon Books, 1988. vii + 70 pp. -Ken Post, Carlene J. Edie, Democracy by default: dependency and clientelism in Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, and Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991. xiv + 170 pp. -Ken Post, Trevor Munroe, Jamaican politics: a Marxist perspective in transition, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann Publishers (Caribbean and Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1991. 322 pp. -Wendell Bell, Darrell E. Levi, Michael Manley: the making of a leader, Athens GA: University of Georgia Press, 1990, 349 pp. -Wim Hoogbergen, Mavis C. Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica, 1655-1796: a history of resistance, collaboration and betrayal, Granby MA Bergin & Garvey, 1988. vi + 296 pp. -Kenneth M. Bilby, Rebekah Michele Mulvaney, Rastafari and reggae: a dictionary and sourcebook, Westport CT: Greenwood, 1990. xvi + 253 pp. -Robert Dirks, Jerome S. Handler ,Searching for a slave


    Hacer GÜLŞEN


    Genç Werther’in Acıları” romanıdır. Diğeri ise Türk edebiyatının usta yazarı, Halit Ziya tarafından 1897 yılında yazılan “Mai ve Siyah” romanıdır. Hayat ve eser arasındaki ilişkileri keşfetmek amacını taşıyan bu metoda göre görülmektedir ki, her iki romanın kahramanı da biraz yazarlarıdır. Goethe, Genç Werther’dir; Ahmet Cemil ise, Halit Ziya. Hatta etraflarında bulunan kişiler de örneğin Mai ve Siyah’ta Raci, Muallim Naci’ye şaşılacak derecede benzer. Her iki kahraman da dönemlerini çok iyi yansıtmıştır. Sadece fikirleriyle değil, kılık kıyafet ve hareketleriyle hatta aşklarıyla da etkilidirler. Ahmet Cemil, emellerine kavuşamayınca büyük bir hayal kırıklığına uğrar. Mavi bir gecede kurduğu hayaller, siyah bir gecede sona erer. Hayal - hakikat tezadı renklerle de ifade edilir. Genç Werther’de de renkler dikkat çeker. Mai ve Siyah romanı bu noktada bir hayal kırıklığıyla, Genç Werther romanı ise intiharla sona erer. İncelemede karşılaştırmalı edebiyat metodu olan ve edebiyat eserlerini karşılaştırmayı bir sanat edinen Pozitivist metot kullanılmıştır.


    Adnan KARADÜZ


    şturulan ilköğretim programında yer verilen sekiz temel beceriden birisi de eleştirel düşünme becerisidir. Eleştirel düşünmenin Türkçe öğretiminde de öğrencilere kazandırılması programın hedeflerinin gerçekleştirilmesi bakımından önem taşımaktadır. Eleştirel düşünmenin, programda yer alan yaratıcı düşünme, iletişim, araştırma-sorgulama, problem çözme, bilgi teknolojilerini kullanma, girişimcilik, Türkçeyi doğru, etkili ve güzel kullanma gibi becerilerle de ilişkisi vardır.Eleştirel düşünme; kuşku temelli sorgulayıcı bir yaklaşımla konulara bakma, yorum yapma ve karar verme becerisidir. Sebep-sonuç ilişkisini bulma, ayrıntılarda benzerlik ve farklılıkları yakalama, çeşitli ölçütleri kullanarak sıralama yapma, verilen bilgilerin kabul edilebilirliğini, geçerliliğini belirleme, analiz etme, değerlendirme, anlamlandırma, çıkarımda bulunma gibi alt becerileri içerir. Türkçe öğretiminde eleştirel düşünme becerilerini kazandırma, dil becerilerinin desteklenip geliştirilmesi bakımından oldukça önemlidir. Dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma gibi temel dil becerilerine ait kazanımların gerçekleştirilebilmesi için öğrencilerin eleştirel düşünme becerilerini geliştirmek gerekir. Eleştirel okuma, eleştirel dinleme, eleştirel konuşma ve eleştirel yazma ile ilgili kazanımların varlığı eleştirel düşünmeye bağlıdır. Öğrencilerin temel dil becerilerinin geliştirilebilmesi için eleştirel düşünme becerilerini öğrenme ortamında yaşatacak yöntem ve tekniklere yer vermek gerekir. Öğrenme ortamında eleştirel düşünme atmosferi oluşturmada öğretmenin rolü, yaklaşımı ve bu beceriye sahip olması da oldukça önemlidir.Dil becerilerinin temel becerilerle ilişkilendirilerek öğretilmesi, yapılandırmacı programda esas alınan öğrenme felsefesinin gereğidir. Düşüncenin temel aracı olan dilin eğitiminde de eleştirel düşünebilen öğrenciler yeti

  17. /ı/ Türkçede Bir Anasesbirim midir? Is The Letter of /ı/ Archiphoneme In Turkish?

    Fatih ÖZEK


    öre genel Türkçedeki sekiz ünlü, bu ünlülerden gelişmiştir. Ancak A.N. Baskakov, /ı/ ‘nın ana bir sesbirim olduğu, [i,u,ü] ünlerinin /ı/ sesbiriminin değişkenleri olduğu görüşündedir. Bu farklı görüş makalenin yazılmasında etkili olmuştur. Anasesbirimi, bünyesinde birden fazla sesin özelliklerini barındıran anases veya bir dilin bilinen ilk sesleri olarak tanımlamak mümkündür. Anasesbirimler, güçlü seslerdir. Çoğunlukla varlıklarını korurlar. Ancak bu özellikler /ı/ sesbiriminde görülmemektedir. Buna delil olarak aşağıdaki tespitleri sayılabilir:1. Codex Cumanicus’taki qlıç (~ qılıç [cliç, cliz/kiliç] yazılışları,2. /ı/ ünlüsünün söz başında ön damaksıllaşması (Uyg. biş- ~ bış- ‘pişmek, olgunlaşmak’; Hrzm. biş-; Kıp. biş- ~ piş-; Çağ.piş-; ETT piş-; Bşk., Tat., Türkm., Az. biş-; Kzk. pis-; Özb., Y.Uyg.,Gag., Trk. piş- < ET bış-; Uyg. til ~ tıl ‘dil’; Krh. dil ~ til; Hrzm. til; Kıp. til; Çağ. til; ETT dil; Tat., Bşk. tĕl; Kzk., Kklp., Nog.,Kmk., Krg., Özb., Y.Uyg. til; Az., Türkm., Gag., Trk. Dil< ET tıl vb.3. İlk hece /ı/ ünlüsünün zayıflaması ve kısa ı’ya (ĭ değişmesi (Hak. hĭs,Tat., Bşk., Özb. kĭş, Kaz., Kklp, Nog. ḳĭs

  18. Balkan Türk Ağızlarının Tasnifleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme An Assessment On Classification Of Balkan Turkish Dialects

    Ahmet GÜNŞEN


    groups and for the sub-dialect groups. Balkan Türk ağızları, 14. yüzyılın ortalarından itibaren Balkanlara yerleşen Osmanlı Türklerinin Anadolu’dan götürerek iskân ettirdiği Türklerce, bu coğrafyada farklı tarihî, coğrafi, sosyal ve kültürel şartlar altında oluşturulan ağızlardır.Anadolu ağızları gibi Balkan Türk ağızları da, kendi içinde farklı Türk boylarına ait olma, farklı siyasi, sosyal, kültürel ve coğrafi şartları yaşama yanında, Balkan coğrafyasında başta Slavlar olmak üzere farklı dil ve kültürlerle etkileşim içinde bulunma vb. sebeplerle kendi içinde dallanmıştır.Dil araştırmaları içinde çağımızda önemli bir yer edinmiş olan ağız araştırmalarının nihai hedefi, belli bir dil coğrafyasında mevcut ağızların temel ölçütlere göre kendi aralarında hatta kendi içlerinde sınıflandırılması ve nihayet ağız atlaslarının oluşturulmasıdır. Batı ülkeleri ile bazı Türk devletleri bu konuda önemli mesafeler almışken, maalesef, aynı şeyi Türkiye Türkçesi ağızları için söyleyemiyoruz. Uzun bir sürecin ardından, Anadolu ağızlarının sınıflandırılması sorununu büyük oranda çözmüş olmakla birlikte, Balkan Türk ağızları için aynı şeyleri söyleyemiyoruz. I. Kunos’un derlemeleri, T. Kowalski’nin incelemeleri ile başlatılabilecek Balkan Türk ağızları araştırmalarında, başta J. Németh olmak üzere, D. Gacanov, G. Hazai, M. Mollava ve I. Dryga gibi araştırmacıların tasnif denemeleri de vardır. Ancak bu konuda son noktanın konulduğunu söyleyebilmek için henüz çok erkendir. Anadolu ağızlarına göre daha az incelenen Balkan Türk ağızlarının bu konuda alacağı daha çok mesafe vardır.Bu çalışmada, Balkan Türk ağızları üzerinde şimdiye kadar yapılmış sınıflandırma çalışmaları tanıtılarak, bu çalışmalarda esas alınan temel ölçütler ile sınıflandırmayı yapan araştırmacıların kulland

  19. Türkiye ve Bulgaristan’da İlkokuma Yazma Sürecinde Öğrencilerin Ürettikleri Yazıların Okunaklılık Bakımından İncelenmesi Investigation of Manuscript Legibility Produced by students in the Process of Early Writing-Reading in Turkey and Bulgaria

