Sample records for mature red spruce

  1. Physiological and environmental causes of freezing injury in red spruce

    Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes


    For many, concerns about the implications of "environmental change" conjure up scenarios of forest responses to global warming, enrichment of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, and the northward migration of maladapted forests. From that perspective, the primary focus of this chapter, that is, causes of freezing injury to red spruce (

  2. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations

    Peter F. Newton


    Full Text Available This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant (p≤0.05 relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile. The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands.

  3. Effects of mist acidity and ambient ozone removal on montane red spruce

    Vann, D.R. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology; Strimbeck, D.R.; Johnson, A.H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology


    The effects of acidic mists and ozone on several biochemical and growth parameters in mature montane red spruce were examined. Branch-size environmental chambers were used to introduce mists of controlled composition and to protect selected branches from ambient ozone and acidic mists. Mists of distilled water increased the end-of-season pigment concentration and shoot length of enclosed branches relative to ambient or artificial mists. Needle and twig weights and starch concentrations were not significantly altered by the acidic mist treatments. Removal of ambient ozone had no apparent effect on the variables measured. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 39 refs.

  4. Disturbance and climatic effects on red spruce community dynamics at its southern continuous range margin

    Relena Rose Ribbons


    Full Text Available Red spruce (Picea rubens populations experienced a synchronous rangewide decline in growth and vigor starting in the 1960s, likely caused by climate change and a combination of environmental disturbances. However, it is not yet known if populations continue to decline or have recovered. Red spruce growing near its southern range margin in Massachusetts is a species of concern, in light of the vulnerability to climate change. This study uses population data from 17 permanent plots coupled with tree-ring data to examine radial growth rates, determine the growth-climate relationship, and document disturbance events. Red spruce at these plots ranged from 90 to 184 years old, and comprised 15 to 29 m2/ha basal area. Red spruce seedlings and saplings were common at plots with previously high overstory spruce abundance, indicating it could return to a more dominant position under favorable growing conditions. However, permanent plot measures over a 50 year time span did not indicate any consistent trends for changes in basal area or density for red spruce or other woody species. Climate data show that mean annual minimum, maximum, and summer temperatures have increased over the last 100 years. Dendroclimatological analyses indicated that red spruce growth was sensitive to both temperature and precipitation. Prior to the 1960s, spruce at these sites showed a positive response to precipitation; however after a multi-year drought in the 1960s showed an increasingly negative correlation with precipitation. There has been a negative growth response to regional warming, as spruce radial growth was mostly constrained by increasing temperatures, potentially coupled with the associated increasing drought-dress. I suggest the change in climate response is potentially due to a physiological threshold response to increasing temperatures, which may cause spruce to continue to decline or be lost from the lower elevation sites, while the high elevation sites has a

  5. Site characteristics of red spruce witness tree locations in the uplands of West Virginia, USA

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Michael Strager; James. Rentch


    Knowledge, both of the historical range of spruce-dominated forests and associated site conditions, is needed by land managers to help define restoration goals and potential sites for restoration. We used an existing digital database of witness trees listed in deeds from 1752 to 1899 to compare characteristics of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites...

  6. Interactive effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on growth and physiology of southern red spruce

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Andersen, C.P.; Hanson, P.J.; Norby, R.J.; Edwards, N.T.; Tardiff, R.R.


    Field and laboratory studies are underway to characterize physiologial changes associated with the decline of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) at high elevations in the Great Smocky Mountains National Park. Two research plots have been established on Clingman's Dome at 1720 m and 1935 m elevations to document the magnitude of growth changes at sites experiencing varying degrees of growth decline and to explore the physiological basis of observed differences. The objective is to evaluate likely mechanisms of action and identify natural and anthropogenic factors influencing the observed growth patterns. Field measurements include historical and current radial growth of mature trees and saplings, and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, carbon allocation, and water relations of saplings. Laboratory experiments include dose response exposures with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, toxicity screening studies with Al, Mn, and Ca, and characterization of the foliar uptake and metabolism of nitrogen oxides. 9 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))


    Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were placed in open-top field chambers constructed on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1680 m) to evaluate the effect of ozone and acid cloud deposition on seedling growth and metabolism. Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and an approximate 50% reduction in ambient ozone, (2) ambient ozone with clouds excluded, and (3) exposure to clouds and ambient ozone (control). No differences were detected between chamber treatments for diameter growth, total chlorophyll, chl a and b, chl a/b ratio, and carotenoids. No enhancement of photosynthesis and respiration was seen in exclusion chambers for current and previous year's growth of native seedlings during the growing season. Photosynthesis of Phyton-grown seedlings was consistently higher in exclusion chambers compared to control chambers over the course of the growing season, although differences were not statistically significant. After one growing season, neither pollutant had significant effects on seedling growth and metabolism.

  8. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Filip Oulehle


    Full Text Available We compared two adjacent mature forest ecosystem types (spruce vs. beech to unravel the fate of assimilated carbon (C and the cycling of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N without the risk of the confounding influences of climatic and site differences when comparing different sites. The stock of C in biomass was higher (258 t·ha−1 in the older (150 years beech stand compared to the younger (80 years planted spruce stand (192 t·ha−1, whereas N biomass pools were comparable (1450 kg·ha−1. Significantly higher C and N soil pools were measured in the beech stand, both in forest floor and mineral soil. Cumulative annual CO2 soil efflux was similar among stands, i.e., 9.87 t·ha−1·year−1 of C in the spruce stand and 9.01 t·ha−1·year−1 in the beech stand. Soil temperature explained 78% (Q10 = 3.7 and 72% (Q10 = 4.2 of variability in CO2 soil efflux in the spruce and beech stand, respectively. However, the rather tight N cycle in the spruce stand prevented inorganic N losses, whereas losses were higher in the beech stand and were dominated by nitrate in the mineral soil. Our results highlighted the long-term consequences of forest management on C and N cycling.

  9. Highly informative single-copy nuclear microsatellite DNA markers developed using an AFLP-SSR approach in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (P. rubens.

    Yong-Zhong Shi

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana and red spruce (Picea rubens using a simple but efficient method based on a combination of AFLP and microsatellite technologies.A microsatellite-enriched library was constructed from genomic AFLP DNA fragments of black spruce. Sequencing of the 108 putative SSR-containing clones provided 94 unique sequences with microsatellites. Twenty-two of the designed 34 primer pairs yielded scorable amplicons, with single-locus patterns. Fourteen of these microsatellite markers were characterized in 30 black spruce and 30 red spruce individuals drawn from many populations. The number of alleles at a polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 18, with a mean of 9.3 in black spruce, and from 3 to 15, with a mean of 6.2 alleles in red spruce. The polymorphic information content or expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.340 to 0.909 (mean = 0.67 in black spruce and from 0.161 to 0.851 (mean = 0.62 in red spruce. Ten SSR markers showing inter-parental polymorphism inherited in a single-locus Mendelian mode, with two cases of distorted segregation. Primer pairs for almost all polymorphic SSR loci resolved microsatellites of comparable size in Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, P. sitchensis, and P. abies.The AFLP-based microsatellite-enriched library appears to be a rapid, cost-effective approach for isolating and developing single-locus informative genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce. The markers developed should be useful in black spruce, red spruce and other Picea species for

  10. Third year effects of cloudwater and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States))


    The reduction in growth of high elevation red spruce in the eastern US has been attributed in part to greater exposure to atmospheric pollution which occurs at high elevation. The authors objective was to evaluate the impact of ambient ozone and cloudwater deposition on the growth of red spruce seedlings at a high elevation site. Potted native and Phyton-grown (Phyton Technologies) red spruce seedlings were exposed in open-top field chambers at Whitetop Mountain, Virginia (elevation 1,680) for the third season to treatments of: (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient O{sub 3} (COE), (2) O{sub 3} with clouds excluded (CO), (3) exposure to clouds and O{sub 3}, as control chambers (CC), and (4) open plots (AA). Plant biomass components and diameter increment growth for both seedling types were not affected by treatments. Photosynthesis was not enhanced by removal of cloudwater and O{sub 3}. Respiration (R{sub d}) generally was not affected by treatments; however, R{sub d} in native seedling needles of previous year and two-year previous growth was significantly greater in CC than CO and COE on several sampling dates, indicating that cloudwater and O{sub 3} may be causing higher R{sub d}.

  11. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran


    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  12. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F


    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  13. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases the capacity for stress tolerance and carbon capture in red spruce (Picea rubens) trees during the cold season

    Paul G. Schaberg; Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Joshua M. Halman; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher. Eagar


    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees are uniquely vulnerable to foliar freezing injury during the cold season (fall and winter), but are also capable of photosynthetic activity if temperatures moderate. To evaluate the influence of calcium (Ca) addition on the physiology of red spruce during the cold season, we measured concentrations of foliar...

  14. Experimental versus modelled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies exposed to elevated CO2

    Sebastian eLeuzinger


    Full Text Available Rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behaviour is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO2 concentration, which form the core of global dynamic vegetation models (DGVMs. Here, we provide first results from a free air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m Picea abies (L. (Norway spruce and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO2-treated (550 ppm trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9 and 18 % (at concentrations of 550-700ppm atmospheric CO2, the combined evidence from various methods characterising water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO2 concentrations. The discrepancy between the modelled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could mitigate the first-order stomatal response.

  15. Acid mist and soil Ca and Al alter the mineral nutrition and physiology of red spruce

    Schaberg, P. G.; Murakami, P. F. [Northeastern Research Station, Burlington, VT (United States); Dehayes, D. H.; Hawley, G. J.; Strimbeck, G. R.; Borer, C. H. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Burlington, VT (United States); Cumming, J. R. [West Virginia Univ, Dept. of Biology, Morgantown, WV (United States)


    The effects and potential interactions of acid mist and soil solutions of calcium and aluminium treatments on foliar cation concentrations, membrane-associated calcium leaching, growth, carbon exchange and cold tolerance in red spruce saplings was investigated. Results showed that soil solution calcium addition increased foliar calcium and zinc concentrations and increased the rate of respiration early in the growing season. Soil aluminium treatment reduced foliar concentrations of calcium, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus and zinc, which in turn, produced smaller stem diameters and shoot lengths. On the whole, aluminium -induced alterations in growth or physiology appeared to be independent of foliar calcium status. As a general rule, reduction in cation concentration associated with aluminium addition were greater for pH 5.0-treated saplings than for pH 3.0-treated saplings. This observation led the investigators to conclude that the mechanism underlying acid-induced reductions in foliar cold tolerance in red spruce is hydrogen ion-induced leaching of membrane-associated calcium from mesophyll cells. 93 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison


    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  17. Tradeoffs between hydraulic and mechanical stress responses of mature Norway spruce trunk wood.

    Rosner, Sabine; Klein, Andrea; Müller, Ulrich; Karlsson, Bo


    We tested the effects of growth characteristics and basic density on hydraulic and mechanical properties of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) wood from six 24-year-old clones, grown on two sites in southern Sweden differing in water availability. Hydraulic parameters assessed were specific hydraulic conductivity at full saturation (ks100) and vulnerability to cavitation (Psi50), mechanical parameters included bending strength (sigma b), modulus of elasticity (MOE), compression strength (sigma a) and Young's modulus (E). Basic density, diameter at breast height, tree height, and hydraulic and mechanical parameters varied considerably among clones. Clonal means of hydraulic and mechanical properties were strongly related to basic density and to growth parameters across sites, especially to diameter at breast height. Compared with stem wood of slower growing clones, stem wood of rapidly growing clones had significantly lower basic density, lower sigma b, MOE, sigma a and E, was more vulnerable to cavitation, but had higher ks100. Basic density was negatively correlated to Psi50 and ks100. We therefore found a tradeoff between Psi50 and ks100. Clones with high basic density had significantly lower hydraulic vulnerability, but also lower hydraulic conductivity at full saturation and thus less rapid growth than clones with low basic density. This tradeoff involved a negative relationship between Psi50 and sigma b as well as MOE, and between ks100 and sigma b, MOE and sigma a. Basic density and Psi50 showed no site-specific differences, but tree height, diameter at breast height, ks100 and mechanical strength and stiffness were significantly lower at the drier site. Basic density had no influence on the site-dependent differences in hydraulic and mechanical properties, but was strongly negatively related to diameter at breast height. Selecting for growth may thus lead not only to a reduction in mechanical strength and stiffness but also to a reduction in

  18. Measuring spectral effects of calcium fertilization in the red spruce foliage

    Kessler, W. R.; Rock, B. N.; Hallett, R. A.


    Acidic precipitation has altered biogeochemical cycles in the forests of the Northeastern U.S., and has lead to an interest in the decline symptomology of tree species affected as a result of these changes. For instance, in red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands, leaching losses of calcium (Ca) may hamper root uptake capacities, wood structural properties, and tolerance of low temperature. The Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) is currently the site of a long-term Ca investigation, where an entire watershed was fertilized with wollastonite (CaSiO3) at the rate of 0.12 kg ha-1 in 1999. Preliminary data confirm that Ca-treated spruce foliage is higher in total foliar Ca as compared to foliage from trees in a reference watershed. Total foliar Ca concentration, as well as that of a bound Ca-oxalate pool, increase with needle age class. In order to test the utility of hyperspectral instruments for differentiating conifer stands of varying Ca availability, we used a Visible/Infrared Intelligent Spectrometer to measure reflectance spectra of fresh red spruce needles from trees at both Ca-amended and reference sites. Needles from Ca-amended sites were characterized by higher percent reflectance of incident radiation. Differences in spectral indices of needle health were apparent mostly in mixed-needle-year boughs (MNY), as opposed to current-year (CY), or third-year (3Y) needle classes. The Ca-amended spectra of MNY boughs had an average green peak of 7.32 ± 0.29 percent, while reference samples had a green peak of 6.37 ± 0.20 percent. The Red-edge Inflection Point (REIP) of MNY boughs was lower in Ca-amended than in reference treatments, occurring at 725.7 ± 0.7 nm and 727.3 ± 0.6 nm, respectively. The ratio of simulated Landsat band measurements (TM 5/4) of Ca-treated MNY needles was 0.440 ± 0.007, while that of reference was 0.421 ± 0.008.

  19. Early indications of soil recovery from acidic deposition in U.S. red spruce forests

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Shortle, Walter C.; David, Mark B.; Smith, Kevin T.; Warby, Richard A.F.; Lapenis, Andrei G.


    Forty to fifty percent decreases in acidic deposition through the 1980s and 1990s led to partial recovery of acidified surface waters in the northeastern United States; however, the limited number of studies that have assessed soil change found increased soil acidification during this period. From existing data, it's not clear whether soils continued to worsen in the 1990s or if recovery had begun. To evaluate possible changes in soils through the 1990s, soils in six red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) stands in New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, first sampled in 1992 to 1993, were resampled in 2003 to 2004. The Oa-horizon pH increased (P 42−, which decreased the mobility of Al throughout the upper soil profile. Results indicate a nascent recovery driven largely by vegetation processes.

  20. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies at a dry distribution limit

    Walter eOberhuber


    Full Text Available We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria. Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW, maximum daily shrinkage (MDS and radial growth (RG were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7 and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6 during 2014. ΔW, MDS and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA. Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests.

  1. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    Twelve cuvettes were installed on current year's twigs in the top of the canopy of a 35 years old Norway spruce stand in Denmark. From 10 to 16 hours, six of the cuvettes received 5-60 nl l(-1) ozone in addition to ambient air and six cuvettes received ambient air with a 40% reduced ozone concent...

  2. Effects of aluminum on growth, polyamine metabolism, and inorganic ions in suspension cultures of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Rakesh Minocha; Walter C. Shortle; Daniel J. Jr. Coughin; Subhash C. Minocha


    The influence of age of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspensions on aluminum (Al) effects was studied by adding AICI3 (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) to the media on each day of a 7-day culture period and analyzing for changes in total cell mass, polyamines, arginine decarboxylase activity, and inorganic ions after 24 h of...

  3. Liming effects on the chemical composition of the organic surface layer of a mature Norway spruce stand (Picea abies [L.] Karst.)

    Rosenberg, W.; Nierop, K.G.J.; Knicker, H.; Jager, de P.A.; Kreutzer, K.; Weiá, T.


    The application of lime in a mature Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) forest in southern Germany induced major changes in the activity of soil organisms and root growth. Since this may influence the chemical compostion of the soil organic matter (SOM) of the organic surface layer, its composit

  4. Acidic mist reduces foliar membrane-associated calcium and impairs stomatal responsiveness in red spruce

    Borer, C. H.; DeHayes, D. H. [University of Vermont, Rubinstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, Burlington, VT (United States); Schaberg, P. G. [USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, South Burlington, VT (United States)


    The possibility of impairment of stomatal responsiveness due to acidic mist-induced depletion of foliar membrane calcium (mCa) was investigated by exposing red spruce seedlings to either pH 3.0 or pH 5.0 mist treatments for one growing season. Foliar nutrition was assessed following each treatment, and declines in stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis were measured on current year shoots following stem excision. Seedlings subjected to pH 3.0 acidic mist treatment had reduced mCa, and exhibited impaired stomatal function, including a smaller maximum aperture, slower closure, increased lag time between stomatal closure and photosynthetic decline following experimental water stress, relative to seedling treated with pH 5.0 acidic mist. The evidence supports the hypothesis that anthropogenetically caused depletion of mCa may disrupt physiological processes that depend on foliar Ca, in the process reducing the plants ability to respond adaptively to environmental stresses. 69 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  5. Second year effects of clouds and ozone on red spruce seedlings

    Pier, P.A.; Thornton, F.C.; McDuffie, C. Jr. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (USA))


    Potted native and phyton-grown red spruce seedlings were exposed for a second growing season to ozone and/or acid deposition in open-top field chambers on Whitetop Mountain, VA (elevation 1,680 m). Chamber treatments were (1) exclusion of clouds and 50% reduction in ambient ozone (COE), (2) ozone with clouds excluded (CE), and (3) exposure to clouds and ozone, as control chambers (CO), and (4) open plots (AA). No differences were detected among treatments for biomass accumulation or for chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations. Phyton seedlings in AA and CO treatments maintained high photosynthetic rates through October, whereas rates in CE and COE decreased, suggesting that dormancy and winter hardiness were delayed in AA and CO, possibly making seedlings susceptible to early frosts. Respiration of both seedling types was higher for AA and CO throughout most of the growing season, which could lead to depletion of carbohydrates, and eventually to a reduction in growth and vigor of the seedlings over time due to air pollution.

  6. The effects of acid precipitation and ozone on the ectomycorrhizae of red spruce saplings

    Roth, D.R.; Fahey, T.J. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Natural Resources


    The effects of acid precipitation and ozone on the composition of the ectomycorrhizal community of red spruce saplings were evaluated. In 1986, saplings were excavated from a site in Maine that had been clear-cut in 1979. Saplings were then potted in native soil and transported to Ithaca, New York. With the exception of an ambient control treatment, trees were grown in open-top chambers. Saplings were exposed to five levels of ozone and three levels of acid precipitation beginning in July 1987. Ectomycorrhizae were sampled in 1988 and 1991 after one and four years of treatment, respectively. Although the percentage of root tips infected by ectomycorrhizal fungi was not affected by treatments, a shift in the composition of the ectomycorrhizal community occurred in response to acid precipitation treatments for both sampling years. Among the seven ectomycorrhizal morphotypes identified, the percent composition of one morphotype increased and another decreased in response to higher rain acidity. Alone, ozone treatments did not influence ectomycorrhizal composition however, a significant interactive response to ozone and acid precipitation was observed in the organic soil horizon in 1988. Such shifts in the composition of the ectomycorrhizal community may indicate that the experimental trees were stressed by pollution treatments. 38 refs.

  7. Predicting Effects of Climate Change on Habitat Suitability of Red Spruce (Picea rubens Sarg. in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the USA: Understanding Complex Systems Mechanisms through Modeling

    Kyung Ah Koo


    Full Text Available Alpine, subalpine and boreal tree species, of low genetic diversity and adapted to low optimal temperatures, are vulnerable to the warming effects of global climate change. The accurate prediction of these species’ distributions in response to climate change is critical for effective planning and management. The goal of this research is to predict climate change effects on the distribution of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg. in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP, eastern USA. Climate change is, however, conflated with other environmental factors, making its assessment a complex systems problem in which indirect effects are significant in causality. Predictions were made by linking a tree growth simulation model, red spruce growth model (ARIM.SIM, to a GIS spatial model, red spruce habitat model (ARIM.HAB. ARIM.SIM quantifies direct and indirect interactions between red spruce and its growth factors, revealing the latter to be dominant. ARIM.HAB spatially distributes the ARIM.SIM simulations under the assumption that greater growth reflects higher probabilities of presence. ARIM.HAB predicts the future habitat suitability of red spruce based on growth predictions of ARIM.SIM under climate change and three air pollution scenarios: 10% increase, no change and 10% decrease. Results show that suitable habitats shrink most when air pollution increases. Higher temperatures cause losses of most low-elevation habitats. Increased precipitation and air pollution produce acid rain, which causes loss of both low- and high-elevation habitats. The general prediction is that climate change will cause contraction of red spruce habitats at both lower and higher elevations in GSMNP, and the effects will be exacerbated by increased air pollution. These predictions provide valuable information for understanding potential impacts of global climate change on the spatiotemporal distribution of red spruce habitats in GSMNP.

  8. The ''red'' decline of Norway spruce or ''røde rødgraner'' - is it ammonium overload or top-dying?

    Engvild, K.C.


    In 1989 a new disease “røde rødgraner” or “red” decline of Norway spruce (Picea abies) became a serious problem in plantations in Jutland on poor, sandy soils. Some trees became red and lost their needles over a few years. The reddening started from theshoot tips. The only important pollutant in ....... There was no indication of nitrogen overload. The “red” Norway spruce maysuffer from “top-dying” a common disorder of Norway spruce in Great Britain, believed to be caused by several mild winters in a row. In that case the symptoms should diminish after the very cold winter 1995-96....

  9. Ozone and simulated acid rain effects on growth root hydraulic conductivity, and photosynthesis of red spruce

    Lee, W.S.; Chevone, B.I.; Seiler, J.R.


    Three-year-old red spruce seedlings were exposed to ozone (O/sub 3/) at 0.00 (control) or 0.10 ppm, 4 hr/d, 3 d/wk in combination with simulated rain (pH 3.0 or 5.6, 1 hr/d, 2 d/wk at 0.75 cm/hr) for 10 wks. All seedlings were submitted to two drought cycles after the 10-wk-treatment. O/sub 3/ significantly decreased root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) by 21% after 10 wks across all rain pHs. The reduction of Lp in seedlings treated with O/sub 3/ was enhanced by drought stress. Rain pH alone did not affect Lp during the 10-wks-exposure and drought cycles. However, the O/sub 3/ effect on Lp was more severe at pH 5.6 than at pH 3.0. Rain at pH 3.0 stimulated shoot height growth by 31% compared with pH 5.6 across all O/sub 3/ treatments. However, root, shoot, and total dry weight of seedlings were not changed by any treatments. Neither O/sub 3/ nor rain pH affected net photosynthetic (P/sub i/) response to branch water potential in plants subjected to one or two drought cycles. However, P/sub i/ was less sensitive to water potential after two drought cycles, indicating physiological adjustment to drought stress.

  10. Genetic signatures of natural selection in response to air pollution in red spruce (Picea rubens, Pinaceae).

    Bashalkhanov, Stanislav; Eckert, Andrew J; Rajora, Om P


    One of the most important drivers of local adaptation for forest trees is climate. Coupled to these patterns, however, are human-induced disturbances through habitat modification and pollution. The confounded effects of climate and disturbance have rarely been investigated with regard to selective pressure on forest trees. Here, we have developed and used a population genetic approach to search for signals of selection within a set of 36 candidate genes chosen for their putative effects on adaptation to climate and human-induced air pollution within five populations of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), distributed across its natural range and air pollution gradient in eastern North America. Specifically, we used FST outlier and environmental correlation analyses to highlight a set of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were overly correlated with climate and levels of sulphate pollution after correcting for the confounding effects of population history. Use of three age cohorts within each population allowed the effects of climate and pollution to be separated temporally, as climate-related SNPs (n = 7) showed the strongest signals in the oldest cohort, while pollution-related SNPs (n = 3) showed the strongest signals in the youngest cohorts. These results highlight the usefulness of population genetic scans for the identification of putatively nonneutral evolution within genomes of nonmodel forest tree species, but also highlight the need for the development and application of robust methodologies to deal with the inherent multivariate nature of the genetic and ecological data used in these types of analyses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst].

    Fangqun OuYang

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8% out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49% and hormone signal transduction (8.39%. With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1, AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have

  12. Below-ground carbon allocation in mature beech and spruce trees following long-term, experimentally enhanced O{sub 3} exposure in Southern Germany

    Andersen, Christian P., E-mail: Andersen.christian@epa.go [US Environmental Protection Agency, Western Ecology Division, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Ritter, Wilma [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Gregg, Jillian [Terrestrial Ecosystems Research Associates, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E.E. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Management, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)


    Canopies of adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were labeled with CO{sub 2} depleted in {sup 13}C to evaluate carbon allocation belowground. One-half the trees were exposed to elevated O{sub 3} for 6 yrs prior to and during the experiment. Soil-gas sampling wells were placed at 8 and 15 cm and soil CO{sub 2} was sampled during labeling in mid-late August, 2006. In beech, {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} at both depths decreased approximately 50 h after labeling, reflecting rapid translocation of fixed C to roots and release through respiration. In spruce, label was detected in fine-root tissue, but there was no evidence of label in {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2}. The results show that C fixed in the canopy rapidly reaches respiratory pools in beech roots, and suggest that spruce may allocate very little of recently-fixed carbon into root respiration during late summer. A change in carbon allocation belowground due to long-term O{sub 3} exposure was not observed. - Below-ground carbon allocation in mature beech and spruce exposed to ozone.

  13. A new program of work to conduct research in support of gene conservation, restoration, and proactive deployment of red spruce in light of climate change

    K.H. Johnsen; J.R. Butnor; B.S. Crane


    Red spruce’s (Picea rubens Sarg.) range extends from the southern and central Appalachians north into Vermont and Maine and then to the Canadian Maritime provinces with relic populations as far west as Ontario. Due to heavy logging and resultant severe fires in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and more recent declines related to air pollution and...

  14. Effects of aluminum in red spruce (Picea rubens) cell cultures: Cell growth and viability, mitochondrial activity, ultrastructure and potential sites of intracellular aluminum accumulation

    Rakesh Minocha; Carolyn McQuattie; Wayne Fagerberg; Stephanie Long; Eun Woon Noh


    The effects of Al on red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cell suspension cultures were examined using biochemical, stereo-logical and microscopic methods. Exposure to Al for 24-48 h resulted in a loss of cell viability, inhibition of growth and a significant decrease in mitochondrial activity. Soluble protein content increased in cells treated with Al....

  15. Allocation of recent photoassimilates in mature European beech and Norway spruce - seasonal variability and responses to experimentally increased tropospheric O3 concentration and long-term drought

    Grams, Thorsten


    This contribution summarizes a series of C allocation studies in maturing European beech and Norway spruce trees at Kranzberg Forest, located in southern Germany. Study objects are 60 to 70 year old trees, readily accessible via scaffoldings and canopy crane. Allocation of recently fixed photoassimilates is assessed either by conventional branch-bag labelling with 99 atom% 13CO2 or whole-tree labeling using 13C-depleted CO2 (isoFACE system). While labeling in branch bags, employed for few hours only, focused on phloem functionality in particular under long-term drought, C labeling of whole tree canopies was employed for up to 20 days, studying allocation of recent photoassimilates from the canopy along branches and stems to roots and soils below ground. In all experiments, dynamics of C allocation were mostly pursued assessing carbon isotopic composition of CO2 efflux from woody tissues which typically reflected isotopic composition of phloem sugars. Effects of severe and long-term summer drought are assessed in an ongoing experiment with roughly 100 trees assigned to a total of 12 plots ( Precipitation throughfall was completely excluded since early spring, resulting in pre-dawn leaf water potentials of both beech and spruce up to -2.2 MPa. The hypothesis was tested that long-term drought affects allocation of recently fixed C to branches and phloem functionality. In the annual course under unstressed conditions, phloem transport speed from the canopy to the stem (breast height) was double in beech compared to spruce, with highest transport velocities in early summer (about 0.51 and 0.26 m/h) and lowest in spring (0.26 and 0.12 m/h for beech and spruce, respectively). After leaf flush in spring, growth respiration of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photoassimilates supplied beech stem growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer, whereas seasonality was less pronounced in spruce. The hypothesis that growth

  16. A 6-year-long manipulation with soil warming and canopy nitrogen additions does not affect xylem phenology and cell production of mature black spruce

    Madjelia Cangre Ebou eDAO


    Full Text Available The predicted climate warming and increased atmospheric inorganic nitrogen deposition are expected to have dramatic impacts on plant growth. However, the extent of these effects and their interactions remains unclear for boreal forest trees. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of increased soil temperature and nitrogen (N depositions on stem intra-annual growth of two mature stands of black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] in Quebec, Canada. During 2008-2013, the soil around mature trees was warmed up by 4 °C with heating cables during the growing season and precipitations containing three times the current inorganic N concentration were added by frequent canopy applications. Xylem phenology and cell production were monitored weekly from April to October. The 6-year-long experiment performed in two sites at different altitude showed no substantial effect of warming and N-depositions on xylem phenological phases of cell enlargement, wall thickening and lignification. Cell production, in terms of number of tracheids along the radius, also did not differ significantly and followed the same patterns in control and treated trees. These findings allowed the hypothesis of a medium-term effect of soil warming and N depositions on the growth of mature black spruce to be rejected.

  17. Preliminary Effects of Fertilization on Ecochemical Soil Condition in Mature Spruce Stands Experiencing Dieback in the Beskid Śląski and Żywiecki Mountains, Poland.

    Małek, Stanisław; Januszek, Kazimierz; Keeton, William S; Barszcz, Józef; Kroczek, Marek; Błońska, Ewa; Wanic, Tomasz


    In recent years, there has been the phenomena of spruce dieback in Europe. Significant areas of spruce low mortality now cover both sides of the Polish southern border. We evaluated ecochemical parameters influencing the heavy dieback occurring in mature spruce stands in the Polish Carpathian Mountains. Dolomite, magnesite and serpentinite fertilizers were applied to experimental plots located in 100-year-old stands in the autumn of 2008. The experimental plots were located in the mid-elevational forest zone (900-950 m) on two nappes of the flysch Carpathians: Magura (Ujsoły Forest District) and Silesian (Wisła Forest District). The saturation of the studied soils demonstrates moderate resilience of soils in Wisła Forest District in relation to acid load and high flexibility of the Ujsoły soils. After application of the fertilizers, an increase of Mg, Ca and Mb was noted in the soil solution, determined in the overlaying highly acidic organic horizons through the ion-exchange buffering mechanism of highly protonated functional groups with high buffering capacity. Magnesium concentration increased following fertilization, presenting a potential improvement of forest growth capacity without the hazard of adverse side effects of liming. Aluminium stress in old spruce is unlikely, while trees in the control plots in Wisła Forest District may already be sensitive to aluminium stress. Serpentinite fertilization improved the supply of soils in magnesium without causing significant changes in the pH of the soil. Such changes in the pH were found in dolomite and magnesite fertilizer.

  18. Effect of Heat Treatment Upon the Compression Strength of Black Pine and Spruce – A Comparison Between Wood Originating From Mature Trees Vs. Thinnings

    Cristina OLARESCU


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freetest boards were cut into standard 20x20x60mmsamples for the compression test. The compressionstrength was measured and the rupture mode incompression was analyzed.Therefore, the sampleswere first dried to oven-dry state, then heat-treated athigh temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2, 3 and 4hours. Sets of 10 samples from each wood species,wood assortment and treating regime were tested.The obtained results were comparativelyanalyzed for the two species (pine vs. spruce and forthe two wood assortments (mature wood vs, thinwood. Then they were also expressed relatively tothe mass loss, considered to be the main indiactor ofthe degradation suffered by wood during the heattreatment.A graph was drawn for each species andassortment in order to establish the optimum treatingregime, considering the correlated influence of theheat treatment conditions upon all three analyzedproperties (mass loss, dimensional stability andcompression strength.The results of the present research are to bevalorized at the manufacturing of solid wood panelsmade from heat-treated lamellas.


    Mihaela CAMPEAN


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of anexperimental study performed with black pine (Pinusnigra L. and spruce (Picea abies L. wood, originatingfrom mature trees and thinnings cut from the sameparcel from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania.After air drying and conditioning, the defect-freeboards were cut into standard samples 30x20x20mm.These were first dried to oven-dry state, then heattreatedat high temperatures (180 and 200ºC for 1, 2,3 and 4 hours. Weightings before and after heattreatmentallowed establishing the mass loss. Thetotal linear and volumic swelling coefficients were alsodetermined both for the heat-treated and untreatedsamples, in order to establish the effect of the heattreatmentupon the dimensional stability. The resultswere comparatively analyzed for the two species (pineand spruce, for the two grades (mature and thinwood, in order to establish for each the optimumtreating conditions, namely the ones which allow forthe maximum improvement of the dimensionalstability, without affecting significantly the wood mass(and implicitely the mechanical strengths. The resultsof the present research are to be valorized at themanufacturing of solid wood panels made from heattreatedlamellas

  20. Recovery of red fluorescent protein chromophore maturation deficiency through rational design.

    Matthew M Moore

    Full Text Available Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs derived from organisms in the class Anthozoa have found widespread application as imaging tools in biological research. For most imaging experiments, RFPs that mature quickly to the red chromophore and produce little or no green chromophore are most useful. In this study, we used rational design to convert a yellow fluorescent mPlum mutant to a red-emitting RFP without reverting any of the mutations causing the maturation deficiency and without altering the red chromophore's covalent structure. We also created an optimized mPlum mutant (mPlum-E16P that matures almost exclusively to the red chromophore. Analysis of the structure/function relationships in these proteins revealed two structural characteristics that are important for efficient red chromophore maturation in DsRed-derived RFPs. The first is the presence of a lysine residue at position 70 that is able to interact directly with the chromophore. The second is an absence of non-bonding interactions limiting the conformational flexibility at the peptide backbone that is oxidized during red chromophore formation. Satisfying or improving these structural features in other maturation-deficient RFPs may result in RFPs with faster and more complete maturation to the red chromophore.

  1. Response of aluminum solubility to elevated nitrification in soil of a red spruce stand in eastern Maine

    Lawrence, G.B.; David, M.B.


    Elevated concentrations of soluble Al can impair tree growth and be toxic to aquatic biota, but effects of acidic deposition on Al solubility in forest soils are only partially understood because of complex interactions with H+ and organic matter. We therefore evaluated Al solubility in two red spruce stands in eastern Maine, one of which received dry (NH4)2SO4 at a rate of 1800 equiv ha-1 yr-1 during 19891995. Samples of soil (Spodosol Oa and Bh horizons) and soil solution were collected on five dates from 1992 to 1995. The treatment elevated nitrification, causing an increase in acid input that led to inorganic Al concentrations of greater than 60 ??mol L-1 in both the Oa and Bh horizons. Solubility of Al was also lower in the Bh horizon of the treated stand than in the reference stand, a response related to higher DOC concentrations in the treated stand. Concentrations of CuCl2 and pyrophosphate-extractable Al were higher in the Oa horizon of the treated watershed than the reference stand, a result of accelerated weathering of mineral particles caused by lower solution pH in the treated stand (3.47) than in the reference stand (3.69). Dissolved Al concentrations in these soils are the result of complex mechanisms through which mineral matter, organic matter, and pH interact to control Al solubility; mechanisms that are not incorporated in current Al solubility models.

  2. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    Pretzsch, Hans, E-mail: h.pretzsch@lrz.tum.d [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Dieler, Jochen [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Chair for Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)


    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO{sub 3}) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO{sub 3}). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO{sub 3} caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  3. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R


    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  4. Comparing the impacts of mature spruce forests and grasslands on snow melt, water resource recharge, and run-off in the northern boreal environment

    Jiří Kremsa


    Full Text Available Snow-melt runoff is an important factor in control of flooding and soil erosion in higher and cold regions of the world. In 1992–2008–2008, processes of snow accumulation and melting were monitored at two adjacent sites of the Paljakka environmental research centre (Finland. The forest stand of mature spruce (Picea abies has been compared with adjacent, local, and open grassland. In the forest, snowpack duration fluctuated for 180–245 days, with a maximum depth of 78–152 cm and snow–water content of 167–406 mm, while in the open grassland this occurred for some 20 days less, with maximum depth 65–122 cm, and snow–water content 143–288 mm. The snow–water captured in the canopy reached a maximum 27% of that registered on the ground; the loss of intercepted snow by sublimation was approximately 26% of the annual snowfall. During the high melt period (April–May, the degree-day factor in the forest stand achieved 60% of values observed in the grassland (2.3–3.5 against 3.8–6.0 mm °C−1 day−1. The hydrological model BROOK 90 was employed to analyse potential water resources recharge, and flood risk at Paljakka. Considering the normal climate season, snow-melt runoff from the forest exceeded the grassland by 22% (225 against 185 mm. In extreme situations, the maximum daily runoff from snow-melt in the grasslands (57 mm day−1 exceeded 2.6 times the values in spruce forest (22 mm day−1.

  5. Vitality and chemistry of roots of red spruce in forest floors of stands with a gradient of soil Al/Ca ratios in the northeastern United States

    Wargo, P.M.; Vogt, K.; Vogt, D.; Holifield, Q.; Tilley, J.; Lawrence, G.; David, M.


    Number of living root tips per branch, percent dead roots, percent mycorrhizae and mycorrhizal morphotype, response of woody roots to wounding and colonization by fungi, and concentrations of starch, soluble sugars, phenols, percent C and N and C/N ratio, and Al Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, and P were measured for 2 consecutive years in roots of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) in stands in the northeastern United States (nine in 1993 and two additional in 1994) dominated by red spruce and with a gradient of forest floor exchangeable Al/Ca ratios. Root vitality was measured for nonwoody and coarse woody roots; chemical variables were measured for nonwoody (<1 mm), fine woody (1 to <2 mm), and coarse woody (2 to <5 mm) roots. There were significant differences among sites for all variables, particularly in 1993, although few were related to the Al/Ca ratio gradient. Percent mycorrhizae decreased, while some morphotypes increased or decreased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. In nonwoody roots, N increased as the Al/Ca ratio increased. Most sampled trees appeared to be in good or fair health, suggesting that an adverse response of these root variables to high Al concentrations may be apparent only after a significant change in crown health.

  6. Atmospheric-Biospheric Interactions of Ambient Hydrogen Peroxide: Climatology at MT. Mitchell, N.C., and Transport Into Needles of Red Spruce

    Claiborn, Candis Sue

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important atmospheric photo-oxidant whose ambient concentrations are enhanced by solar radiation, humidity, and low levels of nitrogen oxides, conditions which are observed in the mountainous regions of the southeastern United States. In this work we investigated the role of exposure to atmospheric hydrogen peroxide in the decline of the red spruce forests at Mt. Mitchell. The climatology of atmospheric hydrogen peroxide at this site was investigated in field studies conducted during the growing seasons (May through September) of 1987 and 1988. A second generation exposure chamber was designed and constructed for studying the interactions between reactive gases and plant species. The uptake of gas-phase hydrogen peroxide by whole spruce saplings was measured in this continuously -stirred tank reactor (CSTR)-type chamber. The results of these experiments were interpreted using a mathematical model of the spruce needle and the spruce stomatal zone which was based on the fundamental equations for multicomponent gas diffusion. Gas-phase hydrogen peroxide concentrations at Mt. Mitchell averaged 0.8 and 0.2 ppb in the summer and fall, respectively, and were found to range from the detection limit (~0.1 ppb) to over 4 ppb, making these values comparable to those reported in the literature for similar, remote sites. Cloud water concentrations were found to be comparable to, or higher than, concentrations reported in the literature, and ranged from 0.2 to 219 muM/L (mean 38 muM/L) and from 1.9 to 55 muM/L (mean 17 muM/L) during the summer and fall, respectively. When exposed during uptake experiments to gaseous hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the range of those observed at Mt. Mitchell, the calculated deposition velocity in the chamber was 0.1 and 0.09 cm s^ {-1} for daytime and nighttime exposures, respectively. We hypothesize, from the results of these experiments, that hydrogen peroxide uptake by spruce was not affected by stomatal opening

  7. Disruption of calcium nutrition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (New Hampshire) alters the health and productivity of red spruce and sugar maple trees and provides lessons pertinent to other sites and regions

    Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley


    Pollution-induced acidification and other anthropogenic factors are leaching calcium (Ca) and mobilizing aluminum (Al) in many forest soils. Because Ca is an essential nutrient and Al is a potential toxin, resulting depletions of Ca and increases in available Al may significantly alter the health and productivity of forest trees. Controlled experiments on red spruce (...

  8. Effects of aluminum on organic acid metabolism and secretion by red spruce cell suspension cultures and the reversal of Al effects on growth and polyamine metabolism by exogenous organic acids

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long


    In the absence of added Al, the concentration of succinate in cultured red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) cells was 15-20 times higher (> 600 nmol g-1FW) than that of citrate or oxalate and 4-6 times higher than that of malate. Addition of AICIJ (effective monomeric Al concentrations of 0.23 and 0.48...

  9. Global discovery of erythroid long noncoding RNAs reveals novel regulators of red cell maturation

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Shi, Jiahai; Park, Staphany S; Gromatzky, Austin A; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Lodish, Harvey F


    Erythropoiesis is regulated at multiple levels to ensure the proper generation of mature red cells under multiple physiological conditions. To probe the contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to this process, we examined >1 billion RNA-seq reads of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA fro

  10. Maturation trends in red deer females over 39 years in harvested populations.

    Mysterud, Atle; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Langvatn, Rolf


    1. There is increasing awareness that heavy harvesting can lead to rapid evolution towards earlier sexual maturation. With increased harvest pressure, individuals that begin reproduction at light weights have a greater chance of reproducing at least once compared with individuals that begin reproduction at heavier weights and hence later in life. Although well documented in fish, this has not been empirically tested for harvested populations of mammals in terrestrial ecosystems differing in many environmental aspects. 2. Using data from 3856 female red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) from three harvested populations, we tested whether red deer maturity changed from 1967 to 2006. In these populations, density has increased markedly over the time period reducing body mass of deer, which has decreased the proportion of females maturing as yearlings. We therefore assessed trends in maturation as yearlings after controlling for body mass. Long-lived iteroparous ungulate females are expected to have a prudent life history not risking their future survival and reproduction under harsh conditions (e.g. at high density). An alternative to the harvest-induced evolution hypothesis is that maturation is driven mainly by phenotypic responses to increased density, and we predicted later maturation even after controlling for the reduction in body mass. 3. There was a marked trend towards later age at maturation in one out of three populations (after controlling for the effect of reduced body mass due to increased density), while there was no marked trend in the two other populations. The harvesting-induced evolution hypothesis was therefore not supported. However, although the decline was predicted from the prudent life-history tactic hypothesis, the estimate for the density effect was positive rather than negative after accounting for the year trend. Although we did not find support for the harvest-induced earlier maturation hypothesis, evidence was not clearly in favour of the

  11. A Comparative Study of the Phenolic and Technological Maturities of Red Grapes Grown in Lebanon

    Rajha, Hiba N.; El Darra, Nada; El Kantar, Sally; Hobaika, Zeina; Louka, Nicolas; Maroun, Richard G.


    Grape harvest date is determined according to the technological and phenolic maturities. These parameters were calculated for different red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Cabernet Franc) over four years (2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011) (642 samples). Titratable acidity and sugar content of the grapes were used to determine the technological maturity, whereas Glories (1 and 2) and ITV (Institut Technique de la Vigne et du Vin) methods were used to monitor their phenolic maturity. The ITV method allows the monitoring of phenolic maturity by the quantification of total polyphenol index and anthocyanins, while the Glories method enables the quantitative evolution of extractable anthocyanins and tannins of the grapes. A correlation was shown between the harvest dates obtained by both ITV and Glories (R2 = 0.7 – 0.93). Phenolic maturity of grapes can, therefore, be optimized by the application of both ITV and Glories. Similarly, a correlation was observed between technological and phenolic harvest dates. The effect of climate on the phenolic content of grapes was also studied. The highest temperatures (up to 25 °C) accompanied by the lowest rainfall (null value), induced the maximal concentration of polyphenols in grapes. Thermal and water stresses were also shown to enhance the grapes’ polyphenolic production. PMID:28134785

  12. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. II. Temporal trends and response to varying soil water conditions

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Pressure-volume curves and shoot water potentials were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, Canada. Trees were sampled from a dry site in 1992 and from the dry site and a wet site in 1993. Modulus of elasticity (e ), osmotic potential at...

  13. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype x environment interaction in growth rate. I. Family and site effects over three growing seasons

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John E Major


    Pressure-volume curves were determined for black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families. During the first two years, trees were measured from a plantation on a dry site. In the third year, trees were sampled from the dry site and a wet site. Diurnal measurements of shoot water potential allowed in situ ...

  14. Autophagic vesicles on mature human reticulocytes explain phosphatidylserine-positive red cells in sickle cell disease.

    Mankelow, Tosti J; Griffiths, Rebecca E; Trompeter, Sara; Flatt, Joanna F; Cogan, Nicola M; Massey, Edwin J; Anstee, David J


    During maturation to an erythrocyte, a reticulocyte must eliminate any residual organelles and reduce its surface area and volume. Here we show this involves a novel process whereby large, intact, inside-out phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposed autophagic vesicles are extruded. Cell surface PS is a well-characterized apoptotic signal initiating phagocytosis. In peripheral blood from patients after splenectomy or in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the number of circulating red cells exposing PS on their surface is elevated. We show that in these patients PS is present on the cell surface of red cells in large (∼1.4 µm) discrete areas corresponding to autophagic vesicles. The autophagic vesicles found on reticulocytes are identical to those observed on red cells from splenectomized individuals and patients with SCD. Our data suggest the increased thrombotic risk associated with splenectomy, and patients with hemoglobinopathies is a possible consequence of increased levels of circulating mature reticulocytes expressing inside-out PS-exposed autophagic vesicles because of asplenia.

  15. Global discovery of erythroid long noncoding RNAs reveals novel regulators of red cell maturation.

    Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Hu, Wenqian; Yuan, Bingbing; Shi, Jiahai; Park, Staphany S; Gromatzky, Austin A; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Lodish, Harvey F


    Erythropoiesis is regulated at multiple levels to ensure the proper generation of mature red cells under multiple physiological conditions. To probe the contribution of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to this process, we examined >1 billion RNA-seq reads of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA from differentiating mouse fetal liver red blood cells and identified 655 lncRNA genes including not only intergenic, antisense, and intronic but also pseudogene and enhancer loci. More than 100 of these genes are previously unrecognized and highly erythroid specific. By integrating genome-wide surveys of chromatin states, transcription factor occupancy, and tissue expression patterns, we identify multiple lncRNAs that are dynamically expressed during erythropoiesis, show epigenetic regulation, and are targeted by key erythroid transcription factors GATA1, TAL1, or KLF1. We focus on 12 such candidates and find that they are nuclear-localized and exhibit complex developmental expression patterns. Depleting them severely impaired erythrocyte maturation, inhibiting cell size reduction and subsequent enucleation. One of them, alncRNA-EC7, is transcribed from an enhancer and is specifically needed for activation of the neighboring gene encoding BAND 3. Our study provides an annotated catalog of erythroid lncRNAs, readily available through an online resource, and shows that diverse types of lncRNAs participate in the regulatory circuitry underlying erythropoiesis.

  16. [Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Jia, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Na; Wang, Lin; Cui, Shuang; Ni, Lei; Zhao, Bo-Tao; Wang, Dong-Mei; Gao, Song-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Xin


    Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.

