WorldWideScience

Sample records for matter science standards

  1. Scientific Literacy Matters: Using Literature to Meet Next Generation Science Standards and 21st Century Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Tomovic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific literacy matters. It matters because it is vitally important to the education and development of America’s children, tomorrow's workforce, and the keepers of our future. If the future of American individual decision making, engagement in civic and cultural affairs, and valuable contributions to economic development is to be protected, it is critical that American students become more scientifically literate than they are today. Today, most Americans, including students, are considered scientifically illiterate. Recognizing the need to develop and enhance scientific literacy (also known as science literacy, science educators have worked diligently at developing new science standards, new approaches to science teaching, and new techniques aimed at engaging students in the practice of science. In this article, the use of literature is discussed as one method to augment or supplement the teaching of science. In the context of making a literature selection, a new conceptual approach is proposed that includes attention to meeting the Next Generation Science Standards while being responsive to the importance of 21st Century Skills. Additionally, a Literary Assessment Tool is shared that demonstrates how science educators can evaluate a literary selection in terms of how well it will help them to enhance scientific literacy.

  2. Sustainability in Science Education? How the Next Generation Science Standards Approach Sustainability, and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Kirchgasler, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we explore how sustainability is embodied in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), analyzing how the NGSS explicitly define and implicitly characterize sustainability. We identify three themes (universalism, scientism, and technocentrism) that are common in scientific discourse around sustainability and show how they appear…

  3. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results

  4. Social science that matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....

  5. Science Matters Special Edition: Wildland Fire Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is applying its extensive expertise in air quality science to the study of wildland fires to help states and communities that are impacted. This issue of Science Matters newsletter highlights some of the research projects under way by EPA and partners.

  6. Does science matter?

    CERN Multimedia

    Broad, W J

    2003-01-01

    "...there are new troubles in the peculiar form of paradise that science has created, as well as new questions about whether it has the popular support to meet the future challenges of disease, pollution, security, energy, education, food, water and urban sprawl" (1 page).

  7. From the standard model to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1995-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics is marvelously successful. However, it is obviously not a complete or final theory. I shall argue here that the structure of the standard model gives some quite concrete, compelling hints regarding what lies beyond. Taking these hints seriously, one is led to predict the existence of new types of very weakly interacting matter, stable on cosmological time scales and produced with cosmologically interesting densities--that is, ''dark matter''. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. SUSY dark matter: Beyond the standard paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandick, Pearl

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), we explore a decoupling of the parameters into separate sectors that determine consistency with collider data, the abundance of dark matter, and potential signatures at direct dark matter searches. We consider weak-scale bino-like neutralino dark matter, and find that annihilations via light slepton exchange present a viable mechanism for obtaining the appropriate dark matter abundance assuming a thermal history. Constraints and prospects for discovery of these models are discussed, including the possibility that direct dark matter searches may be sensitive to these models if light squarks exhibit left-right mixing. Differences between the scenarios presented here and the typical expectations for the MSSM are discussed.

  9. The Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013) were released almost two years ago. Work tied to the NGSS, their adoption, and implementation continues to move forward around the country. Stephen L. Pruitt, senior vice president, science, at Achieve, an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit education reform organization that was a lead…

  10. Concepts of matter in science education

    CERN Document Server

    Sevian, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Bringing together a wide collection of ideas, reviews, analyses and new research on particulate and structural concepts of matter, Concepts of Matter in Science Education informs practice from pre-school through graduate school learning and teaching and aims to inspire progress in science education. The expert contributors offer a range of reviews and critical analyses of related literature and in-depth analysis of specific issues, as well as new research. Among the themes covered are learning progressions for teaching a particle model of matter, the mental models of both students and teachers of the particulate nature of matter, educational technology, chemical reactions and chemical phenomena, chemical structure and bonding, quantum chemistry and the history and philosophy of science relating to the particulate nature of matter. The book will benefit a wide audience including classroom practitioners and student teachers at every educational level, teacher educators and researchers in science education.

