WorldWideScience

Sample records for matter solid liquid

  1. Photodetachment in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Faidas, H.

    1994-01-01

    We have made absolute cross section measurements of laser photodetachment of C 6 F - 6 ions embedded in gaseous tetramethylsilane (TMS) and compared the results at low gas densities with measurements in nonpolar liquids and solids. The measurements indicate that the photodetachment cross section of C 6 F - 6 in gaseous TMS is about three times larger than in liquid TMS. This is rationalized by considering the effect of the medium on both the photoabsorption and the autodetachment processes. The photodetachment cross section in both the gas and the liquid exhibits (at least) two maxima due to autodetaching negative ion states. It is argued that these are due to σ*→σ* transitions in C 6 F - 6 . The relative positions of these ''superexcited'' anionic states did not change appreciably in going from the gas to the liquid and the solid, indicating similar influences of the medium on them. As expected, the photodetachment threshold in the condensed phase is shifted to higher energies compared to the gaseous phase. This shift is consistent with recent photoelectron studies of photodetachment of C 6 F - 6 clusters. The present study clearly shows that the photodetachment from negative ions embedded in all states of matter proceeds directly or indirectly via negative ion autodetaching states, and that for nonpolar media, the effect of the medium can be accounted for by considering the macroscopic properties of the medium described by its dielectric constant ε and refractive index n

  2. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  3. Contacting solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    A solids/liquid (or slurry/liquid) contactor is described comprising a container through which the phases flow, rotatable discs with a rotor dividing the container into a series of interconnected compartments and, in at least some of the compartments, receptacles extending between the discs to effect phase transfer. At least one of the compartments is free of receptacles or has receptacles arranged on a smaller diameter than in other compartments to form a settling chamber. The contactor may be used in the extraction of oil-sands or uranium or purification of china clay. (author)

  4. Probing solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    The wide application of scattering experiments in the study of the structures of solids and liquids is surveyed. Part 1 of the review (Martin. Contemp. Phys.;vol. 18, No. 1: Jan. 1977:pp. 81-98) showed how the angular distribution of a scattered beam of photons or neutrons is related by Fourier transform to the space and time-dependent distributions of electrons and nuclei in the scattering target. The use of x-rays and of neutrons in determining time-averaged density distributions was examined. In this part the time-dependent aspects of the distributions for solids and liquids, including helium, are discussed. The dynamical distributions of magnetism (or angular momentum) density are considered, and the present limitations and future possibilities of scattering experiments are examined. (U.K.)

  5. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total

  6. Muonium atoms in liquid and solid neopentane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.W.; Stadlbauer, J.M.; Jean, Y.C.; Walker, D.C.

    1982-10-01

    Relatively long-lived muonium atoms have been observed in neopentane (2,2-dimethylpropane). The yields of all muon states are found to be essentially the same in liquid and solid neopentane and the same as those in water. These results have bearings on three matters of current interest in muonium chemistry: the origin of the 'background' spin relaxation; the formation mechanisms; and the change in yields at the liquid-solid phase transition. These data were obtained by the μSR technique (muon spin rotation) at the TRIUMF accelerator

  7. Polymer liquids fracture like solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2017-01-01

    While fracture in brittle solids has been studied for centuries until today, there are few studies on fracture in polymer liquids. Recent developments in experimental techniques, especially the combination of controlled filament stretching rheometry and high speed imaging, have opened new windows...... into the detailed study of fracture processes for polymer liquids. High speed imaging shows that polymer liquids fracture like solids with initiation and propagation of an edge fracture. However, remarkable features such as highly reproducible critical stress, independent appearance of multiple fractures...

  8. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  9. Solidity of viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    1999-01-01

    Recent NMR experiments on supercooled toluene and glycerol by Hinze and Böhmer show that small rotation angles dominate with only a few large molecular rotations. These results are here interpreted by assuming that viscous liquids are solidlike on short length scales. A characteristic length...

  10. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Style, Robert W.; Boltyanskiy, Rostislav; Allen, Benjamin; Jensen, Katharine E.; Foote, Henry P.; Wettlaufer, John S.; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and synthetic materials. Eshelby’s inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite’s bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby’s theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet’s deformation is strongly size-dependent, with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straightforward extension of Eshelby’s theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive stiffening of solids by fluid inclusions is expected whenever inclusion radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young’s modulus of the solid matrix. These results suggest that surface tension can be a simple and effective mechanism to cloak the far-field elastic signature of inclusions.

  11. From solid to liquid: assessing the release of organic matter into soil solution in response to land-use conversion in Brazilian Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jason; Gross, Cole; Dwivedi, Pranjal; Bernardi, Rodolpho; Guerrini, Irae; Harrison, Rob; Butman, David

    2017-04-01

    horizons may be less likely to be intercepted, and thus preferentially leached to groundwater. Native Cerrado forests had substantially more roots compared to Eucalyptus, and also released substantially larger quantities of DOM from their O horizons. Processes operating at the interface between solid and liquid, terrestrial and aquatic are a key unknown in the global carbon cycle. This research permits a unique snapshot into the relationship between DOM and SOM and the response of these pools to land-use change in Brazil.

  12. Contacting particulate solids with liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for contacting particulate solids with a fluid. The particular applications described are 1) an acid dissolver for dissolving plutonium from plutonium contaminated ash produced by the incineration of waste such as rubber gloves, tissue paper etc. and 2) apparatus for dissolving gel spheres of nuclear fuel material. The liquid, e.g. acid for use in a leaching process flows through a vertical conduit and past a series of baffles spaced along the axis of the conduit. Each baffle defines a mixing chamber and provides a small gap around its perimeter between the baffle and the wall of the conduit. The baffles are provided with sloping top surfaces for preventing solid particles from settling on the baffles and sloping undersurfaces to improve mixing of the liquid and the solid particles. The liquid flows upwards in the conduit but solid particles may be fed from the top or from the bottom of the conduit to mix with the liquid. Gas may be introduced to promote improved flow conditions. (U.K.)

  13. Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    Presented is the first comprehensive study of drugs of abuse on suspended particulate matter (SPM) in wastewater. Analysis of SPM is crucial to prevent the under-reporting of the levels of analyte that may be present in wastewater. Analytical methods to date analyse the aqueous part of wastewater samples only, removing SPM through the use of filtration or centrifugation. The development of an analytical method to determine 60 compounds on SPM using a combination of pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (PLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS) is reported. The range of compounds monitored included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, and their metabolites. The method was successfully validated (parameters studied: linearity and range, recovery, accuracy, reproducibility, repeatability, matrix effects, and limits of detection and quantification). The developed methodology was applied to SPM samples collected at three wastewater treatment plants in the UK. The average proportion of analyte on SPM as opposed to in the aqueous phase was 10% with regard to methadone, EDDP, EMDP, BZP, fentanyl, nortramadol, norpropoxyphene, sildenafil and all antidepressants (dosulepin, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine). Consequently, the lack of SPM analysis in wastewater sampling protocol could lead to the under-reporting of the measured concentration of some compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  15. Metal extraction by solid-liquid agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Dissolved metal values are extracted from a liquid e.g. uranium from phosphoric acid by contacting the liquid with agglomerates for a time to load the agglomerate with the metal value, separating the loaded agglomerates from the liquid phase and stripping the metal value from the loaded agglomerate. The agglomerate may be made by combining finely divided solid particles with a binding liquid to form a paste, adding a suspending liquid to form a mixture, the suspending liquid and binding liquid being immiscible in each other and the solid particles being insoluble in the suspending liquid and shearing the mixture to form the agglomerate. (author)

  16. Broadband luminescence in liquid-solid transition

    CERN Document Server

    Achilov, M F; Trunilina, O V

    2002-01-01

    Broadband luminescence (BBL) intensity behavior in liquid-solid transition in polyethyleneglycol-600 has been established. Oscillation of BBL intensity observed in liquid-polycrystal transition are not found to observed in liquid-amorphous solid transition. It is shown that application of the theory of electron state tails to interpretation of BBL spectral properties in liquids demands restriction. BBL spectroscopy may be applied for optimization of preparation of polymers with determined properties. (author)

  17. Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, C. M.; Keller, K.; Fuchs, B.

    2005-07-01

    DuPont is developing an entirely new method of solid-liquid filtration involving the use of magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients. The new hybrid process, entitled Magnetically Enhanced Solid-Liquid Separation (MESLS), is designed to improve the de-watering kinetics and reduce the residual moisture content of solid particulates mechanically separated from liquid slurries. Gravitation, pressure, temperature, centrifugation, and fluid dynamics have dictated traditional solid-liquid separation for the past 50 years. The introduction of an external field (i.e. the magnetic field) offers the promise to manipulate particle behavior in an entirely new manner, which leads to increased process efficiency. Traditional solid-liquid separation typically consists of two primary steps. The first is a mechanical step in which the solid particulate is separated from the liquid using e.g. gas pressure through a filter membrane, centrifugation, etc. The second step is a thermal drying process, which is required due to imperfect mechanical separation. The thermal drying process is over 100-200 times less energy efficient than the mechanical step. Since enormous volumes of materials are processed each year, more efficient mechanical solid-liquid separations can be leveraged into dramatic reductions in overall energy consumption by reducing downstream drying requirements have a tremendous impact on energy consumption. Using DuPont's MESLS process, initial test results showed four very important effects of the magnetic field on the solid-liquid filtration process: 1) reduction of the time to reach gas breakthrough, 2) less loss of solid into the filtrate, 3) reduction of the (solids) residual moisture content, and 4) acceleration of the de-watering kinetics. These test results and their potential impact on future commercial solid-liquid filtration is discussed. New applications can be found in mining, chemical and bioprocesses.

  18. Solid and liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The technology for the treatment of low - and intermediate-level radioactive solid and liquid wastes is somewhat extensive. Some main guidance on the treatment methods are shown, based on informations contained in technical reports and complementary documents. (author) [pt

  19. All about Solids, Liquids & Gases. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In All About Solids, Liquids and Gases, young students will be introduced to the three common forms of matter. They'll learn that all things are made up of tiny particles called atoms and that the movement of these particles determines the form that matter takes. In solids, the particles are packed tightly together and move very little. The…

  20. Thermophysical measurements on solid and liquid rhenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottlacher, G.; Jager, H.; Neger, T.

    1986-01-01

    A fast resistive heating technique was used to measure such thermophysical data of solid and liquid rhenium as enthalpy, specific heat, thermal volume expansion, and electrical resistivity. The measurements are performed with heating rates of slightly more than 10 9 K s -1 up to states of superheated liquid rhenium (7500 K)

  1. Solid and Liquid Waste Drying Bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric (Inventor); Hogan, John A. (Inventor); Fisher, John W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for processing waste from human activities, including solids, liquids and vapors. A fluid-impermeable bag, lined with a liquid-impermeable but vapor-permeable membrane, defining an inner bag, is provided. A vacuum force is provided to extract vapors so that the waste is moved toward a selected region in the inner bag, extracted vapors, including the waste vapors and vaporized portions of the waste liquids are transported across the membrane, and most or all of the solids remain within the liner. Extracted vapors are filtered, and sanitized components thereof are isolated and optionally stored. The solids remaining within the liner are optionally dried and isolated for ultimate disposal.

  2. Liquid and Solid Metal Embrittlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-05

    example, embrittlement of AISI 4140 steel begins at T/T, - 0.75 for cadmium, and 0.85 for lead and tin environments (2). In a few cases, e.g. zinc...has recently proposed, however, that liquid zinc can penetrate to very near the tip of a sharp crack in 4140 steel, based upon both direct observation...long could be detected, was observed in delayed failure experi- ments on unnotched 4140 steel, in the quenched and tempered condi- tion, embrittled by

  3. Experimental (solid + liquid) or (liquid + liquid) phase equilibria of (amine + nitrile) binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanska, Urszula; Marciniak, Malgorzata

    2007-01-01

    (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (hexylamine, or octylamine, or 1,3-diaminopropane + acetonitrile) mixtures. Simple eutectic systems have been observed in these mixtures. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been determined for (octylamine, or decylamine + propanenitrile, or + butanenitrile) mixtures. Mixtures with propanenitrile and butanenitrile show immiscibility in the liquid phase with an upper critical solution temperature, UCST. (Solid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL, NRTL 1, Wilson and UNIQUAC equations. (Liquid + liquid) phase diagrams have been correlated using NRTL equation

  4. Dynamics of solid nanoparticles near a liquid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Ali; Ammar, Amine; Hijazi, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    The liquid - liquid interface can be used as a suitable medium for generating some nanostructured films of metals, or inorganic materials such as semi conducting metals. This process can be controlled well if we study the dynamics of nanoparticles (NPs) at the liquid-liquid interface which is a new field of study, and is not understood well yet. The dynamics of NPs at liquid-liquid interfaces is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions. Our work is based on the Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation in addition to Phase Field (PF) method. We modeled the liquid-liquid interface using the diffuse interface model, where the interface is considered to have a characteristic thickness. We have shown that the concentration gradient of one fluid in the other gives rise to a hydrodynamic force that drives the NPs to agglomerate at the interface. These obtained results may introduce new applications where certain interfaces can be considered to be suitable mediums for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. In addition, some liquid interfaces can play the role of effective filters for different species of biological NPs and solid state waste NPs, which will be very important in many industrial and biomedical domains.

  5. Relationships between Liquid Atomization and Solid Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    1 2. Basic Definitions ...expressions for average fragment sizes. These observations are surprising, given the fundamental phenomenological differences between liquid and solid...smaller children droplets in the secondary stage. The basic phenomenology of the second stage is much the same as that of the first stage. For

  6. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivineau, M.; Arles, L.; Vermeulen, J.M.; Thevenin, Th.

    1993-01-01

    A submillisecond resistive heating technique under high pressure (0.12 GPa) has been used to measure selected thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid beryllium. Data have been obtained between room temperature and 2900 K. Results on enthalpy, volume expansion, electrical resistivity, and sound velocity measurements are presented

  7. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin; Akbulut, Sezen

    2008-01-01

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient (Γ), solid-liquid interfacial energy (σ SL ) and grain boundary energy (σ gb ) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 ± 0.5) x 10 -8 K m, (8.5 ± 1.3) x 10 -3 J m -2 and (16.5 ± 2.8) x 10 -3 J m -2 , respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature

  8. Solid-liquid interfacial energy of aminomethylpropanediol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocak, Yavuz; Keslioglu, Kazim; Marasli, Necmettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Akbulut, Sezen [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: marasli@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-03-21

    The grain boundary groove shapes for equilibrated solid aminomethylpropanediol, 2-amino-2 methyl-1.3 propanediol (AMPD) with its melt were directly observed by using a horizontal temperature gradient stage. From the observed grain boundary groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient ({gamma}), solid-liquid interfacial energy ({sigma}{sub SL}) and grain boundary energy ({sigma}{sub gb}) of AMPD have been determined to be (5.4 {+-} 0.5) x 10{sup -8} K m, (8.5 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2} and (16.5 {+-} 2.8) x 10{sup -3} J m{sup -2}, respectively. The ratio of thermal conductivity of equilibrated liquid phase to solid phase for the AMPD has also been measured to be 1.12 at the melting temperature.

  9. Liquid-like thermal conduction in intercalated layered crystalline solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wang, H.; Kawakita, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Feygenson, M.; Yu, H. L.; Wu, D.; Ohara, K.; Kikuchi, T.; Shibata, K.; Yamada, T.; Ning, X. K.; Chen, Y.; He, J. Q.; Vaknin, D.; Wu, R. Q.; Nakajima, K.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2018-03-01

    As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles1. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus responsible for the intrinsically ultralow thermal conductivity. This scenario is applicable to a wide variety of layered compounds with heavy intercalants in the van der Waals gaps, manifesting a broad implication on suppressing thermal conduction. These microscopic insights might reshape the fundamental understanding on thermal transport properties of matter and open up a general opportunity to optimize performances of thermoelectrics.

  10. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  11. Positronium quenching in liquid and solid octanol and benzene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shantarovich, V.P.; Mogensen, O.E.; Goldanskii, V.I.

    1970-01-01

    The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase.......The lifetimes of orthopositronium in several solutions in liquid and solid octanol and benzene have been measured. The Ps-quenching constant was found to be two to thirty times higher in the solid than in the liquid phase....

  12. Solid on liquid deposition, a review of technological solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Homsy, Alexandra; Laux, Edith; Jeandupeux, Laure; Charmet, Jérôme; Bitterli, Roland; Botta, Chiara; Rebetez, Yves; Banakh, Oksana; Keppner, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Solid-on-liquid deposition (SOLID) techniques are of great interest to the MEMS and NEMS (Micro- and Nano Electro Mechanical Systems) community because of potential applications in biomedical engineering, on-chip liquid trapping, tunable micro-lenses, and replacements of gate oxides. However, depositing solids on liquid with subsequent hermetic sealing is difficult because liquids tend to have a lower density than solids. Furthermore, current systems seen in nature lack thermal, mechanical or...

  13. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Formamide-Acetophenone System.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malijevská, I.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Řehák, K.; Vrbka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, 9 (2006) , s. 1350-1358 ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibria * liquid-liquid equilibria * metastable Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.881, year: 2006

  14. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2014-01-01

    of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid

  15. Solid - solid and solid - liquid phase transitions of iron and iron alloys under laser shock compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Krygier, A.; Appel, K.; Galtier, E.; Hartley, N.; Konopkova, Z.; Lee, H. J.; McBride, E. E.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nemausat, R.; Vinci, T.; Zhu, D.; Ozaki, N.; Fiquet, G.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate knowledge of the properties of iron and iron alloys at high pressures and temperatures is crucial for understanding and modelling planetary interiors. While Earth-size and Super-Earth Exoplanets are being discovered in increasingly large numbers, access to detailed information on liquid properties, melting curves and even solid phases of iron and iron at the pressures and temperatures of their interiors is still strongly limited. In this context, XFEL sources coupled with high-energy lasers afford unique opportunities to measure microscopic structural properties at far extreme conditions. Also the achievable time resolution allows the shock history and phase transition mechanisms to be followed during laser compression, improving our understanding of the high pressure and high strain experiments. Here we present recent studies devoted to investigate the solid-solid and solid-liquid transition in laser-shocked iron and iron alloys (Fe-Si, Fe-C and Fe-O alloys) using X-ray diffraction and X-ray diffuse scattering. Experiment were performed at the MEC end-station of the LCLS facility at SLAC (USA). Detection of the diffuse scattering allowed the identification of the first liquid peak position along the Hugoniot, up to 4 Mbar. The time resolution shows ultrafast (between several tens and several hundreds of picoseconds) solid-solid and solid-liquid phase transitions. Future developments at XFEL facilities will enable detailed studies of the solid and liquid structures of iron and iron alloys as well as out-of-Hugoniot studies.

  16. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  17. Dynamics of amorphous solids and viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe

    -square displacement as function of time. The 15 publications are related to each other in the following way. P1-P7 is a continuously progressing attempt to explain the AC properties of extremely disordered solids (with P2 as a digression). P8 discusses a simple model for viscous liquids and the glass transition. In P...... with the title "Viscous Liquids and the Glass Transition" reviews and comments P8-P10. In P8 from 1987 a simple model for the glass transition is proposed in which there is only one relevant degree of freedom, the potential energy of a region in the liquid. The model was originally constructed to explain the non......This thesis consists of fifteen publications (P1-P15) published between 1987 and 1996 and a summary. In this abstract an overview of the main results is given by following the summary's three Chapters. The first Chapter with the title "AC Conduction in Disordered Solids" reviews and comments P1-P7...

  18. Combustion chamber for solid and liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vcelak, L.; Kocica, J.; Trnobransky, K.; Hrubes, J. (VSCHT, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-04-01

    Describes combustion chamber incorporated in a new boiler manufactured by Elitex of Kdyne to burn waste products and occasionally liquid and solid waste from neighboring industries. It can handle all kinds of solids (paper, plastics, textiles, rubber, household waste) and liquids (volatile and non-volatile, zinc, chromium, etc.) and uses coal as a fuel additive. Its heat output is 3 MW, it can burn 1220 kg/h of coal (without waste, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 500 kg/h of coal (as fuel additive, calorific value 11.76 MJ/kg) or 285 kg/h of solid waste (calorific value 20.8 MJ/kg). Efficiency is 75%, capacity is 103 m{sup 3} and flame temperature is 1,310 C. Individual components are designed for manufacture in small engineering workshops with basic equipment. A disk absorber with alkaline filling is fitted for removal of harmful substances arising when PVC or tires are combusted.

  19. Solidity of viscous liquids. IV. Density fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the fourth in a series exploring the physical consequences of the solidity of highly viscous liquids. It is argued that the two basic characteristics of a flow event (a jump between two energy minima in configuration space) are the local density change and the sum of all particle...... displacements. Based on this it is proposed that density fluctuations are described by a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation with rates in k space of the form C+Dk^2 with D>>C a^2 where a is the average intermolecular distance. The inequality expresses a long-wavelength dominance of the dynamics which...... with Debye behavior at low frequencies and an omega^{−1/2} decay of the loss at high frequencies. Finally, a general formalism for the description of viscous liquid dynamics, which supplements the density dynamics by including stress fields, a potential energy field, and molecular orientational fields...

  20. Storage of solid and liquid radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.; Gacinovic, O.

    1961-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste collected during 1961 from the laboratories of the Institute amounted to 22.5 m 3 . This report contains data about activity of the waste collected from january to November 1961. About 70% of the waste are short lived radioactive material. Material was packed in metal barrels and stored in the radioactive storage in the Institute. There was no contamination of the personnel involved in these actions. Liquid radioactive wastes come from the Isotope production laboratory, laboratories using tracer techniques, reactor cooling; decontamination of the equipment. Liquid wastes from isotope production were collected in plastic bottles and stored. Waste water from the RA reactor were collected in special containers. After activity measurements this water was released into the sewage system since no activity was found. Table containing data on quantities and activity of radioactive effluents is included in this report

  1. The competition between the liquid-liquid dewetting and the liquid-solid dewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2009-05-14

    We investigate the dewetting behavior of the bilayer of air/PS/PMMA/silanized Si wafer and find the two competing dewetting pathways in the dewetting process. The upper layer dewets on the lower layer (dewetting pathway 1, the liquid-liquid dewetting) and the two layers rupture on the solid substrate (dewetting pathway 2, the liquid-solid dewetting). To the two competing dewetting pathways, the process of forming holes and the process of hole growth, influence their competing relation. In the process of forming holes, the time of forming holes is a main factor that influences their competing relation. During the process of hole growth, the dewetting velocity is a main factor that influences their competing relation. The liquid-liquid interfacial tension, the film thickness of the polymer, and the viscosity of the polymer are important factors that influence the time of forming holes and the dewetting velocity. When the liquid-liquid dewetting pathway and the liquid-solid dewetting pathway compete in the dewetting process, the competing relation can be controlled by changing the molecular weight of the polymer, the film thickness, and the annealing temperature. In addition, it is also found that the rim growth on the solid substrate is by a rolling mechanism in the process of hole growth.

  2. General aspects of solid on liquid growth mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laux, E; Charmet, J; Haquette, H; Banakh, O; Jeandupeux, L; Graf, B; Keppner, H

    2009-01-01

    Liquids, in general, tend to have a lower density as solids and therefore it is not straightforward to deposit solid over liquids in a way that the liquid becomes hermetically sealed under the solid layer. The authors review that several phenomena that can easily be observed in nature are only due to particular anomalies and solid on liquid is rather an exception as the rule. Natural solid on liquid systems are lacking of thermal, mechanical or chemical stability. It is not surprising, that one is not at all used thinking about to e.g. replace the gate oxide in a thin film transistor by a thin film of oil, or, to find in other microsystems functional liquids between a stack of thin solid films. However, once this becomes a serious option, a large variety of new Microsystems with new functionalities can be easily designed. In another paper (this conference and [1]) the authors pioneered that the polymer Parylene (poly(p-xylylene)) can be deposited on liquids coming already quite close to the above mentioned vision. In this paper the authors ask if one can synthesize other solid on liquid systems and surprisingly conclude, based on experimental evidence, that solid on liquid deposition seems to rather be the rule and not the exception.

  3. New Approaches in Soil Organic Matter Fluorescence; A Solid Phase Fluorescence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, M. M.; Sanclements, M.; McKnight, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique to investigate the composition of organic matter in aquatic systems and is increasingly applied to soil organic matter (SOM). Current methods require that SOM be extracted into a liquid prior to analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil extractions introduce an additional layer of complexity as the composition of the organic matter dissolved into solution varies based upon the selected extractant. Water is one of the most commonly used extractant, but only extracts the water-soluble fraction of the SOM with the insoluble soil organic matter fluorescence remaining in the soil matrix. We propose the use of solid phase fluorescence on whole soils as a potential tool to look at the composition of organic matter without the extraction bias and gain a more complete understand of the potential for fluorescence as a tool in terrestrial studies. To date, the limited applications of solid phase fluorescence have ranged from food and agriculture to pharmaceutical with no clearly defined methods and limitations available. We are aware of no other studies that use solid phase fluorescence and thus no clear methods to look at SOM across a diverse set of soil types and ecosystems. With this new approach to fluorescence spectroscopy there are new challenges, such as blank correction, inner filter effect corrections, and sample preparation. This work outlines a novel method for analyzing soil organic matter using solid phase fluorescence across a wide range of soils collected from the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) eco-domains. This method has shown that organic matter content in soils must be diluted to 2% to reduce backscattering and oversaturation of the detector in forested soils. In mineral horizons (A) there is observed quenching of the humic-like organic matter, which is likely a result of organo-mineral complexation. Finally, we present preliminary comparisons between solid and liquid phase

  4. CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pineapple waste is contain high concentration of biodegradable organic material and suspended solid. As a result it has a high BOD and extremes of pH conditions. The pineapple wastes juice contains mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. The characterisation this waste is needed to reduce it by  recycling to get raw material or  for  conversion into useful product of higher value added products such as organic acid, methane , ethanol, SCP and enzyme. Analysis of sugar indicates that liquid waste contains mainly sucrose, glucose and fructose.  The dominant sugar was fructose, glucose and sucrose.  The fructose and glucose levels were similar to each other, with fructose usually slightly higher than glucose. The total sugar and citric acid content were 73.76 and 2.18 g/l. The sugar content in solid waste is glucose and fructose was 8.24 and 12.17 %, no sucrose on this waste

  5. Taylor flow hydrodynamics in gas-liquid-solid micro reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warnier, M.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical reactions in which a gas phase component reacts with a liquid phase omponent at the surface of a solid catalyst are often encountered in chemical industry. The rate of such a gas-liquid-solid reaction is often limited by the mass transfer rate of the gas phase component, which depends on

  6. (Liquid + liquid), (solid + liquid), and (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibria of systems containing cyclic ether (tetrahydrofuran or 1,3-dioxolane), water, and a biological buffer MOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altway, Saidah; Taha, Mohamed; Lee, Ming-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • MOPS buffer induced liquid phase splitting for mixtures of water with THF or 1,3-dioxolane. • Phase boundaries of LLE, SLE, and SLLE were determined experimentally. • Tie-lines at LLE and at SLLE were also measured. • Phase diagrams of MOPS + water + THF or 1,3-dioxolane are prepared. • LLE tie-line data are correlated satisfactorily with the NRTL model. - Abstract: Two liquid phases were formed as the addition of a certain amount of biological buffer 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) in the aqueous solutions of tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,3-dioxolane. To evaluate the feasibility of recovering the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions with the aid of MOPS, we determined experimentally the phase diagrams of the ternary systems of {cyclic ether (THF or 1,3-dioxolane) + water + MOPS} at T = 298.15 K under atmospheric pressure. In this study, the solubility data of MOPS in water and in the mixed solvents of water/cyclic ethers were obtained from the results of a series of density measurements, while the (liquid + liquid) and the (solid + liquid + liquid) phase boundaries were determined by visually inspection. Additionally, the tie-line results for (liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) and for (solid + liquid + liquid) equilibrium (SLLE) were measured using an analytical method. The reliability of the experimental LLE tie-line results data was validated by using the Othmer–Tobias correlation. These LLE tie-line values were correlated well with the NRTL model. The phase diagrams obtained from this study reveal that MOPS is a feasible green auxiliary agent to recover the cyclic ethers from their aqueous solutions, especially for 1,3-dioxolane

  7. The separation of solid and liquid components of mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method of separating solid and liquid components of mixtures is described which is particularly suited for use in automated radioimmunoassay systems in the analysis of bound and free fractions. A second liquid, having a density intermediate between those of the solid and liquid components, is delivered to the solid/ liquid mixture to form a discrete layer below the mixture and the solid separates into this lower liquid layer assisted by centrifugal force. The second liquid of intermediate density is an aqueous solution of a highly hydrophilic and electrically non-polar solute, such as an aqueous sucrose solution. Further liquids of intermediate density and progressively higher density may be delivered to form further discrete layers below the initial layer of the second dense liquid. After separation of the solid and liquid components of the mixture, the supernatant liquid component of the original mixture is removed in a controlled and non-turbulent manner. The method is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for platelet β-thromboglobulin and human follicle stimulating hormone. (U.K.)

  8. PREFACE: The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellago, Christoph; Kahl, Gerhard; Likos, Christos N.

    2012-07-01

    The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference (LMC8) was held at the Universität Wien from 6-10 September 2011. Initiated in 1990, the conferences of this series cover a broad range of highly interdisciplinary topics, ranging from simple liquids to soft matter and biophysical systems. The vast spectrum of scientific subjects presented and discussed at the LMC8 is reflected in the themes of the ten symposia: Ionic and quantum liquids, liquid metals Water, solutions and reaction dynamics Liquid crystals Polymers, polyelectrolytes, biopolymers Colloids Films, foams, surfactants, emulsions, aerosols Confined fluids, interfacial phenomena Supercooled liquids, glasses, gels Non-equilibrium systems, rheology, nanofluids Biofluids, active matter This special issue contains scientific papers, authored by participants of the LMC8, which provide a cross-section of the scientific activities in current liquid matter science, as discussed at the conference, and demonstrate the scientific as well as methodological progress made in this field over the past couple of years. The Eighth Liquid Matter Conference contents The Eighth Liquid Matter ConferenceChristoph Dellago, Gerhard Kahl and Christos N Likos Comparing light-induced colloidal quasicrystals with different rotational symmetriesMichael Schmiedeberg and Holger Stark Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperatureS Sarti, D Truzzolillo and F Bordi Equilibrium concentration profiles and sedimentation kinetics of colloidal gels under gravitational stressS Buzzaccaro, E Secchi, G Brambilla, R Piazza and L Cipelletti The capillary interaction between two vertical cylindersHimantha Cooray, Pietro Cicuta and Dominic Vella Hydrodynamic and viscoelastic effects in polymer diffusionJ Farago, H Meyer, J Baschnagel and A N Semenov A density-functional theory study of microphase formation in binary Gaussian mixturesM Carta, D Pini, A Parola and L Reatto Microcanonical determination of the

  9. Foreign matter identification from solid dosage forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Bjørneboe, Kathrine

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increased request for robust quality systems, the end product may contain unidentified defects or discoloured regions. The foreign matter has to be monitored, identified and its source defined in order to prevent further contamination. However, the identification task can be complicated......, since the origin and nature of foreign matter are various. The aim of this study is to provide an efficient foreign matter identification procedure for various substances possibly originating from pharmaceutical manufacturing environment. The surface or cross-section of the uncoated and coated tablets...... was analysed by utilization of different analytical techniques, such as light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (To...

  10. Solids, liquids, and gases under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ho-Kwang; Chen, Xiao-Jia; Ding, Yang; Li, Bing; Wang, Lin

    2018-01-01

    Pressure has long been recognized as a fundamental thermodynamic variable but its application was previously limited by the available pressure vessels and probes. The development of megabar diamond anvil cells and a battery of associated in-laboratory and synchrotron techniques at the turn of the century have opened a vast new window of opportunities. With the addition of the pressure dimension, we are facing a new world with an order of magnitude more materials to be discovered than all that have been explored at ambient pressure. Pressure drastically and categorically alters all elastic, electronic, magnetic, structural, and chemical properties, and pushes materials across conventional barriers between insulators and superconductors, amorphous and crystalline solids, ionic and covalent compounds, vigorously reactive and inert chemicals, etc. In the process, it reveals surprising high-pressure physics and chemistry and creates novel materials. This review describes the principles and methodology used to reach ultrahigh static pressure: the in situ probes, the physical phenomena to be investigated, the long-pursued goals, the surprising discoveries, and the vast potential opportunities. Exciting examples include the quest for metallic hydrogen, the record-breaking superconducting temperature of 203 K in HnS , the complication of "free-electron gas" alkali metals, the magnetic collapse in 3 d transition elements, the pressure-induced superconductivity from topological insulators, the novel stoichiometry in simple compounds, the interaction of nanoscience, the accomplishment of 750 GPa pressure, etc. These highlights are the integral results of technological achievements, specific measurements, and theoretical advancement; therefore, the same highlights will appear in different sections corresponding to these different aspects. Overall, this review demonstrates that high-pressure research is a new dimension in condensed-matter physics.

  11. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase separation and flocculation for a charged colloidal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Wu, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    We model the intercolloidal interaction by a hard-sphere Yukawa repulsion to which is added the long-range van der Waals attraction. In comparison with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsion, the Yukawa repulsion explicitly incorporates the spatial correlations between colloids and small ions. As a result, the repulsive part can be expressed analytically and has a coupling strength depending on the colloidal volume fraction. By use of this two-body potential of mean force and in conjunction with a second-order thermodynamic perturbation theory, we construct the colloidal Helmholtz free energy and use it to calculate the thermodynamic quantities, pressure and chemical potential, needed in the determination of the liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase diagrams. We examine, in an aqueous charged colloidal dispersion, the effects of the Hamaker constant and particle size on the conformation of a stable liquid-liquid phase transition calculated with respect to the liquid-solid coexistence phases. We find that there exists a threshold Hamaker constant or particle size whose value demarcates the stable liquid-liquid coexistence phases from their metastable counterparts. Applying the same technique and using the energetic criterion, we extend our calculations to study the flocculation phenomenon in aqueous charged colloids. Here, we pay due attention to determining the loci of a stability curve stipulated for a given temperature T 0 , and obtain the parametric phase diagram of the Hamaker constant vs the coupling strength or, at given surface potential, the particle size. By imposing T 0 to be the critical temperature T c , i.e., setting k B T 0 (=k B T c ) equal to a reasonable potential barrier, we arrive at the stability curve that marks the irreversible reversible phase transition. The interesting result is that there occurs a minimum size for the colloidal particles below (above) which the colloidal dispersion is driven to an irreversible (reversible) phase

  12. Invariance of the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting probed via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rohini; Olivier, Gloria K; Frechette, Joelle

    2010-07-20

    Capillary condensation is employed to probe the solid-liquid interfacial energy in electrowetting on dielectric. The height of an annular water meniscus formed via capillary condensation inside the surface force apparatus is measured as a function of the potential applied across the meniscus and the dielectric stack where the meniscus is formed. According to the Kelvin equation, a decrease in the solid-liquid interfacial energy at constant temperature and relative humidity should lead to an increase in the meniscus height. Our experimental results on nanometer-sized meniscus are in agreement with the work of Mugele [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2007, 19, 375112] and unequivocally demonstrate that the real contact angle (or the solid-liquid interfacial energy) remains unaltered in electrowetting on dielectric.

  13. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid-solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure-temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought.

  14. Hydrodynamic instability induced liquid--solid contacts in film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S.; Henry, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The film boiling liquid-solid contacts of saturated ethanol and water to horizontal flat gold plated copper are examined by using electric conductance probe. It is observed that the liquid-solid contacts occur over a wide temperature range, and generally, induced by hydrodynamic instabilities. The area of contact decreases exponentially with interface temperature and is liquid depth dependent. The averaged duration of contacts is strongly influenced by the dominant nucleation process, and thus, depends on the interface temperature and the wettability of the solid during the contact. The frequency of major contacts is about 1.5 times the bubble detaching frequency. It is found that the liquid-solid contacts may account for a large percentage of the film boiling heat transfer near the low temperature end of film boiling and decreases as the interface temperature increases

  15. Management of radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, M.A.S. do; Reis, L.C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates of solid and liquid radioactive wastes produced in CDTN, the foreseen treatment and the responsibilities of various organs of CDTN involved in radioactive waste management are presented. (C.M.)

  16. Catalytic conversion of nonfood woody biomass solids to organic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barta, Katalin; Ford, Peter C

    CONSPECTUS: This Account outlines recent efforts in our laboratories addressing a fundamental challenge of sustainability chemistry, the effective utilization of biomass for production of chemicals and fuels. Efficient methods for converting renewable biomass solids to chemicals and liquid fuels

  17. [Amylase production by Aureobasidium pullulans in liquid and solid media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, P B; Forchiassin, F; Segovia de Huergo, M B

    1997-01-01

    Amylase production by a strain of Aureobasidium pullulans isolated in the laboratory was evaluated in liquid media (complex and synthetic) and in solid medium (wheat bran). There was an inhibitory effect in amylase production or amylase secretion by glucose. Asparagine was the best nitrogen source for amylase production (4-6 g/l). Only chlamidospores and melanin but not, amylase activity, were obtained with ammonium sulfate. Amylase production in solid culture was higher than the production obtained in the liquid media assayed. Optimum initial moisture content in solid culture ranged between 57 and 74%. No difference was observed in amylase production between solid media inoculated with cells grown in liquid or solid media.

  18. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  19. CATION-EXCHANGE SOLID-PHASE AND LIQUID-LIQUID ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    An existing liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method was improved in terms of ... clean-up of the alkaloids from khat leaves, prior to HPLC-DAD detection. Despite .... The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated using the.

  20. Solid radiation curable polyene compositions containing liquid polythiols and solid styrene-allyl copolymer based polyenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Novel styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer based solid polyene compositions which when mixed with liquid polythiols can form solid curable polyene-polythiol systems are claimed. These solid polyenes, containing at least two reactive carbon-to-carbon unsaturated bonds, are urethane or ester derivatives of styrene-allyl alcohol copolymers. The solid polyenes are prepared by treating the hydroxyl groups of a styrene-allyl alcohol copolymer with a reactive unsaturated isocyanate, e.g., allyl isocyanate or a reactive unsaturated carboxylic acid, e.g., acrylic acid. Upon exposure to a free radical generator, e.g., actinic radiation, the solid polyene-polythiol compositions cure to solid, insoluble, chemically resistant, cross-linked polythioether products. Since the solid polyene-liquid polythiol composition can be cured in a solid state, such a curable system finds particular use in preparation of coatings, imaged surfaces such as photoresists, particularly solder-resistant photoresists, printing plates, etc

  1. STM in liquids. A scanning tunneling microscopy exploration of the liquid-solid interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsken, B.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis reports of a series of atomic scale studies of the liquid-solid interface, carried out with a home-built liquid-cell Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). The home-built liquid-cell STM is described in detail, and numerical simulations are performed to show that surfaces immersed in the

  2. Electron Scattering in Solid Matter A Theoretical and Computational Treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Zabloudil, Jan; Szunyogh, Laszlo

    2005-01-01

    Addressing graduate students and researchers, this book gives a very detailed theoretical and computational description of multiple scattering in solid matter. Particular emphasis is placed on solids with reduced dimensions, on full potential approaches and on relativistic treatments. For the first time approaches such as the Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method that have emerged during the last 5 – 10 years are reviewed, considering all formal steps such as single-site scattering, structure constants and screening transformations, and also the numerical point of view. Furthermore, a very general approach is presented for solving the Poisson equation, needed within density functional theory in order to achieve self-consistency. Going beyond ordered matter and translationally invariant systems, special chapters are devoted to the Coherent Potential Approximation and to the Embedded Cluster Method, used, for example, for describing nanostructured matter in real space. In a final chapter, physical properties...

  3. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  4. Liquid Crystals - The 'Fourth' Phase of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    possibilities of novel technological applications. Liquid crystalline materials ... advanced instrumentation, including laptops and futuristic flat panel displays. .... The twist grain-boundary phase is formed when the layers of a smectic A phase are .... the optic axis) is uniformly oriented parallel to the glass plate. (see Figure IIa).

  5. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  6. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  7. Investigation of the organic matter in inactive nuclear tank liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenley, R.L.; Griest, W.H.

    1990-08-01

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for regulatory organics fails to account for the organic matter that is suggested by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) inactive nuclear waste-tank liquids and sludges. Identification and measurement of the total organics are needed to select appropriate waste treatment technologies. An initial investigation was made of the nature of the organics in several waste-tank liquids. This report details the analysis of ORNL wastes

  8. Finite size melting of spherical solid-liquid aluminium interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.; Johnson, Erik; Sakai, T.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting tempera...... to the conclusion that the depressed melting temperature is not controlled solely by the inverse radius 1/R. Instead, we found a direct relation between the depressed melting temperature and the ratio between the solid-liquid interface area and the molten volume.......We have investigated the melting of nano-sized cone shaped aluminium needles coated with amorphous carbon using transmission electron microscopy. The interface between solid and liquid aluminium was found to have spherical topology. For needles with fixed apex angle, the depressed melting...

  9. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  10. Detailed simulations of liquid and solid-liquid mixing : Turbulent agitated flow and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis aims at a contribution to reliable and accurate predictions of complex, multi-phase processes. The reader is presented detailed simulations on liquid and solid-liquid mixing using large eddy simulations (LES) including scalar mixing and particle transport in a Rushton turbine stirred

  11. Gold catalyzed nickel disilicide formation: a new solid-liquid-solid phase growth mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Picraux, S Tom; Huang, Jian Yu; Liu, Xiaohua; Tu, K N; Dayeh, Shadi A

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism is the predominate growth mechanism for semiconductor nanowires (NWs). We report here a new solid-liquid-solid (SLS) growth mechanism of a silicide phase in Si NWs using in situ transmission electron microcopy (TEM). The new SLS mechanism is analogous to the VLS one in relying on a liquid-mediating growth seed, but it is fundamentally different in terms of nucleation and mass transport. In SLS growth of Ni disilicide, the Ni atoms are supplied from remote Ni particles by interstitial diffusion through a Si NW to the pre-existing Au-Si liquid alloy drop at the tip of the NW. Upon supersaturation of both Ni and Si in Au, an octahedral nucleus of Ni disilicide (NiSi2) forms at the center of the Au liquid alloy, which thereafter sweeps through the Si NW and transforms Si into NiSi2. The dissolution of Si by the Au alloy liquid mediating layer proceeds with contact angle oscillation at the triple point where Si, oxide of Si, and the Au alloy meet, whereas NiSi2 is grown from the liquid mediating layer in an atomic stepwise manner. By using in situ quenching experiments, we are able to measure the solubility of Ni and Si in the Au-Ni-Si ternary alloy. The Au-catalyzed mechanism can lower the formation temperature of NiSi2 by 100 °C compared with an all solid state reaction.

  12. Modeling the electrified solid-liquid interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Skulason, Egill; Björketun, Mårten

    2008-01-01

    function can be related directly to the potential scale of the normal hydrogen electrode. We also show how finite-size effects in common periodic slab-type calculations can be avoided in calculations of activation energies and reaction energies for charge transfer reactions, where we use the Heyrovsky......A detailed atomistic model based on density functional theory calculations is presented of the charged solid-electrolyte interface. Having protons solvated in a water bilayer outside a Pt(111) slab with excess electrons, we show how the interface capacitance is well described and how the work...

  13. Radioactive flow detectors: liquid or solid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    During the past five years, two schools of thought have emerged producing two different types of radio-HPLC detectors. Based on the naphthalene-in-the-vial principle, manufacturers have developed heterogeneous scintillation detectors. In these detectors the anthracene or naphthalene crystals are replaced by other scintillators. In order to avoid dead space and turbulence, a narrow diameter tube is used, either straight, or more popularly formed into a coil or a 'U' as the cell. To optimize light transmission to the photomultiplier tubes, mirrors are used. Due to limiting factors in this technique the counting efficiency for tritium is below the 10 percent level. The other school of radio-HPLC detectors based their design on classical liquid scintillation counting technology. In a homogeneous detector, the effluent from the HPLC system is mixed with a suitable liquid scintillator before entering the counting cell. The cell design is typically a flat glass or Teflon coil tightly sandwiched between two photomultiplier tubes, making good optical contact without the use of mirrors. Depending on the chromatographic effluent, 3 H efficiencies between 25 to 50 percent, and 14 C counting efficiencies up to 85 percent can be achieved

  14. UV patterned nanoporous solid-liquid core waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous Solid-Liquid core waveguides were prepared by UV induced surface modification of hydrophobic nanoporous polymers. With this method, the index contrast (delta n = 0.20) is a result of selective water infiltration. The waveguide core is defined by UV light, rendering the exposed part...

  15. Solid-Phase Extraction Combined with High Performance Liquid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Solid-phase extraction method was employed for the extraction of the estrogen from milk and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was used for the determination of estrogen. Results: Optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column at a ...

  16. Self-healing liquid/solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.; Chung, Brice H.V.; Phadke, Satyajit R.; Ning, Xiaohui; Sadoway, Donald R.

    2018-02-27

    A battery system that exchanges energy with an external device is provided. The battery system includes a positive electrode having a first metal or alloy, a negative electrode having a second metal or alloy, and an electrolyte including a salt of the second metal or alloy. The positive electrode, the negative electrode, and the electrolyte are in a liquid phase at an operating temperature during at least one portion of operation. The positive electrode is entirely in a liquid phase in one charged state and includes a solid phase in another charged state. The solid phase of the positive electrode includes a solid intermetallic formed by the first and the second metals or alloys. Methods of storing electrical energy from an external circuit using such a battery system are also provided.

  17. Industrial solid and liquid waste treatment processes; Les procedes de traitement des dechets industriels solides et liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    This catalogue gives information on 68 chemical, mechanical, magnetic, electrical, thermal, etc. techniques for the processing of solid, viscous and liquid, common or special, industrial wastes. The various processes are presented as files, which are easily retrievable through keywords, waste type or industry codes, processing types, distributors. Technologies, performances and applications of each techniques are presented, together with references and company contacts

  18. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  19. Elastic properties of liquid and solid argon in nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We have measured sorption isotherms and determined the intrinsic longitudinal elastic modulus β Ar,ads of nanoconfined material via ultrasonic measurements combined with a special effective medium analysis. In the liquid regime the adsorbate only contributes to the measured effective properties when the pores are completely filled and the modulus is bulklike. At partial fillings its contribution is cancelled out by the high compressibility of the vapour phase. In contrast, at lower temperatures frozen argon as well as underlying liquid surface layers cause a linear increase of the effective longitudinal modulus upon filling. During sorption the contribution of the liquid surface layers near the pore wall β Ar,surf increases with the thickness of the solid layers reaching the bulk value β Ar,liquid only in the limit of complete pore filling. We interpret this effect as due to the gradual stiffening of the solid argon membrane. The measurements and their analysis show that longitudinal ultrasonic waves are well suited to the study of the elastic properties and liquid–solid phase transitions in porous systems. This method should also help to detect the influence of nanoconfinement on elastic properties in further research. (paper)

  20. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasbrenner, B; Pieramico, O; Brecht-Krauss, D; Baur, M; Malfertheiner, P

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese patients have different rates of solid and liquid gastric emptying compared to healthy controls. Twenty-four obese patients (7 males, 17 females) were investigated prior to dietary restriction. The patients had a weight excess above ideal weight ranging from 25% to 216% (mean weight 118.1 +/- 6.5 kg). The control group consisted of 8 healthy subjects (4 males, 4 females), within 10% of the ideal weight. The solid phase of the test meal consisted of 40 g bread, 30 g ham, 10 g margarine, and two scrambled eggs labeled with 99mTc. For the liquid phase, 200 ml orange juice was labeled with 201Tl. Three-minute counts of both tracers were taken for 106 min using a large field-of-view gamma camera. In obese patients, a significantly shortened lag phase for the emptying of solids was observed (27.0 +/- 3.3 versus 38.4 +/- 4.1 min; P < 0.05). Half-emptying time (105.9 +/- 6.7 versus 100.7 +/- 5.7 min), emptying rate (0.60 +/- 0.04 versus 0.71 +/- 0.07%/min), and total emptying of solids (49.4 +/- 3.6 versus 50.5 +/- 5.0%) were not different from controls. Obese subjects had a trend to slowed liquid emptying (half-time 82.7 +/- 4.8 versus 69.9 +/- 6.9 min; emptying rate 0.59 +/- 0.03 versus 0.65 +/- 0.03%/min; total emptying 59.8 +/- 2.9 versus 66.0 +/- 3.3%), but this was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between weight or body surface area and rate of solid or liquid gastric emptying.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features.