  17. Mature red blood cells: from optical model to inverse light-scattering problem.

    Gilev, Konstantin V; Yurkin, Maxim A; Chernyshova, Ekaterina S; Strokotov, Dmitry I; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Maltsev, Valeri P


    We propose a method for characterization of mature red blood cells (RBCs) morphology, based on measurement of light-scattering patterns (LSPs) of individual RBCs with the scanning flow cytometer and on solution of the inverse light-scattering (ILS) problem for each LSP. We considered a RBC shape model, corresponding to the minimal bending energy of the membrane with isotropic elasticity, and constructed an analytical approximation, which allows rapid simulation of the shape, given the diameter and minimal and maximal thicknesses. The ILS problem was solved by the nearest-neighbor interpolation using a preliminary calculated database of 250,000 theoretical LSPs. For each RBC in blood sample we determined three abovementioned shape characteristics and refractive index, which also allows us to calculate volume, surface area, sphericity index, spontaneous curvature, hemoglobin concentration and content.

  18. Defence reactions of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies before and after inoculation of the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica in a drought stress experiment

    Netherer Sigrid


    Full Text Available We performed an inoculation experiment using the blue-stain fungus Endoconidiophora polonica at the Rosalia Roof study site, which was set up to study drought effects on Norway spruce susceptibility to attacks by the European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. Tree resistance parameters such as resin flow rate and extent of hypersensitive wound reaction in the phloem were investigated prior to and after fungal infection. Sample trees with different drought treatments (trees fully covered or semi-covered by roofs, control trees were inoculated with E. polonica in July 2014. In order to check for areas of phloem necrosis, the outer bark around the inoculation holes was scratched off 6 weeks later. We recorded the amount of resin exudation within 12 hours overnight in August and September 2013 and 2014. Although wound reaction zones did not differ in size between tree collectives of the various treatments, fully covered trees tended to exhibit larger necrotic areas compared to control trees. The least water supplied trees showed lowest resin flow rates prior to fungal inoculation, but were the only group to show significantly enhanced resin flow five weeks after the evaluation of defence reactions. Our results agree with earlier findings that wounding and few fungal inoculations can increase tree resistance in the medium term given not too severe water stress. Further investigations will clarify how water stress affects the availability of non-structural carbohydrates for secondary metabolism, when depletion of resources eventually occurs, and at which point trees are most susceptible to bark beetle attack.

  19. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    Hofer, Nora; Alexou, Maria [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Heerdt, Christian [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Loew, Markus [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Rennenberg, Heinz [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Haberer, Kristine [Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Chair of Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-University, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail:


    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O{sub 3}), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years.

  20. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick


    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  1. Eastern Spruce Dwarf Mistletoe

    F. Baker; Joseph O' Brien; R. Mathiasen; Mike Ostry


    Eastern spruce dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium pusillum) is a parasitic flowering plant that causes the most serious disease of black spruce (Picea mariana) throughout its range. The parasite occurs in the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; in the Lake States of Minnesota,...

  2. A Hero’s Maturation in War--On Henry’s Growth in The Red Badge of Courage



    Stephen Crane is one of the most famous American writers in late 19th century, and his work of art The Red Badge of Courage is an important masterpiece of naturalism in American literary. With the background of American civil war and the depiction of Henry’s personal experiences and psychological changes durin the war, from inocence to maturation, the author reveals the war’s profound inflence on the charactr’s growth. In this novel, the description of war presents readers a bright war scene. It seems as if the novel is writing about war, in fact, it is exploring the relationship between human and environment, for environment can change a person’s action and mind completely. There is no doubt that The Red Badge of Courage is an excellent novel of war.

  3. A Hero’s Maturation in War——On Henry’s Growth in The Red Badge of Courage



    Stephen Crane is one of the most famous American writers in late 19 th century, and his work of art The Red Badge of Courage is an important masterpiece of naturalism in American literary. With the background of American civil war and the depiction of Henry’s personal experiences and psychological changes durin the war, from inocence to maturation, the author reveals the war’s profound inflence on the charactr’s growth. In this novel, the description of war presents readers a bright war scene. It seems as if the novel is writing about war, in fact, it is exploring the relationship between human and environment, for environment can change a person’s action and mind completely. There is no doubt that The Red Badge of Courage is an excellent novel of war.

  4. Effects of feeding grass or red clover silage cut at two maturity stages in dairy cows. 1. Nitrogen metabolism and supply of amino acids.

    Vanhatalo, A; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M


    This study investigated the effects of plant species (red clover vs. timothy-meadow fescue) and forage maturity at primary harvest (early vs. late cut silage) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, and nitrogen metabolism including omasal canal AA flow and plasma AA concentration in lactating cows. Five dairy cows equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a study designed as a 5 x 5 Latin square with 21-d periods. The diets consisted of early-cut and late-cut grass and red clover silage, respectively, and a mixture of late-cut grass and early-cut red clover silages given ad libitum with 9 kg/d of a standard concentrate. Grass silage dry matter intake tended to decrease but that of red clover silages tended to increase with advancing maturity. Milk yields were unchanged among treatments, milk protein and fat concentrations being lower for red clover than for grass silage diets. Rumen fluid pH was unchanged but volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were higher for red clover than for grass silage diets. Intake of N, and omasal canal flows of total nonammonia N (NAN), microbial NAN, and dietary NAN were higher for red clover than for grass silage diets but were not affected by forage maturity. However, microbial NAN flow and amount of N excreted in the feces decreased with advancing maturity for grass diets but increased for red clover diets. Apparent ruminal N degradability of the diets was unchanged, but true ruminal N degradability decreased and efficiency of microbial synthesis increased with red clover diets compared with grass silage diets. Omasal canal flows of AA, except those for Met and Cys, were on average 20% higher for red clover than grass silage diets. Omasal canal digesta concentrations of Leu, Phe, branched-chain, and essential AA were higher but those of Met lower for red clover than for grass silage diets. Plasma AA concentrations, except for His (unchanged) and Met (lower), were higher for red clover than for grass diets. However, none

  5. The mechanism of regulation of ovarian maturation by red pigment concentrating hormone in the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Zeng, Hui; Bao, Chenchang; Huang, Huiyang; Ye, Haihui; Li, Shaojing


    In this study a full-length cDNA (Sp-RPCH) was cloned from the eyestalk ganglia of the mud crab Scylla paramamosain. Sp-RPCH is 660 base pairs in length and its open reading frame encodes a precursor that is predicted to be processed into a 25-residue signal peptide, a mature red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH, an octapeptide), and a 75-residue precursor-related peptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it clusters with other crustacean RPCHs and belongs to the adipokinetic hormone/RPCH peptide superfamily. Sp-RPCH gene expression was detected, using an end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), not only in the eyestalk ganglia but also in the brain and thoracic ganglia. Quantified using a real-time PCR, Sp-RPCH gene expression levels in the three tissues fluctuated along a cycle of ovarian maturation, with the levels progressively increased from stages I to IV, after which the expression levels decreased (although they remained significantly higher than stage I levels) when the ovary reached the mature stage (stage V). It was demonstrated using a patch clamp analysis that synthetic RPCH was able to evoke a Ca(2+) current in dissociated brain neurons and synthetic RPCH significantly increased the mean oocyte diameter of the ovarian tissues co-cultured with the eyestalk ganglia, brain, or thoracic ganglia; the stimulatory effect of RPCH was absent when the nervous tissues were not included in the ovarian incubation. Animals administrated with RPCH had significantly higher levels of gonad-somatic index, hepatopancreas-somatic index, and vitellogenin gene expression, when compared to control animals receiving a saline injection. The combined results clearly show that RPCH is involved in ovarian maturation in the mud crab; the stimulatory effects of RPCH are likely mediated by its actions on the release from the nervous tissues of factor(s) that directly regulate vitellogenesis in the ovary and hepatopancreas.

  6. Growth and Maturation of Plectropomus spp. in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    DesRosiers, Noah


    Two species of plectropomid grouper (Plectropomus areolatus and P. pessuliferus) are found in the Red Sea. In Saudi Arabia these are the most valuable fishes by weight, averaging wholesale prices around US $15 per kilogram (personal observation). Over the past two decades, the number of fishing vessels in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea has tripled. Despite this increase in fishing effort Saudi Arabia has not implemented any marine resource management for Red Sea fisheries. Little biological data are currently available to inform managers. The research presented here addresses knowledge gaps on the growth pattern, longevity and sexual ontogeny of Plectropomus spp. in the Red Sea. Collections of each species were established by purchasing landed individuals from fishermen and fish markets distributed evenly between three latitudinal regions around the country. The total length of each fish was measured to the nearest millimeter. Age was estimated by enumerating annual bands visualized in transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Sexual stage was determined via histological examination of gonadal tissue. Plots of total length versus age were fitted with reparameterized von Bertalanffy growth functions constrained to a size-at-settlement estimate of 20 mm. P. pessuliferus achieved a larger size (maximum 960 mm) and an older age (maximum 19 years) than P. areolatus (maximum size 570 mm, maximum age 9 years). While no regional patterns were found for P. pesuliferus, likelihood ratio tests revealed regional differences in growth pattern for P. areolatus, finding an increasing mean age, increasing mean length, and decreasing growth rate with decreasing latitude. In addition, males of P. areolatus were more abundant in the Southern region. These findings contradict existing theories about the effects of latitudinal temperature gradients on life history. It is hypothesized that the broader continental shelf in the Southern region may be providing a haven for these species in the

  7. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype × environment interaction in growth rate. III. Diurnal patterns as influenced by vapor pressure deficit and internal water status

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Pressure­volume curves were constructed and shoot water potentials measured for +20-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families growing on a moist site and a dry site at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, to determine whether differences in diurnal water relations traits were related to productivity. To...

  8. SPRUCE Mashup London

    Edward M. Corrado


    Full Text Available SPRUCE digital preservation mashups are a series of unique events that are being organized in the United Kingdom to bring together digital preservation practitioners and developers to work on real-world digital preservation challenges. During the 3-day event the digital preservation developers work to create practical solutions to real-world challenges the practitioners are having related to digital preservation. Meanwhile, the practitioners work to create compelling business cases for digital preservation at their institution. This article describes the SPRUCE Mashup London event held in September 2012.

  9. Retention of Mitochondria in Mature Human Red Blood Cells as the Result of Autophagy Impairment in Rett Syndrome.

    Sbardella, Diego; Tundo, Grazia Raffaella; Campagnolo, Luisa; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Orlandi, Augusto; Curatolo, Paolo; Borsellino, Giovanna; D'Esposito, Maurizio; Ciaccio, Chiara; Cesare, Silvia Di; Pierro, Donato Di; Galasso, Cinzia; Santarone, Marta Elena; Hayek, Joussef; Coletta, Massimiliano; Marini, Stefano


    Rett Syndrome (RTT), which affects approximately 1:10.000 live births, is a X-linked pervasive neuro-developmental disorder which is caused, in the vast majority of cases, by a sporadic mutation in the Methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) gene. This is a transcriptional activator/repressor with presumed pleiotropic activities. The broad tissue expression of MeCP2 suggests that it may be involved in several metabolic pathways, but the molecular mechanisms which provoke the onset and progression of the syndrome are largely unknown. In this paper, we report that primary fibroblasts that have been isolated from RTT patients display a defective formation of autophagosomes under conditions of nutrient starvation and that the mature Red Blood Cells of some RTT patients retain mitochondria. Moreover, we provide evidence regarding the accumulation of the p62/SQSTM1 protein and ubiquitin-aggregated structures in the cerebellum of Mecp2 knockout mouse model (Mecp2 (-/y) ) during transition from the non-symptomatic to the symptomatic stage of the disease. Hence, we propose that a defective autophagy could be involved in the RTT clinical phenotype, which introduces new molecular perspectives in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  10. Soil-mediated effects of atmospheric deposition on eastern US spruce-fir forests. Book chapter

    Johnson, D.W.; Fernandez, I.J.


    The coincident observation of Waldsterben in Germany and red spruce decline in the northeastern U.S. has naturally led to some speculation that similar mechanisms may be involved. In the German situation, soil-mediated hypotheses played (and still play) a major role; namely, soil acidification and aluminum toxicity and base cation deficiencies. In the red spruce case, there has been much concern that cation deficiencies and/or aluminum toxicity may also play a major role. The purpose of this chapter is to: (1) review some of the basic properties of soils, nutrition, and nutrient cycling in spruce-fir and fir ecosystems, both in the polluted and in the relatively unpolluted regions of the U.S. and Canada, and (2) to evaluate several soil acidity-related hypotheses for red spruce decline.

  11. Reproductive barriers and hybridity in two spruces, Picea rubens and Picea mariana, sympatric in eastern North America

    John E. Major; Alex Mosseler; Kurt H. Johnsen; Om P. Rajora; Debby C. Barsi; K.-H. Kim; J.-M. Park; Moira Campbell


    Hybridization between red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), lateand early-successional species, respectively, has resulted in identification and management problems. We investigated the nature and magnitude of reproductive and life-cycle success barriers in controlled intra- and inter-...

  12. Spruce beetle-induced changes to Engelmann spruce foliage flammability

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon


    Intermountain Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm) stands affected by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) represent a unique and growing fuel complex. In this study, we quantified and compared the changes in moisture content, chemistry, and flammability of foliage from trees in three crown condition classes: unattacked (green [G]),...

  13. SPRUCE experiment data infrastructure

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Boden, T.; Riggs, J.; Nettles, W. R.; Hook, L. A.


    The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA has provided scientific data management support for the US Department of Energy and international climate change science since 1982. Among the many data activities CDIAC performs are design and implementation of the data systems. One current example is the data system and network for SPRUCE experiment. The SPRUCE experiment ( is the primary component of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Science Scientific Focus Area of ORNL's Climate Change Program, focused on terrestrial ecosystems and the mechanisms that underlie their responses to climatic change. The experimental work is to be conducted in a bog forest in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The site is located at the southern margin of the boreal peatland forest. Experimental work in the 8.1-ha S1 bog will be a climate change manipulation focusing on the combined responses to multiple levels of warming at ambient or elevated CO2 (eCO2) levels. The experiment provides a platform for testing mechanisms controlling the vulnerability of organisms, biogeochemical processes and ecosystems to climatic change (e.g., thresholds for organism decline or mortality, limitations to regeneration, biogeochemical limitations to productivity, the cycling and release of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere). The manipulation will evaluate the response of the existing biological communities to a range of warming levels from ambient to +9°C, provided via large, modified open-top chambers. The ambient and +9°C warming treatments will also be conducted at eCO2 (in the range of 800 to 900 ppm). Both direct and indirect effects of these experimental perturbations will be analyzed to develop and refine models needed for full Earth system analyses. SPRUCE provides wide range continuous and discrete measurements. To successfully manage SPRUCE data flow

  14. Does the orientation of Norway spruce (Picea abies /L./ Karst.) branches within sunlit crown part influence the heterogeneity of biochemical, structural and spectral characteristics of needles?

    Lhotáková, Z.; Albrechtová, J.; Malenovsky, Z.; Rock, B.N.; Polák, T.; Cudlín, P.


    The goal of this study was to determine if selected biochemical, structural and spectral properties of Norway spruce needles are influenced by the azimuth orientation of the branch. Three youngest needle age classes from 20 mature (100 years old or older) Norway spruce trees were sampled from upper

  15. Mice and voles prefer spruce seeds

    Herschel G. Abbott; Arthur C. Hart


    When spruce-fir stands in the Northeast are cut, balsam fir seedlings often predominate in the regeneration that follows. Most landowners would prefer to have the spruce; but they do not get it, and they wonder why.

  16. In vitro large scale production of human mature red blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells by coculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells.

    Xi, Jiafei; Li, Yanhua; Wang, Ruoyong; Wang, Yunfang; Nan, Xue; He, Lijuan; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Pei, Xuetao


    In vitro models of human erythropoiesis are useful in studying the mechanisms of erythroid differentiation in normal and pathological conditions. Here we describe an erythroid liquid culture system starting from cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). HSCs were cultured for more than 50 days in erythroid differentiation conditions and resulted in a more than 10(9)-fold expansion within 50 days under optimal conditions. Homogeneous erythroid cells were characterized by cell morphology, flow cytometry, and hematopoietic colony assays. Furthermore, terminal erythroid maturation was improved by cosculturing with human fetal liver stromal cells. Cocultured erythroid cells underwent multiple maturation events, including decrease in size, increase in glycophorin A expression, and nuclear condensation. This process resulted in extrusion of the pycnotic nuclei in up to 80% of the cells. Importantly, they possessed the capacity to express the adult definitive β -globin chain upon further maturation. We also show that the oxygen equilibrium curves of the cord blood-differentiated red blood cells (RBCs) are comparable to normal RBCs. The large number and purity of erythroid cells and RBCs produced from cord blood make this method useful for fundamental research in erythroid development, and they also provide a basis for future production of available RBCs for transfusion.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of light scattering by individual mature red blood cells by use of scanning flow cytometry and discrete dipole approximation

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Tarasov, Peter A; Chernyshev, Andrei V; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P


    Elastic light scattering by mature red blood cells (RBCs) was theoretically and experimentally analyzed with the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and the scanning flow cytometry (SFC), respectively. SFC permits measurement of angular dependence of light-scattering intensity (indicatrix) of single particles. A mature RBC is modeled as a biconcave disk in DDA simulations of light scattering. We have studied the effect of RBC orientation related to the direction of the incident light upon the indicatrix. Numerical calculations of indicatrices for several aspect ratios and volumes of RBC have been carried out. Comparison of the simulated indicatrices and indicatrices measured by SFC showed good agreement, validating the biconcave disk model for a mature RBC. We simulated the light-scattering output signals from the SFC with the DDA for RBCs modeled as a disk-sphere and as an oblate spheroid. The biconcave disk, the disk-sphere, and the oblate spheroid models have been compared for two orientations, i.e. face-o...

  18. Primary succession and dynamics of Norway spruce coastal forests on land-uplift ground moraine

    Svensson, J.S.; Jeglum, J.K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept of Forest Ecology


    This paper is an overview of primary succession on the rising coastlines of the Gulf of Bothnia, which emphasises Norway spruce succession and forest development and identifies topics for research. It is concluded that continuing postglacial rebound provides excellent successional sequences, and an exceptional opportunity to add new and important knowledge on original forest ecosystem development. First, long-term undisturbed forest seres, terminating in climax-like Norway spruce forest, exist. Secondly, a well-stocked, old growth spruce forest can develop on the (generally) fairly productive mesic ground-moraine sites in a short ecological time. Thirdly, undisturbed successional sequences, which go back to original soil formation, permit reconstruction of ecosystems' developmental history. Fourthly, the relationship between ground elevation and land-uplift rate facilitates estimates of ground age, and consequently permits a four-dimensional study approach. Fifthly, in view of extensive anthropogenic influence in boreal Fennoscandian forests, the few remaining natural spruce forests should be recognised and carefully documented. From our review of the literature, we conclude that present knowledge of the succession of Norway spruce on emerging shorelines, and the part played by land uplift and other factors, is fragmentary. Attention should be given to initial spruce seedling colonisation relative to factors such as sea-water level, exposure (winds, fetch), parent material, seedbed types, potential seed source (isolation), and island size. Possible multiple pathways of Norway spruce primary succession relative to temporal changes in exposure and other factors, have so far received little research effort. Attention also should be paid to the response of spruce populations to site maturation, i.e. to increasing ground age based on land-uplift rate and elevation above sea level. Finally, attention should be paid to autogenic processes in spruce-dominated stages

  19. A novel ENU-mutation in ankyrin-1 disrupts malaria parasite maturation in red blood cells of mice.

    Andreas Greth

    Full Text Available The blood stage of the plasmodium parasite life cycle is responsible for the clinical symptoms of malaria. Epidemiological studies have identified coincidental malarial endemicity and multiple red blood cell (RBC disorders. Many RBC disorders result from mutations in genes encoding cytoskeletal proteins and these are associated with increased protection against malarial infections. However the mechanisms underpinning these genetic, host responses remain obscure. We have performed an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis screen and have identified a novel dominant (haploinsufficient mutation in the Ank-1 gene (Ank1(MRI23420 of mice displaying hereditary spherocytosis (HS. Female mice, heterozygous for the Ank-1 mutation showed increased survival to infection by Plasmodium chabaudi adami DS with a concomitant 30% decrease in parasitemia compared to wild-type, isogenic mice (wt. A comparative in vivo red cell invasion and parasite growth assay showed a RBC-autonomous effect characterised by decreased proportion of infected heterozygous RBCs. Within approximately 6-8 hours post-invasion, TUNEL staining of intraerythrocytic parasites, showed a significant increase in dead parasites in heterozygotes. This was especially notable at the ring and trophozoite stages in the blood of infected heterozygous mutant mice compared to wt (p<0.05. We conclude that increased malaria resistance due to ankyrin-1 deficiency is caused by the intraerythrocytic death of P. chabaudi parasites.

  20. Role of far infra-red therapy in dialysis arterio-venous fistula maturation and survival: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Khalid Bashar

    Full Text Available A well-functioning arteriovenous fistula (AVF is the best modality for vascular access in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD requiring haemodialysis (HD. However, AVFs' main disadvantage is the high rate of maturation failure, with approximately one third (20%-50% not maturing into useful access. This review examine the use of Far-Infra Red therapy in an attempt to enhance both primary (unassisted and secondary (assisted patency rates for AVF in dialysis and pre-dialysis patients.We performed an online search for observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs that evaluated FIR in patients with AVF. Eligible studies compared FIR with control treatment and reported at least one outcome measure relating to access survival. Primary patency and secondary patency rates were the main outcomes of interest.Four RCTs (666 patients were included. Unassisted patency assessed in 610 patients, and was significantly better among those who received FIR (228/311 compared to (185/299 controls (pooled risk ratio of 1.23 [1.12-1.35], p = 0.00001. In addition, the two studies which reported secondary patency rates showed significant difference in favour of FIR therapy--160/168 patients--compared to 140/163 controls (pooled risk ratio of 1.11 [1.04-1.19], p = 0.003.FIR therapy may positively influence the complex process of AVF maturation improving both primary and secondary patency rates. However blinded RCTs performed by investigators with no commercial ties to FIR therapy technologies are needed.

  1. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone


    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  2. Effect of seedbed preparation on natural reproduction of spruce and hemlock under dense shade

    Grant Davis; Arthur C. Hart


    The cutting practices commonly recommended for spruce-fir stands in the Northeast involve uneven-aged management. The success of this type of management is predicated upon stand structures that have a range of size classes from seedlings to mature trees in intimate mixture. This kind of stand structure requires a continuous supply of reproduction of desirable species....

  3. Finders keepers, losers weepers - drought as a modifier of competition between European beech and Norway spruce -

    Goisser, Michael; Blanck, Christian; Geppert, Uwe; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E. E.


    Mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) frequently reflect over-yielding, when compared to respective monospecific stands. Over-yielding is attributed to enhanced resource uptake efficiency through niche complementarity alleviating species competition. Under climate change, however, with severe and frequent summer drought, water limitation may become crucial in modifying the competitive interaction between neighboring beech and spruce trees. In view of the demands by silvicultural practice, basic knowledge from experimental field work about competitive versus facilitative interaction in maturing mixed beech-spruce forests is scarce. To this end, we investigate species-specific drought response including underlying mechanisms of species interaction in a maturing group-wise mixed beech-spruce forest, amongst 60 and 53 adult trees of beech and spruce, respectively (spruce 65 ± 2, beech 85 ± 4 years old). Severe and repeated experimental drought is being induced over several years through a stand-scale approach of rain throughfall exclusion (Kranzberg Forest Roof Experiment, KROOF). The experimental design comprises 6 roofed (E, automated, closing only during rain) and 6 control (C) plots with a total area of almost 1800 square meters. In 2015 minimum predawn potentials of -2.16 MPa and -2.26 MPa were reached in E for beech and spruce respectively. At the leaf level, spruce displayed high drought susceptibility reflected by a distinct decrease in both stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 80% each, suggesting isohydric response. Beech rather displayed anisohydry indicated by less pronounced yet significant reduction of stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 55% and 45%, respectively. Under the C regime, a negative species interaction effect on stomatal conductance was found in beech, contrasting with a positive effect in spruce. However, drought reversed the effect of

  4. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green and red fruits of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity.

  5. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav


    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O{sub 3} level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O{sub 3} levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species.

  6. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Thelin, Gunnar


    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  7. Experimental warming delays autumn senescence in a boreal spruce bog: Initial results from the SPRUCE experiment

    Richardson, Andrew; Furze, Morgan; Aubrecht, Donald; Milliman, Thomas; Nettles, Robert; Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul


    Phenology is considered one of the most robust indicators of the biological impacts of global change. In temperate and boreal regions, long-term data show that rising temperatures are advancing spring onset (e.g. budburst and flowering) and delaying autumn senescence (e.g. leaf coloration and leaf fall) in a wide range of ecosystems. While warm and cold temperatures, day length and insolation, precipitation and water availability, and other factors, have all been shown to influence plant phenology, the future response of phenology to rising temperatures and elevated CO2 still remains highly uncertain because of the challenges associated with conducting realistic manipulative experiments to simulate future environmental conditions. At the SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change) experiment in the north-central United States, experimental temperature (0 to +9° C above ambient) and CO2 (ambient and elevated) treatments are being applied to mature, and intact, Picea mariana-Sphagnum spp. bog communities in their native habitat through the use of ten large (approximately 12 m wide, 10 m high) open-topped enclosures. We are tracking vegetation green-up and senescence in these chambers, at both the individual and whole-community level, using repeat digital photography. Within each chamber, digital camera images are recorded every 30 minutes and uploaded to the PhenoCam ( project web page, where they are displayed in near-real-time. Image processing is conducted nightly to extract quantitative measures of canopy color, which we characterize using Gcc, the green chromatic coordinate. Data from a camera mounted outside the chambers (since November 2014) indicate strong seasonal variation in Gcc for both evergreen shrubs and trees. Shrub Gcc rises steeply in May and June, and declines steeply in September and October. By comparison, tree Gcc rises gradually from March through June, and declines gradually from

  8. Saproxylic and non-saproxylic beetle assemblages in boreal spruce forests of different age and forestry intensity.

    Stenbacka, Fredrik; Hjältén, Joakim; Hilszczański, Jacek; Dynesius, Mats


    Current clear-cutting forestry practices affect many boreal organisms negatively, and those dependent on dead wood (saproxylics) are considered as particularly vulnerable. The succession of species assemblages in managed forest habitats regenerating after clear-cutting is, however, poorly known. We compared beetle assemblages in three successional stages of managed boreal spruce forests established after clear-cutting and two types of older spruce forests that had not been clear-cut. We also assessed whether saproxylic and non-saproxylic beetle assemblages show similar biodiversity patterns among these forest types. Beetles were collected in window traps in nine study areas, each encompassing a protected old-growth forest (mean forest age approximately 160 years, mean dead wood volume 34 m3/ha), an unprotected mature forest (approximately 120 years old, 15 m3/ha), a middle-aged commercially thinned forest (53 years old, 3 m3/ha), a young unthinned forest (30 years old, 4 m3/ha), and a clearcut (5-7 years after harvest, 11 m3/ha). Saproxylic beetles, in particular red-listed species, were more abundant and more species rich in older forest types, whereas no significant differences among forest types in these variables were detected for non-saproxylics. The saproxylic assemblages were clearly differentiated; with increasing forest age, assemblage compositions gradually became more similar to those of protected old-growth forests, but the assemblage composition in thinned forests could not be statistically distinguished from those of the two oldest forest types. Many saproxylic beetles adapted to late-successional stages were present in thinned middle-aged forests but absent from younger unthinned forests. In contrast, non-saproxylics were generally more evenly distributed among the five forest types, and the assemblages were mainly differentiated between clearcuts and forested habitats. The saproxylic beetle assemblages of unprotected mature forests were very similar

  9. Forest dynamics after successive spruce budworm outbreaks in mixedwood forests.

    Bouchard, Mathieu; Kneeshaw, Daniel; Bergeron, Yves


    In order to assess the long-term spatiotemporal influence of the spruce budworm in sub-boreal mixedwood forests, we studied the effect of three successive outbreaks in a region of western Quebec, Canada. We used dendrochronology to detect past outbreaks in three areas (111-185 ha), based on the recruitment age of balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and on growth patterns of white spruce (Picea glauca), the two main host species of this defoliating insect. We also used a series of aerial photographs taken between 1935 and 2003 to evaluate overstory mortality and post-outbreak succession patterns in these same areas. Individual outbreaks had a spatially homogenous impact on host species throughout the region, but successive outbreaks differed in intensity: the two outbreaks around 1910 and 1980 caused widespread mortality in the overstory, but an outbreak around 1945 had little impact, probably because the forest mosaic had not yet recuperated from the 1910 outbreak. No clear outbreak was detected in the later part of the 19th century. In portions of the study areas where the 1910 outbreak had a major impact, between 36% and 50% of the stands were reoccupied by balsam fir stands in the period up to the 1980 outbreak (cyclic succession), the rest being at least partly replaced by nonhost species such as Betula spp. Changes in forest composition after the 1910 outbreak were mostly associated with upper-slope positions in all study areas. The 1980 outbreak also had a higher impact than earlier outbreaks in lower-slope positions dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana)-balsam fir mixtures. These results suggest that, at the regional scale, the abundance of mature or over-mature balsam fir stands does not determine the outbreak cycle. When an outbreak occurs, however, its impact will be strongly constrained by forest characteristics such as stand composition and structure, which are themselves influenced by previous disturbances and slope position.

  10. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    Nikolova, Petia S., E-mail: nikolova@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan Center of Life and Food Sciences, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Andersen, Christian P. [Western Ecology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis, OR 97333 (United States); Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Weihenstephan Center of Life and Food Sciences, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)


    The effects of experimentally elevated O{sub 3} on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta{sup 13}C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O{sub 3} under beech and spruce, and was related to O{sub 3}-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O{sub 3} on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O{sub 3} regime. delta{sup 13}C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g{sub s} of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O{sub 3} in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O{sub 3} effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  11. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.


    to moisture uptake, microbiological decay and easy to comminute into small particles. The present study focused on the pelletizing properties of spruce torrefied at 250, 275 and 300 °C. The changes in composition were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and chemical analysis. The pelletizing properties......, with hemicelluloses being most sensitive to thermal degradation. The chemical changes had a negative impact, both on the pelletizing process and the pellet properties. Torrefaction resulted in higher friction in the press channel of the pellet press and low compression strength of the pellets. Fracture surface...

  12. Long-term landscape changes in a subalpine spruce-fir forest in central Utah, USA

    Jesse L. Morris1


    Full Text Available Background: In Western North America, increasing wildfire and outbreaks of native bark beetles have been mediated by warming climate conditions. Bioclimatic models forecast the loss of key high elevation species throughout the region. This study uses retrospective vegetation and fire history data to reconstruct the drivers of past disturbance and environmental change. Understanding the relationship among climate, antecedent disturbances, and the legacy effects of settlement-era logging can help identify the patterns and processes that create landscapes susceptible to bark beetle epidemics. Methods: Our analysis uses data from lake sediment cores, stand inventories, and historical records. Sediment cores were dated with radiometric techniques (14C and 210Pb/137Cs and subsampled for pollen and charcoal to maximize the temporal resolution during the historical period (1800 CE to present and to provide environmental baseline data (last 10,500 years. Pollen data for spruce were calibrated to carbon biomass (C t/ha using standard allometric equations and a transfer function. Charcoal samples were analyzed with statistical models to facilitate peak detection and determine fire recurrence intervals. Results: The Wasatch Plateau has been dominated by Engelmann spruce forests for the last ~10,500 years, with subalpine fir becoming more prominent since 6000 years ago. This landscape has experienced a dynamic fire regime, where burning events are more frequent and of higher magnitude during the last 3000 years. Two important disturbances have impacted Engelmann spruce in the historical period: 1 high-grade logging during the late 19th century; and (2 a high severity spruce beetle outbreak in the late 20th century that killed >90 % of mature spruce (>10 cm dbh. Conclusions: Our study shows that spruce-dominated forests in this region are resilient to a range of climate and disturbance regimes. Several lines of evidence suggest that 19th century logging

  13. Body weights in grey and red squirrels: do seasonal weight increases occur in conifer woodland?

    Lurz, P.W.W.; Lloyd, A.J.


    Seasonal body weight changes were investigated in red and grey squirrels in spruce-dominated conifer plantations in the north of England. Annual seed food availability, particularly in the spruce plantations, varies markedly and is characterized by years with large cone crops (‘mast crops’) followed

  14. Impacts of fire on non-native plant recruitment in black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Conway, Alexandra J.; Jean, Mélanie


    Climate change is expected to increase the extent and severity of wildfires throughout the boreal forest. Historically, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests in interior Alaska have been relatively free of non-native species, but the compounding effects of climate change and an altered fire regime could facilitate the expansion of non-native plants. We tested the effects of wildfire on non-native plant colonization by conducting a seeding experiment of non-native plants on different substrate types in a burned black spruce forest, and surveying for non-native plants in recently burned and mature black spruce forests. We found few non-native plants in burned or mature forests, despite their high roadside presence, although invasion of some burned sites by dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) indicated the potential for non-native plants to move into burned forest. Experimental germination rates were significantly higher on mineral soil compared to organic soil, indicating that severe fires that combust much of the organic layer could increase the potential for non-native plant colonization. We conclude that fire disturbances that remove the organic layer could facilitate the invasion of non-native plants providing there is a viable seed source and dispersal vector. PMID:28158284

  15. Old lower stem bark lesions apparently caused by unsuccessful spruce beetle attacks still evident on live spruce trees years later

    John S. Hard; Ken P. Zogas


    We examined old bark lesions on Lutz spruce in young stands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to determine their cause. Distribution of these lesions along lower stems was similar to the distribution of spruce beetle attacks during epidemics. These lesions apparently resulted from unsuccessful attacks by spruce beetles during the late 1980s and early 1990s and appear to...

  16. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Michael J. Jenkins


    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.


    Y. B. Awang


    Full Text Available Fruits harvested at different maturity possess different biochemical constituents and physiological properties that make the fruits may react somewhat differently to the postharvest treatment. A study to examine the activity of Polygalacturonase (PG and Pectin Methylesterase (PME enzymes during storage in dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus harvested at 28 days (Index 3 and 34 days (Index 5 after anthesis and postharvest treated with 0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g L-1 CaCl2 was performed. The PG activity was lower in younger fruit and vice-versa for PME activity. Increasing concentration of CaCl2 effectively reduced the activity of both enzymes. PG activity for fruit treated with 0, 5 and 7.5 g L-1 CaCl2 increased linearly with the time of storage while its activity for the fruit treated with 2.5 g L-1 CaCl2 was lower at the beginning of storage. PG activity of Index 5 fruits increased almost linearly during storage while its activity in Index 3 fruits was low at the early days of storage and later continued to increase until day seven. At both maturity indices, the PME activity was low at the early days of storage and later continued to increase until day seven. Overall, results obtained indicated that CaCl2 postharvest treatment reduced both PME and PG activities thus slowing down the softening process giving an evident that calcium possess a distinguishable role in the reducing softening of fruit, regardless of maturity index.

  18. The ultrastructure of the mature embryo sac in the natural tetraploid of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.: that has a very low rate of seed formation

    Gönül Algan


    Full Text Available In this study, ultrastructural organization of cells in the mature embryo sac of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. was investigated. The mature embryo sac of this plant contains an egg cell with two synergids at the micropylar end, and a central cell with two polar nuclei. The ultrastructure of these cells agrees with what is known for most angiosperms studied with the electron microscope. The egg cell is a large and highly vacuolate cell, partially surrounded by a wall. Much of the cytoplasm is located around the nucleus at the chalazal end and there are few numbers of channel-shaped endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids and numerous ribosomes distributed throughout the cytoplasm. Unlike the egg cell, much of the cytoplasm in synergid cells is located at micropylar part of the cell and the synergid cytoplasm contains especially, large numbers of rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, mitochondria and plastids. The central cell of T. pratense L. contains two large polar nuclei which lie close to the egg apparatus. Each polar nucleus has a single, large, dense nucleolus that contains several nucleolar vacuoles. Much of the central cell cytoplasm consisting of granular and agranular endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes, dictyosomes and lipid bodies are placed around polar nuclei.

  19. Disturbance and climate signal in Norway spruce and European larch dendrochronological series

    Střelcová, Katarína; Fleischer, Peter, Jr.; Fleischer, Peter, Sr.; Holeksa, Jan; Zelo, Tomas; Vido, Jaroslav


    Norway spruce and European larch, dominant natural tree species in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia), might be seriously threatened by projected climate change and intensified disturbance regime. Regional climate change scenarios project +2 °C increases in the 2050-2070 period and relatively stable precipitation regime when compared to long term normal. Such a climate change might shift both species on the edge of their bioclimatological conditions. Tree ring width is a good indicator of climate and disturbance impact on tree growth. The aim of our study was to identify abrupt growth changes indicating climatological stress on spruce and larch. We analysed local historical meteorological data (1890-2016) to reveal occurrence of such events in past. We hypothesize that number of stress days is increasing as a consequence of changing climate. Using band dendrometers we identified growth changes on five mature spruce and five larch trees during the 2008-2016 period. Each specific growth period was characterized by set of climatological parameters and indexes. Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and rate of photosynthesis (GPP) coincided well with abrupt growth decline, indicating physiological stress. These stress stimulating conditions were identified in past along historical climate records and verified on two-hundred tree cross sections. We applied combined step and trend intervention detection (CSTID) method for minimizing the effects of disturbance in tree ring width chronologies and enhance the climate signals.

  20. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.


    ... Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft... or red color. (c) Hard ripe, when the tomato shows three-fourths or more of the surface in the aggregate covered with pink or red color. (d) Firm ripe, when the tomato shows three-fourths or more of...

  1. Parallel reductions in stomatin and Na,K-ATPase through the exosomal pathway during reticulocyte maturation in dogs: stomatin as a genotypic and phenotypic marker of high K(+) and low K(+) red cells.

    Komatsu, Tomohiko; Sato, Kota; Otsuka, Yayoi; Arashiki, Nobuto; Tanaka, Kohei; Tamahara, Satoshi; Ono, Ken-ichiro; Inaba, Mutsumi


    Dogs can be divided into two genetic groups (a minor HK phenotype and a major LK phenotype) based on erythrocyte monovalent cation concentrations, which are controlled by the putative hk and lk allelic genes. HK dogs retain Na,K-ATPase in their erythrocytes due to the high activity of the enzyme in their precursor cells, whereas total loss of reticulocyte Na,K-ATPase occurs in LK dogs. Here, we report that the levels of the lipid raft-associated membrane protein stomatin decrease in parallel with those of Na,K-ATPase during reticulocyte maturation due to its extrusion in exosomes. The stomatin content of HK reticulocytes is higher than that of LK reticulocytes, and remains in the erythrocytes at levels compatible with that in human erythrocytes. However, it is almost absent from LK erythrocytes with the lk/lk genotype; similar to the deficiency seen in human red cells with overhydrated stomatocytosis. LK erythrocytes from hk/lk genotype dogs show reduced, but not negligible, levels of stomatin. These results indicate that the erythrocyte stomatin level is a suitable genotypic marker for the HK/LK red cell phenotype, and suggests a functional association between stomatin and Na,K-ATPase. The absence of morphological abnormalities in the erythrocytes of stomatin-deficient LK dogs also confirms that stomatin deficiency and stomatocytic shape change are independent from each other.

  2. Bioprotection of Spruce Logs Against Sapstain Using an Albino Strain of Ceratocystis resinifera.

    Morin, Chantal; Tanguay, Philippe; Breuil, Colette; Yang, Dian-Qing; Bernier, Louis


    ABSTRACT We recovered a spontaneous albino strain from ascospores of Ceratocystis resinifera, a sapstain fungus that grows deeply and rapidly in freshly felled conifer trees. This albino strain, named Kasper, was tested for its ability to prevent discoloration of spruce sapwood caused by wild-type sapstain fungi and compared with Cartapip 97, a commercially available biological control agent of sapstain in lodgepole pine and red pine logs. In a laboratory trial, Kasper reduced sapstain of white spruce logs as much as 94.4% and was more efficient than Cartapip 97. In field trials conducted in an area north of Québec City, Kasper reduced sapstain of black spruce as much as 80%. In three of four field trials, Kasper was significantly more efficient than Cartapip 97 in reducing sapstain development. The exception was encountered in a 2003 trial conducted in a sawmill yard where Kasper did not reduce sapstain. In a field trial conducted in western Canada, at Aleza Lake forest near Prince George, Kasper almost totally prevented the development of sapstain, even after 24 weeks. These results suggest albino strains derived from C. resinifera might be an additional source of potential biocontrol agents against sapstain.

  3. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.


    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.


    Tatiana GRÎU


    Full Text Available This paper aims to apply a thermal treatment of beech and spruce sawdust dried to 10% moisture in order to determine the mass loss and to obtain pellet sets. This paper considers the colour change of the treated material during the treatment, as function of time and temperature increase. It also highlights the changes in the chemical composition of sawdust connected with the mass loss. The paper also studies the physical integrity of the obtained pellets, using the method of free fall, with the results showing that spruce sawdust pellets appear to be more stable. The optimal temperature of thermal treatment proves to be 2600C and the duration of treatments are 5 and 10 minutes, when the sawdust has dimensions between 0.4-1mm. Regarding the pellets formed at the temperature above 2600C, it should be noted that their stability is low, in particular that one of beech, which is difficult to compress and compact

  5. Organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall

    Öberg, G.; Johansen, C.; Grøn, C.


    . No relationship between the position of the collectors and the forest edge or dominating wind-direction was found, suggesting that dry deposition was not a major source. The concentration of organic halogens was related to that of organic carbon and decreased from the tree-trunk and outwards. In addition......Deposition of dissolved organic halogens by throughfall was determined in a small spruce forest site in Denmark (56 degrees 28'N, 8 degrees 24'E). The mean annual deposition of dissolved organic halogens was 377 g ha(-1)yr(-1), and larger than the general deposition by precipitation......, the concentrations were higher during the growing season than during the dormant season. This indicates that the major part of the organic carbon and organic halogens in spruce forest throughfall originates from canopy leachates or other internal sources. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sitka spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis Picea_sitchensis_L.png Picea_sitchensis_NL.png Picea_sitchensi...s_S.png Picea_sitchensis_NS.png ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: white spruce [Taxonomy Icon

    Full Text Available white spruce Picea glauca Picea_glauca_L.png Picea_glauca_NL.png Picea_glauca_S.png Pic...ea_glauca_NS.png ...

  8. Korean red ginseng extract rejuvenates testicular ineffectiveness and sperm maturation process in aged rats by regulating redox proteins and oxidative defense mechanisms.

    Kopalli, Spandana Rajendra; Hwang, Seock-Yeon; Won, Yu-Jin; Kim, Sung-Won; Cha, Kyu-Min; Han, Chang-Kyun; Hong, Jae-Yup; Kim, Si-Kwan


    Distortion of intracellular oxidant and antioxidant balances appears to be a common feature that underlies in age-related male sexual impairment. Therefore regulating oxidative defense mechanisms might be an ideal approach in improving male sexual dysfunctions. In the present study, the effect of Korean red ginseng aqueous extract (KRG) on age-induced testicular dysfunction in rats was investigated. KRG (200mg/kg) mixed with regular pellet diet was administered orally for six months and the morphological, spermatogenic and antioxidant enzyme status in testis of aged rats (18months) were evaluated. Data indicated a significant change in morphology and decrease in spermatogenesis-related parameters in aged rats (AC) compared with young rats (YC). Sperm number, germ cell count, Sertoli cell count and Sertoli cell index were significantly (pglutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase and catalase) and non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol) antioxidants (ptesticular ineffectiveness in rats by modulating redox proteins and oxidative defense mechanisms.

  9. SEI SPRUCE Project: Curating Recommended Practices for Software Producibility


    adjustments to the website design , for the most part, we needed to work within the website’s existing style libraries and operational models for web page...contributing to the SPRUCE website, the SEI worked within the constraints of an existing website design . SPRUCE had developed around the central idea of

  10. Growth trends of beech and Norway spruce in Switzerland: The role of nitrogen deposition, ozone, mineral nutrition and climate.

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Rihm, Beat


    Understanding the effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate on tree growth is important for planning sustainable forest management also in the future. The complex interplay of all these factors cannot be covered by experiments. Here we use observational data of mature forests for studying associations of various biotic and abiotic factors with tree growth. A 30year time series on basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies Karst. in Switzerland was analyzed to evaluate the development in relation to a variety of predictors. Basal area increment of Fagus sylvatica has clearly decreased during the observation period. For Picea abies no trend was observed. N deposition of more than 26 (beech) or 20-22kgNha(-1)year(-1) (Norway spruce) was negatively related with basal area increment, in beech stronger than in Norway spruce. High N deposition loads and low foliar K concentrations in Fagus were correlated with increased drought sensitivity. High air temperatures in winter were negatively related with basal area increment in Norway spruce in general and in beech at high N:Mg ratio or high N deposition while on an average the relation was positive in beech. Fructification in beech was negatively related to basal area increment. The increase of fructification observed during the last decades contributed thus to the growth decrease. Ozone flux was significantly and negatively correlated with basal area increment both in beech and Norway spruce. The results show clear non-linear effects of N deposition on stem increment of European beech and Norway spruce as well as strong interactions with climate which have contributed to the growth decrease in beech and may get more important in future. The results not only give suggestions for ecological processes but also show the potential of an integral evaluation of observational data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Anitha Sunkara


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia is higher in both developed, underdeveloped countries and in developing countries particularly in toddlers, adolescent girls and women of childbearing age. Diagnosis of iron deficiency is made by biochemical investigations along with the routine haemogram. Automated analysers in the recent years provide many reticulocyte parameters like Low Fluorescence Ratio (LFR, Medium Fluorescence Ratio (MFR and High Fluorescence Ratio (HFR, Reticulocyte Haemoglobin Concentration-haemoglobin (Ret-He, which not only aid in the diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA without the necessity of biochemical investigations, but also help in the follow up of these patients for bone marrow response accurately. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these parameters in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia in the female population in reproductive age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study included peripheral blood samples from fifty eight women aged between 18-45 years from routine workload including 20 normal (Hb >12.0 g/dL with normal serum ferritin and serum iron levels and 38 iron deficiency anaemia samples (Hb <12.0 g/dL and with low serum ferritin and serum iron levels. RESULTS There was significant differences in the means between the subjects from the control group and IDA group in red cell distribution width, RDW CV (% (13.26±1.07 vs. 18.22±3.34 p-value <0.00001 and immature reticulocyte fraction (% (9.87±5.68 vs. 17.89±9.00 p-value=.000646, reticulocyte haemoglobin concentration (pg (33.34±2.92 vs. 22.0±4.13, p-value=<0.00001. Serum iron and serum ferritin showed statistically significant difference between two groups. CONCLUSIONS The reticulocyte parameters including Ret-He provide an important information in suspected cases of iron deficiency. Routine haemogram can thus be more helpful not only on morphological categorisation of anaemia, but also in knowing the

  12. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan


    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  13. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J


    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires

  14. How does wind-throw disturbance affect the carbon budget of an upland spruce forest ecosystem?

    Lindauer, Matthias; Schmid, Hans Peter; Grote, Rüdiger; Mauder, Matthias; Wolpert, Benjamin; Steinbrecher, Rainer


    Forests, especially in mid-latitudes are generally designated as large carbon sinks. However, stand-replacing disturbance events like fires, insect-infestations, or severe wind-storms can shift an ecosystem from carbon sink to carbon source within short time and keep it as this for a long time. In Addition, extreme weather situations which promote the occurrence of ecosystem disturbances are likely to increase in the future due to climate change. The development and competition of different vegetation types (spruce vs. grass) as well as soil organic matter (SOM), and their contribution to the net ecosystem exchange (NEE), in such disturbed forest ecosystems are largely unknown. In a large wind-throw area (ca. 600 m diameter, due to cyclone Kyrill in January 2007) within a mature upland spruce forest, where dead-wood has not been removed, in the Bavarian Forest National Park (Lackenberg, 1308 m a.s.l., Bavaria, Germany), fluxes of CO2, water vapor and energy have been measured with the Eddy Covariance (EC) method since 2009. Model simulations (MoBiLE) were used to estimate the GPP components from trees and grassland as well as to differentiate between soil and plant respiration, and to get an idea about the long term behavior of the ecosystems carbon exchange. For 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 estimates of annual Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) showed that the wind-throw was a marked carbon source. However, the few remaining trees and newly emerging vegetation (grass, sparse young spruce, etc.) lead to an already strong Gross Ecosystem Production (GEP). Model simulations conformed well with the measurements. To our knowledge, we present the worldwide first long-term measurements of NEE within a non-cleared wind-throw-disturbed forest ecosystem.