  11. Particle dark matter from physics beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matchev, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    In this talk I contrast three different particle dark matter candidates, all motivated by new physics beyond the Standard Model: supersymmetric dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and scalar dark matter. I then discuss the prospects for their discovery and identification in both direct detection as well as collider experiments

  12. Science Is A Laughing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    Humor can be a powerful tool in communicating science to a professional or lay audience. Humor relaxes the audience and encourages them to pay better attention, lest they miss the next funny comment or slide (and be sure that you provide it for them). Humor sends the message that the speaker is so confident in his/her material that the speaker can joke about it; this tends to deter spurious or trivial questions after the talk. But humor is not for the faint of heart. It requires planning, practice, and especially, good timing. Good humorists are always on the lookout for new material that they can use in a talk, be it a funny image, a cartoon, or a quip from a movie or from a professional comedian. But the humorist must also be a strict self-censor. Politically incorrect material can be extremely dangerous and can backfire on the speaker. Don't ever use material that insults some faction in the audience, even if that faction is not present at the moment or too stupid to notice. Don't include so much humor that the science in your talk gets lost in the laughter. Lastly, speakers who are not funny, should never attempt humor. There is nothing so damaging to a talk as poor humor that falls flat on its face. But if you have a good sense of humor, go for it. Life should be fun and so should science.

  13. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Publication of the "Next Generation Science Standards" will be just short of two decades since publication of the "National Science Education Standards" (NRC 1996). In that time, biology and science education communities have advanced, and the new standards will reflect that progress (NRC 1999, 2007, 2009; Kress and Barrett…

  14. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary

  15. Can An Amended Standard Model Account For Cold Dark Matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    It is generally believed that one has to invoke theories beyond the Standard Model to account for cold dark matter particles. However, there may be undiscovered universal interactions that, if added to the Standard Model, would lead to new members of the three generations of elementary fermions that might be candidates for cold dark matter particles

  16. Next Generation Science Standards: All Standards, All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee; Miller, Emily C.; Januszyk, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) offer a vision of science teaching and learning that presents both learning opportunities and demands for all students, particularly student groups that have traditionally been underserved in science classrooms. The NGSS have addressed issues of diversity and equity from their inception, and the NGSS…

  17. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Front Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Frequency Division Multiplexing Telemetry Standards CHAPTER 4: Pulse Code Modulation Standards CHAPTER 5: Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard CHAPTER 6...Transfer Standard Chapter 9, Appendix 9-A Appendix I, Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard Cover Sheet Chapter 9, Appendix 9-B Telemetry Standards...Derived Parameter Specification Chapter 9, Appendix 9-E Appendix Q, Extended Binary Golay Code Chapter 7, Appendix 7-A Appendix R, Low-Density Parity

  18. Science Standards, Science Achievement, and Attitudes about Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Charlie M.; Kisida, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between (a) the quality of state science standards and student science achievement, (b) the public's belief in teaching evolution and the quality of state standards, and (c) the public's belief in teaching evolution and student science achievement. Using multiple measures, we find no evidence of a…

  19. The Next Generation Science Standards and the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2013-01-01

    Using the life sciences, this article first reviews essential features of the "NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education" that provided a foundation for the new standards. Second, the article describes the important features of life science standards for elementary, middle, and high school levels. Special attention is paid to the teaching…

  20. The Next Generation Science Standards: A Focus on Physical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcik, Joe

    2013-01-01

    This article describes ways to adapt U.S. science curriculum to the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and "Next Generation of Science Standards" (NGSS), noting their focus on teaching the physical sciences. The overall goal of the Framework and NGSS is to help all learners develop the…

  1. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuel, William R.; Harris, Christopher J.; DeBarger, Angela Haydel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards embody a new vision for science education grounded in the idea that science is both a body of knowledge and a set of linked practices for developing knowledge. The authors describe strategies that they suggest school and district leaders consider when designing strategies to support NGSS implementation.

  2. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C Brooke; Lamson, Karen S; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J Chris

    2014-10-01

    This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the "Standards for Vision Science Libraries" aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users.