    İbrahim COŞKUN


    reliability coefficient was calculated as .87. Analysis results are expressed in terms of percentage and frequency used for the quantification of qualitative data and direct extracts from the writings of students interpreted. Text examples of straight-line placement of text, the space between words, letter-spacing, letter format, suitable to produce, including six main categories of contiguity and the curvature examined. The findings of the study, the writing researchers, reading and writing documents and material authors,designers, classroom teachers and classroom teacher candidates will contribute important. Duygu ve düşüncelerin başarılı bir şekilde aktarılmasını sağlayankonuşma ve yazma becerileri, bir takım bilgi ve becerilerin birikiminigerektirmektedir. Bu bilgi ve becerilerin birikiminin temelleri iseilkokullarda atılmaktadır. İfade edici dil becerilerinden yazma becerisibireyin akademik, kültürel ve sosyal hayatında en çok kullandığıbecerilerdendir. Çocuklar, gelişim sürecinde olmakla birlikte, alıcı dilbecerilerinden dinlemeyi ve ifade edici dil becerilerinden konuşmayıokul öncesi dönemde, alıcı dil becerilerinden okuma ve ifade edici dilbecerilerinden yazmayı ise ilkokul döneminde kazanmaktadır. İlkokulbirinci sınıfta başlayan okuma yazma öğretim süreci şifreleme ve şifreyiçözme etkinliklerinden oluşmaktadır. Okunaklılığın kişiden kişiyedeğişmeyen evrensel kriterleri vardır. Bir yazı hangi dilde üretilmişolursa olsun bu kriterlere uyduğu sürece yazı hakkında “okunaklı”hükmü verilebilir. Buradan hareketle bu çalışmada Türkçe ve Bulgarcaokuma yazma öğretim sürecinde ilkokul birinci sınıf çocuklarınınürettiği yazıların okunaklılık kriterlerine incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.Nitel araştırma modelinin durum çalışması tekniğine göre desenlenenbu araştırmada Türkiye’deki veriler 2012-2013 Öğretim Yılında Edirneilinde ilkokul birinci sınıfa devam eden 15 (9 erkek

  20. Türkçe Öğretmeni Adaylarının Yabancı Kökenli Sözcük Kullanımlarına İlişkin Bir İnceleme A Research on the Use of Foreign Origin Words by Turkish Language Teacher Candidates

    Esra LÜLE MERT


    tothe 46 words of these. Amacı Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının yazılı anlatımlarında kullandıkları sözcükleri Türkçe ya da yabancı kökenli olmaları bağlamında değerlendirmek olan çalışmanın problem tümcesi “Türkçe öğretmenliği son sınıf öğrencilerinin sözcük kullanımında Türkçe kökenli olanları seçme / seçmeme oranları nedir?” olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu araştırma, üretilmiş bir yapı üzerinde tarama modelinde betimsel bir araştırmadır. Var olan bir durumu, var olduğu hâliyle betimlemeyi amaçlayan bu yaklaşımda, incelenecek sınav kâğıtlarının dilsel bütünlüğü içinde yer alan yabancı kökenli (doğu-batı sözcükler ile Türkçe kökenli sözcükle ele alınmıştır. Tarama modeline dayalı bu çalışmanın veri kaynağı, 2011-2012 eğitim-öğretim yılında İnönü Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Türkçe Öğretmenliği Programının 4. sınıfında öğrenim gören 1. öğretimden 25 ve 2. öğretimden 25 olmak üzere toplam 50 öğretmen adayının “Tiyatro ve Drama Uygulamaları” dersinin dönem sonu sınav sorularına verdikleri yazılı yanıtlardır. Kâğıtlarda toplam 4 açık uçlu soru yer almaktadır. 50 öğrencinin 4 soruya verdikleri yanıtlar incelenmiştir. Çalışmada, kaynak olarak “TDK Türkçe Sözlük” (TDK 2005 temel alınmıştır. Kâğıtlar, “içerik çözümlemesi” yöntemiyle incelenmiştir. İncelenen 50 sınav kâğıdında 13.130 sözcük belirlenmiştir. Bu sözcüklerin 4000’i terim olarak nitelendirilmiştir. 9130 sözcük Türk Dil Kurumunun (2005 Türkçe Sözlüğüne bağlı kalınarak yabancı kökenli, Türkçe kökenli başlıklarında sınıflandırılmıştır. Bu bağlamda Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının yazılı anlatımda kullandıkları sözcüklerin % 12’si yabancı kökenli sözcüklerden oluşmuştur. Belirlenen yabancı kökenli sözcüklerin 157’sinin Türkçe karşılığı Türk Dil Kurumunun (2005 Türkçe S

  1. Annelerin Ebeveynlik Öz Yeterlik Algıları ile Gelişimi Risk Altında Olan Bebeklerin Gelişimleri Arasındaki İlişkiyi İnceleyen Araştırmalara Bir Bakış

    Veysel Aksoy


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, ebeveynlerin (özellikle annelerin öz yeterlik düzeyleri ile çocuklarının erken çocukluk dönemindeki gelişimleri arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen araştırmaları gözden geçirmektir. Bu amaçla betimsel alan yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Ele alınan makalelerdeki bulgular, annelerin sahip olduğu ebeveyn öz yeterlik algısının düzeyi ile çocukların bilişsel, sosyal ve dil gelişimleri arasında ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca ebeveynlik öz yeterlik düzeyleri sosyo-ekonomik durum, sosyal destekler, bekâr anne olma ve annelik yaşı gibi değişkenlerden etkilenmektedir. Annelerin öz yeterlikleriyle çocuğun problem davranışları, annelik depresyonu ve stresi gibi değişkenler arasında da ilişkiler olduğu çalışmalarda rapor edilmiştir. The purpose of this study is to overview studies on relationship between the parental self-efficacy levels (especially mothers’ self-efficacy and development of their young children. For this purpose, a narrative literature review was carried out. Based on the review of the literature, it is observed that there are relationships between the parental self-efficacy and children’s cognitive, social and language development. Moreover, parental self-efficacy level is affected by some variables such as socio-economical condition, social supports, being a single mother and mother’s age. Also, studies pointed out that there is a relationship between selfefficacy levels of mothers and child’s problem behaviors, maternal depression and stress.

  2. Role of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus in rat whisker pad proprioception.

    Mameli, Ombretta; Stanzani, Stefania; Mulliri, Gabriele; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Caria, Marcello A; Russo, Antonella; De Riu, Pierluigi


    Trigeminal proprioception related to rodent macrovibrissae movements is believed to involve skin receptors on the whisker pad because pad muscles operate without muscle spindles. This study was aimed to investigate in rats whether the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu), which provides proprioceptive feedback for chewing muscles, may be also involved in whisker pad proprioception. Two retrograde tracers, Dil and True Blue Chloride, were injected into the mystacial pad and the masseter muscle on the same side of deeply anesthetized rats to label the respective projecting sensory neurons. This double-labeling technique was used to assess the co-innervation of both structures by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu).In a separate group of anesthetized animals, the spontaneous electrical activities of TMnu neurons were analyzed by extracellular recordings during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrissae. Mesencephalic neurons (TMne) were previously identified by their responses to masseter muscle stretching. Changes in TMne spontaneous electrical activities, analyzed under baseline conditions and during whisking movements, were statistically evaluated using Student's t-test for paired observations. Neuroanatomical experiments revealed different subpopulations of trigeminal mesencephalic neurons: i) those innervating the neuromuscular spindles of the masseter muscle, ii) those innervating the mystacial pad, and iii) those innervating both structures. Extracellular recordings made during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrisae showed that whisking neurons similar to those observed in the trigeminal ganglion were located in the TMnu. These neurons had different patterns of activation, which were dependent on the type of spontaneous macrovibrissae movement. In particular, their spiking activity tonically increased during fan-like movements of the vibrissae and showed phasic bursting during rhythmic whisking. Furthermore, the same neurons may also respond to

  3. The Principal Forces of Oocyte Polarity Are Evolutionary Conserved but May Not Affect the Contribution of the First Two Blastomeres to the Blastocyst Development in Mammals.

    Hosseini, Sayyed-Morteza; Moulavi, Fariba; Tanhaie-Vash, Nima; Asgari, Vajihe; Ghanaei, Hamid-Reza; Abedi-Dorche, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Naser; Gourabi, Hossein; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Dizaj, Ahmad Vosough; Shirazi, Abolfazl; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad-Hossein


    Oocyte polarity and embryonic patterning are well-established features of development in lower species. Whether a similar form of pre-patterning exists in mammals is currently under hot debate in mice. This study investigated this issue for the first time in ovine as a large mammal model. Microsurgical trisection of unfertilized MII-oocytes revealed that cortical cytoplasm around spindle (S) contained significant amounts of total maternal mRNAs and proteins compared to matched cytoplast hemispheres that were located either near (NS) or far (FS) -to-spindle. RT-qPCR provided striking examples of maternal mRNA localized to subcellular substructures S (NPM2, GMNN, H19, PCAF, DNMT3A, DNMT1, and STELLA), NS (SOX2, NANOG, POU5F1, and TET1), and FS (GCN) of MII oocyte. Immunoblotting revealed that specific maternal proteins DNMT3A and NANOG were asymmetrically enriched in MII-spindle-half of the oocytes. Topological analysis of sperm entry point (SEP) revealed that sperm preferentially entered via the MII-spindle-half of the oocytes. Even though, the topological position of first cleavage plane with regard to SEP was quite stochastic. Spatial comparison of lipid content revealed symmetrical distribution of lipids between 2-cell blastomeres. Lineage tracing using Dil, a fluorescent dye, revealed that while the progeny of leading blastomere of 2-cell embryos contributed to more cells in the developed blastocysts compared to lagging counterpart, the contributions of leading and lagging blastomeres to the embryonic-abembryonic parts of the developed blastocysts were almost unbiased. And finally, separated sister blastomeres of 2-cell embryos had an overall similar probability to arrest at any stage before the blastocyst (2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, and morula) or to achieve the blastocyst stage. It was concluded that the localization of maternal mRNAs and proteins at the spindle are evolutionarily conserved between mammals unfertilized ovine oocyte could be considered polar with


    Kamil Veli NERİMANOĞLU


    Full Text Available Offering solutions based on visual opportunities of the contemporary Turcology to the methodic and methodological problems of Turkish will both facilitate the education and teaching of Turkish and make it possible to examine theoretical linguistics matters through Turkish examples. In this respect, the diagrams, models, tables and maps reflecting the grammar, lexicology and poetics of Turkish are of great importance. More than 300 diagrams, models, tables and maps that we have obtained separately from linguists and Turcologists and systematized and also we ourselves have proposed have been programmed and systematized through the Internet. We are of the opinion that this system will be useful in Turkish education, and so it will help foreigners learn Turkish in a short time and be beneficial in the fields of distant education. Çağdaş Türkoloji’nin görsel olanaklara dayanarak Türkçenin yöntem (metodik ve yöntembilim (metodolojik problemlerine aydınlık getirilmesi, gerek Türkçenin eğitim ve öğretimine gerekse kuramsal dil bilim meselelerinin Türkçe örneklerle incelenmesine geniş imkan sağlayacaktır. Bu bakımdan Türkçenin gramerini, leksikasını, poetikasını yansıtan şemalar, modeller, cetveller ve haritalar ciddi ehemmiyet taşımaktadır. Bizim dilbilimci ve Türkologlardan ayrı ayrı aldığımız ve sitemleştirdiğimiz ve kendimizin teklif ettiği 300’den fazla şema, model, cetvel ve harita internet aracılığıyla programlaştırılmış ve sistemleştirilmiştir. Bu sistemin Türkçenin eğitimine, o cümleden yabancıların Türkçeyi kısa zamanda öğrenmesinde ve uzaktan eğitim alanlarında faydalı olacağı kanısındayız.