  15. Norway spruce embryogenesis: changes in carbohydrate profile, structural development and response to polyethylene glycol.

    Hudec, Lukáš; Konrádová, Hana; Hašková, Anna; Lipavská, Helena


    Two unrelated, geographically distinct, highly embryogenic lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were analysed to identify metabolic traits characteristic for lines with good yields of high-quality embryos. The results were compared with corresponding characteristics of a poorly productive line (low embryo yield, scarce high-quality embryos). The following carbohydrate profiles and spectra during maturation, desiccation and germination were identified as promising characteristics for line evaluation: a gradual decrease in total soluble carbohydrates with an increasing sucrose : hexose ratio during maturation; accumulation of raffinose family oligosaccharides resulting from desiccation and their rapid degradation at the start of germination; and a decrease in sucrose, increase in hexoses and the appearance of pinitol with proceeding germination. We propose that any deviation from this profile in an embryonic line is a symptom of inferior somatic embryo development. We further propose that a fatty acid spectrum dominated by linoleic acid (18 : 2) was a common feature of healthy spruce somatic embryos, although it was quite different from zygotic embryos mainly containing oleic acid (18 : 1). The responses of the lines to osmotic stress were evaluated based on comparison of control (without osmoticum) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-exposed (PEG 4000) variants. Although genetically distinct, both highly embryogenic lines responded in a very similar manner, with the only difference being sensitivity to high concentrations of PEG. At an optimum PEG concentration (3.75 and 5%), which was line specific, negative effects of PEG on embryo germination were compensated for by a higher maturation efficiency so that the application of PEG at an appropriate concentration improved the yield of healthy germinants per gram of initial embryonal mass and accelerated the process. Polyethylene glycol application, however, resulted in no improvement of the poorly

  16. Sexual maturity of the deep-sea red crab Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae in southern Brazil Madurez sexual del cangrejo rojo de profundidad Chaceon notialis Manning & Holthuis, 1989 (Brachyura: Geryonidae al sur de Brasil

    Rodrigo Sant'Ana


    Full Text Available The red crab Chaceon notialis is one of the three deep-sea crab species currently exploited in Brazil. The red crab fishery started in 1998 with foreign vessels that, as of 2000, have been extensively moni-tored by observers and tracked by satellite. A management plan implemented in 2005 was based only on bio-mass dynamics, as biological knowledge of the resource was limited at that date. Samples taken aboard were used to determine size at first sexual maturity for males and females by studying the allometric growth of the chelae and abdomen in relation to the carapace width (CW, the proportion of females with opened vulvae and eggs in the pleopods, and males showing copula marks on the first ambulatory legs. Morphometric maturity was attained, on average, at 8.9 cm CW (males and 8.8 cm CW (females. The CW5% was estimated to be 6.9 and 9.7 cm CW for females, considering the vulva condition and eggs in the pleopods, respectively, and 8.4 cm CW for males. The maximum estimated proportions of ovigerous females and males with copula marks by size class were 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, suggesting an annual reproductive cycle for the species, both at the populational and individuals levels. The size composition analysis showed that up to 97% of the females caught in the fishery were immature. Given these results, enhancing trap selectivity and minimizing the mortality of ovigerous females should be considered as new and immediate goals for the management of the resource.El cangrejo-rojo Chaceon notialis corresponde a una de las tres especies de cangrejos de profundidad que actualmente se explotan en Brasil. La pesca de cangrejo-rojo comenzó en el año 1998 por barcos extranjeros que, desde 2000 fueron intensamente vigilados por observadores y rastreados por satélites. En el año de 2005 se implemento un plan de manejo, considerando solamente el estudio de la dinámica de la biomasa del recurso, ya que el conocimiento biológico todavía era limitado

  17. Animal vectors of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce.

    Michael E. Ostry; Thomas H. Nicholls; D.W. French


    Describes a study to determine the importance of animals in the spread of eastern dwarf mistletoe of black spruce. Radio telemetry, banding, and color-marking techniques were used to study vectors of this forest pathogen.

  18. The vegetation of spruce forests in the Pinega State Reserve

    Sergey Yu. Popov


    Full Text Available The Pinega Natural State Reserve is located in the Arkhangelsk Province in the northern taiga subzone. Spruce forests represent the dominant vegetation formation of its territory. The vegetation of this forest is classified, based on 192 phytosociological descriptions. It reveals 12 associations, which represent 7 groups of associations. Detailed characteristics of these syntaxa, including analysis of their biodiversity, are provided. The revealed syntaxa differ both in species composition and environmental conditions: moisture, nutrition, nitrogen availability and acidity. Most poor conditions in terms of mineral nutrition occupy sphagnous spruce forests and bilberry-dominated spruce forests, while under the richest conditions varioherbaceous, humidoherbaceous and nemoral-herbaceous spruce forests occur. The Pinega Reserve is the only locality, where the Piceetum rubo saxatilis-vacciniosum association occurs in the northern taiga subzone.

  19. The diffusion of Norway spruce in the beechwoods of

    Andreatta G


    Full Text Available During the last decades, in the previously coppiced beechwoods of "Dolomiti Bellunesi" National Park, an unprecedented diffusion of Norway spruce occurred; possible silvicultural options to cope with this new condition are outlined here.

  20. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.


    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  1. Maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. for red winemaking/ Curvas de maturação da uva ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Werner Genta


    Full Text Available The objetive of this research was to characterize the maturation of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. produced in the northwest of Parana state, for red winemaking. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard of Vinícola Intervin®, Maringá, PR. The vineyard was planted in August of 2000 and the vines were trained in a pergola system, in a 4.0 x 1.0 m spacing, budded on ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ rootstock. The evaluations started from the winter pruning of 2003. The random design was used as the statistical model with 20 replications and each plot was composed by one tree. The maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape were determined through chemical characteristic analysis of berries, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and maturation index (TSS/TA, which were evaluated weekly from early ripening to 7 days after harvest, processing 300 berries per sampling. Through regression analysis, the performance of these chemical characteristics was evaluated over time. It was possible to conclude that: the curves of TSS, TA and TSS/TA were well-fitted to the cubic model and; the ‘Tannat’ grape reached 21.20 oBrix, 1.04% of tartaric acid and 20.38 of maturation index during harvest, what indicates a good performance of this cultivar for red winemaking at the local condition.O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a maturação da videira ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. cultivada no norte do Estado do Paraná para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, no município de Maringá, PR. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em agosto de 2000 e as plantas foram conduzidas no sistema latada no espaçamento de 4,0 m x 1,5 m, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto ‘IAC 766 Campinas’. As avaliações tiveram início a partir da poda de produção, realizada no fim do inverno de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente

  2. Competitive strategies in adult beech and spruce: space-related foliar carbon investment versus carbon gain.

    Reiter, I M; Häberle, K-H; Nunn, A J; Heerdt, C; Reitmayer, H; Grote, R; Matyssek, R


    In Central Europe, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies represent contrasting extremes in foliage type, crown structure and length of growing season. In order to examine the competitive strategies of these two co-occurring species, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the space occupied by the foliage of sun branches is characterized by greater foliar mass investment compared to shade branches, (2) the carbon (C) gain per unit of occupied space is greater in sun than in shade branches, and (3) annual C and water costs of the foliage for sustaining the occupied space are low, wherever C gain per unit of occupied space is low. These were investigated in a mature forest in Southern Germany. The examination was based on the annual assessment of space-related resource investments and gains of the foliage. The foliated space around branches was regarded as the relevant volume with respect to aboveground resource availability. Occupied crown space per standing foliage mass was higher in shade compared to sun branches of beech, whereas no difference existed in crown volume per foliage mass between sun and shade branches of spruce (hypothesis 1 accepted for beech but rejected for spruce). However, beech occupied more space per foliage mass than spruce. The C gain per occupied crown volume was greater in sun than in shade branches (hypothesis 2 accepted) but did not differ between species. The amount of occupied space per respiratory and transpiratory costs did not differ between species or between sun and shade branches. In beech and spruce, the proportion of foliage investment in the annual C balance of sun and shade branches remained rather stable, whereas respiratory costs distinctly increased in shade foliage. Hence, shade branches were costly structures to occupy space, achieving only low and even negative C balances (rejection of hypothesis 3), which conflicts with the claimed C autonomy of branches. Our findings suggest that competitiveness is determined by the

  3. Spruce forest bryophytes in central Norway and their relationship to environmental factors including modern forestry

    Frisvoll, A.A. [Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research, Trondheim (Norway); Prestoe, T. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Museum of Natural History and Archaeology, Dept. of Botany, Trondheim (Norway)


    In this study of bryophyte diversity in 110 patches of spruce forests of bilberry, small fern, low herb, tall fern and tall herb type in Soer-Troendelag, central Norway, each patch (from 0.24 to 9.33 ha) was classified as one main vegetation type and one successional stage or cutting class. The bryophytes in each patch were censured in randomly established squares of 10 x 10 m, supplemented by complete sampling in the rest of the patch. A number of environmental variables was sampled, and the data sets treated with DCA and CCA. Altogether 210 bryophytes (71 liverworts and 139 mosses) were found in the squares, and 285 (96 liverworts and 189 mosses) in the forest patches. The average number of liverworts, mosses and bryophytes in forest patches increased gradually from the dry and poor to the moist and rich forest types. Several red listed and other interesting spruce forest species had their only or main occurrence in the rich and humid forest, and in old cutting classes. (au) 45 refs.

  4. Ant-mediated effects on spruce litter decomposition, solution chemistry, and microbial activity

    Stadler, B.; Schramm, Andreas; Kalbitz, K.


    Forest management practices often generate clear-cut patches, which may be colonized by ants not present in the same densities in mature forests. In addition to the associated changes in abiotic conditions ants can initiate processes, which do not occur in old-growth stands. Here, we analyse...... the effects of ants and aphid honeydew on litter solution of Norway spruce, microbial enzyme activities, and needle decomposition in a field and greenhouse experiment during summer 2003. In the field, low ant densities had relatively little effects on litter solution 30 cm away from a tree trunk....... The presence of ants resulted in a changed composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with more aromatic and complex compounds, and microbial enzyme activity was significantly higher in litter extracts from the ant treatment compared to the honeydew and control treatment. However, mass loss, litter %C...

  5. Aluminium toxicity in seedlings of spruce (Picea abies (L. ) Karst) grown in culture broth. Aluminiumtoxizitaet bei Saemlingen der Fichte (Picea abies (L. ) Karst) in Naehrloesungskultur

    Jorns, A.C.


    The work aimed to study the changes that take place in spruce seedlings in water culture under conditions of aluminium toxicity (170-5200 Al; pH 3.8) and to verify whether these changes are comparable to the ones observed in damaged spruces in the field. Furthermore, it aimed to establish how the supply of nutrients influences the plant's aluminium tolerance and whether by supplying nutrients correspondingly such adverse effects through aluminium can be avoided. The following results were obtained: The untreated long and short roots of spruce belong to the root type of 'periblemo-calyptrogens'. The spruce seedlings proved exceptionally tolerant to aluminium; yet damage to roots and inhibition of root growth were observed even at relatively low aluminium concentrations (170-520 if nutrient supply was reduced. After 40 days of treatment with aluminium, needles began to show chloroses and red-brown discolouration; this was identified by means of needle analyses as lack of magnesium and slight lack of calcium. By increasing the total concentration and, especially, the magnesium concentration of the culture broth, the seedlings' tolerance to aluminium was increased. On treatment of the plants with 520 aluminium in dilute culture broth the roots showed the metacutinisation specific for aluminium toxicity. Supposedly, the zone of the root tip, an important one for apoplastic ion uptake, is reduced by the process of metacutinisation, resulting in inhibited magnesium and calcium transport.

  6. Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

    T. T. Efremova


    Full Text Available For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley-riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss-hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (9–17 cm with high storage of organic matter (77–99 t/ha, which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.8–7.0 and high percentage of ash 11–28 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat- and peaty-fermentative, humified-fermentative and (black mold humus-fermentative layers were selected. Peat- and peaty-fermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers – myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humified-fermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nutty-granular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators – enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humified-fermentative, but differ from them in clay-humus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers – peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus-peaty, reduced (black mold humus-peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physical-chemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively

  7. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok


    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  8. Assessment of sanitary conditions in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. damaged by spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk.

    Miezite O


    Full Text Available Spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae Schrnk. affects tree growth directly and indirectly. Direct injury appears in the form of tissue damage, as insects suck sap from tree phloem. Indirect injury appears as “honeydew”, which results in negative effects on tree growth. Plant sap is saturated with various carbohydrates called photosynthates that are difficult for scaly insects to digest. Therefore it is secreted in excrements, which are subsequently a food source for the black sooty mold (Apiosporium pinophilum Fuckel. The fungus covers needles blocking stomata, causing decreased transpiration and photosynthesis. An inexplicable wither of Norway spruce was reported in Latvia during 2010 due to black sooty mold. However, spruce bud scale was not evident. In 2011, mass propagation of spruce bud scale was observed following the 2010 Norway spruce loss. One objective of this research was to determine if Kraft tree growth classes could be applied to establish the factors responsible for tree foliage damage. Six 21 - 40 year old (second age class Norway spruce stands were evaluated. Two circular sample plots with a 7.98 m radius, and a 200-m2 area were randomly established per each forest stand hectare. Diameter at breast height (dbh, 1.3 m, and height of approximately 30 trees was measured to model a trend. For all trees, Kraft class, and foliage damage level caused by spruce bud scale and black sooty mold were determined. Significant differences were not observed in tree damage levels among stands, however significant differences among damage levels in different Kraft classes were detected (F = 3.45 > Fcrit. = 2.80, α = 0.05 > P = 0.02 found. Overall damage intensity was 29.3 %. Total forestry loss was 1153 LVL (1640 EUR for all surveyed stands (10 ha, and 115 LVL (164 EUR per hectare.

  9. Excess growing-season water limits lowland black spruce productivity

    Dymond, S.; Kolka, R. K.; Bolstad, P. V.; Gill, K.; Curzon, M.; D'Amato, A. W.


    The annual growth of many tree species is limited by water availability, with growth increasing as water becomes less scarce. In lowland bogs of northern Minnesota, however, black spruce (Picea mariana) is often exposed to excess water via high water table elevations. These trees grow in thick deposits of organic mucky peat and often have shallow rooting systems to avoid the complete submersion of roots in water. While it is generally believed that black spruce decrease growth rates with rising water table elevations, this hypothesis has not been tested in situ. We used a unique, 50-year record of daily bog water table elevations at the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) in northern Minnesota to investigate the relationship between climate and black spruce productivity. Nine 1/20th ha circular plots were established in five different bogs and tree height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), and crown class were recorded. Additionally, two perpendicular cores were collected on all trees greater than 10 cm diameter-at-breast-height. Tree cores were sanded, mounted, cross-dated, and de-trended according to standard dendrochronological procedures. Ring width measurements were correlated with precipitation, temperature, and water table elevation using package BootRes in R to determine the climatic variables most associated with stand level productivity. Across the different plots, we found that early growing season water table elevation (May and June) was negatively correlated with both individual and stand-level black spruce growth (p productivity of black spruce.

  10. Response of Lutz, Sitka, and white spruce to attack by Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and blue stain fungi

    Richard A. Werner; Barbara L. Illman


    Mechanical wounding and wounding plus inoculation with a blue-stain fungus, Leptographium abietinum (Peck), associated with the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), caused an induced reaction zone or lesion around the wound sites in Lutz spruce, Picea lutzii Little, Sitka spruce, P. sitchensis (Bong.) Carr., and white spruce, P. glauca (Moench) Voss, in...

  11. Climate-induced mortality of spruce stands in Belarus

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.


    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  12. Climate-Induced Mortality of Spruce Stands in Belarus

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Im, Sergei T.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Golukov, Alexei S.; Ranson, Kenneth J.


    The aim of this work is an analysis of the causes of spruce (Picea abies L.) decline and mortality in Belarus. The analysis was based on forest inventory and Landsat satellite (land cover classification, climate variables (air temperature, precipitation, evaporation, vapor pressure deficit, SPEI drought index)), and GRACE-derived soil moisture estimation (equivalent of water thickness anomalies, EWTA). We found a difference in spatial patterns between dead stands and all stands (i.e., before mortality). Dead stands were located preferentially on relief features with higher water stress risk (i.e., higher elevations, steeper slopes, south and southwestern exposure). Spruce mortality followed a series of repeated droughts between 1990 and 2010. Mortality was negatively correlated with air humidity (r = -0.52), and precipitation (r = -0.57), and positively correlated with the prior year vapor pressure deficit (r = 0.47), and drought increase (r = 0.57). Mortality increased with the increase in occurrence of spring frosts (r = 0.5), and decreased with an increase in winter cloud cover (r = -0.37). Spruce mortality was negatively correlated with snow water accumulation (r = -0.81) and previous year anomalies in water soil content (r = -0.8). Weakened by water stress, spruce stands were attacked by pests and phytopathogens. Overall, spruce mortality in Belarussian forests was caused by drought episodes and drought increase in synergy with pest and phytopathogen attacks. Vast Picea abies mortality in Belarus and adjacent areas of Russia and Eastern Europe is a result of low adaptation of that species to increased drought. This indicates the necessity of spruce replacement by drought-tolerant indigenous (e.g., Pinus sylvestris, Querqus robur) or introduced (e.g., Larix sp. or Pseudotsuga menzieslii) species to obtain sustainable forest growth management.

  13. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.


    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  14. Effectiveness of polyethylene sheeting in controlling spruce beetles ( coleoptera: scolytidae') in infested stacks of spruce firewood in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Holsten, E.H.; Werner, R.A.


    The covering stacks of spruce firewood with either clear or black polyethylene sheeting does not raise log temperatures high enough to kill spruce beetle brood in the logs. Based on the results of the study, the authors do not recommend the use of polyethylene sheeting as a remedial measure for the reduction of spruce beetle brood in infested firewood or log decks in south-central Alaska.

  15. Windstorms as mediator of soil nematode community changes: Evidence from European spruce forest

    Renčo M.


    Full Text Available Nematode communities in a Norway spruce forest in High Tatra National Park, Slovakia were monitored for the period of several years (2006 and 2013. Unfortunately, in May 2014 natural windstorm damaged the forest. This disastrous event, together with preliminary obtained results allowed us to compare the direct impact of windstorm damage of forest habitat on soil nematode assemblages. The forest destruction by windstorm had a significant effect on the total nematode abundance, the abundance of omnivores and herbivores, as well as the nematode species diversity. The most dominant species, representing 55 % of the total nematode fauna, in the plot studied were Acrobeloides nanus followed by Malenchus exiguus, Filenchus vulgaris, Plectus communis, Plectus parvus and Tylencholaimus mirabilis. The abundance of bacterivorous signifi cantly increased after the windstorm, meanwhile the abundance of omnivores, fungivores, and herbivores ectoparasites and epidermal/root hair feeders showed an opposite trend. Of the evaluative indicators, Shannon species diversity (H’spp, maturity index (MI, maturity index 2-5 (MI2-5, sigma maturity index (ΣMI, enrichment index (EI and structure index (SI decreased significantly after windstorm. The EI and SI indexes characterized soil ecosystems before windstorm (2006 - 2013 as maturing with low or moderate disturbance, but soil ecosystems shortly after the windstorm (2014 were degraded and nutrient depleted. This also corresponded with graphical display of metabolic footprints characteristics of soil food web. Overall, the nematode communities differed significantly before and after forest damage. These results suggest the role of nematode communities as indicators of environment condition quality or its disruption.

  16. Animal damage to young spruce and fir in Maine

    Barton M. Blum


    The loss of terminal buds on small balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) and spruce (Picea spp.) trees because of nipping by mammals or birds has increased on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in recent years. The cut stem is smooth and slightly angled; there is no sign of tearing. Unnipped trees grew about 13 percent more than...

  17. The New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program

    Carter B. Gibbs; James B. Carlaw


    I once heard it said that if you want to know how something was organized, ask a man who had nothing to do with it. I suspect this may be one of the reasons I was asked to collaborate on this report of the development of the New England Spruce-Fir Seed Orchard Program.

  18. On mycorrhiza development of spruces and firs in damaged stands

    Ritter, T.; Weber, G.; Kottke, I.; Oberwinkler, F.


    The authors studied the very fine roots of sick spruces and firs and established the following: 1. a surprising stability of mycorrhiza development, 2. differences in the dynamism of development and 3. modifications in the composition of the accompanying microfungi. The results suggest connections in the chain of causes of forest disease which have received little attention so far.

  19. Applicability of the PROSPECT model for Norway spruce needles

    Malenovsky, Z.; Albrechtova, J.; Lhotakova, Z.; Zurita Milla, R.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schaepman, M.E.; Cudlin, P.


    The potential applicability of the leaf radiative transfer model PROSPECT (version 3.01) was tested for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needles collected from stress resistant and resilient trees. Direct comparison of the measured and simulated leaf optical properties between 450¿1000 nm

  20. Yield model for unthinned Sitka spruce plantations in Ireland

    Omiyale, O.; Joyce, P.M.


    Over the past few decades the construction of yield models, has progressed from the graphical through mathematical and biomathematic approach. The development of a biomathematical growth model for Sitka spruce plantations is described. It is suggested that this technique can serve as a basis for general yield model construction of plantation species in Ireland. (Refs. 15).

  1. Drought induces spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks across northwestern Colorado.

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Eisenhart, Karen S; Jarvis, Daniel; Kulakowski, Dominik


    This study examines influences of climate variability on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak across northwestern Colorado during the period 1650 2011 CE. Periods of broad-scale outbreak reconstructed using documentary records and tree rings were dated to 1843-1860, 1882-1889, 1931-1957, and 2004-2010. Periods of outbreak were compared with seasonal temperature, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), and indices of ocean-atmosphere oscillation that include the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Classification trees showed that outbreaks can be predicted most successfully from above average annual AMO values and above average summer VPD values, indicators of drought across Colorado. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreaks appear to be predicted best by interannual to multidecadal variability in drought, not by temperature alone. This finding may imply that spruce beetle outbreaks are triggered by decreases in host tree defenses, which are hypothesized to occur with drought stress. Given the persistence of the AMO, the shift to a positive AMO phase in the late 1990s is likely to promote continued spruce beetle disturbance.

  2. Atmospheric nitrous oxide uptake in boreal spruce forest soil

    Siljanen, Henri; Welti, Nina; Heikkinen, Juha; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti


    Nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake from the atmosphere has been found in forest soils but environmental factors controlling the uptake and its atmospheric impact are poorly known. We measured N2O fluxes over growing season in a boreal spruce forest having control plots and plots with long nitrogen fertilization history. Also methane (CH4) fluxes were measured to compare the atmospheric impact of N2O and CH4fluxes. Soil chemical and physical characteristics and climatic conditions were measured as background data. Nitrous oxide consumption and uptake mechanisms were measured in complementary laboratory incubation experiments using stable isotope approaches. Gene transcript numbers of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) I and II genes were quantified along the incubation with elevated N2O atmosphere. The spruce forests without fertilization history showed highest N2O uptake rates whereas pine forest had low emissions. Nitrous oxide uptake correlated positively with soil moisture, high soil silt content, and low temperature. Nitrous oxide uptake varied seasonally, being highest in spring and autumn when temperature was low and water content was high. The spruce forest was sink for CH4.Methane fluxes were decoupled from the N2O fluxes (i.e. when the N2O uptake was high the CH4 uptake was low). By using GWP approach, the cooling effect of N2O uptake was on average 30% of the cooling effect of CH4 uptake in spruce forest without fertilization. Anoxic conditions promoted higher N2O consumption rates in all soils. Gene transcription of nosZ-I genes were activated at beginning of the incubation. However, atypical/clade-II nosZ was not detected. These results suggests, that also N2O uptake rates have to be considered when accounting for the GHG budget of spruce forests.

  3. In situ autumn ozone fumigation of mature Norway spruce - Effects on net photosynthesis

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.


    concentration. The experiment was conducted during 70 days during the autumn. Our system could not detect any ozone effects on dark respiration, but eventually effects on dark respiration could be masked in signal noise. An inhibition of daily net photosynthesis in ozone treated shoots was apparent......, and it is was found that a mean increase in ozone concentration of 10 nl l(-1) reduced net photosynthesis with 7.4 %. This effect should be related to a pre-exposure during the season of AOT40 12.5 mul l(-1) h....

  4. Lessons from native spruce forests in Alaska: managing Sitka spruce plantations worldwide to benefit biodiversity and ecosystem services

    Robert L. Deal; Paul Hennon; Richard O' Hanlon; David D' Amore


    There is increasing interest worldwide in managing forests to maintain or improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity, provide wildlife habitat and improve forest species diversity. We synthesize results from natural spruce forests in...

  5. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation


    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  6. Detection of changes in fuel quality during storage of sawdust from pine and spruce by using gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and VIS-NIR-spectroscopy

    Arshadi, Mehrdad; Nilsson, David; Geladi, Paul (Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, SE-904 03 Umeaa (Sweden)). e-mail:


    Fuel pellets made of sawdust represent a renewable energy source for heat production. The raw material comes from sawmills and sawdust is used in the pellet mills and for reasons of logistics there is a need for storage of large quantities of the raw material. Long-term storage induces changes in the sawdust and therefore processing parameters for pellets production have to be adapted. This makes knowledge of storage time or maturity necessary. Two examples of experimental studies are presented: An industrial storage of pine and spruce sawdust was carried out over a period of 16 weeks in order to monitor the changes in the quality of sawdust during storage. Samples were taken out every week and all samples were analysed by VIS-NIR spectroscopy while some samples were analysed by GC-MS for their composition of fatty- and resin acids. The resulting data were subjected to multivariate data analysis. GC-MS data showed the difference between pine and spruce sawdust and the influence of maturity. This maturity effect could be associated with the decrease in fatty- and resin acids due to auto oxidative reactions. Multivariate analysis of the VIS-NIR data showed a major effect due to maturity associated with a colour change and also weaker effects of fatty- and resin acids differences. PLS regression was used to predict the storage time with RMSEP values between 10 and 15 days. However, since weather conditions, precipitation and seasonal variation have high influence on the speed of maturing of sawdust it will be necessary to continuously determine the degree of maturity. A second similar study is used as a complementary way of corroborating the results of the first one

  7. Heat Resistance of Glued Finger Joints in Spruce Wood Constructions

    Martin Sviták


    Full Text Available The heat resistance of glued spruce wood was evaluated for different joint types and adhesives. Bending strength, modulus of elasticity, and also fracture evaluation were investigated on glued spruce samples made by the finger-jointed principle. Finger-jointed samples were glued with polyurethane (PUR and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF adhesives. Heat loading was realized at temperatures 60, 80, and 110 °C and compared with wood with 20 °C. A static bending test with four-point flexural test was used. Elevated temperature and adhesive type had an important influence on the bending strength. On the other hand, adhesive type had a significant influence on the modulus of elasticity, but elevated temperature had no substantial influence.

  8. Endophyte communities vary in the needles of Norway spruce clones.

    Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Tuomivirta, Tero; Haapanen, Matti; Müller, Michael; Pennanen, Taina


    Endophytic fungi show no symptoms of their presence but can influence the performance and vitality of host trees. The potential use of endophytes to indicate vitality has been previously realized, but a standard protocol has yet to be developed due to an incomplete understanding of the factors that regulate endophyte communities. Using a culture-free molecular approach, we examined the extent to which host genotype influences the abundance, species richness, and community composition of endophytic fungi in Norway spruce needles. Briefly, total DNA was extracted from the surface-sterilized needles of 30 clones grown in a nursery field and the copy number of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA was estimated by quantitative PCR. Fungal species richness and community composition were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. We found that community structure and ITS copy number varied among spruce clones, whereas species richness did not. Host traits interacting with endophyte communities included needle surface area and the location of cuttings in the experimental area. Although Lophodermium piceae is considered the dominant needle endophyte of Norway spruce, we detected this species in only 33% of samples. The most frequently observed fungus (66%) was the potentially pathogenic Phoma herbarum. Interestingly, ITS copy number of endophytic fungi correlated negatively with the richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi and thus potential interactions between fungal communities and their influence on the host tree are discussed. Our results suggest that in addition to environmental factors, endophyte communities of spruce needles are determined by host tree identity and needle surface area.

  9. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization in beech and spruce forests

    Meyer, Nickolas K.; Mina, Marco


    A novel synergistic approach to reducing emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) is presented. Wood energy fuel cycle optimization (FCO) aims to provide cleaner burning fuels through optimization of forestry and renewable energy management practices. In this work, beech and spruce forests of average and high quality were modelled and analysed to determine the volume of fuel wood and its associated bark fraction produced during typical forestry cycles. Two separate fuel wood bark production regimes were observed for beech trees, while only one production regime was observed for spruce. The single tree and stand models were combined with existing thinning parameters to replicate existing management practices. Utilizing estimates of initial seedling numbers and existing thinning patterns a dynamic model was formed that responded to changes in thinning practices. By varying the thinning parameters, this model enabled optimization of the forestry practices for the reduction of bark impurities in the fuel wood supply chain. Beech forestry cycles responded well to fuel cycle optimization with volume reductions of bark from fuel wood of between ˜10% and ˜20% for average and high quality forest stands. Spruce, on the other hand, was fairly insensitive to FCO with bark reductions of 0-5%. The responsiveness of beech to FCO further supports its status as the preferred RWC fuel in Switzerland. FCO could easily be extended beyond Switzerland and applied across continental Europe and North America.

  10. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Claus Nesensohn


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  11. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Claus Nesensohn


    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  12. Eye redness

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  13. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.


    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  14. Recovery of aboveground plant biomass and productivity after fire in mesic and dry black spruce forests of interior Alaska

    Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Vogel, J.G.; Randerson, J.T.; Chapin, F. S.


    Plant biomass accumulation and productivity are important determinants of ecosystem carbon (C) balance during post-fire succession. In boreal black spruce (Picea mariana) forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, we quantified aboveground plant biomass and net primary productivity (ANPP) for 4 years after a 1999 wildfire in a well-drained (dry) site, and also across a dry and a moderately well-drained (mesic) chronosequence of sites that varied in time since fire (2 to ???116 years). Four years after fire, total biomass at the 1999 burn site had increased exponentially to 160 ?? 21 g m-2 (mean ?? 1SE) and vascular ANPP had recovered to 138 ?? 32 g m-2 y -1, which was not different than that of a nearby unburned stand (160 ?? 48 g m-2 y-1) that had similar pre-fire stand structure and understory composition. Production in the young site was dominated by re-sprouting graminoids, whereas production in the unburned site was dominated by black spruce. On the dry and mesic chronosequences, total biomass pools, including overstory and understory vascular and non-vascular plants, and lichens, increased logarithmically (dry) or linearly (mesic) with increasing site age, reaching a maximum of 2469 ?? 180 (dry) and 4008 ?? 233 g m-2 (mesic) in mature stands. Biomass differences were primarily due to higher tree density in the mesic sites because mass per tree was similar between sites. ANPP of vascular and non-vascular plants increased linearly over time in the mesic chronosequence to 335 ?? 68 g m-2 y -1 in the mature site, but in the dry chronosequence it peaked at 410 ?? 43 g m-2 y-1 in a 15-year-old stand dominated by deciduous trees and shrubs. Key factors regulating biomass accumulation and production in these ecosystems appear to be the abundance and composition of re-sprouting species early in succession, the abundance of deciduous trees and shrubs in intermediate aged stands, and the density of black spruce across all stand ages. A better understanding of the controls

  15. Similarity of nutrient uptake and root dimensions of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir at two contrasting sites in Colorado

    Yanai, R; McFarlane, K; Lucash, M; Kulpa, S; Wood, D


    were indistinguishable in specific root length and diameter distribution, while most of the other ten species had statistically distinct diameter distributions across five diameter classes < 2 mm. Based on specific root length, subalpine fir and Engelmann spruce had significantly coarser roots than red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). White oak (Quercus alba L.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were intermediate in SRL (indistinguishable from Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir by ANOVA). Species that differ more in physiology and morphology than the two species we compared would likely show dissimilar uptake characteristics even at the same site.

  16. Humus form variability at two experimental sites in the mountain Norway spruce forest, Trentino, Italy

    Chersich S


    Full Text Available In the Region Trentino Alto-Adige, 59 humus profiles were studied and classified in order to understand the variability of humus forms in alpine forest ecosystems. In particular, the evolution of humus forms was investigated in relation to the development of vegetation cover, with the aim of determining whether a humus form can be representative of a specific forest phase. For the study of humus profiles, transects were traced so as to cut across all 4 principal dynamic phases of forest evolution: open canopy, regeneration, intermediate and mature. Two sub-sites (of about 1000 m2 were selected at an altitude of 1700 m. a.s.l., on parent soil material of morenic sediments on acid substrate and with a vegetation cover of alpine spruce forest: the first, having a north exposition, is located within the Municipality of Pellizzano in Val di Sole, near Mount Nambino; the second, with a south exposition, is located near Madonna di Campiglio, in Val Rendena, near Mount Ritorto. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. Our investigation pointed out a wide evolutionary variability of forest humus in the studied sites, permitting to identify a probable association trend between different growing-phases of forest and specific humus forms.

  17. Warming and neighbor removal affect white spruce seedling growth differently above and below treeline.

    Okano, Kyoko; Bret-Harte, M Syndonia


    Climate change is expected to be pronounced towards higher latitudes and altitudes. Warming triggers treeline and vegetation shifts, which may aggravate interspecific competition and affect biodiversity. This research tested the effects of a warming climate, habitat type, and neighboring plant competition on the establishment and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings in a subarctic mountain region. P. glauca seedlings were planted in June 2010 under 4 different treatments (high/control temperatures, with/without competition) in 3 habitats (alpine ridge above treeline/tundra near treeline /forest below treeline habitats). After two growing seasons in 2011, growth, photosynthesis and foliar C and N data were obtained from a total of 156, one-and-a-half year old seedlings that had survived. Elevated temperatures increased growth and photosynthetic rates above and near treeline, but decreased them below treeline. Competition was increased by elevated temperatures in all habitat types. Our results suggest that increasing temperatures will have positive effects on the growth of P. glauca seedlings at the locations where P. glauca is expected to expand its habitat, but increasing temperatures may have negative effects on seedlings growing in mature forests. Due to interspecific competition, possibly belowground competition, the upslope expansion of treelines may not be as fast in the future as it was the last fifty years.

  18. Altitudinal gradients of bryophyte diversity and community assemblage in southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests

    Sarah E. Stehn; Christopher R. Webster; Janice M. Glime; Michael A. Jenkins


    Ground-layer plant communities in spruce-fir forests of the southern Appalachians have likely undergone significant change since the widespread death of canopy Fraser fir (Abies fraseri) caused by the exotic balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae). Bryophytes comprise an important part of the ground-layer flora in the spruce-fir...

  19. Clinal variation at phenology-related genes in spruce: parallel evolution in FTL2 and Gigantea?

    Chen, Jun; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Xu, Nannan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Huotari, Tea; Semerikov, Vladimir L; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Lascoux, Martin


    Parallel clines in different species, or in different geographical regions of the same species, are an important source of information on the genetic basis of local adaptation. We recently detected latitudinal clines in SNPs frequencies and gene expression of candidate genes for growth cessation in Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Here we test whether the same clines are also present in Siberian spruce (P. obovata), a close relative of Norway spruce with a different Quaternary history. We sequenced nine candidate genes and 27 control loci and genotyped 14 SSR loci in six populations of P. obovata located along the Yenisei river from latitude 56°N to latitude 67°N. In contrast to Scandinavian Norway spruce that both departs from the standard neutral model (SNM) and shows a clear population structure, Siberian spruce populations along the Yenisei do not depart from the SNM and are genetically unstructured. Nonetheless, as in Norway spruce, growth cessation is significantly clinal. Polymorphisms in photoperiodic (FTL2) and circadian clock (Gigantea, GI, PRR3) genes also show significant clinal variation and/or evidence of local selection. In GI, one of the variants is the same as in Norway spruce. Finally, a strong cline in gene expression is observed for FTL2, but not for GI. These results, together with recent physiological studies, confirm the key role played by FTL2 and circadian clock genes in the control of growth cessation in spruce species and suggest the presence of parallel adaptation in these two species.

  20. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf


    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  1. 早熟桃夏季叶色转红过程中的光化学响应特征%Photochemical Response Characteristics of Early-Maturing Peach during Leaf Color Turned to Be Red in Summer

    谢智华; 姜卫兵; 韩键; 彭丽丽; 张斌斌; 马瑞娟


    Taking two early-maturing peach cultivars 'Zaomei' and 'Chunlei' as materials, the changes of solar utilization and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of photosystem II were studied during leaf discoloration period in summer. The results showed that, early-maturing peach had great changes in photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics despite the strong differences in leaf pigment composition. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), PSII maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and PSII actual photochemical efficiency (φPSII) of early-maturing peach increased, and there was no significantly photosynthetic inhibition during the experiment. While green leaf control 'Honghuabitao' showed obvious photo inhibition in July, electron transport rate (ETR), FJFm and φPSII values decreased. 'Zaomei', which was more intensely colored, was more adaptive to high temperature and strong light in summer than 'Chunlei' and control. Chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis indicate that leaf anthocyanin accumulation lead to a transitory increase of relative share of photochemical reaction (P) and heat dissipation (D) from antenna pigment absorbed light. The reddened leaves had higher photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) than green leaves, and more effective PSII photochemical reactions. However, the lower non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) values shown by reddened leaves probably indicate a lower ability to dissipate safely excess photon energy than that of green leaves.%比较研究了‘早美’和‘春蕾’2个早熟桃品种夏季叶色转红对太阳光能的利用和光系统Ⅱ的叶绿素荧光特征的影响.结果表明:早熟桃叶片色素组成的变化会显著影响其光合和叶绿素荧光特性.叶色转红后,早熟桃净光合速率(Pn)日均值、PSⅡ最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、PSII实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)均上升,无显著光抑制,而绿叶对照‘红花碧桃’的电子传递速率(ETR)、Fv

  2. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema


    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  3. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    Hoffmeyer, Preben


    . The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...... taken to bending failure and the relations between compression damage and bending strength and stiffness were established. The results showed that significant reductions of bending strength of dry timber are only caused by such wind induced compression damages that are easily recognised at a planed...

  4. Below-ground competitiveness of adult beech and spruce trees

    Nikolova, Petia Simeonova


    The aim of the field study was to quantify the below-ground competitiveness of 50 to 60-year-old beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees by means of space-related cost/benefit relationships. The study was conducted at the experimental site “Kranzberger Forst” within the framework of the interdisciplinary research program Sonderforschungsbereich 607 (SFB 607; Project B4) “Growth and Parasite Defence – Competition for Resources in Economical Plants from Agronomy and Forestry”. It...

  5. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning


    ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  6. Audit Maturity Model

    Bhattacharya Uttam


    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model –the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.


    Azam Jeihanipour


    Full Text Available Alkaline pretreatment with NaOH under mild operating conditions was used to improve ethanol and biogas production from softwood spruce and hardwood birch. The pretreatments were carried out at different temperatures between minus 15 and 100ºC with 7.0% w/w NaOH solution for 2 h. The pretreated materials were then enzymatically hydrolyzed and subsequently fermented to ethanol or anaerobically digested to biogas. In general, the pretreatment was more successful for both ethanol and biogas production from the hardwood birch than the softwood spruce. The pretreatment resulted in significant reduction of hemicellulose and the crystallinity of cellulose, which might be responsible for improved enzymatic hydrolyses of birch from 6.9% to 82.3% and spruce from 14.1% to 35.7%. These results were obtained with pretreatment at 100°C for birch and 5°C for spruce. Subsequently, the best ethanol yield obtained was 0.08 g/g of the spruce while pretreated at 100°C, and 0.17 g/g of the birch treated at 100°C. On the other hand, digestion of untreated birch and spruce resulted in methane yields of 250 and 30 l/kg VS of the wood species, respectively. The pretreatment of the wood species at the best conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in 83% and 74% improvement in methane production from birch and spruce.


    Pingping Su,


    Full Text Available Sorption of metal ions from aqueous solutions to birch wood and spruce heartwood and sapwood has been studied. Functional groups in wood were determined by acid-base titrations. The sorption of metal ions to wood of the different tree species was investigated by a column chromatographic technique. The mechanism of sorption is mainly ion exchange by complexation of metal ions to the functional groups, e.g. carboxyl groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups, in the wood phase. By combination of the sorption experiments with four different metal ion mixtures, the following affinity order was established for spruce sapwood particles: Fe3+>>Pb2+>>Cu2+>>Fe2+>Cd2+>Zn2+>Ni2+>Mn2+≥Ca2+≥Sr2+≥Ba2+>>Mg2+>>K+>Na+≈Li+. For all three types of stemwood studied, the affinity orders were almost the same. The ion exchange properties of wood were comparable to those of a weakly acid cation exchanger. The affinity order obtained for the synthetic resin was quite similar to the order given above for wood. The metal sorption properties of wood materials imply that they could be a potential material for removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions.

  9. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests—signs for facilitation?

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz


    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area. PMID:24009616

  10. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D


    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (

  11. Sulfite pretreatment (SPORL) for robust enzymatic saccharification of spruce and red pine

    J.Y. Zhu; X.J. Pan; G.S. Wang; R. Gleisner


    This study established a novel process using sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) for robust and efficient bioconversion of softwoods. The process consists of sulfite treatment of wood chips under acidic conditions followed by mechanical size reduction using disk refining. The results indicated that after the SPORL pretreatment of...

  12. Effects of acidic deposition on nutrient uptake, nutrient cycling and growth processes of vegetation in the spruce-fir ecosystem

    McLaughlin, S.B.; Garten, C.T.; Wullschleger, S.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others


    This report summarizes progress in three years of field research designed to evaluate biological and chemical indicators of the current and future health of the Southern Appalachian spruce-fir ecosystem. The emphasis of this research has been on the identification and understanding of mechanisms through which current levels of acidic deposition are impacting ecosystem processes. The identification of these principal mechanisms and key biological indicators of change was designed to improve our capabilities to detect, monitor, and assess the effects of air quality regulations and attendant future air quality changes on ecosystem response. Individual research tasks focused on the following research areas: (1) the significance of foliar uptake of atmospheric sources of nitrogen in relationship to plant utilization of N from available soil reserves; (2) linkages between atmospheric inputs to the soil surface, solution chemistry, and decomposition in the upper organic soil horizons; (3) effects of soil solution chemistry on uptake of cations and aluminum by fine roots; and (4) the effects of varying rates of calcium supply on carbon metabolism of Fraser fir and red spruce, and the relationship between calcium levels in wood cells and integrity of wood formed in bole and branches. Each of the individual tasks was designed to focus upon a mechanism or process that we consider critical to understanding chemical and biological linkages. These linkages will be important determinants in understanding the basis of past and potential future responses of the high elevation Southern Appalachian Forest to acidic deposition and other co-occurring environmental stresses. This report contains (1) background and rationale for the research undertaken in 1992-94; (2) a summary of principal research findings; (3) publications from this research; and (4) characterization of data sets produced by this research which will be the basis of future research, analyses and/or publications.

  13. Influence of oviposition preference in reduced susceptibility of Ottawa Valley white spruce (picea glauce) to spruce budmoth (zeiraphera canadensis) in New Brunswick: Final report

    Quiring, D.T.; Butterworth, E.W.


    In New Brunswick, efforts to control populations of spruce budmoth by spraying adults with insecticides or pheromones have produced encouraging results. An alternative technique, the selection of less-susceptible spruce, would aid in the development of an integrated management program for this insect pest. Differences in spruce damage as revealed in previous studies could be due to oviposition choice and/or to host suitability. However, researchers must determine the distribution of eggs laid by the spruce budmoth before they can determine whether some families of spruce have low levels of damage because they are avoided by ovipositing females and/or because they are less suitable for egg and larval development. This report presents results from studies carried out to quantify the number of eggs laid on trees from different families. Investigators collected tree branch samples from plantations and a seed orchard in May, before bud burst or egg hatching commenced. They analysed variations in oviposition parameters (such as number of eggs and egg masses, number of eggs parasitized by Trichogramma minutum, and number of viable eggs) using analysis of variance. To determine whether differences in egg density were related to plant morphology, they also measured such parameters as shoot length and diameter, needle length, shot type, and needle density.

  14. The influence of spruce on acidity and nutrient content in soils of Northern Taiga dwarf shrub-green moss spruce forests

    Orlova, M. A.; Lukina, N. V.; Smirnov, V. E.; Artemkina, N. A.


    Presently, among the works considering the influence of forest trees on soil properties, the idea that spruce ( Picea abies) promotes the acidification of soils predominates. The aim of this work is to assess the effects of spruce trees of different ages and Kraft classes on the acidity and content of available nutrient compounds in the soils under boreal dwarf shrub-green moss spruce forests by the example of forest soils in the Kola Peninsula. The soils are typical iron-illuvial podzols (Albic Rustic Podzols (Arenic)). Three probable ways of developing soils under spruce forests with the moss-dwarf shrub ground cover are considered. The soils under windfall-soil complexes of flat mesodepressions present the initial status. The acidity of organic soil horizons from the initial stage of mesodepression overgrowth to the formation of adult trees changed nonlinearly: the soil acidity reached its maximum under the 30-40-year-old trees and decreased under the trees older than 100 years. The contents of nitrogen and available nutrients increased. The acidity of the mineral soil horizons under the trees at the ages of 110-135 and 190-220 years was comparable, but higher than that under the 30-40-year-old trees. The differences in the strength and trends of the trees' effect on the soils are explained by the age of spruce trees and their belonging to different Kraft classes.

  15. Birthmarks - red

    Strawberry mark; Vascular skin changes; Angioma cavernosum; Capillary hemangioma; Hemangioma simplex ... There are 2 main categories of birthmarks: Red birthmarks are made ... are called vascular birthmarks. Pigmented birthmarks are areas ...

  16. Growth and wood properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in nursing mixtures established on nitrogen-deficient mineral soils

    Cameron, A.D.; Watson, B.A. [Aberdeen Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Forestry


    Rate of growth and wood properties of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were investigated in triplet mixtures with lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Loud.) (Alaskan provenance) and Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), established on nitrogen-deficient, iron pan soils. These 'nursing' mixtures were compared with pure stands of Sitka spruce that had been either regularly or periodically fertilized with nitrogen. Japanese larch promoted a growth rate in Sitka spruce greater than that achieved in the lodgepole pine-nursed spruce and equivalent to the two pure spruce treatments over the duration of the experiment (current age 28 yrs). Growth of regularly fertilized pure Sitka spruce was not significantly greater than that of periodically fertilized pure spruce. Alaskan lodgepole pine controlled branch size on the lower part of the spruce stems more effectively than the other treatments, although this may have been a function of tree size. Branch characteristics of Japanese larch-nursed spruce, however, were similar to those of the pure spruce treatments. Japanese larch caused an imbalance in crown development in the spruce, although it is unclear from the present study whether this will have an influence on stem and wood quality by the end of the rotation. Overall, the evidence from this study suggests that Japanese larch is an effective nurse of Sitka spruce on nitrogen-deficient iron pans, maintaining a rate of growth similar to that of pure Sitka spruce periodically fertilized with nitrogen and higher than that observed in spruce nursed by Alaskan lodgepole pine.

  17. Acids in spruce needles stressed by SO/sub 2/ and infected with Chrysomyxa abietis

    Grill, D.; Lindner, W.; Jaeger, H.J.


    By means of gas chromatography organic acids are treated in spruces and peas. The question should be cleared up how far both total acids and the composition of the acid pattern are influenced by pathogens. Spruce needles infected by Chrysomyxa abietis as well as leaves of spruces and peas exposed to SO/sub 2/-emissions are tested. It is shown that as a reaction against both biotic and abiotic pathogens, the total acid content is decreased. The influence of these pathogens on the acid pattern shows an individual and unspecific course, whereby the main components shikimic and quinic acid in spruce needles, and the malic acid in pea leaves are mainly affected. In connection with diminished buffer capacity of gas damaged and fungus infected plant material, the results are being discussed. The higher content of phosphoric acid in SO/sub 2/ influenced leaves is attributed to the higher content of adenylates in such affected plants.