  2. Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2001-01-31

    This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features.

  3. Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2001-01-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features

  4. Factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugan, M.A.

    1990-03-01

    The factors which affect the erosion of solids by liquid impact are considered. The nature of contaminated surfaces is described and the effect on the erosion rate (on non-active lead coupons) of varying jetting parameters is illustrated. Recommendations are made for future work to enhance the effectiveness of water jetting as a nuclear decontamination technique and the importance of containment and effluent treatment is outlined. (author)

  5. Alphas and surface backgrounds in liquid argon dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Christopher J.

    Current observations from astrophysics indicate the presence of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that makes up a large part of the mass of the universe. One of the leading theories for dark matter is that it is made up of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). One of the ways we try to discover WIMPs is by directly detecting their interaction with regular matter. This can be done using a scintillator such as liquid argon, which gives off light when a particle interacts with it. Liquid argon (LAr) is a favorable means of detecting WIMPs because it has an inherent property that enables a technique called pulse-shape discrimination (PSD). PSD can distinguish a WIMP signal from the constant background of electromagnetic signals from other sources, like gamma rays. However, there are other background signals that PSD is not as capable of rejecting, such as those caused by alpha decays on the interior surfaces of the detector. Radioactive elements that undergo alpha decay are introduced to detector surfaces during construction by radon gas that is naturally present in the air, as well as other means. When these surface isotopes undergo alpha decay, they can produce WIMP-like signals in the detector. We present here two LAr experiments. The first (RaDOSE) discovered a property of an organic compound that led to a technique for rejecting surface alpha decays in LAr detectors with high efficiency. The second (DarkSide-50) is a dark matter experiment operated at LNGS in Italy and is the work of an international collaboration. A detailed look is given into alpha decays and surface backgrounds present in the detector, and projections are made of alpha-related backgrounds for 500 live days of data. The technique developed with RaDOSE is applied to DarkSide-50 to determine its effectiveness in practice. It is projected to suppress the surface background in DarkSide-50 by more than a factor of 1000.

  6. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  7. Comparison between liquid and solid tunable focus lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago-Alvarado, A; Cruz-Martinez, V M; Vazquez-Montiel, S; Munoz-Lopez, J; Diaz-Gonzalez, G; Campos-Garcia, M

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays more reports in the use of tunable lenses are reported, it is due to the benefits they offer in optical systems design. A tunable lens is an optical system that can focus on a range of positions by changing dynamically one of its geometric parameters. There are several types of tunable lenses, the most known types are the liquid, the solid elastic, with variable refractive index, and lenses that use a dielectric medium. This paper presents the analysis and opto-mechanical design of two tunable lenses, a liquid lens and another Solid Elastic Lens (SEL). Both lenses are made in mounting aluminium and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as refractor medium, the liquid lens use two elastic membranes containing a liquid medium between them while the SEL only use PDMS material as body of the lens (medium refractor). We describe the opto-mechanical performance of both types of lens highlighting the main features of each. Finally, results of a opto-functional comparison between these prototypes are showed.

  8. Solid-liquid separation in the mining industry

    CERN Document Server

    Concha A , Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This book covers virtually all of the engineering science and technological aspects of separating water from particulate solids in the mining industry. It starts with an introduction to the field of mineral processing and the importance of water in mineral concentrators. The consumption of water in the various stages of concentration is discussed, as is the necessity of recovering the majority of that water for recycling. The book presents the fundamentals under which processes of solid-liquid separation are studied, approaching mixtures of discrete finely divided solid particles in water as a basis for dealing with sedimentation in particulate systems. Suspensions, treated as continuous media, provide the basis of sedimentation, flows through porous media and filtration. The book also considers particle aggregations, and thickening is analyzed in depth. Lastly, two chapters cover the fundamentals and application of rheology and the transport of suspensions.  This work is suitable for researchers and profess...

  9. Solid-Liquid and Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Ternary System Acetic Acid-Propanoic Acid-Formamide.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Malijevská, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 261, 1-2 (2007) , s. 129-132 ISSN 0378-3812. [International Conference on Properties and Phase Equilibria for Product and Process Design PPEPPD 2007 /11./. Hersonissos, Crete, 20.05.2007-25.05.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : solid-liquid equilibrium * ternary system * solid adduct Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.506, year: 2007

  10. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  11. Pressure and surface tension of solid-liquid interface using Tara zona density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.

    2001-01-01

    The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation

  12. Supercooled and glassy water: Metastable liquid(s), amorphous solid(s), and a no-man's land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handle, Philip H.; Loerting, Thomas; Sciortino, Francesco

    2017-12-01

    We review the recent research on supercooled and glassy water, focusing on the possible origins of its complex behavior. We stress the central role played by the strong directionality of the water-water interaction and by the competition between local energy, local entropy, and local density. In this context we discuss the phenomenon of polyamorphism (i.e., the existence of more than one disordered solid state), emphasizing both the role of the preparation protocols and the transformation between the different disordered ices. Finally, we present the ongoing debate on the possibility of linking polyamorphism with a liquid-liquid transition that could take place in the no-man's land, the temperature-pressure window in which homogeneous nucleation prevents the investigation of water in its metastable liquid form.

  13. Liquid-solid extraction of cationic metals by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the field of selective separation for recycling of spent nuclear fuel, liquid-liquid extraction processes are widely used (PUREX, DIAMEX..) in industrial scale. In order to guarantee a sustainable nuclear energy for the forthcoming generations, alternative reprocessing techniques are under development. One of them bases on the studies from Heckmann et al in the 80's and consists in selectively precipitating actinides from aqueous waste solutions by cationic surfactants (liquid-solid extraction). This technique has some interesting advantages over liquid-liquid extraction techniques, because several steps are omitted like stripping or solvent washing. Moreover, the amount of waste is decreased considerably, since no contaminated organic solvent is produced. In this thesis, we have carried out a physico-chemical study to understand the specific interactions between the metallic cations with the cationic surfactant. First, we have analysed the specific effect of the different counter-ions (Cl - , NO 3 - , C 2 O 4 2- ) and then the effect of alkaline cations on the structural properties of the surfactant aggregation in varying thermodynamical conditions. Finally, different multivalent cations (Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , UO 2 2+ , Fe 3+ , Nd 3+ , Eu 3+ , Th 4+ ) were considered; we have concluded that depending on the anionic complex of these metals formed in acidic media, we can observe either an adsorption at the micellar interface or not. This adsorption has a large influence of the surfactant aggregation properties and determines the limits of the application in term of ionic strength, temperature and surfactant concentration. (author) [fr

  14. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  15. Liquid-solid extraction of metallic cations by cationic amphiphiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfram; Sievers, Torsten K.; Zemb, Thomas; Diat, Olivier; Sievers, Torsten K.; Dejugnat, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    In the field of selective metal ion separation, liquid-liquid extraction is usually conducted through an emulsion mixing of hydrophobic complexants dispersed in an organic phase and acidic water containing the ionic species. Recently, it has been shown that amphiphilic complexants could influence strongly extraction efficiency by enhancing the interfacial interaction between the metal ion in the aqueous and the complexant in the organic phase. Moreover, these amphiphiles can also substitute the organic phase if an appropriate aliphatic chain is chosen. The dispersion of such amphiphilic complexants in an aqueous solution of salt mixtures is not only attractive for studying specific interactions but also to better the understanding of complex formation in aqueous solution of multivalent metal ions, such as lanthanides and actinides. This understanding is of potential interest for a broad range of industries including purification of rare earth metals and pollute treatment e.g. of fission byproducts. This principle can also be applied to liquid-solid extraction, where the final state of the separation is a solid phase containing the selectively extracted ions. Indeed, a novel solid-liquid extraction method exploits the selective precipitation of metal ions from an aqueous salt mixture using a cationic surfactant, below its Krafft point (temperature below which the long aliphatic chains of surfactant crystallize). This technique has been proven to be highly efficient for the separation of actinides and heavy metal using long chain ammonium or pyridinium amphiphiles. The most important point in this process is the recognition of cationic metal ions by cationic surfactants. By computing the free energy of the polar head group per micelle as a function of the different counter-anions, we have demonstrated for the first time that different interactions exist between the micellar surface and the ions. These interactions depend on the nature of the cation but also on

  16. Automated methods for thorium determination in liquids, solids and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.; Stuart, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Methodology for determining trace thorium levels in a variety of sample types for compliance purposes was developed. Thorium in filtered water samples is concentrated by ferric hydroxide co-precipitation. Aerosols on glass-fibre, cellulose ester or teflon filters are acid digested and thorium is concentrated by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Chemical separation and measurement are then done on a Technicon AAII-C auto-analyzer via TTA-solvent extraction and colorimetry using the thorium-arsenazo III colour complex. Solid samples are acid digested and thorium is concentrated and separated using lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation followed by anion-exchange chromatography. Measurement is then carried out on the autoanalyzer by direct development of the thorium-arsenazo III colour complex. Chemical yields are determined through the addition of thorium-234 tracer with assay by gamma-ray spectrometry. The sensitivities of the methods for liquids, aerosols and solids are approximately 1μg/L,0.5μg and 0.5 μg/g respectively. At thorium levels about ten times the detection limits, accuracy and reproducibility are typically +-10 percent for liquids and aerosols and +- 15 percent for solid samples

  17. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  18. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, A.; Behrens, J.K.; Vejen-Christiansen, L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Aarhus Kommunehospital

    1992-01-01

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P [de

  19. Some aspects of the solid - liquid transition; Quelques aspects de la transition solide-liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicter, P [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Electrochimie et d' Electrometallurgie, 38 - Grenoble (France); Malmejac, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-05-01

    Current theories of fusion are analysed and grouped by analogies using a unified symbolism to facilitate comparisons. Theories are presented based on solid state vibrational models nucleation models, order-disorder models, vacancies and dislocations. For each model the authors have separated out the hypotheses underlying the theoretical analysis and defined the essential parts of the theoretical development. Principal results are compared with experimental data.(authors) [French] Les theories de la fusion les plus courantes sont analysees et groupees par analogies; la symbolique a ete unifiee pour faciliter les comparaisons. Sont presentes les modeles derivant des theories harmoniques de l'etat solide, des theories communautaires, de la theorie de l'ordre-desordre ainsi que des modeles en lacunes et en dislocations. Les auteurs ont pour chaque modele, degage les hypotheses, limite a l'essentiel les developpements theoriques, et presente les resultats principaux, confrontes avec les valeurs experimentales. (auteurs)

  20. Powder metallurgy: Solid and liquid phase sintering of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Rex; Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Basic powder metallurgy (P/M) principles and techniques are presented in this laboratory experiment. A copper based system is used since it is relatively easy to work with and is commercially important. In addition to standard solid state sintering, small quantities of low melting metals such as tin, zinc, lead, and aluminum can be added to demonstrate liquid phase sintering and alloy formation. The Taguchi Method of experimental design was used to study the effect of particle size, pressing force, sintering temperature, and sintering time. These parameters can be easily changed to incorporate liquid phase sintering effects and some guidelines for such substitutions are presented. The experiment is typically carried out over a period of three weeks.

  1. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Recovering bituminous matter from shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H D

    1922-08-29

    A process is described for obtaining valuable hydro-carbons from bituminous solids such as shale and the like, which comprises digesting a mixture of such a bituminous solid with a hydro-carbon liquid, the digestion being conducted at temperature high enough to effectively liquefy heavy bituminous matter contained in the solid but insufficiently high to effect substantial distillation of heavy bituminous matter, separating a resultant liquid mixture of hydrocarbons from the residue of such bituminous solid and refining the liquid mixture.

  3. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  4. A molecular dynamics study of solid and liquid UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindzingre, P.; Gillan, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    We present an extensive series of molecular dynamics simulations of UO 2 in the solid and liquid states, in which we calculate the ionic diffusion coefficients and some of the important thermodynamic quantities. The simulations are based on a rigid-ion model derived from the new shell model potentials of Jackson and co-workers and make use of recently developed constant-pressure and constant-temperature techniques. The simulations confirm that UO 2 is an oxygen superionic conductor, as suggested by recent neutron scattering experiments. The temperature of the diffuse transition to the superionic regime is in satisfactory agreement with experiment, as is the melting point of the model system. The thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat and bulk modulus for the solid agree well with experiment below about 2500 K but are less satisfactory near the melting point; we suggest that the differences may be due to the effect of electronic excitations. The volume increase on melting and thermodynamic quantities of the liquid are sensitive to details of the inter-ionic potentials and are in only fair agreement with experiment. (author)

  5. Solid-Liquid Equilibrium in the Systems with an Ionic Liquid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláková, Zuzana; Sauton, H.; Hynek, V.; Malijevská, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 5 (2008), s. 657-664 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/0444; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : experimental data * solid-liquid equlibrium * 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008

  6. Study of ion separation through solid-supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Do; Kim, Kyoung Ho

    1990-01-01

    The membranes used in this study consist of a microporous polymeric support with the solvent contraining alamine 336, Tri-N-Octyl phosphine oxide, Tri-N-butyl phosphate, Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid as a carrier within the pores by the capillary forces. When this liquid membrane is interposed between aqueous feed and product solutions, the carrier serving as a complexing agent, can pick up the uranium ions on the feed side of the membrane and carry them across the membrane by diffusion. In this study, the uranium flux through the solid-supported liquid membrane was analyzed as a function of carrier concentration and acidity of the feed solution for the carrier species. Also, the Gel-liquid extraction of uranium ions from aqueous solution was performed. The adsorbents were prepared by casting the polymer solution composed of polyvinyl chloride, TOPO, and additions. The extraction of uranyl nitrate ions has been investigated as a function of TOPO/PVC ratio, evaporation time, and the stability. The results show that is maybe possible to develop an alternative uranium purification process. (author)

  7. Pulsed zero field NMR of solids and liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, A.M.

    1987-02-01

    This work describes the development and applications to solids and liquid crystals of zero field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments with pulsed dc magnetic fields. Zero field NMR experiments are one approach for obtaining high resolution spectra of amorphous and polycrystalline materials which normally (in high field) display broad featureless spectra. The behavior of the spin system can be coherently manipulated and probed in zero field with dc magnetic field pulses which are employed in a similar manner to radiofrequency pulses in high field NMR experiments. Nematic phases of liquid crystalline systems are studied in order to observe the effects of the removal of an applied magnetic field on sample alignment and molecular order parameters. In nematic phases with positive and negative magnetic susceptibility anisotropies, a comparison between the forms of the spin interactions in high and low fields is made. High resolution zero field NMR spectra of unaligned smectic samples are also obtained and reflect the symmetry of the liquid crystalline environment. These experiments are a sensitive measure of the motionally induced asymmetry in biaxial phases. Homonuclear and heteronuclear solute spin systems are compared in the nematic and smectic phases. Nonaxially symmetric dipolar couplings are reported for several systems. The effects of residual fields in the presence of a non-zero asymmetry parameter are discussed theoretically and presented experimentally. Computer programs for simulations of these and other experimental results are also reported. 179 refs., 75 figs

  8. Stable lithium electrodeposition in liquid and nanoporous solid electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yingying

    2014-08-10

    Rechargeable lithium, sodium and aluminium metal-based batteries are among the most versatile platforms for high-energy, cost-effective electrochemical energy storage. Non-uniform metal deposition and dendrite formation on the negative electrode during repeated cycles of charge and discharge are major hurdles to commercialization of energy-storage devices based on each of these chemistries. A long-held view is that unstable electrodeposition is a consequence of inherent characteristics of these metals and their inability to form uniform electrodeposits on surfaces with inevitable defects. We report on electrodeposition of lithium in simple liquid electrolytes and in nanoporous solids infused with liquid electrolytes. We find that simple liquid electrolytes reinforced with halogenated salt blends exhibit stable long-term cycling at room temperature, often with no signs of deposition instabilities over hundreds of cycles of charge and discharge and thousands of operating hours. We rationalize these observations with the help of surface energy data for the electrolyte/lithium interface and impedance analysis of the interface during different stages of cell operation. Our findings provide support for an important recent theoretical prediction that the surface mobility of lithium is significantly enhanced in the presence of lithium halide salts. Our results also show that a high electrolyte modulus is unnecessary for stable electrodeposition of lithium.

  9. Dark matter sensitivity of multi-ton liquid xenon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Marc; Bütikofer, Lukas; Baudis, Laura; Kish, Alexander; Selvi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of multi ton-scale time projection chambers using a liquid xenon target, e.g., the proposed DARWIN instrument, to spin-independent and spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon scattering interactions. Taking into account realistic backgrounds from the detector itself as well as from neutrinos, we examine the impact of exposure, energy threshold, background rejection efficiency and energy resolution on the dark matter sensitivity. With an exposure of 200 t × y and assuming detector parameters which have been already demonstrated experimentally, spin-independent cross sections as low as 2.5 × 10 −49 cm 2 can be probed for WIMP masses around 40 GeV/c 2 . Additional improvements in terms of background rejection and exposure will further increase the sensitivity, while the ultimate WIMP science reach will be limited by neutrinos scattering coherently off the xenon nuclei

  10. Effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lichun; Malfliet, Annelies; Wollants, Patrick; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surfactant Te on the behavior of alumina inclusions at advancing solid-liquid interfaces of liquid steel was studied by adding Te to liquid steel before Al deoxidation at 1873 K. After water-quenching, the spatial distribution homogeneity of alumina inclusions in the steel matrix was characterized using the Dirichlet tessellation method. The deterioration of this homogeneity with increasing the addition of Te indicates that Te facilitates pushing of alumina inclusions. This phenomenon was discussed based on the thermodynamics of an asymmetric thin liquid film confined by an advancing solid-liquid interface and a particle. The surface excesses of Te at the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfaces were theoretically demonstrated to decrease when an alumina inclusion moves towards the solid-liquid interface, thereby weakening the effect of Te on the solid-liquid and particle-liquid interfacial energies. Based on this, effect of surfactants was incorporated in the models predicting the critical velocity V_C.

  11. Molecular dynamics study of solid-liquid heat transfer and passive liquid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudasan Daisy, Sumith

    High heat flux removal is a challenging problem in boilers, electronics cooling, concentrated photovoltaic and other power conversion devices. Heat transfer by phase change is one of the most efficient mechanisms for removing heat from a solid surface. Futuristic electronic devices are expected to generate more than 1000 W/cm2 of heat. Despite the advancements in microscale and nanoscale manufacturing, the maximum passive heat flux removal has been 300 W/cm2 in pool boiling. Such limitations can be overcome by developing nanoscale thin-film evaporation based devices, which however require a better understanding of surface interactions and liquid vapor phase change process. Evaporation based passive flow is an inspiration from the transpiration process that happens in trees. If we can mimic this process and develop heat removal devices, then we can develop efficient cooling devices. The existing passive flow based cooling devices still needs improvement to meet the future demands. To improve the efficiency and capacity of these devices, we need to explore and quantify the passive flow happening at nanoscales. Experimental techniques have not advanced enough to study these fundamental phenomena at the nanoscale, an alternative method is to perform theoretical study at nanoscales. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is a widely accepted powerful tool for studying a range of fundamental and engineering problems. MD simulations can be utilized to study the passive flow mechanism and heat transfer due to it. To study passive flow using MD, apart from the conventional methods available in MD, we need to have methods to simulate the heat transfer between solid and liquid, local pressure, surface tension, density, temperature calculation methods, realistic boundary conditions, etc. Heat transfer between solid and fluids has been a challenging area in MD simulations, and has only been minimally explored (especially for a practical fluid like water). Conventionally, an

  12. Muonium formation via charge transport in solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, Vyacheslav G.; Brewer, Jess H.; Cox, Stephen F.J.

    1997-01-01

    We review our recent experimental studies on delayed muonium formation in insulators and semiconductors. This involves the positive muon capturing one of the excess electrons liberated in its own ionization track and competes with recombination or escape of the electrons. The muon is generally found to thermalise well 'downstream' from the center of the electron distribution, so that the transport mechanism of the electrons is a crucial factor. This is discussed in terms of the different tendencies to localization (as polarons in solids or in bubbles in liquids) vs. band-like propagation. Studies of Van der Waals cryocrystals and cryoliquids are reviewed and some preliminary results reported for sapphire and silicon. Transport distances and times are determined from the variation of μSR signal amplitudes with applied electric and magnetic fields, respectively, enabling the development of a new technique for measuring electron mobilities on a microscopic scale

  13. Treatment and conditioning of solid and liquid raw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubec, R.

    2015-01-01

    Jadrova a vyradovacia spolocnost, a.s. (JAVYS) implements activities within the processes of treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste (RAW) at two nuclear facilities, one of them located in Bohunice - Technologies for treatment and conditioning of RAW. This nuclear facility includes: Bohunice RAW treatment centre, bituminization lines, waste water purification station and technologies for sorting, fragmentation and decontamination of metallic RAW. The Bohunice RAW treatment centre (BRTC) in Bohunice processes and conditions liquid and solid radioactive waste produced during the A1 NPP and V1 NPP decommissioning, waste from the operation of V2 NPP in Bohunice as well as from the operation of NPP EMO 1,2 in Mochovce. The BRTC includes the following technological facilities: sorting, high-pressure compaction, incineration, concentration and cementation. Treatment of radioactive wastes in the BRTC is described. (authors)

  14. Experimental design for reflection measurements of highly reactive liquid or solid substances with application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Gossler, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A versatile goniometer system with associated electronic components and mechanical instruments has been assembled. It is designed to measure spectral, specular reflectances of highly reactive liquid or solid substances over a spectral range of 0.3 to 9 μ and incidence angles of 12 to 30 0 off the normal direction. The capability of measuring reflectances of liquid substances clearly distinguishes this experimental design from conventional systems which are applicable only to solid substances. This design has been used to measure the spectral, specular reflectance of liquid sodium and preliminary results obtained are compared with those of solid sodium measured by other investigators

  15. Wastewater Triad Project: Solid-Liquid Separator FY 2000 Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The Wastewater Triad Project (WTP) consists of three operational units: the cesium removal (CsR) system, the out-of-tank evaporator (OTE) system, and the solid/liquid separation (SLS) system. These systems were designed to reduce the volume and radioactivity of low-level liquid waste (LLLW) stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and are operated independently or in series in order to accomplish the treatment goals. Each is a modular, skid-mounted system that is self-contained, individually shielded, and designed to be decontaminated and removed once the project has been completed. The CsR and OTE systems are installed inside Building 7877; the SLS system is installed adjacent to the east side of the MVST 7830 vault cover. The CsR, which consists of ion-exchange equipment for removing 137 Cs from LLLW, was demonstrated in 1997. During the Cesium Removal Demonstration, 30,853 gal of radioactive supernate was processed and 1142 Ci of 137 Cs was removed from the supernate and loaded onto 70 gal of a crystalline silicotitanate sorbent manufactured by UOP, Inc. The OTE system is a subatmospheric single-stage evaporator system designed to concentrate LLLW to smaller volumes. It was previously demonstrated in 1996 and was operated in 1998 to process about 80,000 gal of LLLW. The SLS system was designed to filter and remove suspended solids from LLLW in order to minimize further accumulation of sludge in new storage tanks or to prevent fouling of CsR and OTE systems. The SLS was installed and demonstrated in 1999; ∼45,000 gal of radioactive supernate was processed during the demonstration

  16. Pyridinium ionic liquid-based liquid-solid extraction of inorganic and organic iodine from Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li-Qing; Yu, Wen-Yan; Xu, Jing-Jing; Cao, Jun

    2018-01-15

    A simple, green and effective extraction method, namely, pyridinium ionic liquid- (IL) based liquid-solid extraction (LSE), was first designed to extract the main inorganic and organic iodine compounds (I - , monoiodo-tyrosine (MIT) and diiodo-tyrosine (DIT)). The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic intensity 100W, IL ([EPy]Br) concentration 200mM, extraction time 30min, liquid/solid ratio 10mL/g, and pH value 6.5. The morphologies of Laminaria were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The recovery values of I - , MIT and DIT from Laminaria were in the range of 88% to 94%, and limits of detection were in the range of 59.40 to 283.6ng/g. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of iodine compounds in three Laminaria. The results showed that IL-based LSE could be a promising method for rapid extraction of bioactive iodine from complex food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Influence of liquid or solid culture conditions on the volatile components of mycelia of Isariacateinannulata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Xiaodong; Lu, Ruili; Li, Kangle; Hu, Fenglin

    2011-12-01

    To determine the volatile components of mycelia of Isaria cateinannulata cultured under different culture conditions, and to analyze the relationships between the culture conditions and volatile metabolites. Mycelia were cultured in solid plates with SDAY medium and liquid shake flasks with SDY medium. The culture conditions were at 25 degrees C and 8 days. Volatile components in the mycelia of I. cateinannulata were extracted with simultaneous distillation extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Alkenes, alkanes, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were existed abundantly both in the mycelia of liquid and solid cultures, but the kinds and relative concentrations of the volatile components in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were very different. Forty-one compounds were identified from the mycelia of solid culture and 32 compounds were identified from the mycelia of liquid culture. Esters, quinones and oximes were only found in solid cultured mycelia whereas carboxylic acids were only discovered in the mycelia of liquid culture. At the same time, mycelia of liquid culture contained much more phenols. The most abundant compounds in mycelia of liquid and solid cultures were hydrocarbons. The volatile extracts of solid cultured mycelia contained 57.6% alkenes and 9.19% alkanes. The volatile extracts of liquid cultured mycelia contained 7.85% alkenes and 22.4% alkanes. Liquid or solid culture conditions influenced the volatile components of mycelia of I. cateinannulata.

  18. Subsonic leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, V G; Weihnacht, M

    2002-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of leaky Rayleigh waves at liquid-solid interfaces close to the border of the existence domain of these modes. The real and complex roots of the secular equation are computed for interface waves at the boundary between water and a binary isotropic alloy of gold and silver with continuously variable composition. The change of composition of the alloy allows one to cross a critical velocity for the existence of leaky waves. It is shown that, contrary to popular opinion, the critical velocity does not coincide with the phase velocity of bulk waves in liquid. The true threshold velocity is found to be smaller, the correction being of about 1.45%. Attention is also drawn to the fact that using the real part of the complex phase velocity as a velocity of leaky waves gives only approximate value. The most interesting feature of the waves under consideration is the presence of energy leakage in the subsonic range of the phase velocities where, at first glance, any radiation by harmonic waves is not permitted. A simple physical explanation of this radiation with due regard for inhomogeneity of radiated and radiating waves is given. The controversial question of the existence of leaky Rayleigh waves at a water/ice interface is reexamined. It is shown that the solution considered previously as a leaky wave is in fact the solution of the bulk-wave-reflection problem for inhomogeneous waves.

  19. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, F.A.

    1984-10-19

    A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Calculations of the Thermal Scattering Law for Solids and Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.

    1968-01-01

    a method has been developed, based on the incoherent approximation, to describe scattering in solids and liquids. It deals with molecules which are made up of one or more types of scatterer, such as UO 2 and D 2 O. For each scatterer there is a scattering law S(α, β) = 1/2π ∫ ∞ -∞ exp(-αw(t))exp(iβ)dt in Egelstaff's notation. The width function w(t) corresponds to a 'generalized frequency distribution' p(β) which, in its most complicated form, has five components. The first and second describe sharp peaks (such as the two main vibration levels in D 2 O ), the third and fourth represent broader peaks (such as the combined effects of minor vibration levels and the rotations and translations), the fifth is for diffusion and is omitted for solids. The integral for S is expanded over the vibration terms and then evaluated by a combination of numerical methods and saddle-point integrations. Finally, the S 1 s for the scatterers are combined to give an S for the molecule. (author)

  1. Physics of foam formation on a solid surface in carbonated liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidberg, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    The amount and size of bubbles in a foam layer that have originated from a solid surface in a gas supersaturated solution is largely determined by the physical properties of that solid and liquid surface and the supersaturation level of the gas in the liquid. The presence of pre-existent

  2. Solid foam packings for multiphase reactors: Modelling of liquid holdup and mass transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, experimental and modeling results are presented of the liquid holdup and gas–liquid mass transfer characteristics of solid foam packings. Experiments were done in a semi-2D transparent bubble column with solid foam packings of aluminum in the range of 5–40 pores per inch (ppi). The

  3. Solid neutron matter the energy density in the relativistic harmonic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattani, M.; Fernandes, N.C.

    A relativistic expression for the energy density as a function of particle density for solid neutron matter is obtained using Dirac's equation with a truncated harmonic potential. Ultrabaric and superluminous effects are not found in our approach [pt

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Exhausts from Liquid and Solid Rockets on Ozone Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Yoshiki; Ishimaki, Tetsuya

    This paper reports the analytical results of the influences of solid rocket and liquid rocket exhausts on ozone layer. It is worried about that the exhausts from solid propellant rockets cause the ozone depletion in the ozone layer. Some researchers try to develop the analytical model of ozone depletion by rocket exhausts to understand its physical phenomena and to find the effective design of rocket to minimize its effect. However, these models do not include the exhausts from liquid rocket although there are many cases to use solid rocket boosters with a liquid rocket at the same time in practical situations. We constructed combined analytical model include the solid rocket exhausts and liquid rocket exhausts to analyze their effects. From the analytical results, we find that the exhausts from liquid rocket suppress the ozone depletion by solid rocket exhausts.

  5. Biogas production from the mechanically pretreated, liquid fraction of sorted organic municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lassman, A; Méndez-Contreras, J M; Martínez-Sibaja, A; Rosas-Mendoza, E S; Vallejo-Cantú, N A

    2017-06-01

    The high liquid content in fruit and vegetable wastes makes it convenient to mechanically separate these wastes into mostly liquid and solid fractions by means of pretreatment. Then, the liquid fraction can be treated using a high-rate anaerobic biofilm reactor to produce biogas, simultaneously reducing the amount of solids that must be landfilled. In this work, the specific composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a public market was determined; then, the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste was treated mechanically to separate and characterize the mostly liquid and solid fractions. Then, the mesophilic anaerobic digestion for biogas production of the first fraction was evaluated. The anaerobic digestion resulted in a reduced hydraulic retention time of two days with high removal of chemical oxygen demand, that is, 88% on average, with the additional benefit of reducing the mass of the solids that had to be landfilled by about 80%.

  6. Solid-Liquid equilibrium of n-alkanes using the Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a solid phase in liquid mixtures with large paraffinic molecules is a phenomenon of interest in the petroleum, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological industries among onters. Efforts to model the solid-liquid equilibrium in these systems have been mainly empirical and with different...... degrees of success.An attempt to describe the equilibrium between the high temperature form of a paraffinic solid solution, commonly known as rotator phase, and the liquid phase is performed. The Chain Delta Lattice Parameter model (CDLP) is developed allowing a successful description of the solid-liquid...... equilibrium of n-alkanes ranging from n-C_20 to n-C_40.The model is further modified to achieve a more correct temperature dependence because it severely underestimates the excess enthalpy. It is shown that the ratio of excess enthalpy and entropy for n-alkane solid solutions, as happens for other solid...

  7. Modeling and simulation of liquid diffusion through a porous finitely elastic solid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Qiangsheng

    2013-01-29

    A new theory is proposed for the continuum modeling of liquid flow through a porous elastic solid. The solid and the voids are assumed to jointly constitute the macroscopic solid phase, while the liquid volume fraction is included as a separate state variable. A finite element implementation is employed to assess the predictive capacity of the proposed theory, with particular emphasis on the mechanical response of Nafion® membranes to the flow of water. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Extended vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon carbide nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, John Anthuvan; Pandurangan, Arumugam

    2014-04-01

    We developed an alloy catalytic method to explain extended vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of silicon carbide nanowires (SiC NWs) by a simple thermal evaporation of silicon and activated carbon mixture using lanthanum nickel (LaNi5) alloy as catalyst in a chemical vapor deposition process. The LaNi5 alloy binary phase diagram and the phase relationships in the La-Ni-Si ternary system were play a key role to determine the growth parameters in this VLS mechanism. Different reaction temperatures (1300, 1350 and 1400 degrees C) were applied to prove the established growth process by experimentally. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies show that the crystalline quality of the SiC NWs increases with the temperature at which they have been synthesized. La-Ni alloyed catalyst particles observed on the top of the SiC NWs confirms that the growth process follows this extended VLS mechanism. The X-ray diffraction and confocal Raman spectroscopy analyses demonstrate that the crystalline structure of the SiC NWs was zinc blende 3C-SiC. Optical property of the SiC NWs was investigated by photoluminescence technique at room temperature. Such a new alloy catalytic method may be extended to synthesis other one-dimensional nanostructures.

  9. New decontamination processes for liquid effluents and solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    New decontamination processes are being studied in order to protect workers and to reduce strongly the quantity of secondary wastes produced. 2 decontamination processes for liquid nuclear wastes are under studies. First, the coprecipitation process whose improvement is based on a better control of the 2 coupled mechanisms involved in the process: the formation of adsorbent particles and the uptake of radionuclides. Secondly, the column process whose development focuses on new materials that can be used to absorb cesium in a reversible way. 3 new decontamination processes for solid materials are being developed. First, processes using drying gels are under investigation in order to treat materials like lead, aluminium, iron and stainless steel. Real decontamination of hot cells by drying gel process has been performed and a decontamination factor between 16 and 25 has been obtained on stainless steels. Secondly, new foam decontamination processes have been developed, they are based on the use of new foams stabilized by biodegradable non-ionic surfactants: alkyl-poly-glucosides and viscofiers or nano-particles. The aim is to increase the foam lifetime. Thirdly, new surfactants in solution decontamination processes have been studied, the aim is to decontaminate through degreasing by using acidic surfactants. The idea is to combine emulsification and wetting power. (A.C.)

  10. The determinants of Bank Profitability: Does Liquidity Creation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Sahyouni; Man Wang

    2018-01-01

    Using a panel data set of 4995 banks across 11 developed and emerging countries during the period (2011-2015), this report analyses the amount of liquidity created by banks, how liquidity creation, bank-specific and the macroeconomic factors affecting bank profitability. The results show evidence of increased creation of liquidity over the period. By applying the panel data fixed effect technique, banks that create more liquidity, are set up to have lower profitability. As well as, Asset mana...

  11. 30 CFR 250.217 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the EP? The following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges...

  12. Geometrical control of dissipation during the spreading of liquids on soft solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Menghua; Dervaux, Julien; Narita, Tetsuharu; Lequeux, François; Limat, Laurent; Roché, Matthieu

    2018-02-01

    Gel layers bound to a rigid substrate are used in cell culture to control differentiation and migration and to lower the friction and tailor the wetting of solids. Their thickness, often considered a negligible parameter, affects cell mechanosensing or the shape of sessile droplets. Here, we show that the adjustment of coating thickness provides control over energy dissipation during the spreading of flowing matter on a gel layer. We combine experiments and theory to provide an analytical description of both the statics and the dynamics of the contact line between the gel, the liquid, and the surrounding atmosphere. We extract from this analysis a hitherto-unknown scaling law that predicts the dynamic contact angle between the three phases as a function of the properties of the coating and the velocity of the contact line. Finally, we show that droplets moving on vertical substrates coated with gel layers having linear thickness gradients drift toward regions of higher energy dissipation. Thus, thickness control opens the opportunity to design a priori the path followed by large droplets moving on gel-coated substrates. Our study shows that thickness is another parameter, besides surface energy and substrate mechanics, to tune the dynamics of liquid spreading and wetting on a compliant coating, with potential applications in dew collection and free-surface flow control.

  13. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  14. States of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Dhar. States of Matter. Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Solid, liquid, gas, glasses, powders. D Dhar is a theoretical physicist at the Tata. Institute of Funamental. Research, Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of non- equilibrium statistical physics. All of us have read about solid, liquid and gaseous.

  15. A review of solid-fluid selection options for optical-based measurements in single-phase liquid, two-phase liquid-liquid and multiphase solid-liquid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stuart F.; Zadrazil, Ivan; Markides, Christos N.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental techniques based on optical measurement principles have experienced significant growth in recent decades. They are able to provide detailed information with high-spatiotemporal resolution on important scalar (e.g., temperature, concentration, and phase) and vector (e.g., velocity) fields in single-phase or multiphase flows, as well as interfacial characteristics in the latter, which has been instrumental to step-changes in our fundamental understanding of these flows, and the development and validation of advanced models with ever-improving predictive accuracy and reliability. Relevant techniques rely upon well-established optical methods such as direct photography, laser-induced fluorescence, laser Doppler velocimetry/phase Doppler anemometry, particle image/tracking velocimetry, and variants thereof. The accuracy of the resulting data depends on numerous factors including, importantly, the refractive indices of the solids and liquids used. The best results are obtained when the observational materials have closely matched refractive indices, including test-section walls, liquid phases, and any suspended particles. This paper reviews solid-liquid and solid-liquid-liquid refractive-index-matched systems employed in different fields, e.g., multiphase flows, turbomachinery, bio-fluid flows, with an emphasis on liquid-liquid systems. The refractive indices of various aqueous and organic phases found in the literature span the range 1.330-1.620 and 1.251-1.637, respectively, allowing the identification of appropriate combinations to match selected transparent or translucent plastics/polymers, glasses, or custom materials in single-phase liquid or multiphase liquid-liquid flow systems. In addition, the refractive indices of fluids can be further tuned with the use of additives, which also allows for the matching of important flow similarity parameters such as density and viscosity.

  16. Organic free radicals and micropores in solid graphitic carbonaceous matter at the Oklo natural fission reactors, Gabon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigali, M.J.; Nagy, B.

    1997-01-01

    The presence, concentration, and distribution of organic free radicals as well as their association with specific surface areas and microporosities help characterize the evolution and behavior of the Oklo carbonaceous matter. Such information is necessary in order to evaluate uranium mineralization, liquid bitumen solidification, and radio nuclide containment at Oklo. In the Oklo ore deposits and natural fission reactors carbonaceous matter is often referred to as solid graphitic bitumen. The carbonaceous parts of the natural reactors may contain as much as 65.9% organic C by weight in heterogeneous distribution within the clay-rich matrix. The solid carbonaceous matter immobilized small uraninite crystals and some fission products enclosed in this uraninite and thereby facilitated radio nuclide containment in the reactors. Hence, the Oklo natural fission reactors are currently the subjects of detailed studies because they may be useful analogues to support performance assessment of radio nuclide containment at anthropogenic radioactive waste repository sites. Seven carbonaceous matter rich samples from the 1968 ± 50 Ma old natural fission reactors and the associated Oklo uranium ore deposit were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and by measurements of specific surface areas (BET method). Humic acid, fulvic acid, and fully crystalline graphite standards were also examined by ESR spectroscopy for comparison with the Oklo solid graphitic bitumens. With one exception, the ancient Oklo bitumens have higher organic free radical concentrations than the modem humic and fulvic acid samples. The presence of carbon free radicals in the graphite standard could not be determined due to the conductivity of this material. 72 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  17. Biredox ionic liquids with solid-like redox density in the liquid state for high-energy supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Eléonore; Coustan, Laura; Lannelongue, Pierre; Zigah, Dodzi; Mehdi, Ahmad; Vioux, André; Freunberger, Stefan A; Favier, Frédéric; Fontaine, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    Kinetics of electrochemical reactions are several orders of magnitude slower in solids than in liquids as a result of the much lower ion diffusivity. Yet, the solid state maximizes the density of redox species, which is at least two orders of magnitude lower in liquids because of solubility limitations. With regard to electrochemical energy storage devices, this leads to high-energy batteries with limited power and high-power supercapacitors with a well-known energy deficiency. For such devices the ideal system should endow the liquid state with a density of redox species close to the solid state. Here we report an approach based on biredox ionic liquids to achieve bulk-like redox density at liquid-like fast kinetics. The cation and anion of these biredox ionic liquids bear moieties that undergo very fast reversible redox reactions. As a first demonstration of their potential for high-capacity/high-rate charge storage, we used them in redox supercapacitors. These ionic liquids are able to decouple charge storage from an ion-accessible electrode surface, by storing significant charge in the pores of the electrodes, to minimize self-discharge and leakage current as a result of retaining the redox species in the pores, and to raise working voltage due to their wide electrochemical window.

  18. 6th International Conference on Physics of Liquid Matter : Modern Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lebovka, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at PLMMP-2014, addressing modern problems in the fields of liquids, solutions and confined systems, critical phenomena, as well as colloidal and biological systems. The book focuses on state-of-the-art developments in contemporary physics of liquid matter. The papers presented here are organized into four parts: (i) structure of liquids in confined systems, (ii) phase transitions, supercritical liquids and glasses, (iii) colloids, and (iv) medical and biological aspects and cover the most recent developments in the broader field of liquid state including interdisciplinary problems.

  19. 7th International Conference on Physics of Liquid Matter : Modern Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chalyi, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a collection of selected lectures discussing current problems in molecular physics and reviews the main cutting-edge advances in condensed and soft matter physics. It offers deep insights and a powerful basis for scientists and engineers to study complicated problems in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The unification of experimental, theoretical, and computational methods allows milestone results to be achieved in areas such as ionic and ionic-electronic liquids, magnetic liquid systems, liquid systems with nanoparticles, structural phase transitions and critical phenomena, and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering in liquids and liquid systems.   The lectures selected for this book were held at the 7th International Conference “Physics of Liquid Matter: Modern Problems” (PLMMP-2016), 27–31 May in Kiev, Ukraine.

  20. Theory of simple liquids with applications to soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive coverage of topics in the theory of classical liquids Widely regarded as the standard text in its field, Theory of Simple Liquids gives an advanced but self-contained account of liquid state theory within the unifying framework provided by classical statistical mechanics. The structure of this revised and updated Fourth Edition is similar to that of the previous one but there are significant shifts in emphasis and much new material has been added. Major changes and Key Features in content include: Expansion of existing sections on simulation methods, liquid-vapour coexisten

  1. Experimental design for reflection measurements of highly reactive liquid or solid substances with application to liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.H.; Gossler, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical report describes the experimental part of a program on thermal radiation properties of reactor materials. A versatile goniometer system with associated electronic components and mechanical instruments has been assembled. It is designed to measure spectral, specular reflectances of highly reactive liquid or solid substances over a spectral range of 0.3 μ to 9 μ and incidence angles of 12 0 to 30 0 off the normal direction. The capability of measuring reflectances of liquid substances clearly distinguishes this experimental design from conventional systems which are applicable only to solid substances. This design has been used to measure the spectral, specular reflectance of liquid sodium and preliminary results obtained are compared with those of solid sodium measured by other investigators

  2. Management of radioactive liquid and solid wastes at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, Tenson; Shimoura, K.; Koyama, A.

    1977-11-01

    In this report, the management of radioactive liquid and solid wastes at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University during past 6 years, from April in 1971 to March in 1977 are reviewed. (auth.)

  3. The influence of a solid and liquid bolus on food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeser, A.; Behrens, J.K.; Vejen-Christiansen, L.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P. (Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). GI Motility Lab. Aarhus Kommunehospital (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology R)

    1992-02-01

    Using a radiological method to demonstrate food-stimulated gastroesophageal reflux (GER), a comparative study was carried out employing a solid, already validated bolus versus a liquid one. One hundred and four consecutive patients received both a solid and a liquid bolus in randomized order. GER was observed in 37 (35.6%) patients receiving the solid bolus versus 28 (26.9%) with the liquid one. This means that the solid bolus provokes significantly more reflux (P<0.02). GER, grade II (reflux above the level of the carina), occurred equally often as a result of both types of bolus, however. The study suggests that significant, food-stimulated GER is independent of the consistency of the foodstuffs and may be detected employing a liquid bolus. This result might be used in the examination of infants for GER, using milk as a food stimulus. (orig.).

  4. Chemistry and physics at liquid alkali metal/solid metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the chemistry of processes which take place at the interface between liquid alkali metals and solid metal surfaces. A brief review of wetting data for liquid sodium is given and the significance of critical wetting temperatures discussed on the basis of an oxide-film reduction mechanism. The reactions of metal oxides with liquid metals are outlined and a correlation with wetting data established. The transfer of dissolved species from the liquid metal across the interface to form solid phases on the solid metal surface is well recognised. The principal features of such processes are described and a simple thermodynamic explanation is outlined. The reverse process, the removal of solid material into solution, is also considered. (author)

  5. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  6. Experimental considerations on producing highly polarized liquid 3He in a matrix of solid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, A.S.; Hebral, B.; Papoular, M.; Beal-Monod, M.T.

    1980-01-01

    Two experiments are briefly reviewed in which droplets of 3 He were formed in solid 4 He. These experiments indicate such conditions are favorable for the production of quasi-stable highly polarized liquid 3 He. A solid solution of dilute 3 He in 4 He is proposed as a promising system to produce experimentally realizable highly polarized liquid 3 He using the Castaing-Nozieres decompression

  7. Polymer-encapsulated carbon capture liquids that tolerate precipitation of solids for increased capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D; Bourcier, William L; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

    2015-02-03

    A system for carbon dioxide capture from flue gas and other industrial gas sources utilizes microcapsules with very thin polymer shells. The contents of the microcapsules can be liquids or mixtures of liquids and solids. The microcapsules are exposed to the flue gas and other industrial gas and take up carbon dioxide from the flue gas and other industrial gas and eventual precipitate solids in the capsule.

  8. The nature of particulate organic matter settled on solid substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, M.O.; Wagh, A.B.

    on these substrata. Oceollo!ogica Acta. 1990, 13,4,471-474. -~----~-------- I.• ABSTRACT --,- RESUME Composition de la matiere organique particulaire adsorbee sur un substrat solide La matiere organique particulaire adsorb&: sur des panneaux d'aluminium et de verre... immerges dans un estuaire a ete analysce: bacteries, chlorophylle a, poids sec, matiere organique, carbone organique, azote, proteines, glueides et lipides. Aucune difference n'a etc dccelee dans lacomposition de la matiere organique et dans les...

  9. Fermi liquid description of relativistic high density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K.; Dutt-Mazumder, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    We calculate pionic contribution to the relativistic Fermi Liquid parameters (RFLPs) using Chiral Effective Lagrangian. The RFLPs so determined are then used to calculate chemical potential, exchange energy due to πN interaction. We also compare the results of exchange energy from two loop ring diagrams involving σ, ω and π meson with what one obtains from the relativistic Fermi Liquid theory (RFLT).

  10. Study of Liquid Breakup Process in Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Laboratory, Edwards, CA Abstract In a solid rocket motor (SRM), when the aluminum based propellant combusts, the fuel is oxidized into alumina (Al2O3...34Chemical Erosion of Refractory-Metal Nozzle Inserts in Solid - Propellant Rocket Motors," J. Propulsion and Power, Vol. 25, no.1,, 2009. [4] E. Y. Wong...34 Solid Rocket Nozzle Design Summary," in 4th AIAA Propulsion Joint Specialist Conference, Cleveland, OH, 1968. [5] Nayfeh, A. H.; Saric, W. S

  11. Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T.