  3. Dark matter, constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, and lattice QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giedt, Joel; Thomas, Anthony W; Young, Ross D

    2009-11-13

    Recent lattice measurements have given accurate estimates of the quark condensates in the proton. We use these results to significantly improve the dark matter predictions in benchmark models within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. The predicted spin-independent cross sections are at least an order of magnitude smaller than previously suggested and our results have significant consequences for dark matter searches.

  4. Next generation science standards available for comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Pranoti

    2012-05-01

    The first public draft of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) is now available for public comment. Feedback on the standards is sought from people who have a stake in science education, including individuals in the K-12, higher education, business, and research communities. Development of NGSS is a state-led effort to define the content and practices students need to learn from kindergarten through high school. NGSS will be based on the U.S. National Research Council's reportFramework for K-12 Science Education.

  5. Standard model Higgs boson-inflaton and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T. E.; Liu Boyang; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2009-01-01

    The standard model Higgs boson can serve as the inflaton field of slow roll inflationary models provided it exhibits a large nonminimal coupling with the gravitational scalar curvature. The Higgs boson self interactions and its couplings with a standard model singlet scalar serving as the source of dark matter are then subject to cosmological constraints. These bounds, which can be more stringent than those arising from vacuum stability and perturbative triviality alone, still allow values for the Higgs boson mass which should be accessible at the LHC. As the Higgs boson coupling to the dark matter strengthens, lower values of the Higgs boson mass consistent with the cosmological data are allowed.

  6. Using science soundly: The Yucca Mountain standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fri, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Using sound science to shape government regulation is one of the most hotly argued topics in the ongoing debate about regulatory reform. Even though no one advaocates using unsound science, the belief that even the best science will sweep away regulatory controversy is equally foolish. As chair of a National Research Council (NRC) committee that studied the scientific basis for regulating high-level nuclear waste disposal, the author learned that science alone could resolve few of the key regulatory questions. Developing a standard that specifies a socially acceptable limit on the human health effects of nuclear waste releases involves many decisions. As the NRC committee learned in evaluating the scientific basis for the Yucca Mountain standard, a scientifically best decision rarely exists. More often, science can only offer a useful framework and starting point for policy debates. And sometimes, science's most helpful contribution is to admit that it has nothing to say. The Yucca mountain study clearly illustrates that excessive faith in the power of science is more likely to produce messy frustration than crisp decisions. A better goal for regulatory reform is the sound use of science to clarify and contain the inevitable policy controversy

  7. Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…

  8. Prospective Science Teachers' Subject-Matter Knowledge about Overflow Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Eser

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospective science teachers' subject-matter knowledge (SMK) about overflow container. This study was carried out in the form of a case study in spring term of the academic year of 2013-2014 with seven sophomore prospective science teachers who were studying at Elementary Science Teaching Department in…

  9. Science That Matters: Exploring Science Learning and Teaching in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Angela; Smith, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To help support primary school students to better understand why science matters, teachers must first be supported to teach science in ways that matter. In moving to this point, this paper identifies the dilemmas and tensions primary school teachers face in the teaching of science. The balance is then readdressed through a research-based…

  10. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  11. Dark Matter and Color Octets Beyond the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krnjaic, Gordan Zdenko [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Although the Standard Model (SM) of particles and interactions has survived forty years of experimental tests, it does not provide a complete description of nature. From cosmological and astrophysical observations, it is now clear that the majority of matter in the universe is not baryonic and interacts very weakly (if at all) via non-gravitational forces. The SM does not provide a dark matter candidate, so new particles must be introduced. Furthermore, recent Tevatron results suggest that SM predictions for benchmark collider observables are in tension with experimental observations. In this thesis, we will propose extensions to the SM that address each of these issues.

  12. Elementary particles, dark matter candidate and new extended standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jaekwang

    2017-01-01

    Elementary particle decays and reactions are discussed in terms of the three-dimensional quantized space model beyond the standard model. Three generations of the leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges. Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced. And the bastons (new particles) are proposed as the possible candidate of the dark matters. Dark matter force, weak force and strong force are explained consistently. Possible rest masses of the new particles are, tentatively, proposed for the experimental searches. For more details, see the conference paper at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308723916.