  18. Occurrence and frequency of chromosomal defects in meristems of spruce trees under conditions of air pollution

    Muller, M; Geiszinger, A.; Grill, D. [Graz Univ. (Austria)


    A plant test system using classification of chromosomal aberrations in the root tip meristems of young spruce trees was used to estimate the vitality of spruce stands in natural sites at different altitudes. Results confirmed the usefulness of this system as a tool in environmental monitoring. Comparison of results from old and young plants suggested that the most significant influences affecting the genetic material were more likely to be intensive site effects than individual differences or character of the soil. Chromosomal aberration studies were also carried out on five-year-old spruce trees exposed to increased concentration of ozone in greenhouses. Results showed marked influence of ozone on genetic material of the root tips of spruce trees directly after fumigation and three months later. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  19. 78 FR 46312 - Spruce Beetle Epidemic and Aspen Decline Management Response; Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre and...


    ...-of-way and border zones. Other priority treatment areas may be identified through the analysis and... conditions of spruce-fir and healthy clones of aspen. Removal of single trees or group selections of...

  20. Vertical gradients and seasonal variation in stem CO2 efflux within a Norway spruce stand.

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Räntfors, Mats; Wallin, Göran


    Stem CO2 efflux is known to vary seasonally and vertically along tree stems. However, annual tree- and stand-scale efflux estimates are commonly based on measurements made only a few times a year, during daytime and at breast height. In this study, the effect of these simplifying assumptions on annual efflux estimates and their influence on the estimates of the importance of stems in stand-scale carbon cycling are evaluated. In order to assess the strength of seasonal, diurnal and along-stem variability in CO2 efflux, half-hourly measurements were carried out at three heights on three mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees over a period of 3 years. Making the common assumption of breast height efflux rates being representative of the entire stem was found to result in underestimations of 10-17% in the annual tree-scale CO2 efflux. Upscaling using only daytime measurements from breast height increased the underestimation to 15-20%. Furthermore, the results show that the strength of the vertical gradient varies seasonally, being strongest in the early summer and non-existent during the cool months. The observed seasonality in the vertical CO2 efflux gradient could not be explained by variation in stem temperature, temperature response of the CO2 efflux (Q10), outer-bark permeability, CO2 transport in the xylem or CO2 release from the phloem. However, the estimated CO2 concentration immediately beneath the bark was considerably higher in the upper stem during the main period of diameter growth, coinciding with the strongest vertical efflux gradient. These results suggest that higher growth rates in the upper stem are the main cause for the observed vertical variation in the stem CO2 effluxes. Furthermore, the results indicate that accounting for the vertical efflux variation is essential for assessments of the importance of stems in stand-scale carbon cycling.

  1. Films from Glyoxal-Crosslinked Spruce Galactoglucomannans Plasticized with Sorbitol

    Kirsi S. Mikkonen


    Full Text Available Films were prepared from a renewable and biodegradable forest biorefinery product, spruce O-acetyl-galactoglucomannans (GGMs, crosslinked with glyoxal. For the first time, cohesive and self-standing films were obtained from GGM without the addition of polyol plasticizer. In addition, glyoxal-crosslinked films were prepared using sorbitol at 10, 20, 30, and 40% (wt.-% of GGM. Glyoxal clearly strengthened the GGM matrix, as detected by tensile testing and dynamic mechanical analysis. The elongation at break of films slightly increased, and Young's modulus decreased with increasing sorbitol content. Interestingly, the tensile strength of films was constant with the increased plasticizer content. The effect of sorbitol on water sorption and water vapor permeability (WVP depended on relative humidity (RH. At low RH, the addition of sorbitol significantly decreased the WVP of films. The glyoxal-crosslinked GGM films containing 20% sorbitol exhibited the lowest oxygen permeability (OP and WVP of the studied films and showed satisfactory mechanical performance.


    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results concerning the change of some physical and mechanical properties of spruce wood (Picea abies L., after repeated freezing and thawing, respectively after being subjected to temperature variation from positive valuea (+100C to negative values (-250C. Through this approach, the authors aimed at simulating normal temperature variations that occur in winter between night and daytime and which fresh cut timber has to stand if being stored in an open yard for one week before being kilndried. By comparing these results with the ones obtained after continuous freezing at -250C for one week, it was established that the temperature variation and the repeated changing phase of water inside wood increase dimensional instability and reduce the mechanical strengths much more than the simple exposure to theconstant negative temperature.


    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU


    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  4. Investigation of physiological responses in Norway spruce needles to natural and anthropogenic factors

    Lasnik, C.R.; Batic, F.; Grill, D. [Erico Velenje Institute of Ecology, Research and Industrial Cooperation, Velenje (Slovenia)


    Among the various stress indicators for early identification of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten) decline, sulphur content, photosynthetic pigment content, activity of the enzyme peroxidase, content of water-soluble thiols and ascorbic acid were analysed in four age classes of spruce needles sampled from five trees. Ten sampling sites were selected according to the degree of forest decline, site conditions and air pollution from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Slovenia).

  5. Trichloroacetic acid in Norway spruce/soil-system. II. Distribution and degradation in the plant.

    Forczek, S T; Uhlírová, H; Gryndler, M; Albrechtová, J; Fuksová, K; Vágner, M; Schröder, P; Matucha, M


    Independently from its origin, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) as a phytotoxic substance affects coniferous trees. Its uptake, distribution and degradation were thus investigated in the Norway spruce/soil-system using 14C labeling. TCA is distributed in the tree mainly by the transpiration stream. As in soil, TCA seems to be degraded microbially, presumably by phyllosphere microorganisms in spruce needles. Indication of TCA biodegradation in trees is shown using both antibiotics and axenic plants.

  6. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Porth, Ilga; White, Richard; Jaquish, Barry; Alfaro, René; Ritland, Carol; Ritland, Kermit


    In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.) in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids) that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL) co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1) genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2) master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  7. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Ilga Porth

    Full Text Available In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck. in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1 genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2 master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  8. Organic matter characteristics in boreal forest soils under stands of silver birch, Norway spruce, and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch

    Smolander, A.; Kitunen, V.


    The aim was to study how tree species and a tree species mixture affect microbial C and N transformations and two major plant secondary compound groups, terpenes and phenolic compounds in soil. The study site was a tree-species experiment in middle-eastern part of Finland containing plots of 43-year-old silver birch, Norway spruce and Norway spruce with a mixture of silver birch (22 and 37 % birch of the total stem number). Soil was podzol and humus type mor. Samples were taken from the organic layer. C and N in the microbial biomass, rates of C mineralization (CO2 evolution), net N mineralization and nitrification, and concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds, condensed tannins and different kind of terpenes were measured. Amounts of C and N in the microbial biomass and the rates of C mineralization and net N mineralization were all lower under spruce than birch, and particularly net N mineralization was stimulated by birch mixture. Concentrations of total water-soluble phenolic compounds were on a similar level, irrespective of tree species. However, there were less low-molecular-weight phenolics and more high-molecular-weight phenolics under spruce than birch. Concentrations of condensed tannins and both sesqui- and diterpenes were all higher under spruce than birch but the concentrations of triterpenes were similar in all soils. The difference between tree species was greatest with monoterpenes which were measured from both organic layer and soil atmosphere: high concentrations under spruce and negligible under birch. Birch mixture tended to decrease the concentrations of condensed tannins and mono-, sesqui- and diterpenes.

  9. Introducing Intensively Managed Spruce Plantations in Swedish Forest Landscapes will Impair Biodiversity Decline

    Lena Gustafsson


    Full Text Available Due to pressure to raise forest productivity in Sweden, there are proposals to apply more intensive forestry methods, but they could have potentially large effects on biodiversity. Here we report a compilation and evaluation of the extent and significance of such effects. We evaluated potential effects on biodiversity by introducing intensively fertilized Norway spruce plantations as a management option in Swedish forests with low conservation values on insects, vascular plants, lichens, bryophytes, and red-listed species. Due to a lack of specific studies addressing this question, we based the evaluation on a combination of available and appropriate empiric and anecdotic knowledge; literature data, and expert judgments largely available in species data bases. Our evaluations suggest that such forests will only harbor species that are common and widespread in conventionally managed stands and that species of conservation interest will be lacking, due to the low heterogeneity and light intensity of even-aged monocultures with dense canopies, short rotation times and low availability of coarse woody debris. Effects at the landscape scale are more difficult to evaluate, but will be dependent on the area utilized and the conservation value of sites used. We conclude that negative effects on biodiversity can be reduced if: (1 only land with the lowest conservational value is utilized; (2 plantations are spatially arranged to minimize fragmentation of the landscape; (3 the quality and quantity of key structural elements (e.g., coarse woody debris, old living trees and snags are maintained at the landscape level; and (4 management intensity is relaxed on other land. For effective implementation of these measures, legislative frameworks and policy instruments need to be adjusted and new models for planning and monitoring need to be developed.

  10. Improved "optical highlighter" probes derived from discosoma red fluorescent protein.

    Robinson, Lisbeth C; Marchant, Jonathan S


    The tetrameric red fluorescent protein, DsRed, undergoes a rapid red to green color change evoked by short wavelength (lambda highlighter" probe for tracking live cells, organelles, and fusion proteins. This color change results from selective bleaching of the "mature" red-emitting species of DsRed and an enhancement of emission from the "immature" green species, likely caused by dequenching of fluorescence resonance energy transfer occurring within the protein tetramer. Here, we have examined the role of residues known to influence the rate and completeness of chromophore maturation on the cellular and biophysical properties of DsRed mutants. Surprisingly, a single amino acid mutation (N42Q) with increased basal green emission yet rapid chromophore maturation displayed a multiphoton-evoked color change that was brighter, more consistent, more vivid, and easier to evoke than DsRed, despite the larger proportion of green chromophores. Rapidly maturing mutants with more complete chromophore maturation, exhibited little color change and increased resistance to multiphoton bleaching. We describe improved optical and cell biological properties for two DsRed-derived variants which we showcase in photolabeling studies, and discuss these data in terms of implications for fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based probes.

  11. Peroxidase activity, soluble proteins and chlorophyll content in spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles affected by cement dust

    Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, Hrvoje


    The correlation between the peroxidase activity, chlorophyll and soluble protein content as well as the changes in vascular bundle structure in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles affected by cement dust were studied. In spite of the absence of any yellowing symptoms, a significantly lower chlorophyll content was measured in spruce needles affected by cement dust. Observed sieve cells distortions in needle samples indicated that spruce trees grown near the cement factory were Mg def...

  12. Product (RED)

    Ponte, Stefano


    for a better world) by enrolling consumers in ways that do not rely on accurate knowledge of the products or specific understanding of the cause that The Global Fund engages but, instead, rely on a system of more general, affective affinity between the ‘aid celebrities’ who are behind RED (such as Bono......) and the consumers who buy iconic brand products to help ‘distant others’. While in many other forms of causumerism, labels or certification systems ‘prove’ that a product is just, in RED, aid celebrities provide the proof. From the consumer point of view both labels and celebrities provide a similar simplification...... a proportion of sales income to help distant others in Africa. The iconic brands sitting under the RED umbrella also play an important role as they offer a consistent and known venue for channeling consumer affect. We argue that celebrity validation, backed up by iconic brands, facilitates at least three...

  13. Transcriptome mining, functional characterization, and phylogeny of a large terpene synthase gene family in spruce (Picea spp.

    Dullat Harpreet K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In conifers, terpene synthases (TPSs of the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d subfamily form a diverse array of mono-, sesqui-, and diterpenoid compounds, which are components of the oleoresin secretions and volatile emissions. These compounds contribute to defence against herbivores and pathogens and perhaps also protect against abiotic stress. Results The availability of extensive transcriptome resources in the form of expressed sequence tags (ESTs and full-length cDNAs in several spruce (Picea species allowed us to estimate that a conifer genome contains at least 69 unique and transcriptionally active TPS genes. This number is comparable to the number of TPSs found in any of the sequenced and well-annotated angiosperm genomes. We functionally characterized a total of 21 spruce TPSs: 12 from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, 5 from white spruce (P. glauca, and 4 from hybrid white spruce (P. glauca × P. engelmannii, which included 15 monoterpene synthases, 4 sesquiterpene synthases, and 2 diterpene synthases. Conclusions The functional diversity of these characterized TPSs parallels the diversity of terpenoids found in the oleoresin and volatile emissions of Sitka spruce and provides a context for understanding this chemical diversity at the molecular and mechanistic levels. The comparative characterization of Sitka spruce and Norway spruce diterpene synthases revealed the natural occurrence of TPS sequence variants between closely related spruce species, confirming a previous prediction from site-directed mutagenesis and modelling.

  14. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    Christiansen, Charlotte


    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  15. The School Maturity

    PŠENIČKOVÁ, Nikola


    The bachelor thesis deals with school maturity of children and is aimed at pre-school children at the age of 6 years or, if necessary, older. The aim of this thesis is to capture the differences between children who start a year later than they were supposed to and children who went to enrolment for the first time and present the reasons for postponing the start of the school attendance. The theoretical part focuses on the issue of maturity of pre-school children and also deals with their rea...

  16. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Lumír Dobrovolný


    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  17. Technology Maturity is Technology Superiority



  18. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    Plomp, M.G.A.


    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  19. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    Plomp, M.G.A.


    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  20. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation

    Roos, Wouter H.; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R.; Brooks III, Charles L.; Johnson, John E.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.


    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material

  1. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  2. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph


    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  3. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.


    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the δ13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In

  4. Field testing various container types in New Brunswick: A fifth year report on test areas established in 1983 with black spruce and white spruce seedlings. Technique No. 90:09


    Report on the findings of a containerized seedling response trial using six study areas (three white spruce and three black spruce) established in 1983/84 in which nine different stock types (styroblock, Can Am, Wearpot, paperpot, Spencer Lemaire and bareroot) were tested for best response. Response was quantified as percent survival, change in height growth, volume, total height and 1988 leader length.



    <正> 在Jimi Hendrix的这首《Red House》中,我们可以领略到非常多紧密、连贯、经典的吉他乐句,尤其是乐曲中众多给人以胁迫感的乐句更是另人回味无常。 在我们学习这首《Red House》的时候,就像学习Jimi Hendrix的其他曲目一样,最有效的办法就是先用心聆听几遍这首歌曲,然后再拿起吉他跟随着原曲一起反复弹奏。无论何时学习Jimi的歌曲,我们一定要意识到

  6. Red Tour


    @@ Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.

  7. Red Tour


      Red Tour, the tourism uniquely to enjoy in China, is not only the landscapes to appreciate, but also the text book by means of which to learn the Chinese Revolutions from the birth of the China Communist Partyto the founding of the P. R. China. Itisalso a window, through which the foreign friends who are eager to learn the Chinese Revolutionary History could be very satired.……

  8. Shifts in spruce and beech flushing in the context of global climate change

    Radek Pokorný


    Full Text Available Bud phenology and development of needle nitrogen content were monitored on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst and European beech (Fagus sylvatica [L.] trees grown inside glass-domes for five years under ambient (385 µmol(CO2 mol−1 and elevated (700 µmol(CO2 mol−1 atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]. The spruce to beech ratio was 35:65 in both treatments. At the beginning of the experiment mean age of investigated trees was 5 years.Elevated [CO2] was responsible for premature growth of both spruce and beech buds in the E treatment (not significantly, by 3–7 days. Nevertheless the flushing of neither beech nor spruce was not significantly hastened in E treatment during the flushing within the 5 years. During the second half of flushing faster development of terminal beech buds comparing to spruce was found (Chi-square = 65, p 2] acts as growth stimulator but the nitrogen insufficiency eliminates a positive effect of [CO2]. As the global climate change express itself in many ways and relationship’s consequences among plants and/or animals are hard to forecast.

  9. Summer and winter drought drive the initiation and spread of spruce beetle outbreak.

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Schneider, Dominik; Molotch, Noah P


    This study used Landsat-based detection of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak over the years 2000-2014 across the Southern Rocky Mountain Ecoregion to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of outbreak and assess the influence of temperature, drought, forest characteristics and previous spruce beetle activity on outbreak development. During the 1999-2013 period, time series of spruce beetle activity were highly spatially correlated (r >0.5) at distances r = 0.08) at distances >400 km. Furthermore, cluster analysis on time series of outbreak activity revealed the outbreak developed at multiple incipient locations and spread to unaffected forest, highlighting the importance of both local-scale dispersal and regional-scale drivers in synchronizing spruce beetle outbreak. Spatial overlay analysis and Random Forest modeling of outbreak development show that outbreaks initiate in areas characterized by summer, winter, and multi-year drought and that outbreak spread is strongly linked to the proximity and extent of nearby outbreak, but remains associated with drought. Notably, we find that spruce beetle outbreak is associated with low peak snow water equivalent, not just summer drought. As such, future alterations to both winter and summer precipitation regimes are likely to drive important changes in subalpine forests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand

    Dohnal Michal


    Full Text Available The interception was recognized as an important part of the catchment water balance in temperate climate. The mountainous forest ecosystem at experimental headwater catchment Liz has been subject of long-term monitoring. Unique dataset in terms of time resolution serves to determine canopy storage capacity and free throughfall. Spatial variability of throughfall was studied using one weighing and five tipping bucket rain gauges. The basic characteristics of forest affecting interception process were determined for the Norway spruce stand at the experimental area - the leaf area index was 5.66 - 6.00 m2 m-2, the basal area was 55.7 m2 ha-1, and the crown closure above individual rain gauges was between 19 and 95%. The total interception loss in both growing seasons analyzed was 34.5%. The mean value of the interception capacity determined was about 2 mm. Throughfall exhibited high variability from place to place and it was strongly affected by character of rainfall. On the other hand, spatial pattern of throughfall in average showed low variability.

  11. Selection of Norway spruce somatic embryos by computer vision

    Hamalainen, Jari J.; Jokinen, Kari J.


    A computer vision system was developed for the classification of plant somatic embryos. The embryos are in a Petri dish that is transferred with constant speed and they are recognized as they pass a line scan camera. A classification algorithm needs to be installed for every plant species. This paper describes an algorithm for the recognition of Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos. A short review of conifer micropropagation by somatic embryogenesis is also given. The recognition algorithm is based on features calculated from the boundary of the object. Only part of the boundary corresponding to the developing cotyledons (2 - 15) and the straight sides of the embryo are used for recognition. An index of the length of the cotyledons describes the developmental stage of the embryo. The testing set for classifier performance consisted of 118 embryos and 478 nonembryos. With the classification tolerances chosen 69% of the objects classified as embryos by a human classifier were selected and 31$% rejected. Less than 1% of the nonembryos were classified as embryos. The basic features developed can probably be easily adapted for the recognition of other conifer somatic embryos.

  12. Evaluation of funnel traps for estimating tree mortality and associated population phase of spruce beetle in Utah

    E. Matthew Hansen; Barbara J. Bentz; A. Steven Munson; James C. Vandygriff; David L. Turner


    Although funnel traps are routinely used to manage bark beetles, little is known regarding the relationship between trap captures of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) and mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) within a 10 ha block of the trap. Using recursive partitioning tree analyses, rules...

  13. Maturity in technology

    L. Alberts


    Full Text Available The concept is developed that modern technology, because of its relationship with pure science, can never really become mature, but will always grow as the pool of scientific knowledge grows. Parameters indicating to some extent the degree of technological prowess in a society are compared for a spectrum of countries. It is clear that in spite of some internationally outstanding successes. South Africa must be regarded on average as a developing society.

  14. Holocene occurrence of Lophodermium piceae, a black spruce needle endophyte and possible paleoindicator of boreal forest health

    Jasinski, J. P. Paul; Payette, Serge


    Holocene occurrences of conifer needle endophytes have not previously been reported. We report the fossil remains of Lophodermium piceae (Fckl.) Hoehn., a fungal endophyte of black spruce ( Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) needles, in macrofossils dating back to 8000 cal yr BP. Spruce budworm head capsules and L. piceae remains were found preceding charcoal layers delineating the transformation of four spruce-moss forest sites to spruce-lichen woodland. As L. piceae is found solely on senescent needles, its increased presence during these transformation periods likely indicates that the forests were in decline due to the spruce budworm ( Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) when they burned. Future paleoecological studies incorporating needle fungi observations could be used to investigate the historical occurrence of tree disease and the role of fungi in forest health and decline.

  15. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Jeanne A. Robert


    Full Text Available White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck. is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp.. Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898 in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903. The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees.

  16. Red Alder-Conifer Stands in Alaska: An Example of Mixed Species Management to Enhance Structural and Biological Complexity

    Robert L. Deal


    Full Text Available There is worldwide interest in managing forests to improve biodiversity, enhance ecosystem services and assure long-term sustainability of forest resources. An increasingly important goal of forest management is to increase stand diversity and improve wildlife and aquatic habitat. Well-planned silvicultural systems containing a mixture of broadleaf-conifer species have potential to enhance stand diversity and provide other ecosystem services earlier than typical even-aged conifer plantations. Here, we use the example of mixed Sitka spruce/western hemlock and red alder in young, managed stands in southeast Alaska to achieve these goals. We briefly describe the silvics of Sitka spruce, western hemlock and red alder plantations as pure conifer stands or pure broadleaf stands. Then, we synthesize studies of mixed red alder-Sitka spruce/western hemlock stands in southeast Alaska and present their potential for improving stand structural complexity, biodiversity and other ecosystem services over pure conifer forests. Finally, we discuss some of the opportunities and potential tradeoffs for managing mixed broadleaf-conifer stands for providing a number of natural resources and the influence of these broadleaf-conifer forests on ecosystem linkages and processes.

  17. Effect of deep planting black spruce: Fifth-year field results. Technical report No. 92

    Whaley, R.E.; Buse, L.J.; Niznowski, G.


    This report summarizes the findings of a trial established in 1990 in northern Ontario to examine the practice of deep planting black spruce seedlings. The investigators studied the effects of three planting depths on the survival and growth of overwintered black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.)BSP) at a site with deep, moist, fine loamy-clayey soil and a vegetation type V31/32 (black spruce-jack pine/tall shrub/feathermoss) that had been full-tree harvested and Bracke site prepared. The report includes data on fifth-year percent survival, total height, height increment, and diameter at ground level for seedling stock planted normally (0-5 centimeters deep), at medium depth (5-9 centimeters below root collar), and deep (9 centimeters or deeper below root collar).

  18. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites

    Sarah K. Proceviat


    Full Text Available An arboreal lichen index to be utilized in assessing woodland caribou habitat throughout northeastern Ontario was developed. The "index" was comprised of 5 classes, which differentiated arboreal lichen biomass on black spruce trees, ranging from maximal quantities of arboreal lichen (class 5 to minimal amounts of arboreal lichen (class 1. This arboreal lichen index was subsequently used to estimate the biomass of arboreal lichen available to woodland caribou on lowland black spruce sites ranging in age from 1 year to 150 years post-harvest. A total of 39 sites were assessed and significant differences in arboreal lichen biomass were found, with a positive linear relationship between arboreal lichen biomass and forest age. It is proposed that the index be utilized by government and industry as a means of assessing the suitability of lowland black spruce habitat for woodland caribou in this region.

  19. Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.

    Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti


    Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from spruce wood bark.

    Ghitescu, Roxana-Elena; Volf, Irina; Carausu, Constantin; Bühlmann, Ana-Maria; Gilca, Iulian Andrei; Popa, Valentin I


    Here we describe the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the phenolic compounds from spruce wood bark and present a straight-forward experimental planning method, allowing the optimisation of the process. The effect of ethanol concentration, temperature and extraction time were evaluated through a 3(2)·2 experimental planning. The efficiency of the extraction process was appreciated based on factorial ANOVA results. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols (13.232mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g of spruce bark tested) was obtained using a process time of 60min, an extraction temperature of 54°C and a concentration of ethanol of 70% respectively. These results indicate that an important quantity of bioactive compounds can be extracted from spruce wood bark by ultrasound assisted extraction technology.

  1. Increasing the permeability of spruce sapwood (Picea orientalis l. with enzymatic treatment

    Sefa Durmaz


    Full Text Available The spruce is the one of the refractory wood species. In this study, the spruce sapwood samples were treated with enzymes to improve its permeability. The pit membranes play an important role for water transporting between the adjacent cells. The spruce wood pit membranes are prone to close under the fiber saturated point. As a result of the liquid transportation is blocked, the impregnation process is getting difficult. The wood pits compose of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, and phenolic components. The torus surface is covered with pectin. Bioprep 3000 L, Viscozyme L, Texazym BFE, Texazym DLG are commonly used in the textile industry to remove lignocellulosic materials. It was aimed to destroy the closed pits via enzymatic treatment. At the end of the study, the retention and penetration increments were obtained after the enzymatic treatment. The wood samples treated with enzymes which are composed of enzymes mixtures gave more penetration and retention values.

  2. Bionomy of spruce bud scale, Physokermes piceae (schrank (Hemiptera: Coccidae in the Belgrade area, Serbia

    Graora Draga


    Full Text Available Spruce bud scale, Physokermes piceae, develops on the genus Picea. Large colonies of this species are constantly present on Picea abies in green areas in the Belgrade territory, causing the drying of needles, branches and whole plants. Therefore, Ph. piceae is a significant spruce pest. Spruce scales attract many entomophagous insects able to reduce pest population. Parasitoid wasps Coccophagus lycimnia (Walk (Aphelinidae and Microterys lunatus (Dalm. (Encyrtidae were reared. Predators Exochomus quadripustulatus L., Scymnus abietis Paykull (Coccinellidae and Anthribus nebulosus Forster (Anthribidae were determined. Both species of ladybird were confirmed as predators of Ph. piceae for the first time in Serbia, while S. abietis is a new species for the fauna of Serbia. The most effective natural enemy of Ph. piceae was A. nebulosus, reducing populations by 68-80%.

  3. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik


    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  4. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  5. The Red Capitalist's Red Face



    @@ A disastrous derivatives investment has seen Citic Pacific chairman Rong Zhijian lose hundreds of millions of dollars - not to mention his reputation Rong Zhijian may well go down in the history books as the last of China's "Red Capitalists," a group of pre-revolutionary tycoons who stayed on post-1949. His family owned one of China's largest private enterprises before 1949 and his father, Rong Yiren, who served as China's vice-president from 1993 to 1998, was hand-picked by Deng Xiaoping to oversee China's economic opening and reform during the 1980s.

  6. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao


    of understanding of the potential impact of (a) choice of the quantitative approach, and (b) scale of measurement on the design and assessment of the maturity model. To address these two methodological issues, we analysed a social media maturity data set and computed maturity scores using different quantitative......This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack...

  7. Long-term development of nursing mixtures of Sitka spruce and larch species in an experiment in northern Scotland

    William L. Mason


    Full Text Available Aim of the study: An experiment was established in 1966 to compare the growth and development of 50: 50 mixtures of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis with either Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi or tamarack (L. laricina with that found in pure plots of Sitka spruce. The site was one of moderate nitrogen availability where the presence of heather (Calluna vulgaris could be expected to limit the growth ofSitka spruce.Area of the study: North-east Scotland.Material and methods: There were different patterns of spruce growth in the pure plots and in the mixtures, with faster spruce growth in mixture in the years approaching and immediately following canopy closure (i.e. ages 15-25. Foliage analysis suggested that this was linked with improved nitrogen status of spruce trees in the mixed compared to the pure plots.Main results: At years 20 and 25 there were significant differences in height, diameter, and basal area between treatments, with the largest basal area being found in the Japanese larch/Sitka spruce mixtures, indicative of overyielding in the mixed plots. However, when the experiment was clearfelled at 41 years of age, all treatments had self-thinned to produce spruce dominated stands of similar height with only an occasional larch tree surviving in plots that were originally 50:50 mixtures.Research highlights: There were no differences between treatments in basal area, harvested volume or sawlog outturn after 41 years. These results can be interpreted as showing facilitation between the larch and the spruce during the establishment phase followed by competition for light once canopy closure had occurred.Keywords: Mixed stand dynamics; facilitation; nitrogen status; product outturn.

  8. Fine Spatial Scale Variation of Soil Microbial Communities under European Beech and Norway Spruce

    Nacke, Heiko; Goldmann, Kezia; Schöning, Ingo; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Kaiser, Kristin; Castillo-Villamizar, Genis A.; Schrumpf, Marion; Buscot, François; Daniel, Rolf; Wubet, Tesfaye


    The complex interactions between trees and soil microbes in forests as well as their inherent seasonal and spatial variations are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the effects of major European tree species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst) on soil bacterial and fungal communities. Mineral soil samples were collected from different depths (0–10, 10–20 cm) and at different horizontal distances from beech or spruce trunks (0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 m) in early summer and autumn. We assessed the composition of soil bacterial and fungal communities based on 16S rRNA gene and ITS DNA sequences. Community composition of bacteria and fungi was most strongly affected by soil pH and tree species. Different ectomycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Tylospora) known to establish mutualistic associations with plant roots showed a tree species preference. Moreover, bacterial and fungal community composition showed spatial and seasonal shifts in soil surrounding beech and spruce. The relative abundance of saprotrophic fungi was higher at a depth of 0–10 vs. 10–20 cm depth. This was presumably a result of changes in nutrient availability, as litter input and organic carbon content decreased with soil depth. Overall bacterial community composition showed strong variations under spruce with increasing distance from the tree trunks, which might be attributed in part to higher fine root biomass near spruce trunks. Furthermore, overall bacterial community composition was strongly affected by season under deciduous trees. PMID:28066384

  9. Determination of ethylenic residues in wood and TMP of spruce by FT-Raman spectroscopy

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph


    A method based on FT-Raman spectroscopy is proposed for determining in situ concentrations of ethylenic residues in softwood lignin. Raman contributions at 1133 and 1654 cm-1, representing coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol structures, respectively, were used in quantifying these units in spruce wood with subsequent conversion to concentrations in lignin. For...

  10. Measurement methods and variability assessment of the Norway spruce total leaf area: Implications for remote sensing

    Homolova, L.; Lukes, P.; Malenovsky, Z.; Lhotakova, Z.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.


    Estimation of total leaf area (LAT) is important to express biochemical properties in plant ecology and remote sensing studies. A measurement of LAT is easy in broadleaf species, but it remains challenging in coniferous canopies. We proposed a new geometrical model to estimate Norway spruce LAT and

  11. Seasonal and diurnal variation in the deposition velocity of ozone over a spruce forest in Denmark

    Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.; Hummelshøj, P.


    The flux of O-3 was measured by the eddy-correlation method over Norway spruce in periods when the trees had a very low activity, periods with optimum growth, and periods with water stress. The aerodynamic resistance (tau(a)), viscous sub-layer resistance (tau(b)) and surface resistance (tau...

  12. Spruce galactoglucomannans inhibit the lipid oxidation in rapeseed oil-in-water emulsions

    Oil-in-water emulsions are functional and industrially valuable systems, whose large interfacial area makes them prone to deterioration, due in part to as the oxidation and oligomerization of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Spruce galactoglucomannans (GGM), wood biomacromolecules abundantly available f...

  13. Moisture in untreated, a cetylated, and furfurylated Norway spruce studied during drying using time domain NMR

    Lisabeth G. Thygesen; Thomas Elder


    Using time domain NMR, the moisture in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) sapwood subjected to four different treatments (never-dried, dried and remoistened, acetylated, and furfurylated) was studied during drying at 40°C, at sample average moisture contents above fiber saturation. Spin-spin relaxation time distributions were derived from CPMG...

  14. Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Salmén, Lennart


    . In this study, the TDMB is examined via creep experiments on small specimens of Norway spruce latewood. The results of these are compared with results from numerical modelling. The experiments include results at two levels of moisture content and three levels of temperature, enabling an investigation...

  15. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa


    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  16. Characterization of variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce (Picea abies L.

    Spiess Nadine


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce is widely distributed across Europe and the predominant tree of the Alpine region. Fast growth and the fact that timber can be harvested cost-effectively in relatively young populations define its status as one of the economically most important tree species of Northern Europe. In this study, EST derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers were developed for the assessment of putative functional diversity in Austrian Norway spruce stands. Results SSR sequences were identified by analyzing 14,022 publicly available EST sequences. Tri-nucleotide repeat motifs were most abundant in the data set followed by penta- and hexa-nucleotide repeats. Specific primer pairs were designed for sixty loci. Among these, 27 displayed polymorphism in a testing population of 16 P. abies individuals sampled across Austria and in an additional screening population of 96 P. abies individuals from two geographically distinct Austrian populations. Allele numbers per locus ranged from two to 17 with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.075 to 0.99. Conclusions We have characterized variable EST SSR markers for Norway spruce detected in expressed genes. Due to their moderate to high degree of variability in the two tested screening populations, these newly developed SSR markers are well suited for the analysis of stress related functional variation present in Norway spruce populations.

  17. Forest pasturing of livestock in Norway:effects on spruce regeneration

    Olav Hjeljord; Trond Histøl; Hilde Karine Wam


    Forest pasturing of free-roaming livestock is a common prac-tice in many parts of the world, but knowledge on how it affects tree regeneration in boreal forests is lacking. We mapped tree density, live-stock site use and accumulated damage to young trees of commercial interest (Norway spruce, Picea abies L. Karst.) on 56 clearcuts inside and outside a fenced forest area used for livestock pasturing in Ringsaker, Norway. Inside the fence 56±1.8% of spruce trees were damaged com-pared to 37±3.4%outside. Proportion of damaged spruce trees was posi-tively related to cattle use of the clearcut, but not so for sheep. On the most intensively used clearcuts, four out of five trees were damaged. The density of deciduous trees was five times lower inside compared to out-side of the fence (varying with plant species). While livestock grazing may reduce resource competition in favour of spruce, the current animal density clearly is impeding forest regeneration in the study area.

  18. Mapping Spruce Beetle Outbreak Severity and Distribution in Colorado Using Landsat and Integrative Spatial Modelling

    Woodward, B. D.; Rounds, E.; Carroll, S.; Engelstad, P.; Miltenberger, O.


    Over the last fifteen years Colorado forests have experienced epidemic bark beetle outbreaks with increasing severity. The outbreaks have wide-reaching impacts on forest health, wildlife habitat, wildfire regimes, and the safety of recreational forest users. While the majority of existing studies have focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), an increasing amount of research is focusing on the ongoing spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak. The spruce beetle outbreak in southwest Colorado is the largest ongoing outbreak in the state. This project utilizes Landsat 8 OLI, NAIP imagery, and forest health indices to produce spruce mortality data. These combined data were fed into an integrative spatial model to produce fine scale maps of spruce mortality across southwestern Colorado for the year 2011, 2013, and 2015. These maps have the potential to be a significant improvement on the roughly estimated map products available to Colorado land managers, and will be used to plan treatment operations and estimate aboveground biomass in the study area.

  19. Comparative growth of black spruce container seedlings grown in worm-casting-amended soilless media

    Menes, P.A.; Colombo, S.J.


    This study compared the morphology of containerized black spruce seedlings grown in fertilized and non-fertilized worm- casting-amended media to seedlings grown in a non-amended fertilized peat-vermiculite mix. The comparison was made to determine if various media amended with castings could produce seedlings equivalent to those produced using a standard nursery growing medium.

  20. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    Malenovsky, Z.; Homolova, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukes, P.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.


    We investigate combined continuum removal and radiative transfer (RT) modeling to retrieve leaf chlorophyll a & b content (Cab) from the AISA Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer data of sub-meter (0.4 m) spatial resolution. Based on coupled PROSPECT-DART RT simulations of a Norway spruce (Picea

  1. Comparing growth and fine root distribution in monocultures and mixed plantations of hybrid poplar and spruce

    Lahcen Benomar; Annie DesRochers; Guy R.Larocque


    Disease prevention,biodiversity,productivity improvement and ecological considerations are all factors that contribute to increasing interest in mixed plantations.The objective of this study was to evaluate early growth and productivity of two hybrid poplar clones,P.balsamifera x trichocarpa (PBT) and P.maximowiczii x balsamifera (PMB),one improved family of Norway spruce (Picea glauca (PA)) and one improved family of white spruce (Picea abies (PG)) growing under different spacings in monocultures and mixed plots.The plantations were established in 2003 in Abitibi-Témiscamingue,Quebec,Canada,in a split plot design with spacing as the whole plot factor (1 × 1 m,3 × 3 m and 5 × 5 m) and mixture treatments as subplot factor (pure:PBT,PMB,PA and PG,and 1:1 mixture PBT:PA,PBT:PG,PMB:PA and PMB:PG).Results showed a beneficial effect of the hybrid poplar-spruce mixture on diameter growth for hybrid poplar clones,but not for the 5 × 5 m spacing because of the relatively young age of the plantations.Diameter growth of the spruces decreased in mixed plantings in the 1 × 1 m,while their height growth increased,resulting in similar aboveground biomass per tree across treatments.Because of the large size differences between spruces and poplars,aboveground biomass in the mixed plantings was generally less than that in pure poplar plots.Leaf nitrogen concentration for the two spruce families and hybrid poplar clone PMB was greater in mixed plots than in monocultures,while leaf nitrogen concentration of clone PBT was similar among mixture treatments.Because of its faster growth rate and greater soil resources demands,clone PMB was the only one showing an increase in leaf N with increased spacing between trees.Fine roots density was greater for both hybrid poplars than spruces.The vertical distribution of fine roots was insensitive to mixture treatment.

  2. Phytosociological studies of the forests with sessile oak and Norway spruce from South-Eastern Transylvania

    Adrian Indreica


    Full Text Available The forests with sessile oak (Quercus petraea and Norway spruce (Picea abies from south-eastern Transylvania represent a peculiar type of phytocenoses, rather unusual for the present-day vegetation of Romania’s territory. Aim of the study is to provide a detailed description of the vegetation and to identify the phytosociological and typological units to which it could belong. Beside this, stand structure and regeneration status of the main tree species are illustrated. The studied area is located around Carpathian intermountain depressions Braşov and Ciuc, where vegetation had a peculiar history and today sessile oak forests on high altitude exists, interfering with spruce forests. The hypothesis of the process naturalness is supported by vegetation history in the area, climate, stand structure and peculiarities of herb layer composition (the mixture of relic of both mountain-boreal origin and south-European origin, like Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Pyrola rotundifolia and respectively Potentilla micrantha, Lathyrus venetus respectively. Sintaxonomically, studied phytocenoses with sessile oak and spruce belong mainly to acidophilus oak forests (Luzulo luzuloidis-Quercetum petraeae, but some of them resemble oak-hornbeam forests (Carici pilosae-Carpinetum, indicating a more recent change in stand structure and suggesting that not the soil, but the climate is the driving force of succession. Regeneration of sessile oak is at least satisfactory, but the expansion of spruce in such stands could seriously restrict the survival of sessile oak. A new typological unit will be appropriate,for a better management of sessile oak forests with spruce admixture.

  3. Climate variability and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks in south-central and southwest Alaska.

    Sherriff, Rosemary L; Berg, Edward E; Miller, Amy E


    We used tree ring data (AD 1601-2007) to examine the occurrence of and climatic influences on spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks in south-central and southwest Alaska and found evidence of regional-scale outbreaks dating from the mid-1700s, related to climate variability at multiple temporal scales. Over interannual time scales (approximately 1-3 years), El Niño years, combined with severe late-summer drought, appeared to contribute significantly to spruce beetle outbreaks in the study area. Over multidecadal time scales (up to approximately 40 years), cool-phase Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) conditions tended to precede beetle outbreaks, regardless of the phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). All sites showed low-severity disturbances attributed to spruce beetle damage, most notably during the 1810s. During other major periods of disturbance (i.e., 1870s, 1910s, 1970s), the effects of spruce beetle outbreaks were of moderate or higher severity. The highly synchronized timing of spruce beetle outbreaks at interannual to multidecadal scales, and particularly the association between cool-phase PDO conditions and beetle disturbance, suggests that climate (i.e., temperature, precipitation) is a primary driver of outbreaks in the study area. Our disturbance chronologies (mid-1700s to present) suggest that recent irruptions (1990s to present) in south-central and southwest Alaska are within the historical geographic range, but that outbreaks since the 1990s show greater spatiotemporal synchrony (i.e., more sites record high-severity infestations) than at any other time in the past approximatly 250 years.

  4. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    R. D. Vasilishyn


    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  5. Red blood cell production

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  6. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    von Feilitzen, Helena


    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  7. International red meat trade.

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L


    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  8. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    Moon, Ji Hye


    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  9. Field testing various container types in New Brunswick: A fifth year report on test areas established in 1985 with black spruce, white spruce and jack pine seedlings. Technique No. 92:05


    Report on a containerized seedling response trial established in 1984/85 to determine which container type produces the best growing medium for seedling development over a five-year period. The trial used jack pine, white spruce and black spruce seedlings in various types of styroblock, paperpot, low density poly, and bareroot configurations. Response was determined by measuring and monitoring percent survival, change in height growth, volume, total height, and 1990 leaders length.

  10. Interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis and parasitoids of late-instar larvae of the spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Schoenmaker, A.; Cusson, M.; Frankenhuyzen, van K.


    We investigated interactions between Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki and parasitoids that attack late instars of the eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens). In a petri-dish arena, females of Tranosema rostrale rostrale (Brishke) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) were abl

  11. The genomic architecture and association genetics of adaptive characters using a candidate SNP approach in boreal black spruce

    Prunier, J; Pelgas, B; Gagnon, F; Desponts, M; Isabel, N; Beaulieu, J; Bousquet, J


    ...) in pedigrees, and genetic association studies in non-structured populations. Here we present results on the genomic architecture of adaptive traits in black spruce, which is a widely distributed conifer of the North American boreal forest...

  12. In vivo function of Pgβglu-1 in the release of acetophenones in white spruce

    Melissa H. Mageroy


    Full Text Available Eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana Clemens (ESBW is a major forest pest which feeds on young shoots of white spruce (Picea glauca and can cause landscape level economic and ecological losses. Release of acetophenone metabolites, piceol and pungenol, from their corresponding glycosides, picein and pungenin, can confer natural resistance of spruce to ESBW. A beta-glucosidase gene, Pgβglu-1, was recently discovered and the encoded enzyme was characterized in vitro to function in the release of the defensive acetophenone aglycons. Here we describe overexpression of Pgβglu-1 in a white spruce genotype whose metabolome contains the glucosylated acetophenones, but no detectable amounts of the aglycons. Transgenic overexpression of Pgβglu-1 resulted in release of the acetophenone aglycons in planta. This work provides in vivo evidence for the function of Pgβglu-1.

  13. Effect of clear fell harvesting on soil GHG fluxes from an upland Sitka spruce forest in England

    Yamulki, Sirwan; Xenakis, Georgios; Ash, Adam; Krivtsov, Vladimir; Perks, Mike; Morison, James


    Forest harvest, particularly by clear fell alters many factors that may influence greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, such as soil N content, organic C input, decomposition of organic matter, soil water content, water table depth, and soil temperature. Whilst there has been some research on the influence of harvest on soil CO2 effluxes there is much less literature for CH4 and N2O fluxes, both of which can also be significant components of the GHG balance. We present results from a three year experiment to quantify soil GHG fluxes from two areas of a mature Sitka spruce forest on a peaty gley organo-mineral soil with similar previous management history where one area was harvested after one year. GHG fluxes were measured monthly by closed chamber method (8 replicated chambers per site) and analysis of CO2, CH4 and N2O changes in collected gas samples by gas chromatography. Each flux measurement were accompanied by simultaneous soil temperature and moisture measurements to help elucidate drivers of flux differences. In the first year before harvesting there were similar CO2, CH4 and N2O mean soil fluxes from both areas of the forest. However, in the two consecutive years after harvest CO2 effluxes reduced substantially in the harvested area presumably due to lower autotrophic respiration from lower root activity. CH4 effluxes changed so that the soil turned from a small sink before harvest to a net source because of the increase in soil moisture. N2O fluxes were increased by felling and seemed to respond to increase in both soil temperature and moisture. This study shows the significant effect of changes in soil biotic and abiotic factors due to clear fell harvest on GHG fluxes and the need to measure all GHGs to enable a robust estimate of the effect on net GHG balance.

  14. Assessing soil calcium depletion following growth and harvesting of Sitka spruce plantation forestry in the acid sensitive Welsh uplands

    B. Reynolds


    Full Text Available A simple mass balance has been used to estimate soil calcium depletion during the growth of a 50 year old Sitka spruce crop on acid, base-poor peaty podzol soils in upland Wales. Growth of the crop will deplete the soil calcium reserve by an amount (205 kg Ca ha-1 approximately equivalent to the exchangeable calcium pool to the bottom of the profile and equal to 14% of the total soil calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Despite these predictions, measurements of exchangeable calcium show no differences beneath mature forest and acid grassland, implying that i weathering rates in forest soils are greater than long-term estimates and predictions by the PROFILE soil chemistry model ii the trees can access other sources of calcium or iii there are significant errors in the mass balance. Following stem-only harvesting, growth of a 50 year old second rotation crop will lead to further depletion of soil calcium, but this amount (79 kg Ca ha-1, is less than for a second rotation crop following whole-tree harvesting (197 kg Ca ha-1. After the first crop, stem-only harvesting would allow a further 18 rotations before depletion of the total calcium reserve to the bottom of the B horizon. Whole-tree harvesting would allow for seven rotations after the first crop. These calculations assume that all sources of calcium are equally available to the crop. This can only be resolved by dynamic modelling of the calcium cycle at the ecosystem scale based on appropriate field measurements. The potential for significant soil acidification is therefore greater following whole-tree harvesting and, in line with current recommendations (Nisbet et al., 1997, this technique should probably be avoided on acidic, nutrient-poor soils unless remedial measures are included to enhance the soil base cation status.

  15. Structure and productivity of mixed spruce and fir forests on Mt. Kopaonik

    Šljukić Biljana


    Full Text Available The subject of this research are mixed forests of spruce and fir in the area of NP Kopaonik, which belong to the community of spruce and fir - Abieti-Piceetum abietis Mišić et Popović, 1978. The basis for the study of the structural development and production potential of these forests are data from 12 sample plots, with the average size of 0.18 ha. In terms of coenoecological affiliation all the sample plots belong to the group of ecological units - forests of spruce and fir (Abieti-Piceetum abietis, Mišić et Popović, 1978 on acid brown and brown podzolic soils, which are differentiated into 5 ecological units: Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis oxalidetosum on acid brown soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis vaccinietosum on brown podzolic soil, Abieti-Piceetum abietis typicum on brown podzolic soil and Abieti-Piceetum abietis Dr.ymetosum on brown pozolic soil. In structural terms, these forests are characterized by very diverse structural forms, ranging from the structure of even-aged stands to typical multi-storey, unevenaged-aged stands. The form of cumulative curves of tree distribution is in most cases determined by spruce as the dominant species. At the same time, thin and medium-thick trees dominate, while the presence of stems with large dimensions is minimal. The average volume of these forestse is 777 m3•ha-1, with a mixture ratio of 0.7: 0.3 in favor of spruce. The average value of the current volume increment is 14 m3•ha-1, with a 68% share of spruce and 32% of fir. The percentage of increment ranges from 1.6% to 2.5% in all sample plots and is somewhat higher for fir. The site potential, stand characteristics and relations among the tree species have resulted in structural complexity, high productivity and ecological stability of these forests. Therefore, future forest management should avoid radical measures and procedures that would violate the established relationships and

  16. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

    Petráš Rudolf


    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  17. American Red Cross

    ... Know You’re Safe – Use Red Cross App and Website » Returning Home – Use Red Cross Flood Safety Steps » Red Cross Relief Efforts in the Caribbean & Mexico » At-a-Glance: Red Cross Response to Harvey, ...