    1995-01-01

    The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V o in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V * (=V/V o ), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V * decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction ε of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V * and ε is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid

  12. Velocity of large bubble in liquid-solid mixture in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamaguchi, H.; Sakaguchi, T. [Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    The upward movement of a large bubble in a stationary mixture of liquid and solid is one of the most fundamental phenomena of gas-liquid-solid three phase slug flow in a vertical tube. The purpose of this study is to make clear the characteristic of the rising velocity of this fundamental flow experimentally. The rising velocity of a large bubble V in a liquid-solid mixture was measured and compared with the velocity V{sub o} in a liquid (without solid). The experimental results were correlated using a non-dimensional velocity V{sup *}(=V/V{sub o}), and the following results were obtained. It was found that the characteristic of the rising velocity differs according to the tube diameter and the liquid viscosity, or the Galileo number in the non-dimensional expression. It can be classified into two regimes. (i) When the liquid viscosity is large (or the tube diameter is small), V{sup *} decreases linearly against the volumetric solid fraction {epsilon} of the mixture. (ii) When the viscosity is small, on the other hand, the relation between V{sup *} and {epsilon} is not linear. This classification can be explained by the results in the previous papers by the authors dealing with a large bubble in a liquid.

  13. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect; La structure de l'interface solide-liquide: effet de taille atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 94 - Vitry-sur-Seine (France). Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique

    2002-09-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size ({sigma}) and energy ({epsilon}) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites ({chi}={sigma}{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 2}) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the {chi} value. (authors)

  14. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Solids formation behavior from simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The solids formation behavior in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) was experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was treated in the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. Solids formation conditions and mechanism were closely discussed. The solids formation during a concentration step can be explained by considering the formation of zirconium phosphate, phosphomolybdic acid and precipitation of strontium and barium nitrates and their solubilities. For the solids formation during the denitration step, at least four courses were observed; formation of an undissolved material by a chemical reaction with each other of solute elements (zirconium, molybdenum, tellurium) precipitation by reduction (platinum group metals) formation of hydroxide or carbonate compounds (chromium, neodymium, iron, nickel, strontium, barium) and a physical adsorption to stable solid such as zirconium molybdate (nickel, strontium, barium). (author)

  15. Method and apparatus for treating liquid contaminated with radioactive particulate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirs, G.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus reduces the amount of radioactive solids resulting from the filtration of particulate contaminants from liquid in a nuclear reactor plant. A filtration system includes a pre-filter comprising a sheet filter medium through which the reactor liquid passes to remove relatively large particulate contaminants for storage or disposal. The reactor liquid is then passed through a bed of granular filter medium to accumulate substantially all the previously non-filtered contaminants and thereby provide a clarified liquid suitable for reuse in the reactor. Backwash liquid is flowed through the granular filter bed to remove and entrain the accumulated contaminants into a slurry which is received by a reservoir where the slurry is maintained quiescently to settle the contaminants. Removal of liquid from the reservoir concentrates the contaminants for storage or further processing, without the necessity of large quantities of filter aids that would increase the quantity of storage-requiring contaminated solids

  16. Crosslinked polymeric ionic liquids as solid-phase microextraction sorbent coatings for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-03-18

    Neat crosslinked polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) sorbent coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) compatible with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported for the first time. Six structurally different PILs were crosslinked to nitinol supports and applied for the determination of select pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, and insecticides. Sampling conditions including sample solution pH, extraction time, desorption solvent, desorption time, and desorption solvent volume were optimized using design of experiment (DOE). The developed PIL sorbent coatings were stable when performing extractions under acidic pH and remained intact in various organic desorption solvents (i.e., methanol, acetonitrile, acetone). The PIL-based sorbent coating polymerized from the IL monomer 1-vinyl-3-(10-hydroxydecyl) imidazolium chloride [VC10OHIM][Cl] and IL crosslinker 1,12-di(3-vinylbenzylimidazolium) dodecane dichloride [(VBIM)2C12] 2[Cl] exhibited superior extraction performance compared to the other studied PILs. The extraction efficiency of pharmaceutical drugs and phenolics increased when the film thickness of the PIL-based sorbent coating was increased while many insecticides were largely unaffected. Satisfactory analytical performance was obtained with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.2 to 2 μg L(-1) for the target analytes. The accuracy of the analytical method was examined by studying the relative recovery of analytes in real water samples, including tap water and lake water, with recoveries varying from 50.2% to 115.9% and from 48.8% to 116.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigating the Retention Mechanisms of Liquid Chromatography Using Solid-Phase Extraction Cartridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Mary E.; Musial, Beata A.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Danielson, Neil D.; Ca, Diep

    2009-01-01

    Liquid chromatography (LC) experiments for the undergraduate analytical laboratory course often illustrate the application of reversed-phase LC to solve a separation problem, but rarely compare LC retention mechanisms. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatography instrument may be beyond what some small colleges can purchase. Solid-phase…

  18. Using Peltier Cells to Study Solid-Liquid-Vapour Transitions and Supercooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states…

  19. Aerobic Oxidation of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural in Ionic Liquids with Solid Ruthenium Hydroxide Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhlberg, Tim Johannes Bjarki; Eyjolfsdottir, Ester; Gorbanev, Yury

    2012-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural was investigated over solid ruthenium hydroxide catalysts in ionic liquids at elevated temperatures and pressures. Several different catalyst supports were tested in combination with various ionic liquids. The best result was obtained in [EMIm...

  20. Computer simulation of solid-liquid coexistence in binary hard sphere mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, W.G.T.; Frenkel, D.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a computer simulation study of the solid-liquid coexistence of a binary hard sphere mixture for diameter ratios in the range 0·85 ⩽ ğa ⩽ 1>·00. For the solid phase we only consider substitutionally disordered FCC and HCP crystals. For 0·9425 < α < 1·00 we find a

  1. Liquid and Solid Meal Replacement Products Differentially Affect Postprandial Appetite and Food Intake in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J.; Apolzan, John W.; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna E.; Iglay, Heidi B.; Campbell, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid and solid foods are documented to elicit differential appetitive and food intake responses. This study was designed to assess the influences of liquid vs solid meal replacement products on postprandial appetite ratings and subsequent food intake in healthy older adults. This study used a randomized and crossover design with two 1-day trials (1 week between trials), and 24 adults (12 men and 12 women) aged 50 to 80 years with body mass index (calculated as kg/m2) between 22 and 30 participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects consumed meal replacement products as either a beverage (liquid) or a bar (solid). The meal replacement products provided 25% of each subject's daily estimated energy needs with comparable macro-nutrient compositions. Subjects rated their appetite on a 100 mm quasilogarithmic visual analog scale before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after consuming the meal replacement product. At minute 120, each subject consumed cooked oatmeal ad libitum to a “comfortable level of fullness.” Postprandial composite (area under the curve from minute 15 to minute 120) hunger was higher (P=0.04) for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products and desire to eat (P=0.15), preoccupation with thoughts of food (P=0.07), and fullness (P=0.25) did not differ for the liquid vs solid meal replacement products. On average, the subjects consumed 13.4% more oatmeal after the liquid vs solid (P=0.006) meal replacement product. These results indicate that meal replacement products in liquid and solid form do not elicit comparable appetitive and ingestive behavior responses and that meal replacement products in liquid form blunt the postprandial decline in hunger and increase subsequent food intake in older adults. PMID:18589034

  2. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Furfural at the Liquid-Solid Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Sanwu Wang; Hongli Dang; Wenhua Xue; Darwin Shields; Xin Liu; Friederike C. Jentoft; Daniel E. Resasco

    2013-01-01

    The bonding configuration and the heat of adsorption of a furfural molecule on the Pd(111) surface were determined by ab initio density-functional-theory calculations. The dynamics of pure liquid water, the liquid-solid interface formed by liquid water and the Pd(111) surface, as well as furfural at the water-Pd interface, were investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures. Calculations and simulations suggest that the bonding configurati...

  3. "Liquid-liquid-solid"-type superoleophobic surfaces to pattern polymeric semiconductors towards high-quality organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Jiang, Lei; Heeger, Alan J

    2013-12-03

    Precisely aligned organic-liquid-soluble semiconductor microwire arrays have been fabricated by "liquid-liquid-solid" type superoleophobic surfaces directed fluid drying. Aligned organic 1D micro-architectures can be built as high-quality organic field-effect transistors with high mobilities of >10 cm(2) ·V(-1) ·s(-1) and current on/off ratio of more than 10(6) . All these studies will boost the development of 1D microstructures of organic semiconductor materials for potential application in organic electronics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The determinants of Bank Profitability: Does Liquidity Creation matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sahyouni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using a panel data set of 4995 banks across 11 developed and emerging countries during the period (2011-2015, this report analyses the amount of liquidity created by banks, how liquidity creation, bank-specific and the macroeconomic factors affecting bank profitability. The results show evidence of increased creation of liquidity over the period. By applying the panel data fixed effect technique, banks that create more liquidity, are set up to have lower profitability. As well as, Asset management, bank size and capital ratio are positively correlated with bank profitability. While, credit quality and operating efficiency affect bank’s profits negatively. Additionally, macroeconomic factors have different impact on profitability indicators in each market. Our findings may help decision makers inside and outside bank to determine important factors affecting bank profitability.

  5. Fermi liquid description of relativistic high density matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, K.; Dutt-Mazumder, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate pionic contribution to the relativistic Fermi Liquid parameters (RFLPs) using Chiral Effective Lagrangian. The RFLPs so determined are then used to calculate chemical potential, exchange energy due to πN interaction. We also compare the results of exchange energy from two loop ring diagrams involving σ, ω and π meson with what one obtains from the relativistic Fermi Liquid theory (RFLT). (author)

  6. Study of Baffle Boundary and System Parameters on Liquid-Solid Coupling Vibration of Rectangular Liquid-Storage Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the vibration problem of liquid-solid coupling of rectangular liquid-storage structure with horizontal elastic baffle, ignoring the influence of surface gravity wave, two different velocity potential functions corresponding to the liquid above and below the elastic baffle are assumed; based on the theory of mathematical equation and energy method, the formulas of basic frequency of liquid-solid coupling vibration system are derived, the baffle joined to the tank wall with 3 kinds of boundary conditions, namely, four edges simply supported, two opposite edges clamped and two opposite edges simply supported, and four edges clamped; the influence rules of baffle length-width ratio, the ratio of baffle height to liquid level, baffle elastic modulus, baffle density, baffle thickness, and liquid density on the coupling vibration performance are studied. The results show that the frequency of the clamped boundary is minimum; the influences of baffle length-width ratio and relative height on the basic frequency are much greater than that of the other system parameters; the relation between baffle length-width ratio and the frequency is exponential, while baffle relative height has a parabola relation with the frequency; the larger the baffle length-width ratio, the closer the baffle to the liquid level; the coupling frequency will be reduced more obviously.

  7. Magnetic coupling between liquid 3He and a solid state substrate: a new approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, Alexander V.; Naletov, Vladimir V.; Tayurskii, Dmitrii A.; Tagirov, Murat S.; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2000-07-01

    We suggest a new approach for solving the long-standing problem of a magnetic coupling between liquid 3He and a solid state substrate at temperatures above the Fermi temperature. The approach is based on our previous careful investigations of the physical state of a solid substrate by means of several experimental methods (EPR, NMR, conductometry, and magnetization measurements). The developed approach allows, first, to get more detailed information about the magnetic coupling phenomenon by varying the repetition time in pulse NMR investigations of liquid 3He in contact with the solid state substrate and, second, to compare the obtained dependences and the data of NMR-cryoporometry and AFM-microscopy.

  8. Relationships between oesophageal transit and solid and liquid gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, M.; Maddox, A.F.; Wishart, J.M.; Harding, P.E.; Chatterton, B.E.; Shearman, D.J.C.

    1991-01-01

    In 87 randomly selected diabetic patients (67 type 1, 20 type 2) and 25 control subjects, gastric emptying of digestible solid and liquid meals and oesophageal transit of a solid bolus were measured with scintigraphic techniques. Gastrointestinal symptoms, autonomic nerve function and glycaemic control were evaluated in the diabetic patients. Gastric emptying and oesophageal transit were slower (P 15 mmol/l. These results indicate that gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus should be assessed by liquid as well as by solid test meals and that oesophageal transit should not be used as a predictor of generalised diabetic gastroenteropathy. (orig.)

  9. Joint ESRF-Cecam workshop polymorphous in liquid and amorphous matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Hennet, L.; Krishnan, S.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Saboungi, M.L.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Mossa, S.; Tarjus, G.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Filipponi, A.; Tanaka, H.; Soper, A.K.; Strassle, Th.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Nelmes, R.J.; Loveday, J.S.; Rousse, G.; Canny, B.; Chervin, J.C.; Saitta, M.; Marek Koza, M.; Schober, H.; Geiger, A.; Brovchenko, I.; Oleinikova, A.; Strassle, T.; Reichert, H.; Jakse, N.; Lebacq, O.; Pasturel, A.; Salmon, P.S.; Martin, R.A.; Massobrio, C.; Poon, W.C.K.; Pham, K.N.; Voigtmann, Th.; Egelhaaf, S.U.; Pusey, P.N.; Petukhov, A.V.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Konig, H.; Keen, D.A.; Benedetti, L.R.; Sihachakr, D.; Dewaele, A.; Weck, G.; Crichton, W.; Mezouar, M.; Loubeyre, P.; Shimojo, F.; Ferlat, G.; San Miguel, A.; Xu, H.; Martinez-Garcia, D.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.; Felipponi, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Di Cicco, A.; Guthrie, M.; Tulk, C.A.; Bemore, C.J.; Xu, J.; Yarger, J.L.; Mao, H.K.; Hemley, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    This workshop is dedicated to new trends in the simulation and experimental studies of liquid and amorphous matter. Particular emphasis is given to polymorphism in equilibrium and under-cooled metastable liquids, glasses and to amorphous network-forming systems. 5 mains sessions over the 3 days have been organized: 1) under-cooled liquid metals, 2) liquid, glassy and amorphous semiconductors, 3) water and related systems, 4) colloids, macro-molecules and biological cells, and 5) state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical investigations. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations

  10. Joint ESRF-Cecam workshop polymorphous in liquid and amorphous matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L.; Hennet, L.; Krishnan, S.; Sinn, H.; Alp, E.E.; Saboungi, M.L.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Mossa, S.; Tarjus, G.; Trapananti, A.; Di Cicco, A.; Filipponi, A.; Tanaka, H.; Soper, A.K.; Strassle, Th.; Klotz, S.; Hamel, G.; Nelmes, R.J.; Loveday, J.S.; Rousse, G.; Canny, B.; Chervin, J.C.; Saitta, M.; Marek Koza, M.; Schober, H.; Geiger, A.; Brovchenko, I.; Oleinikova, A.; Strassle, T.; Reichert, H.; Jakse, N.; Lebacq, O.; Pasturel, A.; Salmon, P.S.; Martin, R.A.; Massobrio, C.; Poon, W.C.K.; Pham, K.N.; Voigtmann, Th.; Egelhaaf, S.U.; Pusey, P.N.; Petukhov, A.V.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Konig, H.; Keen, D.A.; Benedetti, L.R.; Sihachakr, D.; Dewaele, A.; Weck, G.; Crichton, W.; Mezouar, M.; Loubeyre, P.; Shimojo, F.; Ferlat, G.; San Miguel, A.; Xu, H.; Martinez-Garcia, D.; Zuniga, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V.; Felipponi, A.; Panfilis, S. de; Di Cicco, A.; Guthrie, M.; Tulk, C.A.; Bemore, C.J.; Xu, J.; Yarger, J.L.; Mao, H.K.; Hemley, R.J

    2004-07-01

    This workshop is dedicated to new trends in the simulation and experimental studies of liquid and amorphous matter. Particular emphasis is given to polymorphism in equilibrium and under-cooled metastable liquids, glasses and to amorphous network-forming systems. 5 mains sessions over the 3 days have been organized: 1) under-cooled liquid metals, 2) liquid, glassy and amorphous semiconductors, 3) water and related systems, 4) colloids, macro-molecules and biological cells, and 5) state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical investigations. This document gathers the abstracts of the presentations.

  11. Development and Evaluation of Liquid and Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems for Atorvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Czajkowska-Kośnik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to design and characterize liquid and solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS for poorly soluble atorvastatin. To optimize the composition of liquid atorvastatin-SEDDS, solubility tests, pseudoternary phase diagrams, emulsification studies and other in vitro examinations (thermodynamic stability, droplet size and zeta potential analysis were performed. Due to the disadvantages of liquid SEDDS (few choices for dosage forms, low stability and portability during the manufacturing process, attempts were also made to obtain solid SEDDS. Solid SEDDS were successfully obtained using the spray drying technique from two optimized liquid formulations, CF3 and OF2. Despite liquid SEDDS formulation, CF3 was characterized by lower turbidity, higher percentage transmittance and better self-emulsifying properties, and based on the in vitro dissolution study it can be concluded that better solubilization properties were exhibited by solid formulation OF2. Overall, the studies demonstrated the possibility of formulating liquid and solid SEEDS as promising carriers of atorvastatin. SEDDS, with their unique solubilization properties, provide the opportunity to deliver lipophilic drugs to the gastrointestinal tract in a solubilized state, avoiding dissolution—a restricting factor in absorption rate of BCS Class 2 drugs, including atorvastatin.

  12. Dynamic behavior of a solid particle bed in a liquid pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ping; Yasunaka, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Yamano, Hidemasa; Tobita, Yoshiharu

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of solid particle beds in a liquid pool against pressure transients was investigated to model the mobility of core materials in a postulated disrupted core of a liquid metal fast reactor. A series of experiments was performed with a particle bed of different bed heights, comprising different monotype solid particles, where variable initial pressures of the originally pressurized nitrogen gas were adopted as the pressure sources. Computational simulations of the experiments were performed using SIMMER-III, a fast reactor safety analysis code. Comparisons between simulated and experimental results show that the physical model for multiphase flows used in the SIMMER-III code can reasonably represent the transient behaviors of pool multiphase flows with rich solid phases, as observed in the current experiments. This demonstrates the basic validity of the SIMMER-III code on simulating the dynamic behaviors induced by pressure transients in a low-energy disrupted core of a liquid metal fast reactor with rich solid phases

  13. Enhanced electroforced sedimentation of various solid- liquid systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... liquid systems. Mohammed S. Jami1* ... significant challenges in wastewater management. ... environmental sludge and biosolids, thereby reducing the volumes to be disposed through landfills, incineration or other means.

  14. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted

  15. Particle and liquid motion in semi-solid aluminium alloys: A quantitative in situ microradioscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabler, S.; Ershov, A.; Rack, A.; Garcia-Moreno, F.; Baumbach, T.; Banhart, J.

    2013-01-01

    Semi-solid melts exhibit a very unpredictable rheology and filling dynamics, when injected into thin-walled components. Optimization of the process requires an insight into the casting process during injection. For this purpose we injected semi-solid an Al–Ge alloy into two different thin channel geometries while recording high resolution radiographs at fast frame rates (up to 1000 images per s). Comparison of a bottleneck channel, which has previously been used for slower experiments, with a right-angle turn geometry reveals a significant influence of the channel shape on the flow behaviour of the particle–liquid mixture. While the bottleneck is quickly sealed with densified solid, turbulences in the right-angle turn apparently permit solid particles and clusters to move conjointly with the liquid and thus achieve a more complete filling. Single particle trajectories and rapid break-up of solid skeletons in such a system have been observed for the first time in situ

  16. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  17. Evaluation of Epirubicin in Thermogelling and Bioadhesive Liquid and Solid Suppository Formulations for Rectal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Lo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperature sensitive Pluronic (Plu and pH-sensitive polyacrylic acid (PAA were successfully mixed in different ratios to form in situ gelling formulations for colon cancer therapy. The major formulations were prepared as the liquid and solid suppository dosage forms. Epirubicin (Epi was chosen as a model anticancer drug. In vitro characterization and in vivo pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of Epi in six Plu/PAA formulations were evaluated. Our in vitro data indicate that Epi in Plu 14%/PAA 0.75% of both solid and liquid suppositories possess significant cytotoxicity, strong bioadhesive force, long-term appropriate suppository base, sustained release, and high accumulation of Epi in rat rectums. These solid and liquid suppositories were retained in the upper rectum of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats for at least 12 h. An in vivo pharmacokinetic study using SD rats showed that after rectal administration of solid and liquid suppositories, Epi had greater area under the curve and higher relative bioavailability than in a rectal solution. These solid and liquid suppositories exhibited remarkable inhibition on the tumor growth of CT26 bearing Balb/c mice in vivo. Our findings suggest that in situ thermogelling and mucoadhesive suppositories demonstrate a great potential as colon anticancer delivery systems for protracted release of chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.J.

    1995-08-17

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing.

  19. Evaluation and ranking of the tank focus area solid liquid separation needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCadbe, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Tank Focus Area (TFA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) addresses remediation of liquid waste currently stored in underground tanks. Several baseline technologies for treatment of tank waste can be categorized into three types of solid liquid separation: (a) removal of radioactive species that have been absorbed or precipitated, (b) pretreatment for ion exchange, and (c) volume reduction of sludge and wash water. The solids formed from precipitation or absorption of radioactive ions require separation from the liquid phase to permit treatment of the liquid as Low Level Waste. Prior to ion exchange of radioactive ions, removal of insoluble solids is needed to prevent bed fouling and downstream contamination. Volume reduction of washed sludge solids would reduce the tank space required for interim storage. The scope of this document is to evaluate the solid/liquid separations needed to permit treatment of tank wastes to accomplish these goals. The document summarizes previous alkaline waste testing, with an emphasis on crossflow filtration, to-obtain a general understanding of the behavior of radioactive wastes on available equipment. The document also provides general information about filtration and a path forward for testing

  20. Associations between added sugar (solid vs. liquid) intakes, diet quality, and adiposity indicators in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JiaWei; Shang, Lei; Light, Kelly; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Paradis, Gilles; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about the influence of different forms of added sugar intake on diet quality or their association with obesity among youth. Dietary intake was assessed by three 24-h recalls in 613 Canadian children (aged 8-10 years). Added sugars (mean of 3-day intakes) were categorized according to source (solid or liquid). Dietary intake and the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (« HEI-C ») were compared across tertiles of solid and liquid added sugars separately as were adiposity indicators (body mass index (BMI), fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and waist circumference). Cross-sectional associations were examined in linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, energy intake, and physical activity (7-day accelerometer). Added sugar contributed 12% of total energy intake (204 kcal) on average, of which 78% was from solid sources. Higher consumption of added sugars from either solid or liquid source was associated with higher total energy, lower intake of micronutrients, vegetables and fruit, and lower HEI-C score. Additionally liquid sources were associated with lower intake of dairy products. A 10-g higher consumption of added sugars from liquid sources was associated with 0.4 serving/day lower of vegetables and fruit, 0.4-kg/m(2) higher BMI, a 0.5-kg higher fat mass, and a 0.9-cm higher waist circumference whereas the associations of added sugars from solid sources and adiposity indicators tended to be negative. In conclusion, higher consumption of added sugar from either solid or liquid sources was associated with lower overall diet quality. Adiposity indicators were only positively associated with added sugars from liquid sources.

  1. Dilution and separation of solids and liquids of broiler litter for supply of digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires, Airon Magno; Lucas Junior, Jorge de; Xavier, Cristiane de Almeida Neves; Miranda, Adelia Pereira; Fukayama, Ellen Hatsumi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2008-07-01

    The solid separation techniques indicate that it can promote a support in anaerobic biological process. This trial was realized in FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal, Brazil, in Rural Engineering Department. For this trial two tests were developed, using broiler litter water diluted and separated in a 3mm mesh screen: the treatments consisted in (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (2kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (4kg) water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (6kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (8kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (10kg) of water, (1kg) broiler litter and (12kg) water and (1kg) broiler litter diluted in (14kg) of water. Total solids (TS), solid and liquid fraction and biogas production were estimated. There were no significant differences related to solid fraction retained in screen. As the broiler litter became more diluted, a raise in the liquid fractions quantities was observed, ranging from 20.9 to 89.4% of the total diluted waste. Biogas production potentials ranged from 0.2364 to 0.4666 m{sup 3} of biogas by 100kg of liquid fraction. Organic carbon numbers ranged from 0.21 to 0.47kg by 100kg of liquid fraction and 5.36 to 6.18kg by 100kg of solid fraction. The highest values obtained for this element in liquid fractions dilutions were 2:1 and 6:1 with 0.46 and 0.47kg by 100kg respectively. The separation of liquid and solid fraction of broiler litter was viable in the smaller dilutions, because those guarantee a reduction in the anaerobic digester implementation costs and dilution water economy. Solid fraction has potential for composting, mainly in a great scale production. (author)

  2. UKAEA contract no. 3: miscellaneous solid, liquid and gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    This document reports work carried out in 1982/83 on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes: flowsheeting; dewatering low and medium level radioactive wastes; applications of ultrafiltration in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; chemical conversion of Zircaloy cladding to oxide; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; fuel cladding and ion exchanger immobilisation - radioactive trials; thermal techniques; development and assessment of medium level waste forms. (U.K.)

  3. PREFACE: Proceedings of the 7th Liquid Matter Conference (Lund, Sweden, 27 June 1 July 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Sciortino, Francesco; Ullner, Magnus

    2008-12-01

    The three-yearly Liquid Matter Conference is organized by the Liquids Section of the Condensed Matter Division of the European Physical Society. This series of meetings began in Lyon in 1990. The previous meeting was held in 2005 in Utrecht. The original aim of the Liquid Matter Conference was to bring together scientists working on the liquid state of matter. A closer analysis of the program booklets over the past 18 years reveals that new and highly active research fields that are closely related to liquid matter have been successfully integrated in the scope of the conference, notably the rapidly developing fields of soft matter and biophysics. Concomitantly, a broadening of the spectrum from the classical liquid state to a wide spectrum of phases and systems could be observed. Therefore, the rapidly growing field covered by this conference series at present includes physics, chemistry, biology, and chemical engineering as well as various applied research areas. Liquid state physics is at the interface of many research fields. As a consequence, many of the attendants come from adjacent fields and encounter at the Liquid Matter Conference a community where they can meet experts from other research areas. This aspect of the Liquid Matter Conference makes it an exciting meeting as it not only offers the participants an up-to-date picture of the status of research into the liquid state of matter, but it also allows them to establish new (and often unexpected) transdisciplinary contacts for joint scientific endeavours. This applies in particular to the area of soft condensed matter such as colloidal suspensions, polymeric systems and biological materials. The Lund meeting, organized in collaboration with Lund University, had 574 registered participants from five continents. During the conference, and following the tradition established at the Utrecht meeting, the second Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society was awarded to Professor Henk Lekkerkerker

  4. Direct observation of ionic structure at solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siretanu, Igor; Ebeling, Daniel; Andersson, Martin Peter

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of ions and charge at solid-water interfaces plays an essential role in a wide range of processes in biology, geology and technology. While theoretical models of the solid-electrolyte interface date back to the early 20th century, a detailed picture of the structure of the electric...... double layer has remained elusive, largely because of experimental techniques have not allowed direct observation of the behaviour of ions, i.e. with subnanometer resolution. We have made use of recent advances in high-resolution Atomic Force Microscopy to reveal, with atomic level precision, the ordered...

  5. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-04-07

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI - in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br - and TFSI - , respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g - ¹, 40 and 48 kW·kg - ¹, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg - ¹ were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively.

  6. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Hsin; Wang, Tzong-Liu; Lin, Wen-Churng; Lin, Hung-Yin; Lee, Mei-Hwa; Yang, Chien-Hsin

    2018-01-01

    A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL) and ionic liquid (IL). This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP)-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br) and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI), respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br)) and (PIL-M-(TFSI)) solid electrolytes, respectively. PMID:29642456

  7. Crosslinked Polymer Ionic Liquid/Ionic Liquid Blends Prepared by Photopolymerization as Solid-State Electrolytes in Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A photopolymerization method is used to prepare a mixture of polymer ionic liquid (PIL and ionic liquid (IL. This mixture is used as a solid-state electrolyte in carbon nanoparticle (CNP-based symmetric supercapacitors. The solid electrolyte is a binary mixture of a PIL and its corresponding IL. The PIL matrix is a cross-linked polyelectrolyte with an imidazole salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− in PIL-M-(Br and TFSI− in PIL-M-(TFSI, respectively. The corresponding ionic liquids have imidazolium salt cation coupled with two anions of Br− and TFSI−, respectively. This study investigates the electrochemical characteristics of PILs and their corresponding IL mixtures used as a solid electrolyte in supercapacitors. Results show that a specific capacitance, maximum power density and energy density of 87 and 58 F·g−1, 40 and 48 kW·kg−1, and 107 and 59.9 Wh·kg−1 were achieved in supercapacitors based on (PIL-M-(Br and (PIL-M-(TFSI solid electrolytes, respectively.

  8. Role of isospin in nuclear-matter liquid-gas phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducoin, C.

    2006-10-01

    Nuclear matter presents a phase transition of the liquid-gas type. This well-known feature is due to the nuclear interaction profile (mean-range attractive, short-range repulsive). Symmetric-nuclear-matter thermodynamics is thus analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid. The study shows up to be more complex in the case of asymmetric matter, composed of neutrons and protons in an arbitrary proportion. Isospin, which distinguishes both constituents, gives a measure of this proportion. Studying asymmetric matter, isospin is an additional degree of freedom, which means one more dimension to consider in the space of observables. The nuclear liquid-gas transition is associated with the multi-fragmentation phenomenon observed in heavy-ion collisions, and to compact-star physics: the involved systems are neutron rich, so they are affected by the isospin degree of freedom. The present work is a theoretical study of isospin effects which appear in the asymmetric nuclear matter liquid-gas phase transition. A mean-field approach is used, with a Skyrme nuclear effective interaction. We demonstrate the presence of a first-order phase transition for asymmetric matter, and study the isospin distillation phenomenon associated with this transition. The case of phase separation at thermodynamic equilibrium is compared to spinodal decomposition. Finite size effects are addressed, as well as the influence of the electron gas which is present in the astrophysical context. (author)

  9. Is the Luttinger Liquid a New State of Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonin, V. V.; Petrov, V. Y.

    2010-02-01

    We are demonstrating that the Luttinger model with short range interaction can be treated as a type of Fermi liquid. In line with the main dogma of Landau’s theory one can define a fermion excitation renormalized by interaction and show that in terms of these fermions any excited state of the system is described by free particles. The fermions are a mixture of renormalized right and left electrons. The electric charge and chirality of the Landau quasi-particle is discussed.

  10. Silicon MEMS for Detection of Liquid and Solid Fronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, J.

    2010-01-01

    High-precision manipulation of small-size objects is an attractive and challenging topic for both industrial production and fundamental scientific research. The capability of monitoring micro-samples during handling is essential to the accuracy and efficiency of a handling system for both liquid and

  11. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  12. Charge Control And Wettability Alteration At Solid-liquid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Sîretanu, Igor; Kumar, Naveen; Bera, B.; Wang, Lei; Maestro, Armando; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Collins, I

    2014-01-01

    Most solid surfaces acquire a finite surface charge upon exposure to aqueous environments due to desorption and/or adsorption of ionic species. The resulting electrostatic forces play a crucial role in many fields of science, including colloidal stability, self-assembly, wetting, and biophysics as

  13. An in-plane solid-liquid-solid growth mode for self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linwei; Alet, Pierre-Jean; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2009-03-27

    We report an in-plane solid-liquid-solid (IPSLS) mode for obtaining self-avoiding lateral silicon nanowires (SiNW) in a reacting-gas-free annealing process, where the growth of SiNWs is guided by liquid indium drops that transform the surrounding a-SiratioH matrix into crystalline SiNWs. The SiNWs can be approximately mm long, with the smallest diameter down to approximately 22 nm. A high growth rate of >10(2) nm/s and rich evolution dynamics are revealed in a real-time in situ scanning electron microscopy observation. A qualitative growth model is proposed to account for the major features of this IPSLS SiNW growth mode.

  14. Using of acoustic technologies for detection of explosives in gas, liquid and solid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valyaev, A. N.; Yanushkevich, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Some industrial nuclear power objects are very attractive for the realization of radiological and chemical terrorism acts with using of explosives. Although up today this type of terrorism is not revealed itself, but the problem of detection of explosives at these objects is becoming very actual one, for example, in connection with the implementation of the urgent decommissioning of nuclear powered vessels. Such decommissioning includes the utilization the dangerous radioactive and chemical elements, contained in submarines and vessels. This actual problem is existed not only in Russia, but also in abroad. It is noticed that catastrophes at these objects will have in addition the great negative mental effect on population of all over the world, as it was after the Chernobyl accident. The using of the modern nuclear physics methods for detection and analysis of explosives is connected with the following difficulties: (1) we have to have the unique and the expensive equipment; (2) the special preparation of sample probes; (3) a long time is often necessary for analysis; (4) the high qualification of service personal is needed. We proposed to use for these purposes the complex of acoustic techniques, that are based on the high sensitivity of acoustic characteristics of any matter to their physical and chemical properties.Any acoustic signal has the following main parameters: (1) frequency (ω); (2) amplitude of pressure (ρ); (3) wave and amplitude bands; (4) velocity of acoustic wave propagation (sound velocity) (C); (5) space and temporal signal evolution, that is determined by the values of coefficients of temporal attenuation (α), space adsorption (β) and sound dispersion on obstacles and impurities. Our acoustic analysis is included the determination of C, α and β values for solid and liquid explosives. The exact measurements of these parameters and their dependences from frequency and temperature are conducted in the special acoustic cells, that

  15. Solid surface vs. liquid surface: nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, and DNA origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Katsuhiko; Mori, Taizo; Nakanishi, Waka; Hill, Jonathan P

    2017-09-13

    The investigation of molecules and materials at interfaces is critical for the accumulation of new scientific insights and technological advances in the chemical and physical sciences. Immobilization on solid surfaces permits the investigation of different properties of functional molecules or materials with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Liquid surfaces also present important media for physicochemical innovation and insight based on their great flexibility and dynamicity, rapid diffusion of molecular components for mixing and rearrangements, as well as drastic spatial variation in the prevailing dielectric environment. Therefore, a comparative discussion of the relative merits of the properties of materials when positioned at solid or liquid surfaces would be informative regarding present-to-future developments of surface-based technologies. In this perspective article, recent research examples of nanoarchitectonics, molecular machines, DNA nanotechnology, and DNA origami are compared with respect to the type of surface used, i.e. solid surfaces vs. liquid surfaces, for future perspectives of interfacial physics and chemistry.

  16. A multi-phase equation of state for solid and liquid lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-phase equation of state for solid and liquid lead. The thermodynamically consistent equation of state is constructed by calculating separate equations of state for the solid and liquid phases. The melt curve is the curve in the pressure, temperature plane where the Gibb's free energy of the solid and liquid phases are equal. In each phase a complete equation of state is obtained using the assumptions that the specific heat capacity is constant and that the Grueneisen parameter is proportional to the specific volume. The parameters for the equation of state are obtained from experimental data. In particular they are chosen to match melt curve and principal Hugoniot data. Predictions are made for the shock pressure required for melt to occur on shock and release

  17. SOLID AND LIQUID PINEAPPLE WASTE UTILIZATION FOR LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION USING Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid and solid  pineapple wastes contain mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and other nutrients. It therefore can potentially be used as carbon source for fermentation to produce organic acid. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for production of biodegradable lactate polymer. The experiments were  carried out in batch fermentation using  the  liquid and solid pineapple wastes to produce lactic acid. The anaerobic fermentation of lactic acid were performed at 40 oC, pH 6, 5% inocolum and  50 rpm. Initially  results show that the liquid pineapple waste by  using Lactobacillus delbrueckii can be used as carbon source  for lactic acid fermentation. The production of lactic acid  are found to be 79 % yield, while only  56% yield was produced by using solid waste. 

  18. Ionic liquid-modified materials for solid-phase extraction and separation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Canals, Antonio

    2012-02-17

    In recent years, materials science has propelled to the research forefront. Ionic liquids with unique and fascinating properties have also left their footprints to the developments of materials science during the last years. In this review we highlight some of their recent advances and provide an overview at the current status of ionic liquid-modified materials applied in solid-phase extraction, liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrochromatography with reference to recent applications. In addition, the potential of ionic liquids in the modification of capillary inner wall in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The main target material modified with ionic liquids is silica, but polymers and monoliths have recently joined the studies. Although imidazolium is still clearly the most commonly used ionic liquid for the covalently modification of materials, the exploitation of pyridinium and phosphonium will most probably increase in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Evaluation of Radionuclide Esophageal Transit Studies using Liquid and Solid Foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Jae Gol; Lee, Min Jae; Song, Chi Wook; Hyun, Jin Hai; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-15

    The author performed radionuclide esophageal transit studies(RETS) with liquid and solid boluses using the same day protocol in 90 normal controls and 164 patients with various primary esophageal motility disorders who were diagnosed by manometric criteria and clinical courses. The authors calculated mean esophageal transit time(MTT) and mean residual retention(MRR) in each of the liquid and solid studies, and classified time-activity curve(TAC) patterns. The normal criteria of RETS with liquid bolus were MTT<24 sec, MRR<9%, and the TAC pattern that showed rapid declining slope and flat low residual(Type 1). The normal criteria of RETS with solid bolus were MTT<35 sec, MRR<9% and TAC of type 1. With these normal criteria, the sensitivity and the specificity of the liquid study were 62.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 75.4% with the solid study. The author also found that the RETS was highly reproducible. The achalasia typically showed no effective emptying of both liquid and solid boluses during the whole study period, and was well differentiated by its extremely long transit time and high retention from the other motility disorders. The diffuse esophageal spasm(DES) and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder(NEMD) showed intermediate delay in transit time and increased retention. In the groups of hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter(LES), hypotensive LES and nutcracker, there noted no significant difference with the normal control group in terms of MTT and MRR. The DES and NEMD could be more easily identified by solid studies that showed more marked delay in MTT and increased MRR as compared with the liquid study. In conclusion, esophageal scintigraphy is a safe, noninvasive and physiologic method for the evaluation of esophageal emptying.

  20. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  1. Synthesis of new solid polymer electrolyte and actuator based on PEDOT/NBR/ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M. S.; Seo, H. J.; Nam, J. D.; Choi, H. R.; Koo, J. C.; Lee, Y.

    2006-03-01

    The conducting polymer actuator was presented. The solid polymer electrolyte based on nitrile rubber (NBR) activated with different ionic liquids was prepared. The three different grades of NBR films were synthesized by emulsion polymerization with different amount of acrylonitrile, 23, 35, and 40 mol. %, respectively. The effect of acrylonitrile content on the ionic conductivity and dielectric constant of solid polymer electrolytes was characterized. A conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), was synthesized on the surface of the NBR layer by using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique, and room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) based on imidazolium salts, e.g. 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium X [where X= BF 4 -, PF 6 -, (CF 3SO II) IIN -], were absorbed into the composite film. The effects of the anion size of the ionic liquids on the displacement of the actuator were examined. The displacement increased with increasing the anion-size of the ionic liquids.

  2. Homogeneous nucleation ahead of the solid-liquid interface during rapid solidification of binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.M.; Elmer, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    In recent rapid solidification experiments on Al-5%Be alloys, a Liquid Phase Nucleation (LPN) model was developed to explain the formation of periodic arrays of randomly-oriented Be-rich particles in an Al-rich matrix. In the LPN model, Be droplets were assumed to nucleate in the liquid ahead of the solid-liquid interface, but no justification for this was given. Here the authors present a model which considers the geometric constraints (imposed by proximity to the interface) on the number of solute atoms available to form a nucleus. Calculations based on this model predict that nucleation of second-phase particles can be most likely a short distance ahead of the interface in immiscible binary systems such as Al-Be. As part of the nucleation calculations, a semi-empirical method of calculating solid-liquid surface tensions in binary systems was developed, and is presented in the Appendix

  3. High-intensity X-rays interaction with matter processes in plasmas, clusters, molecules and solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hau-Riege, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Filling the need for a book bridging the effect of matter on X-ray radiation and the interaction of x-rays with plasmas, this monograph provides comprehensive coverage of the topic. As such, it presents and explains such powerful new X-ray sources as X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as short pulse interactions with solids, clusters, molecules, and plasmas, and X-ray matter interactions as a diagnostic tool. Equally useful for researchers and practitioners working in the field.

  4. Construction of a kinetics model for liquid-solid transitions built from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Lorin; Zepeda-Ruiz, Luis; Haxhimali, Tomorr; Hamel, Sebastien; Sadigh, Babak; Chernov, Alexander; Belof, Jonathan

    We discuss work in progress towards a kinetics model for dynamically-driven liquid-solid transitions built from MD simulations. The growth of solid particles within a liquid is studied for a range of conditions, and careful attention is paid to the construction of an accurate multi-phase (equilibrium) equation of state for the system under consideration, in order to provide a framework upon which the non-equilibrium physics is based. His work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  5. Practical solid and liquid phase markers for studying gastric emptying in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomforde, G.M.; Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a method used to evaluate solid and liquid phase markers for radionuclide gastric emptying studies. The authors conducted in vitro and in vivo comparative experiments employing several radiolabeled markers. Among the solid phase markers tested, Tc-99m-sulfur colloid in vivo-labeled liver and I-131-fiber performed optimally. However, Tc-99M sulfur colloid in scrambled egg showed very acceptable performance and it is significantly easier to prepare. Among liquid phase markers, they found In-111-DTPA stabilized with 1% albumin to be a good agent and appropriate for dual isotope emptying studies

  6. Numerical simulation analysis of four-stage mutation of solid-liquid two-phase grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junye; Liu, Yang; Hou, Jikun; Hu, Jinglei; Zhang, Hengfu; Wu, Guiling

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the numerical simulation of solid-liquid two-phase abrasive grain polishing and abrupt change tube, in this paper, the fourth order abrupt change tube was selected as the research object, using the fluid mechanics software to simulate,based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow dynamics, study on the mechanism of AFM micromachining a workpiece during polishing.Analysis at different inlet pressures, the dynamic pressure distribution pipe mutant fourth order abrasive flow field, turbulence intensity, discuss the influence of the inlet pressure of different abrasive flow polishing effect.

  7. Solid and liquid radioactive waste management of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) - NUCLEBRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, M.F.R.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Mourao, R.P.; Prado, M.A.S. do; Reis, L.C.A.; Santos, P.O.; Silva, E.M.P.

    1986-01-01

    Low level liquid and solid wastes are produced in several laboratories of the NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER (CDTN)-NUCLEBRAS. In the last years, the intensification of technical activities at the Center has increased the radioactive waste volumes. Therefore, the implementation of a Radioactive Waste Management Program has begun. This Program includes the systematic of activities from the waste collection to the transportation for the final disposal. The liquid and solid waste are collected separately in proper containers and stored for later treatment according to the processes available or under development at the Center. (Author) [pt

  8. Solid and liquid 129Xe NMR signals enhanced by spin-exchange optical pumping under flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xin; Luo Jun; Sun Xianping; Zeng Xizhi; Liu Maili; Liu Wuyang

    2002-01-01

    Laser-polarized 129 Xe gas was produced by spin-exchange with Cs atom optically pumped with diode laser array in a low field under flow. The nuclear spin polarizations of the solid and liquid 129 Xe frozen from the laser-polarized 129 Xe gas were 2.16% and 1.45% respectively in the SY-80M NMR spectrometer, which corresponded to the enhancements of 6000 and 5000 compared to those without optical pumping under the same conditions. It could provide the base and possibility for quantum computers using laser-enhanced solid and liquid 129 Xe. Polarization loss of transport and state change was also discussed

  9. Solid and liquid radioactive waste management of the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN)- Nuclebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzella, M.F.R.; Mourao, R.P.; Reis, L.C.A.; Silva, E.M.P.; Miaw, S.T.W.; Prado, M.A.S.; Santos, P.O.

    1986-01-01

    Low level liquid and solid wastes are produced in several laboratories of the NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT CENTER (CDTN) - NUCLEBRAS. In the last years, the intensification of technical activities at the Center has increased the radioactive waste volumes. Therefore, the implementation of a Radioactive Waste Management Program has begun. This Program includes the systematic of activities from the waste collection to the transportation for the final disposal. The liquid and solid waste are collected separately in proper containers and stored for later treatment according to the processes available or under development at the Center. (Author) [pt

  10. Applications of liquid-phase microextraction in the sample preparation of environmental solid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosen, Helena

    2014-05-23

    Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc.) published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  11. Applications of Liquid-Phase Microextraction in the Sample Preparation of Environmental Solid Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Prosen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction remains one of the fundamental sample preparation techniques in the analysis of environmental solid samples, but organic solvents are toxic and environmentally harmful, therefore one of the possible greening directions is its miniaturization. The present review covers the relevant research from the field of application of microextraction to the sample preparation of environmental solid samples (soil, sediments, sewage sludge, dust etc. published in the last decade. Several innovative liquid-phase microextraction (LPME techniques that have emerged recently have also been applied as an aid in sample preparation of these samples: single-drop microextraction (SDME, hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME. Besides the common organic solvents, surfactants and ionic liquids are also used. However, these techniques have to be combined with another technique to release the analytes from the solid sample into an aqueous solution. In the present review, the published methods were categorized into three groups: LPME in combination with a conventional solvent extraction; LPME in combination with an environmentally friendly extraction; LPME without previous extraction. The applicability of these approaches to the sample preparation for the determination of pollutants in solid environmental samples is discussed, with emphasis on their strengths, weak points and environmental impact.

  12. Characterization of rhamnolipids by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Beate; Engelen, Jeannine; Tiso, Till; Blank, Lars Mathias; Hayen, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    Rhamnolipids are surface-active agents with a broad application potential that are produced in complex mixtures by bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Analysis from fermentation broth is often characterized by laborious sample preparation and requires hyphenated analytical techniques like liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to obtain detailed information about sample composition. In this study, an analytical procedure based on chromatographic method development and characterization of rhamnolipid sample material by LC-MS as well as a comparison of two sample preparation methods, i.e., liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction, is presented. Efficient separation was achieved under reversed-phase conditions using a mixed propylphenyl and octadecylsilyl-modified silica gel stationary phase. LC-MS/MS analysis of a supernatant from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 pVLT33_rhlABC grown on glucose as sole carbon source and purified by solid-phase extraction revealed a total of 20 congeners of di-rhamnolipids, mono-rhamnolipids, and their biosynthetic precursors 3-(3-hydroxyalkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs) with different carbon chain lengths from C8 to C14, including three rhamnolipids with uncommon C9 and C11 fatty acid residues. LC-MS and the orcinol assay were used to evaluate the developed solid-phase extraction method in comparison with the established liquid-liquid extraction. Solid-phase extraction exhibited higher yields and reproducibility as well as lower experimental effort.

  13. Relationships between oesophageal transit and solid and liquid gastric emptying in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, M.; Maddox, A.F.; Wishart, J.M.; Harding, P.E.; Chatterton, B.E.; Shearman, D.J.C. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1991-04-01

    In 87 randomly selected diabetic patients (67 type 1, 20 type 2) and 25 control subjects, gastric emptying of digestible solid and liquid meals and oesophageal transit of a solid bolus were measured with scintigraphic techniques. Gastrointestinal symptoms, autonomic nerve function and glycaemic control were evaluated in the diabetic patients. Gastric emptying and oesophageal transit were slower (P<0.001) in the diabetic patients compared with the control subjects, and both were delayed in about 40% of them. There was a relatively weak (r=0.32; P<0.01) relationship between solid and liquid gastric emptying, and no significant correlation (r=0.11, NS) between oesophageal transit and gastric emptying of the solid meal. Scores for upper gastrointestinal symptoms and autonomic nerve function correlated weakly (r=0.21; P<0.05) with both oesophageal transit and gastric emptying. Gastric emptying of the liquid meal was slower (P<0.05) in patients with blood glucose concentrations >15 mmol/l. These results indicate that gastric emptying in patients with diabetes mellitus should be assessed by liquid as well as by solid test meals and that oesophageal transit should not be used as a predictor of generalised diabetic gastroenteropathy. (orig.).

