WorldWideScience

Sample records for mature minnelusa waterfloods

  1. A new approach of proration-injection allocation for water-flooding mature oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of injection-production allocation estimation for water-flooding mature oilfields. The suggested approach is based on logistic growth rate functions and several type-curve matching methods. Using the relationship between these equations, oil production and water injection rate as well as injection-production ratio can be easily forecasted. The calculation procedure developed and outlined in this paper requires very few production data and is easily implemented. Furthermore, an oilfield case has been analyzed. The synthetic and field cases validate the calculation procedure, so it can be accurately used in forecasting production data, and it is important to optimize the whole injection-production system.

  2. Saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the saturated thickness of the Minnelusa aquifer, Black Hills area, South Dakota. The...

  3. Generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set is a polygon coverage created in ARC/INFO that represents the generalized thickness of the Minnelusa Formation, Black Hills, South Dakota. The...

  4. Do heavy and medium oil waterfloods differ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, G. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Waterflooding is a common and important method of enhanced oil recovery. However, little is known about how waterflooding heavy oils differs from waterflooding lighter oils. There is a substantial body of work on designing, monitoring, and managing waterfloods. However, the problems specific to producing heavy oil by waterflooding are rarely addressed. This paper presented the results of a statistical study of 44 heavy oil waterfloods and 39 medium oil waterfloods in western Canadian waterfloods. The purpose of the study was to identify the parameters which impact heavy oil waterflood success. Each waterflood was assigned a numerical value according to the success of each waterflood operation and examined the importance of various reservoir and operating parameters to that success. Waterfloods were classified as either heavy or medium. Separate multivariate analysis models were developed for each set. It was concluded that the most important reservoir parameters to the success of medium oil waterfloods were permeability and heterogeneity. This validated the conventional knowledge of waterflooding, but were not significant to the success of heavy oil waterfloods. 30 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  5. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Smart Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel

    During the last decade, smart waterflooding has been developed into an emerging EOR technology both for carbonate and sandstone reservoirs that does not require toxic or expensive chemicals. Although it is widely accepted that different salinity brines may increase the oil recovery for carbonate...... reservoirs, understanding of the mechanism of this increase is still developing. To understand this smart waterflooding process, an extensive research has been carried out covering a broad range of disciplines within surface chemistry, thermodynamics of crude oil and brine, as well as their behavior...

  7. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to

  8. A study of surfactant-assisted waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scamehorn, J F; Harwell, J H

    1990-09-01

    In surfactant-assisted waterflooding, a surfactant slug is injected into a reservoir, followed by a brine spacer, followed by second surfactant slug. The charge on the surfactant in the first slug has opposite sign to that in the second slug. When the two slugs mix in the reservoir, a precipitate or coacervate is formed which plugs the permeable region of the reservoir. Subsequently injected water or brine is forced through the low permeability region of the reservoir, increasing sweep efficiency of the waterflood, compared to a waterflood not using surfactants. In this part of the work, two major tasks are performed. First, core floods are performed with oil present to demonstrate the improvement in incremental oil production, as well as permeability modification. Second, a reservoir simulation model will be proposed to further delineate the optimum strategy for implementation of the surfactant-assisted waterflooding, as well as indicate the reservoir types for which it would be most effective. Surfactants utilized were sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyl pyridinium chloride. 44 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  10. Waterflooding optimization in uncertain geological scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Suwartadi, Eka; Foss, Bjarne;

    2013-01-01

    In conventional waterflooding of an oil field, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with a conventional reactive strategy in which producers are closed based on water breakthrough. To compensate for the inherent geological uncertainties in an oil field, ...

  11. Selected wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset describes wells and test holes completed in the Minnelusa Formation that were used to create the structure-contours for the top of the Minnelusa...

  12. Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical interactions between the fluid and reservoir rock due to the presence of active components in the injected brine produce changes within the reservoir and can significantly impact the fluid flow. We have developed a 1D numerical model for waterflooding accounting for dissolution...... and precipitation of the components. Extending previous studies, we consider an arbitrary chemical non-equilibrium reaction-induced dissolution. We account for different individual volumes that a component has when precipitated or dissolved. This volume non-additivity also affects the pressure and the flow rate...... reaction rates) may exhibit rapid increase of porosity and permeability near the inlet probably indicating a formation of high permeable channels (wormholes). Water saturation in the zone of dissolution increases due to an increase in the bulk volume accessible for the injected fluid. Volumetric non...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIRS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: THE PERMIAN UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Scheffler, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Upper Minnelusa sandstones form a complex group of reservoirs because of variations in regional setting, sedimentology, and diagenetic alteration. Structural lineaments separate the reservoirs into northern and southern zones. Production in the north is from a single pay sand, and in the south from multi-pay sands due to differential erosion on top of the Upper Minnelusa. The intercalation of eolian dune, interdune, and sabkha sandstones with marine sandstones, carbonates, and anhydrites results in significant reservoir heterogeneity. Diagenetic alterations further enhance heterogeneity, because the degree of cementation and dissolution is partly facies-related.

  14. Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, Mohan; Liner, Chris; Kerr, Dennis

    1999-10-15

    This final report describes the progress during the six year of the project on ''Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance.'' This report is funded under the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvially-dominated deltaic deposits. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by drilling of horizontal injection wells to improve production performance. The project was divided into two budget periods. In the first budget period, many modern technologies were used to develop a detailed reservoir management plan; whereas, in the second budget period, conventional data was used to develop a reservoir management plan. The idea was to determine the cost effectiveness of various technologies in improving the performance of mature oil fields.

  15. Polymer Augmented Waterflood in the Rapdan Upper Shaunavon Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.A.; Bachman, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A Polymer Augmented Waterflood Pilot is being implemented to test the tertiary recovery process in the Rapdan Upper Shaunavon Unit. Injection is to commence by late 1985. The Rapdan Unit has been under a peripheral waterflood since 1962. The performance of the waterflood has been characterized by early water breakthrough due in large part to an oil/water viscosity ratio of 20. This paper describes the studies undertaken to determine the feasibility and to design a polymerflood to improve oil recovery in the Unit. Laboratory work was done to select the most suitable polymer and to determine polymer adsorption, effective viscosity and incremental oil recovery. Field testing was conducted to determine polymer injectivity, adsorption and degradation. A reservoir simulator was used to optimize polymer concentration, slug size, well spacing and pattern type and to predict production and injection rates.

  16. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  17. Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Sandersen, Sara Bülow; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recove...... of a microemulsion phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration, which has been reported in most previous studies.......Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recovery...

  18. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Sizemore; David S. Schechter

    2003-08-13

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area''. The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on characterization of Germania Unit using an analog field ET ODaniel unit and old cased hole neutron. Petrophysical Characterization of the Germania Spraberry units requires a unique approach for a number of reasons--limited core data, lack of modern log data and absence of directed studies within the unit. The need for characterization of the Germania unit has emerged as a first step in the review, understanding and enhancement of the production practices applicable within the unit and the trend area in general. In the absence or lack of the afore mentioned resources, an approach that will rely heavily on previous petrophysical work carried out in the neighboring ET O'Daniel unit (6.2 miles away), and normalization of the old log data prior to conventional interpretation techniques will be used. A log-based rock model has been able to guide successfully the prediction of pay and non-pay intervals within the ET O'Daniel unit, and will be useful if found applicable within the Germania unit. A novel multiple regression technique utilizing non-parametric transformations to achieve better correlations in predicting a dependent variable (permeability) from multiple independent variables (rock type, shale volume and porosity) will also be investigated in this study. A log data base includes digitized

  19. A New Comprehensive Approach for Predicting Injectivity Decline during Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Shapiro, Alexander

    Injectivity decline during sea waterflooding or produced water re-injection is widely observed in North Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Campos Basin fields. The formation damage occurs mainly due to the deposition of suspended solids around injectors and the build-up the external filter cakes in the well...... injectivity decline during water flooding is proposed. The deep bed filtration is described by novel stochastic random walk equations. The injectivity decline model takes into account the reservoir heterogeneity and the distribution of solid particles by sizes. It also accounts for the later formation...

  20. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  1. Utilization of carbon dioxide for improving the performance of waterflooding in heavy oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasehi Araghi, Majid

    For several years, heavy oil reserves of Western Canada, which are amongst the largest in the world and total more than 5 billion m 3, have been under waterflooding and oil has been produced at very high water-oil-ratios. Despite its shortcomings, waterflooding has been employed because it is relatively a low cost process and is easier to operate compared to other techniques. In many cases waterflooding has been the only easy and low risk option due to the reservoir conditions which have made it impossible for any enhanced oil recovery techniques to be employed. Heavy oil waterflooding is always associated with low recoveries and poor efficiencies and therefore, there is a need for improving the performance of heavy oil waterflooding. Due to its favourable effects, CO2 injection has been accepted in the industry as an effective method of recovery for light to medium oils. But due to the immiscible nature of CO2 and heavy oil, CO 2 injection has not been looked at as a method of recovery improvement in heavy oil reserves of Western Canada. CO2 is highly soluble in both water and oil and therefore, it might be possible to improve the overall heavy oil waterflooding recoveries of these reserves by the utilization of CO2. This study consists of twelve core flood tests designed to investigate the effects of CO2 utilization on improving the performance of waterflooding in heavy oil recovery. Two injection methods are used; 1) injection of a slug of 10 to 25% pore volume of CO2 followed by a soak period and then waterflooding, and 2) injection of carbonated water which is prepared by dissolving CO2 in 1% wt. NaCl brine. Experiments were performed at temperatures of 30°C, and at pressures of 500 and 1000 psi. Water injection rates of 1 to 50 ft/day were used to recover heavy oils of 1000 to 2000 cp viscosities. The results show that, CO2 can be effectively used to make significant improvements in the overall recovery of heavy oil by waterflooding. Post CO2 waterfloodings

  2. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the third year of the project on Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance. This project is funded under the Department of Energy`s Class I program which is targeted towards improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in fluvially dominated deltaic geological environments. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The preliminary results look promising from the field implementation. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage I) has increased by 35 bbls/day with additional increase anticipated with further implementation. Based on our understanding of the first stage, we hope to examine a greater area of the Glenn Pool field for additional increase in production. We have collected available core and log data and have finished the initial geological description. Although not a direct part of this project, we also have initiated a 3-D seismic survey of the area which should help us in improving the reservoir description.

  3. The Status and Prospects of Enhancing Oil Recovery Technology for Waterflooding Oilfields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Pingping; Yuan Shiyi

    1994-01-01

    @@ The water injection method has been used in most of oilfields in China even at the beginning of development, meanwhile the laboratory research on enhancing oil recovery (EOR) for these oilfields simultareously started too. Oilfields developed in 1960's have mostly been at a high watercut stage since 1990.Tasks in face of petroleum reservoir engineers are on the one hand, further improving recovery of waterflooding by integrated adjustments such as infill well drilling, water/oil ratio controlling, injection profile adjusting, etc. On the other hand, EOR techniques for waterflooding oilfields must be studied and applied to improve mostly the potential of underground resources and to increase recoverable reserves.

  4. Induced migration of fines during waterflooding in communicating layer-cake reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fines migration induced by injection of water with a different salinity than the reservoir brine are incorporated into the upscaling model for waterflooding in a layer cake reservoir with good communication between the layers. Mobilization and re-capturing of the reservoir fines ma...

  5. Design and implementation of a CO{sub 2} flood utilizing advanced reservoir characterization and horizontal injection wells in a shallow shelf carbonate approaching waterflood depletion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wier, D.R.

    1995-09-01

    The first objective is to utilize reservoir characterization and advanced technologies to optimize the design of a CO{sub 2} project for the South Cowden Unit (SCU) located in Ector County, Texas. The SCU is a mature, relatively small, shallow shelf carbonate unit nearing waterflood depletion. The second objective is to demonstrate the performance and economic viability of the project in the field. The work reported here is on the reservoir characterization and project design objective. This objective is scheduled to be completed in early 1996 at which time work on the field demonstration phase is scheduled to begin.

  6. Effects of sonication radiation on oil recovery by ultrasonic waves stimulated water-flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Erfan; Junin, Radzuan; Rahmani, Omeid; Idris, Ahmad Kamal

    2013-02-01

    Due to partial understanding of mechanisms involved in application of ultrasonic waves as enhanced oil recovery method, series of straight (normal), and ultrasonic stimulated water-flooding experiments were conducted on a long unconsolidated sand pack using ultrasonic transducers. Kerosene, vaseline, and SAE-10 (engine oil) were used as non-wet phase in the system. In addition, a series of fluid flow and temperature rise experiments were conducted using ultrasonic bath in order to enhance the understanding about contributing mechanisms. 3-16% increase in the recovery of water-flooding was observed. Emulsification, viscosity reduction, and cavitation were identified as contributing mechanisms. The findings of this study are expected to increase the insight to involving mechanisms which lead to improving the recovery of oil as a result of application of ultrasound waves.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of dimensionless parameters for physical simulation of water-flooding reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yuhu; LI Jiachun; ZHOU Jifu

    2005-01-01

    A numerical approach to optimize dimensionless parameters of water-flooding porous media flows is proposed based on the analysis of the sensitivity factor defined as the variation ration of a target function with respect to the variation of dimensionless parameters. A complete set of scaling criteria for water-flooding reservoir of five-spot well pattern case is derived from the 3-D governing equations, involving the gravitational force,the capillary force and the compressibility of water, oil and rock. By using this approach,we have estimated the influences of each dimensionless parameter on experimental results, and thus sorting out the dominant ones with larger sensitivity factors ranging from 10-4 to 100.

  8. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through Improved Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Koerner, R.; Moos D.; Nguyen, J.; Phillips, C.; Tagbor, K.; Walker, S.

    1999-04-05

    This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate.

  9. B-SPLINE-BASED SVM MODEL AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO OIL WATER-FLOODED STATUS IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Fuhua; Zhao Tiejun; Yi Xiongying

    2007-01-01

    A method of B-spline transform for signal feature extraction is developed. With the B-spline,the log-signal space is mapped into the vector space. An efficient algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to automatically identify the water-flooded status of oil-saturated stratum is described.The experiments show that this algorithm can improve the performances for the identification and the generalization in the case of a limited set of samples.

  10. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    Six tasks are reported on: geological and engineering study of the DOE-Kewanee polymer-augmented waterflood, review of polymer injection program in this field, evaluation of results of polymer-augmented waterflood in this field, review of geological and engineering characteristics of oil fields now in waterflood as candidates for polymer augmentation, review of fields currently under primary production, and determination of ranges of future increased oil production from the polymer-water process in the project area.

  11. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  12. INCREASING WATERFLOOD RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH IMPROVED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Walker; Chris Phillips; Roy Koerner; Don Clarke; Dan Moos; Kwasi Tagbor

    2002-02-28

    This project increased recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project. This project used advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three-dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturated sands was stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as a short radius redrill candidate. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  13. Increasing Waterflood Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Reservoir Characterization and Reservoir Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Phillips; Dan Moos; Don Clarke; John Nguyen; Kwasi Tagbor; Roy Koerner; Scott Walker

    1997-04-10

    This project is intended to increase recoverable waterflood reserves in slope and basin reservoirs through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. The particular application of this project is in portions of Fault Blocks IV and V of the Wilmington Oil Field, in Long Beach, California, but the approach is widely applicable in slope and basin reservoirs. Transferring technology so that it can be applied in other sections of the Wilmington Field and by operators in other slope and basin reservoirs is a primary component of the project.

  14. Waterflooding performance using Dykstra-Parsons as compared with numerical model performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mobarak, S.

    1975-01-01

    Multilayered models have been used by a number of investigators to represent heterogeneous reservoirs. The purpose of this note is to present waterflood performance for multilayered systems using the standard Dykstra-Parsons method as method as compared with that predicted by the modified form using equations given and those obtained by using a numerical model. The predicted oil recovery, using Johnson charts or the standard Dykstra-Parsons recovery modulus chart is always conservative, if not overly pessimistic. The modified Dykstra-Parsons method, as explained in the text, shows good agreement with the numerical model.

  15. Effect of Pore-Scale Heterogeneity and Capillary-Viscous Fingering on Commingled Waterflood Oil Recovery in Stratified Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad W. Al-Shalabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil recovery prediction and field pilot implements require basic understanding and estimation of displacement efficiency. Corefloods and glass micromodels are two of the commonly used experimental methods to achieve this. In this paper, waterflood recovery is investigated using layered etched glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs with large permeability contrasts. This study focuses mainly on the effect of permeability (heterogeneity in stratified porous media with no cross-flow. Three experimental setups were designed to represent uniformly stratified oil reservoir with vertical discontinuity in permeability. Waterflood recovery to residual oil saturation (Sor is measured through glass micromodel (to aid visual observation, linear coreflood, and forced drainage-imbibition processes by ultracentrifuge. Six oil samples of low-to-medium viscosity and porous media of widely different permeability (darcy and millidarcy ranges were chosen for the study. The results showed that waterflood displacement efficiencies are consistent in both permeability ranges, namely, glass micromodel and Berea sandstone core plugs. Interestingly, the experimental results show that the low permeability zones resulted in higher ultimate oil recovery compared to high permeability zones. At Sor microheterogeneity and fingering are attributed for this phenomenon. In light of the findings, conformance control is discussed for better sweep efficiency. This paper may be of help to field operators to gain more insight into microheterogeneity and fingering phenomena and their impact on waterflood recovery estimation.

  16. Study about Interpretation Models and Algorithm of Water-Flooded Formation Based on Resistivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYinghui; TANDehui; WANGQiongfang; CAIHongjie

    2005-01-01

    Many oil fields are developed by water injection in the world, it's difficult to interpret by welllogging information. EPT and C/O identify residual oil saturation or moveable oil, but they are only fit for oil-reservoir with porosity over 20%, and not for borehole. Additionally, Archie model is not completely fit for dynamic but the static oil-reservoir. Therefore, it's more difficult for WF (Water-flooded) oil-zone (dynamic oil-reservoir) with LPP (Low porosity and low permeability) to be interpreted. Resistivity logging series are the dominating tools to WF formation, so it becomes significantly important to research new interpretation models and algorithm based on resistivity well-logging for WF oil-zone with LPP. A set of new interpretation models for WFZ (Water flooded zone) are established according to the “U” type curve from experimentation, as well as according to mathematics analysis. The notable Archie model is only one case of these new models under special conditions. It is most important that these new models are all fit from exploration stage to development stage in oil field. At last, algorithm process and application result of these models are described.

  17. Study and application on the evaluation method of porous formation for long-term waterflooding sand reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Changjiang; Jiang Hanqiao; Chen Minfeng; Geng Zhanli; Liu Pengfei

    2009-01-01

    Nine targets which stand both for the static characteristic of produced formations and the dynamic parameter of wells including the average permeability, variation coefficient of permeability, moving capability, remaining recoverable reserves, coefficient of flooding, daily oil production, increasing rate of water cut, cumulative liquid production per unit meter and efficiency index of oil production are selected as the evaluation indexes, a novel model to evaluate the porous formations in long-term waterflooding sand reservoir was established by using the support vector machine and clustering analysis. Data of 57 wefts from Shentuo 21 block Shengli oilfield was analyzed by using the model. Four kinds of forma-tion groups were gained. According to the analysis result, different adjustment solutions were put forward to develop the relevant formations. The Monthly oil production increased 7.6 % and the water cut decreased 8.9 % after the adjusted solutions. Good results indicate that the learning from this method gained will be valuable adding to other long-term wa-terflooding sand reservoirs in Shengli oilfield and other similar reservoirs worldwide.

  18. Post Waterflood CO2 Miscible Flood in Light Oil, Fluvial-Dominated Deltaic Reservoir (Pre-Work and Project Proposal), Class I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bou-Mikael, Sami

    2002-02-05

    This project outlines a proposal to improve the recovery of light oil from waterflooded fluvial dominated deltaic (FDD) reservoir through a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) flood. The site is the Port Neches Field in Orange County, Texas. The field is well explored and well exploited. The project area is 270 acres within the Port Neches Field.

  19. Assessment of potential increased oil production by polymer-waterflood in northern and southern mid-continent oil fields. Progress report for the quarter ending September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-15

    Activities in programs to conduct polymer-waterflood studies are reported. During the period a study was conducted of the Burbank-Bartlesville sand reservoir, located in the north half of the Stanley Stringer Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. Progress in the overall program is summarized in a chart. (JRD)

  20. Theoretical eduction and numerical simulation researches on the relationship between resistivity and water saturation of waterflood oil zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the process of water displacing oil,the relationship between resistivity and water saturation is the fundament of the quantitative research on the waterflooded grade and the remaining oil saturation with well logging data. A large number of core analysis data and production data are cumulated in the process of oil field exploitation,which offers the basis for the above research. This paper educed two methods from the Archie equation and material balance theory to calculate the quantitative relationships between Rz and Sw,and between Rt and Sw. The relationships set up by the two methods are similar to those set up by the real core measurements. The results can be used to analyze influencing factors and determine saturation quantitatively.

  1. Caustic waterflooding demonstration project: Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Third annual report, June 1978-May 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.

    1979-12-01

    A caustic-enhanced waterflooding pilot test is being conducted in the Ranger Reservoir of the Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Evaluation of entrapment and entrainment caustic flooding in Ranger Zone cores was continued. The caustic-only (entrapment) core floods failed to demonstrate improved behavior. Based on the unfavorable results of all tests of the entrapment mechanism, further laboratory work and flooding in the pilot with caustic alone have been eliminated from the project's plans. Some of the year's caustic-salt (entrainment) core floods in contrast showed both substantial recovery and WOR improvement. The poorer overall entrainment core flood results obtained in the year may be due to the core material, a smaller preflush volume used or the crude oil employed. Core flood testing where sodium silicate is substituted for some of the sodium hydroxide, was continued. The primary set of caustic water-oil dehydration tests was completed. The test softening of produced waters was completed and the results evaluated; produced water softening was found to be an economically feasible alternative to the use of fresh water. The preflush injection facilities became operational in January 1979 with the pilot's preflush officially begun April 15, 1979. The alkaline injection facility was expanded in scope to permit use of both sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide; its completion in late 1979 is anticipated with the alkaline-salt injection scheduled to begin at that time. The base case reservoir simulator prediction of the pilot under continued waterflooding was completed. This prediction provided the base line from which incremental alkaline flood production will be determined, as the test has now been declared a qualified tertiary enhanced recovery project by DOE's Economic Regulatory Administration. Major well repair/redrill work continued to be necessary exceeding earlier increased cost estimates.

  2. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico--waterflood performance analysis for the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    A reservoir engineering study was conducted of waterflood performance in the South Cowden field, an Upper Permian Grayburg reservoir on the Central Basin Platform in West Texas. The study was undertaken to understand the historically poor waterflood performance, evaluate three techniques for incorporating petrophysical measurements and geological interpretation into heterogeneous reservoir models, and identify issues in heterogeneity modeling and fluid-flow scaleup that require further research. The approach included analysis of relative permeability data, analysis of injection and production data, heterogeneity modeling, and waterflood simulation. The poor South Cowden waterflood recovery is due, in part, to completion of wells in only the top half of the formation. Recompletion of wells through the entire formation is estimated to improve recovery in ten years by 6 percent of the original oil in place in some areas of the field. A direct three-dimensional stochastic approach to heterogeneity modeling produced the best fit to waterflood performance and injectivity, but a more conventional model based on smooth mapping of layer-averaged properties was almost as good. The results reaffirm the importance of large-scale heterogeneities in waterflood modeling but demonstrate only a slight advantage for stochastic modeling at this scale. All the flow simulations required a reduction to the measured whole-core k{sub v}/k{sub h} to explain waterflood behavior, suggesting the presence of barriers to vertical flow not explicitly accounted for in any of the heterogeneity models. They also required modifications to the measured steady-state relative permeabilities, suggesting the importance of small-scale heterogeneities and scaleup. Vertical flow barriers, small-scale heterogeneity modeling, and relative permeability scaleup require additional research for waterflood performance prediction in reservoirs like South Cowden.

  3. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A CO2 FLOOD UTILIZING ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND HORIZONTAL INJECTION WELLS IN A SHALLOW SHELF CARBONATE APPROACHING WATERFLOOD DEPLETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.J. Harpole; Ed G. Durrett; Susan Snow; J.S. Bles; Carlon Robertson; C.D. Caldwell; D.J. Harms; R.L. King; B.A. Baldwin; D. Wegener; M. Navarrette

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO{sub 2} horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields. The Unit was a mature waterflood with water cut exceeding 95%. Oil must be mobilized through the use of a miscible or near-miscible fluid to recover significant additional reserves. Also, because the unit was relatively small, it did not have the benefit of economies of scale inherent in normal larger scale projects. Thus, new and innovative methods were required to reduce investment and operating costs. Two primary methods used to accomplish improved economics were use of reservoir characterization to restrict the flood to the higher quality rock in the unit and use of horizontal injection wells to cut investment and operating costs. The project consisted of two budget phases. Budget Phase I started in June 1994 and ended late June 1996. In this phase Reservoir Analysis, Characterization Tasks and Advanced Technology Definition Tasks were completed. Completion enabled the project to be designed, evaluated, and an Authority for Expenditure (AFE) for project implementation submitted to working interest owners for approval. Budget Phase II consisted of the implementation and execution of the project in the field. Phase II was completed in July 2001. Performance monitoring, during Phase II, by mid 1998 identified the majority of producing wells which under performed their anticipated withdrawal rates. Newly drilled and re-activated wells had lower offtake rates than originally forecasted. As a result of poor offtake, higher reservoir pressure was a concern

  4. Zeta potential in oil-water-carbonate systems and its impact on oil recovery during controlled salinity water-flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew D.; Al-Mahrouqi, Dawoud; Vinogradov, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laboratory experiments and field trials have shown that oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs can be increased by modifying the brine composition injected during recovery in a process termed controlled salinity water-flooding (CSW). However, CSW remains poorly understood and there is no method to predict the optimum CSW composition. This work demonstrates for the first time that improved oil recovery (IOR) during CSW is strongly correlated to changes in zeta potential at both the mineral-water and oil-water interfaces. We report experiments in which IOR during CSW occurs only when the change in brine composition induces a repulsive electrostatic force between the oil-brine and mineral-brine interfaces. The polarity of the zeta potential at both interfaces must be determined when designing the optimum CSW composition. A new experimental method is presented that allows this. Results also show for the first time that the zeta potential at the oil-water interface may be positive at conditions relevant to carbonate reservoirs. A key challenge for any model of CSW is to explain why IOR is not always observed. Here we suggest that failures using the conventional (dilution) approach to CSW may have been caused by a positively charged oil-water interface that had not been identified.

  5. Simulating secondary waterflooding in heterogeneous rocks with variable wettability using an image-based, multiscale pore network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultreys, Tom; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-09-01

    The two-phase flow properties of natural rocks depend strongly on their pore structure and wettability, both of which are often heterogeneous throughout the rock. To better understand and predict these properties, image-based models are being developed. Resulting simulations are however problematic in several important classes of rocks with broad pore-size distributions. We present a new multiscale pore network model to simulate secondary waterflooding in these rocks, which may undergo wettability alteration after primary drainage. This novel approach permits to include the effect of microporosity on the imbibition sequence without the need to describe each individual micropore. Instead, we show that fluid transport through unresolved pores can be taken into account in an upscaled fashion, by the inclusion of symbolic links between macropores, resulting in strongly decreased computational demands. Rules to describe the behavior of these links in the quasistatic invasion sequence are derived from percolation theory. The model is validated by comparison to a fully detailed network representation, which takes each separate micropore into account. Strongly and weakly water-and oil-wet simulations show good results, as do mixed-wettability scenarios with different pore-scale wettability distributions. We also show simulations on a network extracted from a micro-CT scan of Estaillades limestone, which yields good agreement with water-wet and mixed-wet experimental results.

  6. Optimizing Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Autogenous arteriovenous fistulas are the preferred vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Increasing fistula prevalence depends on increasing fistula placement, improving the maturation of fistula that fail to mature and enhancing the long-term patency of mature fistula. Percutaneous methods for optimizing arteriovenous fistula maturation will be reviewed.

  7. Using laboratory flow experiments and reactive chemical transport modeling for designing waterflooding of the Agua Fria Reservoir, Poza Rica-Altamira Field, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkle, P.; Pruess, K.; Xu, T.; Figueroa, R.A. Hernandez; Lopez, M. Diaz; Lopez, E. Contreras

    2008-10-01

    Waterflooding for enhanced oil recovery requires that injected waters must be chemically compatible with connate reservoir waters, in order to avoid mineral dissolution-and-precipitation cycles that could seriously degrade formation permeability and injectivity. Formation plugging is a concern especially in reservoirs with a large content of carbonates, such as calcite and dolomite, as such minerals typically react rapidly with an aqueous phase, and have strongly temperature-dependent solubility. Clay swelling can also pose problems. During a preliminary waterflooding pilot project, the Poza Rica-Altamira oil field, bordering the Gulf coast in the eastern part of Mexico, experienced injectivity loss after five months of reinjection of formation waters into well AF-847 in 1999. Acidizing with HCl restored injectivity. We report on laboratory experiments and reactive chemistry modeling studies that were undertaken in preparation for long-term waterflooding at Agua Frma. Using analogous core plugs obtained from the same reservoir interval, laboratory coreflood experiments were conducted to examine sensitivity of mineral dissolution and precipitation effects to water composition. Native reservoir water, chemically altered waters, and distilled water were used, and temporal changes in core permeability, mineral abundances and aqueous concentrations of solutes were monitored. The experiments were simulated with the multi-phase, nonisothermal reactive transport code TOUGHREACT, and reasonable to good agreement was obtained for changes in solute concentrations. Clay swelling caused an additional impact on permeability behavior during coreflood experiments, whereas the modeled permeability depends exclusively on chemical processes. TOUGHREACT was then used for reservoir-scale simulation of injecting ambient-temperature water (30 C, 86 F) into a reservoir with initial temperature of 80 C (176 F). Untreated native reservoir water was found to cause serious porosity and

  8. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  9. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  10. The Utilization of the Microflora Indigenous to and Present in Oil-Bearing Formations to Selectively Plug the More Porous Zones Thereby Increasing Oil Recovery During Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Lewis R.; Stephens, James O.; Vadie, Alex A.

    1999-11-03

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the use of indigenous microbes as a method of profile control in waterfloods. It is expected that as the microbial population is induced to increase, that the expanded biomass will selectively block the more permeable zones of the reservoir thereby forcing injection water to flow through the less permeable zones which will result in improved sweep efficiency. This increase in microbial population will be accomplished by injecting a nutrient solution into four injectors. Four other injectors will act as control wells. During Phase I, two wells will be cored through the zone of interest. The core will be subjected to special core analyses in order to arrive at the optimum nutrient formulation. During Phase II, nutrient injection will begin, the results monitored, and adjustments to the nutrient composition made, if necessary. Phase II also will include the drilling of three wells for post-mortem core analysis. Phase III will focus on technology transfer of the results. It should be pointed out that one expected outcome of this new technology will be a prolongation of economical waterflooding operations, i.e. economical oil recovery should continue for much longer periods in the producing wells subjected to this selective plugging technique.

  11. Increasing waterflood reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through improved reservoir characterization and reservoir management. Annual report, March 21, 1995--March 20, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, D.; Clarke, D.; Walker, S.; Phillips, C.; Nguyen, J.; Moos, D.; Tagbor, K.

    1997-08-01

    This project uses advanced reservoir characterization tools, including the pulsed acoustic cased-hole logging tool, geologic three- dimensional (3-D) modeling software, and commercially available reservoir management software to identify sands with remaining high oil saturation following waterflood. Production from the identified high oil saturation sands will be stimulated by recompleting existing production and injection wells in these sands using conventional means as well as short radius and ultra-short radius laterals. Although these reservoirs have been waterflooded over 40 years, researchers have found areas of remaining oil saturation. Areas such as the top sand in the Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the western fault slivers of Upper Terminal Zone Fault Block V, the bottom sands of the Tar Zone Fault Block V, and the eastern edge of Fault Block IV in both the Upper Terminal and Lower Terminal Zones all show significant remaining oil saturation. Each area of interest was uncovered emphasizing a different type of reservoir characterization technique or practice. This was not the original strategy but was necessitated by the different levels of progress in each of the project activities.

  12. 陕北LFP油田注水开发效果分析%Waterflooding effect analysis of the LFP oilfield in the northern part of Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪荆晶; 邓媛; 王海军; 吴汉宁

    2011-01-01

    The LFP oilfield in the Ordos basin is rich in oil and gas,under the premise of low porosity and low permeability reservoir,waterflooding technique has adopted to improve the extraction percentage.We analyze waterflooding technique applications and effects in the main layers of this field,meanwhile,make contrastive analysis between exploration achievements and exploitation materials to Chang1 layer,thus to put forward corresponding suggestions of these layers to improve the extraction percentage in this oil field.This article is an exploration for comprehensive analysis by combinating exploration achievements and exploitation materials.%鄂尔多斯盆地LFP区块中生代油藏油气资源较丰富,在低孔、低渗的前提下为提高采收率采用了注水开发技术。本文对该区各主要层段的注水开发应用状态及效果进行了分析,同时从勘探成果与开发资料进行对比分析的角度针对各层的特点提出了相应的调整建议。本文是用勘探与开发资料进行综合分析的一个探索。

  13. Optimization of supplementary recovery projects for mature fields; Otimizacao de projetos de recuperacao suplementar para campos com alto grau de explotacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsili, Marcelo D.; Castineira, Paula P.; Couto, Paulo; Sa Neto, Abelardo de; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. Ferreira Filho [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    Development of mature oil fields has been a key issue in a world scenario of high crude oil prices, declining reserves and political instability in the main producing regions. This paper proposes a discussion about different secondary recovery projects for a hypothetical mature field subjected to water injection into the reservoir. The reservoir model was built using a numeric black oil simulator, taking into account several heterogeneities associated to real reservoirs, thus being able to predict near-realistic performances. The model was implemented and it was simulated a primary production for 11 years under solution gas drive and weak water influx and gas cap drive mechanisms. During the course of production, reservoir pressure decreased substantially. Five waterflooding projects were suggested as a remedy to restore the reservoir pressure and well productivities. Results were obtained by numerical simulation and compared by the net present value (NPV) economic criteria of project analysis. After the simulation of 36 years of production considering waterflooding, the most attractive project proved to be the five-spot pattern, with a 40% estimated oil recovery and 60 million dollars NPV for a fixed crude oil price of 70 dollars per barrel. (author)

  14. Well logging evaluation of water-flooded layers and distribution rule of remaining oil in marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield in the Pearl River Mouth basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiongyan; Qin, Ruibao; Gao, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongjun

    2017-03-01

    In the marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield the water cut is up to 98%, while the recovery factor is only 35%. Additionally, the distribution of the remaining oil is very scattered. In order to effectively assess the potential of the remaining oil, the logging evaluation of the water-flooded layers and the distribution rule of the remaining oil are studied. Based on the log response characteristics, the water-flooded layers can be qualitatively identified. On the basis of the mercury injection experimental data of the evaluation wells, the calculation model of the initial oil saturation is built. Based on conventional logging data, the evaluation model of oil saturation is established. The difference between the initial oil saturation and the residual oil saturation can be used to quantitatively evaluate the water-flooded layers. The evaluation result of the water-flooded layers is combined with the ratio of the water-flooded wells in the marine sandstone reservoirs. As a result, the degree of water flooding in the marine sandstone reservoirs can be assessed. On the basis of structural characteristics and sedimentary environments, the horizontal and vertical water-flooding rules of the different types of reservoirs are elaborated upon, and the distribution rule of the remaining oil is disclosed. The remaining oil is mainly distributed in the high parts of the structure. The remaining oil exists in the top of the reservoirs with good physical properties while the thickness of the remaining oil ranges from 2–5 m. However, the thickness of the remaining oil of the reservoirs with poor physical properties ranges from 5–8 m. The high production of some of the drilled horizontal wells shows that the above distribution rule of the remaining oil is accurate. In the marine sandstone reservoirs of the M oilfield, the research on the well logging evaluation of the water-flooded layers and the distribution rule of the remaining oil has great practical significance

  15. Audit Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model –the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.

  16. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  17. Pilot demonstration of enhanced oil recovery by micellar polymer waterflooding: phase A. Quarterly report for the 1st quarter 1977. [Wilmington oil field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, J.E.; Staub, H.L.

    1977-04-15

    A micellar-polymer tertiary waterflood project is underway in the HXa sand, Fault Block VB, Wilmington Oil Field. All tasks in Phase A, with the exception of Task No. 5, have been successfully finalized. Because Task No. 5, sulfonation of a Wilmington crude feedstock, was an integral part of the subjects to be resolved under Phase A, Decision Point No. 1 must be delayed several months. Marathon was unable to schedule sulfonation of Wilmington feedstocks but is now conducting bench sulfonation of Wilmington feedstocks and has called upon Witco and Stepan to prepare Wilmington sulfonates in their pilot plants. Flood tests and polymer adsorbtion-degradation tests were performed on old core material from the Upper Terminal sand need to be repeated on fresh core samples from the well to be drilled for the mini-injectivity test. (DLC)

  18. Comparison of bacterial community in aqueous and oil phases of water-flooded petroleum reservoirs using pyrosequencing and clone library approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ying; Ke, Wen-Ji; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial communities in both aqueous and oil phases of water-flooded petroleum reservoirs were characterized by molecular analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes obtained from Shengli Oil Field using DNA pyrosequencing and gene clone library approaches. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from the aqueous and oil phases and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification with primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The analysis by these two methods showed that there was a large difference in bacterial diversity between the aqueous and oil phases of the reservoir fluids, especially in the reservoirs with lower water cut. At a high phylogenetic level, the predominant bacteria detected by these two approaches were identical. However, pyrosequencing allowed the detection of more rare bacterial species than the clone library method. Statistical analysis showed that the diversity of the bacterial community of the aqueous phase was lower than that of the oil phase. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vast majority of sequences detected in the water phase were from members of the genus Arcobacter within the Epsilonproteobacteria, which is capable of degrading the intermediates of hydrocarbon degradation such as acetate. The oil phase of reservoir fluid samples was dominated by members of the genus Pseudomonas within the Gammaproteobacteria and the genus Sphingomonas within the Alphaproteobacteria, which have the ability to degrade crude oil through adherence to hydrocarbons under aerobic conditions. In addition, many anaerobes that could degrade the component of crude oil were also found in the oil phase of reservoir fluids, mainly in the reservoir with lower water cut. These were represented by Desulfovibrio spp., Thermodesulfovibrio spp., Thermodesulforhabdus spp., Thermotoga spp., and Thermoanaerobacterium spp. This research suggested that simultaneous analysis of DNA extracted from both aqueous and oil phases can facilitate a better understanding of the

  19. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...