  18. A conifer genomics resource of 200,000 spruce (Picea spp.) ESTs and 6,464 high-quality, sequence-finished full-length cDNAs for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    Ralph, Steven G; Chun, Hye Jung E; Kolosova, Natalia; Cooper, Dawn; Oddy, Claire; Ritland, Carol E; Kirkpatrick, Robert; Moore, Richard; Barber, Sarah; Holt, Robert A; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Douglas, Carl J; Ritland, Kermit; Bohlmann, Jörg


    Members of the pine family (Pinaceae), especially species of spruce (Picea spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.), dominate many of the world's temperate and boreal forests. These conifer forests are of critical importance for global ecosystem stability and biodiversity. They also provide the majority of the world's wood and fiber supply and serve as a renewable resource for other industrial biomaterials. In contrast to angiosperms, functional and comparative genomics research on conifers, or other gymnosperms, is limited by the lack of a relevant reference genome sequence. Sequence-finished full-length (FL)cDNAs and large collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are essential for gene discovery, functional genomics, and for future efforts of conifer genome annotation. As part of a conifer genomics program to characterize defense against insects and adaptation to local environments, and to discover genes for the production of biomaterials, we developed 20 standard, normalized or full-length enriched cDNA libraries from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis), white spruce (P. glauca), and interior spruce (P. glauca-engelmannii complex). We sequenced and analyzed 206,875 3'- or 5'-end ESTs from these libraries, and developed a resource of 6,464 high-quality sequence-finished FLcDNAs from Sitka spruce. Clustering and assembly of 147,146 3'-end ESTs resulted in 19,941 contigs and 26,804 singletons, representing 46,745 putative unique transcripts (PUTs). The 6,464 FLcDNAs were all obtained from a single Sitka spruce genotype and represent 5,718 PUTs. This paper provides detailed annotation and quality assessment of a large EST and FLcDNA resource for spruce. The 6,464 Sitka spruce FLcDNAs represent the third largest sequence-verified FLcDNA resource for any plant species, behind only rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and the only substantial FLcDNA resource for a gymnosperm. Our emphasis on capturing FLcDNAs and ESTs from cDNA libraries representing herbivore

  19. A conifer genomics resource of 200,000 spruce (Picea spp. ESTs and 6,464 high-quality, sequence-finished full-length cDNAs for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Holt Robert A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the pine family (Pinaceae, especially species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp., dominate many of the world's temperate and boreal forests. These conifer forests are of critical importance for global ecosystem stability and biodiversity. They also provide the majority of the world's wood and fiber supply and serve as a renewable resource for other industrial biomaterials. In contrast to angiosperms, functional and comparative genomics research on conifers, or other gymnosperms, is limited by the lack of a relevant reference genome sequence. Sequence-finished full-length (FLcDNAs and large collections of expressed sequence tags (ESTs are essential for gene discovery, functional genomics, and for future efforts of conifer genome annotation. Results As part of a conifer genomics program to characterize defense against insects and adaptation to local environments, and to discover genes for the production of biomaterials, we developed 20 standard, normalized or full-length enriched cDNA libraries from Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis, white spruce (P. glauca, and interior spruce (P. glauca-engelmannii complex. We sequenced and analyzed 206,875 3'- or 5'-end ESTs from these libraries, and developed a resource of 6,464 high-quality sequence-finished FLcDNAs from Sitka spruce. Clustering and assembly of 147,146 3'-end ESTs resulted in 19,941 contigs and 26,804 singletons, representing 46,745 putative unique transcripts (PUTs. The 6,464 FLcDNAs were all obtained from a single Sitka spruce genotype and represent 5,718 PUTs. Conclusion This paper provides detailed annotation and quality assessment of a large EST and FLcDNA resource for spruce. The 6,464 Sitka spruce FLcDNAs represent the third largest sequence-verified FLcDNA resource for any plant species, behind only rice (Oryza sativa and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, and the only substantial FLcDNA resource for a gymnosperm. Our emphasis on capturing FLcDNAs and

  20. Anchorage of mature conifers: resistive turning moment, root-soil plate geometry and root growth orientation.

    Lundström, Tor; Jonas, Tobias; Stöckli, Veronika; Ammann, Walter


    Eighty-four mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), silver fir (Abies alba Mill) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were winched over to determine the maximum resistive turning moment (M(a)) of the root-soil system, the root-soil plate geometry, the azimuthal orientation of root growth, and the occurrence of root rot. The calculation of M(a), based on digital image tracking of stem deflection, accounted not only for the force application and its changing geometry, but also for the weight of the overhanging tree, representing up to 42% of M(a). Root rot reduced M(a) significantly and was detected in 25% of the Norway spruce and 5% of the silver fir trees. Excluding trees with root rot, differences in M(a) between species were small and insignificant. About 75% of the variance in M(a) could be explained by one of the four variables--tree mass, stem mass, stem diameter at breast height squared times tree height, and stem diameter at breast height squared. Among the seven allometric variables assessed above ground, stem diameter at breast height best described the root-soil plate dimensions, but the correlations were weak and the differences between species were insignificant. The shape of the root-soil plate was well described by a depth-dependent taper model with an elliptical cross section. Roots displayed a preferred azimuthal orientation of growth in the axis of prevailing winds, and the direction of frequent weak winds matched the orientation of growth better than that of rare strong winds. The lack of difference in anchorage parameters among species probably reflects the similar belowground growth conditions of the mature trees.

  1. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo


    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The content of cytokinins in Norway spruce needles at the OTC site - preliminary results

    Doumas, P.; Daoudi, E.H.; Gautrat, M.P.; Schwartzenberg, K. v.; Bonnet-Massimbert, M. [Centre de Recherche d`Orleans, Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers, 45 - Ardon (France)


    The relationship of air pollution factors to observed forest decline can be investigated from different viewpoints incorporating physiological and biochemical changes. A hormone imbalance can be the result of growth disturbances, as a direct or indirect effect of air pollution. To prove this hypothesis, within an air pollution exclusion experiment in Open Top Chambers at the Edelmannshof site, the variations in the content of different cytokinins were analyzed in Norway spruce needles at various times during annual growth. The first approach adapted the cytokinin extraction and purification method, which is classically used in the laboratory. A second approach presented a one-year time course of the cytokinin content in one-year-old Norway spruce needles. (orig./MG)


    Ottaviano Allegretti,


    Full Text Available The study presents results of the characterization of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. and fir (Abies alba Mill. wood thermally modified by TERMOVUOTO® technology at temperatures in the range of 160 to 220°C in vacuum conditions. Sixteen thermo-vacuum treatment tests were carried out using a pilot laboratory unit on 30-mm-thick spruce and fir boards in various combinations of the process parameters, i.e. temperature (T, duration (t, and pressure (p. The treated material was characterized to reveal the changes of the physical-mechanical properties including color and durability. The treated wood showed an improved performance with relation to the dimensional stability and durability. The measured mechanical properties did not show any significant decrease. Analytical models, based on the existing correlations between wood properties and process parameters, were assessed, thus allowing the control of the process.

  4. Monitoring Spruce Budworm with Light Traps: The Effect of Trap Position

    Marc Rhainds


    Full Text Available Daily records of adult spruce budworms, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, captured at light traps at multiple locations in New Brunswick in the 1970s, are analyzed in relation to the physical position of light traps (tree canopies or forest clearings. Captures at light traps deployed in tree canopies were 4–400 times greater than those in forest clearings, especially for males. The phenology of captures (median date or duration of flight period did not differ in relation to trap location. Captures of both males and females in tree canopies were highly correlated with egg densities, whereas no significant relationship was observed for either sex in forest clearings. Monitoring programs for spruce budworm adults using light traps should be standardized by deploying traps in tree canopies.

  5. Isolation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from spruce bark in a biorefinery perspective.

    Le Normand, Myriam; Moriana, Rosana; Ek, Monica


    The present study reports for the first time the isolation of cellulose fibers and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from the bark of Norway spruce. The upgrading of bark cellulose to value-added products, such as CNCs, is part of the "bark biorefinery" concept. The removal of non-cellulosic constituents was monitored throughout the isolation process by detailed chemical composition analyses. The morphological investigation of the CNCs was performed using AFM and showed the presence of nanocrystals with an average length of 175.3 nm and a diameter of 2.8 nm, giving an aspect ratio of around 63. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the crystallinity index increased with successive treatments to reach a final value greater than 80% for CNCs. The thermal degradation of the isolated bark CNCs started at 190 °C. Spruce bark appeared to be a new promising industrial source of cellulose fibers and CNCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An experimental study on the effects of exhaust gas on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.)

    Hautala, E.L.; Holopainen, J.; Kaerenlampi, L. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science; Surakka, J.; Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences


    Motor vehicle exhausts are significant contributors to air pollution. Besides fine particles and inorganic gases, like CO, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}, exhaust gas contains a large group of aromatic hydrocarbon compounds, many of which are phytotoxic. In field studies, exhausts are found to have both direct and indirect harmful effects on roadside plants. However, only few experimental studies have been made about the effects of exhaust gas emissions on coniferous trees. The aim of this study was to survey the effects of exhausts on spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) in standardized conditions. The concentrations of major exhaust gas components in the chamber atmosphere were detected simultaneously. The effects of exhaust on epistomatal waxes of first-year spruce needles are described. (author)

  7. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  8. Changes in structural inequality in Norway spruce stands on peatland sites after water-level drawdown

    Sarkkola, Sakari; Alenius, Virpi; HökkÀ, Hannu; Laiho, Raija; PÀivÀnen, Juhani; PenttilÀ, Timo


    Size-structural dynamics of naturally established Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands growing on peatlands drained for forestry were investigated. The study was based on modelling of diameter at breast height (DBH) distributions of repeatedly measured stands in southern Finland. The Weibull function was used to parameterize the DBH distributions and mixed linear models were constructed to characterize the impacts of different ecological factors on stand dynamics. Initially, the pos...

  9. Modeling tree growth and stable isotope ratios of white spruce in western Alaska.

    Boucher, Etienne; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Field, Robert; Oelkers, Rose; D'Arrigo, Rosanne


    Summer temperatures are assumed to exert a dominant control on physiological processes driving forest productivity in interior Alaska. However, despite the recent warming of the last few decades, numerous lines of evidence indicate that the enhancing effect of summer temperatures on high latitude forest populations has been weakening. First, satellite-derived indices of photosynthetic activity, such as the Normalized-Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, 1982-2005), show overall declines in productivity in the interior boreal forests. Second, some white spruce tree ring series strongly diverge from summer temperatures during the second half of the 20th century, indicating a persistent loss of temperature sensitivity of tree ring proxies. Thus, the physiological response of treeline forests to ongoing climate change cannot be accurately predicted, especially from correlation analysis. Here, we make use of a process-based dendroecological model (MAIDENiso) to elucidate the complex linkages between global warming and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] with the response of treeline white spruce stands in interior Alaska (Seward). In order to fully capture the array of processes controlling tree growth in the area, multiple physiological indicators of white spruce productivity are used as target variables: NDVI images, ring widths (RW), maximum density (MXD) and newly measured carbon and oxygen stable isotope ratios from ring cellulose. Based on these data, we highlight the processes and mechanisms responsible for the apparent loss of sensitivity of white spruce trees to recent climate warming and [CO2] increase in order to elucidate the sensitivity and vulnerability of these trees to climate change.

  10. Growth and Yield of 15-Year Plantations of Pine, Spruce and Birch in Agricultural Land

    Daugaviete Mudrite


    Full Text Available The growth data and the potential returns from 15-year-old plantations of pine Pinus sylvestris L. (6 trial sites, spruce Picea abies Karst L. (9 trial sites and silver birch Betula pendula Roth (13 trial sites, established in abandoned agricultural lands in a variety of soil types (sod calcareous, anthrosols, podzolic, podzols, gley, podzolic gley, alluvial, using the planting density 2,500 and 3,300 and also 5,000 trees/ha are analysed.

  11. Physiological responses of Norway spruce trees to elevated CO2 and SO2

    Tausz, M.; De Kok, L.J.; Stulen, I.


    Young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were exposed to elevated CO2 (0.8 mL L(-1)), SO2 (0.06 mu L L(-1)), and elevated CO2 and SO2 (0.8 mL L(-1) and 0.06 mu L L(-1), respectively) for three months. Exposure to elevated CO2 resulted in an increased biomass production of the needles, whi

  12. Effects of aerially applied mexacarbate on western spruce budworm larvae and their parasites in Montana

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea; Mark D. McGregor


    In tests on the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, in 1965 and 1966, mexacarbate, aerially applied at the rate of 0.15 lb a.i./gal/acre (68.04 g a.iJ3.785 1/0.404 ha), killed about 90 percent of the western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman) populations. More parasitized budworm larvae survived treatments than nonparasitized.

  13. Formation of chloroform in soil. A year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Grøn, C.


    Soil air from top soil of a Danish spruce forest was investigated monthly from December 1997 to December 1998 for the occurrence of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. Within the monitoring period, three different patterns of soil air...... to ambient air concentrations indicated a natural production of chloroform, while the other chlorinated compounds investigated probably originated from non-point source pollution. The seasonal variation of the chloroform concentration suggested a production by microorganisms, as high chloroform...

  14. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V


    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of phloem formation in Silver fir and Norway spruce as affected by drought

    Gričar, Jožica; Čufar, Katarina


    The dynamics of phloem growth ring formation in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) at different sites in Slovenia during the droughty growing season of 2003 was studied. We also determined the timing of cambial activity, xylem and phloem formation, and counted the number of cells in the completed phloem and xylem growth rings. Light microscopy of cross-sections revealed that cambial activity started on the phloem and xylem side simultaneously at all 3 plots. ...

  16. The finding of a paleo-spruce timber in Hunshandak sandy land and its paleoecological significance

    崔海亭; 刘鸿雁; 腰希申


    A paleo-sprucc (Picea jezoensis) timber dated to (10 040 + 100) a B. P. was found in the Hunshan-dak sandy land, Inner Mongolia, which is also one of the oldest timber found in China. Pollen and mammal fossil further evidence that theropencedrymion dominated by birch and spruce existed in this area in the late period of the earlier Holocene. This finding has great significance for the analysis of paleoclimate, paleovegetation and landscape development in this area.

  17. Toxic components of motor vehicle emissions for the spruce Picea abies.

    Kammerbauer, H; Selinger, H; Römmelt, R; Ziegler-Jöns, A; Knoppik, D; Hock, B


    Six-year-old Norway spruce trees were exposed for 30 min under standardised conditions to the exhaust from an Otto engine running on lead-free petrol. Gas-exchange measurements in an open system using an infrared gas analyser showed a sudden, severe drop in CO(2) assimilation and transpiration rates. By using filters which absorbed different fractions of the exhaust it could be demonstrated that the toxic effects can be attributed to the NO(x) fraction.

  18. Soil and soil cover changes in spruce forests after final logging

    E. M. Lapteva


    Full Text Available Soil cover transformation and changes of morphological and chemical properties of Albeluvisols in clear-cuttings of middle taiga spruce forests were studied. The observed changes in structure and properties of podzolic texturally-differentiated soils at cuttings of spruce forests in the middle taiga subzone do not cause their transition to any other soil type. Soil cover of secondary deciduous-coniferous forests which replace cut forests are characterized with a varied soil contour and a combination of the main type of podzolic soils under undisturbed spruce forests. The increased surface hydromorphism in cut areas causes formation of complicated sub-types of podzolic texturally differentiated soils (podzolic surface-gley soils with microprofile of podzol and enlarges their ratio (up to 35–38 % in soil cover structure. Temporary soil over-wetting at the initial (5–10 years stage of after-cutting self-restoring vegetation succession provides for soil gleyzation, improves yield and segregation of iron compounds, increases the migratory activity of humic substances. Low content and resources of total nitrogen in forest litters mark anthropogenic transformation processes of podzolic soils at this stage. Later (in 30–40 years after logging, soils in cut areas still retain signs of hydromorphism. Forest litters are denser, less acidic and thick with a low weight ratio of organic carbon as compared with Albeluvisols of undisturbed spruce forest. The upper mineral soil horizons under secondary deciduous-coniferous forests contain larger amounts of total iron, its mobile (oxalate-dissolvable components, and Fe-Mn-concretions.

  19. Direct Visualization of Spruce Budworm Antifreeze Protein Interacting with Ice Crystals: Basal Plane Affinity Confers Hyperactivity

    Pertaya, Natalya; Marshall, Christopher B.; Celik, Yeliz; Davies, Peter L.; Braslavsky, Ido


    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect certain organisms from freezing by adhering to ice crystals, thereby preventing their growth. All AFPs depress the nonequilibrium freezing temperature below the melting point; however AFPs from overwintering insects, such as the spruce budworm (sbw) are 10–100 times more effective than most fish AFPs. It has been proposed that the exceptional activity of these AFPs depends on their ability to prevent ice growth at the basal plane. To test the hypothesis that...

  20. A new red -fleshed kiwifruit cultivar ‘Chuhong’

    WangZhongyan; ZhongCaihong; BuFanwen


    ‘Chuhong’ is a red-fleshed kiwifruit cultivar selected from Actinidia chinensis var. rufopulpa grown in the wild.The fruit has beautiful red flesh color around the central core. It also has high soluble solids content and good taste. The plantsgrow well in both high and low altitude conditions, and are precocious and productive. The fruit matures in early September, and has reasonably good storage quality. There is a very positive response from customers according to preliminary marketing tests.

  1. Shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies in relation to ozone

    Braun, Sabine [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Schindler, Christian [Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Basel, Steinengraben 49, CH-4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Rihm, Beat [Meteotest, Fabrikstrasse 14, CH-3012 Berne (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Flueckiger, Walter [Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Sandgrubenstrasse 25, CH-4124 Schoenenbuch (Switzerland)


    Epidemiological analysis of sequential growth data may be a tool in assessing ozone sensitivity of mature trees. Annual shoot growth of mature Fagus sylvatica in 83 Swiss permanent forest observation plots and of Picea abies in 61 plots was evaluated for 11 and 8 consecutive years, respectively, using branches harvested every 4 years. The data were assessed as annual deviation from average growth and related to fructification, ozone, meteorological parameters, and modelled soil water content using a mixed linear model. In beech, a significant association between ozone and shoot growth was observed which corresponded to a 7.4% growth reduction between 0 and 10 ppm h AOT40 (accumulated ozone over threshold 40). This is in the same order of magnitude as the response observed in experiments with seedlings. No interaction was found between ozone and drought parameters. In Norway spruce, shoot growth was neither associated with ozone nor with drought. - Epidemiological assessment of shoot growth suggests an ozone sensitivity of mature beech which is similar to seedlings.


    Cristina Marinela OLARESCU


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an experimental research performed with spruce (Picea abies L. and lime (Tilia cordata wood originating from the Stroesti-Arges region in Romania. Solid wood panels were manufactured from heat-treated strips, and also from untreated strips, as controls. The thermal conductivity (λ of the panels was measured on a HFM 436/6/1 Lambda equipment at a temperature difference of 30°C between the cold and the hot plate. The results showed that the panels made from heat-treated wood strips had by 13% lower values of λ in case of spruce and by 6% lower values in case of lime and thus better heat-insulating properties than the panels made from untreated wood of the same species. With λ values around 0.07-0.08 W/m⋅K, 20mm thick solid wood panels made from heat-treated spruce and lime strips are comparable to wool from the viewpoint of the thermal insulating capacity.

  3. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna


    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  4. Visual Recognition Software for Binary Classification and Its Application to Spruce Pollen Identification.

    David K Tcheng

    Full Text Available Discriminating between black and white spruce (Picea mariana and Picea glauca is a difficult palynological classification problem that, if solved, would provide valuable data for paleoclimate reconstructions. We developed an open-source visual recognition software (ARLO, Automated Recognition with Layered Optimization capable of differentiating between these two species at an accuracy on par with human experts. The system applies pattern recognition and machine learning to the analysis of pollen images and discovers general-purpose image features, defined by simple features of lines and grids of pixels taken at different dimensions, size, spacing, and resolution. It adapts to a given problem by searching for the most effective combination of both feature representation and learning strategy. This results in a powerful and flexible framework for image classification. We worked with images acquired using an automated slide scanner. We first applied a hash-based "pollen spotting" model to segment pollen grains from the slide background. We next tested ARLO's ability to reconstruct black to white spruce pollen ratios using artificially constructed slides of known ratios. We then developed a more scalable hash-based method of image analysis that was able to distinguish between the pollen of black and white spruce with an estimated accuracy of 83.61%, comparable to human expert performance. Our results demonstrate the capability of machine learning systems to automate challenging taxonomic classifications in pollen analysis, and our success with simple image representations suggests that our approach is generalizable to many other object recognition problems.

  5. Comparison of terpene composition in Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) using hydrodistillation, SPME and PLE.

    Mardarowicz, Marek; Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Sawicki, Ryszard


    Terpenes emitted by conifer trees are generally determined by analysing plant extracts or essential oils, prepared from foliage and cones using steam distillation. The application of these procedures limits experiments to cut plant materials. Recently headspace techniques have been adopted to examine terpene emission by living plants. This paper deals with the application of solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) for the analysis of terpenes emitted by conifers foliage of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), including its seedlings. The compositions of SPME extracts obtained for destroyed and non-destroyed old and juvenile spruce needles were compared with the compositions of essential oils and pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) extracts corresponding to the same plant materials. No substantial differences have been found in the qualitative terpene composition estimated by analysing essential oil and PLE and SPME extracts from non-destroyed old and juvenile foliage. The disintegration of spruce needles results in the formation of a significant amount of myrcene in the case of the old conifer foliage and non-terpenoic compounds in the case of juvenile conifer foliage. This phenomenon can be attributed to enzymatic reactions occurring in the destroyed plant cells.

  6. Effect of heat treatment on wettability and MOE of pine and spruce wood

    Povilas Navickas


    Full Text Available This research was performed in order to determine how the heating process affects the wettability and mechanical properties of spruce (Picea abies and pine (Pinus silvestris wood. Studies were carried out using wood heated in laboratory. The measurements of specimens were 315x20x20mm. Specimens were divided into the following four groups: specimens of one group were not exposed to heating, whereas specimens of three other groups were subjected to heating at the temperature of 190○C for 1 to 3 hours respectively, in the air under atmospheric pressure. Both heated and unheated specimens were moistened and dried in a climatic chamber. Before and after treatment the mechanical properties of specimens were assessed using the original method of transverse vibrations and contact angle measurements were carried out using the water drop method. The results showed a significant increase in wood hydrophobicity after treatment. Spruce contact angle after treatment increased from 1.3 to 1.45, pine from 1.4 to 2 times. MOE of pine wood decreased, while MOE of spruce slighty increased after heat treatment. Wood equilibrium moisture content after treatment is redused and it is known, that the drier the wood  - the better its mechanical properties. This factor may have the biggest influence to such result.DOI:

  7. Ozone flux over a Norway spruce forest and correlation with net ecosystem production

    Zapletal, Milos, E-mail: [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Silesian University at Opava, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Masarykova 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Cudlin, Pavel [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Chroust, Petr [Ekotoxa s.r.o. - Centre for Environment and Land Assessment, Oticka 37, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Urban, Otmar; Pokorny, Radek [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Edwards-Jonasova, Magda [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Sadkach 7, 37005 Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Czerny, Radek; Janous, Dalibor; Taufarova, Klara [Institute of Systems Biology and Ecology of the AS CR, v.v.i., Porici 3b, 60300 Brno (Czech Republic); Vecera, Zbynek; Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., Veveri 97, 60200 Brno (Czech Republic); Paoletti, Elena [Institute of Plant Protection, National Research Council of Italy, via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)


    Daily ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest in Czech Republic was measured using the gradient method in July and August 2008. Results were in good agreement with a deposition flux model. The mean daily stomatal uptake of ozone was around 47% of total deposition. Average deposition velocity was 0.39 cm s{sup -1} and 0.36 cm s{sup -1} by the gradient method and the deposition model, respectively. Measured and modelled non-stomatal uptake was around 0.2 cm s{sup -1}. In addition, net ecosystem production (NEP) was measured by using Eddy Covariance and correlations with O{sub 3} concentrations at 15 m a.g.l., total deposition and stomatal uptake were tested. Total deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone significantly decreased NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Highlights: > We estimate ozone deposition flux to a Norway spruce forest using the gradient method and model. > The mean stomatal uptake of ozone is approximately 47% of the total deposition. > We measure net ecosystem production (NEP) using Eddy Covariance. > We test whether elevated total deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} imply a reduction of NEP. > Deposition and stomatal uptake of O{sub 3} decrease NEP, especially by high intensities of solar radiation. - Net ecosystem production of a Norway spruce forest decreases with increasing deposition and stomatal uptake of ozone.

  8. Prepupal diapause and instar IV developmental rates of the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Hansen, E Matthew; Bentz, Barbara J; Powell, James A; Gray, David R; Vandygriff, James C


    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is an important mortality agent of native spruces throughout North America. The life-cycle duration of this species varies from 1 to 3 years depending temperature. The univoltine cycle (one generation per year) is thought to maximize outbreak risk and accelerate host mortality in established outbreaks. Prepupal diapause is associated with the semivoltine cycle (one generation per 2 years) and we investigated thermal conditions that result in diapause induction. Preliminary experiments used respirometry in an attempt to distinguish the diapause state of experimental insects but the technique was apparently confounded by low respiration before and during pupation, regardless of diapause status. Therefore, diapause induction was deduced using developmental delays. The observed developmental response was not a "switch", with developmental delay either present or absent, but instead varied continuously. We found that temperatures 40 d cumulative exposure was associated with distinct developmental suppression. Intermediate exposure to cool temperatures resulted in minor developmental delays. We used our results to parameterize a maximum likelihood estimation model of temperature-dependent instar IV developmental rates, including the effect of diapause. This model can be included as part of a spruce beetle phenology model for predicting population dynamics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Wintertime photosynthetic capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana) in boreal forests in interior Alaska

    Fujino, T.; Koyama, L. A.; Kielland, K.


    In boreal forests, the growing season is short, and winter temperature is low and fluctuates from considerably below freezing point to intermittent warm spells. Under such conditions, it is important for plants to retain their photosynthetic capacity throughout the winter. To understand the importance of wintertime photosynthetic activity for evergreen boreal coniferous species, the light response curve of black spruce (Picea mariana) was monitored in Fairbanks, interior Alaska (64°86'N, 147°84'W) throughout the winter, and compared with those in the summer. Cuttings of black spruce were collected, and gas exchange of their needles was measured in the incubator set to 0 °C using a gas analyzer (LI-6400, Li-Cor Inc.). A non-rectangular hyperbolic model was fitted to these data, and physiological parameters such as the maximum photosynthesis rate, dark respiration rate and quantum yield of photosynthesis were extracted. The apparent quantum yield of photosynthesis remained low throughout the winter for black spruce. The maximum photosynthesis rate was downregulated as air temperature fell in early winter, but did not increase in March when air temperature rose. This suggests that photoinhibition may occur more strongly in March than in early winter. The average maximum rates of photosynthesis in winter were almost 10% of the value measured in summer. On the other hand, the dark respiration rate did not considerably differ between seasons. These results provide new insights into winter photosynthetic activity and its role in boreal forest ecosystems.

  10. Influence of short anoxia treatment and maturity on quality and storage life of tomatoes

    Mojević Mirjana V.


    Full Text Available The influence of short anoxia treatment on physical, chemical and sensory attributes of mature green and pink red tomatoes during storage was investigated. Matured green and pink red fruits were kept for 24 hrs under humidified pure N2, while the control was not treated. Subsequently, the fruits were stored at 12°C and 20°C for 14 days. Quality parameters including weight loss, firmness, total soluble solids, colour, sensory and decay were analyzed. Generally, weight loss increased after 14 days of storage and depending on anoxia treatment, maturity and storage temperature. Tomato fruit treated with anoxia and kept at 12°C showed a minimal deterioration of the quality attributes and could be stored for longer periods compared to those stored at 20°C. Results for TSS were higher in tomato fruit treated with anoxia. However, pink red fruit stored at 20°C showed lower TSS than untreated fruit. Untreated and anoxia-pretreated mature green tomatoes showed higher sourness and off-flavour scores than those stored at 20°C. However, mature green and pink red tomatoes kept at 20°C showed higher acceptance (% than those stored at 12°C. Therefore, combined effect of anoxia and low temperature could have delayed the ripening of the tomatoes.

  11. Anesthetic management of a pregnant patient with a pure red cell aplasia

    Channabasavaraj S Sanikop


    Full Text Available Pure red cell disorder is an uncommon disorder in which maturation arrest occurs in the maturation of erythrocytes. Erythroblats are virtually absent in the bone marrow. Surgery poses a very high-risk for these patients because of the several complications that can occur in the perioperative period. In this case report, we report a pregnant patient with a pure red cell aplasia who was optimized pre-operatively and underwent cesarean section under sub-arachnoid block.



    Supplementary radio noise advances sexual maturity in domestic pullets exposed .... non-stimulatory photoperiod in some way provides a stimulus for initiating rapid gonadal development. However, the ..... Congress, New Delhi, India. Vol II ...

  13. Volume increment in dragon spruce trees in western Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang and its impact factors%新疆天山西部云杉生长量变化及其影响因子分析

    孙丽; 陈蜀江


    [Objective]The present study was aimed to observe the volume increment in dragon spruce trees in western Tianshan Mountain of Xinjiang, and to analyze the correlations between the volume increment and its impact factors in order to monitor its growth and study the forest ecological system of Tianshan Mountain. [ Method ] Empirical volume equation and single entry volume table were worked out using the diameter data of 5682 dragon spruces trees at 218 sample locations belonging to 8 forest farms in 1996. The GIS and SPSS software were used to analyze the correlations between the volume increment and its impact factors. [ Result ]The periodic increment of dragon spruce trees was recorded as 20.487482 m3 from 1996-2006 and its average periodic increment was 2.048748 m3. The volume increment of dragon spruce was found significantly correlated with red band, near-infrared wave band and green band, and found to be followed by elevation, NDVI and slope. The weakest impact faetors were found to be blue band, short-infrared wave band and graclient. [Conclusion]In future, the growth of dragon spruce trees in Tianshan Mountain may be dynamically monitored according to the dominant factors affecting its volume increment using GIS in order to protect dragon spruce trees better.%[目的]计算新疆天山西部云杉生长量,对云杉生长量影响因子进行相关性分析,为监测云杉生长和研究天山森林生态系统提供参考.[方法]根据1996年天山西部8个林场218个样地5682株云杉的实地测量值推算出天山西部云杉的材积经验式和一元材积表;利用GIS和SPSS软件对利用遥感手段提取的生长量影响因子进行相关性分析.[结果]1996~2006年,天山云杉定期生长量为20.487482m3,1996~2006年定期平均生长量为2.048748m3.生长量影响因子相关性分析表明灰度值中的红光波段、近红外波段、绿光波段与云杉生长量显著相关,其次是海拔、NDVI和坡向,相关性最弱的为

  14. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow


    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  15. Tree plant organic matter stocks in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall

    A. V. Manov


    Full Text Available Accumulation of organic matter in spruce green moss Piceetum hylocomiosum and pine lichen Pinetum cladinosum forest communities after windfall was investigated. Phytomass of Piceetum hylocomiosum stand is 51.8 t • ha-1, and Pinetum cladinosum stand is 7.5 t • ha-1. Phytomass in the disturbed stands is 3.5 times less than in undisturbed spruce forest and 15 times less than in undisturbed pine forest. The undergrowth accumulates 2.8 t • ha-1 in spruce forest, and 0.9 t • ha-1 in pine forest after windfall. Number of trees, volume of wood, stock of organic matter was determined in coarse woody debris subject to decay class. Most of the dead trees (77–97 % belong to the second decay class. Reduced competition for light and mineral nutrients influences the intensity of organic matter accumulation by tree plants. We detected that increasing radial growth of spruce and fir began before windfall. This demonstrates the stand drying. However, maximal rate of annual ring increment (2.03–2.17 mm for spruce and 3.98–4.07 mm for fir was observed in 2009–2010 years. After windfall radial growth of undergrowth increased 2 times in Piceetum hylocomiosum and 7.7 times in Pinetum cladinosum. Height increment of spruce and fir understorey increased 2.2–2.6 times in spruce forest. As compared with undisturbed ecosystems height increment of pine understorey is 1.2–2.0 times higher on windbreak in Pinetum cladinosum.

  16. Petrographic maturity parameters of a Devonian shale maturation series, Appalachian Basin, USA. ICCP Thermal Indices Working Group interlaboratory exercise

    Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Cardott, Brian; das Chagas, Renata Brenand A.; Flores, Deolinda; Goncalves, Paula; Hackley, Paul C.; Hower, James C.; Kern, Marcio Luciano; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; de Oliveira Mendonça, Joalice; Rego Menezes, Taissa; Newman, Jane; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sobrinho da Silva, Frederico; Viegas de Souza, Igor


    This paper presents results of an interlaboratory exercise on organic matter optical maturity parameters using a natural maturation series comprised by three Devonian shale samples (Huron Member, Ohio Shale) from the Appalachian Basin, USA. This work was conducted by the Thermal Indices Working Group of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) Commission II (Geological Applications of Organic Petrology). This study aimed to compare: 1. maturation predicted by different types of petrographic parameters (vitrinite reflectance and spectral fluorescence of telalginite), 2. reproducibility of the results for these maturation parameters obtained by different laboratories, and 3. improvements in the spectral fluorescence measurement obtained using modern detection systems in comparison with the results from historical round robin exercises.Mean random vitrinite reflectance measurements presented the highest level of reproducibility (group standard deviation 0.05) for low maturity and reproducibility diminished with increasing maturation (group standard deviation 0.12).Corrected fluorescence spectra, provided by 14 participants, showed a fair to good correspondence. Standard deviation of the mean values for spectral parameters was lowest for the low maturity sample but was also fairly low for higher maturity samples.A significant improvement in the reproducibility of corrected spectral fluorescence curves was obtained in the current exercise compared to a previous investigation of Toarcian organic matter spectra in a maturation series from the Paris Basin. This improvement is demonstrated by lower values of standard deviation and is interpreted to reflect better performance of newer photo-optical measuring systems.Fluorescence parameters measured here are in good agreement with vitrinite reflectance values for the least mature shale but indicate higher maturity than shown by vitrinite reflectance for the two more mature shales. This red shift in

  17. Stable-isotope labeling and probing of recent photosynthates into respired CO2, soil microbes and soil mesofauna using a xylem and phloem stem-injection technique on Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    Churchland, Carolyn; Weatherall, Andrew; Briones, Maria J I; Grayston, Sue J


    Here we report on the successful application of a novel stem-injection stable-isotope-labeling and probing technique in mature trees to trace the spatial and temporal distribution of rhizosphere carbon belowground. Three 22-year-old Sitka spruce trees were injected with 6.66 g of (13)C-labeled aspartic acid. Over the succeeding 30 days, soil CO(2) efflux, phospholipid fatty-acid (PLFA) microbial biomarkers and soil invertebrates (mites, collembolans and enchytraeids) were analyzed along a 50 m transect from each tree to determine the temporal and spatial patterns in the translocation of recently fixed photosynthates belowground. Soil δ(13)CO(2) values peaked 13-23 days after injection, up to 5 m from the base of the injected tree and was, on average, 3.5‰ enriched in (13)C relative to the baseline. Fungal PLFA biomarkers peaked 2-4 days after stem-injection, up to 20 m from the base of the injected tree and were (13)C-enriched by up to 50‰. Significant (13)C enrichment in mites and enchytraeids occurred 4-6 days after injection (by, on average, 1.5‰). Stem injection of large trees with (13)C-enriched compounds is a successful tool to trace C-translocation belowground. In particular, the significant (13)C enrichment of CO(2) and enchytraeids near the base of the tree and the significant (13)C enrichment of PLFAs up to 20 m away indicate that mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) have the capacity to support soil communities over large distances. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Near-saturated and complete genetic linkage map of black spruce (Picea mariana).

    Kang, Bum-Yong; Mann, Ishminder K; Major, John E; Rajora, Om P


    Genetic maps provide an important genomic resource for understanding genome organization and evolution, comparative genomics, mapping genes and quantitative trait loci, and associating genomic segments with phenotypic traits. Spruce (Picea) genomics work is quite challenging, mainly because of extremely large size and highly repetitive nature of its genome, unsequenced and poorly understood genome, and the general lack of advanced-generation pedigrees. Our goal was to construct a high-density genetic linkage map of black spruce (Picea mariana, 2n = 24), which is a predominant, transcontinental species of the North American boreal and temperate forests, with high ecological and economic importance. We have developed a near-saturated and complete genetic linkage map of black spruce using a three-generation outbred pedigree and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), expressed sequence tag polymorphism (ESTP), and microsatellite (mostly cDNA based) markers. Maternal, paternal, and consensus genetic linkage maps were constructed. The maternal, paternal, and consensus maps in our study consistently coalesced into 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number (1n = 1x = 12) of 12 in the genus Picea. The maternal map had 816 and the paternal map 743 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups each. The consensus map consisted of 1,111 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups, and covered almost the entire (> 97%) black spruce genome. The mapped markers included 809 AFLPs, 255 SAMPL, 42 microsatellites, and 5 ESTPs. Total estimated length of the genetic map was 1,770 cM, with an average of one marker every 1.6 cM. The maternal, paternal and consensus genetic maps aligned almost perfectly. We have constructed the first high density to near-saturated genetic linkage map of black spruce, with greater than 97% genome coverage. Also, this is the first genetic map based on a three

  19. Near-saturated and complete genetic linkage map of black spruce (Picea mariana

    Mann Ishminder K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic maps provide an important genomic resource for understanding genome organization and evolution, comparative genomics, mapping genes and quantitative trait loci, and associating genomic segments with phenotypic traits. Spruce (Picea genomics work is quite challenging, mainly because of extremely large size and highly repetitive nature of its genome, unsequenced and poorly understood genome, and the general lack of advanced-generation pedigrees. Our goal was to construct a high-density genetic linkage map of black spruce (Picea mariana, 2n = 24, which is a predominant, transcontinental species of the North American boreal and temperate forests, with high ecological and economic importance. Results We have developed a near-saturated and complete genetic linkage map of black spruce using a three-generation outbred pedigree and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL, expressed sequence tag polymorphism (ESTP, and microsatellite (mostly cDNA based markers. Maternal, paternal, and consensus genetic linkage maps were constructed. The maternal, paternal, and consensus maps in our study consistently coalesced into 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number (1n = 1x = 12 of 12 in the genus Picea. The maternal map had 816 and the paternal map 743 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups each. The consensus map consisted of 1,111 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups, and covered almost the entire (> 97% black spruce genome. The mapped markers included 809 AFLPs, 255 SAMPL, 42 microsatellites, and 5 ESTPs. Total estimated length of the genetic map was 1,770 cM, with an average of one marker every 1.6 cM. The maternal, paternal and consensus genetic maps aligned almost perfectly. Conclusion We have constructed the first high density to near-saturated genetic linkage map of black spruce, with greater than 97% genome coverage. Also, this

  20. Changes of the spruce forest stand aerodynamic properties during ten growing seasons

    Hurtalova, T.; Matejka, F.; Janous, D.; Czerny, R.


    Objective of this study was to quantify the influence of a young spruce forest stand on airflow and its aerodynamic characteristics during ten growing seasons. With this aim the wind speed profiles measured in and above investigated spruce stand during growing seasons, from May to October, 1998-2007 were analysed. Experimental site is situated on a mild slope with SW orientation in the locality Bílý Kříž (49o30'17'' N, 18o32'28'' E, 898-908 m a.s.l.), which is in the highest part of the Moravian-Silesian Beskydy Mts, Czech Republic. The experimental site consisting of two plots Fd and Fs with different tree density is created by the monoculture of young Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L., Karst) with age of 17 years in 1998. Each of these plots has the area of 2500 m2, density of 2600 trees/ha in Fd plot and 2400 trees/ha in Fs plot in 1998, and gradually 1652 trees/ha (Fd) and 1428 trees/ha (Fs) in 2007. The aerodynamic characteristics can be described by the roughness length (z0) and the zero plane displacement (d). The presented study aims to analyse the changes in d and z0 values for a young spruce forest stand during ten consecutive growing seasons, and to relate the aerodynamic properties of an air layer affected by this stand to its growth parameters. It is known, that the local terrain and structure of forest stand influenced the direction and power of the airflow, as well as the structure of vertical wind speed profiles. From the wind speed profile analysis it follows, that the investigated spruce stand was in an aerodynamic unsteady state and then d and z0 values vary also with the wind speed. During investigated seasons the mean seasonal z0 values ranged between 0.48 m and 1.32 m in Fd and the corresponding values in Fs plot varied between 0.41 m and 1.36 m. The mean seasonal d values varied between 0.60h and 0.76h in Fd, and 61h and 0.76h in Fs, h is mean stand height.

  1. Chemical and transcriptional responses of Norway spruce genotypes with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. infection

    Danielsson Marie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] is one of the most important conifer species in Europe. The wood is economically important and infections by wood-rotting fungi cause substantial losses to the industry. The first line of defence in a Norway spruce tree is the bark. It is a very efficient barrier against infection based on its mechanical and chemical properties. Once an injury or an infection is recognized by the tree, induced defences are activated. In this study we examined transcriptional response, using 454-sequencing, and chemical profiles in bark of Norway spruce trees with different susceptibility to Heterobasidion annosum s.l. infection. The aim was to find associations between the transcriptome and chemical profiles to the level of susceptibility to Heterobasidion spp. in Norway spruce genotypes. Results Both terpene and phenol compositions were analysed and at 28 days post inoculation (dpi high levels of 3-carene was produced in response to H. annosum. However, significant patterns relating to inoculation or to genotypes with higher or lower susceptibility could only be found in the phenol fraction. The levels of the flavonoid catechin, which is polymerized into proanthocyanidins (PA, showed a temporal variation; it accumulated between 5 and 15 dpi in response to H. annosum infection in the less susceptible genotypes. The transcriptome data suggested that the accumulation of free catechin was preceded by an induction of genes in the flavonoid and PA biosynthesis pathway such as leucoanthocyanidin reductase. Quantitative PCR analyses verified the induction of genes in the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathway. The qPCR data also highlighted genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptional regulation of these pathways. Conclusions The varying dynamics in transcriptional and chemical patterns displayed by the less susceptible genotypes suggest that there is a genotypic variation in successful spruce defence

  2. Generation, annotation, analysis and database integration of 16,500 white spruce EST clusters

    Siddiqui Asim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sequencing and analysis of ESTs is for now the only practical approach for large-scale gene discovery and annotation in conifers because their very large genomes are unlikely to be sequenced in the near future. Our objective was to produce extensive collections of ESTs and cDNA clones to support manufacture of cDNA microarrays and gene discovery in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss. Results We produced 16 cDNA libraries from different tissues and a variety of treatments, and partially sequenced 50,000 cDNA clones. High quality 3' and 5' reads were assembled into 16,578 consensus sequences, 45% of which represented full length inserts. Consensus sequences derived from 5' and 3' reads of the same cDNA clone were linked to define 14,471 transcripts. A large proportion (84% of the spruce sequences matched a pine sequence, but only 68% of the spruce transcripts had homologs in Arabidopsis or rice. Nearly all the sequences that matched the Populus trichocarpa genome (the only sequenced tree genome also matched rice or Arabidopsis genomes. We used several sequence similarity search approaches for assignment of putative functions, including blast searches against general and specialized databases (transcription factors, cell wall related proteins, Gene Ontology term assignation and Hidden Markov Model searches against PFAM protein families and domains. In total, 70% of the spruce transcripts displayed matches to proteins of known or unknown function in the Uniref100 database (blastx e-value Arabidopsis or rice genomes. Detailed analysis of translationally controlled tumour proteins and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase families confirmed a twofold size difference. Sequences and annotations were organized in a dedicated database, SpruceDB. Several search tools were developed to mine the data either based on their occurrence in the cDNA libraries or on functional annotations. Conclusion This report illustrates specific

  3. Branching system and needle loss of spruce (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) as a basis of assessing forest decline. Das Verzweigungssystem und der Nadelfall der Fichte (Picea abies (L. ) Karst. ) als Grundlage zur Beurteilung von Waldschaeden

    Gruber, F.


    The book concentrates on the spruce's crown architecture, the regular and proventitious branching and the branching strategies. The morphology is looked at specially from an ecological point of view. Various types of needle loss in the spruces' crowns are described in detail covering anatomical studies as well as quantitative. Less conspicuous growth dimensions are quantified and thus complete the overall picture of spruce growth and the spruce's reaction standards. With 104 photos.

  4. Red Bull Crisis


    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  5. Effect of Light on Flavonoids Biosynthesis in Red Rice Rdh

    HAN Lei; DONG Bao-cheng; YANG Xiao-ji; HUANG Cheng-bin; WANG Xu-dong; WU Xian-jun


    The effect of light on flavonoids biosynthesis in red rice Rdh was studied.The panicles of red rice Rdh produced colorless caryopses after darkness treatment;and these colorless caryopses displayed bright-red after vanillin treatment,but did not display red color after light inducing for 15 days,suggesting that red rice Rdh could produce leucoanthocyanidin,but could not produce polyproanthocyanidins in darkness.Histological study revealed that the aleurone layers of Rdh colorless caryopses displayed bright-red after vanillin assay,but the pericarp and seed coat layers did not display color change,which indicated that the aleurone layers could accumulate precursors of polyproanthocyanidins in darkness,but the pericarp and seed coat could not.Additionally,color ofRdh caryopses changed from green in immaturity to red in maturity,and the green caryopses changed color from green to red gradually indoor for 7 days after harvest,suggesting that leucoanthocyanidins could synthesize polyproanthocyanidins.It was concluded that light was necessary for red pigment biosynthesis in red rice Rdh,leucoanthocyanidins biosyntheses in the aleurone layers did not need light,leucoanthocyanidins biosynthesis in pericarp and seed coat needed light inducing,the effect of leucoanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Rdh to light had tissue specificity.

  6. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Liang Liu


    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

  7. Insect attack and wounding induce traumatic resin duct development and gene expression of (-)-pinene synthase in Sitka spruce.

    McKay, S Ashley Byun; Hunter, William L; Godard, Kimberley-Ann; Wang, Shawn X; Martin, Diane M; Bohlmann, Jörg; Plant, Aine L


    Conifers possess inducible terpenoid defense systems. These systems are associated with the formation of traumatic resin ducts (TRD) and are underpinned by enhanced gene expression and activity of terpene synthases (TPS), enzymes responsible for oleoresin formation. We first determined that Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis [Bong.] Carriere) had the capacity for TRD formation by mechanically wounding representative trees. We then proceeded to investigate whether the white pine weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck.), a stem-boring insect, can influence the expression of genes encoding monoterpene synthases (mono-tps) in Sitka spruce. We went on to compare this response with the effects of a simulated insect attack by drill wounding. A significant increase in mono-tps transcript level was observed in the leaders of lateral branches of weevil-attacked and mechanically wounded trees. In this study, weevils induced a more rapid enhancement of mono-tps gene expression. A full-length Sitka spruce mono-tps cDNA (PsTPS2) was isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally identified as (-)-pinene synthase. The recombinant (-)-pinene synthase catalyzes the formation of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, both of which are known constituents of stem oleoresin in Sitka spruce and increase in abundance after weevil attack. These data suggest that increased (-)-pinene synthase gene expression is an important element of the direct defense system deployed in Sitka spruce after insect attack.

  8. Climatic Sensitivity of a Mixed Forest Association of White Spruce and Trembling Aspen at Their Southern Range Limit

    Sophan Chhin


    Full Text Available Climatic sensitivity of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench Voss was examined growing in association with trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. at their southern limit of distribution in a transitional ecotone between the southern boreal forest and northern prairie region. The study was carried out in the Spruce Woods Provincial Park (SWPP located in southwestern Manitoba, Canada. The dry regional climate restricted trembling aspen growth during the growing season via moisture deficiency and temperature induced drought stress. Warm, mild winters also negatively affected radial growth of trembling aspen. Growth of white spruce was moderated by conditions within the aspen stands as radial growth patterns showed low variability from year to year, a low common growth signal, and a stronger response to temperature than to precipitation. Nonetheless, the dry regional climate still restricted growth of white spruce during the growing season via temperature induced drought stress. The findings of the study for white spruce support the stress gradient hypothesis in which facilitative interactions between tree species are expected under harsher environmental conditions.