    Bekir GÖKÇE*


    Full Text Available The story is one of the literary products, making the taste of reading at the children. However, it is important that the relationship constituted by reading influence the life of the child. This case get attention of researchers and studies on the stories and become the subject of several scientific research. In this study, it considered 67 stories found in Gulten Dayıoglu’s 12 story books who is one of the leading writers of children literature. And it analyzed, by the method of “story map” used for the apprehension of text, 12 stories that are named of 12 story book of Dayıoglu. It concluded then that the method of the story map account plays an important role in the development of four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing. Öykü, çocuğa okumayı sevdiren edebî metinlerden biridir. Okuma yoluyla kurulan bu ilişki, çocuğu yaşam boyu etkiler. Bu durum, araştırmacıların dikkatini çekmiş; öykü üzerine yapılan incelemeler birçok bilimsel araştırmanın konusu olmuştur. Bu çalışmada; çocuk edebiyatının önde gelen yazarlarından Gülten Dayıoğlu’nun çocuklar için yazdığı 12 öykü kitabında bulunan 67 öykü değerlendirilmiştir. Ancak çalışmanın kapsamı içinde her öykü kitabına ad olan toplam 12 öykü, metin öğretiminde kullanılan “hikâye haritası” yöntemine göre çözümlenmiştir. Öykülerin çözümlenmesinde kullanılan hikâye haritası yönteminin dört temel dil becerisinin (dinleme, konuşma, okuma, yazma gelişiminde önemli bir rol oynadığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.


    Ayşe Eda GÜNDOĞDU


    Full Text Available Today, in spite of the changing concept of education, the textbooks keep the major function as a lesson material. Compared to other lessons materials, the textbooks of Turkish lesson have a special importance about being the first written products in mother tongue education process. In this respect, developing of listening, speaking, reading and writing skills, the texts that are being in textbooks must be good example of language.In this study, Eighth Grade Elementary School Teachers Book of Turkish Lesson’ listening materials were examined in terms of certain variables and the contribution of listening texts to the listening skill. Ders kitapları, günümüzde, değişen eğitim anlayışına rağmen hâlâ dersin temel materyali olma işlevini devam ettirmektedir. Diğer derslerle karşılaştırıldığında; Türkçe dersi için ayrı bir öneme sahip olan ders kitapları, öğrencilerin ana dilini öğrenme sürecinde ilk karşılaştıkları yazılı dilsel ürünleri de içerisinde barındırmaktadır. Bu açıdan bakıldığında kitaplarda dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma becerilerinin geliştirilmesi sürecinde öğrenciye iyi birer örnek olabilecek metinlerin yer alması öngörülmektedir. Çalışmada İlköğretim Sekizinci Sınıf Türkçe Dersi Öğretmen Kılavuz Kitabı’nda yer alan dinleme metinleri çeşitli değişkenler açısından incelenmiş, temel dil becerilerinden biri olan dinleme becerisine katkısı ortaya konulmuştur.

  7. Francis Bacon sob o olhar de Gilles Deleuze: a imagem como intensidade

    Osvaldo Fontes Filho


    Full Text Available O ensaio de Gilles Deleuze La logique de la sensation é texto que se detém principalmente na prática e na eficácia da imagem. A pintura de Francis Bacon é ali tomada como paradigma de modernidade ao investir contra os clichês expressivos e ao produzir imagem junto à brutalidade dos fatos, como um contra-efeito do narrativo. Em uma obra que conjura todo modelo a representar, toda história a contar, “alguma coisa se passa”, explica Deleuze, “que define o funcionamento da pintura”. Algo se passa, tem lugar: o acontecimento de uma catástrofe e de uma histeria no ato de pintura que acomete a Figura de modo a transmitir uma potencial violência de reação e de expressão. O “Bacon” de Deleuze apresenta a realidade vivida em uma nova e não-convencional ordem de sensação. Neste artigo, são comentados os modos como o filósofo interpreta os atos físicos da pintura de Bacon — marcas aleatórias, varredura da massa pictural, escansão das superfícies —, procedimentos que introduzem no mundo visual da figuração a variedade caótica dos fatos e sentidos. Mostra-se como as faces e as figuras contorcidas, distorcidas, escorchadas de Bacon recebem uma voz conceitual complementar no texto de Deleuze. Consequentemente, focaliza-se a disposição de alguns conceitos do filósofo: diagrama, Figura, diferença, espaço háptico. Locados no espaço afetivo ou na “lógica da sensação” da pintura baconiana, esses conceitos atribuem legitimidade ao entrelaçamento e à co-implicação entre arte e filosofia. Uma última observação dá conta do fato de a prática da imagem em Bacon, apresentada por Deleuze no palco de uma modernidade particularmente solapada por um “dilúvio anestésico de imagens reprimindo a possibilidade de pensar”, evidenciar para o filósofo os rumos necessariamente sinuosos, “reptilíneos”, do pensamento moderno. Tanto o conceito como a forma criam por catástrofe, por conflagração, por varia


    Aslı MADEN


    Full Text Available Dinleme, günlük iletişim yaşantılarının önemli bir bölümünü oluşturmaktadır. Bu nedenle dinleme becerisinin fiziksel, zihinsel ve psikolojik yönlerinin doğru tanımlanması ve geliştirilmesi gerekmektedir. Araştırmada, Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının dinleme kaygılarının tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Dinleme kaygıları cinsiyet, okuma alışkanlığı, evde bilgisayar kullanımı, cep telefonundan internet kullanımı, dil becerilerini tercih etme gibi değişkenler açısından da değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmada, tarama modeline uygun hareket edilmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, Giresun Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Türkçe Eğitimi Bölümünde öğrenim gören 150 öğretmen adayından oluşmuştur. Araştırma sonucunda, Türkçe öğretmeni adaylarının genel olarak ortalamanın altında dinleme kaygısına sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir./ Listening has a significant role on daily communication of an individual. For this reason, physical, cognitive and psychological elements of listening skills need to be defined correctly and improved. This study aims at identifying listening anxieties of Turkish language teacher candidates. Later on, their listening anxieties were investigated according to gender, reading habits, computer usage at home, mobile internet usage, preferred language skills. The study is a survey type research study. The sample of the study consisted of 150 teacher candidates who studied in Turkish Language Department in School of Education at Giresun University in 2015-2016 education year. The study found that most Turkish language teacher candidates had listening anxieties below the average.

  9. Mechanisms of Clostridium tyrobutyricum removal through natural creaming of milk: A microscopy study.

    D'Incecco, P; Faoro, F; Silvetti, T; Schrader, K; Pellegrino, L


    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main spoilage agent of late blowing defect (LBD) in Grana Padano and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheeses; LBD is characterized by openings and holes and is sometimes accompanied by cracks and an undesirable flavor. Even a very few spores remaining in the cheese curd may cause LBD; thus, it is essential to eradicate them during milk natural creaming. By this process, most of the bacteria, somatic cells, and spores rise to the top of the milk, together with the fat globules, and are removed with the cream. Previous studies suggested that milk immunoglobulins mediate the interactions between fat globules and bacteria that occur upon creaming but no direct evidence for this has been found. Moreover, other physical chemical interactions could be involved; for example, physical entrapment of spores among globule clusters. To maximize the efficiency of the natural creaming step in removing Cl. tyrobutyricum, it is essential to understand the nature of spore-globule interactions. With this aim, raw milk was contaminated with spores of Cl. tyrobutyricum before going to creaming overnight at 8°C, after which spore and bacteria removal was >90%. The obtained cream was analyzed by light interference contrast and fluorescence microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that most of the vegetative cells and spores, which were stained with malachite green before addition to milk, adhered tightly to the surface of single fat globules, the membranes of which appeared heterogeneous when stained with the fluorescent dye DilC18(3)-DS. Using the same dye, we observed transient and persistent interactions among globules, with formation of clusters of different sizes and partial coalescence of adhering membranes. Transmission electron microscopy examination of replicates of freeze-fractured cream allowed us to observe tight adhesion of spores to fat globules. Ultrathin sections revealed that this adhesion is mediated by an amorphous


    Oktay Selim KARACA


    Full Text Available World renowned linguist M. Swadesh has prepared a list of hundred words in order to point out the familial relationship between languages. This list is extremely important in terms of the determination of familial relationships between languages and dialects. Through a comparative analysis, this article aims to point out the common elements in official Turkic dialects used among countries and communities that live under different flags and circumstances. To achieve this end, M. Swadesh’s list has been applied to Kazakh, Kirgiz, Uzbek, Azerbaydjan, Tatar and Turkish dialects and the results are interpreted accordingly. Ünlü dilbilimci M. Swadesh dilller arasındaki akrabalık ilişkilerini göstermek amacıyla yüz kelimelik bir liste hazırlamıştır. Bu liste, dil veya lehçeler arası karşılaştırmalarda akrabalık derecesinin belirlenmesi açısından çok önemlidir. Bu makalede, bugün farklı sınırlar ve şartlar altında yaşayan Türk devlet ve topluluklarında resmî statüde kullanılan lehçeler arasında bir karşılaştırma yapılarak, bazı çağdaş Türk lehçeleri arasındaki ortaklıklar tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla M. Swadesh’in listesi Kazak, Kırgız, Özbek, Azerbaycan, Tatar ve Türkiye Türkçesi lehçelerine uygulanmış ve ortaya çıkan sonuçlar yorumlanmıştır.