  20. The School Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    PŠENIČKOVÁ, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with school maturity of children and is aimed at pre-school children at the age of 6 years or, if necessary, older. The aim of this thesis is to capture the differences between children who start a year later than they were supposed to and children who went to enrolment for the first time and present the reasons for postponing the start of the school attendance. The theoretical part focuses on the issue of maturity of pre-school children and also deals with their rea...

  1. 濮城油田水淹层饱和度计算参数研究%On Water-flooded Layer Saturation Calculating Parameter in Pucheng Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申梅英; 谭海芳

    2013-01-01

    为计算濮城油田水淹层的剩余油饱和度,对其主要水淹层段各项测井资料进行了分析研究.在利用自然伽马测井资料确定自然电位扩散吸附系数,应用RFT压力资料计算过滤电位的基础上,利用常规测井资料建立了濮城油田水淹层混合地层水电阻率计算模型,确定了合理的参数.实验分析表明,在濮城油田水淹层矿化度较高的情况下,计算水淹层剩余油饱和度所需的胶结指数m、饱和度指数n参数基本稳定.水驱油对储层的物性有小幅度改善,继续使用阿尔奇公式计算饱和度是可行的.依据该方法对岩心资料计算出的含水饱和度与岩心分析数据十分接近,说明该方法选取的参数符合地层实际情况.%To accurately calculate the residual-oil saturation of Pucheng oilfield, we research and analyze the log data of its main water-flooded zones. GR well log data is used to calculate SP diffusion coefficient, and filtration potential is determined by RFT log data. We establish the calculating models of mixed water resistivity using conventional logging data, and determine the reasonable model parameters. Experimental analyzes indicate that in the high salinity water-flooded layer of Pucheng oilfield, the cementation factor m and saturation exponent n are basically stable which is essential in calculating residual-oil saturation. Displacement of oil by water could improve reservoir physical properties in a small extent. It is feasible to calculate saturation with Archie equation as before. The result using this method to calculate saturation of core data is close to the core analysis data. It is proved that the chosen parameters in this method are fit to the Pucheng oilfield reservoir practical situation.

  2. Technology Maturity is Technology Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-09

    Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today 2 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE • ONE DEFINITION OF MATURITY – GOOD JUDGEMENT COMES FROM...EXPERIENCE—EXPERIENCE COMES FROM BAD JUDGEMENT Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today 3 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE • THIS WILL BE A...2008 TECHNOLOGY MATURITY CONFERENCE “ TECHNOLOGY MATURITY IS TECHNOLOGY SUPERIORITY” Aeronautical Systems Center Dr. Tom Christian ASC/EN, WPAFB OH

  3. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  4. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  5. Mechanics of bacteriophage maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Wouter H.; Gertsman, Ilya; May, Eric R.; Brooks III, Charles L.; Johnson, John E.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2012-01-01

    Capsid maturation with large-scale subunit reorganization occurs in virtually all viruses that use a motor to package nucleic acid into preformed particles. A variety of ensemble studies indicate that the particles gain greater stability during this process, however, it is unknown which material

  6. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  7. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  8. Comparison of microbial community compositions of injection and production well samples in a long-term water-flooded petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water.

  9. Maturity in technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alberts

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept is developed that modern technology, because of its relationship with pure science, can never really become mature, but will always grow as the pool of scientific knowledge grows. Parameters indicating to some extent the degree of technological prowess in a society are compared for a spectrum of countries. It is clear that in spite of some internationally outstanding successes. South Africa must be regarded on average as a developing society.

  10. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    of understanding of the potential impact of (a) choice of the quantitative approach, and (b) scale of measurement on the design and assessment of the maturity model. To address these two methodological issues, we analysed a social media maturity data set and computed maturity scores using different quantitative......This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack...

  11. Integrated approach towards the application of horizontal wells to improve waterflooding performance. Annual progress report, January 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelkar, M.; Liner, C.; Kerr, D.

    1997-01-01

    This annual report describes the progress during the fourth year of the project on {open_quotes}Integrated Approach Towards the Application of Horizontal Wells to Improve Waterflooding Performance{close_quotes}. The project involves using an integrated approach to characterize the reservoir followed by proposing an appropriate reservoir management strategy to improve the field performance. In the first stage of the project, the type of data we integrated include cross borehole seismic surveys, geological interpretation based on the logs and the cores, and the engineering information. In contrast, during the second stage of the project, we intend to use only conventional data to construct the reservoir description. This report covers the results of the implementation from the first stage of the project. It also discusses the work accomplished so far for the second stage of the project. The production from the Self Unit (location of Stage 1) has sustained an increase of 30 bbls/day over a year with an additional increase anticipated with further implementation. We have collected available core, log and production data from Section 16 in the Berryhill Glenn Unit and have finished the geological description. Based on the geological description and the associated petrophysical properties, we have developed a new indexing procedure for identifying the areas with the most potential. We are also investigating an adjoining tract formerly operated by Chevron where successful miceller-polymer flood was conducted. This will help us in evaluating the reasons for the success of the flood. Armed with this information, we will conduct a detailed geostatistical and flow simulation study and recommend the best reservoir management plan to improve the recovery of the field.

  12. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report for the period, January 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.; Vadie, A.

    1995-08-01

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of insitu indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding inorganic nutrients in the form of Potassium nitrate and orthophosphate, to the injection water. In Phase I, which has been completed, the following results were obtained. Two new wells were drilled in the field and live cores were recovered. Analyses of the cores proved that viable microorganisms were present and since no sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found, the area in which the wells were drilled, probably had not been impacted by injection water, since SRB were prevalent in fluids from most wells in the field. Laboratory waterflooding tests using live cores demonstrated that the rate of flow Of simulated production water through the core increased with time when used alone while the rate of flow decreased when nitrate and phosphate salts were added to the simulated production water. Since there is only a small amount of pressure on the influent, the simulated production water was not forced to sweep other areas of the core. The field demonstration (Phase II) involves adding nutrients to four injector wells and monitoring the surrounding producers. The exact kind and amounts of nutrients to be employed and the schedule for their injection were formulated on the basis of information obtained in the laboratory waterflooding tests conducted using the live cores from the field. Results obtained in these tests will not only be compared to historical data for the wells but also to four injectors and their corresponding producers (control) which were chosen for their similarity to the four test patterns.

  13. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  14. Maturational and Non-Maturational Factors in Heritage Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji Hye

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation aims to understand the maturational and non-maturational aspects of early bilingualism and language attrition in heritage speakers who have acquired their L1 incompletely in childhood. The study highlights the influential role of age and input dynamics in early L1 development, where the timing of reduction in L1 input and the…

  15. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Annual report, January 1, 1996--December 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L.R.; Vadie, A.A.

    1997-08-01

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones thereby diverting flow to other areas of the reservoir and thus increase the efficiency of the waterflooding operation. This effect is to be accomplished by adding microbial nutrients to the injection water. Work on the project is divided into three phases, Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the third year of work on the project. During Phase I, two wells were drilled in an area of the field where approximately twenty feet of Carter sand were found and appeared to contain oil bypassed by the existing waterflood. Cores from one well were obtained and used in laboratory core flood experiments. The schedule and amounts of nutrients to be employed in the field were formulated on the basis of the results from laboratory core flood experiments.

  16. 坪北油田特低渗透油藏超前注水探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of Advanced Waterflooding in Ultra-Low-Permeability Reservoirs of Pingbei Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽媛; 朱党辉; 祝俊山

    2012-01-01

    As an important technique for enhancing recovery ratio of low-permeability oilfield,advanced waterflooding has been widely applied to many oilfields in China and has achieved a good development effect.To increase proven deposits recovery and development effect in low-permeability oilfield,this paper,with the help of development experiences abroad and at home as well as from neighbor oilfields,explores reasonable technical parameters for advanced waterflooding favorable to geological features of Pingbei Oilfield and builds displacement pressure system to decrease damage on the stratum caused by start-up pressure gradient and medium deformation.In practice,it suggests using advanced waterflooding to keep desirable strata pressure,lessen the damage on reservoir permeability,lower water content and decline rate in oil production and improve ultimate recovery.%超前注水作为特低渗透油田提高采收率的一种重要的技术方法,在我国很多油田得到广泛的应用,并且都获得了良好的开发效果。为了提高特低渗透油田探明储量的采收率和开发效果,根据坪北油田的地质特点,借鉴国内外油田及邻近油田的开发经验,探索适合油田超前注水的合理技术参数,建立有效的驱替压力系统,在一定程度上减小启动压力梯度和介质变形对地层的伤害。利用超前注水保持合理的地层压力,降低对储层渗透率的伤害,降低油井投产后的含水率和递减率,提高最终采收率。

  17. RADIO NOISE ADVANCES SEXUAL MATURITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ansistf-lewis

    Supplementary radio noise advances sexual maturity in domestic pullets exposed .... non-stimulatory photoperiod in some way provides a stimulus for initiating rapid gonadal development. However, the ..... Congress, New Delhi, India. Vol II ...

  18. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  19. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  20. Comprehensive study on enhancing oil recovery in water-flooded gas well of Shenxi shallow gas reservoir%沈西浅层水淹气井提高采收率的综合研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 王凯

    2016-01-01

    沈西浅层气田处于开采后期,气藏地质条件复杂,水驱气藏产能降低,水淹气井采收率降低。根据水淹气井不同特点,分析产水状态及水淹主要因素,优选排水采气工艺技术措施,运用综合研究提高气藏采收率。%According to different characteristics of water-flooded gas well in Shenxi shallow gas reservoir, this paper analyses the status of water producing and the main factors of water flooding. Finally, the optimized drainage gas recovery measures are concluded and comprehensive study for enhancing gas reservoir recovery is used in this paper.

  1. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

  2. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity dates. 1421.101 Section 1421.101 Agriculture... Maturity dates. (a)(1) All marketing assistance loans shall mature on demand by CCC and no later than the... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date...

  3. Ribosome maturation in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silengo, L; Altruda, F; Dotto, G P; Lacquaniti, F; Perlo, C; Turco, E; Mangiarotti, G

    1977-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro experiments have shown that processing of ribosomal RNA is a late event in ribosome biogenesis. The precursor form of RNA is probably necessary to speed up the assembly of ribomal proteins. Newly formed ribosomal particles which have already entered polyribosomes differ from mature ribosomes not only in their RNA content but also in their susceptibility to unfolding in low Mg concentration and to RNase attack. Final maturation of new ribosomes is probably dependent on their functioning in protein synthesis. Thus only those ribosomes which have proven to be functional may be converted into stable cellular structures.

  4. Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan

    Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development, when applied to theories of teaching composition, support any method or material that refers to the age and prior experience of the writer and the newness of the task the writer is attempting. Rhetorical development and maturation in the ability to write and argue persuasively are partly conceptual…

  5. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...

  6. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  7. Human oocyte maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coticchio, Giovanni; Dal-Canto, Mariabeatrice; Guglielmo, Maria-Cristina; Mignini-Renzini, Mario; Fadini, Rubens

    2012-01-01

    Oocytes from medium-sized antral follicles have already completed their growth phase and, if released from the follicular environment and cultured in vitro, are able to resume the meiotic process and mature. However, in vitro maturation (IVM) does not entirely support all the nuclear and cytoplasmic changes that occur physiologically as an effect of the ovulatory stimulus. Regardless, oocyte IVM is widely applied for the breeding of agriculturally important species. In assisted reproduction technology, IVM has been proposed as an alternative treatment to circumvent the drawbacks of standard ovarian stimulation regimens. Initially introduced to eliminate the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome afflicting women presenting with polycystic ovaries, subsequently IVM has been suggested to represent an additional approach suitable also for normovulatory patients. So far, in children born from IVM cycles, no doubts of an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities have been raised. Many more births would be achieved if novel IVM systems, currently dominated by empiricism, could be conceived according to more physiological criteria. Recent findings shedding new light on the control of meiotic progression, the support of cumulus cells to the oocyte cellular reorganization occurring during maturation, and the modulation of the stimulus that promotes oocyte maturation downstream the mid-cycle gonadotropin signal are likely to provide crucial hints for the development of more efficient IVM systems.

  8. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM and the longitudinal analysis provides a benchmark for whether IS PMM has increased or not. This article focuses on whether certain knowledge areas are more of a problem within the IT industry and to determine what the overall IS PMM is. The longitudinal analysis indicates trends and highlights areas of concern. It indicates that most IT companies are still operating at level 3 and that risk and procurement management are the knowledge areas of concern. A comparative analysis indicates that there is no difference between South African and international maturity levels. The results provide a South African perspective of IS PMM. It highlights that risk management is still a knowledge area that is neglected and that emphasis must be placed on managing risk within IT projects.

  9. Green ICT Maturity Model for Czech SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Buchalcevova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design of a Green ICT maturity model that is aimed at maturity assessment of a Green ICT capability in SMEs that figure as users of ICT services. Based on a literature review and internet search, six maturity models in the Green ICT area were detected and further analysed. Since these maturity models do not suit maturity assessment in non-ICT SMEs, a new Green ICT maturity model for SMEs was developed. This paper introduces the process of model development, description of the resulted model and evaluation of the model.

  10. 严重非均质油藏注水开发流体动力地质作用%Hydrodynamic geology effect during the waterflooding of seriously heterogeneous reservoirs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中超; 陈洪德; 余成林; 杜利; 乔勇; 刘伟伟; 孙利

    2013-01-01

      针对东濮凹陷胡状集油田胡12块严重非均质油藏,采用室内实验对注水前后实际岩心样品进行对比分析,研究了注水开发过程中的流体动力地质作用.结果表明,酸性介质条件的化学动力作用加速了碎屑组分中的长石类矿物尤其是斜长石的溶蚀,同时生成了新的高岭石晶体并分布于细小孔喉,但对碳酸盐类矿物的影响较小.注水冲刷等物理动力地质作用造成了储集层泥质矿物总量的降低和粉砂—极细砂级石英颗粒的缺失,且主要发生在物性较好且优势渗流通道较发育的层段.在储集层孔喉变化方面,注水开发既使相对较大孔喉增加,改善了储集层的渗滤条件,也使孔喉分选程度降低,加剧了储集层微观非均质性.从储集层孔隙度、渗透率等宏观参数变化看,注水开发致使储集层总体平均有效孔隙度降低4.63%,而总体平均有效渗透率上升8.93%,原始物性不同的储集层注水后物性变化呈现出明显的“马太效应”.图7表3参15%Hu12 Block of the Huzhuangji Oilfield is a typical strongly heterogeneous reservoir. The hydrodynamic geology effect was studied by comparing experimental results of cores before and after waterflooding. The experimental results show that the chemical force of acidic medium accelerates the dissolution of plagioclase, generating new kaolinite crystals in small pore throats at the same time. The chemical force has less impact on carbonate minerals. The physical force of the injected water caused the reduction of the total content of argillaceous minerals and the loss of quartz grains of silt to very fine sizes, which occurred in layers with good physical properties and developed channeling paths. In terms of changes in pore-throats, waterflooding resulted in the increase of the large pore-throats and improvement of percolation conditions, also gives rise to the reduction of pore throat sorting and

  11. PLM Maturity Evaluation and Prediction Based on a Maturity Assessment and Fuzzy Sets Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiqing; Sekhari, Aicha; Ouzrout, Yacine; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    Part 8: Change Management and Maturity; International audience; Companies adopt PLM maturity models to evaluate PLM implementation and recognize relative positions in PLM selection to better harness PLM benefits. However, the majority traditional PLM maturity models are relative time-consuming and energy-consuming. This work focuses on proposing a fuzzy extended PCMA (PLM Components Maturity Assessment) maturity model to brightly evaluate the gradual process of PLM maturity accompaniment with...

  12. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  13. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  14. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Yurdun Kuyucu; Ozgul Tap

    2009-01-01

    Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf) follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted til...

  15. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models ch...

  16. Phenotype of normal hairline maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassman, William R; Pak, Jae P; Kim, Jino

    2013-08-01

    Hairlines change shape with age, starting at birth. A good head of hair is frequently present some time after ages 3 to 5 years. The look of childhood has its corresponding hairline, and, as the child grows and develops into adulthood, facial morphology migrate changes from a childlike look to a more mature look. This article discusses the dynamics of hairline evolution and the phenotypic variations of the front and side hairlines in men and women. A modeling system is introduced that provides a common language to define the various anatomic points of the full range of hairlines.

  17. [Arrest of maturation in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, S; Bellocci, M; Martini, M; Bruno, B; Moscardelli, S; Fabbrini, A; Properzi, G

    1982-07-30

    The ultrastructural aspects of the germinal epithelium of 10 infertile men affected by maturative arrest of spermatogenesis were studied. We noted an increased number of malformed germinal cells. Marginal nuclear vescicles were present in spermatogonia of patients affected by spermatogonial arrest. The few spermatid present in the germinal epithelium of the patients affected by a spermatidic arrest presented changes of the nuclear condensation, the acrosome, and the tail. The Sertoli cells presented an immature aspect of the nucleus and changes of the "mantle". A possible correlation between the Sertoli cells changes and the altered spermatogenesis was proposed.

  18. Technology maturity and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    All of the work reported in the preceding chapters was performed in order to assess the technical, economic, and energetic feasibility of proceeding with more detailed studies of the geopressured geothermal resource. The preliminary conceptual design and costing activities represented the prime activity for component by component review of the maturity of the technology available for resource utilization facilities. The economics and energetics studies focussed attentions on the areas of major capital and energy investment; these results comprise a useful guide for focussing design in order to reduce initial and operations and maintenance costs and/or investment. The following presents a discussion of the primary technical problems identified.

  19. Validation of endoscopy for determination of maturity in small salmonids and sex of mature individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erica A. Swenson; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Philip J. Howell

    2007-01-01

    Fish maturity status, sex ratio, and age and size at first maturity are important parameters in population assessments and life history studies. In most empirical studies of these variables, fish are sacrificed and dissected to obtain data. However, maturity status and the sex of mature individuals can be determined by inserting an endoscope through a small incision in...

  20. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... of maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...

  1. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  2. Oocyte Maturation Process and Affecting Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdun Kuyucu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal female fertility depends on normally occuring oogenesis and maturation progress. Oogenesis and folliculogenesis are different progresses but occure in a harmony and at the same time. Oogenesis includes the events that take place matur ovum produced from primordial germ cells. Although folliculogenesis includes the stages primordial, primary, secondary, matur (Graaf follicules in the influece of gonadotropines and local growth factors. During oocyte maturation meiosis is distrupted till the puberty. Under LH influence it starts again and first meiosis completes before ovulation. Oocyte maturation can be regarded as the process of coming metaphase II from prophase I of oocyte at the puberty and can be studied as nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. Meiosis is completed when fertilization occures and zygot is formed. In this article oogenesis, folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation process are summerized with related studies and reiews are revised. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(4.000: 227-240

  3. Mecobalamin promotes mouse sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, S; Ozaki, S; Ohkawa, I; Tajima, T; Kaneko, S; Mohri, H

    1989-01-01

    The effect of Mecobalamin (alpha-(5,6-dimethyl benzimidazolyl)-Co-methyl-cobamide: Me-B 12) on sperm production in the oligozoospermic mice experimentally induced by the treatment with adriamycin (0.3 mg/kg, three times a week for 5 weeks) was evaluated quantitatively by means of equilibrium sedimentation in Percoll. After centrifugation, the distribution profile of the sperm showed two peaks, i.e. the first peak near the bottom consisting of mature sperm with good motility and the second peak containing immature and/or immotile sperm. By oral administration of Me B 12 (1.0 mg/kg/day) to the oligozoospermic mice for 10 weeks, the sperm count, sperm motility, motile sperm count, diameter of seminiferous tubules and the percentage of good motile sperm with higher apparent density were increased as compared with those of the control. These results suggest that Me-B 12 enhanced the testicular function, resulting in an increased output of mature sperm.

  4. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Niknam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or systems engineering, there is no specific framework available to assess the degree of maturity of an organization towards CM. This paper focuses on revealing the important maturity dimensions and levels for CM as a means towards developing a CM maturity model.

  6. Seeking process maturity with DSDM atern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Peldžius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important for an organization to know what capability/maturity of the process a chosen methodology could ensure. This paper is focused on DSDM Atern process maturity by CMMI. The goal is to assess DSDM Atern by CMMI-DEV version 1.3 and propose the improvements to reach CMMI maturity level 3. A capability profile ensured by DSDM Atern has been obtained. The appraisal results showed that DSDM Atern ensures CMMI maturity level 2. Constraints and problematic areas of DSDM Atern methodology were discovered. In order to reach CMMI level 3 some recommendations for DSDM Atern additions were developed.

  7. The utilization of the microflora indigenous to and present in oil-bearing formations to selectively plug the more porous zones thereby increasing oil recovery during waterflooding. Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--December 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.O.

    1998-12-01

    This project is a field demonstration of the ability of in-situ indigenous microorganisms in the North Blowhorn Creek Oil Field to reduce the flow of injection water in the more permeable zones of the reservoir, thereby diverting flow to other areas thus increasing the efficiency of the waterflood. The project is divided into three phases: Planning and Analysis (9 months), Implementation (45 months), and Technology Transfer (12 months). This report covers the fourth year of work on the project. Twenty-two months after the injection of nutrients into the reservoir began, three wells were drilled and cores taken therefrom were analyzed. Oil production volumes and water:oil ratios (WOR) of produced fluids have shown clearly that the MEOR treatment being demonstrated in this project is improving oil recovery. Of the 15 producer wells in the test patterns, seven have responded positively to the injection of microbial nutrients into the reservoir, while all eight of the producer wells only in control patterns have continued their natural decline in oil production, although one well did have some improvement in oil production due to increased water injection into a nearby injector well. In light of these positive findings and with DOE`s approval, the scope of the field demonstration was expanded in July 1997 to include six new injector wells. Of interest has been the performance of two wells in what was formerly a control pattern. Since the injector in this pattern (formerly Control Pattern 2) began receiving nutrients, two of the wells in the pattern have shown improved oil production for the last three months. While it would be premature to definitely characterize these two wells as yielding a positive response, these early results are certainly encouraging.

  8. 孤岛油田水淹层地层水电阻率计算方法研究%Computation Method of Formation Water Resistivity for Water-flooded Zones in Gudao Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘中奇; 崔琳; 董婷; 熊维

    2012-01-01

    In order to find residual oil of Gudao Oilfield Ng group in Shengli oil/gas zone, formation water resistivity, especially, flooded formation water resistivity needs to be accurately calculated. It is difficult to accurately calculate mud filtrate resistivity. Proposed is a new method to determine mud filtrate resistivity--known water layer calibration method. Based on the spontaneous potential logging principle, wellbore mud filtrate resistivity is calibrated with known water resistivity. With the calibrated mud filtrate resistivity, spontaneous potential can be applied to obtain the formation water resistivity of the target layers. The new method can accurately calculate the formation water resistivity even in water-flooded zones.%为寻找胜利油气区孤岛油田Ng组剩余油富集区,需要准确求取地层水电阻率,特别是水淹层地层水电阻率,难点在于泥浆滤液电阻率的准确求取.提出一种新的泥浆滤液电阻率确定方法——已知水层标定法.基于自然电位测并原理,用已知水层的电阻率标定井筒泥浆滤液的电阻率,用标定后的泥浆滤液电阻率应用自然电位测井求取目的层的地层水电阻率.该方法能够比较准确地计算地层水的电阻率,对水淹层地层水电阻率的计算也非常有效.

  9. Analysis and Solution for the Harm of Electromagnetic Interference in Waterflood Pump's Power Distribution System%注水泵配电系统中的电磁干扰危害分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自亮; 张雅; 张浩

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the harm of electromagnetic interference (EMI) in the 6 kV waterflood pump's power distribution system of Mobei oil-field, the reason of the generation of EMI was analyzed. Based on the analysis of wiring diagram and principle control diagram and the observation of field failure, the fault brought by EMI was affirmed;the reasonable solution was stated) the EMI harm was successfully eliminated) the safety production of Mobei oil-field was assured. The solution and analysis of this practical project case provide important reference for how to restrain the harm of EMI in power system.%针对漠北油田6 kV注水泵配电系统中的电磁干扰危害,分析了产生电磁干扰的原因,通过对系统一次接线图及二次控制原理图的分析和现场故障的考察,确认了故障是由电磁干扰造成的,提出了合理的解决方案,成功地消除了电磁干扰危害,确保了漠北油田的安全生产.通过对这一实际工程案例的分析和处理,为电力系统中如何抑制电磁干扰带来的危害提供了重要的参考价值.

  10. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  11. Skeletal maturation determined by cervical vertebrae development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Román, Paloma; Palma, Juan Carlos; Oteo, M Dolores; Nevado, Esther

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity of cervical vertebrae radiographic assessment to predict skeletal maturation. Left hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 958 Spanish children from 5 to 18 years of age were measured. On the left hand-wrist radiographs the classification of Grave and Brown was used to assess skeletal maturation. Cervical vertebrae maturation was evaluated with lateral cephalometric radiographs using the stages described by Lamparski and by Hassel and Farman. A new method to evaluate the cervical maturation by studying the changes in the concavity of the lower border, height, and shape of the vertebral body was created. Correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the relationship between skeletal maturation values obtained by the three classifications of vertebral and skeletal maturation measured at the wrist. All correlation values obtained were statistically significant (P vertebral bodies to evaluate the maturation stage has been designed. In the population investigated, this method is as accurate as the Hassel and Farman classification and superior to the Lamparski classification. The morphological vertebral parameter best able to estimate the maturation is the concavity of the lower border of the body.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1865 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1865 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process, and that...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process....

  14. Maturational Constraints and First Language Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the…

  15. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  16. 7 CFR 29.6026 - Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity. 29.6026 Section 29.6026 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6026 Maturity. The degree of ripeness. (See chart.)...

  17. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  18. The Mature Woman and the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Jeffrey M.; Mantz, Concetta M.

    1976-01-01

    The factors and motivations contributing to the presence of increasing numbers of mature women in college are examined, and seven proposals are offered, representing an attempt to develop a total community college program which will meet the needs of mature women students. (NHM)

  19. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  20. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management......: the Design Audit to assess product development capabilities and the Communication Grid Method to assess communication in product development. As maturity grid assessments are not just performance measures but also mechanisms for change, in developing and applying maturity grid assessments, the consultants...

  1. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management......: the Design Audit to assess product development capabilities and the Communication Grid Method to assess communication in product development. As maturity grid assessments are not just performance measures but also mechanisms for change, in developing and applying maturity grid assessments, the consultants...

  2. Late maturers at a performance disadvantage to their more mature peers in junior Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Children and adolescents mature at different rates such that individuals competing in the same competition may differ in physical and biological maturity despite being of similar chronological age. Whether or not differences translate into on-field performance in competition is relatively unknown. This study investigated the influence of biological maturity on fitness and match running performance in junior Australian football. Eighty-seven under-15 years players were categorised into early (n = 20), average (n = 45) and late (n = 22) maturity groups based on self-reported and anthropometric assessment of biological maturity. Running movements during competition were collected using GPS (5 Hz) technology. Early maturers were heavier and taller than all other boys (P 14.4 km · h(-1)) running distance and number of high-intensity efforts were significantly greater (20.8%, 53.6%, 31.7%, respectively; P disadvantage to their earlier maturing peers.

  3. Mycobacterium avium subspecies impair dendritic cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Tina; Brumshagen, Christina; Beineke, Andreas; Goethe, Ralph; Bäumer, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic, granulomatous enteritis of ruminants. Dendritic cells (DC) of the gut are ideally placed to combat invading mycobacteria; however, little is known about their interaction with MAP. Here, we investigated the interaction of MAP and the closely related M. avium ssp. avium (MAA) with murine DC and the effect of infected macrophages on DC maturation. The infection of DC with MAP or MAA induced DC maturation, which differed to that of LPS as maturation was accompanied by higher production of IL-10 and lower production of IL-12. Treatment of maturing DC with supernatants from mycobacteria-infected macrophages resulted in impaired DC maturation, leading to a semi-mature, tolerogenic DC phenotype expressing low levels of MHCII, CD86 and TNF-α after LPS stimulation. Though the cells were not completely differentiated they responded with an increased IL-10 and a decreased IL-12 production. Using recombinant cytokines we provide evidence that the semi-mature DC phenotype results from a combination of secreted cytokines and released antigenic mycobacterial components of the infected macrophage. Our results indicate that MAP and MAA are able to subvert DC function directly by infecting and indirectly via the milieu created by infected macrophages.

  4. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  5. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  6. Post waterflood CO{sub 2} miscible flood in light oil, fluvial: Dominated deltaic reservoir. First quarterly technical progress report, Fiscal year 1994, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-15

    Production from the Port Neches CO{sub 2} project was initiated on December 6, 1993 after having been shut-in since the start of CO{sub 2} injection on September 22, 1993 to allow reservoir pressure to build. Rates were established at 236 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) from two wells in the 235 acre waterflood project area, which before project initiation had produced only 80 BOPD from the entire area. These wells are flowing large amounts of fluid due to the high reservoir pressure and their oil percentages are increasing as a result of the CO{sub 2} contacting the residual oil. One well, the H. J. Kuhn No. 15-R is flowing 217 BOPD, 1139 BWPD, and 2500 MCFPD of CO{sub 2} at a flowing tubing pressure (FTP) of 890 psi. The other producing well, the H. J. Kuhn No. 33, is currently flowing 19 BOPD, 614 BWPD, and 15 MCFPD at a FTP of 400 psi. Unexpectedly high rates of CO{sub 2} production are being made from Well No. 15-R and from the W. R. Stark ``B`` No. 8. This No. 8 well produced 7 BOPD, 697 BWPD, and 15 MCFPD prior to being shut-in during September to allow for the reservoir pressure to build by injecting CO{sub 2}, but when opened on December 6, the well flowed dry CO{sub 2} at a rate of 400 MCFPD for a two day test period. More sustained production tests will be obtained after all wells are tied into the new production facility. Many difficulties occurred in the drilling of the horizontal CO{sub 2} injection well but a successful completion across 2501 of sand has finally been accomplished. A formation dip of 11--14 degrees in the area where the well was being drilled made the proposed 1500{prime} horizontal sand section too difficult to accomplish. The shale section directly above the sand caused sticking problems on two separate occasions resulting in two sidetracks of the well around stuck pipe. The well will be tied into the facility and CO{sub 2} injection into the well will begin before February 1, 1994.

  7. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  8. Generalized thermal maturity map of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the onshore portion of the 1996 "Generalized Thermal Maturity Map of Alaska"...

  9. Changing patterns of fetal lung maturity testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinnis, K T; Brown, J A; Morrison, J C

    2008-01-01

    In our laboratory, a decrease in fetal lung maturity (FLM) testing on amniotic fluid occurred over a 10-year period, and we desired to determine if this was a national phenomenon and, if present, ascertain possible etiologies...

  10. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  11. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green and red fruits of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity.

  12. Role of ENPP1 on adipocyte maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is recognized that the ability of adipose tissue to expand in response to energy excess, i.e. adipocyte maturation, is important in determining systemic abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1, also known as PC-1 has been recently reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and related diseases. However, its role on adipose tissue physiology as a mechanism of systemic insulin resistance is not understood. This study was performed to evaluate whether ENPP1 is regulated during adipogenesis and whether over-expression in adipocytes can affect adipocyte maturation, a potential novel mechanism of ENPP1-related insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ENPP1 expression was found down-regulated during 3T3-L1 maturation, and over-expression of human ENPP1 in 3T3-L1 (pQCXIP-ENPP1 vector resulted in adipocyte insulin resistance and in defective adipocyte maturation. Adipocyte maturation was more efficient in mesenchymal embryonal cells from ENPP1 knockout mice than from wild-type. CONCLUSIONS: We identify ENPP1 as a novel mechanism of defective adipocyte maturation. This mechanism could contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in absence of obesity.

  13. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  14. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  15. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics. Sau......, and valine, or from microbial beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Also, sulfur compounds arising from added garlic correlated positively with mature flavor....

  16. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics....... Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  17. Comparison of maturity based on steroid and vanadyl porphyrin parameters: A new vanadyl porphyrin maturity parameter for higher maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Padmanabhan; Moldowan, J. Michael

    1993-03-01

    Correlations are demonstrated between steroid maturity parameters and the porphyrin maturity parameter (PMP) which is based on the ratio of specific vanadyl porphyrins C 28E /(C 28E + C 32D) measured by HPLC. Measurements from a global selection of > 100 rock extracts and oils show that PMP parallels changes in the C 29-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and tri/(tri + mono) aromatic steroid ratios, and that all three parameters appear to attain their maximum values at similar maturity levels. The triaromatic steroid side chain cracking parameter, TA I/(I + II), reaches approximately 20% of its maximum value when PMP has reached 100%. These results suggest that PMP is effective in the early to peak portion of the oil window. A new parameter, PMP-2, based on changes in the relative concentrations of two peaks in the HPLC fingerprint (vanadyl "etio" porphyrins), appears effective in assessing the maturity of source rocks beyond peak oil generation. In combination with PMP this parameter extends the effective range of vanadyl porphyrins parameters to higher maturities as demonstrated by a suite of oils from the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, South America.

  18. Evaluation of Skeletal Maturation by Comparing the Hand-Wrist Maturation and Cervical Vertebrae Maturation in a portuguese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Sara Filipa Meireles de

    2013-01-01

    Trabalho de conclusão do 6º ano médico com vista à atribuição do grau de mestre no âmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation and hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicators in a Portuguese children sample. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty five contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of Portuguese subjects were r...

  19. [Benign mature teratomas of the mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Ismail, O; Hassen, F; Smati, B; Djilani, H; Kilani, T; El Mezni, F

    2008-05-01

    Mature teratomas of the mediastinum are rare. However, they represent the most common mediastinal germ cell tumours. The aim of this study is to describe their clinical and pathological characteristics. Fourteen cases of mediastinal mature teratoma, diagnosed between January 1992 and December 2006, were reviewed retrospectively, noting the clinical, radiological, surgical, and pathological findings. The patient population consisted of 10 females and 4 males with mean age of 29 years (5-56 years). Chest pain was the main symptom. Imaging features comprised a heterogeneous anterior mediastinal mass containing soft-tissue, fluid, fat, or calcium attenuation, or any combination of the four. Macroscopically all the tumours were cystic, or predominantly cystic, containing mostly grumous material. The mean size was 9 cm (5-12 cm). Histological examination constantly revealed skin with or without appendages. Other components identified were bronchial mucosa (12 cases), fat (12 cases), muscle (10 cases), cartilage (8 cases), bone (7 cases), gastrointestinal mucosa (7 cases), pancreas (5 cases), urothelial epithelium (3 cases), nervous and prostatic tissues (one case each). All the teratomas were mature, and 7 of them were intrathymic. Every form of teratoma occurs in the mediastinum (mature, immature and with malignant transformation) but, in our study, they were exclusively mature. The histology is essentially similar to that of teratomas of gonads. However, pancreatic tissue occurs frequently in mediastinum (54% in literature, 25% in our study) but not in the gonads. On the other hand, thyroid follicles have not yet been seen in mediastinal teratomas.

  20. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...... for focusing on the more complex and dynamic aspects of business models seems to be right - right now!......The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept...... of Business Models, we are at the verge of moving from phase 2 to 3, after having spent a lot of time during the 1990’s and 2000’s arguing for the importance of understanding business models properly and discussing the content and potential building blocks of them. Therefore, in terms of maturity – the time...

  1. IT Governance Maturity: Developing a Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Daniel; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2015-01-01

    To advance in maturity, organizations should pay attention to both the hard and soft sides of IT governance (ITG). The hard side is related to processes and structure, the soft side to social aspects like behavior and organizational culture. This paper describes a study to develop an ITG maturity mo

  2. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  3. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo.

  4. Calcium ion currents mediating oocyte maturation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosti Elisabetta

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During maturation, the last phase of oogenesis, the oocyte undergoes several changes which prepare it to be ovulated and fertilized. Immature oocytes are arrested in the first meiotic process prophase, that is morphologically identified by a germinal vesicle. The removal of the first meiotic block marks the initiation of maturation. Although a large number of molecules are involved in complex sequences of events, there is evidence that a calcium increase plays a pivotal role in meiosis re-initiation. It is well established that, during this process, calcium is released from the intracellular stores, whereas less is known on the role of external calcium entering the cell through the plasma membrane ion channels. This review is focused on the functional role of calcium currents during oocyte maturation in all the species, from invertebrates to mammals. The emerging role of specific L-type calcium channels will be discussed.

  5. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, M

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between lower-extremity strength and flexibility and maturational status as measured by Tanner staging (TS) was assessed in 84 male high school athletes. The sum of one-repetition maximum lifts for knee extension and flexion was determined and flexibility was measured with the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance sit-and-reach test. Chronologic age, body weight, and percent fat were also recorded. Strength and flexibility were compared for each maturational and chronologic age category. Maturational age was better correlated with strength and flexibility than was chronologic age. All correlations were significant. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of TS and age with strength and flexibility. Tanner staging had greater predictive value than age for strength and flexibility. After adjusting for age, the relationship between TS and strength remained significant.

  6. Correlation of cervical vertebra maturation with hand-wrist maturation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H P; Liao, C H; Yang, Y H; Chang, H F; Chen, K C

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cervical vertebra maturation as an indicator of skeletal age during the circumpubertal period. This was determined by correlating cervical vertebra maturation to hand-wrist maturation. The vertebral skeletal age was assessed using lateral cephalometric radiographs according to maturity indicators modified from Lamparski. The hand-wrist skeletal age was evaluated in radiographs with the system developed by Fishman. The sample consisted of 503 subjects (244 boys and 259 girls), aged 8 through 18 years. The Spearman rank correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon sign rank test showed that a statistically significant relationship existed between the two assessments. Both the intra- and inter-judge tests of reliability displayed no significant differences. The results of this study indicate that skeletal age assessment made from the maturational changes of cervical vertebrae were reliable, reproducible and valid.

  7. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2016-12-13

    A method of recovering a liquid hydrocarbon using an injectate includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon through primary extraction. Physico-chemical data representative of electrostatic interactions between the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock are measured. At least one additive of the injectate is selected based on the physico-chemical data. The method includes recovering the liquid hydrocarbon from the reservoir rock through secondary extraction using the injectate.