  14. Formation and filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste treatment process. Filtration characteristics of solids formed in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; Kubota, M.

    1997-01-01

    The filtration characteristics of solids generated in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) were experimentally examined, when the simulated HLLW was processed according to the ordinary way of actual HLLW treatment process. The filtration characteristics of solids depended on the particle size. The phosphomolybdic acid, which was very fine particle with about 0.1 μm diameter, made slurry a 'difficult-to-filter' slurry, if the phosphomolybdic acid content (wt%) to the whole solids in a slurry exceeded 50wt%. On the contrary, the zirconium compounds (zirconium molybdate and zirconium telluride) had positive effect on filtration characteristics because of their relatively large particle size of about 3 to 5 μm. When the zirconium compounds content was above 50 wt%, slurry became a 'easy-to-filter' slurry. A centrifugal sedimentation was discussed as a solid/liquid separation technique for very fine particles such as phosphomolybdic acid. The theoretical feed flow rate corresponded to 0.1 μm diameter particles was about 20 1/h at the centrifugal acceleration of about 8000 G. (author)

  15. Solid-Liquid Equilibria in Systems [Cxmim][Tf2N] with Diethylamine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rotrekl, Jan; Vrbka, P.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Wagner, Zdeněk; Jacquemin, J.; Bendová, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 5 (2015), s. 453-460 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena 2014. Karlsruhe, 20.07.2014-24.07.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094; GA MŠk LG13060 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquids * solid-liquid equilibria * COSMO-RS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  16. Acoustic probe for solid-gas-liquid suspensions. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, M.S.; Sangani, A.S.; Tavlarides, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    'The proposed research will develop an acoustic probe for monitoring particle size and volume fraction in slurries in the absence and presence of gas. The goals are to commission and verify the probe components and system operation, develop theory for the forward and inverse problems for acoustic wave propagation through a three phase medium, and experimentally verify the theoretical analysis. The acoustic probe will permit measurement of solid content in gas-liquid-solid waste slurries in tanks across the DOE complex.'

  17. Foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge networks in evaporative lithography and wet granular matter

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2013-04-23

    Evaporative lithography using latex particle templates is a novel approach for the self-assembly of suspension-dispersed nanoparticles into ordered microwire networks. The phenomenon that drives the self-assembly process is the propagation of a network of interconnected liquid bridges between the template particles and the underlying substrate. With the aid of video microscopy, we demonstrate that these liquid bridges are in fact the border zone between the underlying substrate and foam films vertical to the substrate, which are formed during the evaporation of the liquid from the suspension. The stability of the foam films and thus the liquid bridge network stability are due to the presence of a small amount of surfactant in the evaporating solution. We show that the same type of foam-film-stabilized liquid bridge network can also propagate in 3D clusters of spherical particles, which has important implications for the understanding of wet granular matter. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  19. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  20. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  1. Influence of liquid viscosity and surface tension on the gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient for solid foam packings in co-current two-phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemmet, C.P.; Bartelds, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Kuster, B.F.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient and other hydrodynamic parameters such as liquid holdup and frictional pressure drop are presented for gas and liquid moving in co-current upflow and downflow through solid foam packings of 10 and of 40 pores per linear inch (ppi). The effect of increasing

  2. Effect of organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer on growth and yield of sugar cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is known to absorb more Si than any other nutrient from the soil; therefore continuous cropping of the plant at the same soil would bring consequences of more Si and organic matter depletion. Silicon (Si is considered as a beneficial nutrient for sugarcane production while organic matter is well known as soil amendment. Field study was carried out to know the effect of organic and Si liquid fertilizer on growth, Si and N uptake, and yield of cane variety of PSBM 901. The study field was located at Kempleng village, Purwoasri, East Java and the study was done from May 2013 up to September 2014. Split plot design with three replicates was employed to arrange treatments. Organic matter types (no organic matter, Crotalaria juncea and manure were set as main plots while Si liquid fertilizer concentration (0, 15% Si and 30% S were arranged as sub plots. C juncea was planted at 15 days before planting of sugar cane, and after 35 days the C juncea were chopped and mixed into the soil. Manure was added one week before sugar cane was planted. Si liquid fertilizer was sprayed to the whole part of sugar cane plant at 30 and 50 days after sugar cane was planted. All treatments received basal fertilizer of 800 kg ZA/ha, 200 kg SP 36/ha and 300 kg KCl/ha. Results showed that interaction between organic matter and Si liquid fertilizer significantly affected on Si and N absorption, length of stem, yield and rendement of sugar cane. Addition of manure and followed by spraying of 30% Si liquid fertilizer gave the highest value of S and N absorption (869 g SiO2/plant and 720 g N/plant, cane yield (155.74 tons/ha and rendement (8.15%.

  3. Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Fosetyl-Aluminum in Airborne Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Buiarelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fosetyl-aluminum is a synthetic fungicide administered to plants especially to prevent diseases caused by the members of the Peronosporales and several Phytophthora species. Herein, we present a selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method to analyze residues of fosetyl-A1 in air particulate matter. This study was performed in perspective of an exposure assessment of this substance of health concern in environments where high levels of fosetly-Al, relatively to airborne particulate matter, can be found after spraying it. The cleanup procedure of the analyte, from sampled filters of atmospheric particulate matter, was optimized using a Strata X solid-phase extraction cartridge, after accelerated extraction by using water. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a polymeric column based on hydrophilic interaction in step elution with water/acetonitrile, whereas the mass spectrometric detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization. The proposed method resulted to be a simple, fast, and suitable method for confirmation purposes.

  4. Phase-field model of vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiphase-field model to describe quantitatively nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The free-energy functional of this model depends on three nonconserved order parameters that distinguish the vapor, liquid, and solid phases and describe the energetic properties of various interfaces, including arbitrary forms of anisotropic γ plots for the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces. The evolution equations for those order parameters describe basic kinetic processes including the rapid (quasi-instantaneous) equilibration of the liquid catalyst to a droplet shape with constant mean curvature, the slow incorporation of growth atoms at the droplet surface, and crystallization within the droplet. The standard constraint that the sum of the phase fields equals unity and the conservation of the number of catalyst atoms, which relates the catalyst volume to the concentration of growth atoms inside the droplet, are handled via separate Lagrange multipliers. An analysis of the model is presented that rigorously maps the phase-field equations to a desired set of sharp-interface equations for the evolution of the phase boundaries under the constraint of force balance at three-phase junctions (triple points) given by the Young-Herring relation that includes torque term related to the anisotropy of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interface excess free energies. Numerical examples of growth in two dimensions are presented for the simplest case of vanishing crystalline anisotropy and the more realistic case of a solid-liquid γ plot with cusped minima corresponding to two sets of (10 ) and (11 ) facets. The simulations reproduce many of the salient features of nanowire growth observed experimentally, including growth normal to the substrate with tapering of the side walls, transitions between different growth orientations, and crawling growth along the substrate. They also reproduce different observed relationships between the nanowire growth

  5. Surface energies of metals in both liquid and solid states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqra, Fathi; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Although during the last years one has seen a number of systematic studies of the surface energies of metals, the aim and the scientific meaning of this research is to establish a simple and a straightforward theoretical model to calculate accurately the mechanical and the thermodynamic properties of metal surfaces due to their important application in materials processes and in the understanding of a wide range of surface phenomena. Through extensive theoretical calculations of the surface tension of most of the liquid metals, we found that the fraction of broken bonds in liquid metals (f) is constant which is equal to 0.287. Using our estimated f value, the surface tension (γ m ), surface energy (γ SV ), surface excess entropy (-dγ/dT), surface excess enthalpy (H s ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α m and α b ), sound velocity (c m ) and its temperature coefficient (-dc/dT) have been calculated for more than sixty metals. The results of the calculated quantities agree well with available experimental data.

  6. Vapor pressures of solid and liquid xanthene and phenoxathiin from effusion and static studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monte, M.J.S.; Santos, L.M.N.B.F.; Sousa, C.A.D.; Fulem, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 8 (2008), s. 1922-1926 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * xanthene * phenoxanthiin * sublimation and vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.063, year: 2008

  7. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ding

    2014-03-06

    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H{sub 2}O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the

  8. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H 2 O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the partially

  9. Thermophysical properties of solid and liquid pure and alloyed Pu: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivineau, M., E-mail: michel.boivineau@cea.f [CEA, Centre de Valduc, Departement de Recherches sur les Materiaux Nucleaires, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2009-08-01

    The thermophysical properties of both solid and liquid pure and alloyed plutonium have been investigated up to 4000 K by use of a resistive pulse heating technique, the so-called isobaric expansion experiment (IEX). Electrical resistivity, specific volume (density), latent heats of transformations, heat of fusion have been measured and extended in the whole liquid region. Additional static measurements have been also performed in order to determine the heat transport properties such as heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of plutonium alloys. After a first part devoted to additional results on pure Pu under rapid heating, this paper mostly deals with studies on different delta-stabilized Pu alloys in the high temperature range, particularly in the liquid state which is the principal originality of this work. In addition to the thermophysical data mentioned above, an attention is also paid onto sound velocity measurements on these alloys in the solid and liquid states. Hence, an anomalous behavior such as elastic softening is confirmed in the delta phase as already reported previously. Moreover, sound velocity and equation of state parameters (adiabatic and thermal bulk moduli, Grueneisen parameter, and specific heats ratio) have been investigated on liquid alloyed Pu. Such results confirm previous works on liquid pure Pu by presenting an atypical dual behavior of sound velocity, and are discussed in terms of delocalization process of the 5f electrons of both liquid pure and alloyed Pu.

  10. The Little Heat Engine: Heat Transfer in Solids, Liquids and Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an introductory exposition of the laws of thermodynamics and radiative heat transfer is presented while exploring the concepts of the ideal solid, the lattice, and the vibrational, translational, and rotational degrees of freedom. Analysis of heat transfer in this manner helps scientists to recognize that the laws of thermal radiation are strictly applicable only to the ideal solid. On the Earth, such a solid is best represented by either graphite or soot. Indeed, certain forms of graphite can approach perfect absorption over a relatively large frequency range. Nonetheless, in dealing with heat, solids will eventually sublime or melt. Similarly, liquids will give way to the gas phase. That thermal conductivity eventually decreases in the solid signals an inability to further dissipate heat and the coming breakdown of Planck’s law. Ultimately, this breakdown is reflected in the thermal emission of gases. Interestingly, total gaseous emissivity can de- crease with increasing temperature. Consequently, neither solids, liquids, or gases can maintain the behavior predicted by the laws of thermal emission. Since the laws of thermal emission are, in fact, not universal, the extension of these principles to non-solids constitutes a serious overextension of the work of Kirchhoff, Wien, Stefan and Planck.

  11. Joint Cementation of liquid and solid radioactive waste in decommissioning of atomic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlakov, A.; Varlakova, G.; Germanov, A.; Sukhanov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Joint cementation of liquid and solid radioactive waste (RW) directly in the containers that serve as the final packaging allows the reduction of waste amounts sent for storage and disposal. In the A.A. Bochvar Research Institute we have created a mobile unit and conducted tests on joint grouting of solid RW with the use of cement mixtures prepared on the basis of liquid RW. Two variants of void filling between the fragments of solid RW in a container: pouring and impregnation were examined. Impregnation is the so-called method suggested to be used for the solid RW with small fragments and dense filling layer. In this case the gaps between the waste are filled with the cement compound by using special technological procedures, in particular, the vibration action on the container filled with waste and the use of cement mixture with high level of penetration. It was observed that the pouring method is right for the cementation of solid RW with fragment sizes not exceeding 100-150 mm. Impregnation method can be used for the joint grouting of practically all types of solid RW regardless their size and fragments homogeneity. Cementation of densely packed and large size solid RW by impregnation guarantees the joint grouting of the lower layers of the waste in the container and can be controlled by determination of the impregnation degree and density of the cement mixture that passed through the waste layer

  12. The structure of the solid-liquid interface: atomic size effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geysermans, P.; Pontikis, V.

    2002-01-01

    The atomic structure of the solid-liquid heterophase interface was investigated by using molecular dynamics. Two kinds of systems were studied; the first one was crystalline copper with (100) and (111) surface terminations in contact with liquid aluminium, while in the second one the interface was modelled by two systems in contact made of Lennard-Jones particles with different size (σ) and energy (ε) parameters. We found that at the interface the liquid was layered whatever the crystallographic orientation of the surface. The layering of the liquid is still preserved when the ratio of particles sites (χ=σ 1 /σ 2 ) changes while an epitaxial relationship is always found between the crystal and the first liquid layer. The average density of the latter is closely related to the χ value. (authors)

  13. Physico-chemical laws governing solid-liquid interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweich, D.

    1984-01-01

    Physico-chemical interactions between solutes in the aqueous phase and a natural solid are described in terms of four types of mechanisms: linear or non-linear adsorption, ion-exchange, precipitation/dissolution, and chemical reaction. Emphasis is placed on the qualitative differences in behaviour implicit in these mechanisms, attention being drawn to the respective roles of thermodynamics and kinetics. On the quantitative plane, simple theoretical models (and ones that can be used) are presented in parallel to experimental protocols necessary for measuring the interaction parameters. It is pointed out, in particular, that the concept of the distribution coefficient (Ksub(d)) is only an empirical approach to problems which could easily be 'debunked' by means of more realistic, yet at the same time simple, models. (author)

  14. Liquid flow along a solid surface reversibly alters interfacial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dan; Backus, Ellen H G; Hunger, Johannes; Parekh, Sapun H; Bonn, Mischa

    2014-06-06

    In nature, aqueous solutions often move collectively along solid surfaces (for example, raindrops falling on the ground and rivers flowing through riverbeds). However, the influence of such motion on water-surface interfacial chemistry is unclear. In this work, we combine surface-specific sum frequency generation spectroscopy and microfluidics to show that at immersed calcium fluoride and fused silica surfaces, flow leads to a reversible modification of the surface charge and subsequent realignment of the interfacial water molecules. Obtaining equivalent effects under static conditions requires a substantial change in bulk solution pH (up to 2 pH units), demonstrating the coupling between flow and chemistry. These marked flow-induced variations in interfacial chemistry should substantially affect our understanding and modeling of chemical processes at immersed surfaces. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Dynamic data evaluation for solid-liquid equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Kang, Jeong Won

    The accuracy and reliability of the measured data sets to be used in regression of model parameters is an important issue related to modeling of phase equilibria. It is clear that good parameters for any model cannot be obtained from low quality data. A thermodynamic consistency test for solid...... and parameter regression. The paper will highlight the data collection, the data analysis for SLE data and the thermodynamic model performance (such as NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC)....... studies considering the methodology proposed for SLE thermodynamic consistency tests and data from open literature and databases such as NIST-TDE®, DIPPR® and DECHEMA® are presented. The SLE consistency test and data evaluation is performed in a software containing option for data analysis, model analysis...

  16. Liquid plugs bouncing against a solid basis, comparison of SIMMER-III and PLEXUS results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.; Arnecke, G.; Flad, M.

    1995-01-01

    The SIMMER III code is being tested by application to problems of reactor accidents. The fluid dynamics/thermohydraulics part of the code can be applied also to evaporation/condensation, melt, and freezing phenomena. For a liquid plug bouncing against a solid basis, the momentum transfer is calculated. PLEXUS results turn out to be in significant disagreement with the SIMMER calculations. (orig.)

  17. Highly Selective Liquid-Phase Benzylation of Anisole with Solid-Acid Zeolite Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poreddy, Raju; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites were evaluated as solid acid catalysts for the liquid-phase benzylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol, benzyl bromide, and benzyl chloride at 80 °C. Among the examined zeolites, H-mordenite-10 (H-MOR-10) demonstrated particular high activity (>99 %) and excellent selectivity (>96...

  18. International school on high field NMR spectroscopy for solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, D.; Meier, B.; Keeler, J.; Berthault, P.; Vedrine, P.; Grandinetti, P.; Delsuc, M.A.; Spiess, H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the school is to offer high-level pedagogical courses on a wide range of liquid- and solid-state NMR concepts and techniques: theory, instrumentation (magnets and probes), data acquisition, processing and analysis, measurement of dipolar and quadrupolar couplings, spin relaxation and hyper-polarization. This document gathers only the slides of most presentations

  19. Physical Education between the social project of solid modernity and the of liquid modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei Pithan da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Grounded on Bauman’s thought, the present paper focuses on the constitution of social legitimacy and identity of Physical Education in the context of transition from solid to liquid modernity. This thought favors the understanding of the nature of the crisis that has crossed the identity discourse of Physical Education. The text signals the limits and possibilities of both the modern and the post-modern educational discourses. In this context, it describes a modern scenario that is marked by two distinct moments, the one of modernity at its solid stage, and that of modernity at its liquid stage. The first one, of solid modernity, social condition of surveillance, rationalization and control, performs the functional / adaptive role of putting everyone under the same rigid order (managed society. The second one, of liquid modernity, of the social condition of insignificance and irrationalism, plays the functional role of putting and keeping everyone under the same flexible Market disorder. From the scientific, mechanic focus of both the body and the physical education in solid modernity we have moved to the relativist and esthetic focus of body and physical education in liquid modernity.

  20. Simulation of the formation of two-dimensional Coulomb liquids and solids in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.H.; Kushner, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Dust particle transport in low-temperature plasmas has recently received considerable attention due to the desire to minimize contamination of wafers during plasma processing of microelectronics devices. Laser light scattering observations of dust particles near wafers in reactive-ion-etching (RIE) radio frequency (rf) discharges have revealed clouds which display collective behavior. These observations have motivated experimental studies of the Coulomb liquid and solid properties of these systems. In this paper, we present results from a two-dimensional model for dust particle transport in RIE rf discharges in which we include particle-particle Coulomb interactions. We predict the formation of Coulomb liquids and solids. These predictions are based both on values of Γ>2 (liquid) and Γ>170 (solid), where Γ is the ratio of electrostatic potential energy to thermal energy, and on crystal-like structure in the pair correlation function. We find that Coulomb liquids and solids composed of trapped dust particles in RIE discharges are preferentially formed with increasing gas pressure, decreasing particle size, and decreasing rf power. We also observe the ejection of particles from dust crystals which completely fill trapping sites, as well as lattice disordering followed by annealing and refreezing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Liquid-phase and solid-phase radioimmunoassay with herpes simplex virus type 1 nucleocapsids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystricka, M.; Rajcani, J.; Libikova, H.; Sabo, A.; Foeldes, O.; Sadlon, J.

    1985-01-01

    Liquid-phase radioimmunoassay and solid-phase radioimmunoassay are described using 125 I-labelled or immobilized nucleocapsids (NC) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type1. These techniques appeared sensitive and specific for quantitation of HSV-NC antigens and corresponding antibodies. (author)

  2. Le Chatelier's Principle: The Effect of Temperature on the Solubility of Solids in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    Provides a rigorous but straightforward thermodynamic treatment of the temperature dependence of the solubility of solids in liquids that is suitable for presentation to undergraduates, suggesting how to approach the qualitative aspects of the subject for freshmen. Considers unsolvated/solvated solutes and Le Chatelier's principle. (JN)

  3. Response of Solid and Liquid Targets to High Power Proton Beams for Neutrino Factories

    CERN Document Server

    Sievers, P

    2000-01-01

    The response of solid and liquid targets to rapid heating by the incident proton beam is assessed in a classical way, among other things by solving the wave equation under linear conditions and in cylindrical symmetry. This study provides bench mark values and allows to identify critical issues and limiting factors which can help to guide further investigations with more sophisticated means.

  4. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, AF; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P; Boshoven, JG; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D

    2017-01-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2–ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the

  5. On the relation between texture perception and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Aspects of the relationship between texture perception in the mouth and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids are discussed. The emphasis is on the physical side of the relation. The importance is stressed of the incorporation of a thorough knowledge of

  6. International school on high field NMR spectroscopy for solids and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, D.; Meier, B.; Keeler, J.; Berthault, P.; Vedrine, P.; Grandinetti, P.; Delsuc, M.A.; Spiess, H

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the school is to offer high-level pedagogical courses on a wide range of liquid- and solid-state NMR concepts and techniques: theory, instrumentation (magnets and probes), data acquisition, processing and analysis, measurement of dipolar and quadrupolar couplings, spin relaxation and hyper-polarization. This document gathers only the slides of most presentations.

  7. Management of radioactive low level liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes in the 200 areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.T.

    1976-01-01

    The practices which are currently used for handling radioactive waste are outlined. These include burial of solid waste, scrubbing of off gas streams, and routing liquid effluents (mostly cooling water) to open ponds where the water percolates to the water table

  8. Supramolecular chemistry at the liquid/solid interface probed by scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyter, S. De; Uji-i, H.; Mamdouh, W.; Miura, A.; Zhang, J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Meijer, E.W.; Chen, Z.; Wurthner, F.; Schuurmans, N.; Esch, J. van; Feringa, B.L.; Dulcey, A.E.; Percec, V.; Schryver, F.C. De

    2006-01-01

    The liquid/solid interface provides an ideal environment to investigate self-assembly phenomena, and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is one of the preferred methodologies to probe the structure and the properties of physisorbed monolayers on the nanoscale. Physisorbed monolayers are of

  9. Influence of process parameters to composite interface organization and performance of liquid/solid bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, S F; Zhu, Y C; Wu, Y H; Yang, P H; Duan, X L; Zhou, H T

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-solid composite technique was used to prepare the high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) and low alloy steel (LCS) bimetal composite materials by means of insert casting method. The influence of some process parameters such as liquid-solid ratio, preheat temperature, pouring temperature on the interface microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Interface microstructure and element distribution were analyzed. The results show that the interface microstructure becomes better, and bonding area becomes thicker with the increase of the volume of liquid to solid ratio, preheating temperature and pouring temperature. When the liquid-solid ratio is 8:1, the preheating temperature is 300 °C and the pouring temperature is 1565 °C, a good metallurgical bonding area without any hole can be obtained with the interface combination of diffusion and fusion. The composite interface structure was composed of a core material diffusion layer, a cooling solidification layer, a direction growth layer and some cell particles. The elements of C, Cr and Mn diffuse from the HCHCS side to the alloy steel side. The microhardness increased in the gradient from the LCS side to the HCHCS. The microhardness of the interface is significantly higher than that of LCS. (paper)

  10. Tribological properties of rice starch in liquid and semi-solid food model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, K.; Stieger, M.A.; Linden, van der E.; Velde, van de Fred

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the tribological and rheological properties of liquid and semi-solid food model systems containing micro-granular rice starch. Native (uncooked) and gelatinized rice starch dispersions, o/w emulsions and emulsion-filled gelatin gels were studied as food model systems. Native

  11. Modeling of vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium in gas - aqueous electrolyte systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for the description of vapor-liquid-solid equilibria is introduced. This model is a combination of the extended UNIQUAC model for electrolytes and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong cubic equation of state. The model has been applied to aqueous systems containing ammonia and/or carbon ...

  12. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  13. Generation projection of solid and liquid radioactive wastes and spent radioactive sources in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia A, E.; Hernandez F, I. Y.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Lizcano C, D.

    2014-10-01

    This work is focused to project the volumes of radioactive aqueous liquid wastes and spent radioactive sources that will be generated in our country in next 15 years, solids compaction and radioactive organic liquids in 10 years starting from the 2014; with the purpose of knowing the technological needs that will be required for their administration. The methodology involves six aspects to develop: the definition of general objectives, to specify the temporary horizon of projection, data collection, selection of the prospecting model and the model application. This approach was applied to the inventory of aqueous liquid wastes, as well as radioactive compaction organic and solids generated in Mexico by non energy applications from the 2001 to 2014, and of the year 1997 at 2014 for spent sources. The applied projection models were: Double exponential smoothing associating the tendency, Simple Smoothing and Lineal Regression. For this study was elected the first forecast model and its application suggests that: the volume of the compaction solid wastes, aqueous liquids and spent radioactive sources will increase respectively in 152%, 49.8% and 55.7%, while the radioactive organic liquid wastes will diminish in 13.15%. (Author)

  14. 30 CFR 250.248 - What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What solid and liquid wastes and discharges information and cooling water intake information must accompany the DPP or DOCD? 250.248 Section 250.248...

  15. Hydrodynamic boundary conditions for one-component liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal solid substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Liu, Chun; Qian, Tiezheng

    2012-01-01

    profiles of liquid-gas flows on non-isothermal, heterogeneous solid substrates is still absent. The purpose of this work is to construct a continuum model for simulating the liquid-gas flows on solid surfaces that are flat and rigid, and may involve

  16. Ionic-liquid-impregnated resin for the microwave-assisted solid-liquid extraction of triazine herbicides in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Yu, Cui; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-09-01

    Microwave-assisted ionic-liquid-impregnated resin solid-liquid extraction was developed for the extraction of triazine herbicides, including cyanazine, metribuzin, desmetryn, secbumeton, terbumeton, terbuthylazine, dimethametryn, and dipropetryn in honey samples. The ionic-liquid-impregnated resin was prepared by immobilizing 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in the microspores of resin. The resin was used as the extraction adsorbent. The extraction and enrichment of analytes were performed in a single step. The extraction time can be shortened greatly with the help of microwave. The effects of experimental parameters including type of resin, type of ionic liquid, mass ratio of resin to ionic liquid, extraction time, amount of the impregnated resin, extraction temperature, salt concentration, and desorption conditions on the extraction efficiency, were investigated. A Box-Behnken design was applied to the selection of the experimental parameters. The recoveries were in the range of 80.1 to 103.4% and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.8%. The present method was applied to the analysis of honey samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Designing solid-liquid interphases for sodium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-10-06

    Secondary batteries based on earth-abundant sodium metal anodes are desirable for both stationary and portable electrical energy storage. Room-temperature sodium metal batteries are impractical today because morphological instability during recharge drives rough, dendritic electrodeposition. Chemical instability of liquid electrolytes also leads to premature cell failure as a result of parasitic reactions with the anode. Here we use joint density-functional theoretical analysis to show that the surface diffusion barrier for sodium ion transport is a sensitive function of the chemistry of solid–electrolyte interphase. In particular, we find that a sodium bromide interphase presents an exceptionally low energy barrier to ion transport, comparable to that of metallic magnesium. We evaluate this prediction by means of electrochemical measurements and direct visualization studies. These experiments reveal an approximately three-fold reduction in activation energy for ion transport at a sodium bromide interphase. Direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition confirms large improvements in stability of sodium deposition at sodium bromide-rich interphases.

  18. Solution properties of solid and liquid potassium-indium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, T.; Saboungi, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    It was recently shown by a combination of electrical resistivity, thermodynamic, and structural measurements that equiatomic alloys formed between K or Na and either Bi, Sb, Te, or Pb show pronounced deviations from ordinary metallic behavior and from ideal solution behavior, e.g., small values for the electrical conductivity and sharp peaks for the Darken excess stability function. Physical explanation of this behavior has been advanced on the basis of the formation of complex structural species similar to those reported for the corresponding solid alloys. The authors have chosen K-In alloys for several reasons. Phase diagram considerations coupled with small electronegativity differences between K and In would lead one to predict small deviations from ideal behavior, thus, this system would be suitable to test for oddities in alloy solution behavior in systems which deviate little from ideal behavior. Others have demonstrated that the position of the peak in the electrical resistivity changed in going from Li to Na and to K in the following sequence X/sub In/ ≅ 0.25, 0.40, and 0.50, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of these alloys would be expected to present similar trends

  19. Kinetic quantification of vertical solid matter transfers in soils by a multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagercikova, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Clay translocation is one of the major soil forming processes, however it is poorly quantified and modeled. We propose to quantify it together with bioturbation by combining different isotopic systems ( 137 Cs, 210 Pb (xs), meteoric 10 Be, 206/207 Pb, δ 13 C, 14 C) with numerical modeling based on a nonlinear diffusion-convection equation with depth dependent parameters. This novel method has been applied on Luvisol anthropo-sequences developed on loess, differing by their land use (cropping versus grassland or forest) and their agricultural practices (reduced tillage, no tillage and manure input). Our results show that as much as 91 ± 9 % and 80 ± 9 % of 137 Cs and 10 Be, respectively, are associated to the clay size fraction (0-2 μm) and can thus effectively trace vertical solid matter transfers in soils with pH > 5 and low organic carbon. Lead partitioning between different solid phases is more complex. Considering two spatial distributions of isotopes (macro-pores or soil matrix), we built up a multi-isotopic modelling approach that simulates the experimental data with the common set of transfer parameters and allowed us to quantify the relative contributions of vertical solid matter transfers to present-day 0-2 μm vertical distributions. Clay translocation is responsible for 9 to 66 % of the clay accumulations in the Bt-horizon. The diffusion coefficient also quantifies the rate of soil mixing by bioturbation. Modeling of the kinetics of solid matter transfer at multiple spatio-temporal scales should become a method of predilection in modern pedogenic and critical zone studies. (author) [fr

  20. Abnormal gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water observed with in situ environmental SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shu, Jiapei; Chen, Qing

    2017-04-24

    Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets. Later, the ice crystals grow continuously through desublimation. At 600 Pa, the metastable liquid grows quickly, with some ice nuclei floating in it, and the liquid-solid coexistence state exists for a long time. By lowering the vapour pressure and/or increasing the substrate temperature, ice sublimates into vapour phase, and especially, the remaining ice forms a porous structure due to preferential sublimation in the concave regions, which can be explained with surface tension effect. Interestingly, although it should be forbidden for ice to transform into liquid phase when the temperature is well below 0 °C, liquid like droplets form during the ice sublimation process, which is attributed to the surface tension effect and the quasiliquid layers.

  1. Liquid-solid transition in the bond particle model for elemental semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badirkhan, Z.; Tosi, M.P.; Rovere, M.

    1991-07-01

    Freezing of Silicon and Germanium involves a reconstruction of covalent tetrahedral bonds from a metallic liquid having density and coordination then the solid. We first contrast the metallic liquid structure of Germanium with that of its semiconducting amorphous state, in order to emphasize the changes in the atomic structure factor that arise from reconstruction of the interatomic bonds. We then use the density wave theory of freezing to discuss the liquid-solid transition within a pseudoclassical model, which describes the liquid structure by means of partial structure factors giving the pair correlations between atoms and bond particles. The phase transition is viewed as a freezing of the bonds driven by tetrahedrally constrained attractions between ionic cores and valence electrons and accompanied by an opening of the structure to allow long-range connectivity of tetrahedral atomic units. Quantitative calculations on the bond particle model illustrate the relationship between the liquid structure and the microscopic Fourier components of the single-particle densities of atoms and bonds. In further support of this picture, we also present calculations for freezing of a liquid having the density and the atomic structure of compacted amorphous Germanium. (author). 25 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in colloidal liquids controlled by laser trapping power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Dai, Qiao-Feng; Huang, Xu-Guang; Wu, Li-Jun; Guo, Qi; Hu, Wei; Yang, Xiang-Bo; Lan, Sheng; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Trofimov, Vyacheslav A

    2008-11-15

    We investigate the dynamics of optical matter creation and annihilation in a colloidal liquid that was employed to construct an all-optical switch. It is revealed that the switching-on process can be characterized by the Fermi-Dirac distribution function, while the switching-off process can be described by a steady state followed by a single exponential decay. The phase transition times exhibit a strong dependence on trapping power. With an increasing trapping power, while the switching-on time decreases rapidly, the switch-off time increases significantly, indicating the effects of optical binding and van der Waals force on the lifetime of the optical matter.

  3. Liquid crystal templating as an approach to spatially and temporally organise soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Asdonk, Pim; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2017-10-02

    Chemistry quickly moves from a molecular science to a systems science. This requires spatial and temporal control over the organisation of molecules and molecular assemblies. Whilst Nature almost by default (transiently) organises her components at multiple different length scales, scientists struggle to realise even relatively straightforward patterns. In the past decades, supramolecular chemistry has taught us the rules to precisely engineer molecular assembly at the nanometre scale. At higher length scales, however, we are bound to top-down nanotechnology techniques to realise order. For soft, biological matter, many of these top-down techniques come with serious limitations since the molecules generally show low susceptibilities to the applied stimuli. A new method is based on liquid crystal templating. In this hierarchical approach, a liquid crystalline host serves as the scaffold to order polymers or assemblies. Being a liquid crystal, the host material can be ordered at many different length scales and on top of that, is highly susceptible to many external stimuli, which can even be used to manipulate the liquid crystal organisation in time. As a result, we anticipate large control over the organisation of the materials inside the liquid crystalline host. Recently, liquid crystal templating was also realised in water. This suddenly makes this tool highly applicable to start organising more delicate biological materials or even small organisms. We review the scope and limitations of liquid crystal templating and look out to where the technique may lead us.

  4. Nuclear recoil energy scale in liquid xenon with application to the direct detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, Peter; Dahl, Carl Eric

    2011-01-01

    We show for the first time that the quenching of electronic excitation from nuclear recoils in liquid xenon is well-described by Lindhard theory, if the nuclear recoil energy is reconstructed using the combined (scintillation and ionization) energy scale proposed by Shutt et al. We argue for the adoption of this perspective in favor of the existing preference for reconstructing nuclear recoil energy solely from primary scintillation. We show that signal partitioning into scintillation and ionization is well described by the Thomas-Imel box model. We discuss the implications for liquid xenon detectors aimed at the direct detection of dark matter.

  5. Solid and liquid Equation of state for initially porous aluminum where specific heat is constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.; Lemar, E. R.; Brown, Mary

    2011-06-01

    A porous solid's initial state is off the thermodynamic surface of the non-porous solid to start with but when pressure is high enough to cause total pore collapse or crush up, then the final states are on the condensed matter thermodynamic surfaces. The Hugoniot for the fully compacted solid is above the Principle Hugoniot with pressure, temperature and internal energy increased at a given v. There are a number of ways to define this hotter Hugoniot, which can be referenced to other thermodynamic paths on this thermodynamic surface. The choice here was to use the Vinet isotherm to define a consistent thermodynamic surface for the solid and melt phase of 6061 aluminum where specific heat is constant for the P-v-T space of interest. Analytical equations are developed for PH and TH.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of liquid breakup process in solid rocket motor nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Hsin

    Rocket propulsion is an important travel method for space exploration and national defense, rockets needs to be able to withstand wide range of operation environment and also stable and precise enough to carry sophisticated payload into orbit, those engineering requirement makes rocket becomes one of the state of the art industry. The rocket family have been classified into two major group of liquid and solid rocket based on the fuel phase of liquid or solid state. The solid rocket has the advantages of simple working mechanism, less maintenance and preparing procedure and higher storage safety, those characters of solid rocket make it becomes popular in aerospace industry. Aluminum based propellant is widely used in solid rocket motor (SRM) industry due to its avalibility, combusion performance and economical fuel option, however after aluminum react with oxidant of amonimum perchrate (AP), it will generate liquid phase alumina (Al2O3) as product in high temperature (2,700˜3,000 K) combustion chamber enviornment. The liquid phase alumina particles aggromorate inside combustion chamber into larger particle which becomes major erosion calprit on inner nozzle wall while alumina aggromorates impinge on the nozzle wall surface. The erosion mechanism result nozzle throat material removal, increase the performance optimized throat diameter and reduce nozzle exit to throat area ratio which leads to the reduction of exhaust gas velocity, Mach number and lower the propulsion thrust force. The approach to avoid particle erosion phenomenon taking place in SRM's nozzle is to reduce the alumina particle size inside combustion chamber which could be done by further breakup of the alumina droplet size in SRM's combustion chamber. The study of liquid breakup mechanism is an important means to smaller combustion chamber alumina droplet size and mitigate the erosion tack place on rocket nozzle region. In this study, a straight two phase air-water flow channel experiment is set up

  7. SCATLAW: a code of scattering law and cross sections calculation for liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padureanu, I.; Rapeanu, S.; Rotarascu, G.; Craciun, C.

    1978-11-01

    A code for calculation of the scattering law S(Q,ω), differential and double differential cross sections and scattering kernels in the energy range E(0 - 683 meV) and wave-vector transfer Q(0 - 40 A -1 ) is presented. The code can be used both for solids and liquids which are coherent or incoherent scatterer. For liquids the calculations are based on the most recent theoretical models involving the correlation functions and generalized field approach. The phonon expansion model and the free gas model are also analysed in term of frequency spectra obtained from inelastic neutron scattering using time-of-flight technique. Several results on liquid sodium at T = 233 deg C and on liquid bismuth at T = 286 deg C and T = 402 deg C are presented. (author)

  8. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2013-06-01

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011), 10.1063/1.3643333 and preprint arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  9. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys.135, 134503 (2011) and preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light

  10. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, David T.; Chandler, David, E-mail: chandler@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-06-07

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys.135, 134503 (2011) and preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  11. The putative liquid-liquid transition is a liquid-solid transition in atomistic models of water. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Chandler, David

    2013-06-07

    This paper extends our earlier studies of free energy functions of density and crystalline order parameters for models of supercooled water, which allows us to examine the possibility of two distinct metastable liquid phases [D. T. Limmer and D. Chandler, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 134503 (2011) and preprint arXiv:1107.0337 (2011)]. Low-temperature reversible free energy surfaces of several different atomistic models are computed: mW water, TIP4P/2005 water, Stillinger-Weber silicon, and ST2 water, the last of these comparing three different treatments of long-ranged forces. In each case, we show that there is one stable or metastable liquid phase, and there is an ice-like crystal phase. The time scales for crystallization in these systems far exceed those of structural relaxation in the supercooled metastable liquid. We show how this wide separation in time scales produces an illusion of a low-temperature liquid-liquid transition. The phenomenon suggesting metastability of two distinct liquid phases is actually coarsening of the ordered ice-like phase, which we elucidate using both analytical theory and computer simulation. For the latter, we describe robust methods for computing reversible free energy surfaces, and we consider effects of electrostatic boundary conditions. We show that sensible alterations of models and boundary conditions produce no qualitative changes in low-temperature phase behaviors of these systems, only marginal changes in equations of state. On the other hand, we show that altering sampling time scales can produce large and qualitative non-equilibrium effects. Recent reports of evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water are considered in this light.

  12. Interactions of solid and liquid lithium with steady state hydrogen and helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Ohgaki, H.; Ohtsuka, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of innovative Plasma-Facing Component (PFC) concepts, employing moving solid or liquid surfaces, have recently been proposed in order to resolve technical issues, associated with the applications of currently used PFCs in future steady state fusion devices. As the first step to evaluate the concept using flowing-liquids for PFCs, steady state hydrogen and helium plasma interactions with solid and standing liquid lithium have been investigated in the present work, using the H α and He-I spectroscopy at the ion bombarding energies up to 150eV and at the lithium temperatures between room temperature and 480 deg C. Data indicate that hydrogen recycling over liquid lithium is clearly reduced, relative to that over solid lithium, whereas helium recycling does not show the same trend. From the kinetic analysis of these recycling time constant data, the activation energies for the overall recycling processes have been evaluated to be 0.02±0.01eV, both for hydrogen and helium plasmas. Also, it has been found that the activation energy is nearly independent of ion bombarding energy. (author)

  13. Fertilizer potential of liquid and solid effluent from thermophilic anaerobic digestion of poultry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedl, B E; Bombardiere, J; Chaffield, J M

    2006-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of poultry litter produces an effluent stream of digested materials that can be separated into solid and liquid fractions for use as a crop fertilizer. The majority of the phosphorus is partitioned into the solid fraction while the majority of the nitrogen is present in the liquid fraction in the form of ammonium. These materials were tested over six years as an alternative fertilizer for the production of vegetable, fruit, and grassland crops. Application of the solids as a field crop fertilizer for vegetables and blueberries resulted in lower yields than the other fertilizer treatments, but an increase in soil phosphorus over a four-year period. Application of the digested liquids on grass and vegetable plots resulted in similar or superior yields to plots treated with commercially available nitrogen fertilizers. Hydroponic production of lettuce using liquid effluent was comparable to a commercial hydroponic fertilizer regime; however, the effluent treatment for hydroponic tomato production required supplementation and conversion of ammonium to nitrate. While not a total fertilizer solution, our research shows the effectiveness of digested effluent as part of a nutrient management program which could turn a livestock residuals problem into a crop nutrient resource.

  14. Three-body interactions in liquid and solid hydrogen: Evidence from vibrational spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Robert

    2008-03-01

    In the cryogenic low-density liquid and solid phases of H2 and D2, the H2 and D2 molecules retain good rotational and vibrational quantum numbers that characterize their internal degrees of freedom. High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopic experiments provide extremely sensitive probes of these degrees of freedom. We present here fully-first-principles calculations of the infrared and Raman spectra of liquid and solid H2 and D2, calculations that employ a high-quality six-dimensional coupled-cluster H2-H2 potential energy surface and quantum Monte Carlo treatments of the single-molecule translational degrees of freedom. The computed spectra agree very well with experimental results once we include three-body interactions among the molecules, interactions which we also compute using coupled-cluster quantum chemical methods. We predict the vibrational spectra of liquid and solid H2 at several temperatures and densities to provide a framework for interpreting recent experiments designed to search for superfluid behavior in small H2 droplets. We also present preliminary calculations of the spectra of mixed H2/D2 solids that show how positional disorder affects the spectral line shapes in these systems.

  15. Light Readout for a 1 ton Liquid Argon Dark Matter Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Boccone, Vittorio; Baudis, Laura; Otyugova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter (DM) has been reported using astronomical observations in systems such as the Bullet cluster. Weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs), in particular the lightest neutralino, are the most popular DM candidates within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). Many groups in the world are focussing their attention on the direct detection of DM in the laboratory. The detectors should have large target masses and excellent noise rejection capabilities because of the small cross section between DM and ordinary matter (σWIMP−nucleon < 4 · 10−8 pb). Noble liquids are today considered to be one of the best options for large-size DM experiments, as they have a relatively low ionization energy, good scintillation properties and long electron lifetime. Moreover noble liquid detectors are easily scalable to large masses. This thesis deals with the development of a large (1 ton) LAr WIMP detector (ArDM) which could measure simultaneously light and charge from the scintilla...

  16. The use of low energy electron accelerator for processing of liquid matter in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danu, Sugiarto

    2003-01-01

    Activities of radiation processing in Indonesia covering various fields are reviewed. The low and medium energy electron accelerator specially designed for radiation processing of liquid materials is introduced. P3TIR-BATAN is mostly engaged in radiation processing in general with Co-60 source and electron accelerators (300 keV, 50 mA and 2 MeV, 10 mA). A private company, Gajah Tunggal, has an accelerator of 500 keV, 20 mA. The use of low energy electron accelerator to irradiate liquid matter matter such as natural rubber latex, polysaccharides, starch, chitosan and other natural polymers in Indonesia are reported and future program of national research cooperation between government institutions and private companies are described. (S. Ohno)

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solid and Liquid Organic Fertilizers Applied to Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonsiri, Phasita; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Sukor, Arina; Davis, Jessica G

    2016-11-01

    Improper application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and environmental factors can cause the loss of nitrous oxide (NO) to the environment. Different types of fertilizers with different C/N ratios may have different effects on the environment. The focus of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and four organic fertilizers (feather meal, blood meal, fish emulsion, and cyano-fertilizer) applied at different rates (0, 28, 56, and 112 kg N ha) on NO emissions and to track CO emissions from a lettuce field ( L.). The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 and compared preplant-applied solid fertilizers (feather meal and blood meal) and multiple applications of liquid fertilizers (fish emulsion and cyano-fertilizer). Three days a week, NO and CO emissions were measured twice per day in 2013 and once per day in 2014 using a closed-static chamber, and gas samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Preplant-applied solid fertilizers significantly increased cumulative NO emissions as compared with control, but multiple applications of liquid fertilizers did not. Emission factors for NO ranged from 0 to 0.1% for multiple applications of liquid fertilizers and 0.6 to 11% for preplant-applied solid fertilizers, which could be overestimated due to chamber placement over fertilizer bands. In 2014, solid fertilizers with higher C/N ratios (3.3-3.5) resulted in higher CO emissions than liquid fertilizers (C/N ratio, 0.9-1.5). Therefore, organic farmers should consider the use of multiple applications of liquid fertilizers as a means to reduce soil greenhouse gas emissions while maintaining high yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Trace elements in suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction of the Arno River waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Cecchi, A.; Mando, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of 46 elements along the course of the Arno River (Tuscany, Italy) have been determined by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Both suspended particulate matter and liquid fraction have been investigated. No chemical treatment has been performed on the samples, either before or after irradiation. Anticoincidence techniques have been employed in the γ spectroscopy. Results are briefly discussed also from a methodological point of view. 4 references, 16 figures, 2 tables

  19. Isospin and momentum dependence of liquid-gas phase transition in hot asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hongru; Chen, Liewen; Li, Baoan

    2008-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in hot neutron-rich nuclear matter is investigated within a self-consistent thermal model using different interactions with or without isospin and/or momentum dependence. The boundary of the phase-coexistence region is shown to be sensitive to the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy as well as the isospin and momentum dependence of the nuclear interaction. (author)

  20. Towards Molecular Characterization of Mineral-Organic Matter Interface Using In Situ Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Yu, X. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Organo-Mineral-Microbe interactions in terrestrial ecosystems are of great interest. Quite a few models have been developed through extensive efforts in this field. However, predictions from current models are far from being accurate, and many debates still exist. One of the major reasons is that most experimental data generated from bulk analysis, and the information of molecular dynamics occurring at mineral-organic matter interface is rare. Such information has been difficult to obtain, due to lack of suitable in situ analysis tools. Recently, we have developed in situ liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory1, and it has shown promise to provide both elemental and molecular information at vacuum-liquid and solid-liquid interfaces.2 In this presentation, we demonstrate that in situ liquid SIMS can provide critical molecular information at solid substrate-live biofilm interface.3 Shewanella oneidensis is used as a model micro-organism and silicon nitride as a model mineral surface. Of particular interest, biologically relevant water clusters have been first observed in the living biofilms. Characteristic fragments of biofilm matrix components such as proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids can be molecularly examined. Furthermore, characteristic fatty acids (e.g., palmitic acid), quinolone signal, and riboflavin fragments were found to respond after the biofilm is treated with Cr(VI), leading to biofilm dispersal. Significant changes in water clusters and quorum sensing signals indicative of intercellular communication in the aqueous environment were observed, suggesting that they might result in fatty acid synthesis and inhibition of riboflavin production. The Cr(VI) reduction seems to follow the Mtr pathway leading to Cr(III) formation. Our approach potentially opens a new avenue for in-situ understanding of mineral-organo or mineral-microbe interfaces using in situ liquid SIMS and super resolution fluorescence

  1. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  2. Solid and liquid thermal expansion and structural observations in the quasicrystalline Cd84Yb16 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.J.; Lograsso, T.A.; Sordelet, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of single-grain Cd 84 Yb 16 samples aligned along the twofold and fivefold axes has been followed from 300 to 1050 K using high-energy synchrotron X-rays. The quasicrystal phase is stable up to its melting temperature of 914 K and has a large linear thermal expansion of 37.1 ppm K -1 over this temperature range. The samples melt congruently over a temperature range of less than 1 K. The liquid is 7% less dense than the solid and, upon cooling from the melt, the quasicrystal phase directly solidifies within a 1 K interval. The amount of undercooling achieved, about 5-25 K, was dependent on the cooling rate. The total scattering function of the liquid is consistent with a dilute liquid Cd structure. These results agree with suggestions that the structure of the liquid must undergo reordering in order to form the solid phases. However, there is no compelling evidence for icosahedral short-range order in the liquid prior to the formation of the quasicrystalline structure.

  3. In-Bore Liquid Injection for Barrel Cooling: Comparison of Liquid and Solid Additives Using Constant Breach Pressure Ideal Gun Calculations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotlar, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    .... These calculations give limiting values for projectile muzzle kinetic energy (KE), assuming complete mixing of the liquid additive and the solid propellant This is a worst-case scenario for the new concept to reduce gun barrel heating...