  11. Up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling in the spinal cord impairs neural cell migration, neurogenesis, synapse formation, and dendritic spine development

    CAO Fu-jiang; ZHANG Xu; LIU Tao; LI Xia-wen; Mazar Malik; FENG Shi-qing


    Background The Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway controls many cellular responses such as cell proliferation,migration,differentiation,and death.In the nervous system,emerging evidence also points to a death-promoting role for ERK1/2 in both in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal death.To further investigate how Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 up-regulation may lead to the development of spinal cord injury,we developed a cellular model of Raf/ERK up-regulation by overexpressing c-Raf in cultured spinal cord neurons (SCNs) and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs).Methods DRGs and SCNs were prepared from C57BL/6J mouse pups.DRGs or SCNs were infected with Ad-Raf-1 or Ad-Null adenovirus alone.Cell adhesion assay and cell migration assay were investigated,Dil labeling was employed to examine the effect of the up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling on the dendritic formation of spinal neurons.We used the TO-PRO-3 staining to examine the apoptotic effect of c-Raf on DRGs or SCNs.The effect on the synapse formation of neurons was measured by using immunofluorescence.Results We found that Raf/ERK up-regulation stimulates the migration of both SCNs and DRGs,and impairs the formation of excitatory synapses in SCNs.In addition,we found that Raf/ERK up-regulation inhibits the development of mature dendritic spines in SCNs.Investigating the possible mechanisms through which Raf/ERK up-regulation affects the excitatory synapse formation and dendritic spine development,we discovered that Raf/ERK up-regulation suppresses the development and maturation of SCNs.Conclusion The up-regulation of the Raf/ERK signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury through both its impairment of the SCN development and causing neural circuit imbalances.

  12. 钙通道拮抗剂对大鼠胰岛细胞胰岛素分泌的影响%The effect of Ca2+ channel bloker on insulin secretion in rat pancreatic islet cells

    朱铁虹; 尹潍; 高淑玮


    目的研究钙通道拮抗剂对大鼠胰岛细胞分泌胰岛素的影响和机制.方法用放免和荧光方法分别检测不同治疗血浓度的硝苯地平(NIF)、维拉帕米(VER)、地尔硫NFDA7(DIL)等药物对低糖和高糖刺激状态下胰岛细胞Ca2+含量和胰岛素分泌量的影响.结果低糖状态组:NIF、VER、DIL在25、50、100 μg/L药物浓度下未对胰岛细胞内Ca2+含量和胰岛素分泌量产生影响,其结果与对照组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在高糖状态组,NIF、VER、DIL在25 μg/L药物浓度下不抑制胰岛素分泌,NIF在50、100 μg/L浓度时,胰岛细胞内Ca2+浓度和胰岛素分泌量明显减少,与对照组相比差异有显著性(P<0.05)并呈剂量相关(P<0.01).VER在50 μg/L时胰岛素分泌有减少趋势,100 μg/L时明显减少(P<0.05).DIL在100 μg/L时胰岛素分泌量减少与对照组相比差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论高浓度药理治疗量的NIF、VER 、DIL具有抑制高糖作用下的胰岛细胞外钙内流和使胰岛素分泌减少的作用.

  13. Effect of Interleukin-6 on Gene Expression of Certain Cytokines During Wound Healing Process of Mouse Skin%小鼠皮肤损伤修复过程中白细胞介素-6对某些炎症因子基因表达的影响

    林子清; 董玉贞; 张晓东; 王彤; 孙开来; 牛文友


    为了解在皮肤损伤修复过程中白细胞介素-6(Interlukin-6,IL-6)对其他炎症因子基因表达的影响,以及对皮肤损伤修复过程的影响,用免疫组织化学染色法和RT-PCR法,检查了IL-6基因敲除鼠(IL-6-/-鼠)和正常野生型鼠(IL-6+/+鼠)皮肤损伤后损伤区组织内不同时间的白细胞介素-1α(Interlukin-1α,IL-1α)、白细胞介素-1β(Interlukin-1β,IL-1β)、角质细胞诱导因子(Keratinocyte chemoattractant,KC)、单核细胞诱导蛋白-1α (Macrophage inflammatory protein-1α,MIP-1α)以及单核细胞诱导蛋白-2 (Macrophage inflammatory protein-2,MIP-2)这5种炎症因子的基因表达的变化.结果发现:不论是IL-6-/-鼠还是IL-6+/+鼠,其被检因子的基因表达都以第3 d为高峰,第6 d则明显下降;同时,在损伤后的第3 d和第6 d,IL-6-/-鼠的5种因子的基因表达水平显著低于IL-6+/+鼠,而在损伤后的第1 d,只有MIP-1α和KC的水平低于IL-6+/+鼠,而且,IL-6-/-鼠的皮肤损伤修复过程也稍迟于IL-6+/+鼠,但皮肤的损伤仍可完全修复.上述结果显示,IL-6在小鼠皮肤损伤过程中诱导其他5种被检因子的产生,从而促进皮肤损伤的修复,但IL-6基因缺失也不会严重影响皮肤损伤的修复.


    Rasih ERKUL


    Full Text Available Localization, which has it’s long roots back to centuries, even further accelerates in 18th century since the local elementes, traditions and customs entered in the literature. Nedim, becomes one of the best representatives of this 18th centuty movement by using mostly local elementes. With the influence of “koşma”s and “türkü”s Nedim’s songs were known widespread. His songs “kaside”s are all about İstanbul. His inspiration of his songs like “gazel”s comes from living beauties human.Thus Nedim had a tremendous role in purification Turkish Language by his participation in “localization movement” in 18th century. So, Divan poetry is more itself and more local together with Nedim. “Kökü geçmiş asırlara dayanan mahallîleşme”, yerli unsurların, gelenek ve göreneklerin edebiyata girmesi olarak, 18. yüzyılda, daha da hızlanır. Şiirlerinde yerli unsurları daha çok kullanan Nedim, bu cereyanın en güçlü temsilcisidir. Koşma ve türkülerin etkisiyle ortaya çıkan şarkı, Nedim ile yaygınlaşır. Kaside yazması gereken durumlarda da, yazdığı şarkılarla Nedim, her şeyi ile İstanbul’u anlatır. Gazelleri gibi gönlünün heveslerini terennüm ettiği şarkılarının da ilham kaynağı, yaşayan insan güzelleridir. Böylece Nedim, özellikle dil alanında kendini gösteren sadeleşme uygulamalarının “mahallîleşme cereyanı” adıyla 18. yüzyılda vücut bulmasında en önemli rolü oynar. Artık divan şiiri, Nedim ile daha da kendisidir, daha da yerlidir.

  15. Role of the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus in rat whisker pad proprioception

    Russo Antonella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigeminal proprioception related to rodent macrovibrissae movements is believed to involve skin receptors on the whisker pad because pad muscles operate without muscle spindles. This study was aimed to investigate in rats whether the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu, which provides proprioceptive feedback for chewing muscles, may be also involved in whisker pad proprioception. Methods Two retrograde tracers, Dil and True Blue Chloride, were injected into the mystacial pad and the masseter muscle on the same side of deeply anesthetized rats to label the respective projecting sensory neurons. This double-labeling technique was used to assess the co-innervation of both structures by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (TMnu. In a separate group of anesthetized animals, the spontaneous electrical activities of TMnu neurons were analyzed by extracellular recordings during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrissae. Mesencephalic neurons (TMne were previously identified by their responses to masseter muscle stretching. Changes in TMne spontaneous electrical activities, analyzed under baseline conditions and during whisking movements, were statistically evaluated using Student's t-test for paired observations. Results Neuroanatomical experiments revealed different subpopulations of trigeminal mesencephalic neurons: i those innervating the neuromuscular spindles of the masseter muscle, ii those innervating the mystacial pad, and iii those innervating both structures. Extracellular recordings made during spontaneous movements of the macrovibrisae showed that whisking neurons similar to those observed in the trigeminal ganglion were located in the TMnu. These neurons had different patterns of activation, which were dependent on the type of spontaneous macrovibrissae movement. In particular, their spiking activity tonically increased during fan-like movements of the vibrissae and showed phasic bursting during rhythmic whisking


    Şaban DOĞAN


    Full Text Available Exclusive language are the languages which are shaped according to the class, age and particularly profession of an individual in certain societies. It is of no doubt that amidst exclusive languages, language of profession is the one that attracts utmost attention since it is mostly based on terms, quotes and wise words. An evaluation of Ottoman Turkish works that succeeds Old Oghuz Turkish within the context of exclusive languages might reveal some interesting findings concerning the use of language in particular periods. Under the light of original medical compilations and translations written in the 14th and 15th centuries, present study shall make deductions and evaluations about medical language and its characteristics that were shaped within the body of Old Oghuz Turkish. Özel diller, toplumda bireyin içinde bulunduğu sınıfa, yaşa, özellikle de mesleğe göre şekillenen dillerdir. Daha çok terimler, alıntı kullanımlar ve bilgin sözcüklerine dayanması bakımından özel diller içerisinde en dikkat çekici olanları hiç şüphesiz meslek dilleridir. Eski Oğuz Türkçesi ve onun devamı olan Osmanlı Türkçesi eserlerinin de özel diller açısından değerlendirilmesi bahse konu dönemlerin dil kullanımı üzerine ilginç sonuçlar verebilir. Bu çalışmada 14. ve 15. yüzyıllarda kaleme alınmış telif ve tercüme ilk tıp metinleri ışığında Eski Oğuz Türkçesi bünyesinde şekillenen tıp dili ve özellikleri üzerine tespit ve değerlendirmeler yapılacaktır.

  17. Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi Son Sınıf Öğrencilerinin Problemleri Üzerine Bir Çalışma

    Cem Ali GİZİR


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi son sınıf öğrencilerinin yaşadıkları en önemliproblemler ile fakülte ve cinsiyet arasındaki ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, OrtaDoğu Teknik Üniversitesi’ndeki [ODTÜ] beş fakültede yer alan 34 bölüme devam eden 885 son sınıföğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmanın verileri, ODTÜ öğrencilerinin belirlenen alanlarındaki enönemli problemlerini tespit etmek ve ölçmek amacıyla araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen “ÖğrenciProblem Anketi”nden yararlanılarak toplanmıştır. Her bir problem alanı için yüzdelikler belirlenmişve belirlenen problem alanları ile öğrencilerin fakülteleri ve cinsiyetleri arasındaki ilişkileri incelemeküzere de ki-kare tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları, ODTÜ son sınıf öğrencilerinin akademik,mesleki ve sosyal alanlarda önemli problemlerinin olduğunu ortaya çıkarmakla birlikte, öğretimüyeleri, dersler, ödevler, sınavlar ve değerlendirme sistemi, yabancı dil, meslek, arkadaşlık ilişkileri,karşı cinsle ilişkiler ve sosyal aktiviteler ile ilgili problem alanları ile fakülte ve cinsiyetleri arasındaönemli ilişkiler bulunduğunu ortaya koymuştur.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of one dose of diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and poliomyelitis vaccine (Repevax®) followed by two doses of diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccine (Revaxis®) in adults aged ≥ 40 years not receiving a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccination in the last 20 years.