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery by Horizontal Waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Robinowitz; Dwight Dauben; June Schmeling

    2005-09-05

    Solar energy has become a major alternative for supplying a substantial fraction of the nation's future energy needs. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports activities ranging from the demonstration of existing technology to research on future possibilities. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), projects are in progress that span a wide range of activities, with the emphasis on research to extend the scientific basis for solar energy applications, and on preliminary development of new approaches to solar energy conversion. To assess various solar applications, it is important to quantify the solar resource. Special instruments have been developed and are now in use to measure both direct solar radiation and circum-solar radiation, i.e., the radiation from near the sun resulting from the scattering of sunlight by small particles in the atmosphere. These measurements serve to predict the performance of solar designs that use focusing collectors employing mirrors or lenses to concentrate the sunlight. Efforts have continued at a low level to assist DOE in demonstrating existing solar technology by providing the San Francisco Operations Office (SAN) with technical support for its management of commercial-building solar demonstration projects. Also, a hot water and space-heating system has been installed on an LBL building as part of the DOE facilities Solar Demonstration Program. LBL continues to provide support for the DOE Appropriate Energy Technology grants program. Evaluations are made of the program's effectiveness by, for example, estimating the resulting potential energy savings. LBL also documents innovative features and improvements in economic feasibility as compared to existing conventional systems or applications. In the near future, we expect that LBL research will have a substantial impact in the areas of solar heating and cooling. Conventional and new types of high-performance absorption air conditioners are being developed that are air-cooled and suitable for use with flat plate or higher-temperature collectors. Operation of the controls test facility and computer modeling of collector loop and building load dynamics are yielding quantitative evaluations of the performance of different control strategies for active solar-heating systems. Research is continuing on ''passive'' approaches to solar heating and cooling, where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed and incorporated into building energy analysis computer programs which are in the public domain. The resulting passive analysis capabilities are used in systems studies leading to design tools and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat-storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, and would then provide ''coolness'' to the building. Laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Active Heating and Cooling Division and the Passive and Hybrid Division of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low-grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the ''shape-memory'' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources, such as solar-heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small particles suspended in a gas. Another project is exploring biological systems. In particular, we are investigating the possibility of developing a photovoltaic cell, based on a catalyst (bacteriorhodopsin) which converts light to electrical ion flow across the cell membrane of a particular bacteria.

  9. On the maturation rate of the neutrophil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajicek, G; Shohat, M; Polliack, A

    1984-05-01

    Fifty-three maturing bone marrow cells of the granulocyte cell series stained with Giemsa stain and magnified 1,000 times were scanned by a "computerized microscope" consisting of a LSI-11/23 microprocessor and a black-and-white video camera attached to a "frame grabber ." Each sampled cell was digitized into 70 X 70 pixels, each pixel representing 0.04 micron of the real image. The pixel gray values ranged between 0 and 255. Zero stood for white, 255 represented black, while the numbers in between stood for the various shades of gray. The cells represented six different stages of granulocytic maturation: myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte , band form, and polymorphonuclear granulocyte. A discriminant analysis program selected 19 features best distinguishing between the six different cell types and computed five canonical discriminant functions defining a Space in which maturation was studied. In the Space, distance between two cells serves as a measure of similarity. The closer two cells are, the more similar they are and vice versa. This measure was applied here to express the degree of similarity between the neutrophil maturation classes, and since they represent states in the neutrophil life history, it is applicable also as a yardstick for the quantitation of differentiation. In the Space, the life history of a cell is represented by a trajectory originating in the myeloblast and terminating in the granulocyte state. Displacement along the trajectory represents cell maturation that is expressed relatively to the least differentiated state of the myeloblast. The further a cell from this state the more mature it is. The same yardstick also serves for differentiation rate estimates represented in the Space by displacement velocities that are derived from the known "transit times" of a cell in each state. The methodology is also applied for cell production estimates. Unlike other "computerized microscopes" serving for cell classification, the

  10. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  11. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  12. Structure, Function and Dynamics in Adenovirus Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Mangel, Walter F.; Carmen San Martín

    2014-01-01

    Here we review the current knowledge on maturation of adenovirus, a non-enveloped icosahedral eukaryotic virus. The adenovirus dsDNA genome fills the capsid in complex with a large amount of histone-like viral proteins, forming the core. Maturation involves proteolytic cleavage of several capsid and core precursor proteins by the viral protease (AVP). AVP uses a peptide cleaved from one of its targets as a “molecular sled” to slide on the viral genome and reach its substrates, in a remarkabl...

  13. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  14. Evaluating Hass Avocado Maturity Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maturity of avocado fruit is usually assessed by measuring its dry matter content(DM), which is a destructive and time consuming process. The aim of this study is tointroduce a non-destructive and quick technique that can estimate the DM content of an avocado fruit. 'Hass' avocado fruits at diff...

  15. Spotlight on Shanxi very mature vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Fang; Wang Lixia; Li Wende

    2005-01-01

    @@ There are four kinds of the most famous vinegars in China. Qingxu Very Mature Vinegar of Shanxi Province is number one. Three others are Zhenjiang Savory Vinegar of Jiangsu Province, Baoning Bran Vinegar of Sichuan Province and Yongchun Vinegar of Fujian Province.

  16. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in or- ganization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project manage- ment maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability. Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and ap- plied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area. The result of analysis shows that con- struction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and servic- es. It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across in- dustries. This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia.

  17. Equipping Youth with Mature Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, John C.

    2003-01-01

    To enhance the ability of youth to help peers and themselves, the author proposes specific training in mature social decision-making to help youth overcome immature moral development and egocentric thinking. The EQUIP program emphasizes the positive moral potential of anti-social adolescents, as well as the limitations of antisocial youth:…

  18. 7 CFR 989.213 - Maturity dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... weight dockage system. The creditable weight of each lot of raisins acquired under the maturity dockage system shall be obtained by multiplying the net weight of the lot of raisins by the applicable...

  19. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    ; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO andWeb of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft... or red color. (c) Hard ripe, when the tomato shows three-fourths or more of the surface in the aggregate covered with pink or red color. (d) Firm ripe, when the tomato shows three-fourths or more of...

  1. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    ; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO andWeb of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity...

  2. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  3. Issues for mature women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L

    2008-01-01

    Specific concerns regarding mature women with epilepsy (WWE), specifically epilepsy-associated issues during perimenopause, menopause, and postmenopause, have been emerging in the epilepsy community. This chapter presents evidence that for WWE, seizure frequency may increase during perimenopause and decrease at postmenopause, especially if a catamenial epilepsy pattern was present during the reproductive years. This finding implies that, as in other age groups, a subset of mature WWE are particularly susceptible to endogenous reproductive hormonal changes. An adverse effect on seizure frequency with the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) during postmenopause for WWE was reported in surveys, and a dose-related association between standard HRT and increased seizures was later borne out in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Management of symptomatic postmenopausal WWE using estrogenic and progestogenic compounds that are less likely to promote seizures is discussed. WWE are at risk for premature ovarian failure and for menopause at a younger age than the general population. This appears to be related to epilepsy severity in terms of seizure frequency and is likely a consequence of adverse effects of seizures and interictal activity on the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The decline in antiepileptic drug (AED) clearance, as well as alterations in gastric functioning and decreasing albumin levels, with maturity can affect AED use in the aging population; therefore, mature individuals with epilepsy need to be monitored carefully for toxicity and for increasing AED levels that could eventually cause toxicity. Information about gender differences for AED use in the mature population is scant.

  4. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  5. Transcriptional programs controlling perinatal lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0 using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6 and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5-E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5-20.5, STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation than in A/J (long gestation mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators

  6. Diagnostic assessment of skeletal maturity through dental maturation in Hispanic growing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cisternas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore dental maturation as a diagnostic test for skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and fifty-seven growing individuals were classified according to their cervical vertebral maturity and dental maturity, both determined in lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs, respectively. The correlation between cervical and dental stages was established for each gender. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was made, and sensitivity and specificity values were established. Results: Correlation was found between cervical and dental maturation for females (r = 0.73; P<0.001 and males (r = 0.60; P<0.001. Sensitivity for dental Stage F, as an indicator of a postmaturation peak stage, was 87.21% for females and 97.1% for males, whereas specificity for the same stage was 82.92% and 72.3% for females and males, respectively. Conclusions: Dental maturation evaluation could contribute determining whether a patient is in a pre- or post-growth spurt stage.

  7. Development and validation of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Najder, Anna

    2016-10-01

    This article describes the development of the Eating Maturity Questionnaire, a self-reported measurement of eating maturity that initiates and gives direction to human eating behaviors. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire was designed to study individuals' biological and psychosocial motives for eating. The Eating Maturity Questionnaire is a 21-item tool with satisfactory psychometric values (Cronbach's α coefficients between 0.83 and 0.88) consisting of two subscales: Rational Eating and Psychosocial Maturity Eating Maturity Questionnaire results may be used to design programs that target eating behaviors and body mass modification.

  8. Hand motor control: maturing an immature science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kelly J

    2015-04-01

    In the target article Mark Latash has argued that there is but a single bona-fide theory for hand motor control (referent configuration theory). If this is true, and research is often phenomenological, then we must admit that the science of hand motor control is immature. While describing observations under varying conditions is a crucial (but early) stage of the science of any field, it is also true that the key to maturing any science is to vigorously subject extant theories and budding laws to critical experimentation. If competing theories are absent at the present time is it time for scientists to focus their efforts on maturing the science of hand motor control through critical testing of this long-standing theory (and related collections of knowledge such as the uncontrolled manifold)?

  9. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    The process of improving product performance by improving individual parts and tuning the assembly line fixtures to reach acceptable quality to start mass production is called Product Maturation. Often in new product development, product maturation affects the target date due to iterative process....... To conclude the actions we need information about all the dimensions of child parts and processes involved and their influence. At the time of product design, the tolerance analysis system works with the same variables with a given range of variations virtually. For a practical build, instead of variation...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  10. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case...

  11. Okazaki fragment maturation: nucleases take centre stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Binghui Shen

    2011-01-01

    Completion of lagging strand DNA synthesis requires processing of up to 50 million Okazaki fragments per cell cycle in mammalian cells. Even in yeast, the Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a singte round of DNA replication. Therefore, efficient processing of Okazaki fragments is vital for DNA replication and cell proliferation. During this process,primase-synthesized RNA/DNA primers are removed, and Okazaki fragments are joined into an intact lagging strand DNA. The processing of RNA/DNA primers requires a group of structure-specific nucleases typified by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). Here, we summarize the distinct roles of these nucleases in different pathways for removal of RNA/DNA primers. Recent findings reveal that Okazaki fragment maturation is highly coordinated. The dynamic interactions of polymerase δ, FEN1 and DNA ligase I with proliferating cell nuclear antigen allow these enzymes to act sequentially during Okazaki fragment maturation. Such protein-protein interactions may be regulated by post-translational modifications. We also discuss studies using mutant mouse models that suggest two distinct cancer etiological mechanisms arising from defects in different steps of Okazaki fragment maturation.Mutations that affect the efficiency of RNA primer removal may result in accumulation of unligated nicks and DNA double-strand breaks. These DNA strand breaks can cause varying forms of chromosome aberrations, contributing to development of cancer that associates with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangement. On the other hand, mutations that impair editing out of polymerase o incorporation errors result in cancer displaying a strong mutator phenotype.

  12. State of Sexual Maturity of Nelore Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Camilo José Ramírez López; Clara Cecilia Rugeles Pinto; Faider Alberto Castaño Villadiego; Víctor Enrique Gómez León; Tamires Miranda Neto; José Domingo Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the state of sexual maturity of young Nelore bulls and its relation to scrotal circumference and seminal characteristics. 1985 animals (aged between 19 and 23 months), fed with tropical pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbes, and Panicum maximum), were evaluated through andrological examination. Physical characteristics of the ejaculate, sperm morphology and scrotal circumference (SC) were examined. After the andrological examination, animals were...

  13. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  14. Maturity of strategic management in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Witek-Crabb

    2015-01-01

    There is some ambivalence with regards to how to improve strategic management of organizations. On the one hand the example of big companies emphasizes the need for formalization and good organization of strategic management process. On the other hand the example of small companies draws attention to such qualities as entrepreneurship, flexibility and adaptability. The concept of strategic management maturity embraces both of these priorities. In this paper a framework for strategic managemen...

  15. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  16. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  17. Towards a Sustainable Design for Maturity Measurement Marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Kærsgaard, Henrik Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    In this research-in-progress paper, we propose a solution in form of an IT artefact to address both theoretical and practical challenges faced by maturity model designers. We identify and list out the existing challenges & criticisms of maturity models research through an extensive literature...... review, followed by semi-structured interviews with four maturity model designers. We also explore different motivations of building a maturity model, and using them further scope the boundaries of our solution....

  18. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is co

  19. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  20. Drug information systems: evolution of benefits with system maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Valerie; Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Benefits from information and communication technology tend to grow over time as system use matures. This study examines pharmacists' experiences with provincial drug information systems (DIS) across Canada. At the time of survey, two provinces had more mature DIS (more than five years) and three provinces had less mature DIS (five years or less).

  1. MD3M: The Master Data Management Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Marco; Pietzka, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to assess the master data maturity of an organization. It is based on thorough literature study to derive the main concepts and best practices in master data maturity assessment. A maturity matrix relating 13 focus areas and 65 capabilities was designed and validated. Furthermore,

  2. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  3. Micropropagation of Elaeagnus angustifolia from mature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, J M; De La Iglesia, M; Pérez, C

    1995-10-01

    Multiple shoots were obtained from nodal segments of mature trees of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. cultured on MS medium (Murashige and Skoog 1962) supplemented with 0, 0.88 or 2.22 micro M N(6)-benzyladenine. When nodal segments taken from the in vitro proliferated shoots were cultured under the same conditions, additional multiple shoots were obtained. Rooting of the in vitro propagated shoots was achieved on full strength MS medium or on MS supplemented with 2.46 micro M indole-3-butyric acid. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transplanted to soil.

  4. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    . Tolerance analysis tools, those optimizing the individual part tolerances at the time of design can generate a product maturation guide that eliminates many problem solving procedures and saves time on root cause analysis. Assume a first product built on a new assembly line was found to need improvements...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  5. GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Simon; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2013-05-01

    The ribosome is an RNA- and protein-based macromolecule having multiple functional domains to facilitate protein synthesis, and it is synthesized through multiple steps including transcription, stepwise cleavages of the primary transcript, modifications of ribosomal proteins and RNAs and assemblies of ribosomal proteins with rRNAs. This process requires dozens of trans-acting factors including GTP- and ATP-binding proteins to overcome several energy-consuming steps. Despite accumulation of genetic, biochemical and structural data, the entire process of bacterial ribosome synthesis remains elusive. Here, we review GTPases involved in bacterial ribosome maturation.

  6. eBusiness Maturity and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beynon-Davies, P.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experience of a major research centre supporting knowledge transfer in the area of eCommerce to SMEs. It debates with issues surrounding the integration of academic research with practical support to the SME community. For this purpose the use of an eBusiness framework as a platform for eBusiness maturity assessment is proposed. These devices are seen as key to the work of research centres such as ours in addressing the future challenges for smeeBusiness.

  7. A Maturity Model for Digital Data Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Hugo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Digital data and service centers, such as those envisaged by the ICSU World Data System (WDS, are subject to a wide-ranging collection of requirements and constraints. Many of these requirements are traditionally difficult to assess and to measure objectively and consistently. As a solution to this problem, an approach based on a maturity model is proposed. This adds significant value not only in respect to objective assessment but also in assisting with evaluation of overlapping and competing criteria, planning of continuous improvement, and progress towards formal evaluation by accreditation authorities.

  8. Performance, growth, and maturity of Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Luiz Fernando; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Detmann, Edenio; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi; Zanetti, Diego; Villadiego, Faider Alberto Castaño; Pellizzoni, Samantha Gusmão; Pereira, Rafael Moura Guimarães

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the dry matter intake (DMI), digestibility, average daily gain (ADG), microbial efficiency, empty body weight (EBW) gain, and body composition of Nellore bulls. Additionally, Nellore bull maturity was estimated, and the prediction equation for DMI, suggested by the Brazilian nutrient requirements system (BR CORTE; Azevêdo et al. 2010), was evaluated. Thirty-three Nellore bulls, with a mean initial weight of 259 ± 25 kg and age of 14 ± 1 months, were used in this study. Five animals were slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment (control group), and the remaining 28 were divided into 4 groups, each slaughtered at 42-day intervals. Their diet was composed of corn silage and concentrate (55:45). The power model was used to estimate muscle tissue, bone tissue, crude protein (CP), mineral matter (MM), and water present in the empty body, while the exponential model was used to estimate adipose tissue and ether extract (EE) present in the empty body. When expressed in kilograms per day, differences were observed (P  0.05) digestibility, with the exception of EE digestibility. The equation suggested by BR CORTE correctly estimates the DMI of Nellore bulls. ADG was not affected (P > 0.05) by time spent in the feedlot. No differences were observed (P > 0.05) for microbial efficiency; a mean value of 142 g microbial crude protein/kg total digestible nutrients was achieved. The muscle and bone tissues, CP, MM, and water present in the empty body increased as the animal grew, although at a lower rate. The adipose tissue and EE present in the empty body increased their deposition rate when the animal reached its mature weight. Maturity is defined as when an animal reaches 22 % EE in the empty body, which corresponds to 456 kg of EBW in Nellore bulls. Therefore, this study can conclude that the feedlot time period does not affect DMI, nutrient intake, ADG, or microbial efficiency. The equation

  9. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed.

  10. State of Sexual Maturity of Nelore Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo José Ramírez López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the state of sexual maturity of young Nelore bulls and its relation to scrotal circumference and seminal characteristics. 1985 animals (aged between 19 and 23 months, fed with tropical pastures (Brachiaria brizantha, Brachiaria decumbes, and Panicum maximum, were evaluated through andrological examination. Physical characteristics of the ejaculate, sperm morphology and scrotal circumference (SC were examined. After the andrological examination, animals were classified as suitable for reproduction (andrological class 1; suitable for reproduction in natural mating system (class 2; temporarily unsuitable for reproduction (class 3; and discarded (class 5. To compare the measurements found in different andrological classes, two tests were used: the Tukey test with 5% probability of error, and simple Pearson correlations to verify the relationships between the studied characteristics. 84.5% of the bulls were found to be sexually mature. 39.75% of the animals suitable for reproduction presented a SC greater than 34 cm, and only 0.71% of the study population showed a scrotal circumference less than 28 cm. Favorable high correlations between SC and the physical characteristics of semen were evidenced. The article concludes that scrotal circumference is an excellent characteristics for evaluating and selecting young Nelore bulls.

  11. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  12. Developmental Plasticity in Child Growth and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev eHochberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity", and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life-history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adoelscence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase-transitions.

  13. Developmental plasticity in child growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity," and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adolescence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase transitions.

  14. Low skilled, mature workers and lifelong learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    There is some evidence that mature industrial workers have specific profiles, views and values, when it comes to learning and participation in educational processes and programs. It seems as if the kind of education they are motivated for should be: mimetic, minimalistic and instrumental. This is......There is some evidence that mature industrial workers have specific profiles, views and values, when it comes to learning and participation in educational processes and programs. It seems as if the kind of education they are motivated for should be: mimetic, minimalistic and instrumental...... with this in lifelong learning? It is probably necessary to establish different forms of workplace learning (or: establish workplaces as learning arenas and environments). This means that the group in question should be offered personal and vocational development in a practical and ‘secure’ context and set up...... decision processes). Finally, stakeholders should realise a balance between the complexity of the challenge and the resources needed. This goes for adult educators, employers, politicians, community organizations, families etc. lear output and result, i.e. for instance a (better) job (situation) •They...

  15. The importance of social dimension and maturation stage for the probabilistic maturation reaction norm in Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pauli, B; Pauli, B D; Heino, M

    2013-10-01

    Maturation is an important event in an organism's life history, with important implications on dynamics of both wild and captive populations. The probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN) has emerged as an important method to describe variation in maturation in wild fish. Because most PMRNs are based on age and size only, it is important to understand limitations of these variables in explaining maturation. We experimentally assessed (i) the sensitivity of age- and size-based PMRNs to unaccounted sources of plasticity, (ii) the role of social environment on maturation and (iii) the significance of estimating PMRNs early and late in the maturation process (initiation and completion of maturation, respectively). We reared male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) under laboratory conditions, subjected to two food levels and three different social cues. We found that growth and social environment affected the maturation in a way that could not be accounted for by their effect on age and size. PMRNs estimated for the initiation stage were less plastic (growth differences and social cues influenced the PMRN shape only little) than those for completion. The initiation of maturation is probably closer to the maturation 'decision' and allows determining factors influencing maturation decision most accurately.

  16. Low-mature gases and typical low-mature gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YongChang; WANG ZhiYong; WANG XiaoFeng; ZHENG JianJing; DU HongYu

    2008-01-01

    No natural gas pool of industrial importance could be formed at the low-evolution stage of organic matter. In the 1980s, on the basis of the development in exploration practice, the hypotheses of bio-thermo-catalytic transitional zone gases and early thermogenic gases were proposed. The lower-limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of natural gases of industrial importance have been expanded to 0.3%-0.4%. In the light of the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation in coal-type natural gases, the upper-limit Ro values have been set at 0.8%-1.0%.In terms of the geological practice in the low-mature gas zones and China's main coal-type gas fields, it is feasible and proper to set the upper-limit Ro value of low-mature gases at 0.8%. Supper-large gas fields such as the Urengoy gas field in western Siberian Basin should belong to low-mature gas fields,of which the natural gas reserves account for more than 20% of the global proven reserves, providing strong evidence for the significance of such a type of resources. The proven natural gas reserves in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China have almost reached 1000 X 108 m3. The main source rocks in this area are the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, which occurs as a suite of coal series strata. The corresponding designated to coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also fall within the area of low evolution while the precursor type of light hydrocarbons also shows the characteristics of the coal-type. The geological background, carbon isotopic composition and light hydrocarbon index all provide strong evidence suggesting that the proven natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin are low-mature gases. In China a gas field with the gas reserves reaching 300 X108 m3 can be defined as a large gas field, and thus the proven low-mature gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin are equivalent to the reserves of three large gas fields. Its existence is of great

  17. Identification of maturation and protein synthesis related proteins from porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Kang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro maturation (IVM of mammalian oocytes is divided into the GV (germinal vesicle stage, MI (metaphase I stage and MII (metaphase II stage stages, and only fully mature oocytes have acquired the ability to be fertilized and initiate zygotic development. These observations have been mostly based on morphological evaluations, but the molecular events governing these processes are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to better understand the processes involved in the molecular regulation of IVM using 2-DE analysis followed by mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are differentially expressed during oocyte IVM. Result A total of 16 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated proteins were identified. To investigate the IVM process, we specifically focused on the proteins that were up-regulated during the MII stage when compared with the GV stage, which included PRDX 2, GST, SPSY, myomegalin, PED4D, PRKAB 1, and DTNA. These up-regulated proteins were functionally involved in redox regulation and the cAMP-dependent pathway, which are essential for the intracellular signaling involved in oocyte maturation. Interestingly, the PDE4D and its partner, myomegalin, during the MII stage was consistently confirmed up-regulation by western blot analyses. Conclusion These results could be used to better understand some aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying porcine oocyte maturation. This study identified some regulatory proteins that may have important roles in the molecular events involved in porcine oocyte maturation, particularly with respect to the regulation of oocyte meiotic resumption, MII arrest and oocyte activation. In addition, this study may have beneficial applications not only to basic science with respect to the improvement of oocyte culture conditions but also to mammalian reproductive biotechnology with potential implications.

  18. Male silver eels mature by swimming

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    Spaink Herman P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If European silver eels are prevented from reproductive migration, they remain in a prepubertal stage by dopaminergic inhibition of pituitary activity. Because this inhibition is likely a requirement for an extended female growth stage, we tested if it is sex-specific by subjecting both sexes to stimulation by GnRHa (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone agonist – injection or 3-months swimming in seawater. Results In contrast to females, males showed a two- to three-fold higher LHβ (luteinising hormone β subunit – expression, a three- to five-fold higher GSI (Gonadosomatic index and induced spermatogenesis when compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion Dopaminergic inhibition is thus not effective in males and swimming results in natural maturation, probably via GnRH-release.

  19. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  20. Anabolic actions of Notch on mature bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Ping, Yilin; Ma, Meng; Zhang, Demao; Liu, Connie; Zaidi, Samir; Gao, Song; Ji, Yaoting; Lou, Feng; Yu, Fanyuan; Lu, Ping; Stachnik, Agnes; Bai, Mingru; Wei, Chengguo; Zhang, Liaoran; Wang, Ke; Chen, Rong; New, Maria I.; Rowe, David W.; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2016-01-01

    Notch controls skeletogenesis, but its role in the remodeling of adult bone remains conflicting. In mature mice, the skeleton can become osteopenic or osteosclerotic depending on the time point at which Notch is activated or inactivated. Using adult EGFP reporter mice, we find that Notch expression is localized to osteocytes embedded within bone matrix. Conditional activation of Notch signaling in osteocytes triggers profound bone formation, mainly due to increased mineralization, which rescues both age-associated and ovariectomy-induced bone loss and promotes bone healing following osteotomy. In parallel, mice rendered haploinsufficient in γ-secretase presenilin-1 (Psen1), which inhibits downstream Notch activation, display almost-absent terminal osteoblast differentiation. Consistent with this finding, pharmacologic or genetic disruption of Notch or its ligand Jagged1 inhibits mineralization. We suggest that stimulation of Notch signaling in osteocytes initiates a profound, therapeutically relevant, anabolic response. PMID:27036007

  1. A Maturity Analysis of Big Data Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BONCEA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Big Data technologies have been developed at faster pace due to increase in demand from applications that generate and process vast amount of data. The Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things are the main drivers for developing enterprise solutions that support Business Intelligence which in turn, creates new opportunities and new business models. An enterprise can now collect data about its internal processes, process this data to gain new insights and business value and make better decisions. And this is the reason why Big Data is now seen as a vital component in any enterprise architecture. In this article the maturity of several Big Data technologies is put under analysis. For each technology there are several aspects considered, such as development status, market usage, licensing policies, availability for certifications, adoption, support for cloud computing and enterprise.

  2. Articular Cartilage Changes in Maturing Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Ayala; Chu, Constance R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Articular cartilage has a unique functional architecture capable of providing a lifetime of pain-free joint motion. This tissue, however, undergoes substantial age-related physiologic, mechanical, biochemical, and functional changes that reduce its ability to overcome the effects of mechanical stress and injury. Many factors affect joint function in the maturing athlete—from chondrocyte survival and metabolism to structural composition and genetic/epigenetic factors governing cartilage and synovium. An evaluation of age-related changes for joint homeostasis and risk for osteoarthritis is important to the development of new strategies to rejuvenate aging joints. Objective: This review summarizes the current literature on the biochemical, cellular, and physiologic changes occurring in aging articular cartilage. Data Sources: PubMed (1969-2013) and published books in sports health, cartilage biology, and aging. Study Selection: Keywords included aging, athlete, articular cartilage, epigenetics, and functional performance with age. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Data Extraction: To be included, research questions addressed the effect of age-related changes on performance, articular cartilage biology, molecular mechanism, and morphology. Results: The mature athlete faces challenges in maintaining cartilage health and joint function due to age-related changes to articular cartilage biology, morphology, and physiology. These changes include chondrocyte loss and a decline in metabolic response, alterations to matrix and synovial tissue composition, and dysregulation of reparative responses. Conclusion: Although physical decline has been regarded as a normal part of aging, many individuals maintain overall fitness and enjoy targeted improvement to their athletic capacity throughout life. Healthy articular cartilage and joints are needed to maintain athletic performance and general activities. Genetic and potentially reversible

  3. Maturing thalamocortical functional connectivity across development

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    Damien Fair

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a surge of investigations examining functional brain organization using resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI. To date, this method has been used to examine systems organization in typical and atypical developing populations. While the majority of these investigations have focused on cortical-cortical interactions, cortical-subcortical interactions also mature into adulthood. Innovative work by Zhang et al (Zhang et al., 2008 in adults have identified methods that utilize rs-fcMRI and known thalamo-cortical topographic segregation to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus that are remarkably similar to known thalamic nuclear grouping. However, despite thalamic nuclei being well formed early in development, the developmental trajectory of functional thalamo-cortical relations remains unexplored. Thalamic maps generated by rs-fcMRI are based on functional relationships, and should modify with the dynamic thalamo-cortical changes that occur throughout maturation. To examine this possibility, we employed a strategy as previously described by Zhang et al to a sample of healthy children, adolescents, and adults. We found strengthening functional connectivity of the frontal cortex with dorsal/anterior subdivisions of the thalamus across age groups. Temporal lobe connectivity with ventral/midline/posterior subdivisions of the thalamus weakened with age. Changes in sensory and motor thalamo-cortical interactions were limited. These findings are consistent with known anatomical and physiological cortical-subcortical changes over development. The methods and developmental context provided here will be important for relating how cortical-subcortical interactions relate to models of typically developing behavior and developmental neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATURITY FOR DEVELOPING PILOT PLANTS

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    H.K. Mittermaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This study found that, even though the terms ‘pilot plant’ and ‘project management maturity’ are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese klimaat ondervind die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ’n baie bemoedigende toekoms, met ’n groot aantal kapitaalprojekte in die vooruitsig. Ten einde risiko’s te verlaag, sal die ontwikkeling van loodsaanlegte noodwendig deel van hierdie toekoms uitmaak. Daar is gevind dat, alhoewel die terme ‘loodsaanleg’ en ‘projekbestuur volwassenheid’ in die nywerheid bekend is, geen skakeling van hierdie twee terme in die literatuur opgespoor kon word nie. ’n Aantal volwassenheid modelle bestaan; en een wat deur PMSolutions ontwikkel is, is gekies om

  5. Prediction of individual brain maturity using fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosenbach, Nico U F; Nardos, Binyam; Cohen, Alexander L; Fair, Damien A; Power, Jonathan D; Church, Jessica A; Nelson, Steven M; Wig, Gagan S; Vogel, Alecia C; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Dubis, Joseph W; Feczko, Eric; Coalson, Rebecca S; Pruett, John R; Barch, Deanna M; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2010-09-10

    Group functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies have documented reliable changes in human functional brain maturity over development. Here we show that support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis extracts sufficient information from fcMRI data to make accurate predictions about individuals' brain maturity across development. The use of only 5 minutes of resting-state fcMRI data from 238 scans of typically developing volunteers (ages 7 to 30 years) allowed prediction of individual brain maturity as a functional connectivity maturation index. The resultant functional maturation curve accounted for 55% of the sample variance and followed a nonlinear asymptotic growth curve shape. The greatest relative contribution to predicting individual brain maturity was made by the weakening of short-range functional connections between the adult brain's major functional networks.

  6. Healthcare quality maturity assessment model based on quality drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nadia; Arafeh, Mazen

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare providers differ in their readiness and maturity levels regarding quality and quality management systems applications. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a useful quantitative quality maturity-level assessment tool for healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The model proposes five quality maturity levels (chaotic, primitive, structured, mature and proficient) based on six quality drivers: top management, people, operations, culture, quality focus and accreditation. Findings - Healthcare managers can apply the model to identify the status quo, quality shortcomings and evaluating ongoing progress. Practical implications - The model has been incorporated in an interactive Excel worksheet that visually displays the quality maturity-level risk meter. The tool has been applied successfully to local hospitals. Originality/value - The proposed six quality driver scales appear to measure healthcare provider maturity levels on a single quality meter.

  7. Strawberry Maturity Neural Network Detectng System Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liming

    The quick and non-detective detection of agriculture product is one of the measures to increase the precision and productivity of harvesting and grading. Having analyzed H frequency of different maturities in different light intensities, the results show that H frequency for the same maturity has little influence in different light intensities; Under the same light intensity, three strawberry maturities are changing in order. After having confirmed the H frequency section to distinguish the different strawberry maturity, the triplelayer feed-forward neural network system to detect strawberry maturity was designed by using genetic algorithm. The test results show that the detecting precision ratio is 91.7%, it takes 160ms to distinguish one strawberry. Therefore, the online non-detective detecting the strawberry maturity could be realized.

  8. EFFECT OF PORTLAND-POZZOLAN CEMENTS ON CONCRETE MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arın YILMAZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The maturity concept expressed by the combined effect of time and temperature on the concrete is a useful technique for prediction of the strength gain of concrete. According to maturity concept, samples of the same concrete at same maturity whatever combination of temperature and time, have approximately the same strength. Many maturity functions have been proposed for the last 50 years. The validity of these functions are only for ordinary portland cements. In this study, the suitable of traditional maturity functions for different types of Portland-pozzolan cements were investigated and a new maturity-strength relationship was tried to be established. For this purpose, four different pozzolans and one Portland cement was selected. Portland-pozzolan cements were prepared by using three different replacement amounts of % 5, % 20 and 40 % by weight of cement.

  9. Emma’s Growth from Innocence to Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周道凤

    2013-01-01

    Emma is one of the most successful novels by Jane Austen. This thesis analyzed the background of its heroine Emma ’s growth background, her growth from conceit, snobbery, domination to maturity, and the causes of her character transformation. Her psychological growth process from innocence to maturity demonstrates women ’s growth and progress in the early 19th cen-tury, and inspires modern women to gradually improve in personality and better present their charms of maturity.

  10. On the Scientific Maturity of Digital Forensics Research

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier, Martin; Gruner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: THEMES AND ISSUES; International audience; This paper applies a scientific maturity grade schema from the software engineering domain to research in the field of digital forensics. On the basis of this maturity schema and its grades, the paper classifies the current maturity of digital forensics research. The findings show that much more research conducted at higher levels of “scientificness” is necessary before the new field of digital forensics can be considered to be scientifically...

  11. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Henriques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.

  12. A procedure for Applying a Maturity Model to Process Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pérez Mergarejo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A maturity model is an evolutionary roadmap for implementing the vital practices from one or moredomains of organizational process. The use of the maturity models is poor in the Latin-Americancontext. This paper presents a procedure for applying the Process and Enterprise Maturity Modeldeveloped by Michael Hammer [1]. The procedure is divided into three steps: Preparation, Evaluationand Improvement plan. The Hammer´s maturity model joint to the proposed procedure can be used byorganizations to improve theirs process, involving managers and employees.

  13. Ovarian follicle maturation and ovulation: An integrated perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Thomas, P.; Yoshizaki, G.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous studies with teleosts have addressed the regulation and mechanisms of oocyte maturation, but largely at the exclusion of ovulation. A smaller but still considerable number of studies have focused on ovulation, and ignored maturation. Consequently, little is known about the mechanistic linkages between these two events. New information is presented here indicating that luteinizing hormone regulates the acquisition not only of oocyte maturational competence, but also ovulatory competence. The thesis is presented that maturation and ovulation are closely integrated and overlapping events that are best viewed conceptually and experimentally as parts of a functional whole. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation via fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Yong-Deok

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether the results of fractal analysis can be used as criteria for midpalatal suture maturation evaluation. Methods The study included 131 subjects aged over 18 years of age (range 18.1–53.4 years) who underwent cone-beam computed tomography. Skeletonized images of the midpalatal suture were obtained via image processing software and used to calculate fractal dimensions. Correlations between maturation stage and fractal dimensions were calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Optimal fractal dimension cut-off values were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The distribution of maturation stages of the midpalatal suture according to the cervical vertebrae maturation index was highly variable, and there was a strong negative correlation between maturation stage and fractal dimension (−0.623, p Fractal dimension was a statistically significant indicator of dichotomous results with regard to maturation stage (area under curve = 0.794, p fractal dimension was used to predict the resulting variable that splits maturation stages into ABC and D or E yielded an optimal fractal dimension cut-off value of 1.0235. Conclusions There was a strong negative correlation between fractal dimension and midpalatal suture maturation. Fractal analysis is an objective quantitative method, and therefore we suggest that it may be useful for the evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation. PMID:27668195

  15. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  16. Low-mature gases and typical low-mature gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No natural gas pool of industrial importance could be formed at the low-evolution stage of organic matter. In the 1980s, on the basis of the development in exploration practice, the hypotheses of bio-thermo-catalytic transitional zone gases and early thermogenic gases were proposed. The lower-limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of natural gases of industrial importance have been expanded to 0.3%―0.4%. In the light of the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation in coal-type natural gases, the upper-limit Ro values have been set at 0.8%―1.0%. In terms of the geological practice in the low-mature gas zones and China’s main coal-type gas fields, it is feasible and proper to set the upper-limit Ro value of low-mature gases at 0.8%. Supper-large gas fields such as the Urengoy gas field in western Siberian Basin should belong to low-mature gas fields, of which the natural gas reserves account for more than 20% of the global proven reserves, providing strong evidence for the significance of such a type of resources. The proven natural gas reserves in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China have almost reached 1000 × 108 m3. The main source rocks in this area are the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, which occurs as a suite of coal series strata. The corresponding thermal evolution indices (Ro ) are mainly within the range of about 0.4%―0.8%, the δ 13C1 values of methane vary between-44‰ and-39‰ (correspondingly Ro =0.6%―0.8%), and those of ethane are within the range of-29‰―-26‰, indicating that natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin should be designated to coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also fall within the area of low evolution while the precursor type of light hydrocarbons also shows the characteristics of the coal-type. The geological background, carbon isotopic composition and light hydrocarbon index all provide strong evidence suggesting that the proven

  17. Sterols in spermatogenesis and sperm maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keber, Rok; Rozman, Damjana; Horvat, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatogenesis is a complex developmental program in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. One intriguing aspect of sperm production is the dynamic change in membrane lipid composition that occurs throughout spermatogenesis. Cholesterol content, as well as its intermediates, differs vastly between the male reproductive system and nongonadal tissues. Accumulation of cholesterol precursors such as testis meiosis-activating sterol and desmosterol is observed in testes and spermatozoa from several mammalian species. Moreover, cholesterogenic genes, especially meiosis-activating sterol-producing enzyme cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase, display stage-specific expression patterns during spermatogenesis. Discrepancies in gene expression patterns suggest a complex temporal and cell-type specific regulation of sterol compounds during spermatogenesis, which also involves dynamic interactions between germ and Sertoli cells. The functional importance of sterol compounds in sperm production is further supported by the modulation of sterol composition in spermatozoal membranes during epididymal transit and in the female reproductive tract, which is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. However, the exact role of sterols in male reproduction is unknown. This review discusses sterol dynamics in sperm maturation and describes recent methodological advances that will help to illuminate the complexity of sperm formation and function. PMID:23093550

  18. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  19. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  20. SPERM MATURATIONAL DEFECT AFTER CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Kashmiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During normal spermatogenesis, most of the round spermatid’s cytoplasm was phagocytosed as ‘residual bodies’ by the Sertoli cell at spermiogenesis, and only a small cytoplasmic residue i.e. ‘cytoplasmic droplet’ remains applied to the elongated spermatid after release from the germinal epithelium. A characteristic morphological change on spermatozoa during epididymal transit was the caudal migration of the cytoplasmic droplet away from the neck via the principal piece, however, while studying the Cyclophosphamide (CPA induced sperm morphological changes from the cauda epididymis in male Wistar rat, Rattus norvegicus using phase contrast microscope it was noticed that the sub-chronic and acute doses of CPA caused retention of cytoplasmic droplet on the mid-piece. Thus from the foregoing it was concluded that beside CPA being an inhibitor of spermatogenesis, it also interferes with the maturation of spermatozoa by the retention of cytoplasmic droplet perhaps due to alteration in epididymal secretory and absorptive functions thus leading to infertility.