  4. Protected Lithium-Metal Anodes in Batteries: From Liquid to Solid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunpeng; Fu, Kun; Zhang, Ying; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-09-01

    High-energy lithium-metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li-metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of Li-metal anodes. Recent studies have shown that the performance and safety of Li-metal anodes can be significantly improved via organic electrolyte modification, Li-metal interface protection, Li-electrode framework design, separator coating, and so on. Superior to the liquid electrolytes, solid-state electrolytes are considered able to inhibit problematic Li dendrites and build safe solid Li-metal batteries. Inspired by the bright prospects of solid Li-metal batteries, increasing efforts have been devoted to overcoming the obstacles of solid Li-metal batteries, such as low ionic conductivity of the electrolyte and Li-electrolyte interfacial problems. Here, the approaches to protect Li-metal anodes from liquid batteries to solid-state batteries are outlined and analyzed in detail. Perspectives regarding the strategies for developing Li-metal anodes are discussed to facilitate the practical application of Li-metal batteries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Strong light-matter coupling from atoms to solid-state systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The physics of strong light-matter coupling has been addressed in different scientific communities over the last three decades. Since the early eighties, atoms coupled to optical and microwave cavities have led to pioneering demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics, Gedanken experiments, and building blocks for quantum information processing, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2012. In the framework of semiconducting devices, strong coupling has allowed investigations into the physics of Bose gases in solid-state environments, and the latter holds promise for exploiting light-matter interaction at the single-photon level in scalable architectures. More recently, impressive developments in the so-called superconducting circuit QED have opened another fundamental playground to revisit cavity quantum electrodynamics for practical and fundamental purposes. This book aims at developing the necessary interface between these communities, by providing future researchers with a robust conceptu...

  6. The Putative Liquid-Liquid Transition is a Liquid-Solid Transition in Atomistic Models of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David; Limmer, David

    2013-03-01

    Our detailed and controlled studies of free energy surfaces for models of water find no evidence for reversible polyamorphism, and a general theoretical analysis of the phase behavior of cold water in nano pores shows that measured behaviors of these systems reflect surface modulation and dynamics of ice, not a liquid-liquid critical point. A few workers reach different conclusions, reporting evidence of a liquid-liquid critical point in computer simulations of supercooled water. In some cases, it appears that these contrary results are based upon simulation algorithms that are inconsistent with principles of statistical mechanics, such as using barostats that do not reproduce the correct distribution of volume fluctuations. In other cases, the results appear to be associated with difficulty equilibrating the supercooled material and mistaking metastability for coarsening of the ordered ice phase. In this case, sufficient information is available for us to reproduce the contrary results and to establish that they are artifacts of finite time sampling. This finding leads us to the conclusion that two distinct, reversible liquid phases do not exist in models of supercooled water.

  7. Levitation of Liquid Microdroplets Above A Solid Surface Subcooled to the Leidenfrost Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation of liquid microdroplets that fall on a solid surface with the temperature of below the Leidenfrost temperature is studied. It has been found out that sufficiently small liquid droplets of about 10 microns can suspend at some distance from the surface (levitate and do not reach the surface; at that, the rate of droplet evaporation is reduced by an order as compared to microdroplets, which touch the surface. It is determined that in contrast to microdroplets, which touch the surface, the specific evaporation rate of levitating droplets is constant in time.

  8. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  9. Magnetoresistance based determination of basic parameters of minority charge carriers in solid matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Uhryn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresistance as a tool of basic parameters determination of minority charge carriers and the ratio of minority charge carriers conductivity to majority ones in solid matter has been considered within the framework of the phenomenological two-band model. The criterion of the application of this model has been found. As examples of these equations usage the conductor, semiconductor and superconductor have been introduced. From the obtained temperature dependences of the aforementioned values in superconductor, a supposition of a deciding role of minority charge carriers in the emergence of superconductivity state has been made.

  10. Measurement of scattering cross sections of liquid and solid hydrogen, deuterium and deuterium hydride for thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The scattering cross sections for liquid and solid normal hydrogen, para-hydrogen, deuterium and deuterium hydride were measured for thermal neutrons at various temperatures. Solid samples of para-hydrogen exhibit distinct Bragg scattering. Liquid samples of deuterium and para-hydrogen also exhibit distinct coherence phenomena, which is indicative of strong local ordering of the molecules. In para-hydrogen and deuterium hydride, the threshold for scattering with excitation of rotations is distinctly visible. The positions of the thresholds show that the molecules in liquid hydrogen are not unhindered in their movement. After the beginning of the rotational excitation the scattering cross sections of liquid and solid para-hydrogen have different shapes which is to be explained by the differences in the dynamics of the liquid and the solid specimen. 22 references

  11. Globally-Optimized Local Pseudopotentials for (Orbital-Free) Density Functional Theory Simulations of Liquids and Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz G; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-08-08

    The accuracy of local pseudopotentials (LPSs) is one of two major determinants of the fidelity of orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) simulations. We present a global optimization strategy for LPSs that enables OFDFT to reproduce solid and liquid properties obtained from Kohn-Sham DFT. Our optimization strategy can fit arbitrary properties from both solid and liquid phases, so the resulting globally optimized local pseudopotentials (goLPSs) can be used in solid and/or liquid-phase simulations depending on the fitting process. We show three test cases proving that we can (1) improve solid properties compared to our previous bulk-derived local pseudopotential generation scheme; (2) refine predicted liquid and solid properties by adding force matching data; and (3) generate a from-scratch, accurate goLPS from the local channel of a non-local pseudopotential. The proposed scheme therefore serves as a full and improved LPS construction protocol.

  12. The interfacial free energy of solid Sn on the boundary interface with liquid Cd-Sn eutectic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saatci, B; Cimen, S; Pamuk, H; Guenduez, M

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes for solid Sn in equilibrium with Cd-Sn liquid were directly observed after annealing a sample at the eutectic temperature for about 8 days. The thermal conductivities of the solid phase, K S , and the liquid phase, K L , for the groove shapes were measured. From the observed groove shapes, the Gibbs-Thomson coefficients were obtained with a numerical method, using the measured G, K S and K L values. The solid-liquid interfacial energy of solid Sn in equilibrium with Cd-Sn liquid was determined from the Gibbs-Thomson equation. The grain boundary energy for solid Sn was also calculated from the observed groove shapes

  13. Development of the liquid level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jie; Gong Haowei; Lin Qing; Ni Kaixuan; Wei Yuehuan; Xiao Mengjiao; Xiao Xiang; Zhao Li; Tan Andi

    2014-01-01

    The two-phase xenon detector is at the frontier of dark matter direct search. This kind of detector uses liquid xenon as the sensitive target and is operated in two-phase (liquid/gas) mode, where the liquid level needs to be monitored and controlled in sub-millimeter precision. In this paper, we present a detailed design and study of two kinds of level meters for the PandaX dark matter detector. The long level meter is used to monitor the overall liquid level while short level meters are used to monitor the inclination of the detector. These level meters are cylindrical capacitors that are custom-made from two concentric metal tubes. Their capacitance values are read out by a universal transducer interface chip and are recorded by the PandaX slow control system. We present the developments that lead to level meters with long-term stability and sub-millimeter precision. Fluctuations (standard deviations) of less than 0.02 mm for the short level meters and less than 0.2 mm for the long level meter were achieved during a few days of test operation. (authors)

  14. I. Nuclear and neutron matter calculations with isobars. II. A model calculation of Fermi liquid parameters for liquid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, T.L.

    1983-01-01

    The Δ(1232) plays an important role in determining the properties of nuclear and neutron matter. The effects of the Δ resonance are incorporated explicitly by using a coupled channel formalism. A method for constraining a lowest order variational calculation, appropriate when nucleon internal degrees of freedom are made explicity, is presented. Different N-N potentials were calculated and fit to phase shift data and deuteron properties. The potentials were constructed to test the relative importance of the Δ resonance on nuclear properties. The symmetry energy and incompressibility of nuclear matter are generally reproduced by this calculation. Neutron matter results lead to appealing neutron star models. Fermi liquid parameters for 3 He are calculated with a model that includes both direct and induced terms. A convenient form of the direct interaction is obtained in terms of the parameters. The form of the direct interaction ensures that the forward scattering sum rule (Pauli principle) is obeyed. The parameters are adjusted to fit the experimentally determined F 0 /sup s/, F 0 /sup a/, and F 1 /sup s/ Landau parameters. Higher order Landau parameters are calculated by the self-consistent solution of the equations; comparison to experiment is good. The model also leads to a preferred value for the effective mass of 3 He. Of the three parameters only one shows any dependence on pressure. An exact sum rule is derived relating this parameter to a specific summation of Landau parameters

  15. Distribution functions to estimate radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils: the case of Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Guinart, Oriol; Rigol, Anna; Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry department, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Mart i Franques 1-11, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In the frame of the revision of the IAEA TRS 364 (Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments), a database of radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) in soils was compiled with data coming from field and laboratory experiments, from references mostly from 1990 onwards, including data from reports, reviewed papers, and grey literature. The K{sub d} values were grouped for each radionuclide according to two criteria. The first criterion was based on the sand and clay mineral percentages referred to the mineral matter, and the organic matter (OM) content in the soil. This defined the 'texture/OM' criterion. The second criterion was to group soils regarding specific soil factors governing the radionuclide-soil interaction ('cofactor' criterion). The cofactors depended on the radionuclide considered. An advantage of using cofactors was that the variability of K{sub d} ranges for a given soil group decreased considerably compared with that observed when the classification was based solely on sand, clay and organic matter contents. The K{sub d} best estimates were defined as the calculated GM values assuming that K{sub d} values were always log-normally distributed. Risk assessment models may require as input data for a given parameter either a single value (a best estimate) or a continuous function from which not only individual best estimates but also confidence ranges and data variability can be derived. In the case of the K{sub d} parameter, a suitable continuous function which contains the statistical parameters (e.g. arithmetical/geometric mean, arithmetical/geometric standard deviation, mode, etc.) that better explain the distribution among the K{sub d} values of a dataset is the Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF). To our knowledge, appropriate CDFs has not been proposed for radionuclide K{sub d} in soils yet. Therefore, the aim of this works is to create CDFs for

  16. The incorporation of low and medium level radioactive wastes (solids and liquids) in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.D.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of cement has been investigated for the immobilization of liquid and solid low and medium level radioactive waste. 220 litre mixing trials have demonstrated that the high temperatures generated during the setting of ordinary Portland cement/simulant waste mixes can be significantly reduced by the use of a blend of ground granulated blast furnace slag and ordinary Portland cement. Laboratory and 220 litre trials using simulant wastes showed that the blended cement gave an improvement in properties of the cemented waste product, e.g. stability and reduction in leach rates compared with ordinary Portland cement formulations. A range of 220 litre scale mixing systems for the incorporation of liquid and solid wastes in cement was investigated. The work has confirmed that cement-based processes can be used for the immobilization of most types of low and medium level waste

  17. Temperature dependence of the positron annihilation in liquid and solid bismuth and gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, C.; Chabik, S.; Pajak, J.; Rozenfeld, B.

    1980-01-01

    The annihilation rate is measured for liquid and solid Bi and Ga at the peak of angular correlation curve. Linear increase of this rate observed up to the melting point confirms the lack of positron trapping in solid Bi and Ga. At the melting point a nearly 20% increase of the counting rate is observed for Ga, while for Bi about 5% decrease is noticed. The anomalies found in the F(T) curve for the liquid phase are associated with the existence of cluster atoms and with the process of their structure rebuilding. With the exception of small momenta ranges there are no noticeable variations of the electron momentum distribution measured at different temperatures. (author)

  18. Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL). A concept to improve the selectivity of selective hydrogenations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jess, A.; Korth, W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Chair of Chemical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    Catalytic hydrogenations are important for refinery processes, petrochemical applications as well as for numerous processes of the fine chemicals industry. In some cases, hydrogenations consist of a sequence of consecutive reactions, and the desired product is the intermediate. An important goal is then a high yield and selectivity to the intermediate, if possible at a high conversion degree. The selectivity to an intermediate primarily depends on the chemical nature of the catalyst, but may also be influenced by diffusion processes. Ionic liquids (ILs) are low melting salts (< 100 C) and represent a promising solvent class. This paper focuses on the concept of a Solid Catalyst with Ionic Liquid Layer (SCILL), where the solid catalyst is coated with a thin IL layer to improve the selectivity. (orig.)

  19. Engineering evaluation of solids/liquids separation processes applicable to sludge treatment project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This engineering study looks at the solids/liquids separation unit operations after the acid dissolution of the K Basin sludge treatment. Unit operations considered were centrifugation, filtration (cartridge, cross flow, and high shear filtration) and gravity settling. The recommended unit operations for the solids/liquids separations are based upon the efficiency, complexity, and off-the-shelf availability and adaptability. The unit operations recommended were a Robatel DPC 900 centrifuge followed by a nuclearized 31WM cartridge filter. The Robatel DPC 900 has been successfully employed in the nuclear industry on a world wide scale. The 31WM cartridge filter has been employed for filtration campaigns in both the government and civilian nuclear arenas

  20. Fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance study of enrichment effects in gaseous, liquid and solid uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursu, I.; Demco, D.E.; Simplaceanu, V.; Valcu, N.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance method is able to provide information concerning the isotopic content of 235 U in UF 6 by means of measuring the nuclear magnetic transverse relaxation time (T,L2) of 19 F nuclei in liquid UF 6 . In this work, the sources of errors in the T 2 measurements have been analysed and methods for reducing them are dicussed. Typical errors in T 2 determinations are below 2%. The enrichment estimations made by using the linear calibration curves had a deviation of less than 2% with some exceptions. It was found that the chemical impurities may significantly affect the enrichment estimations. 19 F NMR spectra of liquid and gaseous UF 6 at low pressures did not reveal any structure or enrichment effect. The longitudinal nuclear magnetic relaxation of 19 F nuclei in low pressure, gaseous and solid UF 6 showed no enrichment dependence, nor the dipolar relaxation time in solid UF 6 did. (author)

  1. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.; Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21 K and 9 K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenyl-alanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritium are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  2. Sulfur solubility of liquid and solid Fe-Cr alloys. A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, Peter [Leoben Univ. (Austria). Dept. of General, Analytical and Physical Chemistry

    2015-04-15

    Gibbs energy modeling for sulfur solving liquid and solid iron-chromium phases with body- and face-centered cubic structure has been carried out using a substitutional approach. Experimental data available from the literature on sulfur potentials in the temperature range 1 525 to 1 755 C for the liquid metallic phase and 1 000 to 1 300 C for the solid alloys have been taken into consideration. Recent thermodynamic evaluations of the Fe-S and Cr-S binary subsystems served as basis for the presented work. The obtained models allow a satisfactory reproduction of the majority of the sulfur potential data as well as the prediction of an isothermal partial section at 1 300 C. Consistent embedding of the optimized Gibbs energies within a recent thermodynamic modeling of the complete Cr-Fe-S system is achieved.

  3. Kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen: a path integral Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppi, M.; Neumann, M.

    1992-01-01

    The translational (center of mass) kinetic energy of solid and liquid para-hydrogen have been recently measured by means of Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering. We have evaluated the same quantity, in similar thermodynamic conditions, by means of Path Integral Monte Carlo computer simulation, modelling the system as composed of a set of spherical molecules interacting through a pairwise additive Lennard-Jones potential. In spite of the crude approximations on the interaction potential, the agreement is excellent. The pressure was also computed by means of the same simulations. This quantity, compared with the equation of state for solid para-hydrogen given by Driessen and Silvera, gives an agreement of a lesser quality and a negative value for the liquid state. We attribute this discrepancy to the limitations of the Lennard-Jones potential. (orig.)

  4. Crystal habit prediction - Including the liquid as well as the solid side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, C.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/ TVT, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    Commercially available methods of morphology prediction utilize molecular dynamics to estimate the crystal growth rates but predominantly consider the solid side. For the extension of these methods to a multi-component solid-liquid system the diffusion coefficient is required. Since, the diffusion coefficient enables the calculation of crystal growth rates and the morphology in presence of additives and solvents. Modeling the diffusion coefficient is achieved by conducting MD on a system consisting of the crystal surface and the liquid phase. The achieved results match very well with the calculated diffusion coefficient (Wilke-Chang). In this case study benzoic acid is used as model substance with water as solvent. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Tritium labeling of amino acids and peptides with liquid and solid tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souers, P.C.; Coronado, P.R.; Peng, C.T.; Hua, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Amino acids and peptides were labeled with liquid and solid tritium at 21/degree/K and 9/degree/K. At these low temperatures radiation degradation is minimal, and tritium incorporation increases with tritium concentration and exposure time. Ring saturation in L-phenylalanine does not occur. Peptide linkage in oligopeptides is stable toward tritium. Deiodination in 3-iodotyrosine and 3,5-diiodotyrosine occurs readily and proceeds in steps by losing one iodine atom at a time. Nickel and noble metal supported catalysts when used as supports for dispersion of the substrate promote tritium labeling at 21 K. Our study shows that both liquid and solid tritiums are potentially useful agents for labeling peptides and proteins

  6. Numerical simulation of polishing U-tube based on solid-liquid two-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-ye; Meng, Wen-qing; Wu, Gui-ling; Hu, Jing-lei; Wang, Bao-zuo

    2018-03-01

    As the advanced technology to solve the ultra-precision machining of small hole structure parts and complex cavity parts, the abrasive grain flow processing technology has the characteristics of high efficiency, high quality and low cost. So this technology in many areas of precision machining has an important role. Based on the theory of solid-liquid two-phase flow coupling, a solid-liquid two-phase MIXTURE model is used to simulate the abrasive flow polishing process on the inner surface of U-tube, and the temperature, turbulent viscosity and turbulent dissipation rate in the process of abrasive flow machining of U-tube were compared and analyzed under different inlet pressure. In this paper, the influence of different inlet pressure on the surface quality of the workpiece during abrasive flow machining is studied and discussed, which provides a theoretical basis for the research of abrasive flow machining process.

  7. In situ scanning probe spectroscopy at nanoscale solid/liquid interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, W.; Hugelmann, M.; Hugelmann, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemistry provides unique features for the preparation of low-dimensional structures, but in situ spectroscopy with atomic/molecular resolution at such structures is at present not well established yet. This paper shows that in situ scanning probe spectroscopy at solid/liquid interfaces can be utilized to study electronic properties at nanoscale, if appropriate conditions are applied. Tunneling spectroscopy provides information about tunneling barrier heights and electronic states in the tunneling gap, as shown on Au(1 1 1) substrates, contact spectroscopy allows for transport measurements at single nanostructures, as shown at Au/n-Si(1 1 1) nanodiodes. The influence of the electrolytic environment on spectroscopic investigations is not a principal limitation, but offers additional degrees of freedom, which allow, for example, spectroscopic studies of potential dependent surface phenomena at solid/liquid interfaces

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  9. Microspheres for the Growth of Silicon Nanowires via Vapor-Liquid-Solid Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arancha Gómez-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanowires have been synthesized by a simple process using a suitable support containing silica and carbon microspheres. Nanowires were grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism with only the substrate as silicon source. The curved surface of the microsized spheres allows arranging the gold catalyst as nanoparticles with appropriate dimensions to catalyze the growth of nanowires. The resulting material is composed of the microspheres with the silicon nanowires attached on their surface.

  10. A modified free-volume-based model for predicting vapor-liquid and solid-liquid equilibria for size asymmetric systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radfarnia, H.R.; Ghotbi, C.; Taghikhani, V.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to present a free-volume combinatorial term in predicting vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) of polymer/solvent and light and heavy hydrocarbon/hydrocarbon mixtures. The proposed term is based on a modification of the original Freed ...

  11. Process intensification of catalytic liquid-liquid solid processes : Continuous biodiesel production using an immobilized lipase in a centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, M.; Kloekhorst, A.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Euverink, G. J. W.; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, H. J.

    Biodiesel or fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) synthesis from sunflower oil and methanol using an immobilized lipase, an example of a liquid-liquid solid reaction, was studied in batch and various continuous reactor set-ups including the use of a centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS). The latter is an

  12. Effect of bile diversion on satiety and fat absorption from liquid and solid dietary sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, J.E.; Gu, Y.G.; Meyer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    In previous studies, liquid fat has been used to determine the effect of bile diversion on fat absorption. Since protein digests, in addition to bile salts, are capable of solubilizing lipids, we hypothesized that fat incorporated in the protein-rich matrix of solid food would be less sensitive to bile diversion than fat ingested as an oil or liquid. Using [3H]glycerol triether as a nonabsorbable fat recovery marker, we determined how much [14C]triolein was absorbed from solid (chicken liver) and liquid (margarine) dietary sources. After a standard liquid/solid meal with either the chicken liver or margarine labeled, midintestinal chyme was collected for 6 hr, extracted, and counted for 14C and 3H activity. Zero, eighty, or one hundred percent of endogenous bile was diverted. Fat absorption from both chicken liver and margarine was nearly complete by midintestine with 0% diversion and was little affected by diversion of 80% of bile. Complete biliary diversion significantly decreased fat absorption from margarine (87.9 +/- 4.4 to 37.2 +/- 9.2%, P less than 0.05) but reduced [14C]triolein absorption from chicken liver less consistently and insignificantly (78.8 +/- 6.9 to 43.9 +/- 10.6%). These data indicate that fat absorption is not solely dependent on bile and support the hypothesis that fat ingested in a cellular matrix is less dependent on bile than liquid fat. Using these same animals but with the midintestinal cannulas plugged to expose the distal intestine to unabsorbed luminal nutrients, we also demonstrated that bile diversion of an initial meal reduced food consumption at a meal offered 3 hr later

  13. In situ reflectivity investigations of solid/liquid interface during laser backside etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehme, R.; Otto, T.; Zimmer, K.

    2006-01-01

    In situ reflectivity measurements of the solid/liquid interface with a pump-probe setup were performed during laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) of fused silica with KrF excimer laser using toluene as absorbing liquid. The intensity, the temporal shape, and the duration of the reflected light measured in dependence on the laser fluence are discussed referring to the surface modification and the bubble formation. The vaporisation of the superheated liquid at the solid interface causes a considerable increase of the reflectivity and gives information about the bubble lifetime. The alterations of the reflectivity after bubbles collapse can be explained with the changed optical properties due to surface modifications of the solid surface. Comparative studies of the reflectivity at different times and the etch rate behaviour in dependence on the laser fluence show that the in situ measured surface modification begins just at the etch threshold fluence and correlates further with etch rate behaviour and the etched surface appearance. The already observed surface modification at LIBWE due to a carbon deposition and structural changes of the near surface region are approved by the changes of the interface reflectivity and emphasizes the importance of the modified surface region in the laser-induced backside wet etching process

  14. Thermophysical Properties of Solid and Liquid Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivineau, M.; Cagran, C.; Doytier, D.; Eyraud, V.; Nadal, M.-H.; Wilthan, B.; Pottlacher, G.

    2006-03-01

    Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) titanium alloy is widely used in industrial applications such as aeronautic and aerospace due to its good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Experiments on two different resistive pulse heating devices (CEA Valduc and TU-Graz) have been carried out in order to study thermophysical properties (such as electrical resistivity, volume expansion, heat of fusion, heat capacity, normal spectral emissivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity) of both solid and liquid Ti-6Al-4V. Fast time-resolved measurements of current, voltage, and surface radiation and shadowgraphs of the volume have been undertaken. At TU-Graz, a fast laser polarimeter has been used for determining the emissivity of liquid Ti-6Al-4V at 684.5 nm and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) for measuring the heat capacity of solid Ti-6Al-4V. This study deals with the specific behavior of the different solid phase transitions (effect of heating rate) and the melting region, and emphasizes the liquid state ( T > 2000 K).

  15. Solid scintillator 'Ready Cap' for measurement with a liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Kenichi; Endo, Masashi; Nogawa, Norio; Tsuda, Shoko; Nakamura, Aiko; Morikawa, Naotake; Osaki, Susumu.

    1990-01-01

    'Ready Cap', a small plastic container coated with solid scintillator has recently been introduced (Beckman Instruments, Inc.). Pulse height spectra and counting efficiencies obtained with a liquid scintillator and Ready Cap using a liquid scintillation counter were compared for 15 different radionuclides. For radionuclides emitting low-energy β-rays or characteristic X-rays, the spectra for Ready Cap shifted toward the higher energy side compared with the spectra for the liquid scintillator. This tendency was reversed for the nuclides emitting higher-energy β-radiations ( 36 Cl and 32 P). Generally, counting efficiencies both in Ready Cap and in liquid scintillator increased with increase in the energy of β- or X-rays. For some nuclides, Ready Cap gave higher counting efficiencies and for others it gave lower values than in the liquid scintillator. However, the differences were not large within each nuclide. The use of Ready Cap is recommended for measurements of radionuclides when liquid scintillation cocktails have no means of waste disposal under the present Japanese radioisotope regulation. (author)

  16. Effect of phosphate ion on filtration characteristics of solids generated in simulated high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of phosphate ion on the filtration characteristics of solids generated in a high level liquid waste was experimentally examined. Addition of phosphate ion into the simulated HLLW induced the formation of phosphate such as zirconium phosphate and phosphomolybdic acid. The filtration rate of zirconium phosphate abruptly dropped in the midst of filtration because of a gel-cake formation on the filter surface. The denitration of the simulated HLLW contained zirconium phosphate improved the filterability of this gelatinous solid. The filtration rates of denitrated HLLW decreased with increase of the phosphate ion concentration, since the solids formed by denitration had irregular particle size and configuration in the simulated HLLW with phosphate ion. To increase the filtration rate of denitrated HLLW, a solid suspension filtration tester was designed. The solid-suspension accelerated the filtration rate only in the simulated HLLW with more than 1500 ppm phosphate ion concentration. Under this condition, the simple agitation can easily suspend the constituent solids of filter cake in the solution and a much higher filtration rate can be obtained because the filter cake is continuously swept from the filter surface by rotation of propellers. (authors)

  17. Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2004-11-29

    A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes.

  18. Investigations of a zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor in liquid lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivai, Abu Khalid, E-mail: rivai.abukhalid@jaea.go.j [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Minoru, E-mail: mtakahas@nr.titech.ac.j [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, N1-18, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    Investigations of a magnesia-stabilized zirconia solid electrolyte oxygen sensor for oxygen control measurement in liquid lead were carried out. The fluid of Bi/Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} as a reference electrode and a molybdenum wire as a working electrode to detect the output signal of the sensor were used. The Nernst equation was used to estimate the electromotive force (EMF) values theoretically. The temperatures of liquid lead were 500, 550 and 600 deg. C. The results showed that the injection gas temperatures did not affect the detected EMF, the sensor responded well to quick changes of oxygen activity in liquid lead, and the discrepancy between the measured and theoretical EMF of the oxygen sensor output signal was higher at 500 deg. C than at 550 and 600 deg. C.

  19. Using Peltier cells to study solid-liquid-vapour transitions and supercooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states (supercooling). The thermoelectric module (a technological evolution of the thermocouple) is by itself an interesting subject that offers a clear example of both thermo-electric (Seebeck effect) and electro-thermal (Peltier effect) energy transformation. We report here some cooling/heating measurements for several liquids and mixtures, including water, salt/water, ethanol/water and sodium acetate, showing how to evaluate the phenomena of freezing point depression and elevation, and how to evaluate the water latent heat

  20. Model of a liquid droplet impinging on a high-temperature solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulikov, A.V.; Berlin, I.I.; Karpyshev, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The model of the collision of the liquid droplet, vertically falling on the heated solid surface, is presented. The wall temperature is predeterminated so that the droplet interaction with the wall proceeds through the gas interlayer (T≥400 Deg C). The droplet liquid is incompressible, nonviscous. The droplet surface is assigned as free one. The pressure is composed of two components. The first component is the surface tension. The record component is the steam pressure between the droplet and the wall. The liquid motion inside the droplet is assumed to be potential, axisymmetric. The calculation of the droplet collision are carried out with application of the above model. The obtained results are compared with the data of other authors [ru

  1. A study of a stable Al-Cu-Fe quasicrystal in solid and liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lifan; Chen Xishen

    1992-01-01

    A stable Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 quasicrystal with an icosahedral structure is studied in solid and liquid state. It is found that the icosahedral phase in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy does not grow directly from the pure liquid state, but rather forms between monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 and residual liquid state at 865degC. The melting point of the Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 icosahedral quasicrystal occurs at 865degC and that of the Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy occurs at 1008degC. Moreover, the monoclinic Al 13 Fe 4 is transformed into the icosahedral phase easily at the temperature of 845degC. The icosahedral quasicrystal in Al 65 Cu 20 Fe 15 alloy has a high thermal stability even at 950degC. Above 950degC, the icosahedral structure tends to an amorphous structure. (orig.)

  2. A New Experimental Design to Study the Kinetics of Solid Dissolution into Liquids at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; White, Jesse F.; Sichen, Du

    2018-04-01

    A new method was developed to study the dissolution of a solid cylinder in a liquid under forced convection at elevated temperature. In the new design, a rotating cylinder was placed concentrically in a crucible fabricated by boring four holes into a blank material for creating an internal volume with a quatrefoil profile. A strong flow in the radial direction in the liquid was created, which was evidently shown by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations and experiments at both room temperature and elevated temperature. The new setup was able to freeze the sample as it was at experimental temperature, particularly the interface between the solid and the liquid. This freezing was necessary to obtain reliable information for understanding the reaction mechanism. This was exemplified by the study of dissolution of a refractory in liquid slag. The absence of flow in the radial direction in the traditional setup using a symmetrical cylinder was also discussed. The differences in the findings by past investigators using the symmetrical cylinder are most likely due to the extent of misalignment of the cylinder in the containment vessel.

  3. Growth and dissolution of liquid 3He droplets in solid 4He matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan'shin, A.N.; Grigor'ev, V.N.; Majdanov, V.A.; Penzev, A.A.; Rudavskij, Eh.Ya.; Rybalko, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The phase separation kinetics of solid 3 He - 4 He mixtures was investigated using pressure measurements in the conditions when the two-phase system formed consists of concentrated phase liquid droplets (almost pure 3 He) in the dilute phase crystal matrix (almost pure 4 He). It is shown that the liquid droplet growth may be described by a sum of two exponential processes with small and large time contacts as cooling down step by step. This is a result of the strong influence of strains which appear in the crystal at the phase separation due to a large difference in molar volume between the phases and probably give rise to plastic deformation of the matrix and to non-equilibrium 3 He concentration in it. The 3 He atom transfer occurs only to the extent of strain relaxation. It is found that the cyclic growth and dissolution of the liquid droplets affect the crystal quality and lead to pressure increase. The coexistence of liquid and solid phases in droplets is speculated to be possible

  4. Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smakulski, P; Pietrowicz, S

    2015-01-01

    Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen. (paper)

  5. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lors, Christine [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France); Centre National de Recherche sur les Sites et Sols Pollues, 930 Boulevard Lahure, BP 537, 59505 Douai Cedex (France); Ponge, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ponge@mnhn.fr [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Martinez Aldaya, Maite [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Departement Ecologie et Gestion de la Biodiversite, CNRS UMR 7179, 4 Avenue du Petit-Chateau, 91800 Brunoy (France); Damidot, Denis [Universite Lille Nord de France, 1bis rue Georges Lefevre, 59044 Lille Cedex (France); Ecole des Mines de Douai, LGCgE-MPE-GCE, 941 rue Charles-Bourseul, 59500 Douai (France)

    2011-10-15

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: > Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. > Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. > Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. > Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  6. COMPARATIVE EVALUTION OF CEPHALOSPORIN-C PRODUCTION IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION AND SUBMERGED LIQUID CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezazarandi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of solid state fermentation (SSF utilization in producing enzymes & secondary metabolites have been shown, whereas, submerged liquid fermentation (SLF condition has the major usage in industrial production of antibiotics. As an antibiotic of B-lactams group, cephalosporin-C (CPC is indicated due to its wide effect and broad convention in treatment of infectious diseases. Regarding industrial production of CPC regularly done in SLF condition, we compared CPC production sum in SLF and SSF conditions. In this analysis, A. chrysogenum was employed, which was inoculated to SLF and SSF, while internal fermenter conditions were totally under control. After extraction of CPC, productions in two states of SLF and SSF were compared using the cylinder plate method. According to Antibiotic assay and production amount comparison, results expressed a ratio of development of production in SSF conditions to SLF conditions. Regarding previous studies on a solid state fermenter and its advantages, in this study, convenience of SSF conditions compared to SLF conditions was experimented. Also mentioning that maintaining the condition of solid state fermenter is more comfortable and practical than liquid state fermenter, using a solid based fermenter to produce antibiotics, especially CPC, can be appropriate. Considering appropriate control conditions of SSF to produce secondary metabolites, decrease in expenses, and increase of production, taking advantage of it in order to increase production parallel to modern methods, such as genetically manipulating CPC producing microorganisms are recommended to pharmacological industries. Also, to make this method applicable, further studies in industrial criterion seem necessary.

  7. Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lors, Christine; Ponge, Jean-Francois; Martinez Aldaya, Maite; Damidot, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Bioassays on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared, belonging to a wide array of trophic and response levels and using ecoscores for evaluating ecotoxicological and genotoxicological endpoints. The method was applied to four coke factory soils contaminated mainly with PAHs, but also to a lesser extent by heavy metals and cyanides. Aquatic bioassays do not differ from terrestrial bioassays when scaling soils according to toxicity but they are complementary from the viewpoint of ecological relevance. Both aquatic and terrestrial endpoints are strongly correlated with concentrations of 3-ring PAHs. This evaluation procedure allows us to propose a cost-effective battery which embraces a wide array of test organisms and response levels: it includes two rapid bioassays (Microtox) and springtail avoidance), a micronucleus test and three bioassays of a longer duration (algal growth, lettuce germination and springtail reproduction). This battery can be recommended for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Highlights: → Comparison of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays on contaminated soils, using ecoscores. → Complementarity of liquid- and solid-phase bioassays for the evaluation of environmental hazards. → Proposal for a restricted battery of 5 most sensitive tests. → Use of this restricted battery for a cost-effective assessment of polluted/remediated soils. - Aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils give similar results in terms of toxicity but are complementary for the evaluation of environmental hazards by ecoscores.

  8. Acoustic sensors for the control of liquid-solid interface evolution and chemical reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrandis, J.Y.; Tingry, S.; Attal, J.; Seta, P.

    2006-01-01

    Less classical than far-field acoustic investigations of solid materials and/or solid-liquid interfaces, near-field acoustic properties of an acoustic solid wave guide (tip), thin enough at its termination to present an external diameter smaller than the excitation acoustic wave wavelength, is shown to be able to probe interface properties. As a result of that, these near-field acoustic probes can play the role of chemical sensors, if chemical modifications or chemical reactions are concerned at their surface. In that context, a chemical sensor was realized by electrochemical deposition of an electron-conducting polymer (polypyrrole-biotin) on a metal tip, followed by enzyme attachment by molecular recognition process involving the biotin-avidin-specific interaction. Results from near-field acoustic showed that the enzyme modification of the polymer layer can be detected by this new acoustic sensor

  9. Analytical model for the effects of wetting on thermal boundary conductance across solid/classical liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, Matthew E.; Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E., E-mail: phopkins@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    We develop an analytical model for the thermal boundary conductance between a solid and a liquid. By infusing recent developments in the phonon theory of liquid thermodynamics with diffuse mismatch theory, we derive a closed form model that can predict the effects of wetting on the thermal boundary conductance across an interface between a solid and a classical liquid. We account for the complete wetting (hydrophilicity), or lack thereof (hydrophobicity), of the liquid to the solid by considering varying contributions of transverse mode interactions between the solid and liquid interfacial layers; this transverse coupling relationship is determined with local density of states calculations from molecular dynamics simulations between Lennard-Jones solids and a liquids with different interfacial interaction energies. We present example calculations for the thermal boundary conductance between both hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces of Al/water and Au/water, which show excellent agreement with measured values reported by Ge et al. [Z. Ge, D. G. Cahill, and P. V. Braun, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 186101 (2006)]. Our model does not require any fitting parameters and is appropriate to model heat flow across any planar interface between a solid and a classical liquid.

  10. Sub-micrometre Particulate Matter is Primarily in Liquid Form over Amazon Rainforests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Adam P.; Gong, Z. H.; Liu, Pengfei; Sato, Bruno; Cirino, Glauber; Zhang, Yue; Artaxo, Paulo; Bertram, Allan K.; Manzi, A.; Rizzo, L. V.; Souza, Rodrigo A.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) occurs in the Earth’s atmosphere both in liquid and non-liquid forms. The physical state affects the available physical and chemical mechanisms of growth and reactivity, ultimately affecting the number, size, and composition of the atmospheric particle population. Herein, the physical state, including the response to relative humidity (RH), was investigated on-line and in real time for PM (< 1 μm) over the tropical rain forest of central Amazonia during both the wet and dry seasons of 2013. The results show that the PM was liquid for RH > 80% across 296 to 300 K. These results, in conjunction with the distributions of RH and temperature in Amazonia, imply that near-surface submicron PM in Amazonia is liquid most of the time. The observations are consistent with laboratory experiments showing that PM produced by isoprene photo-oxidation is liquid across these meteorological conditions. The findings have implications for the mechanisms of new particle production in Amazonia, the growth of submicron particles and hence dynamics of the cloud life cycle, and the sensitivity of these processes to anthropogenic activities. An approach for inclusion of particle physical state in chemical transport models is presented.

  11. Study of suprathermal electron transport in solid or compressed matter for the fast-ignitor scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.

    2010-01-01

    The inertial confinement fusion (ICF) concept is widely studied nowadays. It consists in quickly compressing and heating a small spherical capsule filled with fuel, using extremely energetic lasers. Since approximately 15 years, the fast-ignition (FI) technique has been proposed to facilitate the fuel heating by adding a particle beam - electrons generated by an ultra-intense laser - at the exact moment when the capsule compression is at its maximum. This thesis constitutes an experimental study of these electron beams generated by picosecond-scale lasers. We present new results on the characteristics of these electrons after they are accelerated by the laser (energy, divergence, etc.) as well as their interaction with the matter they pass through. The experimental results are explained and reveal different aspects of these laser-accelerated fast electrons. Their analysis allowed for significant progress in understanding several mechanisms: how they are injected into solid matter, how to measure their divergence, and how they can be automatically collimated inside compressed matter. (author) [fr

  12. The study of long-term stability in liquid-solid phases for HLW disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y.Y.; Tseng, C.L.; Yang, J.Y.; Ke, C.H.; Wang, T.H.; Jan, Y.L.; Lee, C.B.; Lan, P.L.; Hsu, C.N.; Tsai, S.C.; Li, M.H.; Teng, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This study is conducted to observe changes in both chemical properties of buffer materials and liquid phases over an experimental period of 2 years. In our experiments, bentonite powder and crushed granite are separately mixed with synthetic groundwater, synthetic seawater and de-ionised water at a fixed liquid-solid ratio of 30. A mixed set with both bentonite and granite together as solid phase is also investigated. During this study, aliquots of the liquid phases are sampled every two months and pH and Eh values are measured immediately. Concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Ba, Fe, Sr, Li and Th are analyzed in the liquid phase directly by ICP-AES. After separation by centrifugation followed by freeze drying and digestion, the solid phases are analyzed as well for elemental composition. Alteration of solid phases during the experimental period is discussed. The preliminary results show that the pH values of the three solutions vary considerably in the individual experimental systems containing bentonite, granite or the mixed system. In general, higher pH values are found in DI-water for all solid phases. Eh values fluctuate a lot in the range 100 to 300 mV in all experiment sets. Different to the experiments with granite for which similar Eh values are found in all solutions, a significantly different Eh-value is found in the experiment with bentonite in DI-water as compared to the other solutions. The results from element analysis indicate that equilibrium is achieved after only two months and element concentrations change only slightly thereafter. We conclude from our experiments that both bentonite and granite keep their characteristics as radionuclide sorbents in the vicinity of a nuclear waste repository. Reaction equilibria appear to be attained rapidly. Because there are just a few alterations in this study, it would be a huge error source in analyzing from the inhomogeneous solid phase such as granite and losses

  13. PREFACE: Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations Liquid-solid interfaces: structure and dynamics from spectroscopy and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Sulpizi, Marialore

    2012-03-01

    Liquid-solid interfaces play an important role in a number of phenomena encountered in biological, chemical and physical processes. Surface-induced changes of the material properties are not only important for the solid support but also for the liquid itself. In particular, it is now well established that water at the interface is substantially different from bulk water, even in the proximity of apparently inert surfaces such as a simple metal. The complex chemistry at liquid-solid interfaces is typically fundamental to heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemistry, and has become especially topical in connection with the search for new materials for energy production. A quite remarkable example is the development of cheap yet efficient solar cells, whose basic components are dye molecules grafted to the surface of an oxide material and in contact with an electrolytic solution. In life science, the most important liquid-solid interfaces are the water-cell-membrane interfaces. Phenomena occurring at the surface of phospholipid bilayers control the docking of proteins, the transmission of signals as well as transport of molecules in and out of the cell. Recently the development of bio-compatible materials has lead to research on the interface between bio-compatible material and lipid/proteins in aqueous solution. Gaining a microscopic insight into the processes occurring at liquid-solid interfaces is therefore fundamental to a wide range of disciplines. This special section collects some contributions to the CECAM Workshop 'Liquid/Solid interfaces: Structure and Dynamics from Spectroscopy and Simulations' which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland in June 2011. Our main aim was to bring together knowledge and expertise from different communities in order to advance our microscopic understanding of the structure and dynamics of liquids at interfaces. In particular, one of our ambitions was to foster discussion between the experimental and theoretical

  14. Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and Liquids. V. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neurons in Solids and Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The Chalk River Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and Liquids was the International Atomic Energy Agency's second symposium held on this subject. The previous one was held in 1960 in Vienna and the very first international meeting in this field took place in 1957 in Stockholm. At the Stockholm meeting only 11 papers from six countries were presented; this was the very beginning of a rapidly developing new branch of physics. At the Vienna Symposium there were 50 papers from 12 countries. At Chalk River 67 papers from 13 countries and three international organizations, the European Atomic Energy Community, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and the International Atomic Energy Agency, were presented and discussed. In several other countries, either research in this field has already begun or preparations to start it are under way. This is an indication that the interest in using inelastic scattering of neutrons as a method to study the internal dynamics of solids, liquids and molecules is continuously increasing. On the other hand, a deeper knowledge of the dynamic properties of moderators plays an important role in the understanding of the process of thermalization of neutrons. The latter study is of special importance in promoting advances in nuclear reactor technology. In the light of these developments the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the co-sponsorship of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, organized the Symposium at Chalk River from 10 to 14 September 1962 on the generous invitation of the Government of Canada and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

  15. A Simple Approach to Characterize Gas-Aqueous Liquid Two-phase Flow Configuration Based on Discrete Solid-Liquid Contact Electrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dongwhi; Lee, Donghyeon; Kim, Dong Sung

    2015-10-14

    In this study, we first suggest a simple approach to characterize configuration of gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow based on discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, which is a newly defined concept as a sequential process of solid-liquid contact and successive detachment of the contact liquid from the solid surface. This approach exhibits several advantages such as simple operation, precise measurement, and cost-effectiveness. By using electric potential that is spontaneously generated by discrete solid-liquid contact electrification, the configurations of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase flow such as size of a gas slug and flow rate are precisely characterized. According to the experimental and numerical analyses on parameters that affect electric potential, gas slugs have been verified to behave similarly to point electric charges when the measuring point of the electric potential is far enough from the gas slug. In addition, the configuration of the gas-aqueous liquid two-phase microfluidic system with multiple gas slugs is also characterized by using the presented approach. For a proof-of-concept demonstration of using the proposed approach in a self-triggered sensor, a gas slug detector with a counter system is developed to show its practicality and applicability.

  16. Determination of multi-class herbicides in soil by liquid-solid extraction coupled with headspace solid phase microextraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović-Pejčev Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for simultaneous determination of five herbicides (metribuzin, acetochlor, clomazone, oxyfluorfen and dimethenamid belonging to different pesticides groups in soil samples. Developed headspace solid phase microextraction method (HS-SPME in combination with liquid-solid sample preparation (LS was optimized and applied in the analysis of some agricultural samples. Optimization of microextraction conditions, such as temperature, extraction time and sodium chloride (NaCl content was perfor-med using 100 μm polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS fiber. The extraction effi-ciencies of methanol, methanol:acetone=1:1 and methanol:acetone:hexane= =2:2:1 and the optimum number of extraction steps during the sample prepa-ration, were tested, as well. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS was used for detection and quantification, obtaining relative standard deviation (RSD below 13%, and recovery values higher than 83% for multiple analyses of soil samples fortified at 30 μg kg-1 of each herbicide. Limits of detection (LOD were less than 1.2 μg kg-1 for all the studied herbicides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31043 i br. III43005

  17. Comparison of rumen bacteria distribution in original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions in lactating Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Shoukun; Zhang, Hongtao; Yan, Hui; Azarfar, Arash; Shi, Haitao; Alugongo, Gibson; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun; Wang, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Background Original rumen digesta, rumen liquid and solid fractions have been frequently used to assess the rumen bacterial community. However, bacterial profiles in rumen original digesta, liquid and solid fractions vary from each other and need to be better established. Methods To compare bacterial profiles in each fraction, samples of rumen digesta from six cows fed either a high fiber diet (HFD) or a high energy diet (HED) were collected via rumen fistulas. Rumen digesta was then squeezed...

  18. Development of Combustion Tube for Gaseous, Liquid, and Solid Fuels to Study Flame Acceleration and DDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Tyler J.

    An experimental combustion tube of 20 ft. in length and 10.25 in. in internal diameter was designed and fabricated in order to perform combustion tests to study deflagration rates, flame acceleration, and the possibility of DDT. The experiment was designed to allow gaseous, liquid, or solid fuels, or any combination of the three to produce a homogenous fuel/air mixture within the tube. Combustion tests were initiated with a hydrogen/oxygen torch igniter and the resulting flame behavior was measured with high frequency ion probes and pressure transducers. Tests were performed with a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in an unobstructed tube with a closed ignition end and open muzzle. The flame performance with the gaseous fuels is loosely correlated with the expansion ratio, while there is a stronger correlation with the laminar flame speed. The strongest correlation to flame performance is the run-up distance scaling factor. This trend was not observed with the liquid fuels. The reason for this is likely due to incomplete evaporation of the liquid fuel droplets resulting in a partially unburned mixture, effectively altering the intended equivalence ratio. Results suggest that the simple theory for run-up distance and flame acceleration must be modified to more accurately predict the behavior of gaseous fuels. Also, it is likely that more complex spray combustion modeling is required to accurately predict the flame behavior for liquid fuels.

  19. Two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction study of liquid/solid fraction and solid particle size in Fe-C binary system with an electrostatic levitator furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemura, M; Okada, J; Ishikawa, T; Nanao, S; Watanabe, Y; Shobu, T; Toyokawa, H

    2013-01-01

    Liquid state provides functions such as matter transport or a reaction field and plays an important role in manufacturing processes such as refining, forging or welding. However, experimental procedures are significantly difficult for an observation of solidification process of iron and iron-based alloys in order to identify rapid transformations subjected to fast temperature evolution. Therefore, in order to study the solidification in iron and iron-based alloys, we considered a combination of high energy X-ray diffraction measurements and an electrostatic levitation method (ESL). In order to analyze the liquid/solid fraction, the solidification of melted spherical specimens was measured at a time resolution of 0.1 seconds during rapid cooling using the two-dimensional time-resolved X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the observation of particle sizes and phase identification was performed on a trial basis using X-ray small angle scattering with X-ray diffraction.