  13. SCIENCE WHERE CULTURE MATTERS: A NEO-CLASSICAL ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SCIENCE WHERE CULTURE MATTERS: A NEO-CLASSICAL APPROACH TO EXPLORE UNTAPPED BACTERIAL DIVERSITY. MILIND WATVE; Dept of Microbiology, Abasaheb Garware College, Pune. www.culturematters.org; * Life Research Foundation, Pune; * Evolvus Biotech Pvt. Ltd.,Pune ...

  14. What's the matter with Antimatter? Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Antimatter may be the stuff of science fiction, but to physicists it poses a serious question. Why is there not more of it around? At the Big Bang, matter and antimatter should have been created in equal amounts, yet today we seem to live in a Universe entirely made of matter. So where has all the antimatter gone?

  15. SCIENCE WHERE CULTURE MATTERS: A NEO-CLASSICAL ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. SCIENCE WHERE CULTURE MATTERS: A NEO-CLASSICAL APPROACH TO EXPLORE UNTAPPED BACTERIAL DIVERSITY · UNDER GRADUATE RESEARCH An alternative model of doing science · THE EXPANSE OF LIFE · HOW MANY SP. OF BACTERIA IN 1 g SOIL? TORSVIK ET AL 1990.

  16. The Particulate Nature of Matter in Science Education and in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Wobbe de; Verdonk, Adri H.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses ideas about the particulate nature of matter and assesses the extent to which these represent a compromise between scientific and educational considerations. Analyzes relations between the particulate nature of matter in science and science education in an attempt to understand children's inclination to attribute all kinds of macroscopic…

  17. Citizen Science Terminology Matters: Exploring Key Terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzel, M.V.; Cappadonna, Jessica L.; Santos-Lang, Chris; Duerr, Ruth Ellen; Virapongse, Arika; West, Sarah Elizabeth; Kyba, Christopher Conrad Maximillian; Bowser, Anne; Cooper, Caren Beth; Sforzi, Andrea; Metcalfe, Anya Nova; Harris, Edward S.; Thiel, Martin; Haklay, Mordechai; Ponciano, Lesandro; Roche, Joseph; Ceccaroni, Luigi; Shilling, Fraser Mark; Dörler, Daniel; Heigl, Florian; Kiessling, Tim; Davis, Brittany Y.; Jiang, Qijun

    2017-01-01

    Much can be at stake depending on the choice of words used to describe citizen science, because terminology impacts how knowledge is developed. Citizen science is a quickly evolving field that is mobilizing people’s involvement in information development, social action and justice, and large-scale

  18. The Next Generation Science Standards: The Features and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in January of 2010, the Carnegie Corporation of New York funded a two-step process to develop a new set of state developed science standards intended to prepare students for college and career readiness in science. These new internationally benchmarked science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were completed in…

  19. Implanted muon studies in condensed matter science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1986-12-01

    The paper reviews the broad range of applications of implanted muons in condensed matter. Muon spin rotation is discussed, along with the studies in magnetism, muonion, metals and organic radicals. A description of muon spin relaxation is also given, as well as techniques and applications appropriate to pulsed muon sources. (UK)

  20. Research chief wants to make science matter

    CERN Multimedia

    König, R

    1999-01-01

    The new research chief of the European Union, Phillippe Busquin wants to move science into the heart of EU decision-taking. He would like to make European research more 'cohesive, focused, mobile and multilateral' (2 pages).

  1. Implementing Elementary School Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Katheryn B.

    Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards requires developing elementary teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge of science and engineering concepts. Teacher preparation for this undertaking appears inadequate with little known about how in-service Mid-Atlantic urban elementary science teachers approach this task. The purpose of this basic qualitative interview study was to explore the research questions related to perceived learning needs of 8 elementary science teachers and 5 of their administrators serving as instructional leaders. Strategies needed for professional growth to support learning and barriers that hamper it at both building and district levels were included. These questions were considered through the lens of Schon's reflective learning and Weick's sensemaking theories. Analysis with provisional and open coding strategies identified informal and formal supports and barriers to teachers' learning. Results indicated that informal supports, primarily internet usage, emerged as most valuable to the teachers' learning. Formal structures, including professional learning communities and grade level meetings, arose as both supportive and restrictive at the building and district levels. Existing formal supports emerged as the least useful because of the dominance of other priorities competing for time and resources. Addressing weaknesses within formal supports through more effective planning in professional development can promote positive change. Improvement to professional development approaches using the internet and increased hands on activities can be integrated into formal supports. Explicit attention to these strategies can strengthen teacher effectiveness bringing positive social change.