  1. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time.

  2. WNT signalling in neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Beatriz Rosso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulates the structure and function of the adult nervous system. Wnt components are key regulators of a variety of developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. In the nervous system, Wnt signaling also regulates the formation and function of neuronal circuits by controlling neuronal differentiation, axon outgrowth and guidance, dendrite development, synaptic function and neuronal plasticity. Wnt factors can signal through three very well characterized cascades: canonical or β-catenin pathway, planar cell polarity pathway and calcium pathway that control different processes. However, divergent downstream cascades have been identified to control neuronal morphogenesis. In the nervous system, the expression of Wnt proteins is a highly controlled process. In addition, deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we will review different aspects of neuronal and dendrite maturation, including spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Finally, the role of Wnt pathway components on Alzheimer’s disease will be revised.

  3. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Wollmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33, and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03 compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6. Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

  4. WNT signaling in neuronal maturation and synaptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Silvana B.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a role in the development of the central nervous system and growing evidence indicates that Wnts also regulates the structure and function of the adult nervous system. Wnt components are key regulators of a variety of developmental processes, including embryonic patterning, cell specification, and cell polarity. In the nervous system, Wnt signaling also regulates the formation and function of neuronal circuits by controlling neuronal differentiation, axon outgrowth and guidance, dendrite development, synaptic function, and neuronal plasticity. Wnt factors can signal through three very well characterized cascades: canonical or β-catenin pathway, planar cell polarity pathway and calcium pathway that control different processes. However, divergent downstream cascades have been identified to control neuronal morphogenesis. In the nervous system, the expression of Wnt proteins is a highly controlled process. In addition, deregulation of Wnt signaling has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we will review different aspects of neuronal and dendrite maturation, including spinogenesis and synaptogenesis. Finally, the role of Wnt pathway components on Alzheimer’s disease will be revised. PMID:23847469

  5. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  6. Knowledge Management Application in Measurement of Organizational Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Rezaeemanesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational maturity is the ability of retain or development of performance during the long-term and it is the result of the continued satisfaction of organization’s stakeholders during the time. Organizational maturity will occur through identification of environmental changes and upgrading of organization’s strategic plans and visions. Organizations shall be able to predict the environment and adapt their planning to it. Therefore, for achieving maturity, organizations shall monitor its environmental factors changes continuously. On the other hand, today knowledge is the only confidential source for creating the sustainable competitive advantage in organizations. In addition, knowledge is a tool for capture and retain of sustainable competitive advantage for organizations and they find the importance of knowledge as a strategic source, more and more. In this research, organization’s maturity and knowledge management models have been introduced and a model for measurement of maturity level of organizations has been presented. This research approach was to use knowledge management activities for managing of environmental changes knowledge to creating of organizational maturity .To proving of the presented model, maturity level of 112 automotive part producers has evaluated. Finally, the results showed that the researchers' hypotheses were true and knowledge management activities and organization’s maturity were correlated. For hypotheses test and measuring the questionnaires validity Pearson correlation coefficient has used.

  7. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine

  8. Spiritual Maturation and Religious Behaviors in Christian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Ronald D.; Mellberg, Kimberlee

    2008-01-01

    Spiritual maturation processes of internalization and questing were assessed at a Christian university to determine their relationship to year in school and certain religious behaviors. This was a first step toward the development of a new model of Christian higher education that will intentionally facilitate spiritual maturation. A group of 179…

  9. Reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Predko-Engel, A.; Kaminek, M.; Langova, K.; Kowalski, P.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation method (CVM). BACKGROUND: Skeletal maturity estimation can influence the manner and time of orthodontic treatment. The CVM method evaluates skeletal growth on the basis of the changes in the morphology of cervical vertebrae C2

  10. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages o...

  11. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  12. 7 CFR 915.332 - Florida avocado maturity regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Florida avocado maturity regulation. 915.332 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AVOCADOS GROWN IN SOUTH FLORIDA Container and Pack Regulations § 915.332 Florida avocado maturity regulation....

  13. Mature Students Speak Up: Career Exploration and the Working Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Terilyn

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study was undertaken to learn more about how mature students perceive the career counselling process in a post-secondary institution. Through the use of critical incident technique this study examined how three mature students interpret their relationship between themselves and their counsellors. Significant factors identified as…

  14. CSR Maturity and Motivation in the Water Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    -mature according to the proposed CSR Maturity Framework, because it has only reached the level of CSR reporting, but neither suggests definitions of sustainability nor shows any particularly good transparency and accountability yet. Research limitations/implications: - The research is limited to water companies...

  15. Debt-maturity structures should match risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapenski, L C

    1999-12-01

    Key to any debt-maturity matching strategy is financing assets with the appropriate debt structure. Financial managers need to establish an optimal capital structure and then choose the best maturity-matching structure for their debt. Two maturity-matching strategies that are available to healthcare financial managers are the accounting approach and the finance approach. The accounting approach, which defines asset maturities as current or fixed, is a riskier financing strategy than the finance approach, which defines asset maturities as permanent or temporary. The added risk occurs because of the accounting approach's heavy reliance on short-term debt. The accounting approach offers the potential for lower costs at the expense of higher risk. Healthcare financial managers who believe the financing function should support the organization's operations without adding undue risk should use the finance approach to maturity matching. Asset maturities in those organizations then should be considered permanent or temporary rather than current or fixed, and the debt-maturity structure should reflect this.

  16. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  17. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  18. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  19. The maturation and germination of Phytophthora ramorum Chlamydospores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron L. Smith; Everett M. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydospores are a distinctive feature of Phytophthora ramorum. They are formed quickly in agar, and within colonized leaves. We followed their development and maturation in vitro and in vivo, and studied conditions affecting their germination. Cell walls of mature P. ramorum chlamydospores...

  20. Social Maturity and Executive Function among Deaf Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Kronenberger, William G.; Rosica, Mark; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Durkin, Andreana; Machmer, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Kathryn L.

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments examined relations among social maturity, executive function, language, and cochlear implant (CI) use among deaf high school and college students. Experiment 1 revealed no differences between deaf CI users, deaf nonusers, and hearing college students in measures of social maturity. However, deaf students (both CI users and…

  1. Experiences with the Capability Maturity Model in a research environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der M.J.; Vreke, J.; Wal, van der B.; Symons, A.

    1996-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at evaluating the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in the context of a research organization. Part of the evaluation was a standard CMM assessment. It was found that CMM could be applied to a research organization, although its five maturity levels were considered

  2. In vitro maturation alters gene expression in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V; Biase, Fernando H; De Bem, Tiago H; Mesquita, Lígia G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, André L; Furlan, Luiz R; Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression profiling of in vivo- and in vitro-matured bovine oocytes can identify transcripts related to the developmental potential of oocytes. Nonetheless, the effects of in vitro culturing oocytes are yet to be fully understood. We tested the effects of in vitro maturation on the transcript profile of oocytes collected from Bos taurus indicus cows. We quantified the expression of 1488 genes in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes. Of these, 51 genes were up-regulated, whereas 56 were down-regulated (≥2-fold) in in vivo-matured oocytes in comparison with in vitro-matured oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nine genes confirmed the microarray results of differential expression between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes (EZR, EPN1, PSEN2, FST, IGFBP3, RBBP4, STAT3, FDPS and IRS1). We interrogated the results for enrichment of Gene Ontology categories and overlap with protein-protein interactions. The results revealed that the genes altered by in vitro maturation are mostly related to the regulation of oocyte metabolism. Additionally, analysis of protein-protein interactions uncovered two regulatory networks affected by the in vitro culture system. We propose that the differentially expressed genes are candidates for biomarkers of oocyte competence. In vitro oocyte maturation can affect the abundance of specific transcripts and are likely to deplete the developmental competence.

  3. Predicting Two Components of Career Maturity in School Based Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy A.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses of data on career maturity, work commitment, work values, self-efficacy, age, and career decidedness were conducted for 367 Australian students in grades 8-12. Chief predictors of career maturity attitudes were age, gender, and career certainty. Commitment and career indecision were the main predictors of career…

  4. Recognition: a key retention strategy for the mature nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Hampton, Linda; Walton, Ann Marie; Carroll, Tracy; Strickler, Laura

    2010-03-01

    Recognition of staff can be one of the easiest, cost-effective strategies to retain experienced mature nursing staff. The authors discuss the Senior and Generational Excellence initiative that identifies strategies and brings attention to the unique skills and needs of mature professional nurses.

  5. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  6. Measuring e-Government Maturity: A meta-synthesis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaushi Agron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many governments in the world have created e-government initiatives including developed and developing countries. In order to better understand e-government evolution, different maturity models have been developed by many authors. In this paper the most cited e-government maturity models are analyzed using the meta-synthesis approach. As a result, five stages of e-government maturity are identified. The comparative results show the supported stages by each e-government initiative as important elements in the decision making process. This paper is attempting to show that although there are many models for measuring e-government maturity, they all converge on one common model. The contribution of this paper is in simplifying work for researchers when choosing the right maturity model.

  7. Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment: A Maturity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.

    This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a ­customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.

  8. Transient domain formation in membrane-bound organelles undergoing maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Sens, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    The membrane components of cellular organelles have been shown to segregate into domains as the result of biochemical maturation. We propose that the dynamical competition between maturation and lateral segregation of membrane components regulates domain formation. We study a two-component fluid membrane in which enzymatic reaction irreversibly converts one component into another and phase separation triggers the formation of transient membrane domains. The maximum domain size is shown to depend on the maturation rate as a power law similar to the one observed for domain growth with time in the absence of maturation, despite this time dependence not being verified in the case of irreversible maturation. This control of domain size by enzymatic activity could play a critical role in regulating exchange between organelles or within compartmentalized organelles such as the Golgi apparatus.

  9. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  10. Meristem maturation and inflorescence architecture--lessons from the Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon Ju; Eshed, Yuval; Lippman, Zachary B

    2014-02-01

    Plant apical meristems (AMs) grow continuously by delicately balancing cells leaving at the periphery to form lateral organs with slowly dividing central domain cells that replenish reservoirs of pluripotent cells. This balance can be modified by signals originating from within and outside the meristem, and their integration results in a gradual maturation process that often culminates with the meristem differentiating into a flower. Accompanying this 'meristem maturation' are changes in spacing and size of lateral organs and in rates at which lateral meristems are released from apical dominance. Modulation of distinct meristem maturation parameters through environmental and genetic changes underlies the remarkable diversity of shoot architectures. Here, we discuss recent studies relating the dynamics of meristem maturation with organization of floral branching systems--inflorescences--in the nightshades. From this context, we suggest general principles on how factors coordinating meristem maturation impact shoot organization more broadly. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Maturity assessment and curve progression in girls with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James O; Browne, Richard H; McConnell, Sharon J; Margraf, Susan A; Cooney, Timothy E; Finegold, David N

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis progression during adolescence is closely related to patient maturity. Maturity has various indicators, including chronological age, height and weight changes, and skeletal and sexual maturation. It is not certain which of these indicators correlates most strongly with scoliosis progression. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate various maturity measurements and how they relate to scoliosis progression. Physically immature girls with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated every six months through their growth spurt with serial spinal radiographs; hand skeletal ages; Oxford pelvic scores; Risser sign determinations; height; weight; sexual staging; and serologic studies of the levels of selected growth factors, estradiol, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin. These measurements were then correlated with the curve-acceleration phase. The period and pattern of curve acceleration began during Risser stage 0 for all patients. Skeletal maturation scores derived with the use of the Tanner-Whitehouse-III RUS method, particularly those for the metacarpals and phalanges, were superior to all other indicators of maturity. Regression of the scores provided good estimates of maturity relative to the period of curve progression (Pearson r = 0.93). The initiation of this period occurred simultaneously with digital changes from Tanner-Whitehouse-III stage F to G. At this stage, curves also separated into rapid, moderate, and low-acceleration patterns, with specific curve types in the rapid and moderate-acceleration groups. The low-acceleration group was not confined to a specific curve type. The curve-acceleration phase separates curves into various types of curve progression. The Tanner-Whitehouse-III RUS scores are highly correlated with timing relative to the curve-acceleration phase and provide better maturity determination and prognosis determination during adolescence than the other parameters tested. Accurate skeletal maturity determination

  12. In vivo induction of oocyte maturation and ovulation in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Tokumoto

    Full Text Available The maturation of fish oocytes is a well-characterized system induced by progestins via non-genomic actions. In a previous study, we demonstrated that diethylstilbestrol (DES, a non-steroidal estrogen, induces fish oocyte maturation via the membrane progestin receptor (mPR. Here, we attempted to evaluate the effect of DES as an environmental endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC upon fish oocyte maturation using live zebrafish. DES triggered oocyte maturation within several hours in vivo when administrated directly into the surrounding water. The natural teleost maturation-inducing hormone, 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20beta-DHP also induced oocyte maturation in vivo. Steroids such as testosterone, progesterone or 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone were also effective in vivo. Further studies indicated that externally applied 17,20beta-DHP even induced ovulation. In contrast to 17,20beta -DHP, DES induced maturation but not ovulation. Theoretically this assay system provides a means to distinguish pathways involved in the induction of ovulation, which are known to be induced by genomic actions from the pathway normally involved in the induction of oocyte maturation, a typical non-genomic action-dependent pathway. In summary, we have demonstrated the effect of EDCs on fish oocyte maturation in vivo. To address the effects, we have explored a conceptually new approach to distinguish between the genomic and non-genomic actions induced by steroids. The assay can be applied to screens of progestin-like effects upon oocyte maturation and ovulation for small molecules of pharmacological agents or EDCs.

  13. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  14. Social Maturity and Executive Function Among Deaf Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Kronenberger, William G; Rosica, Mark; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Durkin, Andreana; Machmer, Elizabeth; Schmitz, Kathryn L

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments examined relations among social maturity, executive function, language, and cochlear implant (CI) use among deaf high school and college students. Experiment 1 revealed no differences between deaf CI users, deaf nonusers, and hearing college students in measures of social maturity. However, deaf students (both CI users and nonusers) reported significantly greater executive function (EF) difficulties in several domains, and EF was related to social maturity. Experiment 2 found that deaf CI users and nonusers in high school did not differ from each other in social maturity or EF, but individuals who relied on sign language reported significantly more immature behaviors than deaf peers who used spoken language. EF difficulties again were associated with social maturity. The present results indicate that EF and social maturity are interrelated, but those relations vary in different deaf subpopulations. As with academic achievement, CI use appears to have little long-term impact on EF or social maturity. Results are discussed in terms of their convergence with findings related to incidental learning and functioning in several domains.

  15. Maturation of recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qinjian; Wang, Yang; Freed, Daniel; Fu, Tong-Ming; Gimenez, Juan A; Sitrin, Robert D; Washabaugh, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The major surface antigen of Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) is a cysteine-rich, lipid-bound protein with 226 amino acids. Recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) with associated lipids can self-assemble into 22-nm immunogenic spherical particles, which are used in licensed Hepatitis B vaccines. Little is known about the structural evolvement or maturation upon assembly beyond an elevated level of disulfide formation. In this paper, we further characterized the maturation of HBsAg particles with respect to their degree of cross-linking, morphological changes, and changes in conformational flexibility. The lipid-containing rHBsAg particles undergo KSCN- and heat-induced maturation by formation of additional intra- and inter-molecular disulfide bonds. Direct measurements with atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed morphological changes upon maturation through KSCN-induced and heat-/storage-incurred oxidative refolding. Particle uniformity and regularity was greatly improved, and protrusions formed by the protein subunits were more prominent on the surface of the mature particles. Decreased conformational flexibility in the mature rHBsAg particles was demonstrated by millisecond-scale unfolding kinetics in the presence of an environment-sensitive conformation probe. Both the accessible hydrophobic cavities under native conditions and the changeable hydrophobic cavities upon denaturant-induced unfolding showed substantial decrease upon maturation of the rHBsAg particles. These changes in the structural properties may be critical for the antigenicity and immuno-genicity of this widely-used vaccine component.

  16. Insulin-like growth factor I: a biologic maturation indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; Soliman, Sanaa Abou Zeid; Foda, Manal Yehya; Fayed, Mona Mohamed Salah

    2012-11-01

    Determination of the maturation level and the subsequent evaluation of growth potential during preadolescence and adolescence are important for optimal orthodontic treatment planning and timing. This study was undertaken to evaluate the applicability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) blood level as a maturation indicator by correlating it to the cervical vertebral maturation index. The study was conducted with 120 subjects, equally divided into 60 males (ages, 10-18 years) and 60 females (ages, 8-16 years). A lateral cephalometric radiograph and a blood sample were taken from each subject. For each subject, cervical vertebral maturation and IGF-I serum level were assessed. Mean values of IGF-I in each stage of cervical vertebral maturation were calculated, and the means in each stage were statistically compared with those of the other stages. The IGF-I mean value at each cervical vertebral maturation stage was statistically different from the mean values at the other stages. The highest mean values were observed in stage 4, followed by stage 5 in males and stage 3 in females. IGF-I serum level is a reliable maturation indicator that could be applied in orthodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Haemoglobin polymorphism in Gadus morhua: Genotypic differences in maturing age and within-season gonad maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, J.; Giskeödegård, R.; Sundnes, G.

    1983-09-01

    276 specimens of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) were caught during spawning in a restricted area of the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, in April and May 1979. Genotypes at the polymorphic haemoglobin locus Hbl differed significantly with respect to mean age at maturation (in males) and mean gonadic development stage (in females). There was no indication of population mixing in the genotypic composition at Hbl or at any of the 4 polymorphic tissue enzyme loci investigated ( LDH-3, IDH-1, PGM, and PGI-1. The findings obtained were considered with regard to temperature-related differences in the functional properties of Hbl molecules, and genotypic differences in growth, age at maturation, and fishing mortality. At the present stage of investigation, the natural selection pattern seems directional and strong. However, the Hbl allele frequencies observed in cod from the examined areas reveal no detectable changes over a period of two decades (˜ 4 generations). The current pattern of commercial exploitation causes, through size selection, a modification of the rate of erosion of the inferior allele, but additional factors must be in force, which play a role in its current abundance in an evolutionary perspective. The observed Hbl genotypic differences in the exact within-season time for spawning might be one such factor. A potential sexual difference in genotypic fitness might be another, but this has yet to be confirmed. The apparent existence of considerable natural and artificial selection forces acting upon cod haemoglobin genotypes makes Hbl allele frequencies unreliable for use in population structure analyses.

  18. Mall shopping preferences and patronage of mature shoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. Rousseau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Retailers often consider other market segments ahead of mature consumers because they perceive that they have limited purchasing power. This study addressed this misperception by investigating the buying behaviour of mature consumers.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the buying behaviour of mature consumers (older than 55 in Port Elizabeth shopping malls.Motivation for the study: The perception of mature shoppers as old people with limited financial resources is untrue. This study investigates the behaviours of mature shoppers.Research design, approach and method: A model guided the investigation. The authors facilitated four focus groups to gain insight into mature consumers’ buying behaviours. A field survey followed with a sample of mall shoppers (n = 680. The authors performed content analysis of the focus group material and used SPSS and AMOS programs to analyse the data quantitatively.Main findings: Focus group interviews revealed specific buying behaviours of mature shoppers. The survey showed significant relationships between various determinants that influence respondents’ buying behaviours with adequate model fit indices. These results confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the model that comprises mall shopping anticipation, experience and patronage.Practical/managerial implications: Mature shoppers’ expectations exceeded their experiences, suggesting dissatisfaction with some aspects of their experiences. Retailers and shopping mall managers need to redesign malls if they wish to cater for the segment of ageing shoppers and their spending power.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the research available in South Africa on service at shopping malls that cater for mature consumers.

  19. Quality Management Systems Implementation Compared With Organizational Maturity in Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Jafari, Mehdi; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2015-07-27

    A quality management system can provide a framework for continuous improvement in order to increase the probability of customers and other stakeholders' satisfaction. The test maturity model helps organizations to assess the degree of maturity in implementing effective and sustained quality management systems; plan based on the current realities of the organization and prioritize their improvement programs. We aim to investigate and compare the level of organizational maturity in hospitals with the status of quality management systems implementation. This analytical cross sectional study was conducted among hospital administrators and quality experts working in hospitals with over 200 beds located in Tehran. In the first step, 32 hospitals were selected and then 96 employees working in the selected hospitals were studied. The data were gathered using the implementation checklist of quality management systems and the organization maturity questionnaire derived from ISO 10014. The content validity was calculated using Lawshe method and the reliability was estimated using test - retest method and calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software. According to the table, the mean score of organizational maturity among hospitals in the first stage of quality management systems implementation was equal to those in the third stage and hypothesis was rejected (p-value = 0.093). In general, there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the first and third level hospitals (in terms of implementation of quality management systems). Overall, the findings of the study show that there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the hospitals in different levels of the quality management systems implementation and in fact, the maturity of the organizations cannot be attributed to the implementation of such systems. As a result, hospitals

  20. The Influence of Debt Maturity Structure on Accounting Conservatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Huiqing; Chen Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    According to the related data of A-share listed companies in 2009-2013,through extension model based on Basu's surplus - the stock return rate model ,this paper studies that the debt maturity structure influences on accounting conservatism. The empirical study finds that the amount of debt affects significantly the prudence,that is,the greater the amount of the debt contract con- cluded, the stronger role of accounting conservatism is ; Debt maturity have significant relationship with accounting conservatism. For the shorter debt maturity, the enterprise is easier to choose more prudent accounting policy, and when the period is longer, accounting conservatism is relatively weaker.

  1. Dual function of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, F; Heim, S; Kiess, M; Maiorino, M; Roveri, A; Wissing, J; Flohé, L

    1999-08-27

    The selenoprotein phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) changes its physical characteristics and biological functions during sperm maturation. PHGPx exists as a soluble peroxidase in spermatids but persists in mature spermatozoa as an enzymatically inactive, oxidatively cross-linked, insoluble protein. In the midpiece of mature spermatozoa, PHGPx protein represents at least 50 percent of the capsule material that embeds the helix of mitochondria. The role of PHGPx as a structural protein may explain the mechanical instability of the mitochondrial midpiece that is observed in selenium deficiency.

  2. Stochastic Model of Maturation and Vesicular Exchange in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical organization of membrane-bound organelles along intracellular transport pathways relies on vesicular exchange between organelles and on biochemical maturation of the organelle content by specific enzymes. The relative importance of each mechanism in controlling organelle dynamics remains controversial, in particular for transport through the Golgi apparatus. Using a stochastic model, we show that full maturation of membrane-bound compartments can be seen as the stochastic escape from a steady-state in which export is dominated by vesicular exchange. We show that full maturation can contribute a significant fraction of the total out-flux for small organelles such as endosomes and Golgi cisternae.

  3. Relationship between the IT projects performance and project management maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the relationship between performance of IT projects and the project management maturity of performing organization. The research was conducted through a survey with 185 respondents during the year 2010. The project performance was evaluated through the first two dimensions Shenhar et al (2001 - project efficiency and customer impact. The maturity of project management was assessed by the level of formalization of procedures for project management described in PMBoK. The data were analyzed using statistical procedures (factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, cluster analysis and bivariate analysis and revealed that (i that organizations with higher maturity have a superior performance in their projects, and (ii different dimensions of maturity has different impacts on the performance of IT projects.

  4. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  5. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen;

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  6. Indeks Penilaian Kematangan (Maturity Manajemen Keamanan Layanan TI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farroh Sakinah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (TI dalam mendukung terselenggaranya pelayanan yang optimal menjadi kebutuhan utama organisasi saat ini. Jaminan pengelolaan layanan dan keamanan yang baik menjadi salah satu tolok ukurnya. Pengimplementasian sebuah standar menjadi salah satu solusinya meskipun penggunaan satu buah standar dirasa belum maksimal melihat cakupan yang disediakan kurang luas sehingga diadakannya upaya penggabungan beberapa standar dengan harapan standar-standar tersebut dapat saling melengkapi. Pengimplementasian beberapa standar ini dapat dimonitoring tingkat kematangannya (maturity dengan menggunakan alat ukur penilaian kematangan (maturity. Alat ukur kematangan (maturity manajemen keamanan layanan ini merupakan gabungan pemetaan dari control objective IT Governance COBIT 4.1 yang dipenuhi kebutuhan manajemen layanannya sesuai dengan Service Management di dalam ITIL v3 (Information Technology Infrastructure Library. Selanjutnya kebutuhan manajemen layanan ini diukur dengan maturity level COBIT 4.1 dan disesuaikan dengan framework ISO 27000 untuk memaksimalkan manajemen keamanan informasi.

  7. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past ... scans showed that their brains' outer mantle, or cortex, thickens more rapidly during childhood, reaching its peak ...

  8. Effect of insecticide application on pests of late maturing pigeonpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of insecticide application on pests of late maturing pigeonpea cultivar ... University of Nigeria, Nsukka agro-ecological zone in 2000/2001 cropping season. ... control of pigoenpea pests under the integrated management concept.

  9. IMMUNE SYSTEM MATURITY AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  10. An evaluation method of hydrocarbon generating potential of highly mature and over-mature marine carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程克明; 王兆云

    1997-01-01

    How to restore the residual organic carbon and residual hydrocarbon-generating potential is discussed based on the hydrocarbon degradability of source rock. The results indicate there is linear function relationship between the restoring coefficient of residual organic carbon (Kc) and the vitrinite reflectance (Ro% ) of various kinds of source rock, but the relationship is secondary functional between the restoring coefficient of residual hydrocarbon-generating potential (Ks) and the vitrinite reflectance (R0%). It is pointed out that Kc= (1 - Dresidual)/(1-Dprimary), Xs=Kc (Dprimary/Dresidual). The restoration of residual organic carbon and hydrocarbon-gen era ting potential of the Cambrian and Ordovician highly mature marine carbonate in the Tarim Basin and North China region shows that the lower limit value of hydrocarbon generating potential and the organic matter abundance of carbonate source rock are basically the same as that of clastic rock. The technical difficulty in hydrocarbon generating eva

  11. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max) pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Mohan B; Gresshoff Peter M; Wong Chui E; Bhalla Prem L; Haerizadeh Farzad

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. ...

  12. In vitro maturation and artificial activation of donkey oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gaoping; Wu, Kaifeng; Cui, Liang; Zhao, Lixia; Liu, Yiyi; Tan, Xiuwen; Zhou, Huanmin

    2011-09-01

    Three media were evaluated for their ability to support in vitro maturation of donkey (Equus asinus) oocytes and their development after parthenogenetic activation. The basal medium for Medium 1 (M1) and Medium 2 (M2) was M199 and DMEM/F12 respectively, whereas, Medium 3 (M3) consisted of equal parts (v/v) of M199 and DMEM/F12. All three media were supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum, 0.01 units/mL porcine FSH, 0.01 units/mL equine LH, 200 ng/mL insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF-I), 10 μl/mL insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS), 0.1 mg/mL taurine, 0.1 mg/mL L-cysteine, 0.05 mg/mL L-glutamine, 0.11 mg/mL sodium pyruvate, and 25 mg/mL gentamycin. There were no significant differences among the three maturation media for oocyte maturation. Maturation rate of donkey oocytes in M1 was 53% for compact (Cp) cumulus-oocyte complexes and 75% for expanded (Ex) cumulus-oocyte complexes; in M2 these were 55 and 77%, respectively; and in M3, 58 and 75%. The percentage of cleaved parthenotes and 4- or 8-cell embryos were not significantly different for oocytes matured in the various media (61 and 24% for M1; 66 and 32% for M2; and 67 and 33% for M3). Oocytes matured in M3 tended to yield a higher rate of advanced embryo development (morula) than oocytes matured in M1 (22 vs 9%; P = 0.07). In conclusion, donkey oocytes were matured and parthenogenetically activated in vitro, using methods similar to those used in the horse.

  13. Mature cystic teratoma of the pancreas in a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.W.; Liu, K.L.; Li, Y.W. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lin, W.C. [Dept. of Pathology, National Taiwan Univ. Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-04-01

    A cystic pancreatic tumour is rare in a child and a mature cystic teratoma of the pancreas is even rarer. This is the first demonstration of the CT appearance of such a tumour in a child. We present a 2-year-old boy who presented with a palpable abdominal mass. Abdominal CT revealed a huge cystic mass in the upper abdomen. Pathology disclosed a mature cystic teratoma originating from the pancreas. (orig.)

  14. Information system maturity and the hospitality enterprise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Garbin Pranicevic; Nikša Alfirević; Mojca Indihar Štemberger

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the relationship between the maturity of hotels’ information systems and their performance. This study uses customized models of information system (IS) maturity and hotel performance measurement. Since we wanted to include the intangible aspects of performance, we opted for an adapted application of the Balanced Scorecard model. In the empirical part of the paper, fundamental constructs of the model are verified, while the individual items...

  15. Results of measurement procedure of innovation maturity of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic approaches of innovation maturity of business has been applied. The realization procedure of innovation maturity as an example of organizations of Perm’s region has been call attention. The preliminary potential assessments of perception of plans innovations will give optimize selection innovative strategy for organization and increase the effectiveness of business for microeconomics and region’s level.

  16. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  17. A Disposable Sensor For Assessing Artocarpus heterophyllus L. (Jackfruit) Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Chew Cheen; Chang Pek Ju; Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff; Mohd Noor Ahmad; Maxsim Yap Mee Sim

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work was an attempt to monitor the ripeness process and to investigate the different maturity stages of jackfruit by chemometric treatment of the data obtained from the disposable sensor. Response of the sensor strip fabricated using screenprinting technology was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the classification model constructed by means of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) enable unknown maturity stages of jackfruit to be identified. Results ge...

  18. Mature ovarian teratoma with large floating fat globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Min; Kim, See Hyung; Hwang, Il Seon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mature ovarian teratoma (dermoid cyst), a germ cell neoplasm, is one of the most common ovarian tumors. It is composed of derivatives of three germ cell layers. A mature ovarian teratoma with intracystic fat globules is rare. The pathogenesis on the formation of fat globules is unclear. Here we present a pathologically proven cystic ovarian teratoma with three large floating fat globules in a young woman with CT and MR findings.

  19. How to Be a Better Consumer of Security Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-21

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University How to Be a Better Consumer of Security Maturity Models October 21, 2014 Julia Allen & Dr. Nader Mehravari...A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How to Be a Better Consumer of Security Maturity Models 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...REACTIVE AND TAKEN UNAWARE BY SOCIAL MEDIA broadcasting • FACEBOOK AND TWITTER PRESENCE • BROADCAST STANDARD MARKETING VIA SOCIAL MEDIA • TARGETED

  20. Guidelines for assessing the knowledge management maturity of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Kruger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article Kruger and Snyman hypothesized that progressions in knowledge management maturity (from a strategic perspective are directly related to an increased ability to speed up the strategic cycle of imitation, consolidation and innovation. The arguments proposed, however, neglected to supply the reader with a practical toolkit or even a roadmap (a time-related matrix, or questionnaire to successfully measure succession in knowledge management maturity. This article builds on the previous one and proposes a questionnaire consisting of six sections, containing 101 descriptive questions, to enable organizations to test and assess their knowledge management maturity empirically. The development of an instrument to measure knowledge management maturity required adhering to a research design that combined theoretical propositions with practical experimentation. As a point of departure, a knowledge management maturity matrix consisting of seven maturity levels was formulated. All questions contained within the matrix were benchmarked against a survey questionnaire developed by the public management service of the OECD (PUMA and were also pre-tested and validated. This process of refinement led to the formulation of the Knowledge Management Maturity Questionnaire. To avoid any taint of this research being based only on theoretical propositions, the questionnaire was tested by 178 master students of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in nine different industries. The proposed questionnaire provides a bridge between theoretical propositions and practical usability, not only enabling knowledge management practitioners to assess the level of knowledge management maturity reached successfully but, more importantly, also serving as a guideline to institutionalize further and future knowledge management endeavours.

  1. Information system maturity and the hospitality enterprise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garbin Pranicevic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the relationship between the maturity of hotels’ information systems and their performance. This study uses customized models of information system (IS maturity and hotel performance measurement. Since we wanted to include the intangible aspects of performance, we opted for an adapted application of the Balanced Scorecard model. In the empirical part of the paper, fundamental constructs of the model are verified, while the individual items are further evaluated by employing discriminant analysis to distinguish hotels with relatively low and high performance levels. The findings demonstrate the existence of a significant and positive relationship between IS maturity and two dimensions of performance in the hospitality industry – process quality and guest relationships. The level of employee development and financial performance do not seem to be related to IS maturity. Although representative, the sample is relatively small, and the primary data were collected in a single country. The paper provides a framework of IS maturity items in the hospitality industry which seem to contribute to hotels’ business performances. As such, it can serve as a practical framework relevant for IT management in tourism and hospitality. The paper addresses a topic already discussed in a range of industries, although it does not seem to have been empirically evaluated by many studies of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, a new theoretical model of IT maturity in tourism and hospitality is proposed.

  2. Maternal synchronization of gestational length and lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Besnard

    Full Text Available Among all mammals, fetal growth and organ maturation must be precisely synchronized with gestational length to optimize survival at birth. Lack of pulmonary maturation is the major cause of infant mortality in preterm birth. Whether fetal or maternal genotypes influence the close relationship between the length of gestation and lung function at birth is unknown. Structural and biochemical indicators of pulmonary maturity were measured in two mouse strains whose gestational length differed by one day. Shorter gestation in C57BL/6J mice was associated with advanced morphological and biochemical pulmonary development and better perinatal survival when compared to A/J pups born prematurely. After ovarian transplantation, A/J pups were born early in C57BL/6J dams and survived after birth, consistent with maternal control gestational length. Expression of genes critical for perinatal lung function was assessed in A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. A subset of mRNAs important for perinatal respiratory adaptation was selectively induced in the A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. mRNAs precociously induced after ovarian transfer indicated an important role for the transcription factors C/EBPα and CREB in maternally induced lung maturation. We conclude that fetal lung maturation is determined by both fetal and maternal genotypes. Ovarian transfer experiments demonstrated that maternal genotype determines the timing of birth and can influence fetal lung growth and maturation to ensure perinatal survival.

  3. Nuclear status of immature and mature stallion spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, G M; Retamal, C A; Tobella, L; Arnholdt, A C V; López, M L

    2006-07-15

    'The highly packed chromatin of mature spermatozoa results from replacement of somatic-like histones by highly basic arginine- and cysteine-rich protamines during spermatogenesis, with additional conformational changes in chromatin structure during epididymal transit. The objective of the present study was to compare the nuclear characteristics of immature and mature epididymal stallion spermatozoa, using a variety of experimental approaches. Resistance to in vitro decondensation of chromatin, following exposure to SDS-DTT and alkaline thioglycolate, increased significantly in mature spermatozoa. Evaluation of the thiol-disulfide status (monobromobimane labeling) demonstrated that immature cells obtained from ductulli efferentes contained mostly thiol groups, whereas these groups were oxidized in mature cells collected from the cauda epididymidis. Based on atomic absorption spectrophotometry, maturation of stallion spermatozoa was accompanied by a 60% reduction in the Zn(2+) content of sperm cells, concomitant with increased concentrations of this ion in epididymal fluid. Furthermore, the degree of disulfide bonding was inversely correlated with susceptibility of chromatin to acid denaturation (SCSA). Collectively, these data were consistent with the hypothesis that maturation of stallion spermatozoa involves oxidation of sulphydryl groups to form intra- and intermolecular disulfide links between adjacent protamines, with loss of zinc as an integral feature. These changes endow mechanical and chemical resistance to the nucleus, ensuring efficient transmission of the paternal genome at fertilization.

  4. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

    2004-04-01

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  5. Approach to Evaluation of Maturity Level in Enterprise Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Malleuve Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current business competitiveness is given by a high capacity of these to adapt and be fl exible to change, the context in which are important enterprise architectures that align technology with business goals. One way to achieve such alignment is through the application of models to assess the maturity to move to the architecture of the current state to the desired state. The literature of process maturity models, information systems, frameworks and even enterprise architecture, evaluating variables generally organizational performance, but lacks a maturity model to assess these variables within each dimension enterprise architecture with an integrated approach, making more specifi c areas for improvement. This article guidelines for assessing the level of maturity of enterprise architecture from a theoretical elements based on the size of enterprise architecture and a set of phases to determine the maturity level of the architecture are proposed based questionnaire pattern analysis measuring the maturity level proposed by some authors. Finally results of the application of the instrument in some Cuban companies leaders in the use of technology are presented.

  6. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  7. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  8. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  9. How to manage sustainable supply chain? The issue of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Rudnicka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The issue of managing sustainability in supply chain seems to be more and more complex. There are many aspects that need to be taken into consideration when planning, implementing and monitoring environmental and social conditions of supply chains. Despite many works, already published, on the concept of sustainable development (SD is seems that the issue of assessment and especially the issue of maturity in the light of the SD concept is still not developed enough. Methods: The general aim of the paper is the analysis of the maturity issue in the context of sustainability. The main objective is to conceptualize the idea of maturity in sustainable supply chain. Beside the literature research the own proposition of theoretical model was described. Results: The article describes the issue of maturity as an element of managing sustainable development in the supply chain. The author presented a theoretical model of the maturity. Moreover the author gave some recommendations how to manage the sustainability issues in supply chain in more mature approach and introduced some useful tools among which are: certification, code of conduct and code of ethics, audits, projects etc. Conclusions: The issue of maturity seems to be very useful for proper understanding the idea of sustainable development in supply chain. The developed model can be used as self-assessment method to check at which level of implementation the idea of SD is analyzed in supply chain. Furthermore, the next phase of the planned research in form of practical verification of the model was advised as well as a research of identification of new factors and tools in analyzed area.

  10. Polytrauma Increases Susceptibility to Pseudomonas Pneumonia in Mature Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Isaiah R; Ghosh, Sarbani; Fuchs, Anja; Hilliard, Julia; Davis, Christopher G; Bochicchio, Grant V; Southard, Robert E

    2016-05-01

    Pneumonia is the most common complication observed in patients with severe injuries. Although the average age of injured patients is 47 years, existing studies of the effect of injury on the susceptibility to infectious complications have focused on young animals, equivalent to a late adolescent human. We hypothesized that mature adult animals are more susceptible to infection after injury than younger counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we challenged 6 to 8-month-old mature mice to a polytrauma injury followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia and compared them to young (8-10-week-old) animals. We demonstrate that polytrauma injury increases mortality from pneumonia in mature animals (sham-pneumonia 21% vs. polytrauma-pneumonia 62%) but not younger counterparts. After polytrauma, pneumonia in mature mice is associated with higher bacterial burden in lung, increased incidence of bacteremia, and elevated levels of bacteria in the blood, demonstrating that injury decreases the ability to control the infectious challenge. We further find that polytrauma did not induce elevations in circulating cytokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6, KC, and IL-10) 24  h after injury. However, mature mice subjected to polytrauma demonstrated an exaggerated circulating inflammatory cytokine response to subsequent Pseudomonas pneumonia. Additionally, whereas prior injury increases LPS-stimulated IL-6 production by peripheral blood leukocytes from young (8-10-week-old) mice, injury does not prime IL-6 production by cell from mature adult mice. We conclude that in mature mice polytrauma results in increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas pneumonia while priming an exaggerated but ineffective inflammatory response.