  20. Microscopic equation of state calculations: 1. Nuclear matter. 2. Liquid helium 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A new method for calculating the equation of state of extended Fermi systems is proposed and applied to nuclear matter and liquid 3 He. New techniques are developed for summing up the particle-particle (pp) and particle-hole (ph) ring diagrams to all orders in the calculation of the ground state shift ΔE 0 for many-body systems. Analytic expressions for ΔE pp P 0 , the contribution from all of the pp ring diagrams to ΔE 0 , and ΔE ph 0 , the corresponding contribution from all of the ph ring diagrams, have been obtained. It has been shown that the pp ring diagram sum may be written as an integral over frequency, involving the particle-particle Green's function. A similar integral expression is derived for the ph ring diagram sum. Two methods are developed for carrying out the frequency integrations, namely the multipole and transition amplitude methods. These methods have been tested on an exactly-solvable many-fermion model, a modified Lipkin model, and compared. The author has studied the instability of nuclear matter at both zero and finite temperature within the pp ring diagram framework. He has found using the Gogny D1 effective nucleon-nucleon interaction, complex eigenvalues of an RPA-type secular equation are obtained in a well-defined temperature-density region. When complex eigenvalues occur, the thermodynamic potential becomes complex. The possible connection between the occurrence of complex eigenvalues and liquid-gas phase separation is discussed. The pp ring diagrams are also found to lower the compression modulus of nuclear matter. Lastly, the pp ring diagram method is applied to the calculation of the ground state energy of normal and spin-polarized liquid 3 He. We have found a binding energy per particle (BE/A) of 1.45 degree K and 1.79 degree K for the normal and spin-polarized systems, respectively

  1. Highly Deformable Liquid Embedded Soft-Matter Capacitors and Inductors for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Andrew; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors that can be stretched to several times their natural length. These circuit elements are composed of microchannels of a liquid-phase Gallium-Indium-Tin alloy (Galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex® 00-30). As the elastomer stretches, the embedded liquid channels deform, causing the capacitance and inductance to change monotonically. The relative changes in capacitance and inductance are experimentally measured as a function of stretch in three directions. The relationships found show potential for these devices to be used as strain sensors and tunable electronic filters. Additionally, theoretical predictions derived using finite elasticity kinematics are consistent with these experimentally found relationships.

  2. Performance of a prototype active veto system using liquid scintillator for a dark matter search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.S. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Oh, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, N.Y. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, C.; Park, K.S. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.S., E-mail: hyunsulee@ibs.re.kr [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, E.J. [Center for Underground Physics, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-11

    We report the performance of an active veto system using a liquid scintillator with NaI(Tl) crystals for use in a dark matter search experiment. When a NaI(Tl) crystal is immersed in the prototype detector, the detector tags 48% of the internal {sup 40}K background in the 0–10 keV energy region. We also determined the tagging efficiency for events at 6–20 keV as 26.5±1.7% of the total events, which corresponds to 0.76±0.04 events/keV/kg/day. According to a simulation, approximately 60% of the background events from U, Th, and K radioisotopes in photomultiplier tubes are tagged at energies of 0–10 keV. Full shielding with a 40-cm-thick liquid scintillator can increase the tagging efficiency for both the internal {sup 40}K and external background to approximately 80%.

  3. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  4. Liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi

    2010-03-01

    Liquid-gas phase transition is discussed in warm asymmetric nuclear matter. Some peculiar features are figured out from the viewpoint of the basic thermodynamics about the phase equilibrium. We treat the mixed phase of the binary system based on the Gibbs conditions. When the Coulomb interaction is included, the mixed phase is no more uniform and the sequence of the pasta structures appears. Comparing the results with those given by the simple bulk calculation without the Coulomb interaction, we extract specific features of the pasta structures at finite temperature.

  5. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  6. Liquids - vapor and liquids - solids equilibria in the system Th(NO3)4 - UO2(NO3)2 - HNO3 - H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, V.I.; Vakhrushin, A.Yu.; Mamaev, S.L.; Zhirnov, Yu.P.

    1999-01-01

    Liquids - vapor and liquids - solids equilibria in the system Th(NO 3 ) 4 - UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 - HNO 3 - H 2 O were investigated. It was established that in this system thorium nitrate hexahydrate and uranyl nitrate hexa- and trihydrate are formed. Empiric equations of solubility isotherm at 25 deg C were found. Densities of liquid phases of the system were determined. It was established that uranyl nitrates and thorium nitrates salt out nitric acid in vapor phase just as separately so in the case of mutual presence. Empiric equation fixing relationship between nitric acid concentration in condensed phase and concentrations of all components in liquid phase was found

  7. Liquid-solid surface phase transformation of fluorinated fullerene on monolayer tungsten diselenide

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Zhibo

    2018-04-04

    Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures constructed by the integration of organic molecules and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have useful tunable properties for flexible electronic devices. Due to the chemically inert and atomically smooth nature of the TMD surface, well-defined crystalline organic films form atomically sharp interfaces facilitating optimal device performance. Here, the surface phase transformation of the supramolecular packing structure of fluorinated fullerene (C60F48) on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, from thermally stable liquid to solid phases as the coverage increases. Statistical analysis of the intermolecular interaction potential reveals that the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction induced by interfacial charge transfer and substrate-mediated interactions play important roles in stabilizing the liquid C60F48 phases. Theoretical calculations further suggest that the dipole moment per C60F48 molecule varies with the surface molecule density, and the liquid-solid transformation could be understood from the perspective of the thermodynamic free energy for open systems. This study offers insights into the growth behavior at 2D organic/TMD hybrid heterointerfaces.

  8. Optical fingerprints of solid-liquid interfaces: a joint ATR-IR and first principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L.; Niu, F.; Tecklenburg, S.; Pander, M.; Nayak, S.; Erbe, A.; Wippermann, S.; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

    Despite the importance of understanding the structural and bonding properties of solid-liquid interfaces for a wide range of (photo-)electrochemical applications, there are presently no experimental techniques available to directly probe the microscopic structure of solid-liquid interfaces. To develop robust strategies to interpret experiments and validate theory, we carried out attenuated total internal reflection (ATR-IR) spectroscopy measurements and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations of the vibrational properties of interfaces between liquid water and well-controlled prototypical semiconductor substrates. We show the Ge(100)/H2O interface to feature a reversible potential-dependent surface phase transition between Ge-H and Ge-OH termination. The Si(100)/H2O interface is proposed as a model system for corrosion and oxidation processes. We performed AIMD calculations under finite electric fields, revealing different pathways for initial oxidation. These pathways are predicted to exhibit unique spectral signatures. A significant increase in surface specificity can be achieved utilizing an angle-dependent ATR-IR experiment, which allows to detect such signatures at the interfacial layer and consequently changes in the hydrogen bond network. Funding from DOE-BES Grant No. DE-SS0008939 and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RESOLV, EXC 1069) are gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Parallel gastric emptying of nonhydrolyzable fat and water after a solid-liquid meal in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortot, A.; Phillips, S.F.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the control of gastric emptying of the oil phase of a mixed solid and liquid meal. Previous studies had shown that liquid dietary fats normally leave the stomach at a slower rate than does water. We wished to determine whether the slower emptying of fats was due to the physical characteristics of food (lower density and greater viscosity than water), to retardation by duodenal feedback mechanisms, or whether both factors contributed. Thus, we quantified the emptying rates of water and sucrose polyester (a nonabsorbable analog of dietary fat) ingested by healthy volunteers as a mixed solid and liquid meal. Gastric emptying was quantified by an intubation-perfusion method incorporating an occlusive jejunal balloon to facilitate recovery. Four phase-specific, nonabsorbable markers were used. [14C[Sucrose octaoleate and polyethylene glycol were incorporated in the meal and traced the lipid and water phases, respectively; [3H]glycerol triether and phenolsulfonphthalein were used as duodenal recovery markers. Sucrose polyester (substituting for dietary fat) was emptied very rapidly, and at about the same rate as was water, in contrast to natural fat, which empties very slowly. Emptying of water was rapid and comparable to that observed after mixed meals containing natural fat. These results imply that gastric emptying of the oil phase is controlled by receptors sensitive to the hydrolytic products of fat digestion and that the slow emptying of dietary fat is not simply due to its lower density

  10. Liquid-solid surface phase transformation of fluorinated fullerene on monolayer tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhibo; Wang, Qixing; Li, Ming-Yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Zheng, Yu Jie; Wang, Zhuo; Lin, Tingting; Chi, Dongzhi; Ding, Zijing; Huang, Yu Li; Thye Shen Wee, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Hybrid van der Waals heterostructures constructed by the integration of organic molecules and two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have useful tunable properties for flexible electronic devices. Due to the chemically inert and atomically smooth nature of the TMD surface, well-defined crystalline organic films form atomically sharp interfaces facilitating optimal device performance. Here, the surface phase transformation of the supramolecular packing structure of fluorinated fullerene (C60F48 ) on single-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) is revealed by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy, from thermally stable liquid to solid phases as the coverage increases. Statistical analysis of the intermolecular interaction potential reveals that the repulsive dipole-dipole interaction induced by interfacial charge transfer and substrate-mediated interactions play important roles in stabilizing the liquid C60F48 phases. Theoretical calculations further suggest that the dipole moment per C60F48 molecule varies with the surface molecule density, and the liquid-solid transformation could be understood from the perspective of the thermodynamic free energy for open systems. This study offers insights into the growth behavior at 2D organic/TMD hybrid heterointerfaces.

  11. Interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal by solid-liquid casting method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The solid-liquid method was used to prepare the continuous casting of copper cladding aluminium by liquid aluminum alloy and solid copper, and the interfacial phase formation of Al-Cu bimetal at different pouring temperatures (700, 750, 800 oC was investigated by means of metallograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS methods. The results showed that the pouring temperature of aluminum melt had an important influence on the element diffusion of Cu from the solid Cu to Al alloy melt and the reactions between Al and Cu, as well as the morphology of the Al-Cu interface. When the pouring temperature was 800 oC, there were abundant Al-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMCs near the interface. However, a lower pouring temperature (700 oC resulted in the formation of cavities which was detrimental to the bonding and mechanical properties. Under the conditions in this study, the good metallurgical bonding of Al-Cu was achieved at a pouring temperature of 750 oC.

  12. Polymerizable Ionic Liquid Crystals Comprising Polyoxometalate Clusters toward Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Solid Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Ito

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid electrolytes are crucial materials for lithium-ion or fuel-cell battery technology due to their structural stability and easiness for handling. Emergence of high conductivity in solid electrolytes requires precise control of the composition and structure. A promising strategy toward highly-conductive solid electrolytes is employing a thermally-stable inorganic component and a structurally-flexible organic moiety to construct inorganic-organic hybrid materials. Ionic liquids as the organic component will be advantageous for the emergence of high conductivity, and polyoxometalate, such as heteropolyacids, are well-known as inorganic proton conductors. Here, newly-designed ionic liquid imidazolium cations, having a polymerizable methacryl group (denoted as MAImC1, were successfully hybridized with heteropolyanions of [PW12O40]3− (PW12 to form inorganic-organic hybrid monomers of MAImC1-PW12. The synthetic procedure of MAImC1-PW12 was a simple ion-exchange reaction, being generally applicable to several polyoxometalates, in principle. MAImC1-PW12 was obtained as single crystals, and its molecular and crystal structures were clearly revealed. Additionally, the hybrid monomer of MAImC1-PW12 was polymerized by a radical polymerization using AIBN as an initiator. Some of the resulting inorganic-organic hybrid polymers exhibited conductivity of 10−4 S·cm−1 order under humidified conditions at 313 K.

  13. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J; Creasy, William R; Morrissey, Kevin M; Hendrickson, David M; Durst, H Dupont

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Greentrade mark, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO(4)(-2)) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t(1/2) decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  14. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 3: miscellany of radionuclides (Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, I, Se, Sb, Pu, Am, and others)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil-Garcia, C.; Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.

    2009-01-01

    New best estimates for the solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) for a set of radionuclides are proposed, based on a selective data search and subsequent calculation of geometric means. The K d best estimates are calculated for soils grouped according to the texture and organic matter content. For a limited number of radionuclides this is extended to consider soil cofactors affecting soil-radionuclide interaction, such as pH, organic matter content, and radionuclide chemical speciation. Correlations between main soil properties and radionuclide K d are examined to complete the information derived from the best estimates with a rough prediction of K d based on soil parameters. Although there are still gaps for many radionuclides, new data from recent studies improve the calculation of K d best estimates for a number of radionuclides, such as selenium, antimony, and iodine.

  15. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  16. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F. [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Adani, F., E-mail: fabrizio.adani@unimi.i [Dipartimento di Produzione Vegetale, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  17. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salati, S; Quadri, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fresh organic matter of municipal solid waste enhances phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, S.; Quadri, G.; Tambone, F.; Adani, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the ability of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) to enhance heavy metal uptake of maize shoots compared with ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) was tested on soil contaminated with heavy metals. Soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS significantly increased the concentration of heavy metals in maize shoots (increments of 302%, 66%, 184%, 169%, and 23% for Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb with respect to the control and increments of 933%, 482%, 928%, 428%, and 5551% for soils treated with OFMSW and EDDS, respectively). In soil treated with OFMSW, metal uptake was favored because of the high presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (41.6x than soil control) that exhibited ligand properties because of the high presence of carboxylic acids. Because of the toxic effect of EDDS on maize plants, soil treated with OFMSW achieved the highest extraction of total heavy metals. - Organic fraction of MSW affects the bioavailability of heavy metals in soil.

  19. Surfactant-enhanced liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to micro-solid phase extraction onto highly hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoulis, Kiriakos M.; Giokas, Dimosthenis L.; Tsogas, George Z.; Vlessidis, Athanasios G.; Zhu, Qing; Pan, Qinmin

    2013-01-01

    We are presenting a simplified alternative method for dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) by resorting to the use of surfactants as emulsifiers and micro solid-phase extraction (μ-SPE). In this combined procedure, DLLME of hydrophobic components is initially accomplished in a mixed micellar/microemulsion extractant phase that is prepared by rapidly mixing a non-ionic surfactant and 1-octanol in aqueous medium. Then, and in contrast to classic DLLME, the extractant phase is collected by highly hydrophobic polysiloxane-coated core-shell Fe 2 O 3 (at)C magnetic nanoparticles. Hence, the sample components are the target analyte in the DLLME which, in turn, becomes the target analyte of the μ-SPE step. This 2-step approach represents a new and simple DLLME procedure that lacks tedious steps such as centrifugation, thawing, or delicate collection of the extractant phase. As a result, the analytical process is accelerated and the volume of the collected phase does not depend on the volume of the extraction solvent. The method was applied to extract cadmium in the form of its pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate chelate from spiked water samples prior to its determination by FAAS. Detection limits were brought down to the low μg L −1 levels by preconcentrating 10 mL samples with satisfactory recoveries (96.0–108.0 %). (author)

  20. A feasibility study of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for multi-production of solid fuel and liquid fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnang, S.; Prawisudha, P.; Pasek, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Energy use has increased steadily over the last century due to population and industry increase. With the growing of GHG, biomass becomes an essential contributor to the world energy need. Indonesia is the third rice producer in the world. Rice straw has been converted to solid fuel by Hydrothermal Treatment (HT) for electricity generation. HT is a boiling solid organic or inorganic substance in water at high pressure and temperature within a holding time. HT converts high moisture content biomass into dried, uniform, pulverized, and higher energy density solid fuels. HT can effectively transport nutrient components in biomass into a liquid product known as fertilizer. This paper deals with an evaluation of hydrothermal treatment of rice straw for solid fuel and liquid fertilizer. An investigation of rice straw characteristics were completed for Bandung rice straw with various condition of temperature, biomass-water ratio, and holding time in the purpose to find the changes of calorific value for solid product and (N, P, K, and pH) for liquid product. The results showed that solid product at 225 °C and 90 min consists in a heating value 13.8 MJ/kg equal to lignite B. Liquid product at 225 °C and 90 min had the NPK content similar to that of micronutrients compound liquid fertilizer. The dried solid product should be useful for Coal Fire Power Plant, and the liquid product is suitable for plants. This research proves that hydrothermal process can be applied to rice straw to produce solid fuel and liquid fertilizer with adequate quality.

  1. Effect of fermentation time of mixture of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS (Total Suspended Solids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandia, S.; Tanata, S.; Rachel, M.; Octiva, C.; Sialagan, N.

    2018-02-01

    The waste from tapioca industry is as an organic waste that contains many important compounds such as carbohydrate, protein, and glucose. This research as aimed to know the effect of fermentation time from solid waste combined with waste-water from the tapioca industry to percentage reduction of TSS. The study was started by mixing the solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry at a ratio of 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 (w/w) with a starter from solid waste of cattle in a batch anaerobic digester. The percentage reduction of TSS was 72.2289 at a ratio by weight of the composition of solid and liquid wastes from tapioca industry was 70:30 after 30 days of fermentation time.

  2. Method of conversion of caustic liquid radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrates into solid insoluble products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barney, G.S.; Brownell, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    A proposal is made to convert caustic, liquid, radioactive wastes containing sodium nitrate into a solid product by reaction with powdered aluminium silicate at temperatures between 30 0 and 100 0 C, which is practically insoluble (10 -7 to 10 -10 g/cm 2 -day) and is thermally stable. A cancrinite is formed which binds the radioactive salts in the cage-like structure of its crystal lattice. The method is also suitable for liquid wastes from the Purex method as well as for wastes containing fission products of Cs 137 and Sr 90 in concentrations of 0.37 M to 0.01 M. Numerous detailed examples explain the invention. (UW/LH) [de

  3. Postaccident heat removal. II. Heat transfer from an internally heated liquid to a melting solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faw, R.E.; Baker, L. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Microwave heating has been used in studies of heat transfer from a horizontal layer of internally heated liquid to a melting solid. Experiments were designed to simulate heat transfer and meltthrough processes of importance in the analysis of postaccident heat removal capabilities of nuclear reactors. Glycerin, heated by 2.45-GHz microwave radiation, was used to simulate molten fuel. Paraffin wax was used to simulate a melting barrier confining the fuel. Experimentally measured heat fluxes and melting rates were consistent with a model based on downward heat transfer by conduction through a stagnant liquid layer and upward heat transfer augmented by natural convection. Melting and displacement of the barrier material occurred by upward-moving droplets randomly distributed across the melting surface. Results indicated that the melting and displacement process had no effect on the heat transfer process

  4. A solid-state pH sensor for nonaqueous media including ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brianna C; Winther-Jensen, Orawan; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2013-04-02

    We describe a solid state electrode structure based on a biologically derived proton-active redox center, riboflavin (RFN). The redox reaction of RFN is a pH-dependent process that requires no water. The electrode was fabricated using our previously described 'stuffing' method to entrap RFN into vapor phase polymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). The electrode is shown to be capable of measuring the proton activity in the form of an effective pH over a range of different water contents including nonaqueous systems and ionic liquids (ILs). This demonstrates that the entrapment of the redox center facilitates direct electron communication with the polymer. This work provides a miniaturizable system to determine pH (effective) in nonaqueous systems as well as in ionic liquids. The ability to measure pH (effective) is an important step toward the ability to customize ILs with suitable pH (effective) for catalytic reactions and biotechnology applications such as protein preservation.

  5. Ab initio study on the dynamics of furfural at the liquid-solid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Hongli; Xue, Wenhua; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu

    2013-03-01

    Catalytic biomass conversion sometimes occurs at the liquid-solid interfaces. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures for the catalytic reactions involving furfural at the water-Pd and water-Cu interfaces. We found that, during the dynamic process, the furan ring of furfural prefers to be parallel to the Pd surface and the aldehyde group tends to be away from the Pd surface. On the other hand, at the water-Cu(111) interface, furfural prefers to be tilted to the Cu surface while the aldehyde group is bonded to the surface. In both cases, interaction of liquid water and furfural is identified. The difference of dynamic process of furfural at the two interfaces suggests different catalytic reaction mechanisms for the conversion of furfural, consistent with the experimental investigations. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSED's and NERSC's supercomputers

  6. The international symposium on 'chemical engineering of gas-liquid-solid catalyst reactions'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, H

    1978-06-01

    A report on the International Symposium on ''Chemical Engineering of Gas-Liquid-Solid Catalyst Reactions'', sponsored by the University of Liege (3/2-3/78), covers papers on the hydrodynamics, modeling and simulation, operating behavior, and chemical kinetics of trickle-bed reactors; scale-up of a trickle-bed reactor for hydrotreating Kuwait vacuum distillate; experimental results obtained in trickle-bed reactors for hydroprocessing atmospheric residua, hydrogenation of methylstyrene, hydrogenation of butanone, and hydrodemetallization of petroleum residua; advantages and disadvantages of various three-phase reactor types (e.g., for the liquid-phase hydrogenation of carbon monoxide to benzene, SNG, or methanol) and hydrodynamics, mass and heat transfer, and modeling of bubble columns with suspended catalysts (slurry reactors), and their applications (e.g., in SNG and fermentation processes).

  7. Microscopic theory of the liquid-solid interface of 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pederiva, F.; Fantoni, S.; Reatto, L.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the shadow wave function we have developed the first microscopic theory of the interface between a quantum liquid and solid. We overcome the difficulties present in other variational theories because no a priori equilibrium positions for the atoms have to be assumed and localization of particles is exclusively due to interparticle correlations. We find that the crystalline order parameters vary smoothly over the interface and the interface itself is mobile. We have extended the previous work to the interface of a fcc crystal of 4 He. The interfacial energy is 0.16 K/angstrom 2 , the width of the interface is about 15 angstrom and the local density has a dip on the liquid side

  8. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  9. Physical measurements with a high-energy proton beam using liquid and solid tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, C.; Kember, N.F.; Huxtable, G.; Whitehead, C.

    1980-01-01

    The measurement of the physical parameters of a high-energy proton beam, using a range of liquid and solid tissue substitutes, is described. The system, the detectors used and the experimental verification of the tissue equivalence of the new tissue substitutes is presented. The measurements with the scattered but uncollimated proton beam in muscle-and brain-equivalent liquids and in water are compared to similar data obtained from the scattered but collimated beam. The effect of lung, fat and bone on the dose distributions in composite phantoms is also investigated and the necessary corrections established. A simulated patient treatment indicated that the Bragg peak can be positioned with an error not exceeding +-0.5 mm. (author)

  10. Use of molecular beams for the analysis of liquid and solid organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devienne, F.M.; Giroud, Josiane.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical composition of every solid can be determined by the M.B.S.A. method (Molecular Beam Surface Analysis). The method was used to analyze deposits on a filter paper, obtained by evaporation of a liquid solution, as well a liquid films with very low evaporation rate (dioctyl-azelate for instance). The S.C.I.C. method (Separation of Ions by Collision) was used to know exactly the composition of ions of fixed mass, separated by an electromagnet. The separated ions collide a target gas (helium or argon); apart of them are dissociated and the composition and structure of the primary ions can be deduced from the kinetic energy of the dissociated ions. Results obtained from such analysis of a thin film of baryum acetate on a platinum substrate are given [fr

  11. Analytical expressions for thermophysical properties of solid and liquid tungsten relevant for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tolias

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The status of the literature is reviewed for several thermophysical properties of pure solid and liquid tungsten which constitute input for the modelling of intense plasma-surface interaction phenomena that are important for fusion applications. Reliable experimental data are analyzed for the latent heat of fusion, the electrical resistivity, the specific isobaric heat capacity, the thermal conductivity and the mass density from the room temperature up to the boiling point of tungsten as well as for the surface tension and the dynamic viscosity across the liquid state. Analytical expressions of high accuracy are recommended for these thermophysical properties that involved a minimum degree of extrapolations. In particular, extrapolations were only required for the surface tension and viscosity.

  12. Radionuclide distribution in TMI-2 reactor building basement liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.T.; McIsaac, C.V.; Keefer, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the TMI-2 accident, approximately 2.46 x 10 6 L of contaminated water were released to the Reactor Building basement. The principal fission product release pathway from the damaged core was through the reactor coolant system (RCS) to the pressurizer, through the pressure-operated relief valve (PORV) on the pressurizer to the Reactor Coolant Drain Tank (RCDT), and then through the RCDT rupture disk to the Reactor Building basement. Since August 1979, a number of efforts have been made to determine the location, quantity, and composition of fission products released to the Reactor Building basement. These efforts have included sampling of the basement water and solids, the basement sump pump recirculation line, the RCDT, and visual surveys using a closed circuit television (CCTV) system. The analysis of basement samples has provided data on the physical and radioisotopic characteristics of the liquids and solids. This paper describes the sample collection techniques and discusses radiochemical analyses results

  13. Computer aided testing of steel samples deformation at coexistence liquid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojny, M.; Glowacki, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the results of experimental and theoretical work leading to construction of a CAE system dedicated to the numerical simulation of plastic deformation of steel at coexistence liquid and solid phase. A coupled thermal-mechanical model including inverse analysis technique was adopted for the solver. The advantage of the solution was the analytical form of both incompressibility and mass conservation conditions. This can prevent usual FEM variational solution problems concerning unintentional specimen volume loss caused by the numerical errors. The only well known machine allowing tests in the discussed temperature range is the GLEEBLE thermo-mechanical simulator. Experiments of deformation of steel in semi-solid state by using this machine are very expensive. Therefore, application of dedicated computer simulation system with inverse method makes tests possible and results in lowering testing cost

  14. A computer program for processing experimental Compton profile of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program COMPRO has been developed for processing experimental Compton profile data of solids and liquids generated by inelastic gamma ray scattering using a solid state detector and a multichannel analyser. It also calculates the fourier transform of the profile yielding the one electron autocorrelation function in position space. The theory behind the method of calculation is outlined and the various data processing steps needed to be applied on the raw experimental data have been discussed in detail. A flow chart of the program is given and the various subroutines of the program, method of feeding the input data and the method of presenting the final result are briefly described. The procedure is illustrated by measurement on a polycrystalline sample of manganese. The actual listing of the program along with the test run input data and the test run output data is also given. (M.G.B.)

  15. Volume reduction and solidification of liquid and solid low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a brief background of the development of a method of radioactive waste volume reduction using a unique fluidized bed calciner/incinerator. The volume reduction system is capable of processing a variety of liquid chemical wastes, spent ion exchange resin beads, filter treatment sludges, contaminated lubricating oils, and miscellaneous combustible solids such as paper, rags, protective clothing, wood, etc. All of these wastes are processed in one chemical reaction vessel. Detailed process data is presented that shows the system is capable of reducing the total volume of disposable radioactive waste generated by light water reactors by a factor of 10. Equally important to reducing the volume of power reactor radwaste is the final form of the stored or disposable radwaste. This paper also presents process data related to a new radwaste solidification system, presently being developed, that is particularly suited for immobilizing the granular solids and ashes resulting from volume reduction by calcination and/or incineration

  16. The effect of heat currents on the stability of the liquid solid interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowley, R.M.; Nozieres, P.

    1992-01-01

    Rapid changing of the temperature of a liquid in equilibrium with its solid can lead to instabilities of the interface in two ways : the change in pressure, induced by a temperature change at the interface, leads to a uniaxial stress which can cause a Grinfeld instability at the capillary wavelength; a temperature gradient is set up which modifies the effective gravity at the interface. When the effective gravity becomes negative, the interface is unstable at very long wavelengths. For a superfluid, such as 4 He, the situation is more complex. If we ignore surface dissipation, there is still a small critical temperature gradient across the solid above which the interface is unstable. However surface dissipation -in particular the growth resistance- pushes the instability to huge temperature gradients, ones which cannot be realised experimentally. The only instability that can be seen is caused by uniaxial stress

  17. Impact of sludge properties on solid-liquid separation of activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of activated sludge is important both directly after the biological treatment of wastewater and for sludge dewatering. The separation of solid from the treated wastewater can be done by clarifiers (conventional plants) or membrane (MBR). Further, part of the sludge is taken...... out from the proces and usually dewatered before further handling. The separation process is costly. Moreover, the separation process depends on the composition and the properties of the sludge. The best separation is obtained for sludge that contains strong, compact flocs without single cells...... and dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Polyvalent ions improve the floc strangth and improve the separation whereas monovalent ions (e.g. from road salt, sea water intrusion and industry) reduces impair the separation. Further high pH impairs the separation process due to floc disintegration...

  18. Waves reflected by solid wall and wave interaction in vapour bubbly liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, N.H.; Nguyen, V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The vapour bubbly liquids are met in many natural and industrial processes, including in energy equipment. In the nuclear power plants this kind of medium appears in reactor cores (PWR, BWR and etc.), in turbine generators and in heat transfer loops. Due to some circumstances (for example, a hit caused by detonations or strong collisions) the pressure waves can appear in the bubbly liquid medium contained in those facilities. These waves propagate in the mixtures and interact with themselves and with structures. It is important that what will occur during mentioned above processes. The knowledge of this kind processes will be useful for analysing the different sorts of the processes occurred in the energy facilities where the vapor bubbly liquids are used as working or heat transfer medium, like nuclear power plants, and also useful in finding the measures for prevention of unfavourable phenomena (for example, during wave interactions maybe appear too high pressures, which could lead into damages of facilities and etc.) and safety operating the equipment. From the physical point of view, the waves in this kind of medium are interesting that owing to non-linear, dispersion and dissipation effects the wave patterns in them may be diverse and easy altered. In the paper the investigation results of the waves reflected by solid wall or structure of the moderate intensity shock waves, and the behaviour of pressure in the process of wave interaction in some mixtures of liquid with vapour bubbles (of radium ∼1 mm) are presented. (author)

  19. Solid-liquid phase equilibria of Fe-Cr-Al alloys and spinels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, J. W.; Hu, R.; Ushakov, S. V.; Shin, D.; Pint, B. A.; Terrani, K. A.; Navrotsky, A.

    2017-08-01

    Ferritic FeCrAl alloys are candidate accident tolerant cladding materials. There is a paucity of data concerning the melting behavior for FeCrAl and its oxides. Analysis tools have therefore had to utilize assumptions for simulations using FeCrAl cladding. The focus of this study is to examine in some detail the solid-liquid phase equilibria of FeCrAl alloys and spinels with the aim of improving the accuracy of severe accident scenario computational studies.

  20. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries.

  1. A comparison of the performance of solid and liquid lubricants in oscillating spacecraft ball bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S.

    1994-01-01

    The European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL) has been engaged in a program to compare the performance of oscillating ball bearings when lubricated by a number of space lubricants, both liquid and solid. The results have shown that mean torque levels are increased by up to a factor of five above the normal running torque, and that often torque peaks of even greater magnitudes are present at the ends of travel. It is believed that these effects are caused by a build-up of compacted debris in the contact zone, thus reducing the ball/race conformity ratio.

  2. A method of estimating hydrogen in solid and liquid samples by means of neutron thermalisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D.H.; Sanders, J.E.

    1967-06-01

    The count-rate of a cadmium-covered Pu239 fission chamber placed in a reactor neutron flux increases when a hydrogen-containing material is inserted due to the thermalisation of epicadmium neutrons. This effect forms the basis of a non-destructive method of estimating hydrogen in solid or liquid samples, and trial experiments to demonstrate the principles have been made. The sensitivity is such that hydrogen down to 10 p.p.m. in a typical metal should be detected. A useful feature of the method is its very low response to elements other than hydrogen. (author)

  3. Research priorities in bioconversion of municipal solid waste to produce chemicals, liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, J. [BABA Ltd., Reading (United Kingdom)

    1988-09-01

    Areas for future research on the bioconversion of municipal solid wastes are highlighted in order to optimise the potential use of this resource to make chemical, liquid and gaseous fuels. Despite widespread research, a biological understanding of bioconversion technologies, including landfill gas, composting and anaerobic digestion, has yet to be established. Specifically, work on the development and growth of microorganisms in uncontrolled systems and the detailed biochemistry of purified strains needs to be undertaken. The microbial breakdown of xenobiotics to clean up polluted sites, and as an alternative to incineration of toxic organic wastes, is viewed as a desirable outcome of such an understanding. (UK)

  4. Experimental determination and prediction of liquid-solid equilibria for binary (methyl palimitate + naphthalene mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benziane M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid-liquid equilibria for binary mixtures of {Methyl palmitate (1 + Naphthalene (2} were measured using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Simple eutectic behaviours for this system are observed. The experimental results were correlated by means of the NRTL, Wilson, UNIQUAC and ideal models. The root-mean-square deviations of the solubility temperatures for all measured data vary from 0.5477 K (for UNIQUAC model to 3.34K; the deviation depend on the model used. The best solubility correlation was obtained with UNIQUAC model and this observation confirms previous results.

  5. X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkert, Florian J; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia; Möller, Johannes; Kujawski, Simon; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    A high-pressure cell for in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces at hydrostatic pressures up to 500 MPa (5 kbar), a pressure regime that is particularly important for the study of protein unfolding, is presented. The original set-up of this hydrostatic high-pressure cell is discussed and its unique properties are demonstrated by the investigation of pressure-induced adsorption of the protein lysozyme onto hydrophobic silicon wafers. The presented results emphasize the enormous potential of X-ray reflectivity studies under high hydrostatic pressure conditions for the in situ investigation of adsorption phenomena in biological systems.

  6. Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and Liquids. V. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The Chalk River Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and Liquids was the International Atomic Energy Agency's second symposium held on this subject. The previous one was held in 1960 in Vienna and the very first international meeting in'this field took place in 1957 in Stockholm. At the Stockholm meeting only 11 papers from six countries were presented; this was ihe very beginning of a rapidly developing new branch of physics. At the Vienna Symposium there were 50 papers from 12 countries. At Chalk River 67 papers from 13 countries and three international organizations, the European Atomic Energy Community, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and the International Atomic Energy Agency, were presented and discussed. In several other countries, either research in this field has already begun or preparations to start it are under way. This is an indication that the interest in using inelastic scattering of neutrons as a method to study the internal dynamics of solids, liquids and molecules is continuously increasing. On the other hand, a deeper knowledge of the dynamic properties of moderators plays an important role in the understanding of the process of thermalization of neutrons. The latter study is of special importance in promoting advances in nuclear reactor technology. In the light of these developments the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the co-sponsorship of the United Nations Educational, Scienific and Cultural Organization, organized the Symposium at Chalk River rom 10 to 14 September 1962 on the generous invitation of the Government of Canada and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The proceedings now published contain all the 67 papers and the records of the discussions. The Proceedings of the Symposium on Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons in Solids and Liquids consist of the full texts of the papers accepted, in the original language in which they were submitted, together with abstracts of these papers in English, French

  7. Flow Strength of Shocked Aluminum in the Solid-Liquid Mixed Phase Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, William

    2011-06-01

    Shock waves have been used to determine material properties under high shock stresses and very-high loading rates. The determination of mechanical properties such as compressive strength under shock compression has proven to be difficult and estimates of strength have been limited to approximately 100 GPa or less in aluminum. The term ``strength'' has been used in different ways. For a Von-Mises solid, the yield strength is equal to twice the shear strength of the material and represents the maximum shear stress that can be supported before yield. Many of these concepts have been applied to materials that undergo high strain-rate dynamic deformation, as in uni-axial strain shock experiments. In shock experiments, it has been observed that the shear stress in the shocked state is not equal to the shear strength, as evidenced by elastic recompressions in reshock experiments. This has led to an assumption that there is a yield surface with maximum (loading)and minimum (unloading), shear strength yet the actual shear stress lies somewhere between these values. This work provides the first simultaneous measurements of unloading velocity and flow strength for transition of solid aluminum to the liquid phase. The investigation describes the flow strength observed in 1100 (pure), 6061-T6, and 2024 aluminum in the solid-liquid mixed phase region. Reloading and unloading techniques were utilized to provide independent data on the two unknowns (τc and τo) , so that the actual critical shear strength and the shear stress at the shock state could be estimated. Three different observations indicate a change in material response for stresses of 100 to 160 GPa; 1) release wave speed (reloading where applicable) measurements, 2) yield strength measurements, and 3) estimates of Poisson's ratio, all of which provide information on the melt process including internal consistency and/or non-equilibrium and rate-dependent melt behavior. The study investigates the strength properties

  8. Measurement of solid-liquid interfacial energy in the In-Bi eutectic alloy at low melting temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marasli, N; Akbulut, S; Ocak, Y; Keslioglu, K; Boeyuek, U; Kaya, H; Cadirli, E

    2007-01-01

    The Gibbs-Thomson coefficient and solid-liquid interfacial energy of the solid In solution in equilibrium with In Bi eutectic liquid have been determined to be (1.46 ± 0.07) x 10 -7 K m and (40.4 ± 4.0) x 10 -3 J m -2 by observing the equilibrated grain boundary groove shapes. The grain boundary energy of the solid In solution phase has been calculated to be (79.0 ± 8.7) x 10 -3 J m -2 by considering force balance at the grain boundary grooves. The thermal conductivities of the In-12.4 at.% Bi eutectic liquid phase and the solid In solution phase and their ratio at the eutectic melting temperature (72 deg. C) have also been measured with radial heat flow apparatus and Bridgman-type growth apparatus

  9. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid - Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS

  10. Fermi liquid, clustering, and structure factor in dilute warm nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, G.; Voskresensky, D. N.; Kryukov, I. A.; Blaschke, D.

    2018-02-01

    Properties of nuclear systems at subsaturation densities can be obtained from different approaches. We demonstrate the use of the density autocorrelation function which is related to the isothermal compressibility and, after integration, to the equation of state. This way we connect the Landau Fermi liquid theory well elaborated in nuclear physics with the approaches to dilute nuclear matter describing cluster formation. A quantum statistical approach is presented, based on the cluster decomposition of the polarization function. The fundamental quantity to be calculated is the dynamic structure factor. Comparing with the Landau Fermi liquid theory which is reproduced in lowest approximation, the account of bound state formation and continuum correlations gives the correct low-density result as described by the second virial coefficient and by the mass action law (nuclear statistical equilibrium). Going to higher densities, the inclusion of medium effects is more involved compared with other quantum statistical approaches, but the relation to the Landau Fermi liquid theory gives a promising approach to describe not only thermodynamic but also collective excitations and non-equilibrium properties of nuclear systems in a wide region of the phase diagram.

  11. Heat impact caused molecular level changes in solid and dissolved soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Diana; Steffen, Bernhard; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The ubiquitous abundance of pyrolysed, highly aromatic organic matter, called "Black Carbon" (BC), in all environmental compartments became increasingly important in different fields of research beyond intensive investigated atmospheric aerosol due to climatic relevance. Its predominant high resistance to abiotic and biotic degradation resulted in turnover times from less than a century to several millennia. This recalcitrance led to the enrichment of BC in soils, accounting for 1-6% (European forest soils) to 60% (Chernozems) of total soil organic matter (SOM). Hence, soil BC acts an important sink in the global carbon cycle. In contrast, consequences for the nitrogen cycle up to date are rather inconsistently discussed. Soil related dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a major controlling factor in soil formation, an important pathway of organic matter transport and one of the largest active carbon reservoirs on earth, if considering oceans and other bodies of water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificially simulated wildfire by thermal treatment on the molecular composition of water extractable soil organic matter (DOM). Soils from two outdoor lysimeters with different management history were investigated. Soil samples, non-heated and heated up to 350°C were analyzed for elemental composition (carbon, nitrogen and sulfur) and for bulk molecular composition by Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Py-FIMS) and synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) at the C- and N K-edges. DOM-samples obtained by hot water extraction, desalting and concentration by solid phase extraction were subsequently analyzed by flow injection analysis in a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (FTICR-MS), equipped with an ESI source and a 7 T supra-conducting magnet (LTQ-FT Ultra, ThermoFisher Scientific). This technique is the key technique for the analysis of complex samples due to its outstanding mass

  12. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; He, Mengyu; Jiang, Chunzhu; Zhang, Fengqing; Du, Shanshan; Feng, Wennan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2015-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction was developed and applied to the extraction of some sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfaphenazole, in animal tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the target analytes. The solid sample was directly treated by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was treated by homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction. The ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent in this method, which may result in the improvement of the recoveries of the target analytes. To avoid using organic solvent and reduce environmental pollution, water was used as the elution solvent of matrix solid-phase dispersion. The effects of the experimental parameters on recoveries, including the type and volume of ionic liquid, type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, pH value of elution solvent, volume of elution solvent, amount of salt in eluate, amount of ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ), and centrifuging time, were evaluated. When the present method was applied to the analysis of animal tissues, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Temperature and compositional dependence of solid-liquid interfacial energy: application of the Cahn-Hilliard theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, I.; Takei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic method to estimate the solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) is proposed, based on the Cahn-Hilliard theory. In the model, the liquid is treated as a regular solution, and the interfacial layers are assumed to have liquid-like thermodynamic properties. In eutectic systems, interfacial adsorption occurs within a few atomic layers, and interfacial energy monotonously increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid phase. If non-ideal atomic interaction is strong and the liquid immiscibility region appears in the phase diagrams (this is the case of monotectic systems), the interfacial thickness drastically increases and the interfacial energy is reduced around the immiscibility gap

  14. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffer, Saskia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  15. First principles calculations for liquids and solids using maximally localized Wannier functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Charles W., VI

    The field of condensed matter computational physics has seen an explosion of applicability over the last 50+ years. Since the very first calculations with ENIAC and MANIAC the field has continued to pushed the boundaries of what is possible; from the first large-scale molecular dynamics simulation, to the implementation of Density Functional Theory and large scale Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, to million-core turbulence calculations by Standford. These milestones represent not only technological advances but theoretical breakthroughs and algorithmic improvements as well. The work in this thesis was completed in the hopes of furthering such advancement, even by a small fraction. Here we will focus mainly on the calculation of electronic and structural properties of solids and liquids, where we shall implement a wide range of novel approaches that are both computational efficient and physically enlightening. To this end we routinely will work with maximally localized Wannier functions (MLWFs) which have recently seen a revival in mainstream scientific literature. MLWFs present us with interesting opportunity to calculate a localized orbital within the planewave formalism of atomistic simulations. Such a localization will prove to be invaluable in the construction of layer-based superlattice models, linear scaling hybrid functional schemes and model quasiparticle calculations. In the first application of MLWF we will look at modeling functional piezoelectricity in superlattices. Based on the locality principle of insulating superlattices, we apply the method of Wu et al to the piezoelectric strains of individual layers under iifixed displacement field. For a superlattice of arbitrary stacking sequence an accurate model is acquired for predicting piezoelectricity. By applying the model in the superlattices where ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive modes are in competition, functional piezoelectricity can be achieved. A strong nonlinear effect is observed and can

  16. Experience of management of plutonium-contaminated solid and liquid wastes at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcaillou, J.; Faure, J.C.; Tourret, G.

    1981-01-01

    At Cadarache the principal sources of alpha-contaminated waste are the facilities of the plutonium fuel assembly fabrication complex. The chosen management scheme shows two points where it is possible to implement procedures to limit the activities released and to reduce the storage volumes of treated waste: (1) At the fabrication units, three categories of solid waste ('rich', 'poor' and 'special') are distinguished by sorting at the time of production and by γ,n counting of the drums. The rich and special wastes with a high plutonium content are stored while awaiting treatment for recycling of the plutonium. In the case of liquid waste, different circuits are used to separate contaminated effluents and thus to limit their production; (2) In the solid-waste treatment shops, the waste has so far been compacted and then coated with bituminous cement mortar. At the same time, a new incinerator facility has been installed. The preliminary studies dealt mainly with: waste preparation (crushing) to obtain a continuous and regular feed for the incinerator; combustion (pyrolysis followed by burning of the gases and unburnt matter in the presence of excess air); containment of the equipment. Further studies will be made to determine what is to be done with the ash (treatment for plutonium recovery and/or coating). At the Effluent Treatment Station some adjustments have had to be made in order to cope with the increase in volume activity due mainly to the presence of americium. At the same time, with a view to limiting the production of treatment residues with a high alpha-emitter content it has been decided to carry out a research and development programme on the separation of americium and the improvement of the recycling of the plutonium contained in the process effluents. (author)

  17. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2003-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  18. The wetting of planar solid surfaces by symmetric binary mixtures near bulk gas-liquid coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woywod, Dirk; Schoen, Martin

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the wetting of planar, nonselective solid substrates by symmetric binary mixtures where the attraction strength between like molecules of components A and B is the same, that is ε AA ε BB AB vertical bar ≤ vertical bar ε AA vertical bar, that is by varying the attraction between a pair of unlike molecules. By means of mean-field lattice density functional calculations we observe a rich wetting behaviour as a result of the interplay between ε AB and the attraction of fluid molecules by the solid substrate ε W . In accord with previous studies we observe complete wetting only above the critical end point if the bulk mixture exhibits a moderate to weak tendency to liquid-liquid phase separation even for relatively strong fluid-substrate attraction. However, in this case layering transitions may arise below the temperature of the critical end point. For strongly phase separating mixtures complete wetting is observed for all temperatures T ≥0 along the line of discontinuous phase transitions in the bulk

  19. Combustible gas production (methane) and biodegradation of solid and liquid mixtures of meat industry wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, A.; Al-Kassir, A.; Cuadros, F.; Lopez-Rodriguez, F. [School of Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. De Elva, s/n, 06071, Badajoz (Spain); Mohamad, A.A. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. N.W., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This work is devoted to determine the optimal operational conditions on the methane production as well as on the biodegradation obtained from the anaerobic codigestion of solid (fat, intestines, rumen, bowels, whiskers, etc.) and liquid (blood, washing water, manure, etc.) wastes of meat industry, particularly the ones rising from the municipal slaughterhouse of Badajoz (Spain). The experiments were performed using a 2 l capacity discontinuous digester at 38 C. The loading rate were 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4.5 g COD for wastewater (washing water and blood; Mixture 1), and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 g COD for the co-digestion of a mixture of 97% liquid effluent and 3% solid wastes v/v (Mixture 2) which represents the annual mean composition of the waste generated by the slaughterhouse. The maximal biodegradation rates obtained were: Mixture 1, 56.9% for a COD load of 1 g; and Mixture 2, 19.1% for a COD load of 2 g. For both mixtures, the greatest methane production was for the maximum COD load (4.5 g for Mixture 1, and 4 g for Mixture 2), at which values the amounts of methane obtained during and at the end of the co-digestion were practically indistinguishable between the two mixtures. The results will be used to design, construct, and establish the optimal operating conditions of a continuous complete-mixture biodigester. (author)

  20. Kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comans, R.N.J.

    1998-01-01

    The kinetics and reversibility of radiocaesium solid/liquid partitioning in sediments have been reviewed and interpreted in terms of a mechanistic framework. This framework is based on the premise that radiocaesium is almost exclusively and highly-selectively bound to the frayed particle edges of illitic clay minerals in the sediments. Several processes with distinctly different rates can be distinguished in radiocaesium sorption to sediments. 2- and 3-box kinetic models can describe both the overall solid/liquid partitioning in sediments and the reversible (exchangeable) and irreversible (nonexchangeable or 'fixed') fractions of radiocaesium in sediments over time scales relevant for natural aquatic systems. The obtained rate parameters indicate that reversible partitioning of radiocaesium dominates over the first few days following a contamination event, whereas irreversible kinetics becomes important over time scales of weeks to months. The slow process, which reduces the exchangeability of sediment-bound radiocaesium over time, is believed to result from a migration of radiocaesium from exchangeable sites on the frayed edges of illite towards less-exchangeable interlayer sites. Long-term extraction of radiocaesium from historically contaminated sediments has given evidence for a reverse (remobilization) process with a half-life of the order of tens of years. These findings suggest that the long-term exchangeability of radiocaesium in sediments may be higher than the few % which is generally assumed. (orig.)

  1. Acoustic Monitor for Liquid-Solid Slurries Measurements at Low Weight Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, L. L.; Sangani, A.; Shcherbakov, A.; Lee, J. S.; Dievendorf, E.