    Dominicus, Rolf; Galtier, Florence; Richard, Patrick; Baudin, Martine


    The immunogenicity and safety of one dose of Tdap-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) and two doses of Td-IPV (tetanus, diphtheria and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine) were assessed in adults who had not received a diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. This open-label, multicentre study was conducted in adults aged ≥ 40 years with no diphtheria- and tetanus-containing vaccine in the last 20 years. Participants received one dose of Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV (0, 1, 6 month schedule). Primary immunogenicity objectives: to demonstrate acceptable seroprotection rates (percentage of participants with antibody titre above threshold) post-dose 3 for diphtheria (≥ 0.1IU/mL by seroneutralization assay [SNA]); tetanus (≥ 0.1IU/mL by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]); and poliomyelitis (≥ 8 1/dil by SNA); and to evaluate the percentage of participants with an antibody concentration ≥ 5EU/mL (by ELISA) for pertussis antigens post-dose 1. Seroprotection rates were acceptable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) was >95%. Percentage of participants with basic clinical immunity against diphtheria (≥ 0.01IU/mL) was also assessed. Safety (adverse events [AEs] and serious AEs) was assessed after each dose. Overall, 336 participants were included (mean age: 60.2 years). Post-dose 3 seroprotection rates were: diphtheria, 94.6% (CI 91.5-96.8); tetanus and poliomyelitis, 100% (CI: 98.8-100). Percentage of participants with an antibody titre ≥ 5EU/mL against pertussis antigens was ≥ 95.8% for all five pertussis components. Basic clinical immunity against diphtheria was achieved in 100% (CI: 98.8-100) of participants. AEs were reported more frequently following vaccination with Tdap-IPV (post-dose 1: 65.3%) than with Td-IPV (post-dose 2: 48.3%; post-dose 3: 50.3%). This study highlights the benefits of using Tdap-IPV followed by two doses of Td-IPV in an

  19. Oxidized LDL triggers pro-oncogenic signaling in human breast mammary epithelial cells partly via stimulation of MiR-21.

    Magomed Khaidakov

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and obesity are primary risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and are also epidemiologically linked to increased susceptibility to a variety of cancers including breast cancer. One of the prominent features of dyslipidemia is enhanced production of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL, which has been shown to be implicated in key steps of atherogenesis including inflammatory signaling and proliferation of vascular cells. In this study we analyzed the effects of ox-LDL in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A. MCF10A cells avidly internalized dil-ox-LDL and exhibited increased proliferative response to ox-LDL within the range of 1-50 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 20 µg/ml ox-LDL for 2 and 12 hours was associated with upregulation of LOX-1 and CD36 scavenger receptors while MSR1 and CXLC16 receptors did not change. Ox-LDL-treated cells displayed significant upregulation of NADPH oxidases (subunits P22(phox and P47(phox, lipoxygenases-12 and -15, and cytoplasmic, but not mitochondrial, SOD. Ox-LDL also triggered phosphorylation of IκBα coupled with nuclear translocation of NF-κB and stimulated p44/42 MAPK, PI3K and Akt while intracellular PTEN (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor and target of miR-21 declined. Quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of hsa-miR-21 in ox-LDL treated cells coupled with inhibition of miR-21 target genes. Further, transfection of MCF10A cells with miR-21 inhibitor prevented ox-LDL mediated stimulation of PI3K and Akt. We conclude that, similarly to vascular cells, mammary epithelial cells respond to ox-LDL by upregulation of proliferative and pro-inflammatory signaling. We also report for the first time that part of ox-LDL triggered reactions in MCF10A cells is mediated by oncogenic hsa-miR-21 through inhibition of its target gene PTEN and consequent activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  20. Oxidized LDL triggers pro-oncogenic signaling in human breast mammary epithelial cells partly via stimulation of MiR-21.

    Khaidakov, Magomed; Mehta, Jawahar L


    Dyslipidemia and obesity are primary risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and are also epidemiologically linked to increased susceptibility to a variety of cancers including breast cancer. One of the prominent features of dyslipidemia is enhanced production of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), which has been shown to be implicated in key steps of atherogenesis including inflammatory signaling and proliferation of vascular cells. In this study we analyzed the effects of ox-LDL in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A). MCF10A cells avidly internalized dil-ox-LDL and exhibited increased proliferative response to ox-LDL within the range of 1-50 µg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with 20 µg/ml ox-LDL for 2 and 12 hours was associated with upregulation of LOX-1 and CD36 scavenger receptors while MSR1 and CXLC16 receptors did not change. Ox-LDL-treated cells displayed significant upregulation of NADPH oxidases (subunits P22(phox) and P47(phox)), lipoxygenases-12 and -15, and cytoplasmic, but not mitochondrial, SOD. Ox-LDL also triggered phosphorylation of IκBα coupled with nuclear translocation of NF-κB and stimulated p44/42 MAPK, PI3K and Akt while intracellular PTEN (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor and target of miR-21) declined. Quantitative PCR revealed increased expression of hsa-miR-21 in ox-LDL treated cells coupled with inhibition of miR-21 target genes. Further, transfection of MCF10A cells with miR-21 inhibitor prevented ox-LDL mediated stimulation of PI3K and Akt. We conclude that, similarly to vascular cells, mammary epithelial cells respond to ox-LDL by upregulation of proliferative and pro-inflammatory signaling. We also report for the first time that part of ox-LDL triggered reactions in MCF10A cells is mediated by oncogenic hsa-miR-21 through inhibition of its target gene PTEN and consequent activation of PI3K/Akt pathway.

  1. Effects of Autologous EPCs Transplantation on Reendothelialization and Restenosis of Ballon-injured Rat Carotis%内皮祖细胞移植加速鼠颈动脉内皮修复预防再狭窄的研究

    孙智山; 周胜华; 曾建平; 黄河


    Objective: To investigate the effects of autologous EPCs transplantation on reendothelialization and restenosis of ballon-injured rat carotis. Methods: 30 SD rats were randomly divided to equal 3 groups: sham operation group, placebo group and autologous EPCs transplantation group. In the latter two groups each rat's left carotid was injured by balloon. Three weeks before balloon injure, all rats were drawn 3 ml blood, and total mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation were cultured for three weeks. EPCs were characterized as adherent cells double positive for Dil-acLDL-uptaking and lectin-binding. Immediately after balloon impairment,and 1 x 106 EPCs were autologously transplanted by caudal vein injention. 4 weeks after balloon injury, the restenosis ratio and reendothelialization ratio of each subject was measured. Results: Compared with placebo group, autologous EPCs transplantation not only increased the reendothelialization ratio but also alleviated the restenosis ratio, hi EPCs transplantation group, restenosis ratio was inversely linearly correlated to reendothelialization ratio. Conclusions: Autologous EPCs transdplantation can inhibit restenosis by accelerating endothelial recovery.%目的:以安慰机组作对照,观察EPCs自体移植防治再狭窄的疗效以及该作用与血管再内皮化是否相关.方法:共30只雄性SD大鼠纳入实验,随机均分为假手术组、安慰剂组和EPCs移植组.造模前3周时取血3毫升,M199培养基培养传代,行EPCs鉴定,移植组在球囊损伤后即予尾静脉注射1×106个EPCs自体移植.4周后观察再狭窄和再内皮化程度.结果:与安慰剂组相比,EPCs自体移植组再内皮化程度提高,再狭窄程度减轻;EPCs移植组内膜/中膜比值与再内皮化率呈线性负相关.结论:EPCs体外扩增自体移植可预防再狭窄;其机制与加速再内皮化有关.

  2. Temel Tepki Öğretimi-TTÖ (Pivotal Response Treatment-PRT İle Gerçekleştirilen Etkililik Araştırmalarının Betimsel Analizi



    Full Text Available Temel Tepki Öğretimi (TTÖ Amerika Ulusal Otizm Merkezi (NAC, 2009 tarafından yayınlanmış olan Ulusal Standartlar Raporun’da otizmli çocukların eğitimde kullanılan bilimsel dayanaklı uygulamalardan bir tanesi olarak kabul edilmektedir. TTÖ hem uygulamalı davranış analizi ilkelerine dayanan hem de doğal bir öğretim yöntemidir. Yöntem öğrenci merkezli ve aile eğitimi esaslı olup çocuklara belli temel davranışları kazandırmayı ve buna bağlı olarakta hedeflenmeyen başka alanlarda da ilerlemeler sağlanacağını savunur. Bu çalışmada TTÖ’ne yönelik bir alan yazın çalışması amaçlanmış ve bu amaçla 1995 ile 2011 yılları arasında TTÖ ile gerçekleştirilmiş olan 16 etkililik araştırmasına ulaşılarak bu araştımalar betimsel olarak analiz edilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular TTÖ’nün okul öncesi ve ilköğretim dönemindeki otizm spektrum bozukluğu gösteren çocuklara ifade edici dil becerilerinin kazandırılmasında, sosyal becerilerin ve oyun becerilerinin öğretiminde etkili olduğunu göstermektedir Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT is one of evidence based treatments identified in the US National Autism Center's National Standards Report published in 2009. PRT is a comprehensive instructional model based on developmental approach and applied behavior analysis principles to provide learning opportunities for supporting children in their natural environments. PRT is a student-centered and parent-training based procedure and advocates that if children achieve some pivotal behaviors, it provides positive effects on untargeted behaviors and also if these pivotal behaviors are achieved once, results will be common and generalizable. The purpose of this study is, by using descriptive analysis, to review the sixteen effectiveness studies of PRT published in 1995-2011. Results of review showed that PRT is an effective procedure on language skills, social skills and play skills of preschool and

  3. TÜBİTAK Çocuk Kitaplığı Dizisindeki Kitapların Dış Yapısal ve İç Yapısal Olarak İncelenmesi

    Candemir DEMİRCAN


    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, TÜBİTAK [Türkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Araştırma Kurumu]tarafından yayımlanan Çocuk Kitaplığı Dizisinde yer alan kitapların, bir çocuk kitabının taşımasıgereken dış yapı ve iç yapı ölçütlerini ne ölçüde taşıdığını ortaya koymaktır. Bu amaçla TÜBİTAKÇocuk Kitaplığı Dizisinde yer alan 36 çocuk kitabından 34’ü, araştırmacı tarafından hazırlanan veçocuk kitaplarının iç yapı ve dış yapı ölçütlerini saptamaya yarayan beş farklı araçla incelenmiştir.İnceleme sonucunda, tasarım ve düzenleme başlığı altında otuz bir yapıt; yazar ve kitap bilgileribaşlığı altında tüm yapıtlar; dil ve anlatım başlığı altında yirmi üç yapıt; konu-plan başlığı altında otuzüç yapıt; resimlendirme başlığı altında ise yirmi yapıtın yeterli ölçütleri taşıdığı bulunmuştur.