  11. Low-mature gases and their resource potentiality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yongchang; WANG Xiaofeng; SHI Baoguang

    2009-01-01

    In the 80's of last century, based on the advances in natural gas exploration practice, the concepts of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas and early thermogenetic gas were proposed, and the lower limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of thermogenetic natural gases of industrial importance have been extended to 0.3%-0.4%. In accordance with the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation involved in the formation of coal-type natural gases, the upper limit Ro values of lowly evolved natural gases should be set at 0.8%-1.0%. This is the concept of low-mature gas which is commonly accepted at the present time. The Urengoy super-large gas field in western Siberian Basin is a typical example of low-mature gas field, where low-mature gas reserves account for 20% of the globally proven natural gas reserves, and this fully indicates the importance of this kind of resources. The proven reserves of natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China are approximate to 1000×108 m3, and the thermal evolution indices of source rocks are Ro=0.4%-0.8%. The δ13C1 values of methane are mainly within the range of -44‰- -39‰ (corresponding to Ro=0.6%-0.8%), and those of ethane are mainly within the range of -29‰- -26‰, indicating that these natural gases should be designated to the coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also provide strong evidence suggesting that they are the coal-type low-mature gases. If so, low-mature gas in the Turpan-Hami Basin has been accumulated to such an extent as to be equivalent to the total reserves of three large-sized gas fields, and their existence is of great significance in the study and exploration of China's low-mature gases. If it is evidenced that the source rocks of low-mature gases are related mainly to coal measures, China's abundant lowly evolved coal series resources will provide a huge resource potentiality for the generation of low-mature

  12. Petrographic maturity parameters of a Devonian shale maturation series, Appalachian Basin, USA. ICCP Thermal Indices Working Group interlaboratory exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Cardott, Brian; das Chagas, Renata Brenand A.; Flores, Deolinda; Goncalves, Paula; Hackley, Paul C.; Hower, James C.; Kern, Marcio Luciano; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; de Oliveira Mendonça, Joalice; Rego Menezes, Taissa; Newman, Jane; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sobrinho da Silva, Frederico; Viegas de Souza, Igor

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results of an interlaboratory exercise on organic matter optical maturity parameters using a natural maturation series comprised by three Devonian shale samples (Huron Member, Ohio Shale) from the Appalachian Basin, USA. This work was conducted by the Thermal Indices Working Group of the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) Commission II (Geological Applications of Organic Petrology). This study aimed to compare: 1. maturation predicted by different types of petrographic parameters (vitrinite reflectance and spectral fluorescence of telalginite), 2. reproducibility of the results for these maturation parameters obtained by different laboratories, and 3. improvements in the spectral fluorescence measurement obtained using modern detection systems in comparison with the results from historical round robin exercises.Mean random vitrinite reflectance measurements presented the highest level of reproducibility (group standard deviation 0.05) for low maturity and reproducibility diminished with increasing maturation (group standard deviation 0.12).Corrected fluorescence spectra, provided by 14 participants, showed a fair to good correspondence. Standard deviation of the mean values for spectral parameters was lowest for the low maturity sample but was also fairly low for higher maturity samples.A significant improvement in the reproducibility of corrected spectral fluorescence curves was obtained in the current exercise compared to a previous investigation of Toarcian organic matter spectra in a maturation series from the Paris Basin. This improvement is demonstrated by lower values of standard deviation and is interpreted to reflect better performance of newer photo-optical measuring systems.Fluorescence parameters measured here are in good agreement with vitrinite reflectance values for the least mature shale but indicate higher maturity than shown by vitrinite reflectance for the two more mature shales. This red shift in

  13. Evaluating the Maturity of Cybersecurity Programs for Building Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Clifford S.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Mylrea, Michael E.; Underhill, Ronald M.; Nicholls, Andrew K.

    2016-08-29

    The cyber-physical security threat to buildings is complex, non-linear, and rapidly evolving as operational and information technologies converge and connect buildings to cyberspace. Cyberattacks on buildings can exploit smart building controls and breach corporate networks, causing financial and reputational damage. This may result in the loss of sensitive building information or the disruption of, or damage to, the systems necessary for the safe and efficient operation of buildings. For the buildings and facility infrastructure, there is a need for a robust national cybersecurity strategy for buildings, guidance on the selection and implementation of appropriate cybersecurity controls for buildings, an approach to evaluate the maturity and adequacy of the cybersecurity programs. To provide an approach for evaluating the maturity of the cybersecurity programs for building control systems, the US Department of Energy’s widely used Cybersecurity Capability and Maturity Model (C2M2) has been adapted into a building control systems version. The revised model, the Buildings-C2M2 (B-C2M2) provides maturity level indicators for cybersecurity programmatic domains. A “B-C2M2 Lite” version allows facility managers and building control system engineers, or information technology personnel to perform rapid self-assessments of their cybersecurity program. Both tools have been pilot tested on several facilities. This paper outlines the concept of a maturity model, describes the B-C2M2 tools, presents results and observations from the pilot assessments, and lays out plans for future work.

  14. Lipid raft disruption protects mature neurons against amyloid oligomer toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Contrusciere, Valentina; Raggi, Carla; Fecchi, Katia; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Paradisi, Silvia; Matteucci, Andrea; Santini, Maria Teresa; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Frank, Claudio; Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2010-04-01

    A specific neuronal vulnerability to amyloid protein toxicity may account for brain susceptibility to protein misfolding diseases. To investigate this issue, we compared the effects induced by oligomers from salmon calcitonin (sCTOs), a neurotoxic amyloid protein, on cells of different histogenesis: mature and immature primary hippocampal neurons, primary astrocytes, MG63 osteoblasts and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. In mature neurons, sCTOs increased apoptosis and induced neuritic and synaptic damages similar to those caused by amyloid beta oligomers. Immature neurons and the other cell types showed no cytotoxicity. sCTOs caused cytosolic Ca(2+) rise in mature, but not in immature neurons and the other cell types. Comparison of plasma membrane lipid composition showed that mature neurons had the highest content in lipid rafts, suggesting a key role for them in neuronal vulnerability to sCTOs. Consistently, depletion in gangliosides protected against sCTO toxicity. We hypothesize that the high content in lipid rafts makes mature neurons especially vulnerable to amyloid proteins, as compared to other cell types; this may help explain why the brain is a target organ for amyloid-related diseases.

  15. Timing of the maturation transition in haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, D; Wright, P J; O'Sullivan, M

    2010-10-01

    The timing of maturation in haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus was examined using changes in gonad development, follicle stimulating hormone β (FSH-β) transcript expression profile, growth and condition of 1 year old females held under a common environment between the summer and winter solstices. The circumnuclear ring, cortical alveolus and vitellogenic oocyte stages were first observed in August, October and November, respectively. FSH-β transcript levels did not change significantly until September but increased markedly thereafter in maturing fish. A combined analysis of the mean oocyte diameter of the leading cohort, histological staging and FSH-β transcript profile provided evidence of a commitment to maturation by October or November. Contrary to that previously proposed for gadoid species, histological analysis of field-caught immature M. aeglefinus during the spawning season indicated that cortical alveolar, rather than circumnuclear ring, stage oocytes provided definitive evidence of maturation. A decrease in relative liver size following the summer solstice suggested a possible link between energy status and maturation.

  16. A knowledge management framework to grow innovation capability maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denéle Esterhuizen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Innovation is a key prerequisite for being organisationally competitive. Therefore, it is imperative that enterprises grow and mature their innovation capability. Knowledge management plays a fundamental role in the ability of enterprises to innovate successfully.Objectives: There are no formal guidelines for using knowledge management to grow innovation capability maturity. The researchers intended to develop a knowledge management framework that enables innovation capability.Method: The scope of the research did not allow for the practical implementation of the framework. However, five industry and subject theory experts evaluated the applicability and usability of the framework.Results: All five experts reported that enterprises could use knowledge management tools and organisational facilitating conditions to allow innovation capability maturity to grow. The importance of the framework is that it gives guidelines for using knowledge management as a vehicle for growing innovation capability maturity.Conclusion: The framework determines whether enterprises’ organisational conditions and knowledge management tools are sufficient to sustain or grow their innovation capability maturity.

  17. Maturation evolution of chardonnay grape for juice preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender Angelica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the evolution of the maturation of the “Chardonnay” grape variety for the preparation of juices and its adequacy to the current legislation. Grapes from the 2015 harvest from São Lourenço do Sul-RS were used. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial design, with the treatment factor being the maturation stages. The physicochemical analysis of titratable acidity, soluble solids, relative density, total sugar, alcohol content, volatile acidity and SS/TA ratio were carried out in EPAGRI – Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Company of Santa Catarina, in the Videira Experimental Station (Videira SC/Brazil. Statistical analysis of the maturation stages was given by linear regression models. When comparing the maturation points of 17∘Brix and 19∘Brix to 15∘Brix, volatile acidity and alcohol content did not fit to the model, while the other tested variables fit properly. Elaborated juices had a decrease in titratable acidity and percentage increments for soluble solids, SS/TA ratio and total sugars for the harvest points at 17 and 19∘Brix. For 15∘Brix and 17∘Brix, nonconformity was observed with the identity and quality standards in relation to soluble solids and SS/TA ratio and relative density. At maturation point 19∘Brix all variables were found to be consistent.

  18. Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murison, G.; Chubb, C.B.H.; Maeda, S.; Gemmell, M.A.; Huberman, E.

    1987-08-01

    Monocyte maturation markers were induced in cultured human myeloblastic ML-2 leukemia cells after treatment for 1-6 days with 0.03-30 ..mu..M ..delta../sup 9/-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana. After a 2-day or longer treatment, 2- to 5-fold increases were found in the percentages of cells exhibiting reactivity with either the murine OKM1 monoclonal antibody of the Leu-M5 monoclonal antibody, staining positively for nonspecific esterase activity, and displaying a promonocyte morphology. The increases in these differentiation markers after treatment with 0.03-1 ..mu..M THC were dose dependent. At this dose range, THC did not cause an inhibition of cell growth. The THC-induced cell maturation was also characterized by specific changes in the patterns of newly synthesized proteins. The THC-induced differentiation did not, however, result in cells with a highly developed mature monocyte phenotype. However, treatment of these incompletely matured cells with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate of 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, which are inducers of differentiation in myeloid leukemia cells (including ML-2 cells), produced cells with a mature monocyte morphology. The ML-2 cell system described here may be a useful tool for deciphering critical biochemical events that lead to the cannabinoid-induced incomplete cell differentiation of ML-2 cells and other related cell types. Findings obtained from this system may have important implications for studies of cannabinoid effects on normal human bone-marrow progenitor cells.

  19. Assessing Stewardship Maturity: Use Case Results and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Peng, G.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing the current stewardship maturity state of datasets is an important part of ensuring and improving the way datasets are documented, preserved, stewarded, and disseminated to users. It is a critical step towards meeting U.S. federal regulations, organizational requirements, and user needs, especially in the area of data quality. Stewardship maturity assessment models provide a uniform framework for a consistent assessment within the context of data management in organizations and portfolios, and stewardship of individual datasets, respectively. A key component of dataset and stewardship models maturity is data quality and documentation of the quality. The Data Stewardship Maturity Matrix(DSMM) developed in partnership with NOAA's National Centers of Environmental Information (NCEI) and the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites-North Carolina (CICS-NC) has been used to assess stewardship maturity of highly-utilized datasets within NCEI. Consistent application of the model across heterogenous data types (satellite, in situ, regional, global, etc.) and across multiple levels of stewardship support has proven beneficial but challenging.This presentation will demonstrate the utility of the DSMM through results from use case studies and its application for documenting data quality, indicate the challenges of consistent implementation and provide recommendations on improved application.

  20. Structural and Maturational Covariance in Early Childhood Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiujuan; Li, Gang; Lu, Zhaohua; Gao, Wei; Wang, Li; Shen, Dinggang; Zhu, Hongtu; Gilmore, John H

    2017-03-01

    Brain structural covariance networks (SCNs) composed of regions with correlated variation are altered in neuropsychiatric disease and change with age. Little is known about the development of SCNs in early childhood, a period of rapid cortical growth. We investigated the development of structural and maturational covariance networks, including default, dorsal attention, primary visual and sensorimotor networks in a longitudinal population of 118 children after birth to 2 years old and compared them with intrinsic functional connectivity networks. We found that structural covariance of all networks exhibit strong correlations mostly limited to their seed regions. By Age 2, default and dorsal attention structural networks are much less distributed compared with their functional maps. The maturational covariance maps, however, revealed significant couplings in rates of change between distributed regions, which partially recapitulate their functional networks. The structural and maturational covariance of the primary visual and sensorimotor networks shows similar patterns to the corresponding functional networks. Results indicate that functional networks are in place prior to structural networks, that correlated structural patterns in adult may arise in part from coordinated cortical maturation, and that regional co-activation in functional networks may guide and refine the maturation of SCNs over childhood development. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages over hCG trigger. GnRHa triggering elicits a surge of gonadotropins resembling the natural midcycle surge of gonadotropins, without the prolonged action of hCG, resulting in the retrieval of more mature oocytes and a significant reduction in or elimination of OHSS as compared to hCG triggering. The induction of final follicular maturation using GnRHa represents a paradigm shift in the ovulation triggering concept in ART and, thus, a way to develop a safer IVF procedure. Kisspeptins are key central regulators of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of human reproduction, who have been shown to effectively elicit an LH surge and to induce final oocyte maturation in IVF cycles. This new trigger concept may, therefore, offer a completely new, “natural” pharmacological option for ovulation induction. Whether kisspeptins will be the future agent to trigger ovulation remains to be further explored.

  2. Occludin S471 Phosphorylation Contributes to Epithelial Monolayer Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Mark T; Ramshekar, Aniket; Waldschmidt, Helen V; Larsen, Scott D; Bewley, Maria C; Flanagan, John M; Antonetti, David A

    2016-08-01

    Multiple organ systems require epithelial barriers for normal function, and barrier loss is a hallmark of diseases ranging from inflammation to epithelial cancers. However, the molecular processes regulating epithelial barrier maturation are not fully elucidated. After contact, epithelial cells undergo size-reductive proliferation and differentiate, creating a dense, highly ordered monolayer with high resistance barriers. We provide evidence that the tight junction protein occludin contributes to the regulation of epithelial cell maturation upon phosphorylation of S471 in its coiled-coil domain. Overexpression of a phosphoinhibitory occludin S471A mutant prevents size-reductive proliferation and subsequent tight junction maturation in a dominant manner. Inhibition of cell proliferation in cell-contacted but immature monolayers recapitulated this phenotype. A kinase screen identified G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) targeting S471, and GRK inhibitors delayed epithelial packing and junction maturation. We conclude that occludin contributes to the regulation of size-reductive proliferation and epithelial cell maturation in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Enterprise Risk Management Implementation Maturity in Financial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagio Tjahjono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of ERM implementation mostly using dummy variable to figure out relation with its determinant. Until today, studies that using risk management maturity as real variable are limited. Therefore, this study intends to determine the maturity level of ERM implementation in non-financial companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange during period 2015 and influence of firm’s total assets, total employee, leverage and public ownership to the ERM maturity. The method use are qualitative and multiple regression analysis. The result of data analysis showed that ERM implementation in selected sample during 2015 are still low (majority in initial and repeatable level. In addition, from determinant factors only total asset that have significant influence to the ERM maturity. This result implies that non-financial listed companies are vulnerable to risks. Management should consider future benefit of a mature ERM, not only to comply with regulation.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5440 

  4. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development.

  5. Ergonomic sustainability based on the ergonomic maturity level measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.

  6. Zulliger (CS in Assessing the Relational Maturity of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elisa Villemor-Amaral

    Full Text Available Abstract Relational maturity is an important aspect to be considered in the evaluation of children. Its development in children is considered related to sex and chronological age. The present study aimed to seek evidence of validity for the Zulliger test (Comprehensive System - CS in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children. A total of 566 children, both sexes, of which 52.8% were girls, were submitted to the Zulliger test (CS. For comparison according to age, a subsample was extracted, composed of two groups of six and 12-year-olds, totaling 115 children. The analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the variables H, (H, A, Ad, (A, M, FC and AG. Results show findings in favor of using the Zulliger test (CS in the evaluation of maturity for interpersonal relationships in children.

  7. Social and moral maturity of high-school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gasar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of social and moral maturity of high-school students was examined. There were almost no significant differences between the students of two different educational programs. In general, the students' level of social and moral maturity is satisfyingly high, but their social skills are not quite appropriately developed. The results of behaviour in school situations reveal a quite unpleasant picture of interpersonal relations, which is probably a reflection of social relations in society. The absence of correlations between both components of maturity and social skills shows the gap between human's reasoning and behaviour. Students know, which behaviour is moral and socially adapted, but they do not always act in congruence with that, because existing social relations often encourage different behaviour.

  8. Case seven. Managing mature operations in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J D

    1990-01-01

    In this case, a medical center learns how to evaluate each of its services along a Product Life Cycle curve. Each stage of the cycle has characteristics that suggest appropriate strategic growth and action orientations. When services were plotted along the Product Life Cycle curve, many of the services were found to be mature or making the transition from growth to maturity. At the time of the case, Memorial Medical Center's competitors were entering many of its traditional markets creating a strong competition for market share. Greater competitive emphasis on performance and price reduced profits in the medical center's mature services. The case reports the medical center's approach to modifying its action orientation in light of a better understanding of organizational competence.

  9. Maturity Models in the Age of Digital Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Medaglia, Rony

    2012-01-01

    This chapter proposes a reorientation of the e-government maturity models by focusing on the activities rather than on the formal organizational structures and have the citizens as the key stakeholder for future e-government investments. We draw upon a discussion on the limitations of the popular e......-government maturity model by Layne and Lee [1] included in the proposal of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) model [2, 3]. The adoption and adaptation of Web 2.0 platforms and location-based services, and the parallel extension of conventional technologies as SMS and web-based self-services, challenge...... the view that e-government is focused in a formal organizational span of control. We propose a refined operationalization of the PPR maturity model, arguing that the activities and individual workers within the public sector and the citizens using and co-producing the public services will be the vehicle...

  10. Hormonal Regulation of Oocyte Development and Maturation of Amphioxus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方永强; 赵维信; 林秋明

    1994-01-01

    Using the electron microscopic technique and radioimmunoassay,the hormonal regulationof the oocyte development and maturation of the amphioxus has been investigated.The results indicate thatthe exogenous GnRH-A can stimulate the oocyte development and maturation as well as the spawning of theamphioxus.It has further been revealed by radioimmunoassay that GnRH-A can increase the content of sexsteroid hormone,especially,estradiol-17β,by 1—3 times.The increase of estradiol-17β coordinates withthe synthesis of oocyte into yolk substance.The results further justify that the hormonal regulation in theoocyte development and maturation of amphioxus is similar to that of vertebrates.This is of great theoreticalsignificance for reproduetive endocrine physiology of amphioxus.

  11. Analysis to Maturity Levels in CMMI and ISO Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Macalister

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Both CMMI as ISO are important models with widely acceptance for evaluating and improving software processes. Both structure and carry out common continuous representations but as models are different and proposed various sets of processes differentiated primarily on the structure of its stages. CMMI is based on the classic idea of the 5 maturity levels proposed by Humphrey in 1988, while ISO promotes acontinuous model to evaluate the process capability. However, this community has recognized the benefits of a staged representation and the standard 2008 version introduced the framework of organizational maturity of 6 levels. This paper investigates and analyzes the relationship between levels of maturity and process capability ofthese two models.

  12. Web Based Technologies to Support High Level Process Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sharmila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the uses of Web based Technologies to support High Level Process Maturity in an organization. It also provides an overview of CMMI, focusing on the importance of centralized data storage and data access for sustaining high maturity levels of CMMI. Further, elaboration is made on the web based technology, stressing that change over to Web Based Application is extremely helpful to maintain the centralized data repository, to collect data for process capability baseline, and to track process performance management, with reduced maintenance effort and ease of data access. A case study analysis of advantages of adopting Web Based Technology is also narrated. Finally the paper concludes that the sustenance of High level Process maturity can be achieved by adopting web application technology.

  13. Maturity Models in the Age of Digital Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Henriksen, Helle Zinner; Medaglia, Rony

    2012-01-01

    the view that e-government is focused in a formal organizational span of control. We propose a refined operationalization of the PPR maturity model, arguing that the activities and individual workers within the public sector and the citizens using and co-producing the public services will be the vehicle......This chapter proposes a reorientation of the e-government maturity models by focusing on the activities rather than on the formal organizational structures and have the citizens as the key stakeholder for future e-government investments. We draw upon a discussion on the limitations of the popular e......-government maturity model by Layne and Lee [1] included in the proposal of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) model [2, 3]. The adoption and adaptation of Web 2.0 platforms and location-based services, and the parallel extension of conventional technologies as SMS and web-based self-services, challenge...

  14. Maturity Control on the Patterns of Hydrocarbon Regeneration from Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Rock-Eval pyrolysis and Py-GC experiments on naturally and artificially matured coal samples were carried out. The results suggest that both depolymerization and defuctionalization exist during the maturation and evolution of coal. The patterns of hydrocarbon regeneration are diverse at different stages of the maturation and evolution. When the vitrinite reflectance (R0) is 0.7%- 0.9%, bitumen is the richest in coal while activation energy is the minimum, and the temperature of peak yield is lower than that of primary hydrocarbon generation. However, if reflectance is greater than 0.9%, defunctionalization predominates and the temperature of peak regeneration is shown in lagging compared with the primary hydrocarbon generation. When reflectance is out of the "oil window", the peak temperature of hydrocarbon regeneration and that of the primary hydrocarbon generation seems to be continuous.

  15. Capability maturity models in engineering companies: case study analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titov Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of the current economic downturn engineering companies in Russia and worldwide are searching for new approaches and frameworks to improve their strategic position, increase the efficiency of the internal business processes and enhance the quality of the final products. Capability maturity models are well-known tools used by many foreign engineering companies to assess the productivity of the processes, to elaborate the program of business process improvement and to prioritize the efforts to optimize the whole company performance. The impact of capability maturity model implementation on cost and time are documented and analyzed in the existing research. However, the potential of maturity models as tools of quality management is less known. The article attempts to analyze the impact of CMM implementation on the quality issues. The research is based on a case study methodology and investigates the real life situation in a Russian engineering company.

  16. Cyclitols in maturing grains of wheat, triticale and barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław B. Lahuta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the feeding of stem-flag leaf-ear explants of wheat, triticale and barley with d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol was used for modification of the composition of soluble carbohydrates in grains without genetic transformation of plants. Maturing grains indicated ability to uptake exogenously applied cyclitols, not occurring naturally in cereal plants, and synthesized their a-d-galactosides. The pattern of changes in soluble carbohydrates during grain maturation and germination was not disturbed by the uptake and accumulation of cyclitols. Both, d-chiro-inositol and d-pinitol as well as their a-d-galactosides can be an additional pool of soluble carbohydrates accumulated by maturing grains, without decreasing seeds viability. This is the first report indicating the possibility of introduction of cyclitols with potentially human health benefits properties into cereal grains.

  17. Impaired response of mature adipocytes of diabetic mice to hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seok Jong, E-mail: seok-hong@northwestern.edu; Jin, Da P.; Buck, Donald W.; Galiano, Robert D.; Mustoe, Thomas A., E-mail: tmustoe@nmh.org

    2011-10-01

    Adipose tissue contains various cells such as infiltrated monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, preadipocytes, and adipocytes. Adipocytes have an endocrine function by secreting adipokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}, leptin, and adiponectin. Dysregulation of adipokines in adipose tissues leads to a chronic low-grade inflammation which could result in atherosclerosis, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. A sustained inflammatory state, which is characterized by prolonged persistence of macrophages and neutrophils, is found in diabetic wounds. In addition, subcutaneous adipocytes are enormously increased in amount clinically in type 2 diabetes. However, the function of subcutaneous adipocytes, which play an important role in injured tissue subjected to hypoxia, has not been well characterized in vitro due to the difficulty of maintaining mature adipocytes in culture using conventional methods because of their buoyancy. In this study, we established a novel in vitro culture method of mature adipocytes by enclosing them in a hyaluronan (HA) based hydrogel to study their role in response to stress such as hypoxia. BrdU labeling and Ki67 immunostaining experiments showed that hydrogel enclosed mature adipocytes proliferate in vitro. Both mRNA and protein expression analyses for hypoxia regulated genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), showed that mature adipocytes of wild type mice respond to hypoxia. In contrast, mature adipocytes of diabetic db/db and TallyHo mice did not efficiently respond to hypoxia. Our studies suggest that mature adipocytes are functionally active cells, and their abnormal function to hypoxia can be one of underlining mechanisms in type 2 diabetes.

  18. Biological maturity influences running performance in junior Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastin, Paul B; Bennett, Gary; Cook, Jill

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of biological maturity on measures of running fitness and running performance in both training and competition in junior Australian football. Cross sectional observational. Fifty-two male junior players from five age groups (U11-U19) participated. Biological maturity was self-assessed based on Tanner's description of five pubertal stages (P1-P5) as well as objectively estimated from anthropometric measures and expressed as years to and from peak height velocity (Y-PHV). Running speed and aerobic fitness were measured using a 20m sprint and 20m multi-stage shuttle run respectively. Running movements during training and competition were analysed (n=197) using global positioning system technology, including total distance, peak speed, high-intensity running (HIR>14.4km/h) distance and number of sprints (>23km/h). Age groups included participants from a range of pubertal stages (U11: P1-2; U13: P2-4; U15: P2-5; U17: P4-5; U19: P5). Y-PHV was significantly correlated with 20m shuttle run (r=0.647), 20m sprint time (r=-0.773) and all distance and high intensity running variables (r=0.417-0.831). Incremental improvements across pubertal stages for speed, aerobic fitness and most GPS derived running variables were observed. Within age group comparisons between less and more mature players found significant differences for standing and sitting height, peak speed in training, and total distance, HIR and peak speed in matches. Functional running fitness and running performance in both training and competition environments improved with increasing biological maturity. More mature players in an age group, either chronologically, biologically or a combination of both, are at a performance advantage to those less mature. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Disposable Sensor For Assessing Artocarpus heterophyllus L. (Jackfruit Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chew Cheen

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was an attempt to monitor the ripeness process and to investigate the different maturity stages of jackfruit by chemometric treatment of the data obtained from the disposable sensor. Response of the sensor strip fabricated using screenprinting technology was analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and the classification model constructed by means of Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA enable unknown maturity stages of jackfruit to be identified. Results generated from the combination of the two classification principles show the capability and the performance of the sensor strip towards jackfruit analysis.

  20. Isolation of mesophyll protoplasts from mature leaves of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W

    1983-12-01

    A procedure based on a combined cellulase-Pectolyase Y-23 enzyme digestion and metrizamide-sorbitol gradient purification protocol was developed for isolating mesophyll protoplasts from mature leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Based on chlorophyll content, this procedure results in a 10 to 15% protoplast yield from fully expanded mature leaves and a 20 to 30% yield from young (expanding) leaves within 3 hours. Isolated protoplasts displayed high rates of HCO(3) (-)-dependent photosynthesis; greater than 75 micromoles O(2) evolved per milligram chlorophyll per hour at 25 degrees C. This photosynthetic rate is comparable to that of mesophyll cells isolated mechanically from the same leaves.

  1. Evaluation of relationship of hand wrist radiograph, cervical vertebral maturation with mandibular growth as skeletal maturity indicators in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziauddin Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation between mandibular growth variables using linear measurements of ramus, body of the mandible and total mandibular length with skeletal maturity indicators such as hand wrist radiographs and cervical vertebral maturation. Materials and Methods: A total of 315 patient-records (lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs in the age group of 10–13 years were involved. The cephalometric measurements, representative of the mandibular growth, Condylion-Gonion (Co-Go, Condylion-Gnathion (Co-Gn, Gonion-Gnathion (Go-Gn, and posterior-most point of the mandibular condyle-pogonion (Fg-Pg were traced (McNamara method. The correlation of mandibular growth variables with hand wrist parameters and cervical vertebrae maturation were assessed separately in male and female. Pearson's correlation was used for analysis (Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results: Only 80 subjects were included in final analysis. A highly significant correlation was found among hand wrist parameters, and mandibular growth variables (P < 0.001 in both genders. Among males, there was a highly significant correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and mandibular growth variables (P < 0.001, whereas Co-Go has a significant correlation with C2Conc, C3Conc, and C4Conc (P < 0.05. In females, Co-Gn, Co-Go, Go-Gn, and Fg-Pg were significantly correlated with C3Conc and C4Conc (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Both the cervical vertebral maturation and mandibular growth variables can be accessed on the lateral ephalogram itself for the evaluation of the skeletal maturity, as effective as a hand wrist radiograph in males and females.

  2. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions

  3. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mokhber Maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods: In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml, 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO, or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631 were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII oocytes after IVM (n=240 were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results: Supplementation of IVM media with 10 μg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05 increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 μg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 μg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential

  4. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhber Maleki, Elham; Eimani, Hussein; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza; Golkar Narenji, Afsane; Abedi, Reyhane

    2016-01-01

    Background Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH) synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM) in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml), 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO), or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631) were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII) oocytes after IVM (n=240) were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB)-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results Supplementation of IVM media with 10 µg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05) increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 µg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 µg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential of mouse

  5. Comparison of organochlorine compound concentrations in colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiwei; Palkovicova, Lubica; Drobna, Beata; Petrik, Jan; Kocan, Anton; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2007-01-01

    Human breast milk represents the best choice for the nutrition of infants. It is often used for monitoring human exposures to environmental chemicals. Uniquely suited to meet human biological needs, breast milk composition, especially fat content, changes significantly with time from delivery. With the aim to compare the concentration of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in colostrum versus mature milk, we obtained samples of fourth-fifth day postpartum milk (colostrum) and day-14 postpartum milk (mature milk) from 12 women enrolled in the project "Early Childhood Development and PCB Exposure in Slovakia". The concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides and congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured using gas chromatography with electron capture detection and reported on lipid adjusted basis. No significant differences were found between organochlorine levels in colostrum and those in mature milk samples. A very close correlation was found between the concentrations of organochlorine compounds in colostrum and mature milk (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.94-0.98 for PCBs, and r=0.85-0.99 for organochlorine pesticides, p<0.001 for all compounds). The present study concludes that the use of colostrum samples provides a close estimate of the child's exposure to OCs in the early neonatal period and demonstrates that, despite the lower fat content, colostrum specimens are adequate to conduct OC analyses.

  6. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  7. Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.; Schembri, Mark

    2003-01-01

    . We further provide evidence that flagella, type 1 fimbriae, curli and Ag43 are all dispensable for the observed biofilm maturation. In addition, our results indicate that cell-to-cell signalling mediated by autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is not required for differentiation of E. coli within a biofilm community...

  8. Shrinkage and swelling properties of flocculated mature fine tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric fines drying technique, mature fine tailings (MFT) are treated with polymers and deposited in thin layers on a sloped surface for sub-aerial drying. During the whole drying period, the tailings deposits can experience rewetting during periods of rainy weather or as result of the

  9. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jonathan M.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D.; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Pornillos, Owen

    2016-07-14

    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate.

  10. Modeling the role of emotions in viewing oneself maturely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleioras, Georgios; Van Geert, Paul; Bosma, Harke A.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents develop a mature view on themselves: they view positive as well as negative self-attributes, but they hold a positive stance toward themselves. The literatures on identity, the self, parent-offspring relationships, and friendships provide hints on how such a view may develop. This articl

  11. Revision of the Career Maturity Inventory: The Adaptability Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Initially administered in 1961, the Career Maturity Inventory (CMI) was the first paper-and-pencil measure of vocational development. The present research revised the CMI to reestablish its usefulness as a succinct, reliable, and valid measure of career choice readiness, with a few theoretically relevant and practically useful content scales for…

  12. Systems engineering management process maturity of South African manufacturing organisations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemberger, ID

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ). Data gathering was conducted using a combination of face-to-face and telephonic interviews of six (6) randomly selected organisations in the identified population using a six level Likert Scale. Overall SEM process maturity measured 2.91, indicating a...

  13. Break-even maturity as a guide to financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ellis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the recent crisis, lags in the transmission mechanism of economic shocks, together with monetary and fiscal policy, made it difficult to assess the evolving dynamics of creditworthiness. As such, developments in financial markets became a key guide for investors and policymakers in determining the degree of financial distress that borrowers faced, providing a real-time update of market participants’ views. However, simple measures of borrowing costs such as secondary market yields typically ignore differences in debt maturities and hence refinancing risks. This paper describes a new indicator of financial distress – the break-even maturity – that combines these factors. Using financial market data for euro area countries, the break-even maturity is shown to provide an alternative perspective on the absolute and relative risks associated with different borrowers that is distinct from the standard metrics gleaned from bond yields or credit-default swaps. As such, while break-even maturities are ultimately theoretical constructs, they can offer a valuable alternative perspective on how the financing pressures facing distressed borrowers are evolving in real-time.

  14. Mechanisms behind functional avidity maturation in T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak, Martin; Geisler, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    During an immune response antigen-primed B-cells increase their antigen responsiveness by affinity maturation mediated by somatic hypermutation of the genes encoding the antigen-specific B-cell receptor (BCR) and by selection of higher-affinity B cell clones. Unlike the BCR, the T-cell receptor...

  15. Influence of gut microbiota on immunological maturation in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Brandt; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    Maturation and function of the immune system is highly influenced by the establishment of the microbiota in the gut, which in turn, particularly in infancy, is influenced by factors such as maternal microbiota and the environment, including diet. Studies have shown that although lymph nodes...

  16. Soybean yield response: planting date and maturity groups in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planting date is one of the main factors affecting soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yield. The environmental conditions in the U.S. Mid-South, combined with irrigated management, can allow for a wide planting window from late March to early July, and using cultivars from maturity group (MG) 3 to 6. ...

  17. Measuring chain digitisation maturity: an assessment of Dutch retail branches.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a validated measurement model and typology for chain digitisation maturity, defined as the degree of interorganisational collaboration through ICT. The advantages of interorganisational information systems (IOIS) seem to meet the challenges currently facing

  18. Infected Mature Teratoma of Mesentery in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvir Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric teratomas are extremely rare in children. We report a case of 5-year-old girl with abdominal mass and fever. At operation, a multicystic mass with variable consistency found within the leaves of the mesentery of jejunum with pus in it. Histopathology examination showed mature infected teratoma of the mesentery.

  19. Infected Mature Teratoma of Mesentery in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric teratomas are extremely rare in children. We report a case of 5-year-old girl with abdominal mass and fever. At operation, a multicystic mass with variable consistency found within the leaves of the mesentery of jejunum with pus in it. Histopathology examination showed mature infected teratoma of the mesentery.

  20. Partial maturation : an immune-evasion strategy of dengue virus?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela A.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2011-01-01

    Cleavage of the precursor membrane (prM) protein is required for the activation of flavivirus infectivity. However, many studies have shown that, for dengue virus in particular, prM cleavage and maturation is inefficient. Heterogeneity of wild-type dengue virus preparations with regard to the presen

  1. Ultramicroscopic Characterization of Mature Pollen Grains of Habenaria sagittifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission electron microscopy was conducted to characterize the mature pollen grains in the massulae of Habenaria sagittifera at anthesis to understand its ultramicroscopic features of mature pollen grains of this species. I found that (a pollen walls on the surface of the massula consisted of several layers, which included the tectum, baculum, nexine-1, nexine-2, and intine, whereas pollen walls within the massula were comprised of less layers, lacking tectum and baculum; (b both vegetative and generative nuclei in mature pollen grains were predominated by highly condensed chromatin, which occupied over half of the nuclear volume; and (c the pollen grains did not contain lipid droplets, starch grains, or storage proteins, indicative of the absence of macromolecular storage reserves. In summary, the structural difference between walls on the surface of the massula and walls within the massula, the highly condensed status of the vegetative nucleus, and the absence of macromolecular storage reserves were the most noticeable ultramicroscopic characteristics of mature pollen grains of H. sagittifera.

  2. Study of assessment of quality and maturity of fresh ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinad Noypitak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research studied evaluative method of physiological properties of three stages of fresh gingers including immature stage, early mature stage and mature stage to be alternative for quality checking of maturity fresh ginger. The classification models were built based on both destructive method and non-destructive methods. The destructive variables were texture parameters, crude fiber and moisture content and the non-destructive variables were specific gravity, color (L*, a*, b*, gloss and light reflection in range 400-700 nm. The results showed that increasing of ginger harvesting date significantly affected physiological properties. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was performed to create a classifying model for harvesting date of fresh ginger. The 55.56% and 100% best accuracy of classification into three stages of maturity could be achieved by the destructive model and the non-destructive model, respectively. The best applicable variables in building the non-destructive model were light reflection at 420, 450, 490, 530, 570, 590, 680 nm and the specific gravity.

  3. Development and maturation of Escherichia coli K-12 biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisner, A.; Haagensen, J.A.J.; Schembri, Mark

    2003-01-01

    The development and maturation of E. coli biofilms in flow-chambers was investigated. We found that the presence of transfer constitutive IncF plasmids induced biofilm development forming structures resembling those reported for Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The development occurred in a step-wise pro...

  4. Intracellular vesicle acidification promotes maturation of infectious poliovirus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsia L Richards

    Full Text Available The autophagic pathway acts as part of the immune response against a variety of pathogens. However, several pathogens subvert autophagic signaling to promote their own replication. In many cases it has been demonstrated that these pathogens inhibit or delay the degradative aspect of autophagy. Here, using poliovirus as a model virus, we report for the first time bona fide autophagic degradation occurring during infection with a virus whose replication is promoted by autophagy. We found that this degradation is not required to promote poliovirus replication. However, vesicular acidification, which in the case of autophagy precedes delivery of cargo to lysosomes, is required for normal levels of virus production. We show that blocking autophagosome formation inhibits viral RNA synthesis and subsequent steps in the virus cycle, while inhibiting vesicle acidification only inhibits the final maturation cleavage of virus particles. We suggest that particle assembly, genome encapsidation, and virion maturation may occur in a cellular compartment, and we propose the acidic mature autophagosome as a candidate vesicle. We discuss the implications of our findings in understanding the late stages of poliovirus replication, including the formation and maturation of virions and egress of infectious virus from cells.

  5. Study on Immature and Low Mature Oil in Huanghua Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Qianjin; Yu Junli; Liu Yujin; Li Jun

    1996-01-01

    @@ In recent years many types of immature and low mature oil reservoirs have been discovered in the Huanghua depression, especially distributed in the maior oil producing area - South Kongdian. It has been proved that this kind of resources makes up over 60 percent of all.