    2002-01-01

    The principal objective of the project is to develop an acoustic probe for determining the weight fraction of particles in a flowing suspension. The suspension can be solid-liquid (S-L) or solid-gas-liquid (S-G-L). The work will include testing the theory of acoustic wave propagation in suspensions and demonstrating the application of the probe by installing it on a flow loop through which a suspension is flowing and determining the particle weight fraction. The signal from the probe must be processed such that the noise arising from the presence of gas bubbles is removed to yield an accurate estimate of the particle weight fraction. Particular attention will be given to testing suspensions with low particle weight fractions since slurries to be transported in nuclear waste processing will have low particle weight fractions. Originally, the probe was to be developed and tested at Syracuse University (SU) then installed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) for surrogate slurries from the Hanford Nuclear site. However, after discussions between SU and ORNL in June 2002 it was agreed that all tests would be conducted at SU

  2. Modeling Replenishment of Ultrathin Liquid Perfluoro polyether Z Films on Solid Surfaces Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeed, M.S.; Kato, T.

    2014-01-01

    Applying the reptation algorithm to a simplified perfluoro polyether Z off-lattice polymer model an NVT Monte Carlo simulation has been performed. Bulk condition has been simulated first to compare the average radius of gyration with the bulk experimental results. Then the model is tested for its ability to describe dynamics. After this, it is applied to observe the replenishment of nano scale ultrathin liquid films on solid flat carbon surfaces. The replenishment rate for trenches of different widths (8, 12, and 16 nms for several molecular weights) between two films of perfluoro polyether Z from the Monte Carlo simulation is compared to that obtained solving the diffusion equation using the experimental diffusion coefficients of Ma et al. (1999), with room condition in both cases. Replenishment per Monte Carlo cycle seems to be a constant multiple of replenishment per second at least up to 2 nm replenished film thickness of the trenches over the carbon surface. Considerable good agreement has been achieved here between the experimental results and the dynamics of molecules using reptation moves in the ultrathin liquid films on solid surfaces.

  3. The effect of residual chlorides on resultant properties of solid and liquid phases after carbonization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevova Eva; Sugarkova Vera; Kaloc Miroslav [Institute of Geonics ASCR, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Petrology

    2004-07-01

    The low-concentration condition was employed to model the carbonisation mode for local (Czech Republic) coals with higher concentrations of some metals. After completing the carbonisation, mass balance calculations were performed. Results show that the presence of zinc dichloride, copper dichloride and sodium chloride caused the most pronounced impediment to the formation of tar in contrast to lead dichloride and aluminium chloride that increased tar. The results demonstrated that adding of chloride agents effect both the course of the coking process and the properties of solid and liquid products of coking. Evaluation of the solid phase showed that chloride addition caused a decrease of the caking and swelling value, which corresponds with measurements of plasticity values that are of significant influence on mechanical properties closely related to coking plant processes. Evaluation of the liquid phase pointed towards an increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives (especially phenanthrene, fluoranthene, acenaphthylene, pyrene) but a decrease of naphthalene and methylnaphthalene. Chloride addition increased aromaticity and caused a difference in substitution rate at aromatic nucleus. Mesophase estimation indicated extensive mosaic, domain and laminated anisotropic texture occurrence after chloride addition, mainly NaCl and CuCl{sub 2} addition. A more detailed evaluation including detailed screening, TGA, IR and RTG analysis will be subject of further investigation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Injection and swirl driven flowfields in solid and liquid rocket motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Anand B.

    In this work, we seek approximate analytical solutions to describe the bulk flow motion in certain types of solid and liquid rocket motors. In the case of an idealized solid rocket motor, a cylindrical double base propellant grain with steady regression rate is considered. The well known inviscid profile determined by Culick is extended here to include the effects of viscosity and steady grain regression. The approximate analytical solution for the cold flow is obtained from similarity principles, perturbation methods and the method of variation of parameters. The velocity, vorticity, pressure gradient and the shear stress distributions are determined and interpreted for different rates of wall regression and injection Reynolds number. The liquid propellant rocket engine considered here is based on a novel design that gives rise to a cyclonic flow. The resulting bidirectional motion is triggered by the tangential injection of an oxidizer just upstream of the chamber nozzle. Velocity, vorticity and pressure gradient distributions are determined for the bulk gas dynamics using a non-reactive inviscid model. Viscous corrections are then incorporated to explain the formation of a forced vortex near the core. Our results compare favorably with numerical simulations and experimental measurements obtained by other researchers. They also indicate that the bidirectional vortex in a cylindrical chamber is a physical solution of the Euler equations. In closing, we investigate the possibility of multi-directional flow behavior as predicted by Euler's equation and as reported recently in laboratory experiments.

  5. Thermal treatment of historical radioactive solid and liquid waste into the CILVA incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, Jan; Mols, Ludo

    2007-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the nuclear activities in Belgium, the incineration of radioactive waste was chosen as a suitable technique for achieving an optimal volume reduction of the produced waste quantities. Based on the 35 years experience gained by the operation of the old incinerator, a new industrial incineration plant started nuclear operation in May 1995, as a part of the Belgian Centralized Treatment/Conditioning Facility named CILVA. Up to the end of 2006, the CILVA incinerator has burnt 1660 tonne of solid waste and 419 tonne of liquid waste. This paper describes the type and allowable radioactivity of the waste, the incineration process, heat recovery and the air pollution control devices. Special attention is given to the treatment of several hundreds of tonne historical waste from former reprocessing activities such as alpha suspected solid waste, aqueous and organic liquid waste and spent ion exchange resins. The capacity, volume reduction, chemical and radiological emissions are also evaluated. BELGOPROCESS, a company set up in 1984 at Dessel (Belgium) where a number of nuclear facilities were already installed is specialized in the processing of radioactive waste. It is a subsidiary of ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian Nuclear Waste Management Agency. According to its mission statement, the activities of BELGOPROCESS focus on three areas: treatment, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste; decommissioning of shut-down nuclear facilities and cleaning of contaminated buildings and land; operating of storage sites for conditioned radioactive waste. (authors)

  6. Development and Optimization of a Flocculation Procedure for Improved Solid-Liquid Separation of Digested Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Caroline; Lischeske, James J.; Sievers, David A.

    2015-11-03

    One viable treatment method for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels begins with saccharification (thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis), followed by fermentation or catalytic upgrading to fuels such as ethanol, butanol, or other hydrocarbons. The post-hydrolysis slurry is typically 4-8 percent insoluble solids, predominantly consisting of lignin. Suspended solids are known to inhibit fermentation as well as poison catalysts and obstruct flow in catalyst beds. Thus a solid-liquid separation following enzymatic hydrolysis would be highly favorable for process economics, however the material is not easily separated by filtration or gravimetric methods. Use of a polyacrylamide flocculant to bind the suspended particles in a corn stover hydrolyzate slurry into larger flocs (1-2mm diameter) has been found to be extremely helpful in improving separation. Recent and ongoing research on novel pretreatment methods yields hydrolyzate material with diverse characteristics. Therefore, we need a thorough understanding of rapid and successful flocculation design in order to quickly achieve process design goals. In this study potential indicators of flocculation performance were investigated in order to develop a rapid analysis method for flocculation procedure in the context of a novel hydrolyzate material. Flocculation conditions were optimized on flocculant type and loading, pH, and mixing time. Filtration flux of the hydrolyzate slurry was improved 170-fold using a cationic polyacrylamide flocculant with a dosing of approximately 22 mg flocculant/g insoluble solids at an approximate pH of 3. With cake washing, sugar recovery exceeded 90 percent with asymptotic yield at 15 L wash water/kg insoluble solids.

  7. Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennink, R.; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; De Roo, M.; Mortelmans, L.; Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6±18.8; 301.3±24.5; 294.6±18.8 and 301.3±24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3±18.4; 280.6±24.0; 288.2±18.9 and 297.4±24.4 (means±SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids and liquids were not significantly different nor was a gender difference found. Determination of the OCTT seems to be the simplest and most accurate approach to measure SBTT. Since ileocaecal

  8. Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; De Roo, M.; Mortelmans, L. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1999-12-01

    Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6{+-}18.8; 301.3{+-}24.5; 294.6{+-}18.8 and 301.3{+-}24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3{+-}18.4; 280.6{+-}24.0; 288.2{+-}18.9 and 297.4{+-}24.4 (means{+-}SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids and liquids were not significantly different nor was a gender difference found. Determination of the OCTT seems to be the simplest and most accurate approach to measure SBTT

  9. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  10. Influence of solid-liquid separation strategy on biogas yield from a stratified swine production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestonaro do Amaral, André; Kunz, Airton; Radis Steinmetz, Ricardo Luis; Scussiato, Lucas Antunes; Tápparo, Deisi Cristina; Gaspareto, Taís Carla

    2016-03-01

    As the fourth largest swine producer and exporter, Brazil has increased its participation in the global swine production market. Generally, these units concentrate a large number of animals and generate effluents that must be correctly managed to prevent environmental impacts, being anaerobic digestion is an interesting alternative for treating these effluents. The low-volatile solid concentration in the manure suggests the need for solid-liquid separation as a tool to improve the biogas generation capacity. This study aimed to determine the influence of simplified and inexpensive solid-liquid separation strategies (screening and settling) and the different manures produced during each swine production phase (gestating and farrowing sow houses, nursery houses and finishing houses) on biogas and methane yield. We collected samples in two gestating sow houses (GSH-a and GSH-b), two farrowing sow houses (FSH-a and FSH-b), a nursery house (NH) and a finishing house (FH). Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were performed according to international standard procedures. The settled sludge fraction comprised 20-30% of the raw manure volume, which comprises 40-60% of the total methane yield. The methane potential of the settled sludge fraction was approximately two times higher than the methane potential of the supernatant fraction. The biogas yield differed among the raw manures from different swine production phases (GSH-a 326.4 and GSH-b 577.1; FSH-a 860.1 and FSH-b 479.2; NH -970.2; FH 474.5 NmLbiogas.gVS(-1)). The differences were relative to the production phase (feed type and feeding techniques) and the management of the effluent inside the facilities (water management). Brazilian swine production has increased his participation in the global market, been the fourth producer and the fourth exporter. The segregation of swine production in multiple sites has increased its importance, due to the possibilities to have more specialized units. Generally, these units

  11. Finite size effects in liquid-gas phase transition of asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the nuclear equation of state has been studied in astrophysical context as an element of neutron star or super-nova theories - a call for an evidence was produced in experimental nuclear physics. Heavy-ion collisions became a tool of study on thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. A particular interest has been inspired here by critical behavior of nuclear systems, as a phase transition of liquid-gas type. A lot of efforts was put to obtain an experimental evidence of such a phenomenon in heavy-ion collisions. With the use of radioactive beams and high performance identification systems in a near future it will be possible to extend experimental investigation to asymmetric nuclear systems, where neutron-to-proton ratio is far from the stability line. This experimental development needs a corresponding extension of theoretical studies. To obtain a complete theory of the liquid-gas phase transition in small nuclear systems, produced in violent heavy-ion collisions, one should take into account two facts. First, that the nuclear matter forming nuclei is composed of protons and neutrons; this complicates the formalism of phase transitions because one has to deal with two separate, proton and neutron, densities and chemical potentials. The second and more important is that the surface effects are very strong in a system composed of a few hundreds of nucleons. This point is especially difficult to hold, because surface becomes an additional, independent state parameter, depending strongly on the geometrical configuration of the system, and introducing a non-local term in the equation of state. In this presentation we follow the recent calculation by Lee and Mekjian on the finite-size effects in small (A = 10 2 -10 3 ) asymmetric nuclear systems. A zero-range isospin-dependent Skyrme force is used to obtain a density and isospin dependent potential. The potential is then completed by additional terms giving contributions from surface and Coulomb

  12. Neutron studies of liquid and solid helium: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Liquid and solid helium are prototype simple and solids displaying a wide spectrum of quantum properties. Understanding gained in these simple systems can be readily applied to more complicated materials. Neutron scattering studies carried out at DOE supported national facilities and the associated development of theory and models continue to reveal new physics in these facinating materials. During the past year we have measured the dynamic for factor, S(Q,ω), in superfluid and normal liquid 4 He accurately as a function of temperature. This shows that the sharp one-phonon excitation, which exists in the superfluid phase below T/sub lambda/, either disappears at or changes entirely in character at the transition to the normal phase. Thus the sharp one-phonon excitation can be associated with superfluidity (or a condensate). However, we find the weight of scattering in the one-phonon peak, Z(Q,T), is not porportional to the superfluid density, /rho//sub S/(T). We have also measured S(Q,ω) in the range 3 ≤ Q ≤ 15 /angstrom//sup /minus/1/ in order to obtain the width W(Q) and peak position, E(Q), of S(Q,ω) as a function of Q. We have made microscopic calculations of S(Q,ω) in the range 3 ≤ Q ≤ 15 /angstrom//sup /minus/1/ in both liquid 3 He and 4 He. The aim is a first principles evaluation of W(Q) and E(Q) as a function of Q for comparsion with experiments

  13. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waysbort, Daniel [Israel Institute for Biological Research, PO Box 19, Ness-Ziona 74100 (Israel); McGarvey, David J. [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)], E-mail: david.mcgarvey@us.army.mil; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M. [SAIC, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Durst, H. Dupont [R and T Directorate, Edgewood Chemical and Biological Center (ECBC), Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood Area, MD 21010 (United States)

    2009-01-30

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green{sup TM}, has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO{sub 4}{sup -2}) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t{sub 1/2} {<=} 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min with molybdate), and 1:10 for GD (t{sub 1/2} < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD.

  14. A decontamination system for chemical weapons agents using a liquid solution on a solid sorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waysbort, Daniel; McGarvey, David J.; Creasy, William R.; Morrissey, Kevin M.; Hendrickson, David M.; Durst, H. Dupont

    2009-01-01

    A decontamination system for chemical warfare agents was developed and tested that combines a liquid decontamination reagent solution with solid sorbent particles. The components have fewer safety and environmental concerns than traditional chlorine bleach-based products or highly caustic solutions. The liquid solution, based on Decon Green TM , has hydrogen peroxide and a carbonate buffer as active ingredients. The best solid sorbents were found to be a copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and n-lauryl methacrylate (Polytrap 6603 Adsorber); or an allyl methacrylate cross-linked polymer (Poly-Pore E200 Adsorber). These solids are human and environmentally friendly and are commonly used in cosmetics. The decontaminant system was tested for reactivity with pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman, GD), bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide (Mustard, HD), and S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX) by using NMR Spectroscopy. Molybdate ion (MoO 4 -2 ) was added to the decontaminant to catalyze the oxidation of HD. The molybdate ion provided a color change from pink to white when the oxidizing capacity of the system was exhausted. The decontaminant was effective for ratios of agent to decontaminant of up to 1:50 for VX (t 1/2 ≤ 4 min), 1:10 for HD (t 1/2 1/2 < 2 min). The vapor concentrations of GD above the dry sorbent and the sorbent with decontamination solution were measured to show that the sorbent decreased the vapor concentration of GD. The E200 sorbent had the additional advantage of absorbing aqueous decontamination solution without the addition of an organic co-solvent such as isopropanol, but the rate depended strongly on mixing for HD

  15. Nucleation and growth of vapor bubbles in the liquid bulk and at a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    The main achievements in the study of the vapor phase origin in liquid and the subsequent growth of the vapor bubbles are presented briefly, and a number of issues on which there is no single opinion as yet are also outlined. The theory of homogeneous nucleation and a great number of experiments make it possible not only to explain qualitatively the causes of spontaneous formation of vapor nucleation centers in the metastable liquid but provides a simple computational relation for the estimating the intensity of this process. None of the existing hypotheses, however, can give a complete answer to the question of the mechanism of the vapor phase nucleation on a solid surface under ''pure conditions'', although this is a more pressing problem. At the same time, the role of cavities of reservoir type (with a narrow orifice) on the surface under heating as reliable stabilizers of the vapor formation (especially in liquid metals) is clarified from the practical point of view. Thus, the identification of technology for production of such cavities would make it possible to increase substantially the efficiency of heat transferring surfaces. Any computational relations for the growth of bubbles on the heating surface also are (and, according to the author, necessarily will be) approximate ones, although considerable success has been achieved in this field

  16. The effects of functional ionic liquid on properties of solid polymer electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongxin; Cheng Xinqun; Zuo Pengjian; Liao Lixia; Yin Geping

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The functional ionic liquid(IL)-polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared. → The ionic conductivity of PEO electrolytes was raised to above 10-4 S.cm-1 at room temperature by functional IL. → The cells using functional IL-PEO electrolyte show higher reversible capacity and long cycle life. - Abstract: Polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid state electrolytes have been thought as promising electrolytes to replace the organic liquid electrolyte for lithium ion batteries. But the lower ionic conductivities at room temperature restrict their application. In this paper, functional ionic liquid and polymer mixed electrolytes are prepared from N-methyoxymethyl-N-methylpiperidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PP1.1O1TFSI) and polyethylene oxide. The PP1.1O1TFSI, a kind of room-temperature molten salt, was added to the conventional P(EO) 20 LiTFSI polymer electrolyte and resulted in a significant improvement of the ionic conductivity at room temperature. LiFePO 4 /Li and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 /Li cells using this kind of electrolyte show high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance.

  17. Liquid-Solid Dual-Gate Organic Transistors with Tunable Threshold Voltage for Cell Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Jun; Li, Rui; Sbircea, Dan-Tiberiu; Giovannitti, Alexander; Xu, Junling; Xu, Huihua; Zhou, Guodong; Bian, Liming; McCulloch, Iain; Zhao, Ni

    2017-11-08

    Liquid electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors and organic electrochemical transistors have recently emerged as powerful technology platforms for sensing and simulation of living cells and organisms. For such applications, the transistors are operated at a gate voltage around or below 0.3 V because prolonged application of a higher voltage bias can lead to membrane rupturing and cell death. This constraint often prevents the operation of the transistors at their maximum transconductance or most sensitive regime. Here, we exploit a solid-liquid dual-gate organic transistor structure, where the threshold voltage of the liquid-gated conduction channel is controlled by an additional gate that is separated from the channel by a metal-oxide gate dielectric. With this design, the threshold voltage of the "sensing channel" can be linearly tuned in a voltage window exceeding 0.4 V. We have demonstrated that the dual-gate structure enables a much better sensor response to the detachment of human mesenchymal stem cells. In general, the capability of tuning the optimal sensing bias will not only improve the device performance but also broaden the material selection for cell-based organic bioelectronics.

  18. Quantitative analysis of liquid penetration kinetics and slaking of aggregates as related to solid-liquid interfacial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Marc-O.; Woche, Susanne K.; Bachmann, Jörg

    2012-06-01

    .83, respectively) and θi (r = 0.89 and r = -0.76, respectively) than the organic carbon content (r = 0.62 and -0.52, respectively), suggesting that stability was primarily controlled by aggregate interfacial properties. Calculation of liquid penetrativity as a function of surface tension and contact angle clearly demonstrated the importance of both solid and liquid interfacial properties in determining the stability of subcritically water repellent aggregates against slaking.

  19. DETERMINATION OF SOLID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA DATA FOR MIXTURES OF HEAVY HYDROCARBONS IN A LIGHT SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.V. Hanson; J.V. Fletcher; Karthik R.

    2003-06-01

    A methodology was developed using an FT-IR spectroscopic technique to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for mixtures of heavy hydrocarbons in significantly lighter hydrocarbon diluents. SLE was examined in multiple Model Oils that were assembled to simulate waxes. The various Model oils were comprised of C-30 to C-44 hydrocarbons in decane. The FT-IR technique was used to identify the wax precipitation temperature (WPT). The DSC technique was also used in the identification of the onset of the two-phase equilibrium in this work. An additional Model oil made up of C-20 to C-30 hydrocarbons in decane was studied using the DSC experiment. The weight percent solid below the WPT was calculated using the FT-IR experimental results. The WPT and the weight percent solid below the WPT were predicted using an activity coefficient based thermodynamic model. The FT-IR spectroscopy method is found to successfully provide SLE data and also has several advantages over other laboratory-based methods.

  20. Simultaneous solid phase extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium from liquid radioactive waste using microcrystalline naphthalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, Mostafa Mohamed; Attallah, Mohamed Fathy; Metwally, Sayed Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Most of the procedures developed for the extraction of cobalt, strontium and cesium by solid phase extraction do not employ simultaneous extraction of them. In this study, rapid simultaneous removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + on microcrystalline naphthalene as solid-phase extractant was investigated. These ions were allowed to form chelates with oxine and then adsorbed on freshly microcrystalline naphthalene from aqueous solutions. The solid phase extraction procedure (SPE) was optimized by using model solution containing Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + in batch system. The effects of different parameters such as variation in pH, reagent concentration, standing time, naphthalene solution concentration and contact time on the simultaneous removal of these ions was studied. The obtained results indicated that, sorption was found to be rapid, and the percentage removal of Co 2+ , Sr 2+ and Cs + was found to be 98, 79 and 68% within 10 min, respectively. The kinetics of the sorption process was investigated to understand the kinetic characteristics of sorption of metal chelates onto microcrystalline naphthalene. The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the removal and recovery of 60 Co and 134 Cs from liquid radioactive waste. The parameters can be used for designing a plant for treatment of wastewater economically.

  1. Evolution of short range order in Ar: Liquid to glass and solid transitions-A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Stanislav; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of the short range order (SRO) as a function of temperature in a Lennard-Jones model liquid with Ar parameters was determined and juxtaposed with thermodynamic and kinetic properties obtained as the liquid was cooled (heated) and transformed between crystalline solid or glassy states and an undercooled liquid. The Lennard-Jones system was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of large supercells (approximately 20000 atoms) rapidly cooled or heated at selected quenching rates and at constant pressure. The liquid to solid transition was identified by discontinuities in the atomic volume and molar enthalpy; the glass transition temperature range was identified from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion. The SRO was studied within the quasi-crystalline model (QCM) framework and compared with the Steinhardt bond order parameters. Within the QCM it was found that the SRO evolves from a bcc-like order in the liquid through a bct-like short range order (c/a=1.2) in the supercooled liquid which persists into the glass and finally to a fcc-like ordering in the crystalline solid. The variation of the SRO that results from the QCM compares well with that obtained with Steinhardt's bond order parameters. The hypothesis of icosahedral order in liquids and glasses is not supported by our results.

  2. Simultaneous estimation of liquid and solid gastric emptying using radiolabelled egg and water in supine normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris, M G; Yeh, S D; Gralla, R J; Young, C W

    1986-01-01

    To develop an additional method for the measurement of gastric emptying in supine subjects, 10 normal subjects were given a test meal containing 99Tc-labelled scrambled egg as the "solid" phase marker and 111In in tapwater as the marker for the "liquid" phase. The mean time for emptying 50% of the "solid" phase (t1/2) was 85 min and 29 min for the "liquid" phase. Three individuals were restudied with a mean difference between the two determinations of 10.8% for the "solid" phase and 6.5% for the "liquid" phase. Twenty-six additional studies attempted have been successfully completed in symptomatic patients with advanced cancer. This method provides a simple and reproducible procedure for the determination of gastric emptying that yields results similar to those reported for other test meals and can be used in debilitated patients.

  3. Ionic liquid and solid HF equivalent amine-poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes effecting efficient environmentally friendly isobutane-isobutylene alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A; Mathew, Thomas; Goeppert, Alain; Török, Béla; Bucsi, Imre; Li, Xing-Ya; Wang, Qi; Marinez, Eric R; Batamack, Patrice; Aniszfeld, Robert; Prakash, G K Surya

    2005-04-27

    Isoparaffin-olefin alkylation was investigated using liquid as well as solid onium poly(hydrogen fluoride) catalysts. These new immobilized anhydrous HF catalysts contain varied amines and nitrogen-containing polymers as complexing agents. The liquid poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes of amines are typical ionic liquids, which are convenient media and serve as HF equivalent catalysts with decreased volatility for isoparaffin-olefin alkylation. Polymeric solid amine:poly(hydrogen fluoride) complexes are excellent solid HF equivalents for similar alkylation acid catalysis. Isobutane-isobutylene or 2-butene alkylation gave excellent yields of high octane alkylates (up to RON = 94). Apart from their excellent catalytic performance, the new catalyst systems significantly reduce environmental hazards due to the low volatility of complexed HF. They represent a new, "green" class of catalyst systems for alkylation reactions, maintaining activity of HF while minimizing its environmental hazards.

  4. Performance Validation and Scaling of a Capillary Membrane Solid-Liquid Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, S; Cook, J; Juratovac, J; Goodwillie, J; Burke, T

    2011-10-25

    Algaeventure Systems (AVS) has previously demonstrated an innovative technology for dewatering algae slurries that dramatically reduces energy consumption by utilizing surface physics and capillary action. Funded by a $6M ARPA-E award, transforming the original Harvesting, Dewatering and Drying (HDD) prototype machine into a commercially viable technology has required significant attention to material performance, integration of sensors and control systems, and especially addressing scaling issues that would allow processing extreme volumes of algal cultivation media/slurry. Decoupling the harvesting, dewatering and drying processes, and addressing the rate limiting steps for each of the individual steps has allowed for the development individual technologies that may be tailored to the specific needs of various cultivation systems. The primary performance metric used by AVS to assess the economic viability of its Solid-Liquid Separation (SLS) dewatering technology is algae mass production rate as a function of power consumption (cost), cake solids/moisture content, and solids capture efficiency. An associated secondary performance metric is algae mass loading rate which is dependent on hydraulic loading rate, area-specific hydraulic processing capacity (gpm/in2), filter:capillary belt contact area, and influent algae concentration. The system is capable of dewatering 4 g/L (0.4%) algae streams to solids concentrations up to 30% with capture efficiencies of 80+%, however mass production is highly dependent on average cell size (which determines filter mesh size and percent open area). This paper will present data detailing the scaling efforts to date. Characterization and performance data for novel membranes, as well as optimization of off-the-shelf filter materials will be examined. Third party validation from Ohio University on performance and operating cost, as well as design modification suggestions will be discussed. Extrapolation of current productivities

  5. A novel approach for simultaneous measurements of Hall effect and magnetoresistance effect in solid and liquid state of gallium and mercury metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogita, M.; Nakao, M.; Singh, C.D.; Mogi, I.; Awaji, S.

    2004-01-01

    An AC-DC method has been proposed for simultaneous measurements of Hall effect and magnetoresistance effect in solid and liquid state of Ga and Hg metals. In low magnetic field Hall signal in solid state is proportional to magnetic field B, while in liquid state Hall signal is affected by magnetoresistance effect. It has been found that magnetoresistance has a B 2 dependence on magnetic field and affects the Hall signal. In high magnetic field, the Hall effect in liquid state is affected by a very large magnetoresistance effect compared in solid state. The magnetoresistance effect in liquid state is higher than solid state

  6. METHODS FOR THE SAFE STORAGE, HANDLING, AND DISPOSAL OF PYROPHORIC LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS IN THE LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F.; Kuntamukkula, M.; Alnajjar, M.; Quigley, D.; Freshwater, D.; Bigger, S.

    2010-02-02

    Pyrophoric reagents represent an important class of reactants because they can participate in many different types of reactions. They are very useful in organic synthesis and in industrial applications. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) define Pyrophorics as substances that will self-ignite in air at temperatures of 130 F (54.4 C) or less. However, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) uses criteria different from the auto-ignition temperature criterion. The DOT defines a pyrophoric material as a liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within five minutes after coming in contact with air when tested according to the United Nations Manual of Tests and Criteria. The Environmental Protection Agency has adopted the DOT definition. Regardless of which definition is used, oxidation of the pyrophoric reagents by oxygen or exothermic reactions with moisture in the air (resulting in the generation of a flammable gas such as hydrogen) is so rapid that ignition occurs spontaneously. Due to the inherent nature of pyrophoric substances to ignite spontaneously upon exposure to air, special precautions must be taken to ensure their safe handling and use. Pyrophoric gases (such as diborane, dichloroborane, phosphine, etc.) are typically the easiest class of pyrophoric substances to handle since the gas can be plumbed directly to the application and used remotely. Pyrophoric solids and liquids, however, require the user to physically manipulate them when transferring them from one container to another. Failure to follow proper safety precautions could result in serious injury or unintended consequences to laboratory personnel. Because of this danger, pyrophorics should be handled only by experienced personnel. Users with limited experience must be trained on how to handle pyrophoric reagents and consult with a knowledgeable staff member prior

  7. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  8. Characterization of isolated fractions of dissolved organic matter derived from municipal solid waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Minda; He, Xiaosong; Liu, Jiaomei; Wang, Yuefeng; Xi, Beidou; Li, Dan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Chao

    2018-04-14

    Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting. The high-MW humic substances and building blocks in the HA fraction degraded faster during composting than polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. Similarly, the low MW acid FA factions transformed faster than the low weight neutral fractions, followed by building blocks, and finally polymers, proteins, and organic colloids. The evolutions of HyI fractions during composting occurred first for building blocks, followed by low MW acids, and finally low weight neutrals. With the progress of composting, the hydrophobic properties of the HA and FA fractions were enhanced. The degradation/humification process of the hydrophilic and transphilic components was faster than that of the hydrophobic component. Compared with the FA and HyI fractions, the HA fraction exhibited a higher MW and increased hydrophobicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Insights in groundwater organic matter from Liquid Chromatography-Organic Carbon Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutlidge, H.; Oudone, P.; McDonough, L.; Andersen, M. S.; Baker, A.; Meredith, K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater has important implications for the terrestrial global carbon budget. Liquid Chromatography - Organic Carbon Detection (LC-OCD) is a size-exclusion based chromatography technique that separates the organic carbon into molecular weight size fractions of biopolymers, humic substances, building blocks (degradation products of humic substances), low molecular weight acids and low molecular weight neutrals. Groundwater and surface water samples were collected from a range of locations in Australia representing different surface soil, land cover, recharge type and hydrological properties. At one site hyporheic zone samples were also collected from beneath a stream. The results showed a general decrease in the aromaticity and molecular weight indices going from surface water, hyporheic downwelling and groundwater samples. The aquifer substrate also affected the organic composition. For example, groundwater samples collected from a zone of fractured rock showed a relative decrease in the proportion of humic substances, suggestive of sorption or degradation of humic substances. This work demonstrates the potential for using LC-OCD in elucidating the processes that control the concentration and characteristics of organic matter in groundwater.

  10. Deactivation of solid catalysts in liquid media: the case of leaching of active sites in biomass conversion reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sádaba, Irantzu; Lopez Granados, Manuel; Riisager, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This review is aimed to be a brief tutorial covering the deactivation of solid catalysts in the liquid phase, with specific focus on leaching, which can be especially helpful to researchers not familiarized with catalytic processes in the liquid phase. Leaching refers to the loss of active species....... However, as a consequence of the development of new processes for biorefineries, an increasing number of reactions deal with liquid media, and thus, the stability and reusability of a solid catalyst in this situation represent a huge challenge that requires specific attention. Leaching of active phases...... is particularly problematic because of its irreversibility and it can be one of the main causes of catalyst deactivation in liquid media, threatening the sustainability of the process. This tutorial review presents a survey of the main aspects concerning the deactivation due to leaching of active species from...

  11. Applications and Properties of Ionic Liquid- Based Gels and Soft Solid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bret Alan McGinness

    2011-12-01

    Solid-liquid composites (gels) have a combination of properties that afford new material applications in which high solute diffusion is desirable. These composites have a soft-solid mechanical integrity and will not flow under gravity, but entrain a liquid matrix (i.e. 60-98 mass %) which allows for high diffusion and high reactivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs) are molten organic salts with a melting point below room temperature and negligible vapor pressure. If the RTILs are used as the liquid component of a gel, then the gel matrix will not evaporate (unlike other organic solvents) and may be used for long term applications. This thesis research applies RTIL gels for two new applications; carbon dioxide/nitrogen separation and chemical warfare agent (CWA) barrier and decontamination. Separating CO2 from the flue gas of coal and gas fired power-plants is an increasingly economically and environmentally important gas separation. In this first study, RTIL gels are cast in a supported membrane and gas permeability and ideal selectivity are measured. The RTIL matrix has an inherent affinity for CO2 and provides a high diffusion, hence high permeability (i.e. 500-700 barrer). The solidifying component is a low molecular-weight organic gelator (LMOG) which through physical bonding interactions (i.e. hydrogen bonding, pi-pi stacking and van der Walls forces) forms an entangled network which provides mechanical stability (i.e. increase trans-membrane pressure required to expel selective material from the support). In these studies two LMOGs and five RTILs are used to make supported gel membranes and determine gas permeability and temperature dependent trends. The second application for RTIL gels is a decontaminating barrier for CWAs and toxic industrial compounds (TICs). In these studies a layer of RTIL gel is applied on top of a substrate contaminated with a CWA simulant (i.e. chloroethylethylsulfide, CEES). The gel performs well as a barrier, preventing CEES

  12. Solid-Liquid Equilibria for the Binary Mixtures 1,4-Xylene + Ethylbenzene and 1,4-Xylene + Toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huyghe, Raphaël; Rasmussen, Peter; Thomsen, Kaj

    2004-01-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K.......Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data for the binary mixtures 1,4-xylene + ethylbenzene, and 1,4-xylene + toluene have been measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the temperature range from 133.15 K to 293.15 K....

  13. Room-temperature solid phase ionic liquid (RTSPIL) coated Ω-transaminases: Development and application in organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabner, B.; Nazario, M. A.; Gundersen, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co‐lyophilization and ......ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co...

  14. Monolayer self-assembly at liquid-solid interfaces: chirality and electronic properties of molecules at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amabilino, David B; Gomar-Nadal, Elba; Veciana, Jaume; Rovira, Concepcio; Iavicoli, Patrizia; PuigmartI-Luis, Josep; Feyter, Steven De; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M; Mamdouh, Wael; Psychogyiopoulou, Krystallia; Xu Hong; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Linares, Mathieu; Minoia, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The spontaneous formation of supramolecular assemblies at the boundary between solids and liquids is a process which encompasses a variety of systems with diverse characteristics: chemisorbed systems in which very strong and weakly reversible bonds govern the assembly and physisorbed aggregates which are dynamic thanks to the weaker interactions between adsorbate and surface. Here we review the interest and advances in the study of chiral systems at the liquid-solid interface, and also the application of this configuration for the study of systems of interest in molecular electronics, self-assembled from the bottom up

  15. Neutron reflectivity as method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutberlet, Thomas; Klösgen, Beate Maria; Krastev, Rumen

    2004-01-01

    variation. It was observed that the method was capable of visualizing the adsorption of phospholipid layers to different solid-liquid interfaces and to resolve structural details at Angstroem resolution. The results depended strongly on a sufficiently good signal-to-noise ratio of the specific measurements......The use of neutron reflectivity as a method to study in-situ adsorption of phospholipid layers to solid-liquid interfaces was analyzed. The most important advantage of neutron reflectometry is the possibility to very the refractive index of the specific sample by isotope exchange, called contrast...

  16. Beamline electrostatic levitator for in situ high energy x-ray diffraction studies of levitated solids and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangopadhyay, A.K.; Lee, G.W.; Kelto, K.F.; Rogers, J.R.; Goldman, A.I.; Robinson, D.S.; Rathz, T.J.; Hyers, R.W. (WU); (UAB); (NASA); (UMASS, Amherst)

    2010-07-19

    Determinations of the phase formation sequence, crystal structures and the thermo-physical properties of materials at high temperatures are hampered by contamination from the sample container and environment. Containerless processing techniques, such as electrostatic (ESL), electromagnetic, aerodynamic, and acoustic levitation, are most suitable for these studies. An adaptation of ESL for in situ structural studies of a wide range of materials using high energy (30-130 keV) x rays at a synchrotron source is described here. This beamline ESL (BESL) allows the in situ determination of the atomic structures of equilibrium solid and liquid phases, undercooled liquids and time-resolved studies of solid-solid and liquid-solid phase transformations. The use of area detectors enables the rapid acquisition of complete diffraction patterns over a wide range (0.5-14 {angstrom}{sup -1}) of reciprocal space. The wide temperature range (300-2500 K), containerless processing environment under high vacuum (10{sup -7}-10{sup -8} Torr), and fast data acquisition capability, make BESL particularly well suited for phase stability studies of high temperature solids and liquids. An additional, but important, feature of BESL is the capability for simultaneous measurements of a host of thermo-physical properties including the specific heat, enthalpy of transformation, solidus and liquidus temperatures, density, viscosity, and surface tension, all on the same sample during the structural measurements.

  17. Effects of liquid versus solid diet on colonic transit in humans. Evaluation by standard colonic transit scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, P.N.; Richter, J.E.; Chilton, H.M.; Kerr, R.M.; Cowan, R.C.; Gelfand, D.W.; Ott, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of liquid versus solid diet on human colonic transit were investigated, and transit following cecal instillation of tracer was compared with transit following instillation in the proximal jejunum. In a randomized cross-over, single-blind fashion, 6 normal volunteers ingesting either normal solid foods or a liquid diet were studied using colonic transit scintigraphy. 111In-DTPA was instilled either into the cecum via a long intestinal tube or into the proximal jejunum via a feeding tube. Compared with the liquid diet, the solid diet slowed transit in the cecum and ascending colon (p less than 0.025) and delayed progression of the geometric center (p less than 0.05) during the first 4 h of the study. Transit from 18 to 48 h was similar on the 2 diets. On the solid diet, transit was similar whether 111In-DTPA was instilled into the proximal jejunum or into the cecum. Transit from the terminal ileum to the cecum was assessed in an additional 5 volunteers following jejunal instillation of 99mTc-DTPA. Cecal filling was rapid (T1/2 = 0.49 h) and complete in all subjects before the onset of cecal emptying. These results suggest that colonic transit is slower on a solid than a liquid diet and that jejunal instillation of radiopharmaceuticals should be suitable for colonic transit studies in most subjects

  18. A planar, solid-state amperometric sensor for nitrogen dioxide, employing an ionic liquid electrolyte contained in a polymeric matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nádherná, M.; Opekar, F.; Reiter, Jakub; Stulík, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 1 (2012), s. 811-817 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC523; GA AV ČR KJB200320901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Amperometry * Gas sensor * Solid-state sensor * Planar sensor * Ionic liquid * Solid polymer electrolyte * Gold minigrid electrode * Nitrogen dioxide Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.535, year: 2012

  19. Study of light detection and sensitivity for a ton-scale liquid xenon dark matter detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Y; Lin, Q; Xiao, X; Ni, K

    2013-01-01

    Ton-scale liquid xenon detectors operated in two-phase mode are proposed and being constructed recently to explore the favored parameter space for the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) dark matter. To achieve a better light collection efficiency while limiting the number of electronics channels compared to the previous generation detectors, large-size photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) such as the 3-inch-diameter R11410 from Hamamatsu are suggested to replace the 1-inch-square R8520 PMTs. In a two-phase xenon dark matter detector, two PMT arrays on the top and bottom are usually used. In this study, we compare the performance of two different ton-scale liquid xenon detector configurations with the same number of either R11410 (config.1) or R8520 (config.2) for the top PMT array, while both using R11410 PMTs for the bottom array. The self-shielding of liquid xenon suppresses the background from the PMTs and the dominant background is from the pp solar neutrinos in the central fiducial volume. The light collection efficiency for the primary scintillation light is largely affected by the xenon purity and the reflectivity of the reflectors. In the optimistic situation with a 10 m light absorption length and a 95% reflectivity, the light collection efficiency is 43%(34%) for config.1(config.2). In the conservative situation with a 2.5 m light absorption length and a 85% reflectivity, the value is only 18%(13%) for config.1(config.2). The difference between the two configurations is due to the larger PMT coverage on the top for config.1. The slightly different position resolutions for the two configurations have a negligible effect on the sensitivity. Based on the above considerations, we estimate the sensitivity reach of the two detector configurations. Both configurations can reach a sensitivity of 2 ∼ 3 × 10 −47 cm 2 for spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section for 100 GeV/c 2 WIMPs after two live-years of operation. The one with R8520 PMTs for the top

  20. Broad compositional tunability of indium tin oxide nanowires grown by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zervos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide nanowires were grown by the reaction of In and Sn with O2 at 800 °C via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on 1 nm Au/Si(001. We obtain Sn doped In2O3 nanowires having a cubic bixbyite crystal structure by using In:Sn source weight ratios > 1:9 while below this we observe the emergence of tetragonal rutile SnO2 and suppression of In2O3 permitting compositional and structural tuning from SnO2 to In2O3 which is accompanied by a blue shift of the photoluminescence spectrum and increase in carrier lifetime attributed to a higher crystal quality and Fermi level position.

  1. Electrotransport of Uranium from a Liquid Cadmium Anode to a Solid Cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Hua, Thanh Q.

    2002-01-01

    During anodic dissolution of irradiated binary Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel, a portion of the electrorefined uranium collects in the underlying cadmium pool. It is periodically recovered by setting up a cell configuration in which the pool is made the anode and uranium is electrodeposited on a solid cathode mandrel. A theoretical model is used to determine the current structure of the liquid cadmium anode. The model is validated by comparing against the measured composition of the cathode deposits. Multinodal simulations are conducted to explain the bell shape of deposits observed with this mode of electrotransport. The simulations also determine the dependence of collection efficiency on the electrical charge passed that is functionally consistent with the experimental data. Finally, a simplified operating map of the electrorefiner is presented that can be used to determine the conditions for growing cathode deposits of target composition

  2. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Etch of Semiconductor Surface Channels by Running Gold Nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoobakht, Babak; Herzing, Andrew; Muramoto, Shin; Tersoff, Jerry

    2015-12-09

    We show that Au nanoparticles spontaneously move across the (001) surface of InP, InAs, and GaP when heated in the presence of water vapor. As they move, the particles etch crystallographically aligned grooves into the surface. We show that this process is a negative analogue of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires: the semiconductor dissolves into the catalyst and reacts with water vapor at the catalyst surface to create volatile oxides, depleting the dissolved cations and anions and thus sustaining the dissolution process. This VLS etching process provides a new tool for directed assembly of structures with sublithographic dimensions, as small as a few nanometers in diameter. Au particles above 100 nm in size do not exhibit this process but remain stationary, with oxide accumulating around the particles.

  3. Incineration facility for combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes in IPEN-CNEN - Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutman, I.; Grosche Filho, C.E.; Chandra, U.; Suarez, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A system for incinerating the combustible solid and liquid radioactive wastes was developed in order to achieve higher mass and volume reduction of the wastes generated at IPEN-CNEN/SP or received from other institutions. The radioactive wastes for incineration are: animal carcasses, ion-exchange resins, contaminated lubricant oils, cellulosic materials, plastics, etc. The optimization of the process was achieved by considering the following factors: selection of better construction and insulating material; dimensions; modular design of combustion chambers to increase burning capacity in future; applicability for various types of wastes; choise of gas cleaning system. The off-gas system utilizes dry treatment. The operation is designed to function with a negative pressure. (Author) [pt

  4. Atomic characterization of Au clusters in vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere; Pareige, Philippe; Castro, Celia; Xu, Tao; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    By correlating atom probe tomography with other conventional microscope techniques (scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, and scanning tunneling microscopy), the distribution and composition of Au clusters in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Si nanowires is investigated. Taking advantage of the characteristics of atom probe tomography, we have developed a sample preparation method by inclining the sample at certain angle to characterize the nanowire sidewall without using focused ion beam. With three-dimensional atomic scale reconstruction, we provide direct evidence of Au clusters tending to remain on the nanowire sidewall rather than being incorporated into the Si nanowires. Based on the composition measurement of Au clusters (28% ± 1%), we have demonstrated the supersaturation of Si atoms in Au clusters, which supports the hypothesis that Au clusters are formed simultaneously during nanowire growth rather than during the cooling process

  5. Atomic characterization of Au clusters in vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wanghua; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et Couches Minces (LPICM), UMR 7647, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Pareige, Philippe; Castro, Celia [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux (GPM), Université et INSA de Rouen, UMR 6634, CNRS, Av. de l' Université, BP 12, 76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Xu, Tao; Grandidier, Bruno; Stiévenard, Didier [Institut d' Electronique et de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), UMR 8520, CNRS, Département ISEN, 41 bd Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France)

    2015-09-14

    By correlating atom probe tomography with other conventional microscope techniques (scanning electron microscope, scanning transmission electron microscope, and scanning tunneling microscopy), the distribution and composition of Au clusters in individual vapor-liquid-solid grown Si nanowires is investigated. Taking advantage of the characteristics of atom probe tomography, we have developed a sample preparation method by inclining the sample at certain angle to characterize the nanowire sidewall without using focused ion beam. With three-dimensional atomic scale reconstruction, we provide direct evidence of Au clusters tending to remain on the nanowire sidewall rather than being incorporated into the Si nanowires. Based on the composition measurement of Au clusters (28% ± 1%), we have demonstrated the supersaturation of Si atoms in Au clusters, which supports the hypothesis that Au clusters are formed simultaneously during nanowire growth rather than during the cooling process.

  6. Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of silicon nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonho; Thompson-Flagg, Rebecca; Ekerdt, John G.; Shih, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Pattern formation of nanoflowers during the vapor-liquid-solid growth of Si nanowires is reported. Using transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, we show that the flower consists of an Au/SiO x core-shell structure. Moreover, the growth of flower starts at the interface between the gold catalyst and the silicon nanowire, presumably by enhanced oxidation at this interface. The pattern formation can be classified as dense branching morphology (DBM). It is the first observation of DBM in a spherical geometry and at the nanoscale. The analysis of the average branching distance of this pattern shows that the pattern is most likely formed during the growth process, not the cooling process, and that the curvature of the gold droplet plays a crucial role in the frequency of branching

  7. Initial adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to solid surfaces under liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szlavik, Julie; Soares Paiva, Dionísio; Mørk, Nils

    2012-01-01

    .001) was observed but not of interactions between surface-shear stress. No correlation between surface hydrophobicity and IAR was observed. Addition of 5% NaCl during propagation resulted in a decrease in IAR whilst propagation in low nutrient media caused an increase indicating a general change in surface......Some strains of the food borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes persist in food processing environments. The exact reason behind this phenomenon is not known, but strain differences in the ability to adhere to solid surfaces could offer an explanation. In the present work, initial adhesion of nine...... strains of L. monocytogenes was investigated under liquid flow at two levels of shear stress on six different surfaces using a flow chamber set-up with microscopy measurements. The surfaces tested were glass and PVC, and glass coated with beef extract, casein, and homogenised and unhomogenised milk...

  8. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241 Am decays by alpha emission to 237 Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237 Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241 Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  9. Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of pigments of red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csiktusnádi Kiss, G A; Forgács, E; Cserháti, T; Candeias, M; Vilas-Boas, L; Bronze, R; Spranger, I

    2000-08-11

    The adsorption and desorption capacities of 11 different solid-phase extraction sorbents were tested for the preconcenration of pigments of various Hungarian red wines. The concentrates were evaluated by multiwavelengh spectrophotometry combined with a spectral mapping technique (SPM) and by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The highest (10-fold) concentration of pigments was achieved on octadecylsilica sorbent. It can be used five times without losing adsorption and desorption characteristics. SPM indicated that multiwavelength spectrophotometry can be employed for the differentiation of red wines. Comparison of the chromatograms of pigments with and without preconcentration showed that preconcentration makes possible the separation and detection of pigments present in low concentration in red wines.

  10. Weighted-density functional approach for the solid-liquid interfaces in electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepanova, T.A.; Stekolnikov, A.V.