  4. 小鼠海马CA1区锥体神经元树突棘的发育%Dendritic spine development of mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons

    刘畅; 范文娟; 程维杰; 左曙光; 邓锦波


    Objective To investigate the developmental characteristics of dendritic spines in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons by analysing the spine density and morphological changes. Methods Fifty mice were collected at postnatal days ( P ) 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30, 10 mice for each age. Dil diolistic labeling with gene gun was performed to observe dendritic spines development in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. High quality labeled neurons were examined and photographed under a confocal microscope, whereas the ultrastructure of spines was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Results Dendritic spines changed their morphology and density with mouse development in response to neuronal activity. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum and spine apparatus in dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 were observed with electron microscopy analysis, which might be involved in the regulation of plasticity at individual synapses. Conclusion The development of dendritic spines may be closely related to synaptogenesis and the formation of synaptic plasticity.%目的 对小鼠海马CA1区锥体神经元正常发育中树突棘密度及各种形态变化进行分析测定,为深入研究突触发生及突触可塑性提供直接的形态学依据.方法 分别取出生后0、5、10、20及30d 5个年龄段的C57BL/6小鼠各10只,采用基因枪对小鼠海马CA1区锥体神经元树突棘进行亲脂性荧光染料DiI标记,通过激光共焦显微镜对其进行观察分析;同时利用透射电镜技术对树突棘的超微结构进行分析.结果 树突棘的形态、大小及其密度随小鼠发育而变化,成熟树突棘内部存在滑面内质网与棘器,可能参与了突触后膜结合蛋白及其转运体的合成.结论 树突棘的发育过程与突触连接的形成以及突触可塑性密切相关.

  5. 斯蒂芬酸在DMF中的热化学和热动力学性质研究%Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics of Solution of Styphnic Acid in DMF at 298.15 K

    曹允玲; 杨利; 张同来; 张建国


    应用微热量热仪测定了斯蒂芬酸(TNR)在溶剂N,N-二甲基甲酰胺(DMF)中不同浓度(b)时的溶解焓,用计算机拟合的方法求得计算该物质溶解焓(ΔsolH)的经验公式(ΔsolH=-14.392-988.6b+34.992b1/2).由此得到了该物质的标准摩尔溶解焓(ΔsolHθm=-14.392 kJ·mol-1),并分别推导出了TNR的相对表观摩尔焓、相对偏摩尔焓以及配合物的稀释焓的经验公式.同时,对TNR溶液反应的动力学进行了研究,通过分析热流对时间的曲线图,确定了该溶解反应的速率常数为1.632×10-3 s-1,反应级数为0.6158.%The enthalpies of solution and the thermodynamics of styphnic acid 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol (TNR) the solution solved in DMF were studied.The enthalpies of TNR solution with different concentrations were measured by a SETARAM C80Ⅱcalorimeter at 298.15 K and the empirical formula for enthalpies of TNR solution is calculated by polynomial simulation on the computer.The results show that the formula is ΔsolH=-14.392-988.6b+34.992b1/2.The standard molar enthalpy of solution is determined to be ΔsolHθm=-14.392 kJ·mol-1.The relative apparent molar enthalpies of solution (ΦLi),the relative partial molar enthalpies(Li),enthalpies of dilution (ΔdilH1,2) are also stretched respectively.The thermodynamics of TNR solution was studied by analyzing heat-flux to time curves,the rate constant of reaction and the reaction order were determined to be 1.632×10-3 s-1 and 0.6158,respectively.

  6. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord

    Min-fei Wu


    Full Text Available The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco′s modified Eagle′s medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem

  7. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord.

    Wu, Min-Fei; Zhang, Shu-Quan; Gu, Rui; Liu, Jia-Bei; Li, Ye; Zhu, Qing-San


    The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells cultured in vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was injected with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1-4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells into the

  8. Transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modiifed neural stem cells improves the repair of injured spinal cord

    Min-fei Wu; Shu-quan Zhang; Rui Gu; Jia-bei Liu; Ye Li; Qing-san Zhu


    The protective effects of erythropoietin on spinal cord injury have not been well described. Here, the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 human erythropoietin was transfected into rat neural stem cells culturedin vitro. A rat model of spinal cord injury was established using a free falling object. In the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, transfected neural stem cells were injected into the rat subarachnoid cavity, while the neural stem cells group was inject-ed with non-transfected neural stem cells. Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/F12 medium was injected into the rats in the spinal cord injury group as a control. At 1–4 weeks post injury, the motor function in the rat lower limbs was best in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group, followed by the neural stem cells group, and lastly the spinal cord injury group. At 72 hours, compared with the spinal cord injury group, the apoptotic index and Caspase-3 gene and protein expressions were apparently decreased, and the bcl-2 gene and protein expressions were noticeably increased, in the tissues surrounding the injured region in the human erythro-poietin-neural stem cells group. At 4 weeks, the cavities were clearly smaller and the motor and somatosensory evoked potential latencies were remarkably shorter in the human erythropoi-etin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than those in the spinal cord injury group. These differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. More CM-Dil-positive cells and horseradish peroxidase-positive nerve fibers and larger amplitude motor and somatosensory evoked potentials were found in the human erythro-poietin-neural stem cells group and neural stem cells group than in the spinal cord injury group. Again, these differences were particularly obvious in the human erythropoietin-neural stem cells group. These data indicate that transplantation of erythropoietin gene-modified neural stem cells into the

  9. Functional endothelial cells derived from embryonic stem cells labeled with HIV transactivator peptide-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    GAO Bin; FU Wei-guo; DONG Zhi-hui; FANG Zheng-dong; LIU Zhen-jie; SI Yi; ZHANG Xiang-man; WANG Yu-qi


    Background The development of regenerative therapies using derivatives of embryonic stem (ES) cells would be facilitated by a non-invasive method to monitor transplanted cells in vivo,for example,magnetic resonance imaging of cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles.Although ES cells have been labeled with SPIO particles,the potential adverse effects of the label have not been fully examined.The objective of this study was to determine whether SPIO labeling affects murine ES cell viability,proliferation,or ability to differentiate into functional endothelial cells (ECs).Methods Cross-linked iron oxide (CLIO,an SPIO) was conjugated with human immunodeficiency virus transactivator of transcription (HIV-Tat) peptides,and murine ES cells were labeled with either CLiO-Tat,CLIO,or HIV-Tat.After labeling,ES cells were cultured for 4 days and FIk-1+ ES cells identified and sorted by immunocytochemistry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).FIk-1+ cells were raplated on fibronectin-coated dishes,and ECs were obtained by culturing these for 4 weeks in endothelial cell growth medium supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).ES cell viability was determined using trypan blue exclusion,and the proportion of SPIO+ cells was evaluated using Prussian blue staining and transmission electron microscopy.After differentiation,the behavior and phenotype of ECs were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,flow cytometry,immunocytochemistry,Dil-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) uptake,and Matrigel tube formation assay.Results CLIO-Tat was a highly effective label for ES cells,with >96% of cells incorporating the particles,and it did not alter the viability of the labeled cells.ECs derived from CLIO-Tat+ ES cells were very similar to murine aortic ECs in their morphology,expression of endothelial cell markers,ability to form vascular-like channels,and scavenging of AcLDL from the culture medium

  10. Leber遗传性视神经病变24例临床分析%Clinical Analysis of 24 Cases of Lebers Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    韦企平; 路明; 张丽霞; 杨薇


    回顾分析了24例(48眼)Leber遗传性视神经病变的临床特征。患者年龄从12 岁到44岁,平均(20.3±7.2)岁,男性占83%。发病典型者多为1眼无痛性视力下降。视力下降程度从眼前手动到1.2,其中40眼(83%)≤0.1。视野缺损主要为中心暗点或旁中心暗点,色觉障碍严重。本组部分病例发病早期有特征性眼底改变,包括视盘明显充血,视盘周围小血管扩张迂曲,神经纤维层水肿。眼底荧光血管造影视盘及盘缘血管无荧光素渗漏。%A retrospective study on the clinical features of 24 cases of Le ber's hereditary optic neuropathy involving 48 eyes was carried out. The patients aged from 12 to 44 years, with an average age of 20.3±7.2, and the male made up 8 3% of the patients. The typical cases were mostly with painless visual loss in 1 eye. The range of visual loss was from before-the-eye hand sway to 1.2; the vis ual acuity of 40 eyes was equal to or less than 0.1; the visual field defect was chiefly of central or pericentral scotoma; and the color sensation was severely affected. In some patients, at the early stage of the disease, there were fundu s pathological changes characterized by obvious hyperemia of the optic disc, dil ation and tortuosity of the small vessels around the optic disc, edema of the ne rve fiber layer around the optic disc, and no leakage of fluorescein from the op tic disc and the vessels in the marginal region of the optic disc detected by th e fundus fluorescent angiography.


    Özlem KAYABAŞI


    Full Text Available Ahmet Midhat Efendi is one of the most important writers oftheliterature of the Tanzimat period. In his works, Ahmet Midhat Efendiaimed to present the cultural changes of a nation. Carnaval is one of hisworks written with this repect. The writer initially presents what thecarnaval is, how it is performed, what kind of poeple participate it andhow they dress. Social panaroma is depicted as well. Concepts behind theclash of emotions such as love, jealousy, fidelity are explained. The novelis examined under the titles of plot, content, language and narration. Ahmet Midhat Efendi Tanzimat dönemi romancılığının önemliisimlerinden biridir. Yazdığı roman ve hikâyelerde bir milletin yaşadığıkültür ve medeniyet değişiminin izlerini yansıtmaya ve insanları budeğişime hazırlamaya çalışmıştır. Bu amaçla yazdığı romanlardan biri deKarnaval’dır. Yazar bu romanda öncelikle karnavalın ne olduğunu, nasılyapıldığını, karnavala kimlerin katıldığını, insanların nasıl giyindiklerianlatır. Sonrasında da sosyal hayatın içinden manzaraları anlatır. Aşk,kıskançlık, ihanet, sadakat gibi duyguların çatışması altında değişendeğerler anlatılır. Roman; zihniyet, yapı(olay örgüsü, kişiler, zaman,mekân, tema, dil ve anlatım başlıkları altında incelenmiştir.