  6. Maturation of Metapenaeus moyebi (Kishinouye) in Goa estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    study point it formed as much as 30.77% of the stake net fishery. Also, 35.1% of the males caught were with fully developed spermatophores. Interestingly, females in maturity stages 3 and 4 were caught from one estuary. Our data shows that this species...

  7. Career Maturity of Students in Accelerated versus Traditional Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J.; Richard, George V.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors assessed the career maturity of students in accelerated versus traditional academic programs. Students in traditional programs were hypothesized to be more advanced regarding their career decision making and development when compared with students in accelerated programs. The Medical Career Development Inventory (see M. L. Savickas,…

  8. Procurement maturity, alignment and performance: a Dutch hospital case comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    Procurement is an important supporting business function, with which competitive advantage can potentially be achieved. In this paper, the relation between maturity and alignment in procurement on the one hand, and procurement performance on the other, is investigated in the case study setting of th

  9. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  10. Stigmatised Learners: Mature-Age Students Negotiating University Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallman, Mark; Lee, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Research on the socially-situated nature of learning shows how practices and identities are affected by participation in communities, but very little is known about how mature-age students experience the relational dynamics of university. Based on data from a qualitative study of first-year students, we consider written accounts by older learners…

  11. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; McNamara, James A.; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation. PMID:27513752

  12. Molecular evolution of the Sorghum Maturity Gene Ma3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Time to maturity is a critical trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) breeding, as it determines whether a variety can be grown in a particular cropping system or ecosystem. Understanding the nucleotide variation and the mechanisms of molecular evolution of the maturity genes would be helpful for breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide diversity of Ma3, an important maturity gene in sorghum, using 252 cultivated and wild sorghum materials from all over the world. The nucleotide variation and diversity were analyzed based both on race- and usage-based groups. We also sequenced 12 genes around the Ma3 gene in 185 of these materials to search for a selective sweep and found that purifying selection was the strongest force on Ma3, as low nucleotide diversity and low-frequency amino acid variants were observed. However, a very special mutation, described as ma3R, seemed to be under positive selection, as indicated by dramatically reduced nucleotide variation not only at the loci but also in the surrounding regions among individuals carrying the mutations. In addition, in an association study using the Ma3 nucleotide variations, we detected 3 significant SNPs for the heading date at a high-latitude environment (Beijing) and 17 at a low-latitude environment (Hainan). The results of this study increases our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the maturity genes in sorghum and will be useful in sorghum breeding.

  13. E-Learning Capability Maturity Level in Kingdom of Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ammary, Jaflah; Mohammed, Zainab; Omran, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of using e-learning, educational institutions are still facing many challenges with the e-learning infrastructure and technical aspects, practices and capabilities, and improvement in learning outcome. Hence, a need for framework to benchmark the e-learning capability maturity level and measure the extent to what it is…

  14. LACTOCOCCAL PROTEINASE MATURATION PROTEIN PRTM IS A LIPOPROTEIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard

    1991-01-01

    The production of enzymatically active proteinase by lactococci requires the joint presence of a proteinase gene, prtP, and a gene encoding a maturation protein, prtM. A 32-kDa protein produced by Escherichia coli upon expression of the prtM gene under the direction of the T7 RNA polymerase promoter

  15. Mature Women and Higher Education: Reconstructing Identity and Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Since Edwards' influential study on mature women students and families in the 1990s, questions have been raised about the effects of Higher Education (HE) on family lives. Edwards maintained that relationships were at risk of breakdown due to the changing identity, increased self-esteem and enhanced confidence levels of women students. Men were…

  16. Reproductive Maturation of the Tropical Clawed Frog, Xenopus tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model species Xenopus tropicalis is being widely used in developmental biology and amphibian toxicology studies. In order to increase our understanding of the role of steroid hormones in maturation in this species, we collected baseline reproductive data from metamorphosis t...

  17. Decision-Making Styles and Vocational Maturity: An Alternative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making styles and vocational maturity with a focus on the current discrepancy between research and theory regarding the utility of rational decision making. Results were consistent across 177 community college students, in that a reliance upon the rational style was the only significant decision-making…

  18. Bone age maturity assessment using hand-held device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Gilsanz, Vicente; Liu, Xiaodong; Boechat, M. I.

    2004-04-01

    Purpose: Assessment of bone maturity is traditionally performed through visual comparison of hand and wrist radiograph with existing reference images in textbooks. Our goal was to develop a digital index based on idealized hand Xray images that can be incorporated in a hand held computer and used for visual assessment of bone age for patients. Material and methods: Due to the large variability in bone maturation in normals, we generated a set of "ideal" images obtained by computer combinations of images from our normal reference data sets. Software for hand-held PDA devices was developed for easy navigation through the set of images and visual selection of matching images. A formula based on our statistical analysis provides the standard deviation from normal based on the chronological age of the patient. The accuracy of the program was compared to traditional interpretation by two radiologists in a double blind reading of 200 normal Caucasian children (100 boys, 100 girls). Results: Strong correlations were present between chronological age and bone age (r > 0.9) with no statistical difference between the digital and traditional assessment methods. Determinations of carpal bone maturity in adolescents was slightly more accurate using the digital system. The users did praise the convenience and effectiveness of the digital Palm Index in clinical practice. Conclusion: An idealized digital Palm Bone Age Index provides a convenient and effective alternative to conventional atlases for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  19. Spatial model of affinity maturation in germinal centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesmir, C.; Boer, R.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Affinity maturation of humoral responses to T-cell-dependent antigens occurs in germinal centers (GC). In GCs antigen-specific B cells undergo rounds of somatic mutations that alter their affinity. High-affinity mutants take over GCs very soon after they appear; the replacement rate is as high as 4

  20. Determinism and stochasticity during maturation of the zebrafish antibody repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Weinstein, Joshua A.; Penland, Lolita; White, Richard A.; Fisher, Daniel S.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    It is thought that the adaptive immune system of immature organisms follows a more deterministic program of antibody creation than is found in adults. We used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the diversifying antibody repertoire in zebrafish over five developmental time points. We found that the immune system begins in a highly stereotyped state with preferential use of a small number of V (variable) D (diverse) J (joining) gene segment combinations, but that this stereotypy decreases dramatically as the zebrafish mature, with many of the top VDJ combinations observed in 2-wk-old zebrafish virtually disappearing by 1 mo. However, we discovered that, in the primary repertoire, there are strong correlations in VDJ use that increase with zebrafish maturity, suggesting that VDJ recombination involves a level of deterministic programming that is unexpected. This stereotypy is masked by the complex diversification processes of antibody maturation; the variation and lack of correlation in full repertoires between individuals appears to be derived from randomness in clonal expansion during the affinity maturation process. These data provide a window into the mechanisms of VDJ recombination and diversity creation and allow us to better understand how the adaptive immune system achieves diversity. PMID:21393572

  1. The Effects of Progesterone on Oocyte Maturation and Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Zavareh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oocyte maturation and embryo development are controlled by intra-ovarian factors suchas steroid hormones. Progesterone (P4 exists in the follicular fluid that contributes tonormal mammalian ovarian function and has several critical functions during embryodevelopment and implantation, including endometrial receptivity, embryonic survivalduring gestation and transformation of the endometrial stromal cells to decidual cells.It is well known that the physiological effects of P4 during the pre-implantation stages ofsome mammal’s embryos are mediated by P4 receptors and their gene expression is determined.The effects of P4 on oocytes and embryo development have been assessed bysome investigations, with contradictory results. P4, a dominant steroid in follicular fluidat approximately 18 hours after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge may have a criticalrole in maturation of oocytes at the germinal stage. However, it has been shown that differentconcentrations of P4 could not improve in vitro maturation rates of germinal vesicles(GV in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs and cumulus denuded oocytes (CDOs.Culture media supplemented with P4 significantly improved mouse embryo development.In addition, an in vivo experimental design has shown high blastocyst survival andimplantation rates in P4-treated mice.In this review we explain some of the findings that pertain to the effects of P4 onoocyte maturation and embryo development both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. An Analytics Approach to Adaptive Maturity Models using Organizational Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, T.; Mijnhardt, F.; Vlaanderen, K.; Spruit, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the first incarnations of maturity models, critics have voiced several concerns with these frameworks. Indeed, a lack of model fit and oversimplification of the real world can be attributed to the rigidity of these models, which assumes that each organization that uses the framework is

  3. Defining a Maturity Scale for Governing Operational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    of technology and innovation continues to accelerate. Sponsorship, strategic planning, and oversight of operational resilience are the most crucial...identify shortfalls across these defined activities, make incremental improvements, and measure improvement against a defined, accepted maturity scale. The...the granu- larity needs for organizations committed to making incremental improvements in governing oper- ational resilience. To achieve a more

  4. Validity of self-assessment of pubertal maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anna; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tefre de Renzy-Martin, Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Studies of adolescents often use self-assessment of pubertal maturation, the reliability of which has shown conflicting results. We aimed to examine the reliability of child and parent assessments of healthy boys and girls. METHODS: A total of 898 children (418 girls, 480...

  5. Refining King and Baxter Magolda's Model of Intercultural Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Rosemary J.; Shim, Woojeong; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined 110 intercultural experiences from 82 students attending six colleges and universities to explore how students' interpretations of their intercultural experiences reflected their developmental capacities for intercultural maturity. Our analysis of students' experiences confirmed as well as refined and expanded King and Baxter…

  6. Maturation of conidia on conidiophores of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teertstra, Wieke R.; Tegelaar, Martin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Golovina, Elena A.; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Conidia of Aspergillus niger are produced on conidiophores. Here, maturation of conidia on these asexual reproductive structures was studied. Pigmented conidia that had developed on conidiophores for 2, 5, and 8 days were similarly resistant to heat and were metabolically active as shown by CO2 rele

  7. Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Mora-López, David; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-01

    There is an important connection between body growth, physical fitness and cognition. The association between physical fitness and cognitive function has been investigated in some studies, but little is known about the relationship between physical and motor performance and intellectual maturity in preschool children. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the association between intellectual maturity and physical and motor fitness in preschool children. A total of 1012 children aged 3-6 years participated voluntarily. A fitness test battery and the Goodenough-Harris drawing test (GHDT) were used. Boys did better in the standing broad jump and 20 m sprint (P test variables and GHDT. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between crude GHDT score and the fitness test variables. From an early age, physical-motor performance and intellectual maturity are linked. Fitness condition is able to predict intellectual maturity. Increasing the amount of time devoted to physical education can promote cognitive benefits in preschool children. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Maturation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase - Formation of the disulfide bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, P; Ockhuijsen, C; Eppens, E; Koster, M; Bitter, W; Tommassen, J

    2001-01-01

    Elastase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is synthesized as a preproenzyme. After propeptide-mediated folding in the periplasm, the proenzyme is autoproteolytically processed, prior to translocation of both the mature enzyme and the propeptide across the outer membrane. The formation of the two disulfide b

  9. Bilateral Severe Ectropion and Mature Cataract in Lamellar Ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intiyaz A. Lone, Reyaz A. Untoo, Sheikh S. Ahmad

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Lamellar ichthyosis is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetically heterogeneous skin disorder causedby mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene. Eye abnormalities include bilateral ectropion of lowerlids, chronic blepharitis and rarely cataract. A case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral lower lidectropion and bilateral mature cataract is hereby presented for its rarity.

  10. Developmental Issues in Career Maturity and Career Decision Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Wendy; Creed, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports cross-sectional data from 1,971 Australian adolescents who completed the Career Decision Scale and the Career Development Inventory. Results illustrate a developmental progression in career maturity, although a less uniform pattern emerged with gender differences. Findings regarding career indecision also presented a complex picture and…

  11. Space Mission Concept Development Using Concept Maturity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessen, Randii R.; Borden, Chester; Ziemer, John; Kwok, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    Over the past five years, pre-project formulation experts at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed and implemented a method for measuring and communicating the maturity of space mission concepts. Mission concept development teams use this method, and associated tools, prior to concepts entering their Formulation Phases (Phase A/B). The organizing structure is Concept Maturity Level (CML), which is a classification system for characterizing the various levels of a concept's maturity. The key strength of CMLs is the ability to evolve mission concepts guided by an incremental set of assessment needs. The CML definitions have been expanded into a matrix form to identify the breadth and depth of analysis needed for a concept to reach a specific level of maturity. This matrix enables improved assessment and communication by addressing the fundamental dimensions (e.g., science objectives, mission design, technical risk, project organization, cost, export compliance, etc.) associated with mission concept evolution. JPL's collaborative engineering, dedicated concept development, and proposal teams all use these and other CML-appropriate design tools to advance their mission concept designs. This paper focuses on mission concept's early Pre-Phase A represented by CMLs 1- 4. The scope was limited due to the fact that CMLs 5 and 6 are already well defined based on the requirements documented in specific Announcement of Opportunities (AO) and Concept Study Report (CSR) guidelines, respectively, for competitive missions; and by NASA's Procedural Requirements NPR 7120.5E document for Projects in their Formulation Phase.

  12. A Space Acquisition Leading Indicator Based on System Interoperation Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    framework: 17 Table 4. LISI Reference Model (Ford, 2008) Referencing back to Ford‘s method and the standard definition of interoperability...using the method developed by Dr. Thomas Ford, where higher levels of interoperability maturity will result in a higher interoperability score...7 Ford‘s Interoperability Measurement Method

  13. INFLUENCE MATURATION OF VEAL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbial and pH changes in veal meat during maturation. Total viable counts, coliform bacteria and pH changes in chilling meat were evaluated after 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days of meat maturation. There were analysed 8 samples of veal meeat. Results of microbiological analysis were compared with Commission regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Total viable counts (TVC in samples after 24 hours of chilling ranged from 2.02 log CFU.cm-to 4.21 log CFU.cm-2 (1.64 . 104 CFU.cm-2. The average number of TVC after 24 hours of meat maturation was 3.27 log CFU.cm-2, coliform bacteria (CB after 24 hours were lower than than 1 log cfu.cm-2 in five samples, and the highest number of coliform bacteria was 1.65 log cfu.cm-2, average number of CB was 1.13 log cfu.cm-2. pH values in samples after 24 hours of maturation were in range from 6.6 to 7.0, average pH value was 6.8. TVC in samples after 7 days of chilling ranged from 3.09 log CFU.cm-2 to 4.01 log CFU.cm-2, the average number of TVC after 7 days of storage was 3.39 log CFU.cm-2. CB after 7 days of meat maturation were lower than 1 log CFU cm-2 in three samples, the highest value of CB was 2.07 log CFU cm-2, the average value of CB in samples after 7 days of meat chilling was 1.03 log CFU cm-2. pH values of meat after 7 days of maturation ranged from 5.5 to 6.1. The average pH value of samples after 7 days of storage was 5.73 pH values of meat after 14 days of maturation ranged from 6.0 to 6.4. The average pH value of samples after 14 days of storage was 6.16.

  14. Genomics of mature and immature olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Melissa D; Breheny, Patrick; Stromberg, Arnold J; McClintock, Timothy S

    2012-08-15

    The continuous replacement of neurons in the olfactory epithelium provides an advantageous model for investigating neuronal differentiation and maturation. By calculating the relative enrichment of every mRNA detected in samples of mature mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), immature OSNs, and the residual population of neighboring cell types, and then comparing these ratios against the known expression patterns of >300 genes, enrichment criteria that accurately predicted the OSN expression patterns of nearly all genes were determined. We identified 847 immature OSN-specific and 691 mature OSN-specific genes. The control of gene expression by chromatin modification and transcription factors, and neurite growth, protein transport, RNA processing, cholesterol biosynthesis, and apoptosis via death domain receptors, were overrepresented biological processes in immature OSNs. Ion transport (ion channels), presynaptic functions, and cilia-specific processes were overrepresented in mature OSNs. Processes overrepresented among the genes expressed by all OSNs were protein and ion transport, ER overload response, protein catabolism, and the electron transport chain. To more accurately represent gradations in mRNA abundance and identify all genes expressed in each cell type, classification methods were used to produce probabilities of expression in each cell type for every gene. These probabilities, which identified 9,300 genes expressed in OSNs, were 96% accurate at identifying genes expressed in OSNs and 86% accurate at discriminating genes specific to mature and immature OSNs. This OSN gene database not only predicts the genes responsible for the major biological processes active in OSNs, but also identifies thousands of never before studied genes that support OSN phenotypes.

  15. MicroRNA Expression during Bovine Oocyte Maturation and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham C. Gilchrist

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Successful fertilization and subsequent embryo development rely on complex molecular processes starting with the development of oocyte competence through maturation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that function as gene regulators in many biological systems, including the oocyte and embryo. In order to further explore the roles of miRNAs in oocyte maturation, we employed small RNA sequencing as a screening tool to identify and characterize miRNA populations present in pools of bovine germinal vesicle (GV oocytes, metaphase II (MII oocytes, and presumptive zygotes (PZ. Each stage contained a defined miRNA population, some of which showed stable expression while others showed progressive changes between stages that were subsequently confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Bta-miR-155, bta-miR-222, bta-miR-21, bta-let-7d, bta-let-7i, and bta-miR-190a were among the statistically significant differentially expressed miRNAs (p < 0.05. To determine whether changes in specific primary miRNA (pri-miRNA transcripts were responsible for the observed miRNA changes, we evaluated pri-miR-155, -222 and let-7d expression. Pri-miR-155 and -222 were not detected in GV oocytes but pri-miR-155 was present in MII oocytes, indicating transcription during maturation. In contrast, levels of pri-let-7d decreased during maturation, suggesting that the observed increase in let-7d expression was likely due to processing of the primary transcript. This study demonstrates that both dynamic and stable populations of miRNAs are present in bovine oocytes and zygotes and extend previous studies supporting the importance of the small RNA landscape in the maturing bovine oocyte and early embryo.

  16. Phosphorus digestibility and phytate degradation by yearlings and mature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A L; Hansen, T L; Strasinger, L A; Harlow, B E; Lawrence, L M

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic P is often added to growing horse diets because organic P, or phytate-P, is believed to have lower digestibility. If horses can efficiently digest organic P, then the need for inorganic P may be reduced. Much of the P in grain-based concentrates fed to growing horses is in the form of phytate-P. Little is known about the ability of growing horses to degrade phytate-P or whether horse age affects mineral digestion in horses. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age on P, Ca, and Mg digestibility as well as phytate-P degradation. Four yearling geldings and 4 mature geldings were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes, timothy cubes, and a pelleted concentrate. The diet contained 0.28% total P and 17.4% of that P was in the phytate form. There was a 14-d diet adaptation period followed by a 4-d fecal collection period. Apparent total tract P digestibility was higher for yearlings than mature geldings ( = 0.036; 7.7 and -6.6% for yearlings and mature geldings, respectively). Phytate-P disappearance was 94.8% and did not differ between ages ( = 0.190). Apparent Ca digestibility was lower in mature geldings ( = 0.043), but apparent Mg digestibility did not differ between ages ( = 0.414). Phytate is broken down in the gastrointestinal tract, but the low P digestibilities suggest that either degradation occurs after the site of P absorption or liberated P is recycled back into the gastrointestinal tract. Yearlings can utilize organic P as well as mature horses; therefore, diets without inorganic P are acceptable for growing horses.

  17. Rate of meristem maturation determines inflorescence architecture in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soon Ju; Jiang, Ke; Schatz, Michael C.; Lippman, Zachary B.

    2012-01-01

    Flower production and crop yields are highly influenced by the architectures of inflorescences. In the compound inflorescences of tomato and related nightshades (Solanaceae), new lateral inflorescence branches develop on the flanks of older branches that have terminated in flowers through a program of plant growth known as “sympodial.” Variability in the number and organization of sympodial branches produces a remarkable array of inflorescence architectures, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying sympodial growth and branching diversity. One hypothesis is that the rate of termination modulates branching. By performing deep sequencing of transcriptomes, we have captured gene expression dynamics from individual shoot meristems in tomato as they gradually transition from a vegetative state to a terminal flower. Surprisingly, we find thousands of age-dependent expression changes, even when there is little change in meristem morphology. From these data, we reveal that meristem maturation is an extremely gradual process defined molecularly by a “meristem maturation clock.” Using hundreds of stage-enriched marker genes that compose this clock, we show that extreme branching, conditioned by loss of expression of the COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE gene, is driven by delaying the maturation of both apical and lateral meristems. In contrast, we find that wild tomato species display a delayed maturation only in apical meristems, which leads to modest branching. Our systems genetics approach reveals that the program for inflorescence branching is initiated surprisingly early during meristem maturation and that evolutionary diversity in inflorescence architecture is modulated by heterochronic shifts in the acquisition of floral fate. PMID:22203998

  18. Induction of dorsal mesoderm by soluble, mature Vg1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, D S; Melton, D A

    1995-07-01

    Mesoderm induction during Xenopus development has been extensively studied, and two members of the transforming growth factor-beta family, activin beta B and Vg1, have emerged as candidates for a natural inducer of dorsal mesoderm. Heretofore, analysis of Vg1 activity has relied on injection of hybrid Vg1 mRNAs, which have not been shown to direct efficient secretion of ligand and, therefore, the mechanism of mesoderm induction by processed Vg1 protein is unclear. This report describes injection of Xenopus oocytes with a chimeric activin-Vg1 mRNA, encoding the pro-region of activin beta B fused to the mature region of Vg1, resulting in the processing and secretion of mature Vg1. Treatment of animal pole explants with mature Vg1 protein resulted in differentiation of dorsal, but not ventral, mesodermal tissues and dose-dependent activation of both dorsal and ventrolateral mesodermal markers. At high doses, mature Vg1 induced formation of 'embryoids' with a rudimentary axial pattern, head structures including eyes and a functional neuromuscular system. Furthermore, truncated forms of the activin and FGF receptors, which block mesoderm induction in the intact embryo, fully inhibited mature Vg1 activity. To examine the mechanism of inhibition, we have performed receptor-binding assays with radiolabeled Vg1. Finally, follistatin, a specific inhibitor of activin beta B which is shown not to block endogenous dorsal mesoderm induction, failed to inhibit Vg1. The results support a role for endogenous Vg1 in dorsal mesoderm induction during Xenopus development.

  19. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  20. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been ..gamma..-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes.

  1. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  2. Business-IT Alignment Maturity: The Correlation of Performance Indicators and Alignment Maturity within the Commercial Airline Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    During the period from 1978 to 2009, more than 200 commercial airlines were forced to merge, cease operations, or file for bankruptcy protection. The purpose of this quantitative study is to evaluate the global commercial airline industry from an IT-business alignment perspective and correlate the alignment maturity level of each airline with…

  3. Effects of sperm insemination on the final meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes arrested at metaphase I after in vitro maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong; Juhn, Kyoung-Mi; Yoon, San-Hyun; Ko, Yong; Lim, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether fertilization could induce the resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes arrested at metaphase I (MI) after in vitro maturation (IVM), and to investigate the effect of Ca(2)(+) chelator treatment at the time of fertilization on the transition from MI to metaphase II (MII). MII-stage and arrested MI-stage mouse oocytes after IVM were fertilized, and then embryonic development was monitored. Blastocysts from each group were transferred into 2.5 days post-coitum pseudo-pregnant ICR mice. MI oocytes after IVM were treated with a Ca(2)(+) chelator to investigate the effect of Ca(2)(+) oscillations on their maturation. As insemination time increased, the number of oocytes in the MI group that reached the MII stage also increased. The blastocyst rates and total cell numbers in the MII group were significantly higher than in the MI group. No pregnancy occurred in the MI group, but 10 pregnancies were achieved (10 of 12) in the MII group. The proportion of MI oocytes that matured to MII oocytes after fertilization was significantly higher in the non-treated group than in the Ca(2)(+) chelator-treated group. The findings that a higher proportion of MI-arrested oocytes progressed to MII after fertilization and that the MI-to-MII transition was blocked by Ca(2)(+) chelator treatments before fertilization indicate that the maturation of MI oocytes to MII oocytes is associated with intracellular Ca(2)(+) oscillations driven by fertilization.

  4. Effects of Vitrification on Outcomes of In VivoMature, In Vitro-Mature and Immature Human Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yan Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To observe the effects of vitrification on spindle, zona pellucida, embryonic aneuploidy and DNA injury in in vivo-maruted, in vitro-mature and immature human oocytes. Methods: Between January 2009 and February 2015, 223 immature oocytes from 450 infertile patients, and 31 in vivo-mature oocytes from 3 infertile couples were collected. Of the 223 immature oocytes, 113 were used for in vitro culture before vitrification. Some oocytes were randomly divided into in vivo-mature group (group A, n = 15, in vitro-mature group (group B, n = 88 and immature group (group C, n = 85, and then the oocytes with spindle in these three groups after freezing-thawing were selected to use for Polscope imaging, embryonic aneuploidy screening and embryo development evaluation. Other oocytes were randomly divided into group A (n = 16, group B (n = 25 and group C (n = 25 for detecting DNA injury. Results: After thawing, spindle occurrence rate, spindle Retardance value, and cleavage rate were significantly higher in groups A and B than in group C (all P P > 0.05. Zona pellucida density (ZPD was significantly lower in group A than in groups B and C both before and after vitrification (all P P P > 0.05. Rate of comet cells was significantly lower in group A than in groups B and C (all P P Conclusion: In vivo- and in vitro-mature human oocytes are more suitable to vitrification than immature human oocytes. Spindle Retardance value has more predictive value for embryonic development potential than ZPD and ZPT.

  5. The impact of juveniles' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity on judges' opinions about adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer Mayer; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Dolores, John; Zelechoski, Amanda D; Messenheimer, Sharon

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated whether defendants' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity would affect judges' ratings of juveniles' adjudicative competence in juvenile and criminal court. Three hundred forty two judges reviewed a forensic psychological report about a hypothetical defendant; only the defendant's age (12-17) and maturity level (mature, immature) varied across reports. Results revealed a main effect of age, with older juveniles generally deemed more competent, and a main effect of maturity, with mature juveniles generally deemed more competent. No interaction was found. Results suggest that age and maturity play major roles in judicial determinations of juvenile competency.

  6. 地热水驱%Geothermal-Hot-Water Waterflood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯君

    2003-01-01

    地热水驱是一项成熟的采油技术.它直接利用地层中的热水,无需燃烧燃料来加热地层水和注入的冷水,从而大大提高了最终采收率.这种技术在高黏含蜡浅油层以及含盐浓度相对较低的较深含水层得到广泛应用.Sumatra盆地的许多油田都具有上述地质特征,而且Sumatra的地温梯度高,因而钻进地热源井很经济.

  7. Modeling of Salinity Effects on Waterflooding of Petroleum Reservoirs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem

    of the experimental studies concerning the smart water effects recognize importance of the chemistry of reservoir rocks that manifests itself in dissolution and precipitation of rock minerals and adsorption of specific ions on the rock surface. The brine-rock interactions may affect the wetting state of the rock...... brine and the formation water that is initially in equilibrium with the reservoir rock. We consider a displacement process in one dimension with dissolution affecting both the porosity/permeability of the rock and the density of the brine. Extending previous studies, we account for the different...... of residual oil and its flow in porous media. The oil trapped in the swept zones after conventional flooding is present in a form of disconnected oil drops, or oil ganglia. While the macroscopic theory of multiphase flow assumes that fluid phases flow in their own pore networks and do not influence each other...

  8. Evaluation of oxygen corrosion in waterflood and disposal water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, H.C.

    1967-01-01

    The case histories presented illustrate how specially polished pipe nipples have been used and examined in the field to evaluate the seriousness of an oxygen corrosion problem. The case histories also illustrate how these test pipe nipples have been used to evaluate actual, not relative, effectiveness of a chemical treatment program to control oxygen corrosion. Data are presented and discussed showing the relationship between corrosion rates of test pipe nipples and actual in-service equipment. The case histories show how corrosion rates based on pipe test nipple data were used to project equipment life under no chemical treatment vs. chemical treatment. A comparative study of corrosion rates between the use of pipe nipples and coupons as a means of measuring oxygen corrosion is discussed. A further comparative study is made between coupon corrosion rates based on weight loss and pit depth penetration.

  9. Crossflow and water banks in viscous dominant regimes of waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Xuan; Shapiro, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the crossflow in multilayered reservoirs is of great importance for designing mobility control methods for enhanced oil recovery. The authors reveal saturation profiles in stratified reservoirs to study the interlayer communication in the viscous dominant regime. The displacement...

  10. Mature e-Government based on spatial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line Træholt; Baaner, Lasse; Schrøder, Anne Lise

    2014-01-01

    The relation of spatial data and e-Government is important, but not always acknowledged in the development and implementation of e-Government. The implementation of the INSPIRE directive pushed this agenda towards a growing awareness of the role of spatial data and the need for a spatial data...... infrastructure to support e-Government. With technology, policies, data and infrastructure in place, new iterations of this relationship are needed, in order to reach a higher level of maturity. This paper analyses and discusses the need for the differentiated roles of spatial data as an important step towards...... more mature eGovernment. As part of this understanding, the paper focuses on a subset of data, so-called ‘spatio-legal data’. Spatio-legal data are created within the regulated legal environment of public administration, and used for rulings within a given legal area. Sometimes, the legal status...

  11. Climbing the ladder: capability maturity model integration level 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Bryce; Lutteroth, Christof

    2011-02-01

    This article details the attempt to form a complete workflow model for an information and communication technologies (ICT) company in order to achieve a capability maturity model integration (CMMI) maturity rating of 3. During this project, business processes across the company's core and auxiliary sectors were documented and extended using modern enterprise modelling tools and a The Open Group Architectural Framework (TOGAF) methodology. Different challenges were encountered with regard to process customisation and tool support for enterprise modelling. In particular, there were problems with the reuse of process models, the integration of different project management methodologies and the integration of the Rational Unified Process development process framework that had to be solved. We report on these challenges and the perceived effects of the project on the company. Finally, we point out research directions that could help to improve the situation in the future.

  12. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  13. Robotic QM/MM-driven maturation of antibody combining sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Ivan V; Golovin, Andrey V; Chatziefthimiou, Spyros D; Stepanova, Anastasiya V; Peng, Yingjie; Zolotareva, Olga I; Belogurov, Alexey A; Kurkova, Inna N; Ponomarenko, Natalie A; Wilmanns, Matthias; Blackburn, G Michael; Gabibov, Alexander G; Lerner, Richard A

    2016-10-01

    In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents. Virtual screening of 167,538 robotically generated mutants identified an optimum single point mutation, which experimentally boosted wild-type Ig scavenger performance by 170-fold. We validated the QM/MM predictions via kinetic analysis and crystal structures of mutant apo-A17 and covalently modified Ig, thereby identifying the displacement of one water molecule by an arginine as delivering this catalysis.

  14. Intimacy maturity and its correlates in young married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K M; Speisman, J C; Jackson, D; Bartis, S; Costos, D

    1986-01-01

    Intimate relationships, like the individuals who participate in them, are conceived of as following developmental processes. Five dimensions of intimacy--that is, relationship orientation, caring-concern, commitment, sexuality, and communication--are identified, and an approach to assessing relationship maturity on each of these dimensions is described. In a study of 31 young married couples, scores on each dimension of intimacy maturity were analyzed in relation to gender, gender role (as assessed through an adaptation of the Bem Sex Role Inventory; Bem, 1974), and marital adjustment. There were no significant differences between husbands and wives on any of the intimacy or marital adjustment scales and only a marginal difference on one gender role scale (agency). Patterns of correlations among intimacy, marital adjustment, and gender role scores varied by gender. Not only do there appear to be two marriages (his and hers) in every marriage, but the correlates of these marriages also vary.

  15. THE POSSIBILITIES TO DETERMINE FETAL MATURITY BY ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Lysenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extragenital disorders in a pregnant patient, as well as complications of pregnancy often necessitate preterm delivery, when the state of the fetus is one of the criteria determining terms and type of delivery. In connection with this, the physician faces the challenge of accurate assessment of fetal maturity. Aim: To identify ultrasound signs of functional fetal maturity. Materials and methods: 120 pregnant patients were assessed at 35 to 40 weeks of gestation. Beyond a standard fetometry, we assessed interhemispheric cerebellar size, the biggest size of the Beclard’s nucleus, the ratio of cortical to medullar substance of fetal adrenal glands (adrenal coefficient, the ration between ultrasound density of lungs, liver and ultrasound density of fetal urine (histogram analysis. Results: Up to 36 weeks of gestation, the interhemispheric cerebellar size was below 52 mm, starting from 37 weeks, above 53 mm and from week 40 on, above 58 mm. All newborns, which had their interhemispheric cerebellar size ≥ 53 mm antenatally, were assessed as being mature at birth (p < 0.05. All newborns, which had Beclard’s nucleus size ≥ 5 mm antenatally, were assessed as being mature at birth (p < 0.05. At 35–35.6 weeks of gestation, mean adrenal coefficients in all cases exceeded 1. Starting with full 36 weeks of gestation onwards, this parameter decreased to 0.94 and showed a steady decrease thereafter. There were no signs of functional immaturity or respiratory distress among newborns with antenatal adrenal coefficient of ≤ 0.99 (p < 0.05. The ratio between ultrasound density of lungs to ultrasound density of bladder contents increases up to 37 weeks of gestation and remains stable up to 40 weeks. The ratio of liver density to the same substrate is non-significantly lower due to lower ultrasound density of the liver itself. The ratio of ultrasound density of the lung to that of the liver up to 36 weeks was at least 1.41 and decreased

  16. Visual-Motor Maturity and Executive Functions in Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Silva de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Visual-motor maturity and executive functions are closely related in the child development process. This study aimed to investigate the relation between visual-motor abilities and executive functions in 83 healthy children between 7 and 10 years old. The tools used were the Bender Gestalt Visual-Motor Test - Gradual Scoring System (B-GSS, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM, and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF. The correlation between the B-GSS and WCST scores was significantly negative (r = -.23, p < .033, while ROCF variables, such as Total Memory and Total Copy, had a moderate, significant correlation with total B-GSS score (r = -.55, p < .001; r = -.44, p < .001, respectively. The results empirically show the relation between executive functions and visual-motor maturity and are discussed in face of developmental neuropsychology.

  17. Staffing and Workflow of a Maturing Institutional Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora L. Madsen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Institutional repositories (IRs have become established components of many academic libraries. As an IR matures it will face the challenge of how to scale up its operations to increase the amount and types of content archived. These challenges involve staffing, systems, workflows, and promotion. In the past eight years, Kansas State University's IR (K-REx has grown from a platform for student theses, dissertations, and reports to also include faculty works. The initial workforce of a single faculty member was expanded as a part of a library-wide reorganization, resulting in a cross-departmental team that is better able to accommodate the expansion of the IR. The resultant need to define staff responsibilities and develop resources to manage the workflows has led to the innovations described here, which may prove useful to the greater library community as other IRs mature.

  18. Proteomic changes in mammalian spermatozoa during epididymal maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. John Aitken; Brett Nixon; Minjie Lin; Adam J. Koppers; Yun H. Lee; Mark A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Epididymal maturation is associated with the activation of a cAMP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation cascade,which is ultimately associated with the expression of capacitation-dependent sperm functions, such as hyperactivated movement and acrosomal exocytosis. As spermatozoa progress through the epididymis they first acquire the capacity to phosphorylate tyrosine on targets on the principal piece, followed by the midpiece. By the time these cells have reached the cauda epididymidis they can phosphorylate the entire tail from neck to endpiece. This particular pattern of phosphorylation is associated with the ontogeny of fully functional spermatozoa that are capable of fertilizing the oocyte. Proteomic analyses indicate that this change is associated with the phosphorylation of several mitochondrial proteins, creation of a mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of mitochondrial free radical generation. At least in rodent species, activation of sperm mitochondria appears to be a particularly important part of epididymal maturation.

  19. OUTSHORE Maturity Model: Assistance for Software Offshore Outsourcing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkiö, Juho; Betz, Stafanie; Oberweis, Andreas

    Offshore outsourcing software development (OOSD) is increasingly being used by the Software Industry. OOSD is a specific variant of Geographically Distributed Software Developmentdistributed software development (GDSD). Compared to the traditional mode of software development (i.e., in-house) GDSD is more edgy and puts at risk the attainment of the expected results. Although the failure of an offshore outsourcing software project may be caused by a variety of factors, one major complication is geographical distance. Consequently we argue that risk avoidance in outshore software development should be undertaken well in advance of the development launch. This could be done by testing the offshore outsourcing relevance of each software project and then the offshore outsourcing company involved. With this in mind we have developed the OUTSHORE Maturity Modeloutshore maturity model - OMM.

  20. Enabling Front End of Innovation in a Mature Development Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many mature development organizations find it difficult to handle radical and incremental innovations within the same organizational structures. We examine how organizational structures, management, development mindsets and cultures represent a constitution of development for the thinking...... of development. We will through an in-depth case study demonstrate how this constitution of development is enacted as best practice for development., making it difficult to bring forth radical ideas. Furthermore we will describe how navigation and (re)enactment of the constitution of development are practiced...... in staging new temporary development spaces framing for alternative Front End of Innovation opportunities in a mature development organization. The analysis indicates that it is important to know of the implicit and explicit rules of the constitution of development as these are re-enacted and points...

  1. Cognitive maturity and readiness for evidence-based nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Carolyn J; Thurkettle, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    Individual factors are known to influence engagement in research utilization and evidence-based practice (EBP). Cognitive maturity is one factor that may enhance interest in and willingness to engage in clinical inquiry, research utilization, and EBP. Adult cognitive development theory explains why research training alone may not suffice to prepare nurses for EBP. Epistemic assumptions held by pre-reflective and quasireflective thinkers interfere with openness to uncertainty and ambiguity in practice and accurate understanding of the value of research for practice. Nurses may use good formal logic, but they also believe in authority, or revealed truth, as the criterion for knowledge and sometimes fail to perceive the need to evaluate evidence. Developmentally oriented educational efforts informed by the reflective judgment model have the potential to foster the cognitive development required in students of EBP. Further inquiry into the relationship between cognitive maturity and EBP will enhance these educational efforts.