    Jacek Sosnowski Sosnowski


    Full Text Available The study was focused on the impact of an extract of Ecklonia maxima on selected morphological features of yellow pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex C. Lawson, prickly spruce (Picea pungens Engelm. Variety Glauca, thuja (Thuja occidentalis variety Smaragd. The experiment was established in April 12, 2012 on the forest nursery in Ceranów. April 15, 2013 was introduced research agent in the form of a spraying an aqueous solution extract of Ecklonia maxima with trade name Kelpak SL. Biologically active compounds in the extract are plant hormones: auxin and cytokinin. There were studied increment in plant height, needle length of yellow pine, twigs length in prickly spruce and thuja. The measurements of increment in length of twigs and needles were made in each case on the same, specially marked parts of plants and have carried them on the 27th of each month beginning in May and ending in September. The results were evaluated statistically using the analysis of variance. Medium differentiations were verified by Tukey's test at a significance level p ≤ 0.05. The study showed that the diversity of traits features in the experiment was depended on the extract, the tree species and the measurement time. The best results after the extract using showed a pine and spruce. Seaweed preparation contributed to increment increased of trees height for in the pine and spruce and the needles length of pine and twigs of spruce. The species showing no reaction to the extract was thuja.

  10. Declining Bark Beetle Densities (Ips typographus, Coleoptera: Scolytinae from Infested Norway Spruce Stands and Possible Implications for Management

    Alexander Angst


    Full Text Available The eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus is the most serious insect pest in Central European forests. During the past two decades, extreme meteorological events and subsequent beetle infestations have killed millions of cubic meters of standing spruce trees. Not all the infested stands could be cleared in time, and priorities in management had to be set. Natural or man-made buffer zones of about 500 meters in width are frequently defined to separate differently managed stands in Central Europe. While the buffer zones seem to be effective in most of the cases, their impact has not been studied in detail. Beetle densities were therefore assessed in three case studies using pheromone traps along transects, leading from infested stands into spruce-free buffer zones. The results of the trap catches allow an estimation of the buffer zone influence on densities and the dispersal of Ips typographus. Beetle densities were found to decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the infested spruce stands. The trap catches were below high-risk thresholds within a few hundred meters of the infested stands. The decrease in catches was more pronounced in open land and in an urban area than in a broadleaf stand. Designed buffer zones of 500 m width without spruce can therefore very probably help to reduce densities of spreading beetles.

  11. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Andrew D. Cameron


    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  12. Coarse woody debris dynamics following biomass harvesting : tracking the carbon and nitrogen patterns from harvest to crown closure in upland black spruce ecosystems

    Wiebe, S.A.; Luckai, N.J. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Natural Resources Management; Morris, D.M.; Reid, D.E.B. [Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Thunder Bay, ON (Canada) Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research


    Coarse woody debris (CWD) plays an important role in forest regeneration after disturbances such as fire or harvesting. Sites with shallow soils or coarse-textured soils are susceptible to overstory removal, as low carbon and nutrient pools may limit stand productivity. This paper reported on a study that was conducted to document carbon loss and nutrient fluxes associated with residual CWD remaining after 4 levels of biomass removal from mature black spruce forested stands in northwestern Ontario. Fresh, loamy soil, and dry sandy soil types were selected to determine if CWD represents a source or sink for nutrients as well as to determine if decay patterns varied depending on soil type. Results of the study showed that the biomass removal treatment with the greatest carbon loss and fastest CWD decay rate had the highest initial mass of CWD. Nitrogen (N) concentrations in the CWD increased throughout the 14-year sampling period. The trend was most evident on dry, sandy sites where N content peaked at year 4 and then decreased. N losses from CWD represented a substantive portion of the total inorganic N pool. Coarse wood N release ranged between 6 and 10 per cent of the total inorganic N pool on the shallow, loamy sites. Results of the study suggested that CWD may buffer the initial leaching of nutrients from the site after harvesting, and provide an available source of N to the stand prior to crown closure.

  13. Red Wine Over China


    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  14. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    ... Federation of Red Cross Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)... Hurricane Matthew: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent ... communities Port-au Prince, 3 November 2016 —Since Hurricane Matthew struck Haiti one month ago, the Haiti Re... ...

  15. Intermediate-scale community-level flux of CO2 and CH4 in a Minnesota peatland: putting the SPRUCE project in a global context

    P. J. Hanson; A. L. Gill; X. Xu; J. R. Phillips; D. J. Weston; Randy Kolka; J. S. Riggs; L. A. Hook


    Peatland measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux were obtained at scales appropriate to the in situ biological community below the tree layer to demonstrate representativeness of the spruce and peatland responses under climatic and environmental change (SPRUCE) experiment. Surface flux measurements were made using dual open-path...

  16. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    Barasa, B.A.; Slijper, M.


    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill. T

  17. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    Barasa, B.A.; Slijper, M.


    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill. T

  18. Dysferlin and other non-red cell proteins accumulate in the red cell membrane of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia patients.

    Esther N Pesciotta

    Full Text Available Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA is a congenital anemia usually caused by diverse mutations in ribosomal proteins. Although the genetics of DBA are well characterized, the mechanisms that lead to macrocytic anemia remain unclear. We systematically analyzed the proteomes of red blood cell membranes from multiple DBA patients to determine whether abnormalities in protein translation or erythropoiesis contribute to the observed macrocytosis or alterations in the mature red blood cell membrane. In depth proteome analysis of red cell membranes enabled highly reproducible identification and quantitative comparisons of 1100 or more proteins. These comparisons revealed clear differences between red cell membrane proteomes in DBA patients and healthy controls that were consistent across DBA patients with different ribosomal gene mutations. Proteins exhibiting changes in abundance included those known to be increased in DBA such as fetal hemoglobin and a number of proteins not normally found in mature red cell membranes, including proteins involved in the major histocompatibility complex class I pathway. Most striking was the presence of dysferlin in the red blood cell membranes of DBA patients but absent in healthy controls. Immunoblot validation using red cell membranes isolated from additional DBA patients and healthy controls confirmed a distinct membrane protein signature specific to patients with DBA.

  19. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421.101 Section 1421.101 Agriculture... Maturity dates. (a)(1) All marketing assistance loans shall mature on demand by CCC and no later than the... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date...

  20. Ribosome maturation in E. coli.

    Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Dotto, G P; Lacquaniti, F; Perlo, C; Turco, E; Mangiarotti, G


    In vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that processing of ribosomal RNA is a late event in ribosome biogenesis. The precursor form of RNA is probably necessary to speed up the assembly of ribomal proteins. Newly formed ribosomal particles which have already entered polyribosomes differ from mature ribosomes not only in their RNA content but also in their susceptibility to unfolding in low Mg concentration and to RNase attack. Final maturation of new ribosomes is probably dependent on their functioning in protein synthesis. Thus only those ribosomes which have proven to be functional may be converted into stable cellular structures.

  1. Impact of climate change on radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in North-western Russia

    Lopatin E


    Full Text Available When adapting forest management practices to a changing environment, it is very important to understand the response of an unmanaged natural forest to climate change. The method used to identify major climatic factors influencing radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine along a latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia is dendroclimatic analysis. A clear increasing long-term trend was identified in air temperature and precipitation. During the last 20 years, all meteorological stations experienced temperature increases, and 40 years ago precipitation began to increase. This is shown by the radial increment of Siberian spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, climate change could partly explain the increased forest productivity. The total variance explained by temperature varied from 22% to 41% and precipitation from 19% to 38%. The significant climatic parameters for radial increment in Komi Republic were identified, and the relation between temperature and precipitation in explained variance changes over time for Siberian spruce.

  2. Determination of the moisture content of Nordic spruce wood through cone heater experiments and an integral model

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Jørgensen, M.; Svensson, Staffan


    The combination of cone heater experiments and an integral model was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. Nine specimens of Nordic spruce were pre-heated to 105°C in a convective oven for durations ranging from 0 days (no drying) and up to 63 days...... in increments of 7 days. The fuel moisture content was measured by weighting the specimens before and after the pre-heating. A mass loss cone was used to determine the time for piloted ignition of each specimen. A high-flux asymptotic solution from an integral model permitted to determine that the ignition...... is developed that can be used to determine the time to ignition of a piece of wet spruce, and it is suggested that this method can be used for establishing similar equations for other types of moist wood....

  3. A study by non-isothermal thermal methods of spruce wood bark materialss after their application for dye removal



    Full Text Available This paper deals with a study of some materials obtained from spruce bark (Picea abies, Romania, after retention of some dyes frequently used in dyeing processes in the textile industry and waste water treatment. These materials obtained by dye retention exhibit a particular thermal behavior which is different from that of the blank sample (spruce bark. The characteristic temperatures, weight losses, the residue remaining after thermo-oxidative degradation, as well as the activation energies of the significant thermo-destruction stages, estimated from non-isothermal thermogravimetric data, together with the thermal quantities calculated from DTAdata support the conclusion presented in a previous study on dye retention from aqueous solution. The obtained results made evident that, under optimal retention conditions, spruce bark shows the highest retention capacity for the Basic Blue dye, followed by Direct Brown 95 and Direct Brown 2.

  4. Near real time observational data collection for SPRUCE experiment- PakBus protocol for slow satellite connections

    Krassovski, Misha; Hanson, Paul; Riggs, Jeff


    Climate change studies are one of the most important aspects of modern science and related experiments are getting bigger and more complex. One such experiment is the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE, conducted in in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The SPRUCE experimental mission is to assess ecosystem-level biological responses of vulnerable, high carbon terrestrial ecosystems to a range of climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 atmosphere. This manipulation experiment generates a lot of observational data and requires a reliable onsite data collection system, dependable methods to transfer data to a robust scientific facility, and real-time monitoring capabilities. This publication shares our experience of establishing near real time data collection and monitoring system via a satellite link using PakBus protocol.

  5. Impact of climate change on radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in North-western Russia

    Lopatin E


    Full Text Available When adapting forest management practices to a changing environment, it is very important to understand the response of an unmanaged natural forest to climate change. The method used to identify major climatic factors influencing radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine along a latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia is dendroclimatic analysis. A clear increasing long-term trend was identified in air temperature and precipitation. During the last 20 years, all meteorological stations experienced temperature increases, and 40 years ago precipitation began to increase. This is shown by the radial increment of Siberian spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, climate change could partly explain the increased forest productivity. The total variance explained by temperature varied from 22% to 41% and precipitation from 19% to 38%. The significant climatic parameters for radial increment in Komi Republic were identified, and the relation between temperature and precipitation in explained variance changes over time for Siberian spruce.

  6. Modelling Temporal Variability in the Carbon Balance of a Spruce/Moss Boreal Forest

    Frolking, S.; Goulden, M. L.; Wofsy, S. C.; Fan, S.-M.; Sutton, D. J.; Munger, J. W.; Bazzaz, A. M.; Daube, B. C.; Crill, P. M.; Aber, J. D.; Band, L. E.; Wang, X.; Savages, K.; Moore, T.; Harriss, R. C.


    A model of the daily carbon balance of a black spruce/feathermoss boreal forest ecosystem was developed and results compared to preliminary data from the 1994 BOREAS field campaign in northern Manitoba, Canada. The model, driven by daily weather conditions, simulated daily soil climate status (temperature and moisture profiles), spruce photosynthesis and respiration, moss photosynthesis and respiration, and litter decomposition. Model agreement with preliminary field data was good for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), capturing both the asymmetrical seasonality and short-term variability. During the growing season simulated daily NEE ranged from -4 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon uptake by ecosystem) to + 2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) (carbon flux to atmosphere), with fluctuations from day to day. In the early winter simulated NEE values were + 0.5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1), dropping to + 0.2 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1) in mid-winter. Simulated soil respiration during the growing season (+ 1 to + 5 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was dominated by metabolic respiration of the live moss, with litter decomposition usually contributing less than 30% and live spruce root respiration less than 10% of the total. Both spruce and moss net primary productivity (NPP) rates were higher in early summer than late summer. Simulated annual NEE for 1994 was -51 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1), with 83% going into tree growth and 17% into the soil carbon accumulation. Moss NPP (58 g C m(exp -2) d(exp -1)) was considered to be litter (i.e. soil carbon input; no net increase in live moss biomass). Ecosystem respiration during the snow-covered season (84 g Cm(exp -2)) was 58% of the growing season net carbon uptake. A simulation of the same site for 1968-1989 showed about 10-20% year-to-year variability in heterotrophic respiration (mean of + 113 g C m-2 y@1). Moss NPP ranged from 19 to 114 g C m(exp -2) y(exp -1); spruce NPP from 81 to 150 g C nt-2 y,@l; spruce growth (NPP minus litterfall) from 34 to 103 g C m

  7. Lesser-known European wine grape cultivars in southwestern Idaho: cold hardiness, berry maturity and yield

    The cold tolerance, phenology, yield and fruit maturity of lesser-known red and white-skinned wine grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera, L.) of European origin were compared to that of ‘Merlot’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ over two growing seasons in southwestern Idaho. Variability among cultivars was detec...

  8. Levels of damage of Scots pine and Norway spruce caused by needle miners along a SO{sub 2} gradient

    Oksanen, J. [Univ. of Tromsoe, Dept. of Plant Ecology, IBG, Tromsoe (Norway); Holopainen, J.K.; Nerg, A.; Holopainen, T. [Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kuopio (Finland)


    Needle damages, caused by mining insects on Scots pine and Norway spruce were studied in the vicinity of a pulp mill. The abundance of needles mined by the pine bud moth Exoteleia dodecella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Scots pine Pinus sylvestris, and the spruce needle miner Epinotia tedella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Norway spruce Picea abies had a significantly peaked response curve on logarithmic distance scale. For pine bud moth, the maximum expected population density was estimated to be at the distance of 1.35 km from the factory. The maximum expected population density for the spruce needle miner was at the distance of 1.53 km from the factory. However, for both species the curves were significantly different among transects. Both species had a peaked and significant response to sulphur level in needles as well. The maximum expected density in pine was at 1270 ppm, and in spruce at 1070 ppm sulphur concentration in pine needles. The results are consistent with earlier reports demonstrating that these mining insects frequently attack trees suffering from air pollution. The nonlinear response of both species to distance from the pulp mill suggests that E. dodecella on pine and E. tedella on spruce are rather indicators of the zone of intermediate air pollution than of strongly polluted or nearly unpolluted sites. This also agrees with the plant stress-insect performance hypothesis indicating that insect response varies with the magnitude of stress, and at very high stress levels a tree no longer provides the insects with relevant food. (au) 49 refs.

  9. Physical and chemical characteristics of pitaya fruits at physiological maturity.

    Ortiz, T A; Takahashi, L S A


    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of the maturation process of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus) to identify indicators that can be used to determine the point of physiological maturity and establish the optimal timing of physiological maturity for harvesting the fruit. A completely randomized experimental design was employed and four biological repeats were performed. Physiological maturity was assessed using various physical characteristics: longitudinal length (LL), equatorial diameter (ED), pericarp thickness (PeT), pulp thickness (PuT), fruit mass (FM), pulp mass (PuM), pericarp mass (PeM), pericarp percentage (%Pe), pulp percentage (%Pu), pulp/pericarp ratio (Pu/Pe), pericarp color index (CI), hue color angle (h°), lightness index (L*), chroma (C*), blue-yellow variation (b*), and green-red variation (a*). Additionally, chemical characteristics such as soluble solid content (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, and pH were screened. The data were statistically analyzed by fitting regression models and computing Pearson's correlation coefficients (P pitaya fruits occurred between the 30th and 32nd days after anthesis, and this proved to be the optimal period for harvest. At this time, the fruit was completely red with high SS, and had the recommended values of TA, pH, and SS/TA ratio. During this period, ED, PuT, FM, PuM, %Pu, and Pu/Pe increased while PeT, PeM, and %Pe fell; these changes are considered desirable by producers and/or consumers. PuM was the variable that displayed more strong's association with other variables in the analysis.

  10. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F


    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Growth dynamics of black spruce (Picea mariana) in a rapidly thawing discontinuous permafrost peatland

    Sniderhan, Anastasia E.; Baltzer, Jennifer L.


    High-latitude warming has led to radical changes in abiotic conditions influencing forest growth. In the North American boreal forest, widespread declines in forest productivity (particularly in western regions) and changing climate-growth relationships have been documented. Previous studies have proposed that this decline can be attributed to drought stress as increasing temperatures may cause evapotranspirative demand to exceed available moisture. We used tree ring studies to document growth dynamics of black spruce, one of the most dominant boreal tree species, in a boreal peatland experiencing rapid permafrost thaw. We specifically look at how changing permafrost conditions influence growth. Growth of black spruce at this site has declined steadily since the mid-1900s and exhibited a shift from positive responses to temperature pre-1970 to predominantly negative responses in recent decades, despite precipitation increasing over time at this site. Our results show that there is no apparent effect of landscape position or rate of lateral permafrost thaw on growth trends of black spruce, despite gradients in soil moisture and active layer thickness across the mosaic of wetlands and drier permafrost plateaus at this site. However, this does not imply no effect of permafrost thaw on growth; our results support growing evidence that vertical permafrost thaw (i.e., active layer thickening) is causing drought stress in these slow-growing, shallow-rooted trees. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate permafrost as a driver of within-site variability in growth-climate responses, and we provide insight into the widespread growth declines and divergence of climate-growth relationships in high-latitude forests.

  12. Tropospheric ozone fluxes in Norway spruce forest during the transition period from autumn to winter

    Juran, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Zapletal, Miloš; Cudlín, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Urban, Otmar


    Norway spruce exhibits seasonal variations in stomatal conductance and photosynthetic activity typical for overwintering plants, with a decline during autumn and a complete recovery during spring. We investigated ozone fluxes during this transient period (November 2016). Fluxes of tropospheric ozone, the major phytotoxic near-ground pollutant causing injuries to plant tissues, were measured at Bily Kriz experimental station in Beskydy Mountains, the Czech Republic. Dry chemiluminescence fast-response ozone sensor coupled with sonic anemometer was used to measure fast fluctuations in ozone concentration and three-dimensional wind speed, respectively. Apart from this eddy covariance technique, within-canopy ozone concentration gradient was simultaneously measured by UV-absorption based slow-response ozone analysers. Ozone fluxes were subsequently modelled by an Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model (ILTM). A comparison of measured and calculated fluxes is thus available. Moreover, stomatal ozone flux was calculated based on Evaporative/Resistive method assuming stomata are the most relevant sink in the spruce forest. The low NOx concentration throughout the year and low concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the transition period led to hypothesize that non-stomatal flux here estimated by difference between total ozone flux and stomatal ozone flux is represented mainly by dry soil deposition and wet deposition during the snow period. We discuss here the ILTM parameterisation with comparison to measured ozone fluxes. Correct estimation of stomatal ozone flux is essential, especially in transition periods, where main scientific emphasis is put rarely. In addition, this research should help to develop metrics for ozone-risk assessment and advance our knowledge in biosphere-atmosphere exchange over Norway spruce forest. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports within the National Programme for Sustainability

  13. Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri. Two latent colonizers of Norway spruce

    Lehtijaervi, A. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology


    Among the endophytic microfungi colonizing Norway spruce, the non-pathogenic species Lophodermium piceae and Tryblidiopsis pinastri are ubiquitous. Most Norway spruce in Sweden are colonized by these fungi. L. piceae colonizes healthy needles of various ages, while T pinastri colonizes the bark of branches. New shoots become infected around the time of their emergence. Fruit bodies are formed after the needles and branches die. It was found that L. piceae colonized needles during the summer and early autumn, about six weeks after a prolonged period of intensive rain. The number of individual fungal mycelia per needle increased linearly with needle age. In experiments with trees, irrigation resulted in lower total colonization and delayed colonization of the current-year needles, regardless of whether fertilizer had been added. Colonization by L. piceae was lowest in the ammonium sulfate treatment, which simulated the deposition of air pollutants. Colonization was highest in the control and drought treatments, which did not differ significantly from each other. Only a few pathogenic fungi can damage Norway spruce needles. Needles damaged by the rust fungus Chrysomyxa abietis were investigated to study interactions between fungi. The frequency and intensity of L. piceae colonization were found to be similar for C. abietis infected and healthy needles. However, in needles partially infected with rust, L. piceae seemed to establish itself easier in the rust-infected part than in the green part. The genetic structures of populations of T. pinastri in southern Sweden and Finland were investigated using DNA markers produced by means of arbitrarily primed PCR. Single spore isolates from apothecia were used in the analysis. A considerable amount of variation was detected. No geographical differentiation was found among the populations studied


    Sergio eRossi


    Full Text Available Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analysed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points towards a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions.

  15. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean


    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions. PMID:25389430

  16. Genetic host-tree effects on the ectomycorrhizal community and root characteristics of Norway spruce.

    Velmala, S M; Rajala, T; Haapanen, M; Taylor, A F S; Pennanen, T


    A greenhouse experiment was used to study the effects of host genotype on short root formation and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community structure in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Rooted cuttings representing 55 clones were inoculated with a mix of vegetative hyphae of five ECM fungal species (Laccaria sp., Amphinema byssoides, Piloderma sp., Cadophora finlandia, Paxillus involutus). After one growing season, the ECM fungal community structure was determined by amplifying the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of ribosomal DNA directly from ECM root tips. Restriction profiles of obtained amplicons were then compared to those of the inoculated strains. Spruce clones differed in their ECM fungal community composition; we found a statistically significant clone-specific effect on ECM fungal diversity and dominating fungal species. Nevertheless, the broad sense heritabilities of the levels of Laccaria sp., Piloderma sp. and A. byssoides colonisations as well as the ECM fungal community structure were low (H(2) = 0.04-0.11), owing to the high within-clone variation. As nitrogen concentration of needles correlated negatively with ECM fungal richness, our results imply that in the experimental conditions nutrient acquisition of young trees may benefit from colonisation with only one or two ECM fungal species. The heritability of short root density was moderate (H(2) = 0.41) and highest among all the measured shoot and root growth characteristics of Norway spruce cuttings. We suggest that the genetic component determining root growth and short root formation is significant for the performance of young trees in natural environments as these traits drive the formation of the below-ground symbiotic interactions.

  17. Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development.

    Miller, Susan

    Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development, when applied to theories of teaching composition, support any method or material that refers to the age and prior experience of the writer and the newness of the task the writer is attempting. Rhetorical development and maturation in the ability to write and argue persuasively are partly conceptual…

  18. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony


    citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...

  19. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan


    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  20. Human oocyte maturation in vitro.

    Coticchio, Giovanni; Dal-Canto, Mariabeatrice; Guglielmo, Maria-Cristina; Mignini-Renzini, Mario; Fadini, Rubens


    Oocytes from medium-sized antral follicles have already completed their growth phase and, if released from the follicular environment and cultured in vitro, are able to resume the meiotic process and mature. However, in vitro maturation (IVM) does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically as an effect of the ovulatory stimulus. Regardless, oocyte IVM is widely applied for the breeding of agriculturally important species. In assisted reproduction technology, IVM has been proposed as an alternative treatment to circumvent the drawbacks of standard ovarian stimulation regimens. Initially introduced to eliminate the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome afflicting women presenting with polycystic ovaries, subsequently IVM has been suggested to represent an additional approach suitable also for normovulatory patients. So far, in children born from IVM cycles, no doubts of an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities have been raised. Many more births would be achieved if novel IVM systems, currently dominated by empiricism, could be conceived according to more physiological criteria. Recent findings shedding new light on the control of meiotic progression, the support of cumulus cells to the oocyte cellular reorganization occurring during maturation, and the modulation of the stimulus that promotes oocyte maturation downstream the mid-cycle gonadotropin signal are likely to provide crucial hints for the development of more efficient IVM systems.

  1. Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst. variability in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Cvjetković Branislav


    Full Text Available Norway spruce is one of the most important economic species is Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is the species at the edge of its natural range; nevertheless it attains significant growth and yield results. The species is often used for afforestation purposes. In the previous period, 4 progeny tests of Norway spruce were established in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The offspring from 6 natural populations: Han Pijesak 1, Han Pijesak 2, Foča, Potoci, Olovo and Kneževo were build-in the progeny tests. In 2016, the samples of Norway spruce from 2 progeny tests: Srebrenica and Drinić were collected. In total, 360 samples were collected. DNA isolation was done according to Dumoline et al. (1990. For assessment of genetic differences among populations, co-dominant nSSR microsatellite system had been used. The number of effective alleles ranged from 7.78 in the population Potoci up to 15 in the population Kneževo, the average number of alleles was 13. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.61 for the population Han Pijesak 2 up to 0.68 for population Kneževo. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.65. Fixation index was in the range from -0.073 in the population Potoci, to 0.030 for the population Han Pijesak 2. The average value of Wright fixation index is -0.007. The average fixation index indicates the existence of a very small number of homozygotes. Concerning the variability among populations it has been concluded that the total level of genetic differentiation among populations was very low (FST= 0.026. The result of Nei’s genetic distance shows that the populations Olovo and Potoci are separated from other populations. The results obtained by genetic markers, in addition with other, morphological and physiological markers will be the basis for the further investigation of Norway spruce adaptability and possibility for the transfer of genetic material in light of climate changes.

  2. Frost sensitivity and nutrient status in a fertilized Norway spruce stand in Denmark

    Jönsson, A. M.; Ingerslev, M.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the N, P and K status on frost sensitivity of Norway spruce needles in a fertilization experiment situated in a nutrient poor 29-year-old Picea abies stand in western Denmark. The relative difference in frost sensitivity among trees was assessed...... by an index of injury, based on conductivity measurements of ion leakage from needles. Despite fertilization, all trees indicated N, P and K deficiency. The foliage, collected in late winter, was generally not very frost sensitive, but foliage from trees with the lowest K and P status were more sensitive...

  3. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.


    how drying and saturation procedures influence the differences between the 1st and the 2nd desorption curves for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) sapwood. The study establishes 1st and 2nd desorption isotherms for a variety of initial conditions and it covers the RH range from 60.1% to 99.......9%. The state of the water is not affected by oven-drying and rewetting as demonstrated by time domain low field NMR relaxometry. The results challenge the conclusions of earlier studies and indicate that in these studies the 2nd desorption was initiated at much too low EMC and therefore fails to describe...

  4. The antineoplastic quassinoids of Simaba cuspidata spruce and Ailanthus grandis Prain.

    Polonsky, J; Varon, Z; Moretti, C; Pettit, G R; Herald, C L; Rideout, J A; Saha, S B; Khastgir, H N


    The South American Simaba cuspidata Spruce and North Indian Ailanthus grandis Prain were investigated as sources of potentially useful antineoplastic agents. Both of these Simaroubaceae plant species were found to produce 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a) and the new quassinoid 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrin (3b). The latter structure was determined by interpretation of spectral data and oxidation to 6 alpha-tigloyloxychaparrinone (4a). While both glycol 3b and alpha-ketol 4a were found to significantly inhibit growth of the murine P388 lymphocytic leukemia cell line, only the alpha-ketol (4a) inhibited growth of the corresponding in vivo system.

  5. Windthrow and fallow-forest successions impacts in soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics in the Central Russia' reserve spruce ecosystems

    Vasenev, Ivan; Ivanov, Alexey; Komarova, Tatyana; Valentini, Riccardo


    High spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most forest soils that is especially obvious in case of their carbon stocks and GHG fluxes. This phenomenon is generally well-known but not so often becomes the object of special precision investigation in detail and small scales so there are still serious gaps in its principal factors understanding due to their high bioclimatic, regional, landscape, tree species and temporal variability. Southern taiga is one of the most environmentally important world zonal forest ecosystems due to its still comparatively intensive carbon biogeochemical cycle and huge area in the northern Eurasia with strong anthropogenic impacts by Western & Central European and Southern & Eastern Asian regions. Central Forest Biospheric Reserve (Tver region, 360 km to North-West from Moscow) is the principal southern-taiga reserve in the European territory of Russia. Since start of its research activity in 1939 the reserve became the regional center of mature spruce ecosystem structure and dynamics investigation. In 1970-1980-s there have been done complex investigations of windthrow soil patterns and fallow-forest successions. Since middle of 1990-s the ecosystem-level GHG fluxes have been observed by eddy covariance method. Since 2012 the detailed year-round monitoring is running in the southern-taiga zonal station of the regional system RusFluxNet with especial attention on the soil carbon stocks and GHG fluxes spatial variability and dynamics due to windthrow and fallow-forest successions (in frame of RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and # Soil carbon dynamics is investigated in decades-hundred-year chronosequences of dominated parcels and different-size windthrow soil cover patterns, including direct investigation during last 33 years with detailed mapping, soil profile morphometrics and bulk density, morphogenetic and statistical analysis of mass data. Morphogenetic analysis of microrelief, soil profile

  6. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    Carl Marnewick


    Full Text Available Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM and the longitudinal analysis provides a benchmark for whether IS PMM has increased or not. This article focuses on whether certain knowledge areas are more of a problem within the IT industry and to determine what the overall IS PMM is. The longitudinal analysis indicates trends and highlights areas of concern. It indicates that most IT companies are still operating at level 3 and that risk and procurement management are the knowledge areas of concern. A comparative analysis indicates that there is no difference between South African and international maturity levels. The results provide a South African perspective of IS PMM. It highlights that risk management is still a knowledge area that is neglected and that emphasis must be placed on managing risk within IT projects.

  7. Thermal diffusivity of periderm from tomatoes of different maturity stages as determined by the concept of the frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell

    Velasco Soares, D.; Baesso Mauro, L.; Medina Neto, A.; Bicanic, D.D.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Bento, A.C.


    The frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell (OPC) approach was used to determine room temperature thermal diffusivity of skins (pericarps) from the raw tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculetum Mill.) characterized by the three different stages of ripeness (from immature-green to a mature-red). Periodically

  8. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Ken Gale


    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  9. Green ICT Maturity Model for Czech SMEs

    Alena Buchalcevova


    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of a Green ICT maturity model that is aimed at maturity assessment of a Green ICT capability in SMEs that figure as users of ICT services. Based on a literature review and internet search, six maturity models in the Green ICT area were detected and further analysed. Since these maturity models do not suit maturity assessment in non-ICT SMEs, a new Green ICT maturity model for SMEs was developed. This paper introduces the process of model development, description of the resulted model and evaluation of the model.

  10. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Naumburg, Jan


    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  11. High methane emissions from restored Norway spruce swamps in southern Finland over one growing season

    M. Koskinen


    Full Text Available Forestry-drained peatlands in the boreal region are currently undergoing restoration in order to bring these ecosystems closer to their natural (undrained state. Drainage affects the methane (CH4 dynamics of a peatland, often changing sites from CH4 sources to sinks. Successful restoration of a peatland would include restoration of not only the surface vegetation and hydrology, but also the microbial populations and thus CH4 dynamics. As a pilot study, CH4 emissions were measured on two pristine, two drained and three restored boreal spruce swamps in southern Finland for one growing season. Restoration was successful in the sense that the water table level in the restored sites was significantly higher than in the drained sites, but it was also slightly higher than in the pristine sites. The restored sites were surprisingly large sources of CH4 (mean emissions of 52.84 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, contrasting with both the pristine (1.51 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and the drained sites (2.09 mg CH4 m-2 d-1. More research is needed to assess whether the high CH4 emissions observed in this study are representative of restored spruce mires in general.

  12. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions

    Jozica eGricar


    Full Text Available There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate–radial growth relationships of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. H. Karst. from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932–2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009–2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.

  13. The community of needle endophytes reflects the current physiological state of Norway spruce.

    Rajala, Tiina; Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Vesala, Risto; Smolander, Aino; Pennanen, Taina


    This study investigated fungal endophytes in the needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) cuttings in relation to host tree growth. We also determined the prevalence of endophytes in needles incubated for six months. The cuttings originated from clonal origins showing slow- and fast-growth in long-term field trials but the heritable differences in growth rate were not yet detected among the studied cutting. Endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized needles with culture-free DNA techniques. No significant differences were observed between endophyte communities of slow- and fast-growing clonal origins. However, the endophyte community correlated with the current growth rate of cuttings suggesting that endophytes reflect short- rather than long-term performance of a host. The concentration of condensed tannins was similar in slow- and fast-growing clonal origins but it showed a negative relationship with endophyte species richness, implying that these secondary compounds may play an important role in spruce tolerance against fungal infections. More than a third of endophyte species were detected in both fresh and decomposing needles, indicating that many needle endophytes are facultative saprotrophs. Several potentially pathogenic fungal species were also found within the community of saprotrophic endophytes.

  14. Cellulose accessibility determines the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce.

    Wiman, Magnus; Dienes, Dora; Hansen, Mads A T; van der Meulen, Torbjörn; Zacchi, Guido; Lidén, Gunnar


    Spruce chips steam-pretreated at various conditions, according to a central composite design, were used for investigating the influence of pretreatment conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis, accounting for the individual effects of pretreatment temperature (194-220 °C), time (3-11 min) and sulfur dioxide uptake (0.7-2.5%). The materials were analyzed for several surface characteristics, including IR absorption, enzyme adsorption capacity, total surface area, cellulosic surface area, and cellulosic pore sizes. This work showed a clear correlation between rate of enzymatic hydrolysis and specific surface area. Although the lignin content of the particle surface increased at higher pretreatment temperature and residence time, the initial rate of enzymatic hydrolysis increased. Enzyme adsorption measurements and staining methods revealed that the higher rate of hydrolysis of these materials was due to increased accessibility of the cellulose. An accessible cellulose fraction is thus more important than a low surface lignin content for the enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated spruce. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Annual pattern of sulphur content in spruce needles from heavily and less polluted areas

    Simoncic, P.; Kalan, P. [Slovenia Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Needles of twenty years old spruces from Prednji vrh, an area affected by the Sostanj power station (Slovenia) and from Pojljuka, Alps region, with a relatively unpolluted environment, were analysed for total sulphur (S-t) and total nitrogen content (N-t). Sulphur measurements were taken in a period between April and August twice monthly, and in the period from August to April every four weeks (May 1993-June 1994). Sulphur content in the current and one year old spruce needles from Prednji vrh were much higher (current year needles, 2.06-2.50 mg/m dry weight, 1993) than in needles from Pokljuka (current year needles 1.05-1.25 mg/g dry weight, 1993). Nitrogen contents and ratio N-t/S-t for current year needles from Pokljuka were higher (12.3 mg/g dry weight, N-t/S-t 10.2, November 1993) than in needles from Prednji vrh (10.8 mg/g dry weight, N-t/S-t 5.3, November 1993).

  16. Fracture tolerance of reaction wood (yew and spruce wood in the TR crack propagation system).

    Stanzl-Tschegg, Stefanie E; Keunecke, Daniel; Tschegg, Elmar K


    The fracture properties of spruce and yew were studied by in-situ loading in an environmental scanning microscope (ESEM). Loading was performed with a micro-wedge splitting device in the TR-crack propagation direction. The emphasis was laid on investigating the main mechanisms responsible for a fracture tolerant behavior with a focus on the reaction wood. The fracture mechanical results were correlated with the features of the surface structure observed by the ESEM technique, which allows loading and observation in a humid environment. Some important differences between the reaction wood and normal wood were found for both investigated wood species (spruce and yew), including the formation of cracks before loading (ascribed to residual stresses) and the change of fracture mode during crack propagation in the reaction wood. The higher crack propagation resistance was attributed mainly to the different cell (i.e. fiber) geometries (shape, cell wall thickness) and fiber angle to the load axis of the reaction wood, as basic structural features are responsible for more pronounced crack deflection and branching, thus leading to crack growth retardation. Fiber bridging was recognized as another crack growth retarding mechanism, which is effective in both wood species and especially pronounced in yew wood.

  17. Extraction of hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from spruce using microwave oven or steam treatment.

    Palm, Magnus; Zacchi, Guido


    This paper describes the extraction of hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from spruce, using microwave or steam treatment that can be used for the production of polymers, replacing fossil-based polymers, e.g., hydrogels. The highest yield of oligosaccharides, measured as mannan, was 70% obtained with treatment in the microwave oven at 200 degrees C for 5 min. The amount of oligosaccharides extracted was 12.5 g per 100 g of dry wood. The molecular weights of some selected samples were analyzed using fast protein liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography and time-of-flight matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization. Recovered oligosaccharides following steam treatment at 200 degrees C for 2 min had a mean molecular weight of 3400 g/mol with a maximum weight of 12000 g/mol. Higher severity, i.e., increased temperature (>200 degrees C) and residence time, resulted in lower mean molecular weights and yield. Oligosaccharides with higher mean molecular weights were obtained at lower severity, but the yield was considerably lower. The feasibility of using the extracted hemicellulosic oligosaccharides from spruce for the synthesis of hydrogels was demonstrated.

  18. Investigation of cadmium pollution in the spruce saplings near the metal production factory.

    Hashemi, Seyed Armin; Farajpour, Ghasem


    Toxic metals such as lead and cadmium are among the pollutants that are created by the metal production factories and disseminated in the nature. In order to study the quantity of cadmium pollution in the environment of the metal production factories, 50 saplings of the spruce species at the peripheries of the metal production factories were examined and the samples of the leaves, roots, and stems of saplings planted around the factory and the soil of the environment of the factory were studied to investigate pollution with cadmium. They were compared to the soil and saplings of the spruce trees planted outside the factory as observer region. The results showed that the quantity of pollution in the leaves, stems, and roots of the trees planted inside the factory environment were estimated at 1.1, 1.5, and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, and this indicated a significant difference with the observer region (p pollution with cadmium in the region has been influenced by the production processes in the factory.

  19. Adaptation of lodgepole pine and interior spruce to climate: implications for reforestation in a warming world.

    Liepe, Katharina J; Hamann, Andreas; Smets, Pia; Fitzpatrick, Connor R; Aitken, Sally N


    We investigated adaptation to climate in populations of two widespread tree species across a range of contrasting environments in western Canada. In a series of common garden experiments, bud phenology, cold hardiness, and seedling growth traits were assessed for 254 populations in the interior spruce complex (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii, and their hybrids) and for 281 populations of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Complex multitrait adaptations to different ecological regions such as boreal, montane, coastal, and arid environments accounted for 15-20% of the total variance. This population differentiation could be directly linked to climate variables through multivariate regression tree analysis. Our results suggest that adaptation to climate does not always correspond linearly to temperature gradients. For example, opposite trait values (e.g., early versus late budbreak) may be found in response to apparently similar cold environments (e.g., boreal and montane). Climate change adaptation strategies may therefore not always be possible through a simple shift of seed sources along environmental gradients. For the two species in this study, we identified a relatively small number of uniquely adapted populations (11 for interior spruce and nine for lodgepole pine) that may be used to manage adaptive variation under current and expected future climates.

  20. Short-term impacts of energy wood harvesting on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Norway spruce saplings.

    Huusko, Karoliina; Tarvainen, Oili; Saravesi, Karita; Pennanen, Taina; Fritze, Hannu; Kubin, Eero; Markkola, Annamari


    The increased demand for harvesting energy wood raises questions about its effects on the functioning of the forest ecosystems, soil processes and biodiversity. Impacts of tree stump removal on ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities of Norway spruce saplings were studied with 454-pyrosequencing in a 3-year field experiment replicated in 3 geographical areas. This is possibly the most thorough investigation of EMF communities associated with saplings grown on sites subjected to energy wood harvesting. To separate impacts of tree stump and logging residue removal on EMF and plant variables, we used three harvesting treatments with increasing complexity from patch mounding alone (P) to patch mounding combined with logging residue removal (RP), and patch mounding combined with both logging residue and stump removal (SRP). Saplings grown in uncut forests (F) served as references for harvesting treatments. A majority of sequences (>92%) and operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 55%) were assigned as EMF. EMF OTU richness, fungal community composition or sapling growth did not differ between harvesting treatments (P, RP and SRP), while EMF OTU richness, diversity and evenness were highest and sapling growth lowest in the undisturbed reference forests (F). The short study period may partially explain the similarities in fungal and sapling variables in different harvesting treatments. In conclusion, our results indicate that neither stump removal nor logging residue removal have significant additional negative impacts on EMF communities or growth of Norway spruce saplings in the short-term compared with the impacts of more conventional harvesting methods, including clear cutting and patch mounding.

  1. On-line field measurements of VOC emissions from a spruce tree at SMEAR Estonia

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Noe, Steffen


    We have investigated VOC emissions from a Norway spruce tree (Picea abies) in a hemi-boreal mixed forest in September and October 2012, using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry techniques, applied in a dynamic branch enclosure system that was automatically operated with an electrical compressor. Parallel to BVOC measurements a vast amount of atmospheric (CO2, CH4, H2O, CO, particles) and meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, photosynthetic active radiation, wind speed and direction, precipitation) parameters were measured in the ambient atmosphere and inside the cuvette enclosure (temperature, relative humidity, O3). Prior to the measuring period, an innovatory experimental setup was built at Järvselja forest station, in order to accomplish the detection of BVOC and minimize sampling losses. Therefore, a new inlet line, consisting of 19.4m of heated and isolated glass tube was constructed. The new inlet system applied, allowed the on-line detection and calculation of sesquiterpene (SQT) emission rates for the first time in a hemi-boreal forest site. It total, 12 atmospheric relevant BVOCs were continuously monitored for a three week period and the emission rates were derived. Along with diurnal profiles and continuous timeless, some interesting observations showed the possibility of ozone effect on SQT emissions, the possibility of radiation effect on MT emissions, the higher induced emissions due to mechanical stress and the possibility for a valid intercomparison between different spruce trees located in mountain Kleiner Feldberg (Germany) and in Järvseja forest station (Estonia).

  2. Impacts of logging and wildfire on an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario.

    Johnston, M H; Elliott, J A


    Plant species composition and community structure were compared among four sites in an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario. One site had remained undisturbed since the 1930s and three had been disturbed by either logging, fire, or both logging and fire. Canonical correspondence ordination analyses indicated that herbaceous species composition and abundance differed among the disturbance types while differences in the shrub and tree strata were less pronounced. In the herb stratum Pleurozium schreberi, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Dicranum polysetum were in greatest abundance on the undisturbed forest site, while the wildfire and burned cutover sites were dominated by Epilobium angustifolium and Polytrichum juniperinum. The unburned harvested site was dominated by Epilobium angustifolium, Cornus canadensis and Pleurozium schreberi. Species richness was lower on the undisturbed site than on any of the disturbed sites while species diversity (H') and evenness (Hill's E5) were higher on the unburned harvested site than on the other sites. Results suggest that herb re-establishment is different among harvested and burned sites in upland black spruce communities and we hypothesize that differences in the characteristics of the disturbance were responsible, in particular, the impact of burning on nutrient availability. These differences need to be taken into account in determining the effects of these disturbances on biodiversity and long-term ecosystem management.

  3. Assembling the 20 Gb white spruce (Picea glauca) genome from whole-genome shotgun sequencing data.

    Birol, Inanc; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D; Pleasance, Stephen; Coope, Robin; Taylor, Greg A; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; Keeling, Christopher I; Brand, Dana; Vandervalk, Benjamin P; Kirk, Heather; Pandoh, Pawan; Moore, Richard A; Zhao, Yongjun; Mungall, Andrew J; Jaquish, Barry; Yanchuk, Alvin; Ritland, Carol; Boyle, Brian; Bousquet, Jean; Ritland, Kermit; Mackay, John; Bohlmann, Jörg; Jones, Steven J M


    White spruce (Picea glauca) is a dominant conifer of the boreal forests of North America, and providing genomics resources for this commercially valuable tree will help improve forest management and conservation efforts. Sequencing and assembling the large and highly repetitive spruce genome though pushes the boundaries of the current technology. Here, we describe a whole-genome shotgun sequencing strategy using two Illumina sequencing platforms and an assembly approach using the ABySS software. We report a 20.8 giga base pairs draft genome in 4.9 million scaffolds, with a scaffold N50 of 20,356 bp. We demonstrate how recent improvements in the sequencing technology, especially increasing read lengths and paired end reads from longer fragments have a major impact on the assembly contiguity. We also note that scalable bioinformatics tools are instrumental in providing rapid draft assemblies. The Picea glauca genome sequencing and assembly data are available through NCBI (Accession#: ALWZ0100000000 PID: PRJNA83435).

  4. Plasticity in variation of xylem and phloem cell characteristics of Norway spruce under different local conditions.

    Gričar, Jožica; Prislan, Peter; de Luis, Martin; Gryc, Vladimír; Hacurová, Jana; Vavrčík, Hanuš; Čufar, Katarina


    There is limited information on intra-annual plasticity of secondary tissues of tree species growing under different environmental conditions. To increase the knowledge about the plasticity of secondary growth, which allows trees to adapt to specific local climatic regimes, we examined climate-radial growth relationships of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.] from three contrasting locations in the temperate climatic zone by analyzing tree-ring widths for the period 1932-2010, and cell characteristics in xylem and phloem increments formed in the years 2009-2011. Variation in the structure of xylem and phloem increments clearly shows that plasticity in seasonal dynamics of cambial cell production and cell differentiation exists on xylem and phloem sides. Anatomical characteristics of xylem and phloem cells are predominantly site-specific characteristics, because they varied among sites but were fairly uniform among years in trees from the same site. Xylem and phloem tissues formed in the first part of the growing season seemed to be more stable in structure, indicating their priority over latewood and late phloem for tree performance. Long-term climate and radial growth analyses revealed that growth was in general less dependent on precipitation than on temperature; however, growth sensitivity to local conditions differed among the sites. Only partial dependence of radial growth of spruce on climatic factors on the selected sites confirms its strategy to adapt the structure of wood and phloem increments to function optimally in local conditions.


    Olov Karlsson,


    Full Text Available Carbohydrates that migrate to wood surfaces in sapwood during drying might influence properties such as mould susceptibility and colour. Sugars on the surface of Norway spruce boards during various heat treatments were studied. Samples (350mmx125mmx25mm were double-stacked, facing sapwood-side outwards, and dried at 110oC to a target moisture content (MC of 40%. Dried sub-samples (80 mm x 125 mm x 25 mm were stacked in a similar way and further heated at 110oC and at 130oC for 12, 24, and 36 hours, respectively. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose as well as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF and furfural in the sapwood surface layer of treated wood were analysed using HPLC (RI- and UV-detectors. Carbohydrates degraded to a lower extent at 110oC than at 130oC. Furfural and to a larger extent HMF increased with treatment period and temperature. Heat treatment led to a decrease in lightness and hue of the sapwood surface of sub-samples, while chroma increased somewhat. Furthermore, considerably faster degradation (within a few minutes of the carbohydrates on the surface of the dried spruce boards was observed when single sub-samples were conductively hot pressed at 200oC. Treatment period and initial MC influenced the presence of the carbohydrates in wood surface as well as colour change (Eab of the hot pressed sub-samples.

  6. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.;


    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted...... approximately 70% of the flux. A much lower flux was observed for myrcene, limonene and gamma-terpinene and both alpha-terpinene and camphor were only occasionally detected. The average terpene flux was 107.6 ng m(-2) s(-1) which corresponds to 0.73 mu g g(dw)(-1) h(-1) (30 degrees C) when calculated relatively...... the weight of the dry biomass. The five terpenes which were detected in all samples at the orange orchard were limonene, sabinene, alpha-pinene, trans-ocimene and beta-pinene with an average Aux of 126.3 ng m(-2) s(-1). Cis-ocimene, linalool and myrcene were occasionally detected but no systematic upward...

  7. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin


    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  8. Modeling Wood Fibre Length in Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP Based on Ecological Land Classification

    Elisha Townshend


    Full Text Available Effective planning to optimize the forest value chain requires accurate and detailed information about the resource; however, estimates of the distribution of fibre properties on the landscape are largely unavailable prior to harvest. Our objective was to fit a model of the tree-level average fibre length related to ecosite classification and other forest inventory variables depicted at the landscape scale. A series of black spruce increment cores were collected at breast height from trees in nine different ecosite groups within the boreal forest of northeastern Ontario, and processed using standard techniques for maceration and fibre length measurement. Regression tree analysis and random forests were used to fit hierarchical classification models and find the most important predictor variables for the response variable area-weighted mean stem-level fibre length. Ecosite group was the best predictor in the regression tree. Longer mean fibre-length was associated with more productive ecosites that supported faster growth. The explanatory power of the model of fitted data was good; however, random forests simulations indicated poor generalizability. These results suggest the potential to develop localized models linking wood fibre length in black spruce to landscape-level attributes, and improve the sustainability of forest management by identifying ideal locations to harvest wood that has desirable fibre characteristics.