    Kerim DEMİRCİ


    Full Text Available According to the theory developed mostly by Port Royal school in the 17th century and later on formulated by Noam Chomsky, each sentence in a language has two levels of representation: a deep structure and a surface structure. The deep or underlying structure represents the semantic foundations of a sentence. Meanwhile the surface structure is the actual form of a sentence which essentially occurs in speech (the phonetic form or writing. While the speaker or the writer is on the side of deep structure as he/she is the one supposed to know the semantic layer of the sentence, the listener or the reader is passively exposed to the surface structure of a sentence. The surface structure of a sentence may have empty categories and traces that are normally full and existing in the deep layer of representation. In this study we will examine the language-internal and cross-linguistic versions of deep and surface structures. Başlangıçta 17. yüzyılda Port Royal Okulu tarafından ortaya atılan sonra Noam Chomsky tarafından formüle edilen teoriye göre her cümlenin derin yapı ve yüzey yapı olmak üzere iki katmanı vardır. Derin yapı adı verilen katman cümlenin anlambilimsel temelini oluşturur. Öte yandan yüzey yapı ise özellikle cümlenin en son söylenmiş veya yazılmış halini, yani gerçekte üretilmiş biçimini temsil eder. Cümlenin anlamına vakıf olan konuşur veya yazar dilbilimsel olarak derin yapı tarafında iken, dinleyici veya okuyucu yüzey yapı tarafındadır zira dinleyici veya okuyucu cümleye maruz kalan taraftır. Bir cümlenin yüzey yapısı boşluklarla ve izlerle dolu iken derin yapısı doluluk ve tamlık arz eder. Bu çalışmada derin ve yüzey yapı kavramlarının hem dil içi hem de diller arası türleri incelenecektir.

  13. Experimental Realizations of Magnetic Topological Insulator and Topological Crystalline Insulator

    Xu, Suyang


    . Gibson, R. Sankar, Y.J. Wang, T. Chang, H. Jeng, H. Lin, L.A. Wray, J.D. Denlinger, M. Leandersson, T. Balasubramanian, J. Sánchez-Barriga, O. Rader, G. Landolt, B. Slomski, J.H. Dil, F.C. Chou, E. Morosan, N. Samarth, R.J. Cava and M.Z. Hasan. This work is primarily supported by U.S. DOE grant DE-FG-02-05ER46200.

  14. Assessment of prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs for patients attending outpatient department of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia

    Shukrala F


    Full Text Available Fedila Shukrala,1 Tesfaye Gabriel2 1Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a global concern and is one of the key preventable risk factors for cardiovascular events, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing, dispensing and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs among patients attending Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital outpatient department.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital on assessment of the prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs among patients who were above the age of 18 years and attending outpatient department from April 1–May 31, 2013. Data collection was conducted by reviewing the record of patients and direct observation of the dispensing process of randomly selected patients to measure average dispensing time, and direct interview with the patients. Results: A total of 400 patients met the inclusion criteria; out of the 400 patients studied, 63.5% were females. Most of the patients had Stage 1 hypertension (69%, followed by Stage 2 hypertension (31%. Out of the total number of patients, 264 were with different comorbid conditions: diabetes mellitus (64.3%, followed by congestive heart failure (15.1% and ischemic heart disease (2.3%. The most frequently prescribed class of antihypertensive drugs was diuretics, of which hydrochlorothiazide was the most frequently prescribed drug, both in single (55%, followed by enalapril (22.3%, methyl dopa (11.2%, atenolol (6.9%, and nifedipine (4.6%, and in combination with other antihypertensive drugs. The average dispensing time was 1.2 minutes, and 75% of the patients left the counter with inadequate information about the dosage

  15. A Multi-Institutional Project to Develop Discipline-Specific Data Literacy Instruction for Graduate Students

    Wright, S. J.; Fosmire, M.; Jeffryes, J.; Stowell Bracke, M.; Westra, B.


    What data stewardship skills are needed by future scientists to fulfill their professional responsibilities and take advantage of opportunities in e-science? How can academic librarians contribute their expertise in information organization, dissemination and preservation to better serve modern science? With support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), four research libraries have formed a partnership to address these questions. The aims of the partnership are to identify the data stewardship skills, including data management and curation, needed by graduate students at the research discipline level, to identify trends that extend across the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines, and to collaborate with faculty to develop and implement "data information literacy" (DIL) curricula to address those needs. Over the course of the first year, the authors have been working closely with faculty in hydrology, civil engineering, ecology/environmental science, and natural resources. At the outset, we performed structured interviews with faculty and graduate students using a modified version of the Data Curation Profiles Toolkit ( to gather detailed information about the practices, limitations, needs, and opportunities for improving data management and curation practices in each group. Project teams also conducted discipline-based literature reviews and environmental scans of the available resources pertaining to data management and curation issues to identify how (or if) these topics are currently addressed by the discipline. The results were used to develop and implement specific instructional interventions attuned to the needs of each research group. We will share the results of our interviews and information-gathering, summarizing similarities and differences in the data stewardship needs expressed by the graduate students and faculty from different STEM disciplines. We will also discuss

  16. Focused examination of the intestinal lamina propria yields greater molecular insight into mechanisms underlying SIV induced immune dysfunction.

    Mahesh Mohan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gastrointestinal (GI tract is critical to AIDS pathogenesis as it is the primary site for viral transmission and a major site of viral replication and CD4(+ T cell destruction. Consequently GI disease, a major complication of HIV/SIV infection can facilitate translocation of lumenal bacterial products causing localized/systemic immune activation leading to AIDS progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying GI disease we analyzed global gene expression profiles sequentially in the intestine of the same animals prior to and at 21 and 90d post SIV infection (PI. More importantly we maximized information gathering by examining distinct mucosal components (intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria leukocytes [LPL], epithelium and fibrovascular stroma separately. The use of sequential intestinal resections combined with focused examination of distinct mucosal compartments represents novel approaches not previously attempted. Here we report data pertaining to the LPL. A significant increase (±1.7-fold in immune defense/inflammation, cell adhesion/migration, cell signaling, transcription and cell division/differentiation genes were observed at 21 and 90d PI. Genes associated with the JAK-STAT pathway (IL21, IL12R, STAT5A, IL10, SOCS1 and T-cell activation (NFATc1, CDK6, Gelsolin, Moesin were notably upregulated at 21d PI. Markedly downregulated genes at 21d PI included IL17D/IL27 and IL28B/IFNγ3 (anti-HIV/viral, activation induced cytidine deaminase (B-cell function and approximately 57 genes regulating oxidative phosphorylation, a critical metabolic shift associated with T-cell activation. The 90d transcriptome revealed further augmentation of inflammation (CXCL11, chitinase-1, JNK3, immune activation (CD38, semaphorin7A, CD109, B-cell dysfunction (CD70, intestinal microbial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide binding protein and mitochondrial antiviral signaling (NLRX1 genes

  17. False Equivalents in Turkmen Turkish / Türkmen Türkçesinde Yalancı Eşdeğerler



    Full Text Available False equivalents are ones of the subject which is studied mostly among works prepared in Turkish dialects area. It is generally said by false equivalents term that a word in two diffirent dialects of a language is same as origin, writing and pronunciation but is different as mean. In this study, independent language signs of same or different origin which confuse resarcher or student when it is given thought accourding to Turkish in Turkey is worked to ascertain. In the study, false equivalents are analysed with a different classification as taking account of phonological features belong to Turkmen Turkish. Türk lehçeleri alanında yapılan çalışmalar arasında en çok işlenen konulardan biri de “yalancı eşdeğerler” konusudur. Bu konuda yapılan çalışmaların neredeyse tamamında yalancı eşdeğer terimiyle genel olarak bir dilin iki ayrı lehçesinde yer alan bir kelimenin köken, yazılış ve söylenişlerinin aynı, anlamlarının ayrı olduğu durumlar anlatılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada ise Türkiye Türkçesi penceresinden Türkmen Türkçesine bakarken araştırmacıyı ya da öğrenciyi yanıltan aynı ya da farklı kökene sahip bağımsız dil göstergeleri tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışmada yalancı eşdeğer yapılar, Türkmen Türkçesinin ses bilgisi özellikleri de göz önüne alınarak diğer çalışmalardan farklı bir sınıflandırmayla incelenmiştir.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety study of a new DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T combined vaccine compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T comparator, both concomitantly administered with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in Thai infants.

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Thisyakorn, Usa; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Santos-Lima, Eduardo


    To assess a new, fully-liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine (diphtheria toxoid (D), tetanus toxoid (T), acellular pertussis (aP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), hepatitis B (Hep B), and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP-T) antigens) compared to a licensed DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T vaccine following primary series co-administration with a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). This was a randomized, phase III, observer-blind study in Thai infants (N=412), who received DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T or DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, co-administered with PCV7. All received Hep B at birth. Non-inferiority for Hep B ≥ 10 mIU/ml and PRP ≥0.15μg/ml was analyzed (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T relative to DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T) at 1 month post-primary. Seroprotection/seroconversion and geometric mean titers (GMTs) were analyzed descriptively for all hexavalent components. Safety was evaluated from parental reports. Anti-Hep B and anti-PRP antibody seroprotection rates were high for DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T (n=189) and DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T (n=190), and non-inferiority was demonstrated. Anti-D and anti-T ≥ 0.01 IU/ml, anti-polio types 1, 2, and 3 ≥ 8 (1/dil), and anti-PT and anti-FHA seroconversion were high and similar in each group. For DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T and DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T, anti-Hep B ≥ 100 mIU/ml was 98.4% and 99.5% (GMTs 2477 and 2442 mIU/ml), respectively; anti-PRP ≥ 1.0 μg/ml was 85.2% and 71.1% (GMTs 5.07 and 2.41 μg/ml), respectively. Safety profiles were comparable. There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Following co-administration with PCV7 the investigational DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Non-inferiority to DTaP-IPV-Hep B//PRP-T was shown for Hep B and PRP. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Suicide gene reveals the myocardial neovascularization role of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing CXCR4 (MSC(CXCR4.