  2. Dendritic spine actin dynamics in neuronal maturation and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlushchenko, Iryna; Koskinen, Mikko; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2016-09-01

    The majority of the postsynaptic terminals of excitatory synapses in the central nervous system exist on small bulbous structures on dendrites known as dendritic spines. The actin cytoskeleton is a structural element underlying the proper development and morphology of dendritic spines. Synaptic activity patterns rapidly change actin dynamics, leading to morphological changes in dendritic spines. In this mini-review, we will discuss recent findings on neuronal maturation and synaptic plasticity-induced changes in the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton. We propose that actin dynamics in dendritic spines decrease through actin filament crosslinking during neuronal maturation. In long-term potentiation, we evaluate the model of fast breakdown of actin filaments through severing and rebuilding through polymerization and later stabilization through crosslinking. We will discuss the role of Ca(2+) in long-term depression, and suggest that actin filaments are dissolved through actin filament severing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  4. Mature e-Government based on spatial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse; Schrøder, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The relation of spatial data and e-Government is important, but not always acknowledged in the development and implementation of e-Government. The implementation of the INSPIRE directive pushed this agenda towards a growing awareness of the role of spatial data and the need for a spatial data...... infrastructure to support e-Government. With technology, policies, data and infrastructure in place, new iterations of this relationship are needed, in order to reach a higher level of maturity. This paper analyses and discusses the need for the differentiated roles of spatial data as an important step towards...... more mature eGovernment. As part of this understanding, the paper focuses on a subset of data, so-called ‘spatio-legal data’. Spatio-legal data are created within the regulated legal environment of public administration, and used for rulings within a given legal area. Sometimes, the legal status...

  5. Seipin is required for converting nascent to mature lipid droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huajin; Becuwe, Michel; Housden, Benjamin E;

    2016-01-01

    How proteins control the biogenesis of cellular lipid droplets (LDs) is poorly understood. Using Drosophila and human cells, we show here that seipin, an ER protein implicated in LD biology, mediates a discrete step in LD formation-the conversion of small, nascent LDs to larger, mature LDs. Seipin...... forms discrete and dynamic foci in the ER that interact with nascent LDs to enable their growth. In the absence of seipin, numerous small, nascent LDs accumulate near the ER and most often fail to grow. Those that do grow prematurely acquire lipid synthesis enzymes and undergo expansion, eventually...... leading to the giant LDs characteristic of seipin deficiency. Our studies identify a discrete step of LD formation, namely the conversion of nascent LDs to mature LDs, and define a molecular role for seipin in this process, most likely by acting at ER-LD contact sites to enable lipid transfer to nascent...

  6. The Logistic Maturity Model: Application to a Fashion Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of the logistic maturity model (LMM in detail and shows the possible improvements that can be achieved by using this model in terms of the identification of the most appropriate actions to be taken in order to increase the performance of the logistics processes in industrial companies. The paper also gives an example of the LMM’s application to a famous Italian female fashion firm, which decided to use the model as a guideline for the optimization of its supply chain. Relying on a 5-level maturity staircase, specific achievement indicators as well as key performance indicators and best practices are defined and related to each logistics area/process/sub-process, allowing any user to easily and rapidly understand the more critical logistical issues in terms of process immaturity.

  7. RB975242 and RB975201 - Late maturation sugarcane varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation in the CentralSouth region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.

  8. Maturity Assessment of Space Plug-and-Play Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    EPC ) to convert the standard bus voltage to the necessary component voltages. In light of these voltage requirements, SPA introduced a standard...to the developers to decide how to implement those functions. Assessing software maturity for contractor -developed software will be difficult at...Comtech AA) and Seakr are two of the Advanced Plug-and-Play Technology (APT) contractors . Comtech AA demonstrated a full system utilizing SPA

  9. Interactional models for adults of two populations with maturation delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-rong; LI Jian-quan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with interactional models for adults of two species delayed by their mature periods. The existence and local stability of equilibria are discussed thoroughly for competitive systems, cooperative systems and predator-prey systems, respectively. For systems with interaction of competition and cooperation, it is found that the two populations are uniformly persistent if the positive equilibrium is stable. For predator-prey interaction, however, some further conditions are needed to guarantee the persistence of the systems.

  10. Sustained attention and prediction: distinct brain maturation trajectories during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix eThillay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a key period for frontal cortex maturation necessary for the development of cognitive ability. Sustained attention and prediction are cognitive functions critical for optimizing sensory processing, and essential to efficiently adapt behaviors in an ever-changing world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the brain developmental trajectories of attentive and predictive processing through adolescence. We recorded EEG in 36 participants from the age of 12 to 24 years (three age groups: 12-14, 14-17, 18-24 years to target development during early and late adolescence, and early adulthood. We chose a visual target detection task which loaded upon sustained attention, and we manipulated target predictability. Continued maturation of sustained attention after age 12 was evidenced by improved performance (hits, false alarms and sensitivity in a detection task, associated with a frontal shift in the scalp topographies of the CNV and P3 responses, with increasing age. No effect of age was observed on predictive processing, with all ages showing similar benefits in reaction time, increases in P3 amplitude (indexing predictive value encoding and memorization, increases in CNV amplitude (corresponding to prediction implementation and reduction in target-P3 latency (reflecting successful prediction building and use, with increased predictive content. This suggests that adolescents extracted and used predictive information to generate predictions as well as adults.The present results show that predictive and attentive processing follow distinct brain developmental trajectories: prediction abilities seem mature by the age of 12 and sustained attention continues to improve after 12-years of age and is associated with maturational changes in the frontal cortices.

  11. Amelogenin-Ameloblastin Spatial Interaction around Maturing Enamel Rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, P; Prajapati, S; Bapat, R; Moradian-Oldak, J

    2016-08-01

    Amelogenin and ameloblastin are 2 extracellular matrix proteins that are essential for the proper development of enamel. We recently reported that amelogenin and ameloblastin colocalized during the secretory stage of enamel formation when nucleation of enamel crystallites occurs. Direct interactions between the 2 proteins have been also demonstrated in our in vitro studies. Here, we explore interactions between their fragments during enamel maturation. We applied in vivo immunofluorescence imaging, quantitative co-localization analysis, and a new FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique to demonstrate ameloblastin and amelogenin interaction in the maturing mouse enamel. Using immunochemical analysis of protein samples extracted from 8-d-old (P8) first molars from mice as a model for maturation-stage enamel, we identified the ~17-kDa ameloblastin (Ambn-N) and the TRAP (tyrosine-rich amelogenin peptide) fragments. We used Ambn-N18 and Ambn-M300 antibodies raised against the N-terminal and C-terminal segments of ameloblastin, as well as Amel-FL and Amel-C19 antibodies against full-length recombinant mouse amelogenin (rM179) and C-terminal amelogenin, respectively. In transverse sections, co-localization images of N-terminal fragments of amelogenin and ameloblastin around the prism boundary revealed the "fish net" pattern of the enamel matrix. Using in vivo FRET microscopy, we further demonstrated spatial interactions between amelogenin and ameloblastin N-terminal fragments. In the maturing mouse enamel, the association of these residual protein fragments created a discontinuity between enamel rods, which we suggest is important for support and maintenance of enamel rods and eventual contribution to unique enamel mechanical properties. We present data that support cooperative functions of enamel matrix proteins in mediating the structural hierarchy of enamel and that contribute to our efforts to design and develop enamel biomimetic material.

  12. Millennials. The traits of a generation, the problematic maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Bernardini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The millennial label is being increasingly attributed to the contemporary youth in an attempt to differentiate and circumscribe a vast and multiform generational class, yet extraordinary homogeneous for several characteristics. We will look at three of those characters that mostly identify such class: the unique connection with technology, socio-political pragmatism and tendency to presentism. Characters that can be associated with unprecedented and uncertain visions of the future, work and family and, therefore, the very concept of social maturity.

  13. Mature posterior fossa teratoma mimicking infratentorial meningioma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, O; El Kacemi, I; Fatemi, N; Gana, R; Saïdi, A; Maaqili, R; Jiddane, M; Bellakhdar, F

    2012-02-01

    Intracranial teratomas are congenital neoplasms mostly diagnosed in the pediatric hood and usually involve supratentorial midline structures. These teratomas, especially those involving the posterior fossa are an uncommon and representing less than 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. We report a case of mature posterior fossa teratoma in an adult patient diagnosed in the 4th decade of life. This lesion was taken for a huge infratentorial meningioma.

  14. Maturation of the Escherichia coli divisome occurs in two steps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarsman, M.E.G.; Piette, A.; Fraipont, C.; Vinkenvleugel, T.M.F.; Nguyen-Distèche, M.; den Blaauwen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Cell division proteins FtsZ (FtsA, ZipA, ZapA), FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL/B, FtsW, PBP3, FtsN and AmiC localize at mid cell in Escherichia coli in an interdependent order as listed. To investigate whether this reflects a time dependent maturation of the divisome, the average cell age at which FtsZ,

  15. Application of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Index in Orthodontics

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Dalili

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of skeletal age and determination of growth status had important and special roie in orthodontic treatment planning (such as functional orthopedic treatment and orthognatic surgery) and also in stability of it. There were several biologic indicators for the detection of the peak in mandibular growth. Due to the limitations of biological indicators application, idea of new indicators was seemed importantly. Cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method is one of them. At first the dete...

  16. RASD1 Knockdown Results in Failure of Oocyte Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Youngeun Lee; Kyeoung-Hwa Kim; Hyemin Yoon; Ok-Hee Lee; Eunyoung Kim; Miseon Park; Hoon Jang; Kwonho Hong; Hyuk Song; Jung Jae Ko; Woo Sik Lee; Kyung-Ah Lee; Eun Mi Chang; Youngsok Choi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ras dexamethasone-induced protein (RASD1) is a member of Ras superfamily of small GTPases. RASD1 regulates various signaling pathways involved in iron homeostasis, growth hormone secretion, and circadian rhythm. However, RASD1 function in oocyte remains unknown. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, RASD1 expression in mouse ovary and RASD1 role in oocyte maturation-related gene expression, spindle formation, and chromosome ali...

  17. Sustained attention and prediction: distinct brain maturation trajectories during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillay, Alix; Roux, Sylvie; Gissot, Valérie; Carteau-Martin, Isabelle; Knight, Robert T.; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period for frontal cortex maturation necessary for the development of cognitive ability. Sustained attention and prediction are cognitive functions critical for optimizing sensory processing, and essential to efficiently adapt behaviors in an ever-changing world. The aim of the current study was to investigate the brain developmental trajectories of attentive and predictive processing through adolescence. We recorded EEG in 36 participants from the age of 12–24 years (three age groups: 12–14, 14–17, 18–24 years) to target development during early and late adolescence, and early adulthood. We chose a visual target detection task which loaded upon sustained attention, and we manipulated target predictability. Continued maturation of sustained attention after age 12 was evidenced by improved performance (hits, false alarms (FAs) and sensitivity) in a detection task, associated with a frontal shift in the scalp topographies of the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) and P3 responses, with increasing age. No effect of age was observed on predictive processing, with all ages showing similar benefits in reaction time, increases in P3 amplitude (indexing predictive value encoding and memorization), increases in CNV amplitude (corresponding to prediction implementation) and reduction in target-P3 latency (reflecting successful prediction building and use), with increased predictive content. This suggests that adolescents extracted and used predictive information to generate predictions as well as adults. The present results show that predictive and attentive processing follow distinct brain developmental trajectories: prediction abilities seem mature by the age of 12 and sustained attention continues to improve after 12-years of age and is associated with maturational changes in the frontal cortices. PMID:26483653

  18. Monitoring fetal maturation - objectives, techniques and indices of autonomic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Dirk; Zebrowski, Jan; Cysarz, Dirk; Goncalves, Hernani; Pytlik, Adelina; Amorim-Costa, Celia; Bernardes, Joao; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Witte, Otto; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Stroux, Lisa; Redman, Christopher; Georgieva, Antoniya; Payne, Stephen; Clifford, Gari; Signorini, Maria; Magenes, Giovanni; Andreotti, Fernando; Malberg, Hagen; Zaunseder, Sebastian; Lakhno, Igor; Schneider, Uwe

    2017-02-10

    Monitoring the fetal behavior does not only have implications for acute care but also for identifying developmental disturbances that burden the entire later life. The concept, of "fetal programming", also known as "developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis", e.g. applies for cardiovascular, metabolic, hyperkinetic, cognitive disorders. Since the autonomic nervous system is involved in all of those systems, cardiac autonomic control may provide relevant functional diagnostic and prognostic information. The fetal heart rate patterns (HRP) are one of the few functional signals in the prenatal period that relate to autonomic control and, therefore, is predestinated for its evaluation. The development of sensitive markers of fetal maturation and its disturbances requires the consideration of physiological fundamentals, recording technology and HRP parameters of autonomic control. Based on the ESGCO2016 special session on monitoring the fetal maturation we herein report the most recent results on: (i) functional fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS), Recurrence Quantitative Analysis and Binary Symbolic Dynamics of complex HRP resolve specific maturation periods, (ii) magnetocardiography (MCG) based fABAS was validated for cardiotocography (CTG), (iii) 30 min recordings are sufficient for obtaining episodes of high variability, important for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) detection in handheld Doppler, (iv) novel parameters from PRSA to identify Intra IUGR fetuses, (v) Electrocardiographic (ECG) recordings allowed a stable heart beat detection in the maturation periods between 20 to 28 weeks of gestation only, (vi) correlation between maternal and fetal HRV is disturbed in pre-eclampsia. The reported novel developments significantly extend the possibilities for the established CTG methodology. Novel HRP indices improve the accuracy of assessment due to their more appropriate consideration of complex autonomic processes across the recording technologies

  19. Ribosomal ribonucleic acid maturation during bacterial spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleyman, M; Woese, C

    1969-01-01

    All the ribosomal ribonucleic acid made during the early stages of germination of spores of Bacillus subtilis is of the "precursor" type, i.e., that type appearing in the incomplete forms of the ribosome. Shortly before the onset of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in germination, this precursor ribonucleic acid changed to the mature ribosomal ribonucleic acid characteristic of the 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits.

  20. Physical and chemical characteristics of pitaya fruits at physiological maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, T A; Takahashi, L S A

    2015-11-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the physical and chemical characteristics of the maturation process of pitaya fruit (Hylocereus undatus) to identify indicators that can be used to determine the point of physiological maturity and establish the optimal timing of physiological maturity for harvesting the fruit. A completely randomized experimental design was employed and four biological repeats were performed. Physiological maturity was assessed using various physical characteristics: longitudinal length (LL), equatorial diameter (ED), pericarp thickness (PeT), pulp thickness (PuT), fruit mass (FM), pulp mass (PuM), pericarp mass (PeM), pericarp percentage (%Pe), pulp percentage (%Pu), pulp/pericarp ratio (Pu/Pe), pericarp color index (CI), hue color angle (h°), lightness index (L*), chroma (C*), blue-yellow variation (b*), and green-red variation (a*). Additionally, chemical characteristics such as soluble solid content (SS), titratable acidity (TA), SS/TA ratio, and pH were screened. The data were statistically analyzed by fitting regression models and computing Pearson's correlation coefficients (P pitaya fruits occurred between the 30th and 32nd days after anthesis, and this proved to be the optimal period for harvest. At this time, the fruit was completely red with high SS, and had the recommended values of TA, pH, and SS/TA ratio. During this period, ED, PuT, FM, PuM, %Pu, and Pu/Pe increased while PeT, PeM, and %Pe fell; these changes are considered desirable by producers and/or consumers. PuM was the variable that displayed more strong's association with other variables in the analysis.

  1. Jointly optimal regulation of bank capital and maturity structure

    OpenAIRE

    Ansgar Walther

    2014-01-01

    Banks create excessive systemic risk through leverage and maturity mismatch, as financial constraints introduce welfare-reducing pecuniary externalities. Macroprudential regulators can achieve efficiency with simple linear constraints on banks' balance sheets, which require less information than Pigouvian taxes. These can be implemented using the Liquidity Coverage and Net Stable Funding ratios of Basel III. When bank failures are socially costly, microprudential regulation of leverage is als...

  2. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from primary retroperitoneal mature teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Leena D; Devi, M Kanmani; Sundaram, Sandhya; Rajendiran, S

    2007-05-01

    A 65 year old postmenopausal female presented with left sided abdominal pain. Sonogram revealed an intra-abdominal 7.4 x 5.7 cm heterogenous mass. On laparotomy, approximately 10 X 10 cm mesenteric mass was seen adherent to the descending colon. Multiple omental tumor deposits were also noted. Gross examination showed solid and cystic tumor with sebaceous material admixed with hair. Histopathology showed mature cystic teratoma with a spectrum of well to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with omental metastasis.

  3. ANALISIS TINGKAT KEMATANGAN (MATURITY LEVELS UNIT LAYANAN PENGADAAN KABUPATEN BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Uma Darmapramita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of government procurement of goods and service is governed by presidential regulation number 70 year of 2012.  According to that, in Badung Regency implemented centralized in Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency. As the one of Indonesia procurement unit pilot, Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency has given the opportunity to perform a self assessment of its  maturity levels as government unit. The objective of this research is to find factors that influence Procuremet Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, and also to find out in what level is Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency stand. Data collection for this research have done by  using questionnaire that involve 50 respondents who understand very well about the duties and function of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency to perform a government procurement of good and services. The data analysis have been performed by use of factor analysis and supported by SPSS program. The result shows there are 3 factors that influent the Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency maturity levels, which are : the synergy and organization culture, resources and risk management and organization’s performance development.  Whereas the maturity levels of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency is stand at compliance. Based to the factors that formed, the highly commitment and strong leadership of Badung Regency leader are very decisive to push ahead the enhancement  and  the development of Procurement Service Unit of Badung Regency.  First thing can be done is to establish an independent Procurement Service Unit therewith its Procurement Unit Development road maps that can be tiered and sustainable plan, monitor and evaluate

  4. Comparison of State-Funded Technology Maturation Programs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hess, Marguerite Evelyn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study examines the structure and impact of state-funded technology maturation programs that leverage research institutions for economic development throughout the United States. The lessons learned and practices identified from previous experiences will inform Sandia National Laboratories' Government Relations and Technology Partnerships teams as they participate in near-term discussions about the proposed Technology Readiness Gross Receipts Tax Credit and Program, and continue to shape longer-term program and partnership opportunities. This Page Intentionally Left Blank

  5. Connected Equipment Maturity Model Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzbaugh, Joshua B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whalen, Scott A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Connected Equipment Maturity Model (CEMM) evaluates the high-level functionality and characteristics that enable equipment to provide the four categories of energy-related services through communication with other entities (e.g., equipment, third parties, utilities, and users). The CEMM will help the U.S. Department of Energy, industry, energy efficiency organizations, and research institutions benchmark the current state of connected equipment and identify capabilities that may be attained to reach a more advanced, future state.

  6. The relation of morphology and affinity maturation in germinal centers

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Hermann, M

    2002-01-01

    The specific morphology of germinal centers is analyzed in the context of the optimization of the humoral immune response. The relevance of dark and light zones for the affinity maturation process is investigated in the framework of a theoretical model for the germinal center reaction. Especially, it is shown that an intermediate appearance of dark zones in germinal center reactions is advantageous for the process of antibody optimization.

  7. Maturation of the Escherichia coli divisome occurs in two steps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarsman, M.E.G.; Piette, A.; Fraipont, C.; Vinkenvleugel, T.M.F.; Nguyen-Distèche, M.; den Blaauwen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Cell division proteins FtsZ (FtsA, ZipA, ZapA), FtsE/X, FtsK, FtsQ, FtsL/B, FtsW, PBP3, FtsN and AmiC localize at mid cell in Escherichia coli in an interdependent order as listed. To investigate whether this reflects a time dependent maturation of the divisome, the average cell age at which FtsZ, F

  8. Cord blood mesenchymal stem cells propel human dendritic cells to an intermediate maturation state and boost interleukin-12 production by mature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berk, Lieke C J; Roelofs, Helene; Huijs, Tonnie; Siebers-Vermeulen, Kim G C; Raymakers, Reinier A; Kögler, Gesine; Figdor, Carl G; Torensma, Ruurd

    2009-12-01

    Pathogen-derived entities force the tissue-resident dendritic cells (DCs) towards a mature state, followed by migration to the draining lymph node to present antigens to T cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modulate the differentiation, maturation and function of DCs. In umbilical cord blood an immature MSC population was identified. Remarkably, these immature stem cells modulated DCs in a different way. Marker expression was unchanged during the differentiation of monocytes towards immature DCs (iDCs) when cocultured with cord blood MSC [unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs)]. The maturation to mature DCs (mDCs) was enhanced when DCs were co-cultured with USSC, as evidenced by the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules. Endocytosis of dextran by iDCs was hampered in the presence of USSCs, which is indicative for the maturation of iDCs. Despite this maturation, the migration of iDCs cocultured with USSCs appeared to be identical to iDCs cultured alone. However, USSCs increased the migration of mDCs towards CCL21 and boosted interleukin-12 production. So, USSCs mature iDCs, thereby redirecting the antigen-uptake phenotype towards a mature phenotype. Furthermore, DC maturation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or USSCs reflects two distinct pathways because migration was unaffected when iDCs were matured by coculture with USSCs, while it was strongly enhanced in the presence of LPS. DCs are able to discriminate the different MSC subtypes, resulting in diverse differentiation programmes.

  9. Toxic species in amyloid disorders: Oligomers or mature fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders. These protein aggregation (fibrillization disorders are also known as amyloid disorders. The mechanism of protein aggregation involves conformation switch of the native protein, oligomer formation leading to protofibrils and finally mature fibrils. Mature fibrils have long been considered as the cause of disease pathogenesis; however, recent evidences suggest oligomeric intermediates formed during fibrillization to be toxic. In this review, we have tried to address the ongoing debate for these toxic amyloid species. We did an extensive literature search and collated information from Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov and Google search using various permutations and combinations of the following keywords: Neurodegeneration, amyloid disorders, protein aggregation, fibrils, oligomers, toxicity, Alzheimer′s Disease, Parkinson′s Disease. We describe different instances showing the toxicity of mature fibrils as well as oligomers in Alzheimer′s Disease and Parkinson′s Disease. Distinct structural framework and morphology of amyloid oligomers suggests difference in toxic effect between oligomers and fibrils. We highlight the difference in structure and proposed toxicity pathways for fibrils and oligomers. We also highlight the evidences indicating that intermediary oligomeric species can act as potential diagnostic biomarker. Since the formation of these toxic species follow a common structural switch among various amyloid disorders, the protein aggregation events can be targeted for developing broad-range therapeutics. The therapeutic trials based on the understanding of different protein conformers (monomers, oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils in amyloid cascade are also described.

  10. Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Nishibayashi, Ryoichiro; Nakatani, Masako; Okutani, Mie; Nakanishi, Nobuo; Ushida, Kazunari; Inoue, Ryo

    2014-04-01

    The epitheliochorial nature of the porcine placenta prevents the transfer of maternal immunity. Therefore, ingestion of the colostrum immediately after birth is crucial for neonatal piglets to acquire passive immunity from the sow. We performed a shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine milk to reveal in detail the protein composition of porcine milk. On the basis of the Swiss-Prot database, 113 and 118 proteins were identified in the porcine colostrum and mature milk, respectively, and 50 of these proteins were common to both samples. Some immune-related proteins, including interleukin-18 (IL-18), were unique to the colostrum. The IL-18 concentration in the colostrum and mature milk of four sows was measured to validate the proteomic analysis, and IL-18 was only detected in the colostrum (191.0 ± 53.9 pg/mL) and not in mature milk. In addition, some proteins involved in primary defense, such as azurocidin, which has never been detected in any other mammal's milk, were also identified in the colostrum.

  11. Fuzzy Logic Based Group Maturity Rating for Software Performance Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Driven by market requirements, software services organizations have adopted various software engineering process models (such as capability maturity model (CMM), capability maturity model integration (CMMI), ISO 9001:2000, etc.) and practice of the project management concepts defined in the project management body of knowledge. While this has definitely helped organizations to bring some methods into the software development madness, there always exists a demand for comparing various groups within the organization in terms of the practice of these defined process models. Even though there exist many metrics for comparison, considering the variety of projects in terms of technology, life cycle, etc., finding a single metric that caters to this is a difficult task. This paper proposes a model for arriving at a rating on group maturity within the organization. Considering the linguistic or imprecise and uncertain nature of software measurements, fuzzy logic approach is used for the proposed model. Without the barriers like technology or life cycle difference, the proposed model helps the organization to compare different groups within it with reasonable precision.

  12. The Influence of Ouabain on Human Dendritic Cells Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although known as a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, several other cellular and systemic actions have been ascribed to the steroid Ouabain (Oua. Particularly in the immune system, our group showed that Ouabain acts on decreasing lymphocyte proliferation, synergizing with glucocorticoids in spontaneous thymocyte apoptosis, and also lessening CD14 expression and blocking CD16 upregulation on human monocytes. However, Ouabain effects on dendritic cells (DCs were not explored so far. Considering the peculiar plasticity and the importance of DCs in immune responses, the aim of our study was to investigate DC maturation under Ouabain influence. To generate immature DCs, human monocytes were cultured with IL-4 and GM-CSF (5 days. To investigate Ouabain role on DC activation, DCs were stimulated with TNF-α for 48 h in the presence or absence of Ouabain. TNF-induced CD83 expression and IL-12 production were abolished in DCs incubated with 100 nM Ouabain, though DC functional capacity concerning lymphocyte activation remained unaltered. Nevertheless, TNF-α-induced antigen capture downregulation, another maturation marker, occurred even in the presence of Ouabain. Besides, Ouabain increased HLA-DR and CD86 expression, whereas CD80 expression was maintained. Collectively, our results suggest that DCs respond to Ouabain maturating into a distinct category, possibly contributing to the balance between immunity and tolerance.

  13. Nickel trafficking system responsible for urease maturation in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Rui-Guang; Wang, Dong-Xian; Hao, Ming-Cong; Sun, Xue-Song

    2013-12-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a common human pathogen responsible for various gastric diseases. This bacterium relies on the production of urease and hydrogenase to inhabit the acidic environment of the stomach. Nickel is an essential cofactor for urease and hydrogenase. H. pylori has to uptake sufficient nickel ions for the maturation of urease, and on the other way, to prevent the toxic effects of excessive nickel ions. Therefore, H. pylori has to strike a delicate balance between the import of nickel ions, its efficient intracellular storage, and delivery to nickel-dependent metalloenzymes when required. The assembly and maturation of the urease enzyme is a complex and timely ordered process, requiring various regulatory, uptake, chaperone and accessory proteins. In this review, we focus on several nickel trafficking proteins involved in urease maturation: NikR, NixA, HypAB, UreEFGH, HspA, Hpn and Hpnl. The work will deepen our understanding of how this pathogenic bacterium adapts to severe habitant environments in the host.

  14. Transcriptomic features of Pecten maximus oocyte quality and maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Massimo; Huvet, Arnaud; Corporeau, Charlotte; Suquet, Marc; Planas, Josep V.; Moreira, Rebeca; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatriz; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    The king scallop Pecten maximus is a high valuable species of great interest in Europe for both fishery and aquaculture. Notably, there has been an increased investment to produce seed for enhancement programmes of wild scallop populations. However, hatchery production is a relatively new industry and it is still underdeveloped. Major hurdles are spawning control and gamete quality. In the present study, a total of 14 scallops were sampled in the bay of Brest (Brittany, France) to compare transcriptomic profiles of mature oocytes collected by spawning induction or by stripping. To reach such a goal, a microarray analysis was performed by using a custom 8x60K oligonucleotide microarray representing 45,488 unique scallop contigs. First we identified genes that were differentially expressed depending on oocyte quality, estimated as the potential to produce D-larvae. Secondly, we investigated the transcriptional features of both stripped and spawned oocytes. Genes coding for proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics, serine/threonine kinases signalling pathway, mRNA processing, response to DNA damage, apoptosis and cell-cycle appeared to be of crucial importance for both oocyte maturation and developmental competence. This study allowed us to dramatically increase the knowledge about transcriptional features of oocyte quality and maturation, as well as to propose for the first time putative molecular markers to solve a major bottleneck in scallop aquaculture. PMID:28253290

  15. Symbiotic commensal bacteria direct maturation of the host immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Sanna M; Kasper, Dennis L

    2008-11-01

    Although commensal bacteria are known to play an important role in the proper maturation of the immune system of their mammalian hosts, the molecular mechanisms underlying this immunomodulation are poorly characterized. The present review summarizes recent findings in the field and describes new knowledge on the interplay of the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response induced by symbiotic bacterial carbohydrate antigens. Commensal bacteria in the intestine not only interact directly with dendritic cells but also engage in cross-talk with epithelial cells. These interactions lead to the induction of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells in the lamina propria and ultimately to the regulation of functional maturation of effector T cells. Upon recognition of capsular polysaccharide antigens of commensal bacteria by dendritic cells (through toll-like receptor 2), innate immune responses facilitate and act in conjunction with adaptive responses to promote optimal Th1 polarization. In contrast, adaptive immunoglobulin A responses to symbiotic bacteria regulate the magnitude of oxidative innate immune responses in the mucosa as well as bacterial epitope expression in the lumen. Accumulating evidence is elucidating surface carbohydrate structures of symbiotic bacteria that drive the modulation of the intestinal immune system, resulting in mature, balanced immune responses and oral tolerance.

  16. Mannoproteins from Cryptococcus neoformans promote dendritic cell maturation and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrella, Donatella; Corbucci, Cristina; Perito, Stefano; Bistoni, Giovanni; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2005-02-01

    Our previous data show that mannoproteins (MPs) from Cryptococcus neoformans are able to induce protective responses against both C. neoformans and Candida albicans. Here we provide evidence that MPs foster maturation and activation of human dendritic cells (DCs). Maturation was evaluated by the ability of MPs to facilitate expression of costimulatory molecules such as CD40, CD86, CD83, and major histocompatibility complex classes I and II and to inhibit receptors such as CD14, CD16, and CD32. Activation of DCs was measured by the capacity of MPs to promote interleukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion. DC-induced maturation and interleukin-12 induction are largely mediated by engagement of mannose receptors and presume MP internalization and degradation. DC activation leads to IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, which is necessary for nuclear factor kappaB transmigration into the nucleus. MP-loaded DCs are efficient stimulators of T cells and show a remarkable capacity to promote CD4 and CD8 proliferation. In conclusion, we have evidenced a novel regulatory role of MPs that promotes their candidacy as a vaccine against fungi.

  17. Developmental Trends of Black Spruce Fibre Attributes in Maturing Plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Newton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the temporal developmental patterns of commercially relevant fibre attributes (tracheid length and diameters, wall thickness, specific surface area, wood density, microfibril angle, fibre coarseness, and modulus of elasticity and their interrelationships within maturing black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. B.S.P. plantations. A size-based stratified random sample procedure within 5 semimature plantations located in the Canadian Boreal Forest Region was used to select 50 trees from which radial cross-sectional xylem sequences at breast-height (1.3 m were cut and analyzed. Statistically, the graphical and linear correlation analyses indicated that the attributes exhibited significant (p≤0.05 relationships among themselves and with morphological tree characteristics. Relative variation of each annually measured attribute declined with increasing size class (basal area quintile. The transitional shifts in temporal correlation patterns occurring at the time of approximate crown closure where suggestive of intrinsic differences in juvenile and mature wood formation processes. The temporal cumulative development patterns of all 8 of the annually measured attributes varied systematically with tree size and exhibited the most rapid rates of change before the trees reached a cambial age of 20 years. At approximately 50 years after establishment, plantation mean attribute values were not dissimilar from those reported for more mature natural-origin stands.

  18. Astronomy in the Classroom for Mature Lifelong Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, B. E.

    2010-08-01

    Mature adults are sometimes underserved by the professional astronomical community, which often focuses on K-12/undergraduate education and outreach. Mature adults hold as much interest and enthusiasm for astronomy as their younger cohorts, but often face a greater challenge in obtaining access to adult-level information that is more structured than sporadic public lectures or the occasional popular-science article. I present here my efforts to bring astronomy classes to the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (OLLI) at UC Berkeley. There are over 120 OLLIs on university and college campuses throughout the United States. These institutes provide adults, age 50 and above, with both a diverse curriculum of study and a stimulating community of peers. Teaching at OLLI has been a straightforward way so share astronomy with this segment of the public—outreach that could be replicated by astronomers at other universities and colleges with associated OLLIs. The OLLI classroom can be challenging because of the wide range of student educational backgrounds. However, teaching at OLLI is extremely rewarding because mature adults bring to the classroom a vast array of life experiences, great curiosity, and immense independence of thought. The OLLI also provides the unique opportunity to inspire other non-traditional astronomy outreach activities by building partnerships both with professors in other disciplines and with the students themselves, as adult students often have the resources and connections to call upon to further explore and share astronomy outside the classroom.

  19. Inflammation-induced preterm lung maturation: lessons from animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Timothy J M; Westover, Alana J

    2016-10-20

    Intrauterine inflammation, or chorioamnionitis, is a major contributor to preterm birth. Prematurity per se is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality resulting from lung immaturity but exposure to chorioamnionitis reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants. Animal experiments have identified that an increase in pulmonary surfactant production by the preterm lungs likely underlies this decreased risk of RDS in infants exposed to chorioamnionitis. Further animal experimentation has shown that infectious or inflammatory agents in amniotic fluid exert their effects on lung development by direct effects within the developing respiratory tract, and probably not by systemic pathways. Differences in the effects of intrauterine inflammation and glucocorticoids demonstrate that canonical glucocorticoid-mediated lung maturation is not responsible for inflammation-induced changes in lung development. Animal experimentation is identifying alternative lung maturational pathways, and transgenic animals and cell culture techniques will allow identification of novel mechanisms of lung maturation that may lead to new treatments for the prevention of RDS.

  20. Targeting oocyte maturation to improve fertility in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Johné

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive aging is an increasingly pressing problem facing women in modern society, due to delay in child bearing. According to Statistics Canada, 52% of all Canadian births in 2011 were by women aged 30 years and older, up from 24% in 1981 ( http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-209-x/2013001/article/11784-eng.htm ). Women older than 35 years of age experience significantly increased risks of infertility, miscarriage and congenital birth defects, mostly due to poor quality of the eggs. Increasingly sophisticated, and often invasive, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped millions of women to achieve reproductive success. However, by and large, ARTs do not address the fundamental issue of reproductive aging in women: age-related decline in egg quality. More importantly, ARTs are not, and will never be, the main solution for the general population. Here, I attempt to review the scientific literature on age-related egg quality decline, based mostly on studies in mice and in humans. Emphasis is given to the brief period of time called oocyte maturation, which occurs just prior to ovulation. The rationale for this emphasis is that oocyte maturation represents a critical window where unfavorable ovarian conditions in older females contribute significantly to the decline of egg quality, and that science-based intervention during oocyte maturation represents the best chance of improving egg quality in older women. Finally, I summarize our own work in recent years on peri-ovulatory putrescine supplementation as a possible remedy for reproductive aging.

  1. Mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat cells exhibit multilineage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Taro; Kano, Koichiro; Kondo, Daisuke; Fukuda, Noboru; Iribe, Yuji; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Matsubara, Yoshiyuki; Sakuma, Takahiro; Satomi, Aya; Otaki, Munenori; Ryu, Jyunnosuke; Mugishima, Hideo

    2008-04-01

    When mature adipocytes are subjected to an in vitro dedifferentiation strategy referred to as ceiling culture, these mature adipocytes can revert to a more primitive phenotype and gain cell proliferative ability. We refer to these cells as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. In the present study, we examined the multilineage differentiation potential of DFAT cells. DFAT cells obtained from adipose tissues of 18 donors exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology and sustained high proliferative activity. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that DFAT cells comprised a highly homogeneous cell population compared with that of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs), although the cell-surface antigen profile of DFAT cells was very similar to that of ASCs. DFAT cells lost expression of mature adipocytes marker genes but retained or gained expression of mesenchymal lineage-committed marker genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), RUNX2, and SOX9. In vitro differentiation analysis revealed that DFAT cells could differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts under appropriate culture conditions. DFAT cells also formed osteoid matrix when implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. In addition, clonally expanded porcine DFAT cells showed the ability to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell lineages. These results indicate that DFAT cells represent a type of multipotent progenitor cell. The accessibility and ease of culture of DFAT cells support their potential application for cell-based therapies.

  2. Evolution of robusta green coffee redox enzymatic activities with maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon, Philippe; Bortlik, Karlheinz

    2004-06-02

    Oxidation reactions in coffee involve redox-sensitive polyphenols and appear to control the fragmentation of coffee storage proteins both in solution and during roasting. Coffee-specific nitrogenous flavor precursors may derive from this process. Accordingly, data converge to suggest that the redox status of the green bean before roasting might control the development of subsequent redox reactions during roasting. Consequently, we decided to identify biological events that may trigger or prevent oxidation during maturation of the coffee cherry and set the final redox status of the green bean. In a previous study, we observed that the sensitivity of green coffee to oxidative processes decreased along maturation. By using the very same samples originating from open-pollinated Robusta clones, we followed the activity of three essential redox enzymes: catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO). While CAT and POD activities increased with maturation, PPO activities decreased. Thanks to the identification of an atypical immature subclass, it appeared that CAT might be an essential factor in setting the final redox status of the green bean before the roasting event.

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Mature Pollen and Germinated Pollen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjie Zou; Lianfen Song; Wenzheng Zhang; Yi Wang; Songlin Ruan; Wei-Hua Wu

    2009-01-01

    Proteomic analysis was applied to generating the map of Arabidopsis mature pollen proteins and analyzing the differentially expressed proteins that are potentially involved in the regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination. By applying 2-D electrophoresis and silver staining, we resolved 499 and 494 protein spots from protein samples extracted from pollen grains and pollen tubes, respectively. Using the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method, we identified 189 distinct proteins from 213 protein spots expressed in mature pollen or pollen tubes, and 75 new identified proteins that had not been reported before in research into the Arabidopsis pollen proteome. Comparative analysis revealed that 40 protein spots exhibit reproducible significant changes between mature pollen and pollen tubes. And 21 proteins from 17 downregulated and six upregulated protein spots were identified. Functional category analysis indicated that these differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in signaling, cellular structure, transport, defense/stress responses, transcription, metabolism, and energy production. The patterns of changes at protein level suggested the important roles for energy metabolism-related proteins in pollen tube growth, accompanied by the activation of the stress response pathway and modifications to the cell wall.

  4. Dynamics of Nucleosome Positioning Maturation following Genomic Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Vasseur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin is thought to carry epigenetic information from one generation to the next, although it is unclear how such information survives the disruptions of nucleosomal architecture occurring during genomic replication. Here, we measure a key aspect of chromatin structure dynamics during replication—how rapidly nucleosome positions are established on the newly replicated daughter genomes. By isolating newly synthesized DNA marked with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU, we characterize nucleosome positions on both daughter genomes of S. cerevisiae during chromatin maturation. We find that nucleosomes rapidly adopt their mid-log positions at highly transcribed genes, which is consistent with a role for transcription in positioning nucleosomes in vivo. Additionally, experiments in hir1Δ mutants reveal a role for HIR in nucleosome spacing. We also characterized nucleosome positions on the leading and lagging strands, uncovering differences in chromatin maturation dynamics at hundreds of genes. Our data define the maturation dynamics of newly replicated chromatin and support a role for transcription in sculpting the chromatin template.