    1991-09-01

    A weighted-density functional method is proposed to describe the atomic structure of the crystal-melt interface in electrolytes based on a charged-hard-sphere model of salt. The contribution of long-range Coulomb interaction is taken into account in the field formulation: the electrostatic field potential is determined from the Poisson equation. The ion density profiles and crystalline order parameter at the crystal-melt interface in the 1:1 symmetric electrolytes are calculated. The structurization of liquid near the solid surface is described. The results are compared to those for the neutral hard sphere system. The impurity distributions of extremely small concentrations are calculated both for the neutral and charged hard sphere systems. (author). 24 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  11. Cavitation induced by high speed impact of a solid surface on a liquid jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Mohamed; Tinguely, Marc; Rouvinez, Mathieu

    2009-11-01

    A solid surface may suffer from severe erosion if it impacts a liquid jet at high speed. The physics behind the erosion process remains unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the impact of a gun bullet on a laminar water jet with the help of a high speed camera. The bullet has a flat front and 11 mm diameter, which is half of jet diameter. The impact speed was varied between 200 and 500 ms-1. Immediately after the impact, a systematic shock wave and high speed jetting were observed. As the compression waves reflect on the jet boundary, a spectacular number of vapour cavities are generated within the jet. Depending on the bullet velocity, these cavities may grow and collapse violently on the bullet surface with a risk of cavitation erosion. We strongly believe that this transient cavitation is the main cause of erosion observed in many industrial applications such as Pelton turbines.

  12. Structure of shocks in solids and liquids: Six reprints with an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This monograph consists of six papers on the theory of shocks in solids and liquids, reprinted from Physical Review, together with an introduction summarizing the complete shock theory and its limitations. The shock theory of this monograph is based on the principles of irreversible thermodynamics, characterized as follows. First, in equilibrium thermodynamics, materials are required to pass through states which lie on the equilibrium surface. In irreversible thermodynamics, materials pass through nonequilibrium states, but only those states which are close to the equilibrium surface, specifically, those states for which the equilibrium properties of temperature and entropy are still reasonably well defined. To construct an irreversible thermodynamic theory it is necessary to define the variables which measure the departure from equilibrium, to express the effect of these variables by a modification of the equilibrium thermodynamic equations, and to write an equation for the (irreversible) entropy generation. These principles are applied to planar shocks in the reprints collected here

  13. Demonstration test on decontamination of contaminated pool water using liquid-solid settling technology with flocculants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Adachi, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Tagawa, Akihiro; Hosobuchi, Shigeki; Takanashi, Junko

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying agricultural water, a stationary purification system for contaminated water had been developed on the basis of the liquid-solid settling technology using flocculants. Two kinds of flocculants had been developed on the basis of preliminary tests: one that compounds iron ferrocyanide and the other that does not. With the use of this system and flocculants, a demonstration test was conducted to apply the decontamination technology on contaminated water in two swimming pools in an elementary school located at Motomiya City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It is proved from the results that both the developed purification system and the flocculants can be established as a practicable decontamination technology for contaminated water: the treatment rate was 10 m 3 /hour and the elimination factor of radioactive materials was higher than 99%. (author)

  14. High quality junctions by interpenetration of vapor liquid solid grown nanostructures for microchip integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebril, Seid; Kuhlmann, Hanna; Adelung, Rainer [Funktionale Nanomaterialien, CAU Kiel (Germany); Mueller, Sven [Nanowires and Thin Films, II. Physikalisches Institut, Goettingen (Germany); Ronning, Carsten [Institute for Solid State Physics, Universitaet Jena (Germany); Kienle, Lorenz [Synthese und Realstruktur, CAU Kiel (Germany); Duppel, Viola [MPI fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The usability of nanostructures in electrical devices like gas sensors depends critically on the ability to form high quality contacts and junctions. For the fabrication of various nanostructures, vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a wide spread and very efficient technique. However, forming contacts with the VLS grown structures to utilize them in a device is still tedious, because either the substrate has to be epitaxial to the VLS material or a manual alignment is necessary. Here we demonstrate the contact formation by simply using the ability of individual crystals to interpenetrate each other during the straight forward VLS growth. This allows growing VLS structures directly on two neighboring gold circuit paths of a microchip; bridges over predefined gaps will be formed. Moreover, TEM investigations confirm the high quality of the crystalline junctions that allow demonstrations as UV and hydrogen-sensor. The VLS devices are compared with conventional produced.

  15. Liquid and solid rad waste treatment in advanced nuclear power plants. Application to the SBWR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielas Reina, M.; Asuar Alonso, O.

    1994-01-01

    Rad waste treatment requirements for the new generation of American advanced passive and evolutionary power plants are listed in the URD (Utility Requirements Document) of the EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute). These requirements focus on: - Minimization of shipped solid wastes - Minimization of liquid effluents - Simplification of design and operation, with emphasis not only on waste treatment system design but also on general plant design and operation These objectives are aimed at: - Reducing and segregating wastes at source - Minimizing chemical contamination of these wastes System design simplification is completed by providing free space in the building for the use of mobile plants, either for special services not considered in the basic design or to accommodate future technical advances. (Author)

  16. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, Katja; Trampert, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge 1 Sb 2 Te 4 thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  17. Liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloy observed by in-situ transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Katja, E-mail: katja.berlin@pdi-berlin.de; Trampert, Achim

    2017-07-15

    Melting and crystallization dynamics of the multi-component Ge-Sb-Te alloy have been investigated by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Starting point of the phase transition study is an ordered hexagonal Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin film on Si(111) where the crystal structure and the chemical composition are verified by scanning TEM and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, respectively. The in-situ observation of the liquid phase at 600°C including the liquid-solid and liquid-vacuum interfaces and their movements was made possible due to an encapsulation of the TEM sample. The solid-liquid interface during melting displays a broad and diffuse transition zone characterized by a vacancy induced disordered state. Although the velocities of interface movements are measured to be in the nanometer per second scale, both, for crystallization and solidification, the underlying dynamic processes are considerably different. Melting reveals linear dependence on time, whereas crystallization exhibits a non-linear time-dependency featuring a superimposed start-stop motion. Our results may provide valuable insight into the atomic mechanisms at interfaces during the liquid-solid phase transition of Ge-Sb-Te alloys. - Highlights: • In-situ TEM observation of liquid Ge-Sb-Te phase transition due to encapsulation. • During melting: Observation of non-ordered interface transition due to premelting. • During solidification: Observation of non-linear time-dependent crystallization.

  18. A new approach to determine the density of liquids and solids without measuring mass and volume: introducing the solidensimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktaş, Halit; Şahin, Mehmet; Eslek, Sinan; Kiriktaş, İrem

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to design a mechanism with which the density of any solid or liquid can be determined without measuring its mass and volume in order to help students comprehend the concept of density more easily. The solidensimeter comprises of two scaled and nested glass containers (graduated cylinder or beaker) and sufficient water. In this method, the density measurement was made using the Archimedes’ principle stating that an object fully submerged in a liquid displaces the same amount of liquid as its volume, while an object partially submerged or floating displaces the same amount of liquid as its mass. Using this method, the density of any solids or liquids can be determined using a simple mathematical ratio. At the end of the process a mechanism that helps students to comprehend the density topic more easily was designed. The system is easy-to-design, uses low-cost equipment and enables one to determine the density of any solid or liquid without measuring its mass and volume.

  19. Physical properties of lead free solders in liquid and solid state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiaoui, Souad

    2007-04-17

    The European legislation prohibits the use of lead containing solders in Europe. However, lead free solders have a higher melting point (typical 20%) and their mechanical characteristics are worse. Additional problems are aging and adhesion of the solder on the electronic circuits. Thus, research activities must focus on the optimization of the properties of Sn-Ag-Cu based lead free solders chosen by the industry. Two main objectives are treated in this work. In the center of the first one is the study of curious hysteresis effects of metallic cadmium-antimony alloys after thermal cycles by measuring electronic transport phenomena (thermoelectric power and electrical resistivity). The second objective, within the framework of ''cotutelle'' between the universities of Metz and of Chemnitz and supported by COST531, is to study more specifically lead free solders. A welding must well conduct electricity and well conduct and dissipate heat. In Metz, we determined the electrical conductivity, the thermoelectric power and the thermal conductivity of various lead free solders (Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Cu, Sn-Ag, Sn-Sb) as well in the liquid as well in the solid state. The results have been compared to classical lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders. In Chemnitz we measured the surface tension, the interfacial tension and the density of lead free solders. We also measured the viscosity of these solders without and with additives, in particular nickel. These properties were related to the industrial problems of wettability and spreadability. Lastly, we solidified alloys under various conditions. We observed undercooling. We developed a technique of mixture of nanocrystalline powder with lead free solders ''to sow'' the liquid bath in order to obtain ''different'' solids which were examined using optical and electron microscopy. (orig.)

  20. Ab initio theory of the electronic structure of nf-ions in solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In the books and papers we developed the self-consistent field theory of nl- ions in Me+n:[L]k- clusters, where k is number of ligands - L, by ion-ligands distance - R. The results which were obtained for all RE and AC ions for Me+n:[L]k, where L - F - , O -2 and so on ligands, are closely corresponded to experimental data. The expression for energy of the cluster may be write as: E = E 0 + kE 1 + k'(E z + E c + E e + E ex ), (Eq.1), where E 0 and E 1 are the energies of the free nl-ion and surrounding one; E z , E c and E e are the energy of electrons interaction with 'strange' nucleus, Coulomb electron-electron interaction and exchange one. E ex is the energy of the interaction of electrons and nucleus with external field. The equations for the radial one-electron wave functions of the ions in the cluster were obtained by minimizing the Eq. 1 for the radial orbitals of the central ion and ligand one. We have received the general system of equations of the self-consistent field for cluster in liquids and solid states. The results of calculations of the energy structure of clusters and values of the standard radial integrals (spectroscopy parameters) for Ac-ions in 1-2-3 superconductors and RE-ions in garnet crystals by different values of R are qualitatively and quantitatively correct. We've got the best results for pressure dependence of Nd ions spectra, change of optical and X-Ray spectra after irradiation of garnets. We explained the nature of anomalous in SrTiO 3 and separate lasers crystals by used of results of the calculations. In the framework of our approach we obtained the best accuracy for the energy of X- Ray lines for all nf- ions in solids and liquids

  1. Nitrogen losses and chemical parameters during co-composting of solid wastes and liquid pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; de la Varga, D; Plana, R; Soto, M

    2017-07-04

    The aim of this research was to study nitrogen losses during the treatment of the liquid fraction (LF) of pig manure by co-composting and to establish the best conditions for compost production with higher nitrogen and low heavy metal contents. Windrows were constituted with the solid fraction (SF) of pig manure, different organic waste (SF of pig manure, sawdust and grape bagasse) as co-substrate and Populus spp. wood chips as bulking material and watered intensely with the LF. Results show that nitrogen losses ranged from 30% to 66% of initial nitrogen and were mainly governed by substrate to bulking mass ratio and liquid fraction to substrate (LF/S) ratio, and only secondarily by operational parameters. Nitrogen losses decreased from 55-65% at low LF/S ratios (1.7-1.9 m 3 /t total solids (TS)) to 30-39% at high LF/S ratios (4.4-4.7 m 3 /t TS). Therefore, integrating the LF in the composting process at high LF/S ratios favoured nitrogen recovery and conservation. Nitrogen in the fine fraction (ranging from 27% to 48% of initial nitrogen) was governed by operational parameters, namely pH and temperature. Final compost showed low content in most heavy metals, but Zn was higher than the limits for compost use in agriculture. Zn content in the obtained compost varied from 1863 to 3269 mg/kg dm, depending on several factors. The options for obtaining better quality composts from the LF of pig manure are selecting co-substrates with low heavy metal content and using them instead of the SF of pig manure.

  2. Lead(ii) soaps: crystal structures, polymorphism, and solid and liquid mesophases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Casado, F J; Ramos-Riesco, M; Rodríguez-Cheda, J A; Redondo-Yélamos, M I; Garrido, L; Fernández-Martínez, A; García-Barriocanal, J; da Silva, I; Durán-Olivencia, M; Poulain, A

    2017-07-05

    The long-chain members of the lead(ii) alkanoate series or soaps, from octanoate to octadecanoate, have been thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, PDF analysis, DSC, FTIR, ssNMR and other techniques, in all their phases and mesophases. The crystal structures at room temperature of all of the members of the series are now solved, showing the existence of two polymorphic forms in the room temperature crystal phase, different to short and long-chain members. Only nonanoate and decanoate present both forms, and this polymorphism is proven to be monotropic. At higher temperature, these compounds present a solid mesophase, defined as rotator, a liquid crystal phase and a liquid phase, all of which have a similar local arrangement. Since some lead(ii) soaps appear as degradation compounds in oil paintings, the solved crystal structures of lead(ii) soaps can now be used as fingerprints for their detection using X-ray diffraction. Pair distribution function analysis on these compounds is very similar in the same phases and mesophases for the different members, showing the same short range order. This observation suggests that this technique could also be used in the detection of these compounds in disordered phases or in the initial stages of formation in paintings.

  3. Thermal characterization of polymer matrix composites containing microencapsulated paraffin in solid or liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari-Bey, Sana; Fois, Magali; Krupa, Igor; Ibos, Laurent; Benyoucef, Boumédiène

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal characterization of PCL/Micronal composites. • Melting enthalpy and heat capacity measured by DSC. • Interest: have measured thermal properties at different temperatures. • Thermophysical properties measurement temperatures chosen outside phase changes. • Characteristics useful to model composites heat transfer for LHTES applications. - Abstract: This work focuses on the study of heat transfer mechanisms in composites materials which may be used for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage applications. These composites contain phase change material (PCM) which can absorb and release energy during thermal cycling. PCM’s used here are paraffins microencapsulated in poly(methylmethacrylate); microencapsulation avoids the flow of paraffin when it is in the liquid state. Samples with different paraffin weight fractions and particles shape and distribution were studied in this work. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry were used to determine morphology and perform measurements of phase changes temperatures, enthalpies and heat capacity respectively. Further, a periodic method (DICO) allowed measuring thermal conductivity (λ) and diffusivity (a) of the composites at temperatures below and above of the paraffin phase change from crystalline solid to isotropic liquid

  4. Dynamic covalent chemistry of bisimines at the solid/liquid interface monitored by scanning tunnelling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Artur; El Garah, Mohamed; Haar, Sébastien; Kovaříček, Petr; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Samorì, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic covalent chemistry relies on the formation of reversible covalent bonds under thermodynamic control to generate dynamic combinatorial libraries. It provides access to numerous types of complex functional architectures, and thereby targets several technologically relevant applications, such as in drug discovery, (bio)sensing and dynamic materials. In liquid media it was proved that by taking advantage of the reversible nature of the bond formation it is possible to combine the error-correction capacity of supramolecular chemistry with the robustness of covalent bonding to generate adaptive systems. Here we show that double imine formation between 4-(hexadecyloxy)benzaldehyde and different α,ω-diamines as well as reversible bistransimination reactions can be achieved at the solid/liquid interface, as monitored on the submolecular scale by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy imaging. Our modular approach enables the structurally controlled reversible incorporation of various molecular components to form sophisticated covalent architectures, which opens up perspectives towards responsive multicomponent two-dimensional materials and devices.

  5. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Solid-liquid interface free energies of pure bcc metals and B2 phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S. R.; Gunawardana, K. G. S. H.; Mendelev, M. I.

    2015-04-01

    The solid-liquid interface (SLI) free energy was determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation for several body centered cubic (bcc) metals and B2 metallic compounds (space group: P m 3 ¯ m ; prototype: CsCl). In order to include a bcc metal with a low melting temperature in our study, a semi-empirical potential was developed for Na. Two additional synthetic "Na" potentials were also developed to explore the effect of liquid structure and latent heat on the SLI free energy. The obtained MD data were compared with the empirical Turnbull, Laird, and Ewing relations. All three relations are found to predict the general trend observed in the MD data for bcc metals obtained within the present study. However, only the Laird and Ewing relations are able to predict the trend obtained within the sequence of "Na" potentials. The Laird relation provides the best prediction for our MD data and other MD data for bcc metals taken from the literature. Overall, the Laird relation also agrees well with our B2 data but requires a proportionality constant that is substantially different from the bcc case. It also fails to explain a considerable difference between the SLI free energies of some B2 phases which have nearly the same melting temperature. In contrast, this difference is satisfactorily described by the Ewing relation. Moreover, the Ewing relation obtained from the bcc dataset also provides a reasonable description of the B2 data.

  7. Determination of the solid-liquid-vapor triple point pressure of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed experimental study of the triple point pressure of carbon using laser heating techniques has been completed. Uncertainties and conflict in previous investigations have been addressed and substantial data presented which places the solid-liquid-vapor carbon triple point at 107 +- 2 atmospheres. This is in agreement with most investigations which have located the triple point pressure between 100 and 120 atmospheres, but is in disagreement with recent low pressure carbon experiments. The absence of any significant polymorphs of carbon other than graphite suggests that the graphite-liquid-vapor triple point has been measured. Graphite samples were melted in a pressure vessel using a 400 W Nd:YAG continuous-wave laser focused to a maximum power density of approximately 80 kW/cm 2 . Melt was confirmed by detailed microstructure analysis and x-ray diffraction of the recrystallized graphite. Experiments to determine the minimum melt pressure of carbon were completed as a function of sample size, type of inert gas, and laser power density to asure that laser power densities were sufficient to produce melt at the triple point pressure of carbon, and the pressure of carbon at the surface of the sample was identical to the measured pressure of the inert gas in the pressure vessel. High-speed color cinematography of the carbon heating revealed the presence of a laser-generated vapor or particle plume in front of the sample. The existence of this bright plume pevented the measurement of the carbon triple point temperature

  8. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ∼2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ∼127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ∼76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  9. The binary (solid + liquid) phase diagrams of (caprylic or capric acid) + (1-octanol or 1-decanol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carareto, Natália D.D.; Castagnaro, Thamires; Costa, Mariana C.; Meirelles, Antonio J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SLE of mixtures of caprylic acid, (capric acid + 1-octanol), 1-decanol were studied. • Experimental data were obtained through DSC and Stepscan DSC. • Systems presented eutectic and peritectic points. • Liquidus line was modeled using Margules and NRTL models. • Solid phase was modeled using the Slaughter and Doherty approach. - Abstract: In the present study the phase diagrams of four (fatty acid + fatty alcohol) binary mixtures composed of caprylic (C8O2) or capric acid (C10O2) + 1-octanol (C8OH) or 1-decanol (C10OH) were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Eutectic and peritectic reactions occurred in the systems. In standard DSC analyses of the (C8O2 + C10OH) and (C10O2 + C8OH) systems, an exothermic transition occurs in association with the melting of a metastable phase. A Stepscan DSC method was used in order to avoid the formation of this metastable phase during the heating of the mixtures. The approach suggested by Slaughter and Doherty (1995) [24] was used for modeling the solid phase, and the Margules 2-suffix, Margules 3-suffix and NRTL models were applied for calculating the activity coefficients of the liquid phase. The best modeling results were obtained using the Margules-3-suffix with an average deviation between experimental and calculated values ranging from T = (0.3 to 0.9) K

  10. Computational and experimental analyses of the wave propagation through a bar structure including liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Jin [UST Graduate School, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Hui Nam [Division of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Doo Byung; Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In this research, we study the propagation of longitudinal and transverse waves through a metal rod including a liquid layer using computational and experimental analyses. The propagation characteristics of longitudinal and transverse waves obtained by the computational and experimental analyses were consistent with the wave propagation theory for both cases, that is, the homogeneous metal rod and the metal rod including a liquid layer. The fluid-structure interaction modeling technique developed for the computational wave propagation analysis in this research can be applied to the more complex structures including solid-liquid interfaces.

  11. Mucous solids and liquid secretion by airways: studies with normal pig, cystic fibrosis human, and non-cystic fibrosis human bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Chelsea J.; Inglis, Sarah K.; Valentine, Vincent G.; Garrison, Jennifer; Conner, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand how airways produce thick airway mucus, nonvolatile solids were measured in liquid secreted by bronchi from normal pig, cystic fibrosis (CF) human, and non-CF human lungs. Bronchi were exposed to various secretagogues and anion secretion inhibitors to induce a range of liquid volume secretion rates. In all three groups, the relationship of solids concentration (percent nonvolatile solids) to liquid volume secretion rate was curvilinear, with higher solids concentration associated with lower rates of liquid volume secretion. In contrast, the secretion rates of solids mass and water mass as functions of liquid volume secretion rates exhibited positive linear correlations. The y-intercepts of the solids mass-liquid volume secretion relationships for all three groups were positive, thus accounting for the higher solids concentrations in airway liquid at low rates of secretion. Predictive models derived from the solids mass and water mass linear equations fit the experimental percent solids data for the three groups. The ratio of solids mass secretion to liquid volume secretion was 5.2 and 2.4 times higher for CF bronchi than for pig and non-CF bronchi, respectively. These results indicate that normal pig, non-CF human, and CF human bronchi produce a high-percent-solids mucus (>8%) at low rates of liquid volume secretion (≤1.0 μl·cm−2·h−1). However, CF bronchi produce mucus with twice the percent solids (∼8%) of pig or non-CF human bronchi at liquid volume secretion rates ≥4.0 μl·cm−2·h−1. PMID:21622844

  12. An investigation of problematic solids in oil sands processing : separation and characterization of organic matter strongly bound to oil sands solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, T.; Woods, J.R.; Kung, J.; Fu, D.; Kingston, D.; Kotlyar, L.S. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology; Sparks, B.D. [V. Bede Technical Associates, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Some of the solid fractions in Athabasca oilsands are associated with strongly bound organic matter that is insoluble in toluene, a solvent commonly used to extract bitumen. The presence of toluene insoluble organic matter (TIOM) increases oil wettability of solids which may adversely affect the release of bitumen from the oilsands. Some of the solid material from the coking operation may be carried over to downstream operations where it can cause fouling. This study used supercritical fluid extraction with methanol to remove TIOM from oilsands after extraction of bitumen by toluene. The methanol extract (ME) is soluble in toluene and was analyzed. Results were compared with corresponding bitumen fractions prepared using a modified HPLC SARA separation technique. Number average molecular weights for the ME were similar to those for resins separated from bitumen. The study also showed that the number of alkyl substituents on aromatic ring systems and the lengths of paraffinic straight chains for resins and ME samples were similar, with only minor differences in terms of H/C atomic ratios and aromaticities. The ME was more polar than the resin and asphaltene fractions, which may explain the selective adsorption of this fraction. tabs., figs.

  13. Performance of solid state supercapacitors based on polymer electrolytes containing different ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruye, Girum Ayalneh; Muñoz-Torrero, David; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    Four Ionic Liquid based Polymer Electrolytes (IL-b-PE) were prepared by blending a Polymeric Ionic Liquid, Poly(diallyldimethylammonium) bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PILTFSI), with four different ionic liquids: 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) (IL-b-PE1), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (PYR14FSI) (IL-b-PE2), 1-(2-hydroxy ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HEMimTFSI) (IL-b-PE3), and 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide, (PYR14DCA) (IL-b-PE4). Physicochemical properties of IL-b-PE such as ionic conductivity, thermal and electrochemical stability were found to be dependent on the IL properties. For instance, ionic conductivity was significantly higher for IL-b-PE2 and IL-b-PE4 containing IL with small size anions (FSI and DCA) than IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE3 bearing IL with bigger anion (TFSI). On the other hand, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW) was found for IL-b-PE1 and IL-b-PE2 having ILs with electrochemically stable pyrrolidinium cation and FSI and TFSI anions. Solid state Supercapacitors (SCs) were assembled with activated carbon electrodes and their electrochemical performance was correlated with the polymer electrolyte properties. Best performance was obtained with SC having IL-b-PE2 that exhibited a good compromise between ionic conductivity and electrochemical window. Specific capacitance (Cam), real energy (Ereal) & real power densities (Preal) as high as 150 F g-1, 36 Wh kg-1 & 1170 W kg-1 were found at operating voltage of 3.5 V.

  14. Using oxidized liquid and solid human waste as nutrients for Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Sergey V.; Kalacheva, Galina; Tirranen, Lyalya; Gribovskaya, Iliada

    At stationary terrestrial and space stations with closed and partially closed substance exchange not only plants, but also algae can regenerate atmosphere. Their biomass can be used for feeding Daphnia and Moina species, which, in their turn, serve as food for fish. In addition, it is possible to use algae for production of biological fuel. We suggested two methods of human waste mineralization: dry (evaporation with subsequent incineration in a muffle furnace) and wet (oxidation in a reactor using hydrogen peroxide). The research task was to prepare nutrient media for green alga Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria deflexa using liquid human waste mineralized by dry method, and to prepare media for chlorella on the basis of 1) liquid and 2) liquid and solid human waste mineralized by wet method. The algae were grown in batch culture in a climate chamber with the following parameters: illumination 7 klx, temperature 27-30 (°) C, culture density 1-2 g/l of dry weight. The control for chlorella was Tamiya medium, pH-5, and for oscillstoria — Zarrouk medium, pH-10. Maximum permissible concentrations of NaCl, Cl, urea (NH _{2}) _{2}CO, and native urine were established for algae. Missing ingredients (such as salts and acids) for experimental nutrient media were determined: their addition made it possible to obtain the biomass production not less than that in the control. The estimation was given of the mineral and biochemical composition of algae grown on experimental media. Microbiological test revealed absence of foreign microbial flora in experimental cultures.

  15. On the radiometric measurement of the density distribution occuring at the horizontal hydraulic transport of solid matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedde, E.; Weber, M.

    1977-01-01

    In order to estimate the phenomena of the flow in horizontal hydraulic transport of solid matter, measuring the density structure along the vertical pipe diameter is of vital interest for basic investigations. The measurement technology in mixed flows of solid matter and water is very difficult and therefore only few publications on characteristic flow profiles in horizontal pipes are known. In a research programme advanced by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft investigations were made on the possibility to measure the density profile by means of plain measuring equipment based upon radiometrics. In this paper a combination of a nuclear radiometric polar and parallel scanning method is shown to be suitable for this kind of measurements. (orig.) [de

  16. Mechanisms and kinetics of electrodeposition of alkali metals on solid and liquid mercury electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wenzhe.

    1993-01-01

    Electroreduction of alkali metal ions at mercury is an important area in electrochemistry related to the battery industry. In this work, four major topics were considered: alkali metal/mercury interactions; electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury; electroreduction of alkali metal/crown ether complexes; and ammonium amalgam formation. The formation of alkali metal-mercury intermetallic compounds was studied on liquid and frozen thin layer mercury electrodes. The stoichiometry of the compounds produced under these conditions was determined using cyclic voltammetry. As expected, formation of a new phase was preceded by nucleation phenomena, which were particularly easy to monitor at solid Hg electrodes. The nucleation kinetics were studied using the chronoamperometric method. At very low temperatures, when the mobility of mercury atoms was restricted, the electrosorption of alkali metal ions on solid mercury electrodes was noted. Subsequent study allowed determination of the electrosorption parameters. The free energy of electrosorption is discussed in terms of interactions between alkali metals and mercury. The effect of crown ethers on the kinetics of alkali metal ion reduction was studied at both standard size and ultramicro-mercury electrodes in nonaqueous solutions using ultrafast cyclic voltammetry and ac voltammetry. The usefulness of ultrafast cyclic voltammetry with ultramicroelectrodes in measurements of the kinetics of amalgam formation was verified in a brief study of cadmium ion reduction. The mechanism of the complex reduction at mercury was analyzed based on the free energy changes before and after the activation state. In addition, the stoichiometry and formation constants of the crown ether/alkali metal complexes were determined using cyclic voltammetry. The mechanism of electroreduction of ammonium ions at mercury electrodes in non-aqueous media was analyzed.

  17. Measurement of interactions between solid particles, liquid droplets, and/or gas bubbles in a liquid using an integrated thin film drainage apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Louxiang; Sharp, David; Masliyah, Jacob; Xu, Zhenghe

    2013-03-19

    A novel device was designed to measure drainage dynamics of thin liquid films confined between a solid particle, an immiscible liquid droplet, and/or gas bubble. Equipped with a bimorph force sensor, a computer-interfaced video capture, and a data acquisition system, the newly designed integrated thin film drainage apparatus (ITFDA) allows for the direct and simultaneous measurements of force barrier, true film drainage time, and bubble/droplet deformation under a well-controlled external force, receding and advancing contact angles, capillary force, and adhesion (detachment) force between an air bubble or oil droplet and a solid, a liquid, or an air bubble in an immiscible liquid. Using the diaphragm of a high-frequency speaker as the drive mechanism for the air bubble or oil droplet attached to a capillary tube, this newly designed device is capable of measuring forces over a wide range of hydrodynamic conditions, including bubble approach and retract velocities up to 50 mm/s and displacement range up to 1 mm. The results showed that the ITFDA was capable of measuring hydrodynamic resistance, film drainage time, and other important physical parameters between air bubbles and solid particles in aqueous solutions. As an example of illustrating the versatility, the ITFDA was also applied to other important systems such as interactions between air bubble and oil droplet, two air bubbles, and two oil droplets in an aqueous solution.

  18. Determination of solid- and liquid-phase gastric emptying half times in cats by use of nuclear scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M; Papasouliotis, K; Barr, F J; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Caney, S M

    1999-10-01

    To use nuclear scintigraphy to establish a range of gastric emptying half times (t1/2) following a liquid or solid meal in nonsedated cats. 12 clinically normal 3-year-old domestic shorthair cats. A test meal of 75 g of scrambled eggs labeled with technetium Tc 99m tin colloid was fed to 10 of the cats, and solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were determined by use of nuclear scintigraphy. In a separate experiment, 8 of these cats plus an additional 2 cats were fed 18 ml (n = 5) or 36 ml (n = 5) of a nutrient liquid meal labeled with technetium Tc 99m pentetate. Liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 then were determined by use of scintigraphy. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were between 210 and 769 minutes (median, 330 minutes). Median liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 after ingestion of 18 or 36 ml of the test meal were 67 minutes (range, 60 to 96 minutes) and 117 minutes (range, 101 to 170 minutes), respectively. The median t1/2 determined for cats receiving 18 ml of the radiolabeled liquid was significantly less than that determined for cats receiving 36 ml of the test meal. The protocol was tolerated by nonsedated cats. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were prolonged, compared with liquid-phase t1/2, and a major factor governing the emptying rate of liquids was the volume consumed. Nuclear scintigraphy may prove useful in assessing gastric motility disorders in cats.

  19. Does One Know the Properties of a MICE Solid or Liquid Absorber to Better than 0.3 Percent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.; Yang, Stephanie Q.

    2006-01-01

    This report discusses the report discusses whether the MICE absorbers can be characterized to ±0.3 percent, so that one predict absorber ionization cooling within the absorber. This report shows that most solid absorbers can be characterized to much better than ±0.3 percent. The two issues that dominate the characterization of the liquid cryogen absorbers are the dimensions of the liquid in the vessel and the density of the cryogenic liquid. The thickness of the window also plays a role. This report will show that a liquid hydrogen absorber can be characterized to better than ±0.3 percent, but a liquid helium absorber cannot be characterized to better and ±1 percent

  20. Direct solid-phase microextraction combined with gas and liquid chromatography for the determination of lidocaine in human urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.H M; Hofman, N.S K; de Jong, G.J.

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been combined with gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for the determination of lidocaine in human urine. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated fibre was directly immersed into buffered urine. Extraction conditions such as time, pH, ionic

  1. Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; McElhinney, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bire, R.; Hess, P.; Boer, de J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up has been assessed to reduce matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC¿MS/MS) analysis of lipophilic marine toxins. A large array of ion-exchange, silica-based, and mixed-function

  2. Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerssen, A.; McElhinney, A. M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bire, L.; Hess, P.; de Boer, J.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up has been assessed to reduce matrix effects (signal suppression or enhancement) in the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis of lipophilic marine toxins. A large array of ion-exchange, silica-based, and mixed-function

  3. 40 CFR 270.235 - Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns, solid fuel boilers, liquid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Options for incinerators, cement kilns... Technology (MACT) Standards § 270.235 Options for incinerators, cement kilns, lightweight aggregate kilns... incinerator, cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric...

  4. ATR-IR spectroscopic cell for in situ studies at solid-liquid interface at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koichumanova, Kamila; Visan, Aura; Geerdink, Bert; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Mojet, Barbara; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2017-01-01

    An in situ ATR-IR spectroscopic cell suitable for studies at solid-liquid interface is described including the design and experimental details in continuous flow mode at elevated temperatures (230 °C) and pressures (30 bar). The design parameters considered include the cell geometry, the procedure

  5. A New Approach to Determine the Density of Liquids and Solids without Measuring Mass and Volume: Introducing the "Solidensimeter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriktas, Halit; Sahin, Mehmet; Eslek, Sinan; Kiriktas, Irem

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to design a mechanism with which the density of any solid or liquid can be determined without measuring its mass and volume in order to help students comprehend the concept of density more easily. The "solidensimeter" comprises of two scaled and nested glass containers (graduated cylinder or beaker) and sufficient water.…

  6. Structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride in liquid and solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousson, R.

    1973-01-01

    This research thesis reports the structural study of chlorine tri-fluoride and bromine penta-fluoride between 20 C and about -265 C. After some generalities on these compounds and a presentation of the experimental technique, the author reports and discusses results obtained with these both compounds: Raman spectrum for the liquid and for the solid phase, infrared spectrum for the solid phase, calorimetric measurements. In the case of chlorine tri-fluoride, the author studies the evolution of the liquid spectrum with temperature, shows the existence of an intermediate solid phase, and compares results obtained by Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. He also applies to bromine penta-fluoride an analysis of normal coordinates of a XF 5 molecule: relationship between force constants and vibration frequencies, application of Wilson method, resolution of the molecular equation, determination of normal vibration modes [fr

  7. Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Chiral Cylindrical Molecular Complexes: Functional Heterogeneous Liquid-Solid Materials Formed by Helicene Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Saito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral cylindrical molecular complexes of homo- and hetero-double-helices derived from helicene oligomers self-assemble in solution, providing functional heterogeneous liquid-solid materials. Gels and liotropic liquid crystals are formed by fibril self-assembly in solution; molecular monolayers and fibril films are formed by self-assembly on solid surfaces; gels containing gold nanoparticles emit light; silica nanoparticles aggregate and adsorb double-helices. Notable dynamics appears during self-assembly, including multistep self-assembly, solid surface catalyzed double-helix formation, sigmoidal and stairwise kinetics, molecular recognition of nanoparticles, discontinuous self-assembly, materials clocking, chiral symmetry breaking and homogeneous-heterogeneous transitions. These phenomena are derived from strong intercomplex interactions of chiral cylindrical molecular complexes.

  8. Esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit after swallows of liquid and solid boluses in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juciléia Dalmazo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal dysphagia is the sensation that the ingested material has a slow transit or blockage in its normal passage to the stomach. It is not always associated with motility or transit alterations. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in normal volunteers the possibility of perception of bolus transit through the esophagus after swallows of liquid and solid boluses, the differences in esophageal contraction and transit with these boluses, and the association of transit perception with alteration of esophageal contraction and/or transit. METHODS: The investigation included 11 asymptomatic volunteers, 4 men and 7 women aged 19-58 years. The subjects were evaluated in the sitting position. They performed swallows of the same volume of liquid (isotonic drink and solid (macaroni boluses in a random order and in duplicate. After each swallow they were asked about the sensation of bolus passage through the esophagus. Contractions and transit were evaluated simultaneously by solid state manometry and impedance. RESULTS: Perception of bolus transit occurred only with the solid bolus. The amplitude and area under the curve of contractions were higher with swallows of the solid bolus than with swallows of the liquid bolus. The difference was more evident in swallows with no perception of transit (n = 12 than in swallows with perception (n = 10. The total bolus transit time was longer for the solid bolus than for the liquid bolus only with swallows followed by no perception of transit. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the perception of esophageal transit may be the consequence of inadequate adaptation of esophageal transit and contraction to the characteristics of the swallowed bolus.

  9. Solid state insurrection how the science of substance made American physics matter

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Joseph D

    2018-01-01

    Solid state physics—the study of the physical properties of solid matter—was far and away the most populous subfield of Cold War American physics. But despite prolific contributions to consumer and medical technology, such as the transistor and magnetic resonance imaging, it garnered much less professional prestige and public attention than nuclear and particle physics. Solid State Insurrection argues that solid state physics was nonetheless essential to securing the vast social, political, and financial capital Cold War physics enjoyed. Solid state’s technological bent, and its challenge to the “pure science” ideal many physicists cherished, helped physics as a whole respond more readily to Cold War social, political, and economic pressures. Solid state research kept physics economically and technologically relevant, sustaining its lofty cultural standing and policy influence long after the sheen of the Manhattan Project had faded. By placing solid state at the center of the story of twentieth cent...

  10. Generalized Liquid Crystals: Giant Fluctuations and the Vestigial Chiral Order of I, O, and T Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Liu (刘科 子竞

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The physics of nematic liquid crystals has been the subject of intensive research since the late 19th century. However, the focus of this pursuit has been centered around uniaxial and biaxial nematics associated with constituents bearing a D_{∞h} or D_{2h} symmetry, respectively. In view of general symmetries, however, these are singularly special since nematic order can in principle involve any point-group symmetry. Given the progress in tailoring nanoparticles with particular shapes and interactions, this vast family of “generalized nematics” might become accessible in the laboratory. Little is known because the order parameter theories associated with the highly symmetric point groups are remarkably complicated, involving tensor order parameters of high rank. Here, we show that the generic features of the statistical physics of such systems can be studied in a highly flexible and efficient fashion using a mathematical tool borrowed from high-energy physics: discrete non-Abelian gauge theory. Explicitly, we construct a family of lattice gauge models encapsulating nematic ordering of general three-dimensional point-group symmetries. We find that the most symmetrical generalized nematics are subjected to thermal fluctuations of unprecedented severity. As a result, novel forms of fluctuation phenomena become possible. In particular, we demonstrate that a vestigial phase carrying no more than chiral order becomes ubiquitous departing from high point-group symmetry chiral building blocks, such as I, O, and T symmetric matter.

  11. Generalized Liquid Crystals: Giant Fluctuations and the Vestigial Chiral Order of I , O , and T Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Nissinen, Jaakko; Slager, Robert-Jan; Wu, Kai; Zaanen, Jan

    2016-10-01

    The physics of nematic liquid crystals has been the subject of intensive research since the late 19th century. However, the focus of this pursuit has been centered around uniaxial and biaxial nematics associated with constituents bearing a D∞ h or D2 h symmetry, respectively. In view of general symmetries, however, these are singularly special since nematic order can in principle involve any point-group symmetry. Given the progress in tailoring nanoparticles with particular shapes and interactions, this vast family of "generalized nematics" might become accessible in the laboratory. Little is known because the order parameter theories associated with the highly symmetric point groups are remarkably complicated, involving tensor order parameters of high rank. Here, we show that the generic features of the statistical physics of such systems can be studied in a highly flexible and efficient fashion using a mathematical tool borrowed from high-energy physics: discrete non-Abelian gauge theory. Explicitly, we construct a family of lattice gauge models encapsulating nematic ordering of general three-dimensional point-group symmetries. We find that the most symmetrical generalized nematics are subjected to thermal fluctuations of unprecedented severity. As a result, novel forms of fluctuation phenomena become possible. In particular, we demonstrate that a vestigial phase carrying no more than chiral order becomes ubiquitous departing from high point-group symmetry chiral building blocks, such as I , O , and T symmetric matter.

  12. Exceptionally Slow Movement of Gold Nanoparticles at a Solid/Liquid Interface Investigated by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verch, Andreas; Pfaff, Marina; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-06-30

    Gold nanoparticles were observed to move at a liquid/solid interface 3 orders of magnitude slower than expected for the movement in a bulk liquid by Brownian motion. The nanoscale movement was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a liquid enclosure consisting of microchips with silicon nitride windows. The experiments involved a variation of the electron dose, the coating of the nanoparticles, the surface charge of the enclosing membrane, the viscosity, and the liquid thickness. The observed slow movement was not a result of hydrodynamic hindrance near a wall but instead explained by the presence of a layer of ordered liquid exhibiting a viscosity 5 orders of magnitude larger than a bulk liquid. The increased viscosity presumably led to a dramatic slowdown of the movement. The layer was formed as a result of the surface charge of the silicon nitride windows. The exceptionally slow motion is a crucial aspect of electron microscopy of specimens in liquid, enabling a direct observation of the movement and agglomeration of nanoscale objects in liquid.

  13. Flow-Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Semiconductor Nanowires: A Novel Approach for Controlled Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Palaniappan, Kumaranand [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan [National Science and Technology Center, Thailand; Smith, Nickolaus A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Casson, Joanna L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-07

    Semiconductor nanowires (SC-NWs) have potential applications in diverse technologies from nanoelectronics and photonics to energy harvesting and storage due to their quantum-confined opto-electronic properties coupled with their highly anisotropic shape. Here, we explore new approaches to an important solution-based growth method known as solution-liquid-solid (SLS) growth. In SLS, molecular precursors are reacted in the presence of low-melting metal nanoparticles that serve as molten fluxes to catalyze the growth of the SC-NWs. The mechanism of growth is assumed to be similar to that of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, with the clear distinctions of being conducted in solution in the presence of coordinating ligands and at relatively lower temperatures (<300 C). The resultant SC-NWs are soluble in common organic solvents and solution processable, offering advantages such as simplified processing, scale-up, ultra-small diameters for quantum-confinement effects, and flexible choice of materials from group III-V to groups II-VI, IV-VI, as well as truly ternary I-III-VI semiconductors as we recently demonstrates. Despite these advantages of SLS growth, VLS offers several clear opportunities not allowed by conventional SLS. Namely, VLS allows sequential addition of precursors for facile synthesis of complex axial heterostructures. In addition, growth proceeds relatively slowly compared to SLS, allowing clear assessments of growth kinetics. In order to retain the materials and processing flexibility afforded by SLS, but add the elements of controlled growth afforded by VLS, we transformed SLS into a flow based method by adapting it to synthesis in a microfluidic system. By this new method - so-called 'flow-SLS' (FSLS) - we have now demonstrated unprecedented fabrication of multi-segmented SC-NWs, e.g., 8-segmented CdSe/ZnSe defined by either compositionally abrupt or alloyed interfaces as a function of growth conditions. In addition, we have studied growth

  14. Infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of liquid-solid interfaces: The case of chiral modification of catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaera, Francisco

    2018-03-01

    An overview is provided here of our work on the characterization of chiral modifiers for the bestowing of enantioselectivity to metal-based hydrogenation catalysts, with specific reference to the so-called Orito reaction. We start with a brief discussion of the use of infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR) for the characterization of chemical species at liquid-solid interfaces, describing the options available as well as the information that can be extracted from such experiments and the advantages and disadvantages associated with the technique. We then summarize the main results that we have reported to date from our IR study of the adsorption of cinchona alkaloids and related compounds from solutions onto platinum surfaces. Several observations are highlighted and placed in context in terms of the existing knowledge and their relevance to catalysis. Key conclusions include the uniqueness of the nature of the adsorbed species when in the presence of the solvent (versus when the uptake is done under vacuum, or versus the pure or dissolved molecules), the fact that each modifier adopts unique and distinct adsorption geometries on the surface and that those change with the concentration of the solution in ways that correlate well with the performance of the catalyst, the potential tendency of at least some of these chiral modifiers to bind to the surface primarily via the nitrogen atom of the amine group, not the aromatic ring as it is often assumed, and the observation that the ability of one modifier to dominate the catalytic chemistry in solutions containing mixtures of two or more of those is linked to their capacity for displacing each other from the surface, which in turn is determined by a balance between the strength of their binding to the surface and their solubility in the liquid solvent.

  15. Solidification of liquid concentrate and solid waste generated as by-products of the liquid radwaste treatment systems in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid concentrate and solid waste produced in light-water reactors as by-products of liquid radwaste treatment systems consists of five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging (solidification) and waste package handling. This paper will concern itself primarily with the solidification operation, however, the other operations enumerated as well as the types of wastes treated and their origins will be briefly described, especially with regards to their effects on solidification. During solidification, liquid concentrate and solid wastes are incorporated with a solidification agent to form a monolithic, free-standing solid. The basic solidification agent types either currently used in the United States or proposed for use include absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, other polymer systems, and bitumen. The operation, formulations and limitations of these agents as used for radwaste solidification will be discussed. Properties relevant to the evaluation of solidified waste forms will be identified and relative comparisons made for wastes solidified by various processes

  16. Assessment of solid/liquid equilibria in the (U, Zr)O2+y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastromarino, S.; Seibert, A.; Hashem, E.; Ciccioli, A.; Prieur, D.; Scheinost, A.; Stohr, S.; Lajarge, P.; Boshoven, J.; Robba, D.; Ernstberger, M.; Bottomley, D.; Manara, D.

    2017-10-01

    Solid/liquid equilibria in the system UO2sbnd ZrO2 are revisited in this work by laser heating coupled with fast optical thermometry. Phase transition points newly measured under inert gas are in fair agreement with the early measurements performed by Wisnyi et al., in 1957, the only study available in the literature on the whole pseudo-binary system. In addition, a minimum melting point is identified here for compositions near (U0.6Zr0.4)O2+y, around 2800 K. The solidus line is rather flat on a broad range of compositions around the minimum. It increases for compositions closer to the pure end members, up to the melting point of pure UO2 (3130 K) on one side and pure ZrO2 (2970 K) on the other. Solid state phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-monoclinic) have also been observed in the ZrO2-rich compositions X-ray diffraction. Investigations under 0.3 MPa air (0.063 MPa O2) revealed a significant decrease in the melting points down to 2500 K-2600 K for increasing uranium content (x(UO2)> 0.2). This was found to be related to further oxidation of uranium dioxide, confirmed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. For example, a typical oxidised corium composition U0.6Zr0.4O2.13 was observed to solidify at a temperature as low as 2493 K. The current results are important for assessing the thermal stability of the system fuel - cladding in an oxide based nuclear reactor, and for simulating the system behaviour during a hypothetical severe accident.

  17. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Ronald [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 μl injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few μl of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  18. Centrifugal extractor for liquid-liquid extraction with solid particles in suspension and installation using several extractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathellier, A.; Germain, M.; Lamotte, C.; Pasquiou, J.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The design claimed avoid clogging the extractor by solids which are collected in a conical decantation chamber. Application is made to the separation of the aqueous nitric solution, the organic phase of TBP diluted by an aliphatic hydrocarbon and heavy solid particles during spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  19. Solid-Liquid Separation Properties of Thermoregulated Dicationic Ionic Liquid as Extractant of Dyes from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Two thermoregulated dicationic ionic liquids were synthesized and applied for effective extraction of the common dye malachite green oxalate (MG. The extraction parameters such as amount of ionic liquids, pH of water phase, extraction time, cooling time, and centrifugal time on the extraction efficiency were investigated systematically. It revealed that the dye has been successfully extracted into the ionic liquids, with high extraction efficiency higher than 98%, and recovery of 98.2%–100.8%, respectively. Furthermore, these ionic liquids can be recycled easily after elution. The reusable yields were 87.1% and 88.7%. The extraction of the dye into the thermoregulated ionic liquid provides a method of minimizing pollution of waste water potentially.

  20. [Determination of fatty acid esters of chloropropanediols in diet samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Liu, Qing; Han, Feng; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2014-05-01

    To establish a method for the determination of fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) and 2-monochloropropane-1, 3-diol (2-MCPD) in diet samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE). Diet samples were ultrasonically extracted by hexane, followed by ester cleavage reaction with sodium methylate in methanol, and then purified by solid-supported liquid-liquid extraction. (SLE) using diatomaceous earth as the sorbent. After derivatization with heptafluorobutyrylimidazole, the analytes were detected by GC-MS and quantified by the deuterated internal standards. The limits of detection (LODs) of 3-MCPD esters and 2-MCPD esters in different diet samples were 0.002 - 0.005 mg/kg and 0.002 - 0.006 mg/kg. The average recoveries of 3-MCPD esters and 2-MCPD esters at the spiking levels of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg in the diet samples were in the range of 65.9% - 104.2% and 75.4% - 118.0%, respectively, with the relative standard deviations in the range of 2.2% - 14.2% and 0.8% - .13.9%. The method is simple, accurate and rugged for the determination of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD in diet samples.