    Jialiang Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous studies indicated that MSC(CXCR4 improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. This study was aimed to investigate the specific role of MSC(CXCR4 in neovascularization of infarcted myocardium using a suicide gene approach. METHODS: MSCs were transduced with either lentivirus-null vector/GFP (MSC(Null as control or vector encoding for overexpressing CXCR4/GFP. The MSC derived-endothelial cell (EC differentiation was assessed by a tube formation assay, Dil-ac-LDL uptake, EC marker expression, and VE-cadherin promoter activity assay. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR or Western blot. The suicide gene approach was under the control of VE-cadherin promoter. In vivo studies: Cell patches containing MSC(Null or MSC(CXCR4 were transduced with suicide gene and implanted into the myocardium of MI rat. Rats received either ganciclovir (GCV or vehicle after cell implantation. After one month, the cardiac functional changes and neovascularization were assessed by echocardiography, histological analysis, and micro-CT imaging. RESULTS: The expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was significantly higher in MSC(CXCR4 as compared to MSC(Null under hypoxia. Additionally, MSC(CXCR4 enhanced new vessel formation and EC differentiation, as well as STAT3 phosphorylation under hypoxia. STAT3 participated in the transcription of VE-cadherin in MSC(CXCR4 under hypoxia, which was inhibited by WP1066 (a STAT3 inhibitor. In addition, GCV specifically induced death of ECs with suicide gene activation. In vivo studies: MSC(CXCR4 implantation promoted cardiac functional restoration, reduced infarct size, improved cardiac remodeling, and enhanced neovascularization in ischemic heart tissue. New vessels derived from MSC(CXCR4 were observed at the injured heart margins and communicated with native coronary arteries. However, the derived vessel networks were reduced by GCV, reversing improvement of cardiac function. CONCLUSION: The

  20. Very high incidence of syphilis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Buenos Aires city: a retrospective cohort study.

    Bissio, E; Cisneros, V; Lopardo, G D; Cassetti, L I


    The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly syphilis, is high and continues to rise among some populations, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). Furthermore, a higher incidence of STIs has been reported in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative MSM. To determine the incidence of syphilis in a cohort of men with HIV in Buenos Aires city. Retrospective cohort study. We examined the records and visits made by men with HIV aged >18 years in our institution during a 1-year period. Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) results for all the men in our cohort during the study period were analysed. We considered a case of syphilis as incident if a person had a VDRL result of ≥16 DILS, provided that this was increased at least fourfold compared with a previous determination. All VDRL results ≤8 were investigated, and analysed together with the medical records, to determine if they were new cases. We analysed the VDRL results and the clinical records of 1150 men followed up in our centre during the study period. Mean age was 40.9 years. According to the definition used, we registered 171 new cases of syphilis-that is, an incidence of 14.9/100 patients/year (95% CI 12.9 to 17.0). No significant differences in incidence according to age group were found, but there was a trend towards a lower incidence in older men. Ten men had two new episodes during the study. The incidence of syphilis in this cohort of men with HIV (predominantly MSM) was very high. In addition to maintaining high surveillance for early diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to implement newer and more effective measures to prevent syphilis and other STIs in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  1. Human umbilical cord-derived endothelial progenitor cells promote growth cytokines-mediated neorevascularization in rat myocardial infarction

    HU Cheng-heng; LI Zhi-ming; DU Zhi-min; ZHANG Ai-xia; YANG Da-ya; WU Gui-fu


    Background Cell-based vascular therapies of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mediated neovascularization is still a novel but promising approach for the treatment of ischemic disease. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potentials of human umbilical cord blood-derived EPCs (hUCB-EPCs) in rat with acute myocardial infarction.Methods Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) mononuclear cells were isolated using density gradient centrifugation from the fresh human umbilical cord in healthy delivery woman, and cultured in M199 medium for 7 days. The EPCs were identified by double-positive staining with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine percholorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (Dil-Ac-LDL) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Ulex europaeus lectin (FITC-UEA-I). The rat acute myocardial infarction model was established by the ligation of the left anterior descending artery. The hUCB-EPCs were intramyocardially injected into the peri-infarct area. Four weeks later, left ventricular function was assessed by a pressure-volume catheter. The average capillary density (CAD) was evaluated by anti-VⅢ immunohistochemistry staining to reflect the development of neovascularization at the peri-infarct area. The graft cells were identified by double immunofluorescence staining with human nuclear antigen (HNA) and CD31 antibody,representing human origin of EPCs and vascular endothelium, respectively. Expressions of cytokines, proliferating cell nuclear angigen (PCNA), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were detected to investigate the underlying mechanisms of cell differentiation and revascularization.Results The donor EPCs were detectable and integrated into the host myocardium as confirmed by double-positive immunofluorescence staining with HNA and CD31. And the anti-VⅢ staining demonstrated a higher degree of microvessel formation in EPCs transplanted

  2. Interaction of some hydrophobic amino acids, peptides, and protein with aqueous 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol and 3-chloro-1-propanol: Biophysical studies

    Keswani, Neelam [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Kishore, Nand, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)


    Research highlights: Thermodynamic properties of amino acids, peptides and protein determined in solution. The solvents chosen were 3-chloropropan-1-ol and 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol. {yields}The results enabled understanding the interactions quantitatively in these systems affecting the protein stability. Fine details of interactions provided in-depth analysis. - Abstract: The apparent molar volume V{sub 2,{phi},} apparent molar isentropic compressibility K{sub S,2,{phi},} and heat of dilution (q) of aqueous glycine, alanine, {alpha}-amino butyric acid, valine, leucine, diglycine, triglycine, and hen egg white lysozyme have been determined in aqueous solutions of 3-chloropropano-1-ol and 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol solutions at T = 298.15 K. These data have been used to calculate the infinite dilution standard partial molar volume V{sub 2,m}{sup 0}, partial molar isentropic compressibility K{sub S,2,m}{sup 0}, and enthalpy of dilution {Delta}{sub dil}H{sup o} of the amino acids and peptides in aqueous 3-chloropropano-1-ol and 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol, and the standard partial molar quantities of transfer of the amino acids and peptides to the aqueous alcohol and diol solutions. The linear correlation of V{sub 2,m}{sup 0} for a homologous series of amino acids has been utilized to calculate the contribution of the charged end groups (NH{sub 3}{sup +},COO{sup -}), CH{sub 2} group and other alkyl chains of the amino acids to the values of V{sub 2,m}{sup 0}. The results on the standard partial molar volumes of transfer, compressibility and enthalpy of dilution from water to aqueous alcohol and diol solutions have been correlated and interpreted in terms of ion-polar, ion-hydrophobic, and hydrophobic-hydrophobic group interactions. The heat of dilution of these amino acids, peptides, and hen egg white lysozyme measured in aqueous solutions of 3-chloropropano-1-ol and 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol by using isothermal titration calorimetry along with the volumetric, compressibility

  3. Türkçe Öğretiminde Metin Antolojisi

    Mehmet Tok


    Full Text Available Türkçe öğretiminde, dil becerilerin geliştirilmesinde kullanılan araçlar metinlerdir. Metinlerin anlamlandırılma süreci, Türkçe dersleri bağlamında ele alındığında yazar, metin ve okur üçgenine dördüncü bir unsur olarak öğretmenler eklenmektedir. Çünkü öğretmenler metnin anlamlandırılma sürecinde rehberlik görevi yaparak öğrenciyi yönlendirmekte, metnin anlamlandırılma sürecinde aktif rol almaktadır. Bu anlamda, öğretmenin zihnindeki metin antolojisisinin genişliği, yapılandırmacı yaklaşımın öngördüğü metinler arası ilişkilendirmenin verimli bir şekilde gerçekleştirilebilmesini sağlayacaktır. Bu çalışmada, XXI. yüzyıl yaşam ve iletişim şartları bağlamında öğretmen, öğrenci ve ders kitaplarının sahip oldukları metin antolojileri tartışılmaktadır. Öğretmenlerin ve ders kitaplarının yalnızca basılı metinleri değil öğrencilerin etrafını kuşatmış olan dijital metinleri (videolar, resimler, internet sayfaları vb. de Türkçe derslerine konu edebilmesi ve bu metinlerle ilişkilendirmeler yapabilmeleri, eğitimin bireyi hayata hazırlama ilkesi ve öğrencilerin zihinlerindeki metin antolojisine okul ortamının yaklaştırabilme adına önemli görülmektedir.


    Rıdvan ÖZTÜRK


    Full Text Available Generally, Afghanistan Turkmen is compatible with Turkmenistan Turkmen. It hasn’t been standardization in literary yet, so it reflects some features its own unique. One of these features is possesive constructions without suffixes. Possesive constructions without suffixes were researched in terms of constituted permanent nouns entitle “goşma noun” (combined noun, compound word in Turkmen language resources. It wasn’t dealed with possesive constructions which did not constitute permanent nouns and was constututed by removing of third person possesive suffix. In this article, it was researched into possesive constructions without suffix determined in Turkmen puplished works in Afghanistan. Afganistan Türkmencesi genel itibariyle Türkmenistan Türkmencesine uygundur. Ancak yazılı geleneğe ve standartlaşmaya henüz geçememiş olması, onun kendisine has bazı sıra dışı özellikleri eselere yansıtmasını sağlamıştır. Bu özelliklerden birisini eksiz ad tamlamaları oluşturmaktadır. Eksiz ad tamlamaları, Türkmence dil bilgisi kaynaklarında “goşma ad” (birleşik ad, birleşik kelime başlığı altında kalıcı adlar oluşturmaları yönü ile incelenmiştir. İyelik üçüncü şahıs ekinin düşürülmesi ile oluşturulan ve kalıcı ad konumuna geçmemiş ad tamlamalarına ise temas edilmemiştir. Bu yazıda, Afganistan Türkmencesi ile yayımlanmış eserlerden tespit ettiğimiz eksiz ad tamlamaları incelenmiştir.

  5. İlköğretim 5. Sınıf Türkçe Ders Kitabındaki Deyim Varlığının Öğrencilerin Alıcı Söz Varlığına Katkısı The Effect of Idioms in Primary Education 5. Grade Turkish Course Book on Students Receptive Vocabulary