  5. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Mature Cystic Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Avcı

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malignant transformation in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary is a rare complication. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common transformation. We describe a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma. Case Report. A premenopausal 52-year-old female patient is diagnosed with vaginal bleeding. According to examination made on the women and the pelvic scanning, 7 cm mass is found on the right adnexa of the patient. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and debulking were the treatments completed on the patient. According to histopathological diagnosis, squamous cell carcinoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma is diagnosed as a reason for the mass in the right adnexa of the patient. Conclusion. The prognosis of the malign transformation of MCT depends on surgery stage; however it is extremely poor. The patient should receive chemotherapy regardless of stage. We have decided to administer second cycle carboplatin and paclitaxel treatments on the patient.

  6. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  7. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimiter S. Dimitrov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and

  8. Methyl diamantane index (MDI) as a maturity parameter for Lower Palaeozoic carbonate rocks at high maturity and overmaturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinggui, Li; Mingzhong, Cui [Academia Sinica, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Geology; Philp, Paul [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2000-07-01

    Diamantanes were identified in extracts from the Lower Ordovician Majiagou Formations (O{sub 1}m{sub 5}) of the central gas field, Shanganning Basin, China. At 3100-3800 m, corresponding to R{sub o} 1.9-3.9%, the MDI [methyl diamantine index = 4 - MD/(1-MD+3-MD+4-MD)] ranges from 40 to 65% for the source rock extracts. Changes in the MDI index in the very mature sections (R{sub o} > 2.0%) are relatively small and no linear correlation between MDI and R{sub o}, or MDI and depth, is noted, as previously reported, suggesting the possibility that the MDI may have limited applicability in maturity determinations. (Author)

  9. Computer Based Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Using Digital Lateral Cephalograms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vildana Dzemidzic; Emir Sokic; Alisa Tiro; Enita Nakas

    2015-01-01

      Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the reliability of a computer application for assessment of the stages of cervical vertebra maturation in order to determine the stage of skeletal maturity...

  10. Studies on the maturity and spawning of silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphr.) in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gopalan, U.K.

    Maturity and spawning of the Silver Pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphr.) have been studied in an area between the Gulf of Kutch and the Gulf of Cambay. The method of studying were: direct observation on the occurrence of maturity stages, measurements...

  11. A PLM components monitoring framework for SMEs based on a PLM maturity model and FAHP methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Haiqing; Sekhari, Aicha; Ouzrout, Yacine; Bouras, Abdelaziz

    2014-01-01

    Right PLM components selection and investments increase business advantages. This paper develops a PLM components monitoring framework to assess and guide PLM implementation in small and middle enterprises (SMEs). The framework builds upon PLM maturity models and decision-making methodology. PLM maturity model has the capability to analyze PLM functionalities and evaluate PLM components. A proposed PLM components maturity assessment (PCMA) model can obtain general maturity levels of PLM compo...

  12. CMMI (registered trademark): The Good News and Bad News about Supporting Maturity Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    The Good News and Bad News about Supporting Maturity Concepts Suzanne Garcia, SEI ®CMM, CMMI, IDEAL, and Capability Maturity Model are registered by...AND SUBTITLE CMMI: The Good News and Bad News about Supporting Maturity Concepts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Dimensional Assessment of Technology Maturity in Fairborn, OH on 9-11 May 2006. U.S. Government or Federal Rights License 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  13. An Analysis on the Maturity of Nick in The Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莎莎

    2014-01-01

    Nick Carraway is one of the main characters as well as the narrator in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby. This pa-per applies the theory of Bildungsroman and analyzes the changes of Nick in characters, conscience as well as responsibilities from the following aspects:guides of maturity and epiphany during maturity, and reveals his ultimate maturity both physically and men-tally after epiphany, thus shows the changes and maturity of him.

  14. The Relationship between Emotional Maturity, Intelligence and Creativity in Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Erika; Weissler, Kineret

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among emotional maturity, intelligence, and creativity in 221 gifted children at a special school in Israel. Emotional maturity was defined as the strength and courage to actualize individual abilities within the frame of social demands. Highly intelligent and emotionally mature children were more creative…

  15. Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences...

  16. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting.

  17. Adapting to the Fist Semester of College: A Test of Heath's Model of Maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence K.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the psychological maturity of freshmen (N=82) entering college and their success in adapting to the challenges of the first semester of college. Results provided some support for Heath model of maturing, particularly for females; females' level of psychological maturity was related to success in adapting to…

  18. The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; ZHANG Tao

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl- 1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA,activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

  19. General classification of maturation reaction-norm shape from size-based processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Asbjørn; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity of size at maturation is commonly described using size–age maturation reaction norms (MRNs). MRNs for age and size at maturation are analyzed and classified into three general categories related to different size scalings of growth and mortality. The underlying model for gro...

  20. Maturity of project management in construction companies with the use of fuzzy numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus-Rosińska, Agata; Kuchta, Dorota

    2017-07-01

    The main aim of the article is to describe issue of maturity in project management regarding construction companies. Taking into consideration this problem the literature research was made, existing project management maturity models were analyzed, model of maturity in project management (using fuzzy numbers approach) was described and tested. The results of testing stage are shown in the case study.

  1. Function and interaction of maturation-promoting factor and mitogen-activated protein kinase during meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Lijun; FAN Hengyu; CHEN Dayuan; SUN Qingyuan

    2004-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) cascade and maturation-promoting factor (MPF) play very important roles during meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte. Interaction between MAP kinase and MPF influences meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte throughout the animal kingdom, including stimulation of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), suppression of DNA replication, control of meiotic chromosome segregation, maintenance of metaphase II arrest, and resumption and completion of second meiosis. This review focuses on the function and interaction of MAP kinase and MPF during meiotic maturation and fertilization of oocyte.

  2. Detection of condensin I and II in maturing pig oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisková, Lucie; Susor, Andrej; Pivonková, Katerina; Sasková, Adéla; Karabínová, Pavla; Kubelka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    The multiprotein complexes known as condensins (I and II) are major players in chromosome dynamics in mitotic and meiotic cells. Here, we report for the first time the detection of different condensin subunits from both complexes in mammalian oocytes. Using immunoblotting analysis we examined expression levels of condensin subunits during meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes. The expression of the core subunit structural maintenance of chromosomes 2 (SMC2), identical in both condensin complexes, did not change significantly during maturation. Similarly, there was no significant change in the expression of the chromosome associated protein (CAP)-H and CAP-H2 subunits, components of condensin I and II, respectively. Conversely, the expression profiles of CAP-G, CAP-D2 (condensin I) and CAP-D3 (condensin II) were more interesting. At least two isoforms of the CAP-D2 subunit were detected, along with three isoforms of the CAP-D3 and CAP-G subunits. We suggest that this diverse migration of subunit isoforms is due to post-translational modification. Earlier, it was reported that non-SMC proteins are phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1. In the present study, we analysed the phosphorylation status of the three subunits in oocyte extracts using alkaline phosphatase treatment and we found that at least the fastest migrating form of CAP-D3 was likely to be phosphorylated in maturing porcine oocytes. In addition, the localisation of CAP-H and CAP-H2 subunits was examined using immunofluorescence staining with specific antibodies, as well as following microinjection of their enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged mRNA into germinal vesicle-stage oocytes. CAP-H was found in the cytoplasm, whereas CAP-H2 was localised within the nucleus.

  3. Genomic expression profiling of mature soybean (Glycine max pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Mohan B

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen, the male partner in the reproduction of flowering plants, comprises either two or three cells at maturity. The current knowledge of the pollen transcriptome is limited to the model plant systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa which have tri-cellular pollen grains at maturity. Comparative studies on pollen of other genera, particularly crop plants, are needed to understand the pollen gene networks that are subject to functional and evolutionary conservation. In this study, we used the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip® to perform transcriptional profiling on mature bi-cellular soybean pollen. Results Compared to the sporophyte transcriptome, the soybean pollen transcriptome revealed a restricted and unique repertoire of genes, with a significantly greater proportion of specifically expressed genes than is found in the sporophyte tissue. Comparative analysis shows that, among the 37,500 soybean transcripts addressed in this study, 10,299 transcripts (27.46% are expressed in pollen. Of the pollen-expressed sequences, about 9,489 (92.13% are also expressed in sporophytic tissues, and 810 (7.87% are selectively expressed in pollen. Overall, the soybean pollen transcriptome shows an enrichment of transcription factors (mostly zinc finger family proteins, signal recognition receptors, transporters, heat shock-related proteins and members of the ubiquitin proteasome proteolytic pathway. Conclusion This is the first report of a soybean pollen transcriptional profile. These data extend our current knowledge regarding regulatory pathways that govern the gene regulation and development of pollen. A comparison between transcription factors up-regulated in soybean and those in Arabidopsis revealed some divergence in the numbers and kinds of regulatory proteins expressed in both species.

  4. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3Mthird molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia.

  5. Genetic deletion of NR3A accelerates glutamatergic synapse maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maile A Henson

    Full Text Available Glutamatergic synapse maturation is critically dependent upon activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs; however, the contributions of NR3A subunit-containing NMDARs to this process have only begun to be considered. Here we characterized the expression of NR3A in the developing mouse forebrain and examined the consequences of NR3A deletion on excitatory synapse maturation. We found that NR3A is expressed in many subcellular compartments, and during early development, NR3A subunits are particularly concentrated in the postsynaptic density (PSD. NR3A levels dramatically decline with age and are no longer enriched at PSDs in juveniles and adults. Genetic deletion of NR3A accelerates glutamatergic synaptic transmission, as measured by AMPAR-mediated postsynaptic currents recorded in hippocampal CA1. Consistent with the functional observations, we observed that the deletion of NR3A accelerated the expression of the glutamate receptor subunits NR1, NR2A, and GluR1 in the PSD in postnatal day (P 8 mice. These data support the idea that glutamate receptors concentrate at synapses earlier in NR3A-knockout (NR3A-KO mice. The precocious maturation of both AMPAR function and glutamate receptor expression are transient in NR3A-KO mice, as AMPAR currents and glutamate receptor protein levels are similar in NR3A-KO and wildtype mice by P16, an age when endogenous NR3A levels are normally declining. Taken together, our data support a model whereby NR3A negatively regulates the developmental stabilization of glutamate receptors involved in excitatory neurotransmission, synaptogenesis, and spine growth.

  6. Adolescent emotional maturation through divergent models of brain organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Víctor Orón Semper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce the hypothesis that neuropsychological adolescent maturation, and in particular emotional management, may have opposing explanations depending on the interpretation of the assumed brain architecture, that is, whether a componential computational account (CCA or a dynamic systems perspective (DSP is used. According to CCA, cognitive functions are associated with the action of restricted brain regions, and this association is temporally stable; by contrast, DSP argues that cognitive functions are better explained by interactions between several brain areas, whose engagement in specific functions is temporal and context-dependent and based on neural reuse. We outline the main neurobiological facts about adolescent maturation, focusing on the neuroanatomical and neurofunctional processes associated with adolescence. We then explain the importance of emotional management in adolescent maturation. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition under the scope of CCA and DSP, both at neural and behavioral levels. Finally, we justify why, according to CCA, emotional management is understood as regulation, specifically because the cognitive aspects of the brain are in charge of regulating emotion-related modules. However, the key word in DSP is integration, since neural information from different brain areas is integrated from the beginning of the process. Consequently, although the terms should not be conceptually confused, there is no cognition without emotion, and vice versa. Thus, emotional integration is not an independent process that just happens to the subject, but a crucial part of personal growth. Considering the importance of neuropsychological research in the development of educational and legal policies concerning adolescents, we intend to expose that the holistic view of adolescents is dependent on whether one holds the implicit or explicit interpretation of brain functioning.

  7. Maturation experiments reveal bias in the fossil record of feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Field, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionary history of birds and feathers is a major focus in palaeobiology and evolutionary biology. Diverse exceptionally preserved birds and feathered dinosaurs from Jurassic and Cretaceous biotas in China have provided pivotal evidence of early feathers and feather-like integumentary features, but the true nature of many of these fossil soft tissues is still debated. Interpretations of feathers at intermediate developmental stages (i.e. Stages II, III and IV) and of simple quill-like (Stage I) feathers are particularly controversial. This reflects key uncertainties relating to the preservation potential of feathers at different evolutionary-developmental stages, and to the relative preservation potential of diagnostic features of Stage I feathers and hair. To resolve these issues, we used high pressure-high temperature autoclave experiments to simulate the effects of burial on modern feathers from the Black Coucal (Centropus grilii) and Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), and on human hair. Our results reveal profound differences in the recalcitrance of feathers of different types during maturation: Stage I and Stage V feathers retain diagnostic morphological and ultrastructural details following maturation, whereas other feather types do not. Further, the morphology and arrangement of certain ultrastructural features diagnostic of Stages III and IV, e.g. barbules, are preferentially lost during maturation. These results indicate a pervasive bias in the fossil record of feathers, whereby preservation of feathers at Stages I and V is favored. Critical stages in the evolution of feathers, i.e. Stages II, III and IV, are less likely to be preserved and more likely to be misinterpreted as feathers at earlier developmental stages. Our discovery has major implications for our understanding of the fidelity of the fossil record of feathers and provides a framework for testing the significance of putative examples of fossil feathers at different developmental

  8. Aflatoxin B1 is toxic to porcine oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Han, Jun; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-07-01

    As a toxic secondary metabolite of Aspergillus species, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major food and feed contaminant in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high temperature and humidity. It has been reported to be toxic to the female reproductive system in laboratory and domestic animals. In the present study, the influence of acute exposure to AFB1 (10 and 50 μM, 44h) on porcine oocyte maturation and its possible mechanism were investigated. The maturation rates of oocytes decreased significantly in the presence of 50 μM of AFB1. Cell cycle analysis showed that most oocytes were arrested at germinal vesicle breakdown or meosis I stage. However, actin assembly, spindle structure and chromosome alignment were not disrupted after exposure to 50 μM AFB1. Further study showed that DNA methylation levels increased in treated oocytes (50 μM). Histone methylation levels were also analysed after treatment (50 μM): H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 levels decreased, whereas H3K9me3 level increased, indicating that epigenetic modification was affected. AFB1 treatment (50 μM) also induced oxidative stress and further led to autophagy, as shown by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and increased mRNA levels of ATG3, ATG5 and ATG7. Annexin V-FITC staining assay revealed that AFB1 treatment (50 μM) resulted in oocyte early apoptosis, which was confirmed by increased Bak, Bax, Bcl-xl mRNA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that AFB1 disrupts porcine oocyte maturation through changing epigenetic modifications as well as inducing oxidative stress, excessive autophagy and apoptosis.

  9. Role of adaptor proteins in secretory granule biogenesis and maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde L Bonnemaison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the regulated secretory pathway, secretory granules (SGs store peptide hormones that are released on demand. SGs are formed at the trans-Golgi network (TGN and must undergo a maturation process to become responsive to secretagogues. The production of mature SGs requires concentrating newly synthesized soluble content proteins in granules whose membranes contain the appropriate integral membrane proteins. The mechanisms underlying the sorting of soluble and integral membrane proteins destined for SGs from other proteins are not yet well understood. For soluble proteins, luminal pH and divalent metals can affect aggregation and interaction with surrounding membranes. The trafficking of granule membrane proteins can be controlled by both luminal and cytosolic factors. Cytosolic adaptor proteins, which recognize the cytosolic domains of proteins that span the SG membrane, have been shown to play essential roles in the assembly of functional SGs. Adaptor protein 1A (AP-1A is known to interact with specific motifs in its cargo proteins and with the clathrin heavy chain, contributing to the formation of a clathrin coat. AP-1A is present in patches on immature SG membranes, where it removes cargo and facilitates SG maturation. AP-1A recruitment to membranes can be modulated by PACS-1 (Phosphofurin Acidic Cluster Sorting protein 1, a cytosolic protein which interacts with both AP-1A and cargo that has been phosphorylated by casein kinase II. A cargo/PACS-1/AP-1A complex is necessary to drive the appropriate transport of several cargo proteins within the regulated secretory pathway. The GGA (Golgi-localized, -ear containing, ADP-ribosylation factor binding family of adaptor proteins serve a similar role. We review the functions of AP-1A, PACS-1 and GGAs in facilitating the retrieval of proteins from immature SGs and review examples of cargo proteins whose trafficking within the regulated secretory pathway is governed by adaptor proteins.

  10. Actin Tyrosine-53-Phosphorylation in Neuronal Maturation and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertling, Enni; Englund, Jonas; Minkeviciene, Rimante; Koskinen, Mikko; Segerstråle, Mikael; Castrén, Eero; Taira, Tomi; Hotulainen, Pirta

    2016-05-11

    Rapid reorganization and stabilization of the actin cytoskeleton in dendritic spines enables cellular processes underlying learning, such as long-term potentiation (LTP). Dendritic spines are enriched in exceptionally short and dynamic actin filaments, but the studies so far have not revealed the molecular mechanisms underlying the high actin dynamics in dendritic spines. Here, we show that actin in dendritic spines is dynamically phosphorylated at tyrosine-53 (Y53) in rat hippocampal and cortical neurons. Our findings show that actin phosphorylation increases the turnover rate of actin filaments and promotes the short-term dynamics of dendritic spines. During neuronal maturation, actin phosphorylation peaks at the first weeks of morphogenesis, when dendritic spines form, and the amount of Y53-phosphorylated actin decreases when spines mature and stabilize. Induction of LTP transiently increases the amount of phosphorylated actin and LTP induction is deficient in neurons expressing mutant actin that mimics phosphorylation. Actin phosphorylation provides a molecular mechanism to maintain the high actin dynamics in dendritic spines during neuronal development and to induce fast reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in synaptic plasticity. In turn, dephosphorylation of actin is required for the stabilization of actin filaments that is necessary for proper dendritic spine maturation and LTP maintenance. Dendritic spines are small protrusions from neuronal dendrites where the postsynaptic components of most excitatory synapses reside. Precise control of dendritic spine morphology and density is critical for normal brain function. Accordingly, aberrant spine morphology is linked to many neurological diseases. The actin cytoskeleton is a structural element underlying the proper morphology of dendritic spines. Therefore, defects in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons have been implicated in neurological diseases. Here, we revealed a novel mechanism for

  11. Organic maturation and thermal history of Queen Charlotte Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.; Vellutini, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    The level of organic maturation and thermal history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata of the Queen Charlotte Islands have been determined with vitrinite reflectance (R{sub 0}), numerical modeling (modified Arrhenius model), and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis. The level of organic maturation increases from northern Graham to southern Moresby Island, which primarily reflects high heat flow resulting from Middle to Late Jurassic and Eocene to Oligocene plutonism and cospatial dyking. Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic and most Cretaceous strata are overmature on Moresby Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 2.40 to 5.80%. Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata are immature to overmature on Graham Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 0.15% (Skonun Formation) to 2.4% (Haida Formation). Locally, R{sub 0} values up to 3.2% on Graham Island and 8.3% on Moresby Island occur adjacent to igneous intrusives. Modeling measured levels of organic maturation suggests that elevated geothermal gradients ranging from 83{degree} to 150{degree}C/km existed during Yakoun (183-178 Ma) and Masset (35-10 Ma) volcanism on Graham Island. Numerical modeling further suggests that Triassic strata on Fredrick Island and Kennecott Point (Graham Island) entered the oil window during the early Miocene, whereas Jurassic strata at Rennell Junction and Cumshewa Inlet entered the oil window during the Bajocian. Cretaceous strata on north and south Graham Island entered the oil window during the early Miocene and are currently within the oil window. The Tertiary Skonun Formation is generally immature except for strata on west and northeast Graham Island, which entered the oil window in the late Miocene.

  12. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2˜50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2˜55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km˜26 °C/km and 12 °C/km˜30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  13. Mesenchymal stem cell conditioning promotes rat oligodendroglial cell maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Joachim Jadasz

    Full Text Available Oligodendroglial progenitor/precursor cells (OPCs represent the main cellular source for the generation of new myelinating oligodendrocytes in the adult central nervous system (CNS. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS myelin repair activities based on recruitment, activation and differentiation of resident OPCs can be observed. However, the overall degree of successful remyelination is limited and the existence of an MS-derived anti-oligodendrogenic milieu prevents OPCs from contributing to myelin repair. It is therefore of considerable interest to understand oligodendroglial homeostasis and maturation processes in order to enable the development of remyelination therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been shown to exert positive immunomodulatory effects, reduce demyelination, increase neuroprotection and to promote adult neural stem cell differentiation towards the oligodendroglial lineage. We here addressed whether MSC secreted factors can boost the OPC's oligodendrogenic capacity in a myelin non-permissive environment. To this end, we analyzed cellular morphologies, expression and regulation of key factors involved in oligodendroglial fate and maturation of primary rat cells upon incubation with MSC-conditioned medium. This demonstrated that MSC-derived soluble factors promote and accelerate oligodendroglial differentiation, even under astrocytic endorsing conditions. Accelerated maturation resulted in elevated levels of myelin expression, reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and was accompanied by downregulation of prominent inhibitory differentiation factors such as Id2 and Id4. We thus conclude that apart from their suggested application as potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory MS treatment, these cells might also be exploited to support endogenous myelin repair activities.

  14. Earnings among young and mature Danish university graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    for a longer period of time and to control for more labour market-relevant variables than any previous study of graduation age and earnings. The results show that graduation age has either a slightly positive or an insignificant impact on starting wages within the public sector or a negative impact on starting...... wages among private sector employees. This applies to both genders, but the differences are stronger among male employees. The analyses of long-term wages reveal a more homogeneous pattern. Mature graduates earn less in all the years investigated. The wage differences are greatest among male graduates...... employed in private enterprises, and the gap increases throughout their careers....

  15. Development and Implementation of a Program Management Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, Laura; Smith, Matt

    2008-12-15

    In 2006, Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) announced an updatedvision statement for the organization. The vision is “To be the most admired team within the NNSA [National Nuclear Security Administration] for our relentless drive to convert ideas into the highest quality products and services for National Security by applying the right technology, outstanding program management and best commercial practices.” The challenge to provide outstanding program management was taken up by the Program Management division and the Program Integration Office (PIO) of the company. This article describes how Honeywell developed and deployed a program management maturity model to drive toward excellence.

  16. Mature students learning statistics: The activity theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sue

    1993-09-01

    The concept of approach "stresses relationships between intention, process and outcome within a specified context as described by an individual" (Schmeck, 1988, p. 10). This paper explores the approaches to learning of a group of mature students from the theoretical perspective of activity theory in order to gain an insight into some of the ways statistics is learned. In this framework, learning, regarded as goal-directed behaviour, is analysed by exploring the socio-historical factors relating to students' self regulation of their cognitive activities. The material is derived from questionnaires and interviews with five students, and focuses on the students' own interpretations of the contexts affecting their approaches.

  17. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuMoucheng; ChenXiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties,supper-sweet corn(S),standard-sweet corn(M),corn-non corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein,vitamin,total sugar showed as parabola.Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually.Total sugar,protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn.VE and VC were very plentiful,and lysine was high.Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  18. Nutrition Characters of Sweet Corns in Kernel Milky Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Moucheng; Chen Xiaoyi

    2000-01-01

    Three corn varieties, supper-sweet corn (S), standard-sweet corn (M), common corn(C) were used for nutritional composition measurement during kernel milky maturity.The variations of protein, vitamin, total sugar showed as parabola. Mineral elements and fiber increase and reducing sugar decreased gradually. Total sugar, protein and fat in the sweet corn were much richer than those in common corn. VE and Vc were very plentiful, and lysine was high. Proper harvest time of sweet corn M and S were DAP (days after pollination)19-21 ,and DAP 18-21 respectively.

  19. Weaning triggers a maturation step of pancreatic β cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolovich-Rain, Miri; Enk, Jonatan; Vikesa, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    Because tissue regeneration deteriorates with age, it is generally assumed that the younger the animal, the better it compensates for tissue damage. We have examined the effect of young age on compensatory proliferation of pancreatic β cells in vivo. Surprisingly, β cells in suckling mice fail...... to enter the cell division cycle in response to a diabetogenic injury or increased glycolysis. The potential of β cells for compensatory proliferation is acquired following premature weaning to normal chow, but not to a diet mimicking maternal milk. In addition, weaning coincides with enhanced glucose...... a discrete maturation step of β cells, elevating both the mitogenic and secretory response to glucose....

  20. [GABA, a key transmitter for fetal brain maturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2007-01-01

    GABA, the principal inhibitory transmitter excites immature neurons in all animal species studied. This is due to the higher intracellular concentration of chloride at early developmental stages. Excitatory actions of GABA play an important action in brain maturation. Recent observations also suggest an abrupt shift during delivery that exerts a neuro-protective action contributing to reduce the sequels of trauma and anoxic episodes. These observations have important clinical implications in relation to delivery associated insults but also preterm delivery and more generally consumption of agents during gestation.

  1. Transcriptional networks in developing and mature B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Patrick; Rolink, Antonius G

    2005-06-01

    The development of B cells from haematopoietic stem cells proceeds along a highly ordered, yet flexible, pathway. At multiple steps along this pathway, cells are instructed by transcription factors on how to further differentiate, and several check-points have been identified. These check-points are initial commitment to lymphocytic progenitors, specification of pre-B cells, entry to the peripheral B-cell pool, maturation of B cells and differentiation into plasma cells. At each of these regulatory nodes, there are transcriptional networks that control the outcome, and much progress has recently been made in dissecting these networks. This article reviews our current understanding of this exciting field.

  2. Zinc content of maturing spermatozoa in oestrogen treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Chowdhury, A R; Setty, B S

    1983-02-01

    Zinc content of spermatozoa collected from the caput and cauda portions of the rat epididymis was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed about 60% reduction in the spermatozoal zinc content by the time they reach the cauda epididymis. This reduction was inhibited in rats receiving micro dose oestrogen which induced 'functional' sterility. It appears that the fall in zinc content of spermatozoa during their transport in the epididymis is related to sperm maturation and that oestrogen treatment interferes with this reduction in sperm zinc content.

  3. A model for service oriented architecture (SOA governance maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Hasanzadeh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, SOA has created the opportunities to improve agility and speed in matching business needs with information technology infrastructure. Since the organization in the process of using this technology faces many challenges and may spend a lot of energy and despite huge investments, failure, therefore need to implement a model for SOA governance that based on a gradual approach and SOA maturity of the organization determine what actions they do to move toward SOA. Therefore, this study was following present such a model. Data gathering tool was questionnaire. In order to confirm the model of study, sample included 16 academic experts. The results confirmed the model of this study.

  4. The Sandia MEMS passive shock sensor : FY07 maturation activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, Jack E.; Blecke, Jill; Mitchell, John Anthony; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Crowson, Douglas A.; Clemens, Rebecca C.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Epp, David S.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2008-08-01

    This report describes activities conducted in FY07 to mature the MEMS passive shock sensor. The first chapter of the report provides motivation and background on activities that are described in detail in later chapters. The second chapter discusses concepts that are important for integrating the MEMS passive shock sensor into a system. Following these two introductory chapters, the report details modeling and design efforts, packaging, failure analysis and testing and validation. At the end of FY07, the MEMS passive shock sensor was at TRL 4.

  5. CONVERGENCE TO PROCESS ORGANIZATION BY MODEL OF PROCESS MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Piuković Babičković

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With modern business process orientation binds primarily, process of thinking and process organizational structure. Although the business processes are increasingly a matter of writing and speaking, it is a major problem among the business world, especially in countries in transition, where it has been found that there is a lack of understanding of the concept of business process management. The aim of this paper is to give a specific contribution to overcoming the identified problem, by pointing out the significance of the concept of business process management, as well as the representation of the model for review of process maturity and tools that are recommended for use in process management.

  6. Early histological maturation in the hippocampus of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, J; Palop, J J; Ramirez, C; Molowny, A; Lopez-Garcia, C

    2000-06-01

    The vesicular zinc-rich synaptic systems of the principal neurons of the hippocampus are well developed in newborn guinea pigs, a precocial species. In addition, alvear and fimbrial myelinated fibers as well as significant inhibitory interneurons (i.e. somatostatin, parvalbumin and opioid immunoreactive hippocampal interneurons) are also well developed. On the contrary, neither vesicular zinc synapses nor myelinated fibers nor the above mentioned immunoreactive interneurons are detectable in newborn specimens of other related altricial species such as rats or rabbits. These data suggest that early maturation of a highly integrative center related to cognitive map building such as the hippocampus is characteristic of precocial species.

  7. Lipid Rafts: Keys to Sperm Maturation, Fertilization, and Early Embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuko Kawano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell membranes are composed of many different lipids and protein receptors, which are important for regulating intracellular functions and cell signaling. To orchestrate these activities, the cell membrane is compartmentalized into microdomains that are stably or transiently formed. These compartments are called “lipid rafts”. In gamete cells that lack gene transcription, distribution of lipids and proteins on these lipid rafts is focused during changes in their structure and functions such as starting flagella movement and membrane fusion. In this paper, we describe the role of lipid rafts in gamete maturation, fertilization, and early embryogenesis.

  8. Giant mature teratoma in the mediastinum presenting with rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kohei; Hayashi, Kazuki; Motoishi, Makoto; Sawai, Satoru; Terashima, Tsuyoshi; Mio, Tadashi

    2016-12-01

    Teratomas are primary germ-cell tumours in the mediastinum. Although they are generally slow-growing and asymptomatic, rapid growth causing life-threatening complications can occur. Sebaceous secretion, insulin production, chorionic gonadotropin secretion and pancreatic enzyme secretion are the presumptive causes of tumour progression. Only few cases of rapidly growing teratomas have been reported previously. Here, we present a case of a giant mature teratoma in the mediastinum that presented with rapid growth and compare the characteristics of this case with those of previous cases.

  9. Developmental checkpoints and feedback circuits time insect maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rewitz, Kim Furbo; Yamanaka, Naoki; O'Connor, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The transition from juvenile to adult is a fundamental process that allows animals to allocate resource toward reproduction after completing a certain amount of growth. In insects, growth to a species-specific target size induces pulses of the steroid hormone ecdysone that triggers...... metamorphosis and reproductive maturation. The past few years have seen significant progress in understanding the interplay of mechanisms that coordinate timing of ecdysone production and release. These studies show that the neuroendocrine system monitors complex size-related and nutritional signals, as well...

  10. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-23

    content of the model arranged by domains and levels • Typically based on observed practices, standards, or expert knowledge Diagnostic Methods • For...Capability Maturity Model: Guidelines for Improving the Software Process. Addison-Wesley Professional, 1994. CMMI Overview. http://www.sei.cmu.edu/ cmmi ...28ES-C2M2%29%20-%20May%202012.pdf Smart Grid: Tools and Methods . http://www.sei.cmu.edu/smartgrid/tools/ (2012). Resilience Management. http://www.cert.org/resilience (2012).

  11. Epigenetic mechanisms facilitating oligodendrocyte development, maturation, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copray, Sjef; Huynh, Jimmy Long; Sher, Falak; Casaccia-Bonnefil, Patrizia; Boddeke, Erik

    2009-11-15

    The process of oligodendrocyte differentiation is regulated by a dynamic interaction between a genetic and an epigenetic program. Recent studies, addressing nucleosomal histone modifications have considerably increased our knowledge regarding epigenetic regulation of gene expression during oligodendrocyte development and aging. These results have generated new hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the decreased efficiency of endogenous remyelination in response to demyelinating injuries with increasing age. In this review, we present an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms regulating gene expression at specific stages of oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation as well as the changes that occur with aging.

  12. Iron, zinc, and manganese distribution in mature soybean seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta

    2009-01-01

    to reveal the distribution of iron, zinc, manganese and phosphorus within soybean seeds. We show that high concentrations of iron accumulate in the seed coats of mature soybean seeds. This iron accounted for 20 to 40% of the total seed iron. Furthermore, manganese and iron accumulated in close proximity...... to each other in the provascular tissue of the soybean radicle. No regions with increased accumulation of iron, zinc, or manganese were observed in the cotyledons. The concentrations of both phosphorus and zinc were higher in the radicle compared to the cotyledons, and zinc accumulated primarily near...

  13. Exposure to follicular fluid during oocyte maturation and oviductal fluid during post-maturation does not improve in vitro embryo production in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Cécile; Parodi, Olivia; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Nicassio, Michele; Reigner, Fabrice; Deleuze, Stefan; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Goudet, Ghylène

    2017-09-20

    Most wild equids and many domestic horse breeds are at risk of extinction, so there is an urgent need for genome resource banking. Embryos cryopreservation allows the preservation of genetics from male and female and is the fastest method to restore a breed. In the equine, embryo production in vitro would allow the production of several embryos per cycle. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is used to generate horse embryos, but it requires expensive equipment and expertise in micromanipulation, and blastocyst development rates remain low. No conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) technique for equine embryo production is available. The development of culture conditions able to mimic the maturation of the oocyte in preovulatory follicular fluid (pFF) and the post-maturation in oviductal fluid (OF) may improve embryo production in vitro. Our aim was to analyse the effect of in vitro maturation in pFF and incubation in OF on in vitro maturation of equine oocytes, fertilization using conventional IVF or ICSI, and embryo development after culture in synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) or DMEM-F12. Oocytes collected from slaughtered mares or by ovum pick up were matured in vitro in pFF or semi-synthetic maturation medium (MM). The in vitro maturation, fertilization and development rates were not statistically different between pFF and MM. After in vitro maturation, oocytes were incubated with or without OF. Post-maturation in OF did not significantly improve the fertilization and development rates. Thus, in our study, exposure to physiological fluids for oocyte maturation and post-maturation does not improve in vitro embryo production in the horse.

  14. Towards an Encompassing Maturity Model for the Management of Hospital Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, João Vidal; Rocha, Álvaro; Vasconcelos, José

    2015-09-01

    Maturity models are tools that favour the management of organizations, including their information systems management task, and hospital organizations are no exception. In the present paper we put forth a preliminary investigation aimed at the development of an encompassing maturity model for the management of hospital information systems. The development of this model is justified to the extent that current maturity models in the field of hospital information systems management are still in an early development stage, and especially because they are poorly detailed, do not provide tools to determine the maturity stage nor structure the characteristics of maturity stages according to different influencing factors.

  15. Correlation of sexual maturation with skeletal age of southern Chinese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, L L

    1997-03-01

    The correlation of skeletal maturation with the chronological ages of the onset of four secondary sexual characteristics (menarche, appearance of pubic hair and axillary hair, and breast development) was studied in a group of 117 Southern Chinese girls aged between 11 years, 9 months and 12 years, 3 months, who were born and brought up in Hong Kong. The skeletal maturation was assessed from left hand and wrist radiographs by the Greulich and Pyle Atlas Method (1959). The early maturers in sexual maturation were significantly more advanced in skeletal maturity with p < 0.001.

  16. Pork meat matured for different periods of time in vacuum-packaging system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Avena Tarsitano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of pork meat when matured. The treatments evaluated were: meat no maturated; meat matured for 3 days; meat matured for 6 days. The pH, water loss percentage, and liquid lost in thawing displayed a decreasing linear regression while the fluid lost in cooking showed an increasing linear regression. The L*, a*, b* and chroma showed an increasing linear effect while the tone displayed a decreasing linear regression. The mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria counts were greater for the treatments that underwent maturation. The shear force decrease linearly with the increase in the maturation period. The MFI, lipid oxidation, and sensory analyses were not affected by treatments. The maturation of the pork meat improved the color, reduced the pH and increased the tenderness. There was no change in the lipid stability of the meat, nor sensory damage.

  17. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  18. Robotic QM/MM-driven maturation of antibody combining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Ivan V.; Golovin, Andrey V.; Chatziefthimiou, Spyros D.; Stepanova, Anastasiya V.; Peng, Yingjie; Zolotareva, Olga I.; Belogurov, Alexey A.; Kurkova, Inna N.; Ponomarenko, Natalie A.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Blackburn, G. Michael; Gabibov, Alexander G.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro selection of antibodies from large repertoires of immunoglobulin (Ig) combining sites using combinatorial libraries is a powerful tool, with great potential for generating in vivo scavengers for toxins. However, addition of a maturation function is necessary to enable these selected antibodies to more closely mimic the full mammalian immune response. We approached this goal using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations to achieve maturation in silico. We preselected A17, an Ig template, from a naïve library for its ability to disarm a toxic pesticide related to organophosphorus nerve agents. Virtual screening of 167,538 robotically generated mutants identified an optimum single point mutation, which experimentally boosted wild-type Ig scavenger performance by 170-fold. We validated the QM/MM predictions via kinetic analysis and crystal structures of mutant apo-A17 and covalently modified Ig, thereby identifying the displacement of one water molecule by an arginine as delivering this catalysis. PMID:27774510

  19. Valuating risk from sales contract offer maturity in electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartelj, Ludvik; Gubina, Andrej F.; Golob, Robert [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska cesta 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Paravan, Dejan [GEN-I d.o.o., Cesta 4. Julija 42, 8270 KRSKO (Slovenia)

    2010-02-15

    The electricity retail business has always been exposed to a significant risk due to a very volatile nature of the wholesale electricity market. Recently, this trend has been accelerating, as electricity-forward price can rise or fall during one day by an amount comparable to the retailer's margin. As a result, the risk that arises from sales contract offer maturity can significantly reduce or even neutralize the retailer's profit. To develop a mitigation strategy for this risk, a retailer clearly needs a model for a detailed risk analysis. Many attempts have been made to analyze several risk issues of an electricity retail company, but so far none has explored and evaluated the sales contract offer maturity risk. This paper presents a fundamental model for evaluating this risk and a methodology for its use, and compares its analytical performance with traditional techniques obtained from the option-pricing theory. A realistic example illustrates the use and the benefits of the proposed model in risk analysis of the electricity retail business. (author)

  20. Seipin is required for converting nascent to mature lipid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huajin; Becuwe, Michel; Housden, Benjamin E; Chitraju, Chandramohan; Porras, Ashley J; Graham, Morven M; Liu, Xinran N; Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Savage, David B; Agarwal, Anil K; Garg, Abhimanyu; Olarte, Maria-Jesus; Lin, Qingqing; Fröhlich, Florian; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Perrimon, Norbert; Kirchhausen, Tomas; Ejsing, Christer S; Walther, Tobias C; Farese, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    How proteins control the biogenesis of cellular lipid droplets (LDs) is poorly understood. Using Drosophila and human cells, we show here that seipin, an ER protein implicated in LD biology, mediates a discrete step in LD formation—the conversion of small, nascent LDs to larger, mature LDs. Seipin forms discrete and dynamic foci in the ER that interact with nascent LDs to enable their growth. In the absence of seipin, numerous small, nascent LDs accumulate near the ER and most often fail to grow. Those that do grow prematurely acquire lipid synthesis enzymes and undergo expansion, eventually leading to the giant LDs characteristic of seipin deficiency. Our studies identify a discrete step of LD formation, namely the conversion of nascent LDs to mature LDs, and define a molecular role for seipin in this process, most likely by acting at ER-LD contact sites to enable lipid transfer to nascent LDs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16582.001 PMID:27564575