  9. Changes in soil nitrogen cycling under Norway spruce logging residues on a clear-cut

    Smolander, Aino; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Kitunen, Veikko


    In Europe, forest biomass is increasingly being used as a source of energy to replace fossil fuels. In practice, this means that logging residues, consisting of green branches and stem tops, are more commonly harvested. In 2012 logging residues were harvested from about one third of clear-cuts in Finland. Our aim was to study how logging residues affect soil organic matter quality, in particular soil N cycling processes and composition of certain groups of plant secondary compounds, tannins and terpenes. Compounds in these groups were of interest because they are abundant in logging residues, and they have been shown to control soil N cycling. In connection with clear-cutting a Norway spruce stand in southern Finland, we established a controlled field experiment by building logging residue piles (40 kg/m2) on study plots. The piles consisted of fresh spruce branches and tops with green foliage. Control plots with no residues were included (0 kg/m2). Changes in soil organic matter properties have now been monitored for three growing seasons. Logging residues affected organic layer properties strongly. For example, they increased net nitrification and nitrate concentrations. There were also increases in the concentrations of certain terpenes and condensed tannins due to the residues. The significance of logging residues on soil processes and properties will be shown.

  10. PLM Maturity Evaluation and Prediction Based on a Maturity Assessment and Fuzzy Sets Theory

    Zhang, Haiqing; Sekhari, Aicha; Ouzrout, Yacine; Bouras, Abdelaziz


    Part 8: Change Management and Maturity; International audience; Companies adopt PLM maturity models to evaluate PLM implementation and recognize relative positions in PLM selection to better harness PLM benefits. However, the majority traditional PLM maturity models are relative time-consuming and energy-consuming. This work focuses on proposing a fuzzy extended PCMA (PLM Components Maturity Assessment) maturity model to brightly evaluate the gradual process of PLM maturity accompaniment with...

  11. Soil Chemical and Microbial Properties in a Mixed Stand of Spruce and Birch in the Ore Mountains (Germany—A Case Study

    Karoline Schua


    Full Text Available A major argument for incorporating deciduous tree species in coniferous forest stands is their role in the amelioration and stabilisation of biogeochemical cycles. Current forest management strategies in central Europe aim to increase the area of mixed stands. In order to formulate statements about the ecological effects of mixtures, studies at the stand level are necessary. In a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth in the Ore Mountains (Saxony, Germany, the effects of these two tree species on chemical and microbial parameters in the topsoil were studied at one site in the form of a case study. Samples were taken from the O layer and A horizon in areas of the stand influenced by either birch, spruce or a mixture of birch and spruce. The microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient, pH-value and the C and N contents and stocks were analysed in the horizons Of, Oh and A. Significantly higher contents of microbial N were observed in the Of and Oh horizons in the birch and in the spruce-birch strata than in the stratum containing only spruce. The same was found with respect to pH-values in the Of horizon and basal respiration in the Oh horizon. Compared to the spruce stratum, in the birch and spruce-birch strata, significantly lower values were found for the contents of organic C and total N in the A horizon. The findings of the case study indicated that single birch trees have significant effects on the chemical and microbial topsoil properties in spruce-dominated stands. Therefore, the admixture of birch in spruce stands may distinctly affect nutrient cycling and may also be relevant for soil carbon sequestration. Further studies of these functional aspects are recommended.

  12. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Arain M


    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  13. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David


    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  14. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard


    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce.

  15. Moisture in untreated, acetylated, and furfurylated Norway Spruce monitored during drying below fiber saturation using time domain NMR

    Lisbeth G. Thygesen; Thomas Elder


    Using time domain–nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the moisture content (MC) in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] sapwood, subjected to three different treatments (untreated, acetylated, and furfurylated), was studied during drying at 40oC at MCs below fiber saturation. Spin–spin relaxation time distributions were derived from Carr-Purcell-...

  16. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina


    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finla

  17. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins


    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  18. Remote sensing of the distribution and abundance of host species for spruce budworm in Northern Minnesota and Ontario

    Peter T. Wolter; Philip A. Townsend; Brian R. Sturtevant; Clayton C. Kingdon


    Insects and disease affect large areas of forest in the U.S. and Canada. Understanding ecosystem impacts of such disturbances requires knowledge of host species distribution patterns on the landscape. In this study, we mapped the distribution and abundance of host species for the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) to facilitate landscape scale...

  19. Assembly of the Complete Sitka Spruce Chloroplast Genome Using 10X Genomics’ GemCode Sequencing Data

    Coombe, Lauren; Jackman, Shaun D.; Yang, Chen; Vandervalk, Benjamin P.; Moore, Richard A.; Pleasance, Stephen; Coope, Robin J.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Birol, Inanc


    The linked read sequencing library preparation platform by 10X Genomics produces barcoded sequencing libraries, which are subsequently sequenced using the Illumina short read sequencing technology. In this new approach, long fragments of DNA are partitioned into separate micro-reactions, where the same index sequence is incorporated into each of the sequencing fragment inserts derived from a given long fragment. In this study, we exploited this property by using reads from index sequences associated with a large number of reads, to assemble the chloroplast genome of the Sitka spruce tree (Picea sitchensis). Here we report on the first Sitka spruce chloroplast genome assembled exclusively from P. sitchensis genomic libraries prepared using the 10X Genomics protocol. We show that the resulting 124,049 base pair long genome shares high sequence similarity with the related white spruce and Norway spruce chloroplast genomes, but diverges substantially from a previously published P. sitchensis- P. thunbergii chimeric genome. The use of reads from high-frequency indices enabled separation of the nuclear genome reads from that of the chloroplast, which resulted in the simplification of the de Bruijn graphs used at the various stages of assembly. PMID:27632164

  20. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar


    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  1. Drought response of five conifer species under contrasting water availability suggests high vulnerability of Norway spruce and European larch

    Lévesque, M.; Saurer, M.; Siegwolf, R.; Eilmann, B.; Brang, P.; Bugmann, H.; Rigling, A.


    The ability of tree species to cope with anticipated decrease in water availability is still poorly understood. We evaluated the potential of Norway spruce, Scots pine, European larch, black pine, and Douglas-fir to withstand drought in a drier future climate by analyzing their past growth and

  2. The historical role of Ips hauseri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spruce forest of Ile-Alatausky and Medeo National Parks

    N. Mukhamadiev; A. Lynch; C. O' Connor; A. Sagitov; N. Ashikbaev; I. Panyushkina


    On 17 May and 27 June 2011 severe cyclonic storms damaged several hundred hectares of spruce forest (Picea schrenkiana) in the Tian Shan Mountains. Bark beetle populations increased rapidly in dead and damaged trees, particularly Ips hauseri, I. typographus, I. sexdentatus, and Piiyogenesperfossus (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and there is concern about the...

  3. Ecological changes in oral microcosm biofilm during maturation

    Kim, Young-Seok; Kang, Si-Mook; Lee, Eun-Song; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Bo-Ra; Kim, Baek-Il


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ecological changes in the biofilm at different stages of maturation using 16S rDNA gene amplicon sequencing and to identify correlations between red/green (R/G) fluorescence ratio and ecological changes. An oral microcosm biofilm was initiated from the saliva of a single donor and grown anaerobically for up to 10 days in basal medium mucin. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence analysis was shown that the R/G ratio of the biofilm increased consistently, but the slope rapidly decreased after six days. The bacterial compositions of 10 species also consistently changed over time. However, there was no significant correlation between each bacteria and red fluorescence. The monitoring of the maturation process of oral microcosm biofilm over 10 days revealed that the R/G ratio and the bacterial composition within biofilm consistently changed. Therefore, the R/G fluorescence ratio of biofilm may be related with its ecological change rather than specific bacteria.

  4. The Red Mansion Banquet


    The concept of the Red Mansion Banquet came from the famous Qing Dynasty classic novel, A Dream of Red Mansions. Each of its courses has, based on descriptions from the book, been carefully planned by the Grand View Garden Hotel chefs. Diners’ senses of sight, sound, and taste are thus regaled with the finest in food, wine and music.

  5. Red Sandalwood Treasure



    HAVE you ever come across red sandalwood, a timber so rare as to render it precious? In ancient Asia it was regarded as equal to old and jade. Only the Emperor of China and members of his family had furniture made from red sandalwood, and 10-inch long panels of this material decorated Napoleon's coffin.

  6. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap


    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  7. Profile distribution and temporal changes of sulphate and nitrate contents and related soil properties under beech and spruce forests.

    Tejnecký, Václav; Bradová, Monika; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Sebek, Ondřej; Nikodem, Antonín; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Rejzek, Jan; Drábek, Ondřej


    The behaviour of principal inorganic anions in forest soils, originating mainly from acid deposition, strongly influences the forest ecosystem response on acidification. The aim of this study was to describe seasonal and temporal changes of sulphate and nitrate contents and related soil properties under beech and spruce forests in a region heavily impacted by acidification. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as such a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. Soil samples were collected at monthly intervals from April to October during the years 2008-2010 under both beech and spruce stands. Soil samples were collected from surface fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons, humic (A) organo-mineral horizons and subsurface mineral (B) horizons (cambic or spodic). A deionised water extract was applied to unsieved fresh samples and the content of anions in these extracts was determined by ion chromatography (IC). In the studied soil profiles, the lowest amount of SO(4)(2-) was found in the organo-mineral A horizons under both types of vegetation. Under spruce the highest amount of SO(4)(2-) was determined in mineral spodic (B) horizons, where a strong sorption influence of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides is expected. Under beech the highest amount was observed in the surface organic F horizons (forest floor). The amount of NO(3)(-) is highest in the F horizons and decreases with increasing soil profile depth under both types of vegetation. A significantly higher amount of NO(3)(-) was determined in soils under the beech stand compared to spruce. For both soil environments - under beech and also spruce stands - we have determined a general increase of water-extractable SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) during the whole monitoring period. The behaviour of SO(4)(2-) and NO(3)(-) in the soils is strongly related to the dynamics of soil organic matter and particularly to the DOC.

  8. Transcriptional Responses Associated with Virulence and Defence in the Interaction between Heterobasidion annosum s.s. and Norway Spruce.

    Lundén, Karl; Danielsson, Marie; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Ihrmark, Katarina; Nemesio Gorriz, Miguel; Stenlid, Jan; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Elfstrand, Malin


    Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato is a serious pathogen causing root and stem rot to conifers in the northern hemisphere and rendering the timber defective for sawing and pulping. In this study we applied next-generation sequencing to i) identify transcriptional responses unique to Heterobasidion-inoculated Norway spruce and ii) investigate the H. annosum transcripts to identify putative virulence factors. To address these objectives we wounded or inoculated 30-year-old Norway spruce clones with H. annosum and 454-sequenced the transcriptome of the interaction at 0, 5 and 15 days post inoculation. The 491,860 high-quality reads were de novo assembled and the relative expression was analysed. Overall, very few H. annosum transcripts were represented in our dataset. Three delta-12 fatty acid desaturase transcripts and one Clavaminate synthase-like transcript, both associated with virulence in other pathosystems, were found among the significantly induced transcripts. The analysis of the Norway spruce transcriptional responses produced a handful of differentially expressed transcripts. Most of these transcripts originated from genes known to respond to H. annosum. However, three genes that had not previously been reported to respond to H. annosum showed specific induction to inoculation: an oxophytodienoic acid-reductase (OPR), a beta-glucosidase and a germin-like protein (GLP2) gene. Even in a small data set like ours, five novel highly expressed Norway spruce transcripts without significant alignment to any previously annotated protein in Genbank but present in the P. abies (v1.0) gene catalogue were identified. Their expression pattern suggests a role in defence. Therefore a more complete survey of the transcriptional responses in the interactions between Norway spruce and its major pathogen H. annosum would probably provide a better understanding of gymnosperm defence than accumulated until now.

  9. Near Real-time Ecological Forecasting of Peatland Responses to Warming and CO2 Treatment through EcoPAD-SPRUCE

    Huang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Stacy, M.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Hanson, P. J.; Sundi, N.; Luo, Y.


    Ecological forecasting is critical in various aspects of our coupled human-nature systems, such as disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change mitigation. Novel advancements are in urgent need to deepen our understandings of ecosystem dynamics, boost the predictive capacity of ecology, and provide timely and effective information for decision-makers in a rapidly changing world. Our Ecological Platform for Assimilation of Data (EcoPAD) facilitates the integration of current best knowledge from models, manipulative experimentations, observations and other modern techniques and provides both near real-time and long-term forecasting of ecosystem dynamics. As a case study, the web-based EcoPAD platform synchronizes real- or near real-time field measurements from the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change Experiment (SPRUCE), a whole ecosystem warming and CO2 enrichment treatment experiment, assimilates multiple data streams into process based models, enhances timely feedback between modelers and experimenters, and ultimately improves ecosystem forecasting and makes best utilization of current knowledge. In addition to enable users to (i) estimate model parameters or state variables, (ii) quantify uncertainty of estimated parameters and projected states of ecosystems, (iii) evaluate model structures, (iv) assess sampling strategies, and (v) conduct ecological forecasting, EcoPAD-SPRUCE automated the workflow from real-time data acquisition, model simulation to result visualization. EcoPAD-SPRUCE promotes seamless feedback between modelers and experimenters, hand in hand to make better forecasting of future changes. The framework of EcoPAD-SPRUCE (with flexible API, Application Programming Interface) is easily portable and will benefit scientific communities, policy makers as well as the general public.

  10. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann


    Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models ch...

  11. Red nucleus and rubrospinal tract disorganization in the absence of Pou4f1

    Jesus E. eMartinez-Lopez


    Full Text Available The red nucleus is a neuronal population that plays an important role in forelimb motor control and locomotion. Histologically it is subdivided into two subpopulations, the parvocellular red nucleus located in the diencephalon and the magnocellular red nucleus in the mesencephalon. The red nucleus integrates signals from motor cortex and cerebellum and projects to spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract. Pou4f1 is a transcription factor highly expressed in this nucleus that has been related to its specification. Here we profoundly analyzed consequences of Pou4f1 loss-of-function in development, maturation and axonal projection of the red nucleus. Surprisingly, red nucleus neurons are specified and maintained in the mutant, no cell death was detected. Nevertheless, the nucleus appeared disorganized with a strong delay in radial migration and with a wider neuronal distribution; the neurons did not form a compacted population as they do in controls, Robo1 and Slit2 were miss-expressed. Cplx1 and Npas1, expressed in the red nucleus, are transcription factors involved in neurotransmitter release, neuronal maturation and motor function processes among others. In our mutant mice, both transcription factors are lost, suggesting an abnormal maturation of the red nucleus. The resulting altered nucleus occupied a wider territory. Finally, we examined rubrospinal tract development and found that the red nucleus neurons were able to project to the spinal cord but their axons appeared defasciculated. These data suggest that Pou4f1 is necessary for the maturation of red nucleus neurons but not for their specification and maintenance.

  12. Image Segmentation and Maturity Recognition Algorithm based on Color Features of Lingwu Long Jujube

    Yutan Wang


    Full Text Available Fruits’ recognition under natural scenes is a key technology to intelligent automatic picking. In this study, an image segmentation method based on color difference fusion in RGB color space was proposed in order to implement image segmentation and recognition maturity intelligently according to Lingwu long jujubes’ color features under the complex environment. Firstly, the three-dimensional histograms of each color component which is widely used in color space currently are compared; and then the jujubes’ red area and non-red area was extracted respectively, thus, the whole target area is obtained by sum of those areas; then, watershed algorithm combined with mathematical morphology distance and gradient was utilized to overcome adhesion and occlusion phenomena; finally, the maturity level was recognized by the established recognition model of Lingwu long jujubes. The segmentation was tested through 100 sample set and 93.27% of precision rate was attained, so was correct estimating rate of maturity level recognition above 90%. The results indicate that a smaller average segmentation error probability is in this method, which is more efficient in the extraction and recognition of jujubes with red and green and the problem of segmentation and maturity level judgment of adhesive fruits is solved by the method as well.

  13. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  14. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Petráš Rudolf


    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  15. Decomposition of soil organic matter from boreal black spruce forest: Environmental and chemical controls

    Wickland, K.P.; Neff, J.C.


    Black spruce forests are a dominant covertype in the boreal forest region, and they inhabit landscapes that span a wide range of hydrologic and thermal conditions. These forests often have large stores of soil organic carbon. Recent increases in temperature at northern latitudes may be stimulating decomposition rates of this soil carbon. It is unclear, however, how changes in environmental conditions influence decomposition in these systems, and if substrate controls of decomposition vary with hydrologic and thermal regime. We addressed these issues by investigating the effects of temperature, moisture, and organic matter chemical characteristics on decomposition of fibric soil horizons from three black spruce forest sites. The sites varied in drainage and permafrost, and included a "Well Drained" site where permafrost was absent, and "Moderately well Drained" and "Poorly Drained" sites where permafrost was present at about 0.5 m depth. Samples collected from each site were incubated at five different moisture contents (2, 25, 50, 75, and 100% saturation) and two different temperatures (10??C and 20??C) in a full factorial design for two months. Organic matter chemistry was analyzed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry prior to incubation, and after incubation on soils held at 20??C, 50% saturation. Mean cumulative mineralization, normalized to initial carbon content, ranged from 0.2% to 4.7%, and was dependent on temperature, moisture, and site. The effect of temperature on mineralization was significantly influenced by moisture content, as mineralization was greatest at 20??C and 50-75% saturation. While the relative effects of temperature and moisture were similar for all soils, mineralization rates were significantly greater for samples from the "Well Drained" site compared to the other sites. Variations in the relative abundances of polysaccharide-derivatives and compounds of undetermined source (such as toluene, phenol, 4-methyl phenol, and

  16. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Dominik Kulakowski

    Full Text Available The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand

  17. Assessing the resilience of Norway spruce forests through a model-based reanalysis of thinning trials.

    Seidl, Rupert; Vigl, Friedrich; Rössler, Günter; Neumann, Markus; Rammer, Werner


    As a result of a rapidly changing climate the resilience of forests is an increasingly important property for ecosystem management. Recent efforts have improved the theoretical understanding of resilience, yet its operational quantification remains challenging. Furthermore, there is growing awareness that resilience is not only a means to addressing the consequences of climate change but is also affected by it, necessitating a better understanding of the climate sensitivity of resilience. Quantifying current and future resilience is thus an important step towards mainstreaming resilience thinking into ecosystem management. Here, we present a novel approach for quantifying forest resilience from thinning trials, and assess the climate sensitivity of resilience using process-based ecosystem modeling. We reinterpret the wide range of removal intensities and frequencies in thinning trials as an experimental gradient of perturbation, and estimate resilience as the recovery rate after perturbation. Our specific objectives were (i) to determine how resilience varies with stand and site conditions, (ii) to assess the climate sensitivity of resilience across a range of potential future climate scenarios, and (iii) to evaluate the robustness of resilience estimates to different focal indicators and assessment methodologies. We analyzed three long-term thinning trials in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests across an elevation gradient in Austria, evaluating and applying the individual-based process model iLand. The resilience of Norway spruce was highest at the montane site, and decreased at lower elevations. Resilience also decreased with increasing stand age and basal area. The effects of climate change were strongly context-dependent: At the montane site, where precipitation levels were ample even under climate change, warming increased resilience in all scenarios. At lower elevations, however, rising temperatures decreased resilience, particularly at

  18. Phenotype of normal hairline maturation.

    Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino


    Hairlines change shape with age, starting at birth. A good head of hair is frequently present some time after ages 3 to 5 years. The look of childhood has its corresponding hairline, and, as the child grows and develops into adulthood, facial morphology migrate changes from a childlike look to a more mature look. This article discusses the dynamics of hairline evolution and the phenotypic variations of the front and side hairlines in men and women. A modeling system is introduced that provides a common language to define the various anatomic points of the full range of hairlines.

  19. [Arrest of maturation in spermatogenesis].

    Francavilla, S; Bellocci, M; Martini, M; Bruno, B; Moscardelli, S; Fabbrini, A; Properzi, G


    The ultrastructural aspects of the germinal epithelium of 10 infertile men affected by maturative arrest of spermatogenesis were studied. We noted an increased number of malformed germinal cells. Marginal nuclear vescicles were present in spermatogonia of patients affected by spermatogonial arrest. The few spermatid present in the germinal epithelium of the patients affected by a spermatidic arrest presented changes of the nuclear condensation, the acrosome, and the tail. The Sertoli cells presented an immature aspect of the nucleus and changes of the "mantle". A possible correlation between the Sertoli cells changes and the altered spermatogenesis was proposed.

  20. Technology maturity and technology development

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.


    All of the work reported in the preceding chapters was performed in order to assess the technical, economic, and energetic feasibility of proceeding with more detailed studies of the geopressured geothermal resource. The preliminary conceptual design and costing activities represented the prime activity for component by component review of the maturity of the technology available for resource utilization facilities. The economics and energetics studies focussed attentions on the areas of major capital and energy investment; these results comprise a useful guide for focussing design in order to reduce initial and operations and maintenance costs and/or investment. The following presents a discussion of the primary technical problems identified.

  1. Validation of endoscopy for determination of maturity in small salmonids and sex of mature individuals

    Erica A. Swenson; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Philip J. Howell


    Fish maturity status, sex ratio, and age and size at first maturity are important parameters in population assessments and life history studies. In most empirical studies of these variables, fish are sacrificed and dissected to obtain data. However, maturity status and the sex of mature individuals can be determined by inserting an endoscope through a small incision in...

  2. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann


    literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... of maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...

  3. Next generation red teaming

    Dalziel, Henry


    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  4. A regional inventory and monitoring setup to evaluate bark peeling damage by red deer (Cervus elaphus) in coniferous plantations in Southern Belgium.

    Gheysen, Thibaut; Brostaux, Yves; Hébert, Jacques; Ligot, Gauthier; Rondeux, Jacques; Lejeune, Philippe


    Bark peeling by red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) has become a serious issue for productive forests in western Europe. The damage is particularly severe on species such as spruce, as these become vulnerable to fungus attacks that result in considerably depreciated timber. This article presents a monitoring setup for recent bark peeling damage in spruce plantings in Wallonia (southern part of Belgium). This setup implies to collect data annually from a survey involving cluster sampling. It has been employed since 2004 in coniferous stands amounting to 165,000 ha of land, where Norway spruce is the predominant species. The study area was divided into blocks delineated along features preventing deer migrations. A set of indicators was computed either at the whole study area level or at block level. The resulting set of indicators enabled forest managers to follow up debarking intensity in productive forests. Additional analyses were carried out in order to assess the relationship between the social position of trees in the stand and the debarking probability on the one hand, and the relationship between the variation in damage magnitude and seasonality, namely summer versus winter, on the other hand.

  5. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann


    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  6. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Yurdun Kuyucu


    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  7. Mecobalamin promotes mouse sperm maturation.

    Oshio, S; Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Tajima, T; Kaneko, S; Mohri, H


    The effect of Mecobalamin (alpha-(5,6-dimethyl benzimidazolyl)-Co-methyl-cobamide: Me-B 12) on sperm production in the oligozoospermic mice experimentally induced by the treatment with adriamycin (0.3 mg/kg, three times a week for 5 weeks) was evaluated quantitatively by means of equilibrium sedimentation in Percoll. After centrifugation, the distribution profile of the sperm showed two peaks, i.e. the first peak near the bottom consisting of mature sperm with good motility and the second peak containing immature and/or immotile sperm. By oral administration of Me B 12 (1.0 mg/kg/day) to the oligozoospermic mice for 10 weeks, the sperm count, sperm motility, motile sperm count, diameter of seminiferous tubules and the percentage of good motile sperm with higher apparent density were increased as compared with those of the control. These results suggest that Me-B 12 enhanced the testicular function, resulting in an increased output of mature sperm.

  8. Modelling black spruce primary production and carbon allocation in the Quebec boreal forest

    Gennaretti, Fabio; Guiot, Joel; Berninger, Frank; Boucher, Etienne; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo


    Boreal ecosystems are crucial carbon stores that must be urgently quantified and preserved. Their future evolution is extremely important for the global carbon budget. Here, we will show the progresses achieved with the MAIDEN forest ecophysiological model in simulating carbon fluxes of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) forests, the most representative ecosystem of the North American boreal biome. Starting from daily minimum-maximum air temperature, precipitation and CO2 atmospheric concentration, MAIDEN models the phenological (5 phenological phases are simulated each year) and meteorological controls on gross primary production (GPP) and carbon allocation to stem. The model is being calibrated on eddy covariance and tree-ring data. We will discuss the model's performance and the modifications introduced in MAIDEN to adapt the model to temperature sensitive forests of the boreal region.

  9. The effects of pelleted sewage sludge on Norway spruce establishment and nitrogen dynamics

    Johannesson, Anders


    In Sweden there is a big resource in unutilised sewage sludge. Studies have shown that application of municipal sewage sludge can improve forest productivity and planting environment. This study is examining the effects of two types of pelleted sewage sludge (pure sludge and a mixture of sludge and domestic wastes compost) on nitrogen turnover. Large differences were found in the fertilisation effect of the different treatments. The pure sewage sludge pellets treatment showed significant increases for NH{sub 4}-accumulation, nitrification and NO{sub 3}-leaching in the top 10 cm of the soil. Uptake of nitrogen was increased in spruce plants and vegetation. The mixed sludge/domestic waste pellets treatment showed indications of a minor initial release of nitrogen. This is seen as a small but significant initial increase in soil nitrification. These results suggest that the pure sewage sludge pellet is an adequate nitrogen fertiliser. The mixed sludge though is inadequate at least in the short run.

  10. Five-year measurements of ozone fluxes to a Danish Norway spruce canopy

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Hovmand, M.F.


    Ozone concentrations and fluxes have been measured continuously during 5 years (1996-2000) by the gradient method in a Norway spruce dominated forest stand in West Jutland, Denmark, planted in 1965. The method has been validated against other methodologies and a relatively good relationship...... was found. The data are analysed to quantify diurnal, seasonal and yearly fluxes, and non-stomatal and stomatal removal are estimated. Monthly means of climatic data are shown, and day and night values of the aerodynamic resistance, r(a), viscous sub-layer resistance, r(b), and the surface or canopy...... resistance, r(c), are presented. The yearly ozone deposition is approximately 126 kg ha(-1). The canopy ozone uptake is highest during the day and during the summer. This is interpreted as increased stomatal uptake and physical and chemical reactions. The daily means of ozone concentration and fluxes...

  11. Hartig' net formation of Tricholoma vaccinum-spruce ectomycorrhiza in hydroponic cultures.

    Henke, Catarina; Jung, Elke-Martina; Kothe, Erika


    For re-forestation of metal-contaminated land, ectomycorrhizal trees may provide a solution. Hence, the study of the interaction is necessary to allow for comprehensive understanding of the mutually symbiotic features. On a structural level, hyphal mantle and the Hartig' net formed in the root apoplast are essential for plant protection and mycorrhizal functioning. As a model, we used the basidiomycete Tricholoma vaccinum and its host spruce (Picea abies). Using an optimized hydroponic cultivation system, both features could be visualized and lower stress response of the tree was obtained in non-challenged cultivation. Larger spaces in the apoplasts could be shown with high statistical significance. The easy accessibility will allow to address metal stress or molecular responses in both partners. Additionally, the proposed cultivation system will enable for other experimental applications like addressing flooding, biological interactions with helper bacteria, chemical signaling, or other biotic or abiotic challenges relevant in the natural habitat.

  12. Measuring the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in torrefied spruce wood.

    Khazraie Shoulaifar, Tooran; Demartini, Nikolai; Ivaska, Ari; Fardim, Pedro; Hupa, Mikko


    Torrefaction is moderate thermal treatment (∼200-300°C) to improve the energy density, handling and storage properties of biomass fuels. In biomass, carboxylic sites are partially responsible for its hygroscopic. These sites are degraded to varying extents during torrefaction. In this paper, we apply methylene blue sorption and potentiometric titration to measure the concentration of carboxylic acid groups in spruce wood torrefied for 30min at temperatures between 180 and 300°C. The results from both methods were applicable and the values agreed well. A decrease in the equilibrium moisture content at different humidity was also measured for the torrefied wood samples, which is in good agreement with the decrease in carboxylic acid sites. Thus both methods offer a means of directly measuring the decomposition of carboxylic groups in biomass during torrefaction as a valuable parameter in evaluating the extent of torrefaction which provides new information to the chemical changes occurring during torrefaction.

  13. Performance of different fire retardant products applied on Norway spruce tested in a Cone calorimeter

    Kögl Josef


    Full Text Available On the European market there are several fire retardant products available, which reach class B in the European classification system. The producers promise their fire retardants are effective in reducing different reaction to fire parameters of wood such as the time to ignition, the mass loss rate, the heat release rate, the total heat release, the charring rate and the flame spread. This paper discusses the performance of fire retardant products as pressure impregnated wood, non-intumescence surface coatings and intumescence coatings on Norway spruce (Picea abies. The investigations are performed by using a cone calo- rimeter test according to ISO 5660. The thermal exposures of the investigations are 50 kW/m2 and the standard IS0 834 test curve. As result information about the heat release rate, the mass loss rate and the total heat release for duration of 900 seconds will be presented in this paper.

  14. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K


    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  15. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.


    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of nutrient optimization on intra-annual wood formation in Norway spruce.

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Mäkinen, Harri; Jyske, Tuula; Nöjd, Pekka; Linder, Sune


    In the Nordic countries, growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is generally limited by low availability of nutrients, especially nitrogen. Optimizing forest management requires better insight on how growth responds to the environmental conditions and their manipulation. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of nutrient optimization on timing and the rate of tracheid formation of Norway spruce and to follow the differentiation of newly formed tracheids. The study was performed during two growing seasons in a long-term nutrient optimization experiment in northern Sweden, where all essential macro- and micronutrients were supplied in irrigation water every second day from mid-June to mid-August. The control plots were without additional nutrients and water. Tracheid formation in the stem was monitored throughout the growing season by weekly sampling of microcores at breast height. The onset of xylogenesis occurred in early June, but in early summer there were no significant between-treatment differences in the onset and relative rate of tracheid formation. In both treatments, the onset of secondary cell wall formation occurred in mid-June. The maximum rate of tracheid formation occurred close to the summer solstice and 50% of the tracheids had been accumulated in early July. Optimized nutrition resulted in the formation of ∼50% more tracheids and delayed the cessation of tracheid formation, which extended the tracheid formation period by 20-50%, compared with control trees. The increased growth was mainly an effect of enhanced tracheid formation rate during the mid- and later-part of the growing season. In the second year, the increased growth rate also resulted in 11% wider tracheids. We conclude that the onset and rate of tracheid formation and differentiation during summer is primarily controlled by photoperiod, temperature and availability of nutrients, rather than supply of carbohydrates.

  17. Richard Spruce, botânico e desbravador da América do Sul

    Seaward Mark R. D.


    Full Text Available No período entre 1849 e 1864, o botânico e explorador inglês Richard Spruce promoveu minucioso estudo da flora amazônica e dos costumes dos povos que habitavam essa região. Ainda hoje, grande parte do conhecimento sobre várias famílias botânicas daquela região advém do esforço desenvolvido por esse cientista. A amplitude de seus interesses, a meticulosidade e a exatidão de suas descrições foram fenomenais: nada parece ter escapado à sua atenção e capacidade de documentação. Spruce era não apenas notável botânico, mas também admirável antropólogo, lingüista (sabia francês, espanhol e português, geólogo, e geógrafo, bem como arguto observador sociológico dos sistemas políticos e dos hábitos das tribos amazônicas e andinas entre as quais esteve, trazendo considerável contribuição para o entendimento das crenças e práticas nativas e para o conhecimento das propriedades e usos das plantas, no contexto amazônico. Sua participação na exploração econômica de espécies locais também foi importante, particularmente em relação aos gêneros Hevea e Cinchona.

  18. Yield Responses of Black Spruce to Forest Vegetation Management Treatments: Initial Responses and Rotational Projections

    Peter F. Newton


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (1 quantitatively summarize the early yield responses of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. to forest vegetation management (FVM treatments through a meta-analytical review of the scientific literature, and (2 given (1, estimate the rotational consequences of these responses through model simulation. Based on a fixed-effects meta-analytic approach using 44 treated-control yield pairs derived from 12 experiments situated throughout the Great Lakes—St. Lawrence and Canadian Boreal Forest Regions, the resultant mean effect size (response ratio and associated 95% confidence interval for basal diameter, total height, stem volume, and survival responses, were respectively: 54.7% (95% confidence limits (lower/upper: 34.8/77.6, 27.3% (15.7/40.0, 198.7% (70.3/423.5, and 2.9% (−5.5/11.8. The results also indicated that early and repeated treatments will yield the largest gains in terms of mean tree size and survival. Rotational simulations indicated that FVM treatments resulted in gains in stand-level operability (e.g., reductions of 9 and 5 yr for plantations established on poor-medium and good-excellent site qualities, resp.. The challenge of maintaining coniferous forest cover on recently disturbed sites, attaining statutory-defined free-to-grow status, and ensuring long-term productivity, suggest that FVM will continue to be an essential silvicultural treatment option when managing black spruce plantations.

  19. The effect of artificially induced drought on radial increment and wood properties of Norway spruce.

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkinen, Harri; Nöjd, Pekka; Lumme, Ilari; Spiecker, Heinrich


    We studied experimentally the effects of water availability on height and radial increment as well as wood density and tracheid properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The study was carried out in two long-term N-fertilization experiments in Southern Finland (Heinola and Sahalahti). At each site, one fertilized and one control plot was covered with an under-canopy roof preventing rainwater from reaching the soil. Two uncovered plots were monitored at each site. The drought treatment was initiated in the beginning of growing season and lasted for 60-75 days each year. The treatment was repeated for four to five consecutive years depending on the site. Altogether, 40 sample trees were harvested and discs sampled at breast height. From the discs, ring width and wood density were measured by X-ray densitometry. Tracheid properties were analysed by reflected-light microscopy and image analysis. Reduced soil water potential during the growing season decreased annual radial and height increment and had a small influence on tracheid properties and wood density. No statistically significant differences were found in the average tracheid diameter between the drought-treated and control trees. The average cell wall thickness was somewhat higher (7-10%) for the drought treatment than for the control, but the difference was statistically significant only in Sahalahti. An increased cell wall thickness was found in both early- and latewood tracheids, but the increase was much greater in latewood. In drought-treated trees, cell wall proportion within an annual ring increased, consequently increasing wood density. No interaction between the N fertilization and drought treatment was found in wood density. After the termination of the drought treatment, trees rapidly recovered from the drought stress. According to our results, severe drought due to the predicted climate change may reduce Norway spruce growth but is unlikely to result in large changes in wood properties.

  20. Effect of Organic Layer Thickness on Black Spruce Aging Mistakes in Canadian Boreal Forests

    Ahmed Laamrani


    Full Text Available Boreal black spruce (Picea mariana forests are prone to developing thick organic layers (paludification. Black spruce is adapted to this environment by the continuous development of adventitious roots, masking the root collar and making it difficult to age trees. Ring counts above the root collar underestimate age of trees, but the magnitude of age underestimation of trees in relation to organic layer thickness (OLT is unknown. This age underestimation is required to produce appropriate age-correction tools to be used in land resource management. The goal of this study was to assess aging errors that are done with standard ring counts of trees growing in sites with different degrees of paludification (OLT; 0–25 cm, 26–65 cm, >65 cm. Age of 81 trees sampled at three geographical locations was determined by ring counts at ground level and at 1 m height, and real age of trees was determined by cross-dating growth rings down to the root collar (root/shoot interface. Ring counts at 1 m height underestimated age of trees by a mean of 22 years (range 13–49 and 52 years (range 14–112 in null to low vs. moderately to highly paludified stands, respectively. The percentage of aging-error explained by our linear model was relatively high (R2adj = 0.71 and showed that OLT class and age at 0-m could be used to predict total aging-error while neither DBH nor geographic location could. The resulting model has important implications for forest management to accurately estimate productivity of these forests.

  1. Genetic diversity of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] in Romanian Carpathians

    Raul Gheorghe Radu


    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of Romanian most important coniferous tree species, the Norway spruce, was estimated by means of allozyme markers. A total of 695 adult trees sampled from eleven populations grouped in six mountainous areas in the Romanian Carpathians were analyzed. In three metapopulations (Maramureş, Postăvar and Parâng, to evaluate the influence of altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity, samples were collected from populations located at high and low altitude. At other location (ApuseniMountains we compared the narrow-crown biotype (Picea abies var. columnaris and the pyramidal crown biotype (Picea abies var. pyramidalis and explored the genetic structure of peat bog ecotype. By analyzing 7 enzyme systems and 12 enzyme coding loci, a total of 38 allelic variants have been detected. The mean value of polymorphic loci for the six sites was 86.1%, ranging between 83.3% and 91.7% and the mean expected heterozygosity was 0.115, resulting in a moderate level of genetic diversity. The highest genetic diversity (He = 0.134 was found in the narrow-crown spruce population. Apuseni metapopulation showed the highest genetic diversity (He = 0.125, being the most valuable for conservation of genetic resources. The small value of fixation index (FST = 0.009 indicates a low genetic differentiation between the six sites and AMOVA test revealed a very high level of genetic diversity within population (99%. Comparative analysis of genetic parameters showed small differences between high and low altitude populations at each site, probably due to the neutral character of the markers analyzed and the effect of gene flow between gradiental populations.

  2. Comparison of two stump-lifting heads in final felling Norway spruce stand

    Karha, K.


    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2010 it was approximately 2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research evaluated two stump-lifting devices for the lifting of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stumps. The productivity and costs of stump lifting were determined. There was one base machine with one operator in the time study. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 30 cm, the effective hour productivity of stump lifting was 11.2 m{sup 3} solid over bark (sob)/E0 (4.8 ton{sub D}/E{sub 0}) without site preparation using a Vaekevae Stump Processor, and when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the productivity was 14.9 m{sup 3} sob/E{sub 0} (6.5 tonD/E0). When the site preparation (mounding) was integrated into lifting work, the stump-lifting productivity decreased 21-27%. The stump-lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jarvinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Stump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jarvinen lifting head were presented and discussed. The cost calculations showed that stump-lifting costs are extremely high when stump diameter is less than 20 cm. Therefore, the study recommended a change in the current stump-harvesting guidelines of Finland: The study suggested that all the stumps with a diameter less than 20 cm should be left on the harvesting site. (orig.)

  3. Afforestation effects on SOC in former cropland: oak and spruce chronosequences resampled after 13 years.

    Bárcena, Teresa G; Gundersen, Per; Vesterdal, Lars


    Chronosequences are commonly used to assess soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration after land-use change, but SOC dynamics predicted by this space-for-time substitution approach have rarely been validated by resampling. We conducted a combined chronosequence/resampling study in a former cropland area (Vestskoven) afforested with oak (Quercus robur) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) over the past 40 years. The aims of this study were (i) to compare present and previous chronosequence trends in forest floor and top mineral soil (0-25 cm) C stocks; (ii) to compare chronosequence estimates with current rates of C stock change based on resampling at the stand level; (iii) to estimate SOC changes in the subsoil (25-50 cm); and (iv) to assess the influence of two tree species on SOC dynamics. The two chronosequence trajectories for forest floor C stocks revealed consistently higher rates of C sequestration in spruce than oak. The chronosequence trajectory was validated by resampling and current rates of forest floor C sequestration decreased with stand age. Chronosequence trends in topsoil SOC in 2011 did not differ significantly from those reported in 1998, however, there was a shift from a negative rate (1998: -0.3 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1) ) to no change in 2011. In contrast SOC stocks in the subsoil increased with stand age, however, not significantly (P = 0.1), suggesting different C dynamics in and below the former plough layer. Current rates of C change estimated by repeated sampling decreased with stand age in forest floors but increased in the topsoil. The contrasting temporal change in forest floor and mineral soil C sequestration rates indicate a shift in C source-sink strength after approximately 40 years. We conclude that afforestation of former cropland within the temperate region may induce soil C loss during the first decades followed by a recovery phase of yet unknown duration.

  4. Impact of warming and drought on carbon balance related to wood formation in black spruce

    Deslauriers, Annie; Beaulieu, Marilène; Balducci, Lorena; Giovannelli, Alessio; Gagnon, Michel J.; Rossi, Sergio


    Background and Aims Wood formation in trees represents a carbon sink that can be modified in the case of stress. The way carbon metabolism constrains growth during stress periods (high temperature and water deficit) is now under debate. In this study, the amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) for xylogenesis in black spruce, Picea mariana, saplings were assessed under high temperature and drought in order to determine the role of sugar mobilization for osmotic purposes and its consequences for secondary growth. Methods Four-year-old saplings of black spruce in a greenhouse were subjected to different thermal conditions with respect to the outside air temperature (T0) in 2010 (2 and 5 °C higher than T0) and 2011 (6 °C warmer than T0 during the day or night) with a dry period of about 1 month in June of each year. Wood formation together with starch, NSCs and leaf parameters (water potential and photosynthesis) were monitored from May to September. Key Results With the exception of raffinose, the amounts of soluble sugars were not modified in the cambium even if gas exchange and photosynthesis were greatly reduced during drought. Raffinose increased more than pinitol under a pre-dawn water potential of less than –1 Mpa, presumably because this compound is better suited than polyol for replacing water and capturing free radicals, and its degradation into simple sugar is easier. Warming decreased the starch storage in the xylem as well the available hexose pool in the cambium and the xylem, probably because of an increase in respiration. Conclusions Radial stem growth was reduced during drought due to the mobilization of NSCs for osmotic purposes and due to the lack of cell turgor. Thus plant water status during wood formation can influence the NSCs available for growth in the cambium and xylem. PMID:24950772

  5. A Retrospective Isotopic Study of Spruce Decline in the Vosges Mountains (France)

    Poszwa, Anne [INRA Nancy, Unite Cycles Biogeochimiques (France); Wickman, Tonie [Royal Institute of Technology, Land and water resources (Sweden); Dambrine, Etienne [INRA Nancy, Unite Cycles Biogeochimiques (France)], E-mail:; Ferry, Bruno [ENGREF, Laboratoire d' Etude des Ressources Foret-Bois (France); Dupouey, Jean-Luc [INRA Nancy, Equipe Phytoecologie Forestiere (France); Helle, Gerdhard; Schleser, Gerdhard [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, Juelich (Germany); Breda, Nathalie [INRA Nancy, Equipe Phytoecologie Forestiere (France)


    The objective of this study was to assess the time variation of mineral and water stress levels across the life of a declining, Mg-deficient, spruce stand, in order to clarify the factors that caused the decline. Since 1985, strong soil acidification linked to a large leaching of nitrate and base cations was measured at the study site. In 1994, 5 trees were felled and tree rings were measured and analysed for Ca, Mg, K, Sr, {sup 13}C{sup 12}C and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr isotopic ratios. Strontium pools and fluxes as well as root Sr isotope ratio in relation to depth were also measured. Wood chemical concentrations and isotope ratios were strongly related to the dominance status of each tree. On average during the study period, the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of spruce wood decreased. Using a mechanistic model computing long term variations of {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in trees and soils, we reproduced the observed trend by simulating soil acidification - increasing Sr drainage from the whole profile, and particularly from the organic horizon -, and root uptake becoming more superficial with time. Between 1952 and 1976, tree ring {delta} {sup 13}C decreased strongly and continuously, which, in addition to other factors, might be related to an increase in water stress. Thus, a decrease in rooting depth, possibly related to soil acidification, appeared as a possible cause for the long term increase in water stress. The extreme drought event of 1976 appears to have revealed and triggered the decline.

  6. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; van Wijk, Richard


    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias. PMID

  7. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Amr eAlaarg


    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterised by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely asessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary

  8. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M; van Solinge, Wouter W; van Wijk, Richard


    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias.

  9. Generation, functional annotation and comparative analysis of black spruce (Picea mariana) ESTs: an important conifer genomic resource.

    Mann, Ishminder K; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Rajora, Om P


    EST (expressed sequence tag) sequences and their annotation provide a highly valuable resource for gene discovery, genome sequence annotation, and other genomics studies that can be applied in genetics, breeding and conservation programs for non-model organisms. Conifers are long-lived plants that are ecologically and economically important globally, and have a large genome size. Black spruce (Picea mariana), is a transcontinental species of the North American boreal and temperate forests. However, there are limited transcriptomic and genomic resources for this species. The primary objective of our study was to develop a black spruce transcriptomic resource to facilitate on-going functional genomics projects related to growth and adaptation to climate change. We conducted bidirectional sequencing of cDNA clones from a standard cDNA library constructed from black spruce needle tissues. We obtained 4,594 high quality (2,455 5' end and 2,139 3' end) sequence reads, with an average read-length of 532 bp. Clustering and assembly of ESTs resulted in 2,731 unique sequences, consisting of 2,234 singletons and 497 contigs. Approximately two-thirds (63%) of unique sequences were functionally annotated. Genes involved in 36 molecular functions and 90 biological processes were discovered, including 24 putative transcription factors and 232 genes involved in photosynthesis. Most abundantly expressed transcripts were associated with photosynthesis, growth factors, stress and disease response, and transcription factors. A total of 216 full-length genes were identified. About 18% (493) of the transcripts were novel, representing an important addition to the Genbank EST database (dbEST). Fifty-seven di-, tri-, tetra- and penta-nucleotide simple sequence repeats were identified. We have developed the first high quality EST resource for black spruce and identified 493 novel transcripts, which may be species-specific related to life history and ecological traits. We have also

  10. Individual heterogeneity in growth and age at sexual maturity: A gamma process analysis of capture–mark–recapture data

    Link, William; Hesed, Kyle Miller


    Knowledge of organisms’ growth rates and ages at sexual maturity is important for conservation efforts and a wide variety of studies in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, these life history parameters may be difficult to obtain from natural populations: individuals encountered may be of unknown age, information on age at sexual maturity may be uncertain and interval-censored, and growth data may include both individual heterogeneity and measurement errors. We analyzed mark–recapture data for Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to compare sex-specific growth rates and ages at sexual maturity. Aging of individuals was made possible by the use of a von Bertalanffy model of growth, complemented with models for interval-censored and imperfect observations at sexual maturation. Individual heterogeneity in growth was modeled through the use of Gamma processes. Our analysis indicates that female P. cinereus mature earlier and grow more quickly than males, growing to nearly identical asymptotic size distributions as males.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan


    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  12. Norway spruce needles as bioindicator of air pollution in the area of influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant, Slovenia.

    Al Sayegh Petkovsek, Samar; Batic, Franc; Ribaric Lasnik, Cvetka


    This paper reports the results of total sulphur content, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) analysed in current-year needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the area influenced by sulphur emissions from the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Slovenia, in the period 1991-2004. Ten differently polluted sampling sites in the emission area of STPP were selected. After desulphurization of emission gases from STPP total sulphur content in needles decreased and vitality parameters of needles increased. Moreover, a strong correlation between the average annual emissions of SO(2) from STPP and average annual sulphur content (increase) or average annual chlorophyll content (decrease) in current-year needles was found. The results showed that spruce needles may be an useful bioindicator for detecting changes in the emission rates of SO(2).

  13. Antioxidants in Norway spruce needles at field plots in the vicinity of a thermal power plant in Slovenia

    Ribariclasnik, C.; Turk, B.; Batic, F.; Grill, D. [ERICo Velenje, Velenkje (Slovenia)


    Results of antioxidant analyses such as vitamin C and E, water soluble thiols and beta-carotene, in Norway spruce needles at sampling sites influenced by the Thermal Power Plant in Sostanj, Slovenia are presented. These antioxidants were analysed in current and one year old needles sampled in September 1997 at ten permanent sampling sites. The antioxidant response of Norway spruce needles is compared to the air pollution load, assessed by total sulphur content of needles, and general environmental stress factors connected with the sampling site. From the results it is possible to draw conclusions about the physiological role and behavior of the biochemical needle stress indicators analysed and to explain their status as a result of the air pollution load and environmental stresses.

  14. Epidihydropinidine, the main piperidine alkaloid compound of Norway spruce (Picea abies) shows promising antibacterial and anti-Candida activity.

    Fyhrquist, Pia; Virjamo, Virpi; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta


    This study reports for the first time promising antibacterial and antifungal effects of epidihydropinidine, the major piperidine alkaloid in the needles and bark of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Epidihydropinidine was growth inhibitory against all bacterial and fungal strains used in our investigation, showing the lowest MIC value of 5.37μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida glabrata and C. albicans. Epidihydropinidine was nearly three times more active than tetracycline against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. Promising antibacterial effects were also recorded against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (MIC 10.75μg/mL) as well as against Salmonella enterica (MIC and MBC 43μg/mL). Our preliminary results suggest that epidihydropinidine as well related alkaloids of Norway spruce could be powerful candidates for new antibiotics and for preventing food spoilage.

  15. Changes of Soil Enzyme Activities in Different Restoration Ages of Spruce Forests on the Eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    ZHANG Yong-mei; BAO Wei-kai; PANG Xue-yong; WU Ning; ZHOU Guo-yi


    Six soil enzymes (invertase, acid phosphatase, proteinase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase ) were chosen for investigation under different spruce forests with restoration ages of 4,10,16 years and an old-growth spruce forest over 400 years old in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Results showed that the activities of invertase, phosphatase, proteinase, catalase and peroxidase decreased in newly restored forests except for pholyphenoloxidase. With the development of forests after restoration, the activities of invertase, acid phosphadase, proteinase increased gradually. Our study also indicated that the soil enzyme activities were associated with surface soils and decreased with depths. This result suggested that in the earlier restoration stage the application of organic fertilizer may be more effective by surface addition to soils than deep addition.

  16. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Mosser B.


    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  17. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Gehan, Charlotte; Michel, Eric


    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, which behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the id...

  18. Effect of tree-ring detrending method on apparent growth trends of black and white spruce in interior Alaska

    Sullivan, Patrick F.; Pattison, Robert R.; Brownlee, Annalis H.; Cahoon, Sean M. P.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.


    Boreal forests are critical sinks in the global carbon cycle. However, recent studies have revealed increasing frequency and extent of wildfires, decreasing landscape greenness, increasing tree mortality and declining growth of black and white spruce in boreal North America. We measured ring widths from a large set of increment cores collected across a vast area of interior Alaska and examined implications of data processing decisions for apparent trends in black and white spruce growth. We found that choice of detrending method had important implications for apparent long-term growth trends and the strength of climate-growth correlations. Trends varied from strong increases in growth since the Industrial Revolution, when ring widths were detrended using single-curve regional curve standardization (RCS), to strong decreases in growth, when ring widths were normalized by fitting a horizontal line to each ring width series. All methods revealed a pronounced growth peak for black and white spruce centered near 1940. Most detrending methods showed a decline from the peak, leaving recent growth of both species near the long-term mean. Climate-growth analyses revealed negative correlations with growing season temperature and positive correlations with August precipitation for both species. Multiple-curve RCS detrending produced the strongest and/or greatest number of significant climate-growth correlations. Results provide important historical context for recent growth of black and white spruce. Growth of both species might decline with future warming, if not mitigated by increasing precipitation. However, widespread drought-induced mortality is probably not imminent, given that recent growth was near the long-term mean.

  19. Response of the engraver beetle, IPS perturbatus, to semiochemicals in white spruce stands of interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Werner, R.A.


    Field tests on the efficacy of various scolytid bark beetle pheromones to attract Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff) were conducted from 1977 through 1992 in stands of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in interior Alaska. Several pheromones attracted high numbers of I. perturbatus and species of the predator Thanasimus to baited funnel traps. Test results also indicated that attacks by I. perturbatus may be deferred by certain semiochemicals.

  20. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming.

    Girardin, Martin P; Hogg, Edward H; Bernier, Pierre Y; Kurz, Werner A; Guo, Xiao Jing; Cyr, Guillaume


    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography, and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2 ], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60°N for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially explicit simulations of net primary productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modeling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce interannual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Interannual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on interannual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree-ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  1. Growth responses of the balsam fir and black spruce spacing trials. Information report No. N-X-291

    Karsh, M.B.; Lavigne, M.B.; Donnelly, J.G.


    The report describes the initial growth responses of plots thinned to a range of spacings in three balsam fir stands and three black spruce stands on the Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland and western Newfoundland. Statistical analyses were conducted of nominal vs actual spacing and merchantable trees at rotation. Results are given for the effects of thinning on actual conditions, total volume growth, diameter growth and volume growth responses, and 10-year growth responses.

  2. Negative impacts of high temperatures on growth of black spruce forests intensify with the anticipated climate warming

    Girardin, M. P.; Hogg, T.; Kurz, W.; Bernier, P. Y.; Guo, X. J.; Cyr, G.


    An increasing number of studies conclude that water limitations and heat stress may hinder the capacity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) trees, a dominant species of Canada's boreal forests, to grow and assimilate atmospheric carbon. However, there is currently no scientific consensus on the future of these forests over the next century in the context of widespread climate warming. The large spatial extent of black spruce forests across the Canadian boreal forest and associated variability in climate, demography and site conditions pose challenges for projecting future climate change responses. Here we provide an evaluation of the impacts of climate warming and drying, as well as increasing [CO2], on the aboveground productivity of black spruce forests across Canada south of 60ºN for the period 1971 to 2100. We use a new extensive network of tree-ring data obtained from Canada's National Forest Inventory, spatially-explicit simulations of Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and its drivers, and multivariate statistical modelling. We found that soil water availability is a significant driver of black spruce inter-annual variability in productivity across broad areas of the western to eastern Canadian boreal forest. Inter-annual variability in productivity was also found to be driven by autotrophic respiration in the warmest regions. In most regions, the impacts of soil water availability and respiration on inter-annual variability in productivity occurred during the phase of carbohydrate accumulation the year preceding tree ring formation. Results from projections suggest an increase in the importance of soil water availability and respiration as limiting factors on NPP over the next century due to warming, but this response may vary to the extent that other factors such as carbon dioxide fertilization, and respiration acclimation to high temperature, contribute to dampening these limitations.

  3. Assessment of Thermo-treated Bonded Wood Performance: Comparisons among Norway Spruce, Common Ash, and Turkey Oak

    Angelo Rita; Nicola Moretti; Ignazia Cuccui,; Achille Pellerano; Luigi Todaro


    Polyvinyl acetate (PVA) exhibits fine adhesion qualities when bonded to wood. However, when using thermo-treated wood, a number of different unstudied factors (such as the water stress condition) influence the wood bonding effectiveness. The main goal of this study was to evaluate how different treatments affect the shear bonding strength for three cases of thermo-vacuum treated woods. Wood from both Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) and common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) was thermo-treated ...

  4. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan


    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature.

  5. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen leaching from Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch stands in southern Sweden

    Fröberg, Mats; Hansson, Karna; Kleja, Dan Berggren; Alavi, Ghasem


    The effects of three common tree species – Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch – on leaching of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen were studied in an experimental forest with podzolised soils in southern Sweden. We analyzed soil water collected with lysimeters and modeled water fluxes to estimate dissolved C and N fluxes. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) was analyzed to get information about the quality of dissolved organic matter leached from the different stands. Under the ...

  6. Biomass and nutrient cycle in fertilized and unfertilized pine, mixed birch and pine and spruce stands on a drained mire.

    Finér, Leena


    Biomass, biomass increment and nutrient cycling were studied in (1) a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stand, (2) a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand and (3) a mixed birch (Betula pubescens)/pine stand on a drained mire at Ilomantsi, eastern Finland in 1979-85. In addition, the effect of NPK and micronutrient fertilizer treatment was studied. Above-ground and root measurements were taken. These data formed the basis of stand biomass and nutrient cycle simulations of fertilized and unfertilized s...

  7. Clinical utility of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red cell disorders.

    Chesney, Alden; Good, David; Reis, Marciano


    Erythropoiesis involves proliferation and differentiation of small population of hematopoietic stem cells resident in the bone marrow into mature red blood cells. The determination of the cellular composition of the blood is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of diseases and monitoring of therapy. Flow cytometric analysis is increasingly being used to characterize the heterogeneous cell populations present in the blood and the hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation pathways of the bone marrow. Here we discuss the role of flow cytometry in the study of erythropoiesis and nonclonal red blood cell disorders. First, we discuss flow cytometric analysis of reticulocytes. Next, we review salient quantitative methods that can be used for detection of fetal-maternal hemorrhage (FMH). We also discuss flow cytometric analysis of high hemoglobin F (HbF) in Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), red cell survival and red cell volume. We conclude by discussing cell cycle of erythroid cells.

  8. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    Masoud Niknam


    Full Text Available Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or systems engineering, there is no specific framework available to assess the degree of maturity of an organization towards CM. This paper focuses on revealing the important maturity dimensions and levels for CM as a means towards developing a CM maturity model.

  9. Seeking process maturity with DSDM atern

    Stasys Peldžius


    Full Text Available It is important for an organization to know what capability/maturity of the process a chosen methodology could ensure. This paper is focused on DSDM Atern process maturity by CMMI. The goal is to assess DSDM Atern by CMMI-DEV version 1.3 and propose the improvements to reach CMMI maturity level 3. A capability profile ensured by DSDM Atern has been obtained. The appraisal results showed that DSDM Atern ensures CMMI maturity level 2. Constraints and problematic areas of DSDM Atern methodology were discovered. In order to reach CMMI level 3 some recommendations for DSDM Atern additions were developed.

  10. Modelling phenolic and technological maturities of grapes by means of the multivariate relation between organoleptic and physicochemical properties.

    Meléndez, E; Ortiz, M C; Sarabia, L A; Íñiguez, M; Puras, P


    The ripeness of grapes at the harvest time is one of the most important parameters for obtaining high quality red wines. Traditionally the decision of harvesting is to be taken only after analysing sugar concentration, titratable acidity and pH of the grape juice (technological maturity). However, these parameters only provide information about the pulp ripeness and overlook the real degree of skins and seeds maturities (phenolic maturity). Both maturities, technological and phenolic, are not simultaneously reached, on the contrary they tend to separate depending on several factors: grape variety, cultivar, adverse weather conditions, soil, water availability and cultural practices. Besides, this divergence is increasing as a consequence of the climate change (larger quantities of CO(2), less rain, and higher temperatures). 247 samples collected in vineyards representative of the qualified designation of origin Rioja from 2007 to 2011 have been analysed. Samples contain the four grape varieties usual in the elaboration of Rioja wines ('tempranillo', 'garnacha', 'mazuelo' and 'graciano'). The present study is the first systematic investigation on the maturity of grapes that includes the organoleptic evaluation of the degree of grapes maturity (sugars/acidity maturity, aromatic maturity of the pulp, aromatic maturity of the skins and tannins maturity) together with the values of the physicochemical parameters (probable alcohol degree, total acidity, pH, malic acid, K, total index polyphenolics, anthocyans, absorbances at 420, 520 and 620 nm, colour index and tartaric acid) determined over the same samples. A varimax rotation of the latent variables of a PLS model between the physicochemical variables and the mean of four sensory variables allows identifying both maturities. Besides, the position of the samples in the first plane defines the effect that the different factors exert on both phenolic and technological maturities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Moderate beer consumption does not change early or mature atherosclerosis in mice

    Blanco-Vaca Francisco; Ribas Vicent; Calpe-Berdiel Laura; Escolà-Gil Joan


    Abstract Background Although the consumption of wine in particular has been associated with a lower risk of atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease, systematic reviews differ as to the relative protective effect of beer, wine and spirits. Two previous studies showed that red wine reduces fatty streak formation (early atherosclerosis) but not mature atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Aim of the study To determine whether a moderate beer intake would affect earl...

  12. Accumulation of logging residue in first thinnings of Scots pine and Norway spruce. Impact of top bucking diameter of roundwood

    Raeisaenen, T.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail:


    The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of changes in the minimum top diameter of roundwood on the accumulation of logging residue. The aim was also to compare estimates of residue accumulation calculated by tree-specific biomass models with field measurements from thinnings. Felling experiments were performed in first thinnings of pine and spruce to evaluate the model calculations. In the felling, mean relative masses of the tree tops of spruce were nearly doubled with each increment of 2 cm in the top diameter. Respectively in pine, the mean relative tree top mass was increased by 50-60 % when the top diameter was increased by 2 cm. The mass of total residue (tree top and all delimbed branches) was similarly increased, but the differences were not as large. Compared to pine, a lesser variation in the crown mass of the spruce sample resulted in a more accurate model prediction of masses of tree tops and total residue. The results indicate that the residue accumulation from a small group of trees cannot be predicted very reliably, but when a larger tree population or area is considered, the model predictions are enhanced to a more practicable level. (orig.)

  13. Radial Growth Response of Black Spruce Stands Ten Years after Experimental Shelterwoods and Seed-Tree Cuttings in Boreal Forest

    Miguel Montoro Girona


    Full Text Available Partial cutting is thought to be an alternative to achieve sustainable management in boreal forests. However, the effects of intermediate harvest intensity (45%–80% on growth remain unknown in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. stands, one of the most widely distributed boreal species with great commercial interest. In this study, we analysed the effect of three experimental shelterwood and one seed-tree treatments on tree radial growth in even-aged black spruce stands, 10 years after intervention. Our results show that radial growth response 8–10 years after cutting was 41% to 62% higher than in untreated plots, with stand structure, treatment, tree position relative to skidding trails, growth before cutting and time having significant interactions. The stand structure conditioned tree growth after cutting, being doubled in younger and denser stands. Tree spatial position had a pronounced effect on radial growth; trees at the edge of the skidding trails showed twice the increase in growth compared to interior trees. Dominant trees before cutting located close to the skidding trails manifested the highest growth response after cutting. This research suggests that the studied treatments are effective to enhance radial wood production of black spruce especially in younger stands, and that the edge effect must be considered in silvicultural management planning.

  14. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Minova Sandra


    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  15. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina


    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  16. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases:Characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture

    Sanna Koutaniemi; Heli A Malmberg; Liisa K Simola; Teemu H Teeri; Anna Karkonen


    Secondarily thickened cel wal s of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cel s contain lignin that makes the cel wal s water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five ful-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracel ular lignin-forming cel culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemical y characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cel culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8–4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 mM;however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  17. Little Red Riding Hood



    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  18. RED-ML

    Xiong, Heng; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qiye


    roles can be further understood. However, a major barrier that prevents RNA editing from being a routine RNA-seq analysis, similar to gene expression and splicing analysis, for example, is the lack of user-friendly and effective computational tools. Based on years of experience of analyzing RNA editing...... using diverse RNA-seq datasets, we have developed a software tool, RED-ML: RNA Editing Detection based on Machine learning (pronounced as "red ML"). The input to RED-ML can be as simple as a single BAM file, while it can also take advantage of matched genomic variant information when available...... accurately detect novel RNA editing sites without relying on curated RNA editing databases. We have also made this tool freely available via GitHub . We have developed a highly accurate, speedy and general-purpose tool for RNA editing detection using RNA-seq data...


    Luminiţa Vişan


    Full Text Available During maturation of red wines their chromatic characteristics change due to degradation reactions of anthocyanin pigments and polymers formation. It was studied the polyphenolic composition of young red wines Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Noir and its evolution during wines maturation. The wines were obtained in the Ceptura vine center, from the harvest year of 2015. The polyphenolic composition of wines was judged by the content in polyphenols, tannins and anthocyanins. A wine tannin structure was analyzed by their concentration in condensed tannins, astringent tannins and tannin-polysaccharide complex. Analyzes have been carried out in the wine by UV-VIS spectrometry techniques. Total content of polyphenols have been determined by spectrophotometric technique (DO280. Tannins have been determined by the Ribereau-Gayon method (1996, tannin structure after Glories method (1978; anthocyanins were determined by the discoloration technique with SO2. The study on color of red wines analyzed during their evolution referred to the study of chromatic parameters, the content of anthocyanin monomers and polymers (Glories method. Our results showed a decrease of the percent of anthocyanin monomers accompanied by an increase the percent of polymers, in both wines, during their maturation.

  20. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris


    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.

  1. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Haymes, M; Green, L


    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  2. Stable N isotope values of black spruce ecosystem components integrate source N isotope values, soil fertility, and microbial biomass: a natural and experimental study from Alaska

    Mayor, J. R.; Schuur, T.; Mack, M. C.; Nettelton Hollingsworth, T.; Bååth, E.


    The productivity and ecosystem dynamics of many northern ecosystems are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Understanding N dynamics is especially important in boreal forests where slight changes in N availability can have profound effects on ecosystem productivity and diversity of plants and microbes. However, because N cycling processes vary profoundly in time and space, assessing ecosystem N supply and cycling pathways are difficult even with frequent measurements. Recent soil, plant, and fungal meta-analyses have indicated that stable isotopes of N may provide just such an integrative measure of N cycling by recording pathways of N flux through ecosystems. Here we present N stable isotope patterns across 30 plots varying in natural fertility and in 4 blocks of 16 experimentally fertilized plots of mature black spruce forest in central Alaska. We measured soil N isotope ratios of NO3, NH4, and salt extracted dissolved organic N (DON) using persulfate oxidation coupled to the bacterial denitrifier technique. The soil N isotope values varied from 15 to -26‰ across the landscape and were a poor predictor of the variability in plant N isotope values ranging from 5-11‰. Instead a combination of fungal biomass (PLFA 18:2ω6,9), fungal ingrowth, cation exchange capacity, and resin extractable phosphate (P) were better explanatory variables in a multiple regression context. This suggests that plant N isotope ratios are a product of numerous soil and microbial processes and not simply a direct reflection of source N pools. Denitrification in soils and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) assimilation and delivery of N were also likely causal as each influence pathways of N cycling that can alter the N isotope values of source and receiving pools. In contrast with the very low N environment present in our natural gradient, we found that N fertilization, both singly and in conjunction with P, caused the N isotope values of foliage, fine roots, soil N, and fungal fruiting bodies to

  3. Mycorrhizal colonization and lead distribution in root tissues of Norway spruce seedlings

    Jentschke, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik]|[Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bodenbiologie; Fritz, E.; Marschner, P.; Godbold, D.L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik; Rapp, C. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Waldbau; Wolters, V. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine und Spezielle Zoologie


    Non-inoculated spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) and spruce seedlings colonized with Lactarius rufus Fr., Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch or Paxillus involutus Fr. were grown for 35 to 37 weeks in a microscosm system on two types of natural forest humus differing in Pb content. Using X-ray microanalysis, the distribution and content of Pb in the tissues of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root tips were compared. No significant difference in the Pb contents of root cortex cell walls of non-mycorrhizal and seedlings colonized by Lactarius rufus, Pisolithus tinctorius, or indigenous mycorrhizal fungi (mainly Tylospora sp.) was found. However, in root tips of seedlings colonized by Paxillus involutus, due to a higher binding capacity for cations, the Pb content in cell walls of the root cortex were higher than in non-mycorrhizal roots. Pb contents in cell walls of the cortex of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots were 3 times higher in plants growing in humus with a high Pb content than in plants growing in humus with a low Pb content. It is concluded that increasing contents of Pb in the organic matter may lead to an increased loading of the apoplast with Pb. The mycobionts tested in this investigation did not exclude Pb from root tissues. (orig.) [Deutsch] Nichtmykorrhizierte und mit Lactarius rufus Fr., Pisolithus tinctorius Coker und Couch oder Paxillus involutus Fr. beimpfte Fichtenkeimlinge (Picea abies Karst.) wurden in Kuturgefaesse gepflanzt, die mit Humusmaterial aus zwei unterschiedlich mit Blei belasteten Waldoekosystemen gefuellt waren. Nach 35 bzw. 37 Wochen wurde mittels Roentgenmikroanalyse der Bleigehalt in den Geweben mykorrhizierter und nichtmykorrhizierter Wurzelspitzen gemessen. Die Bleitgehalte in den Cortexzellwaenden der Mykorrhizen von L. rufus, P. tinctorius oder Tylospora sp. (gebildet durch spontane Infektion) unterschieden sich nicht signifikant von denen nichtmykorrhizierter Wurzelspitzen. Aufgrund einer hoeheren

  4. White Spruce Biochar for Point-of-Use Drinking Water Treatment

    Cliggett, M. S.; Murdoch, L.; Soria, J. A.; Dotson, A.


    Small systems regularly struggle to produce treated drinking water compliant with the health standards established by the USEPA thus prompting an obvious need for appropriate innovative treatment solutions. Of these potential solutions, point-of-use treatment devices designed to effectively reduce chemical contaminants in residences using inexpensive, replaceable sorbent materials may be best suited. Our current USEPA-funded project focuses on the production, performance and introduced application of a locally produced Alaskan biochar intended for use as an alternative sorbent media in point-of-use filtration technology. Conducted through the University of Alaska Anchorage, this research effort attempts to develop our value-added biochar product into a sustainable, single-media sorbent capable of removing multiple contaminants from groundwater sources. In this study, the sorptive efficiencies of White Spruce biochar for regulated organic (TOC) and inorganic (As, Cl2, F-) contaminants are experimentally evaluated using dynamic, small scale column testing. To achieve optimal understanding of White Spruce biochar sorption and identify the most effective type of sorbent material, a wide array of production technologies and processing conditions were conducted. Lower conversion temperatures (450-550 oC) were achieved in the laboratory in the absence of oxygen using a manufactured pyrolysis unit while higher temperature ranges (800-1000oC) were achieved in field environments using a custom-built, low oxygen gasification system. Differences in production technologies and corresponding temperature ranges may impact biochar compositions and subsequent surface areas and possibly influence each material's ability to effectively sorb targeted contaminants. Small scale column testing was chosen for this project due to its convenience as a bench-scale technology and scalability to point-of-use devices. The results of this project will reveal the practicality of using this low

  5. Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds measured and modelled above a Norway spruce forest

    Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Savi, Flavia; Alivernini, Alessandro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Večeřová, Kristýna; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar


    Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were investigated at Norway spruce forest at Bílý Kříž in Beskydy Mountains of the Czech Republic during the summer 2014. A proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) has been coupled with eddy-covariance system. Additionally, Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model has been used to derive fluxes from concentration gradient of various monoterpenes previously absorbed into n-heptane by wet effluent diffusion denuder with consequent quantification by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Modelled data cover each one day of three years with different climatic conditions and previous precipitation patterns. Model MEGAN was run to cover all dataset with monoterpene fluxes and measured basal emission factor. Highest fluxes measured by eddy-covariance were recorded during the noon hours, represented particularly by monoterpenes and isoprene. Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model suggests most abundant monoterpene fluxes being α- and β-pinene. Principal component analysis revealed dependencies of individual monoterpene fluxes on air temperature and particularly global radiation; however, these dependencies were monoterpene specific. Relationships of monoterpene fluxes with CO2 flux and relative air humidity were found to be negative. MEGAN model correlated to eddy-covariance PTR-TOF-MS measurement evince particular differences, which will be shown and discussed. Bi-directional fluxes of oxygenated short-chain volatiles (methanol, formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and methyl ethyl ketone) were recorded by PTR-TOF-MS. Volatiles of anthropogenic origin as benzene and toluene were likely transported from the most benzene polluted region in Europe - Ostrava city and adjacent part of Poland around Katowice, where metallurgical and coal mining industries are located. Those were accumulated during

  6. Spring photosynthetic recovery of boreal Norway spruce under conditions of elevated [CO(2)] and air temperature.

    Wallin, Göran; Hall, Marianne; Slaney, Michelle; Räntfors, Mats; Medhurst, Jane; Linder, Sune


    Accumulated carbon uptake, apparent quantum yield (AQY) and light-saturated net CO2 assimilation (Asat) were used to assess the responses of photosynthesis to environmental conditions during spring for three consecutive years. Whole-tree chambers were used to expose 40-year-old field-grown Norway spruce trees in northern Sweden to an elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, [CO2], of 700 μmol CO2 mol(-1) (CE) and an air temperature (T) between 2.8 and 5.6 °C above ambient T (TE), during summer and winter. Net shoot CO2 exchange (Anet) was measured continuously on 1-year-old shoots and was used to calculate the accumulated carbon uptake and daily Asat and AQY. The accumulated carbon uptake, from 1 March to 30 June, was stimulated by 33, 44 and 61% when trees were exposed to CE, TE, and CE and TE combined, respectively. Air temperature strongly influenced the timing and extent of photosynthetic recovery expressed as AQY and Asat during the spring. Under elevated T (TE), the recovery of AQY and Asat commenced ∼10 days earlier and the activity of these parameters was significantly higher throughout the recovery period. In the absence of frost events, the photosynthetic recovery period was less than a week. However, frost events during spring slowed recovery so that full recovery could take up to 60 days to complete. Elevated [CO2] stimulated AQY and Asat on average by ∼10 and ∼50%, respectively, throughout the recovery period, but had minimal or no effect on the onset and length of the photosynthetic recovery period during the spring. However, AQY, Asat and Anet all recovered at significantly higher T (average +2.2 °C) in TE than in TA, possibly caused by acclimation or by shorter days and lower light levels during the early part of the recovery in TE compared with TA. The results suggest that predicted future climate changes will cause prominent stimulation of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in boreal Norway spruce forest during spring, mainly caused by elevated T

  7. Total and pyrogenic carbon stocks in black spruce forest floors from eastern Canada

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; MacKenzie, M. Derek; Munson, Alison; Boiffin, Juliette; Bernard, Guy; Wasylishen, Roderick


    In boreal forests, pyrogenic carbon (PyC), a by-product of recurrent wildfires, is an important component of the global soil C pool, although precise assessment of boreal PyC stock is scarce. In this study including 14 fire sites spreading over 600 km in the Quebec province, our aim was to better estimate total C stock and PyC stock in forest floors of Eastern Canada boreal forests. We also investigated the environmental conditions controlling the stocks and characterized the composition of the various forest floor layers. We analyzed the forest floor samples that were collected from mesic black spruce sites recently affected by fire (3-5 years) using elemental analysis and solid state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PyC content was further estimated using a molecular mixing model on the 13C NMR data. Total C stock in forest floors averaged 5.7 ± 2.9 kg C/m2 and PyC stock 0.6 ± 0.3 kg C/m2. Total C stock was under control of the position in the landscape, with a greater accumulation of organic material on northern aspects and lower slope positions. In addition, total stock was significantly higher in spruce-dominated forest floors than in stands where jack pine was dominant. The PyC stock was significantly related to the atomic H/C ratio (R2 = 0.84) of the different organic layers. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed a large increase in aromatic carbon in the deepest forest floor layer (humified H horizon) at the organic-mineral soil interface. The majority of the PyC stock was located in this horizon and had been formed during past high severity fires rather than during the most recent fire event. Conversely, the superficial "fresh" PyC layer, produced by early-season wildfires in 2005-2007, had NMR spectra fairly similar to unburned forest floors and comparatively low PyC stocks.

  8. Skeletal maturation determined by cervical vertebrae development.

    San Román, Paloma; Palma, Juan Carlos; Oteo, M Dolores; Nevado, Esther


    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of cervical vertebrae radiographic assessment to predict skeletal maturation. Left hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 958 Spanish children from 5 to 18 years of age were measured. On the left hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Grave and Brown was used to assess skeletal maturation. Cervical vertebrae maturation was evaluated with lateral cephalometric radiographs using the stages described by Lamparski and by Hassel and Farman. A new method to evaluate the cervical maturation by studying the changes in the concavity of the lower border, height, and shape of the vertebral body was created. Correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the relationship between skeletal maturation values obtained by the three classifications of vertebral and skeletal maturation measured at the wrist. All correlation values obtained were statistically significant (P vertebral bodies to evaluate the maturation stage has been designed. In the population investigated, this method is as accurate as the Hassel and Farman classification and superior to the Lamparski classification. The morphological vertebral parameter best able to estimate the maturation is the concavity of the lower border of the body.

  9. 7 CFR 51.1865 - Mature.


    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1865 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process, and that...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.


    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process....

  11. Maturational Constraints and First Language Attrition

    Bylund, Emanuel


    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the…

  12. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.


    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  13. 7 CFR 29.6026 - Maturity.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 29.6026 Section 29.6026 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6026 Maturity. The degree of ripeness. (See chart.)...

  14. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    McClelland, David C.; And Others


    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  15. The Mature Woman and the Community College

    Elliot, Jeffrey M.; Mantz, Concetta M.


    The factors and motivations contributing to the presence of increasing numbers of mature women in college are examined, and seven proposals are offered, representing an attempt to develop a total community college program which will meet the needs of mature women students. (NHM)

  16. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    McClelland, David C.; And Others


    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  17. Red Emitting VCSEL

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  18. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  19. Red Mud Stacking

    Bélanger, Marie-J.

    The red mud slurry "stacking" method used in many Alcan Plants has been developed in the 1980's. The aim of this technique is to use minimum space for the disposal of the residue and to rapidly obtain consolidated material. The consistency of the mud slurry plays a key role in the steepness (angle) of the stacking slope.

  20. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John


    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management......: the Design Audit to assess product development capabilities and the Communication Grid Method to assess communication in product development. As maturity grid assessments are not just performance measures but also mechanisms for change, in developing and applying maturity grid assessments, the consultants...

  1. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John


    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management......: the Design Audit to assess product development capabilities and the Communication Grid Method to assess communication in product development. As maturity grid assessments are not just performance measures but also mechanisms for change, in developing and applying maturity grid assessments, the consultants...

  2. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment.

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H


    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-alpha84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling.

  3. Characteristics and modeling of spruce wood under dynamic compression load; Charakteristik und Modellierung von Fichtenholz unter dynamischer Druckbelastung

    Eisenacher, Germar


    Spruce wood is frequently used as an energy absorbing material in impact limiters of packages for the transportation of radioactive material. A 9m drop test onto an unyielding target is mandatory for the packages. The impact results in a dynamic compression load of the spruce wood inside the impact limiter. The lateral dilation of the wood is restrained thereby due to encasing steel sheets. This work's objective was to provide a material model for spruce wood based on experimental investigations to enable the calculation of such loading conditions. About 600 crush tests with cubical spruce wood specimens were performed to characterize the material. The compression was up to 70% and the material was assumed to be transversely isotropic. Particularly the lateral constraint showed to have an important effect: the material develops a high lateral dilation without lateral constraint. The force-displacement characteristics show a comparably low force level and no or only slight hardening. Distinctive softening occurs after the linear-elastic region when loaded parallel to the fiber. On the other hand, using a lateral constraint results in significantly higher general force levels, distinctive hardening and lateral forces. The softening effect when loaded parallel to the fiber is less distinctive. Strain rate and temperature raise or lower the strength level, which was quantified for the applicable ranges of impact limiters. The hypothesis of an uncoupled evolution of the yield surface was proposed based on the experimental findings. It postulates an independent strength evolution with deviatoric and volumetric deformation. The hypothesis could be established using the first modeling approach, the modified LS-DYNA material model MAT075. A transversely isotropic material model was developed based thereupon and implemented in LS-DYNA. The material characteristics of spruce wood were considered using a multi-surface yield criterion and a non-associated flow rule. The

  4. Effect of species composition on carbon and nitrogen stocks in forest floor and mineral soil in Norway spruce and European beech mixed forests

    Andivia, Enrique; Rolo, Víctor; Jonard, Mathieu; Formánek, Pavel; Ponette, Quentin


    Management of existing forests has been identified as the main strategy to enhance carbon sequestration and to mitigate the impact of climate change on forest ecosystems. In this direction, the conversion of Norway spruce monospecific stands into mixed stands by intermingling individuals of European beech is an ongoing trend in adaptive forest management strategies, especially in Central Europe. However, studies assessing the effect of changes in tree species composition on soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen stocks are still scarce and there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting tree species selection as a feasible management option to mitigate the effects of predicted future climatic scenarios. We compared C and N stocks in the forest floor (litter and humus) and the top 10 cm of mineral soil in two monospecific stands of Norway spruce and European beech and in a mixed stand of both species. The effect of tree species composition on the C and N stocks and its spatial distribution was evaluated based on litterfall, root production, elevation and canopy opening, and by using a combination of modelling and geostatistical techniques. C stock was highest in the Norway spruce and the mixed stands, while N stock was highest in the mixed stand and lowest under European beech, with intermediate values in the Norway spruce stand. Each forest type showed differences in forest floor properties, suggesting that species composition is an important factor governing forest floor characteristics, including C and N stocks. The distribution of C and N stocks between forest soil layers was different for each forest type. C and N stocks were highest in the hummus layer under Norway spruce, whereas both stocks were lowest in the European beech stand. On the other hand, the mixed stand showed the highest C and N accumulation in the uppermost mineral soil layer, while the monospecific stands showed similar values. Litterfall was the main contribution to C and N stocks of the

  5. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter


    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative effects on survival and performance of Norway spruce seedlings colonized by dark septate root endophytes are primarily isolate-dependent.

    Tellenbach, Christoph; Grünig, Christoph R; Sieber, Thomas N


    Root endophytes are common and genetically highly diverse suggesting important ecological roles. Yet, relative to above-ground endophytes, little is known about them. Dark septate endophytic fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are ubiquitous root colonizers of conifers and Ericaceae, but their ecological function is largely unknown. Responses of Norway spruce seedlings of two seed provenances to inoculations with isolates of four PAC species were studied in vitro. In addition, isolates of Phialocephala subalpina from two populations within and one outside the natural range of Norway spruce were also included to study the effect of the geographic origin of P. subalpina on host response. The interaction of PAC with Norway spruce ranged from neutral to highly virulent and was primarily isolate-dependent. Variation in virulence was much higher within than among species, nonetheless only isolates of P. subalpina were highly virulent. Disease caused by P. subalpina genotypes from the native range of Norway spruce was more severe than that induced by genotypes from outside the natural distribution of Norway spruce. Virulence was not correlated with the phylogenetic relatedness of the isolates but was positively correlated with the extent of fungal colonization as measured by quantitative real-time PCR.

  7. Effects of fire on the thermal stability of permafrost in lowland and upland black spruce forests of interior Alaska in a changing climate

    Jafarov, Elchin E.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony David; Marchenko, Sergey S.


    Fire is an important factor controlling the composition and thickness of the organic layer in the black spruce forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. Fire that burns the organic layer can trigger dramatic changes in the underlying permafrost, leading to accelerated ground thawing within a relatively short time. In this study, we addressed the following questions. (1) Which factors determine post-fire ground temperature dynamics in lowland and upland black spruce forests? (2) What levels of burn severity will cause irreversible permafrost degradation in these ecosystems? We evaluated these questions in a transient modeling–sensitivity analysis framework to assess the sensitivity of permafrost to climate, burn severity, soil organic layer thickness, and soil moisture content in lowland (with thick organic layers, ~80 cm) and upland (with thin organic layers, ~30 cm) black spruce ecosystems. The results indicate that climate warming accompanied by fire disturbance could significantly accelerate permafrost degradation. In upland black spruce forest, permafrost could completely degrade in an 18 m soil column within 120 years of a severe fire in an unchanging climate. In contrast, in a lowland black spruce forest, permafrost is more resilient to disturbance and can persist under a combination of moderate burn severity and climate warming.

  8. Quantitation of gibberellins A sub 1 , A sub 3 , A sub 4 , A sub 9 and a putative A sub 9 -conjugate in grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) during the period of shoot elongation

    Moritz, T.; Philipson, J.J.; Oden, P.C. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umea (Sweden) Forestry Commission Northern Research Station, Roslin Midlothian (England))


    The levels of endogenous gibberellin A{sub 1}(GA{sub 1}), GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 9}, and a cellulase hydrolyzable GA{sub 9} conjugate in needles and shoot stems of mature grafts of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) grown under environmental conditions that were either inductive, hot, and dry, or noninductive, cool, and wet, for flowering, were estimated by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry selected ion monitoring using deuterated ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 3}, GA{sub 4}, and GA{sub 9} as internal standards. The results imply differential metabolism between clones treated with conditions inductive and noninductive for flowering. Higher concentrations of putative GA{sub 9} conjugate and free GA{sub 9} in the hot and dry treatment indicate a higher capacity of synthesizing, for flowering, the physiologically important GA{sub 4} in the heat and drought-treated material. This synthesis does not, however, result in a buildup of the GA{sub 4} pool, probably because of a high turnover rate of GA{sub 4}. The cool and wet-treated material had higher amounts of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3}, indicating that the differentiation was preferentially directed toward vegetative growth.

  9. Differential gene expression patterns in white spruce newly formed tissue on board the International Space Station

    Beaulieu, Jean; Giguère, Isabelle; Deslauriers, Marie; Boyle, Brian; MacKay, John


    White spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings produced by somatic embryogenesis were grown both at the Kennedy Space Center and in weightlessness in the ISS for 30 days. Plants were placed in closed environment incubators (Advanced Biological Research System) under controlled light, temperature, humidity and CO2 conditions. At the end of the experiment, the leading shoot from three plantlets of each of the three lines tested were sampled and pooled in Kennedy Space Center Fixation Tubes (KFT) containing a RNA stabilization solution. Transcript levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for 27 candidate genes and three reference genes on the nine seedlings grown in each environment. About two-thirds of the 27 genes produced a larger number of transcript molecules in microgravity conditions. However, only three genes showed significant differences between the two environments, and all of them were up-regulated in microgravity. These genes appear to be involved in important processes such as cell propagation, plant development and response to stress, and their up-regulation has likely contributed to influencing seedling growth patterns.

  10. Dynamics of zoomicrobial complexes upon decomposition of plant litter in spruce forests of the southern taiga

    Rakhleeva, A. A.; Semenova, T. A.; Striganova, B. R.; Terekhova, V. A.


    Comparative studies of the composition and abundance of soil-dwelling invertebrates (microarthropods, nematodes, and testate amoebas) and micromycetes in the course of leaf and needle litter decomposition were conducted in two types of spruce forests on white-podzolic and brown forest soils in a field experiment. The analysis of the destruction dynamics has revealed a correlation between the rate of the litter mass loss and the abundance of microarthropods and testate amoebas in the decomposing plant residues. The highest amplitude of the seasonal fluctuations in the number of invertebrates was found for the micromycetes and nematodes as compared to that for the testate amoebas and microarthropods. In the complexes of micromycetes and invertebrates, changes in the dominants were revealed at the different stages of the decomposition. The litter's composition was found to be the main factor affecting the composition and abundance of the zoomicrobial complex of the destroyers. The type of biogeocenosis less influenced the abundance of pedobionts, but it determined their taxonomic composition to a greater extent. A significant inverse correlation was revealed between the number of micromycetes and that of small soil invertebrates.

  11. Morphoanatomy of the flower of Syagrus inajai (SPRUCE Becc. (Arecaceae- Arecoideae- Attaleinae, Amazon

    PR. Genovese-Marcomini

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Syagrus inajai (Spruce Becc., popularly known as pupunha palm, among other names, has been registered in the Guianas and in the North of Brazil in areas of terra firme (non-flooding and gallery forests. In order to characterize the inflorescence and further knowledge of this family, a morphoanatomical study was carried out of the palm S. inajai in a green area of the Campus of the Federal University of Amazonas - UFAM, Manaus, Amazonas. The inflorescences are branched to one order, pedunculate, and interfoliar, measuring 62-82 cm in length, with woody bracts with longitudinal grooves on the external surface, and flowers in triads. The number of flowers to each inflorescence varies from 5,904 to 17,316 for staminate flowers, and from 180 to 3,528 for pistillate flowers. Staminate flowers with six anthers and one vascular bundle each; three-lobed pistillodium, vascularized pistillodium. Its pistillate flowers have six staminodia joined to form a circle, syncarpic, tricarpellary, trilocular gynoecium, one ovule to each locule, synascidiate in the ovary, and plicated above. Tripartite stigma, apical and sessile, with epidermis composed of elongated papillary cells, pattern of epidermis that is maintained throughout the stylar canal. Bitegmented, anatrope, pachychalazal ovule.

  12. Steam pretreatment of spruce forest residues: optimal conditions for biogas production and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Janzon, Ron; Schütt, Fokko; Oldenburg, Saskia; Fischer, Elmar; Körner, Ina; Saake, Bodo


    Steam refining of non-debarked spruce forest residues was investigated as pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis as well as for biogas production. Pretreatment conditions were varied in the range of 190-220 °C, 5-10 min and 0-3.7% SO₂ according to a statistical design. For both applications highest product yields were predicted at 220 °C and 2.4% SO₂, whereas the reaction time had only a minor influence. The conformity of the model results allows the conclusion that enzymatic hydrolysis is a suitable test method to evaluate the degradability of lignocellulosic biomass in the biogas process. In control experiments under optimal conditions the results of the model were verified. The yield of total monomeric carbohydrates after enzymatic hydrolysis was equivalent to 55% of all theoretically available polysaccharides. The corresponding biogas yield from the pretreated wood amounted to 304 mL/gODM. Furthermore, furans produced under optimal process conditions showed no inhibitory effect on biogas production. It can be concluded that steam refining opens the structure of wood, thus improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides to fermentable monomeric sugars and subsequently enabling a higher and faster production of biogas. Anaerobic fermentation of pretreated wood is a serious alternative to alcoholic fermentation especially when low quality wood grades and residues are used. Anaerobic digestion should be further investigated in order to diversify the biorefinery options for lignocellulosic materials.

  13. Formalized classification of moss litters in swampy spruce forests of intermontane depressions of Kuznetsk Alatau

    Efremova, T. T.; Avrova, A. F.; Efremov, S. P.


    The approaches of multivariate statistics have been used for the numerical classification of morphogenetic types of moss litters in swampy spruce forests according to their physicochemical properties (the ash content, decomposition degree, bulk density, pH, mass, and thickness). Three clusters of moss litters— peat, peaty, and high-ash peaty—have been specified. The functions of classification for identification of new objects have been calculated and evaluated. The degree of decomposition and the ash content are the main classification parameters of litters, though all other characteristics are also statistically significant. The final prediction accuracy of the assignment of a litter to a particular cluster is 86%. Two leading factors participating in the clustering of litters have been determined. The first factor—the degree of transformation of plant remains (quality)—specifies 49% of the total variance, and the second factor—the accumulation rate (quantity)— specifies 26% of the total variance. The morphogenetic structure and physicochemical properties of the clusters of moss litters are characterized.

  14. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using SO2-ethanol-water spent liquor from spruce.

    Survase, Shrikant A; Sklavounos, Evangelos; Jurgens, German; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom


    SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) spent liquor from spruce chips was successfully used for batch and continuous production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). Initially, batch experiments were performed using spent liquor to check the suitability for production of ABE. Maximum concentration of total ABE was found to be 8.79 g/l using 4-fold diluted SEW liquor supplemented with 35 g/l of glucose. The effect of dilution rate on solvent production, productivity and yield was studied in column reactor consisting of immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 on wood pulp. Total solvent concentration of 12 g/l was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.21 h(-1). The maximum solvent productivity (4.86 g/l h) with yield of 0.27 g/g was obtained at dilution rate of 0.64 h(-1). Further, to increase the solvent yield, the unutilized sugars were subjected to batch fermentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Geology of the Spruce Pine District, Avery, Mitchell, and Yancy Counties, North Carolina

    Brobst, Donald Albert


    The Spruce Pine pegmatite district, a northeastward-trending belt 25 miles long and 10 miles wide, lies in parts of Avery, Mitchell, and Yancey Counties in the Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina. The most abundant rocks in the district are interlayered mica and amphibole gneisses and schists, all of which are believed to be of Precambrian age. These rocks are cut by small bodies of dunite and associated rocks of Precambrian (?) age, large bodies of alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age, and basaltic and diabasic dikes and sills of Triassic (?) age. The rocks of the district have been weathered to saprolite that is locally 50 feet thick. The major structure in the area is a southwestward-plunging asymmetrical synclinorium that has its steeper limb on the northwest side. Feldspar, muscovite as sheet and scrap (ground) mica, and kaolin from the alaskite and associated pegmatite account for over 90 percent of the total mineral production of the district. Amounts of other pegmatite minerals, including quartz, beryl, columbite-tantalite, rare-earth and uranium minerals are an extremely small part of the mineral resources. Actual or potential products from other rocks are olivine, vermiculite, asbestos, talc, chromium and nickel, soapstone, mica schist, garnet, kyanite, dolomite marble, and construction materials.

  16. Soil evolution in spruce forest ecosystems: role and influence of humus studied by morphological approach

    Chersich S


    Full Text Available In order to understand the role and the mutual influences of humus and soil in alpine spruce forest ecosystems we studied and classified 7 soil - humic profiles on the 4 main forestry dynamics: open canopy, regeneration, young stand, tree stage. We studied the role of humification process in the pedologic process involving soils and vegetations studing humic and soil horizons. Study sites are located at an altitude of 1740 m a.s.l near Pellizzano (TN, and facing to the North. The parent soil material is predominantly composed of morenic sediments, probably from Cevedale glacier lying on a substrate of tonalite from Presanella (Adamello Tertiary pluton. The soil temperature regime is frigid, while the moisture regime is udic. The characteristics observed in field were correlated with classical chemical and physical soil analyses (MIPAF 2000. In order to discriminate the dominant soil forming process, the soils were described and classified in each site according to the World Reference Base (FAO-ISRIC-ISSS 1998. Humus was described and classified using the morphological-genetic approach (Jabiol et al. 1995. The main humus forms are acid and they are for the greater part Dysmoder on PODZOLS. The main pedogenetic processes is the podzolization, locally there are also hydromorphic processes. We associate a definite humus form with a pedological process at a particular step of the forest evolution. We concluded thath the soil study for a correct pedological interpretation must take count of the characteristics of the humic epipedon.

  17. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter


    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  18. Morphoanatomy of the flower of Syagrus inajai (SPRUCE) Becc. (Arecaceae- Arecoideae- Attaleinae), Amazon.

    Genovese-Marcomini, P R; Mendonça, M S; Carmello-Guerreiro, S M


    The occurrence of Syagrus inajai (Spruce) Becc., popularly known as pupunha palm, among other names, has been registered in the Guianas and in the North of Brazil in areas of terra firme (non-flooding) and gallery forests. In order to characterize the inflorescence and further knowledge of this family, a morphoanatomical study was carried out of the palm S. inajai in a green area of the Campus of the Federal University of Amazonas--UFAM, Manaus, Amazonas. The inflorescences are branched to one order, pedunculate, and interfoliar, measuring 62-82 cm in length, with woody bracts with longitudinal grooves on the external surface, and flowers in triads. The number of flowers to each inflorescence varies from 5,904 to 17,316 for staminate flowers, and from 180 to 3,528 for pistillate flowers. Staminate flowers with six anthers and one vascular bundle each; three-lobed pistillodium, vascularized pistillodium. Its pistillate flowers have six staminodia joined to form a circle, syncarpic, tricarpellary, trilocular gynoecium, one ovule to each locule, synascidiate in the ovary, and plicated above. Tripartite stigma, apical and sessile, with epidermis composed of elongated papillary cells, pattern of epidermis that is maintained throughout the stylar canal. Bitegmented, anatrope, pachychalazal ovule.

  19. Dilute acid pretreatment of black spruce using continuous steam explosion system.

    Fang, Haixia; Deng, James; Zhang, Tony


    The pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis is essential to the sugar yield and bioethanol production. Dilute acid hydrolysis of black spruce softwood chip was performed in a continuous high temperature reactor followed with steam explosion and mechanical refining. The acid-soaked wood chips were pretreated under different feeding rates (60 and 92 kg/h), cooking screw rotation speeds (7.2 and 14.4 rpm), and steam pressures (12 and 15 bar). The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on the acid-insoluble fraction of pretreated material. At lower feeding rate, the pretreatment at low steam pressure and short retention time favored the recovery of hemicellulose. The pretreatment at high steam pressure and longer retention time recovered less hemicellulose but improved the enzymatic accessibility. As a result, the overall sugar yields became similar no matter what levels of the retention time or steam pressure. Comparing with lower feeding rate, higher feeding rate resulted in consistently higher glucose yield in both liquid fraction after pretreatment and that released after enzymatic hydrolysis.

  20. Variability of Norway spruce morphometric characteristics in progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Cvjetković Branislav


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an analysis of morphometric characteristics of Norway spruce seedlings in the progeny tests in Bosnia and Herzegovina, localities: Drinić and Srebrenica. Progeny tests were established by using seedlings originating from six natural populations from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Seedling height, root collar and whorl distance from the ground, which represents seedling heights in 2011, 2012 and 2013 were measured. The results indicate statistically significant differences between the analyzed characteristics of the observed population. Especially interesting are the populations Potoci and Olovo, which showed the highest growth during the observed period in both progeny tests. The impact of the drought in 2013 can be seen in the progeny test in Srebrenica where height growth in 2013 was lower by more than 50% in comparison to 2012. The impact of drought in the progeny test in Drinić was not observed. The research provides the baseline when selecting the starting population, where the rapid growth of seedlings is set as the main goal.