  2. Setting ambient air quality standards for particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, Roger O.

    2002-01-01

    Ambient air particulate matter (PM), unspecified as to chemical composition, is of concern because of its health effects. Air quality standards for PM have been established in many countries. The earliest standards were based on threshold models and use of a margin of safety. Initially, standards were based on the mass of total suspended material. In the 1980s a shift to a size-specific standard, PM 10 , began. PM 10 is the fraction of PM captured with 50% efficiency at 10 μm and greater efficiency at smaller sizes. In the late 1990s, standards were proposed for PM 2.5 , which is captured with 50% efficiency at 2.5 μm. The standards for PM are based almost exclusively on human epidemiological data, with laboratory animal and in vitro data used in a supporting role. During the 1990s, new statistical tools began to be used and demonstrated an association between increased PM and an increase in cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. The analyses are complicated by the effects of other pollutants such as ozone. Effects have been observed down to 10-20 μg of PM 10 per cubic meter, levels equal to or below background in many parts of the world. In many studies there has been no evidence of a threshold. In the absence of a threshold, a critical issue becomes how to determine how low is low enough? This paper reviews the current literature on PM health effects and suggests research avenues that may yield data which, combined with public policy considerations, may be able to address the issue of 'how low is low enough?'

  3. What matters to women in science? Gender, power and bureaucracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linková, Marcela; Červinková, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), s. 215-230 ISSN 1350-5068 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender * science policy * modes of mattering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.216, year: 2011

  4. The COBE normalization for standard cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Emory F.; Scott, Douglas; White, Martin

    1995-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) detection of microwave anisotropies provides the best way of fixing the amplitude of cosmological fluctuations on the largest scales. This normalization is usually given for an n = 1 spectrum, including only the anisotropy caused by the Sachs-Wolfe effect. This is certainly not a good approximation for a model containing any reasonable amount of baryonic matter. In fact, even tilted Sachs-Wolfe spectra are not a good fit to models like cold dark matter (CDM). Here, we normalize standard CDM (sCDM) to the two-year COBE data and quote the best amplitude in terms of the conventionally used measures of power. We also give normalizations for some specific variants of this standard model, and we indicate how the normalization depends on the assumed values on n, Omega(sub B) and H(sub 0). For sCDM we find the mean value of Q = 19.9 +/- 1.5 micro-K, corresponding to sigma(sub 8) = 1.34 +/- 0.10, with the normalization at large scales being B = (8.16 +/- 1.04) x 10(exp 5)(Mpc/h)(exp 4), and other numbers given in the table. The measured rms temperature fluctuation smoothed on 10 deg is a little low relative to this normalization. This is mainly due to the low quadrupole in the data: when the quadrupole is removed, the measured value of sigma(10 deg) is quite consistent with the best-fitting the mean value of Q. The use of the mean value of Q should be preferred over sigma(10 deg), when its value can be determined for a particular theory, since it makes full use of the data.

  5. The Next Generation of Science Standards: Implications for Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2012-01-01

    The release of A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) provides the basis for the next generation of science standards. This article first describes that foundation for the life sciences; it then presents a draft standard for natural selection and evolution. Finally, there is a…

  6. Academic Training turns to matters of science and society

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Once again, CERN has opened its doors to matters of science and society. A recent academic training lecture series tackled the thorny issue of arms control. Although an issue far from normal training needs of CERN personnel, the series was well attended. Aseries of lectures about arms control at CERN? Surely some mistake! But there are many reasons why one of the world's most important physics laboratories should consider such weighty political and ethical matters - not least the concern for the issues felt by members of the CERN community. A large number of people followed the full series of lectures on arms control and disarmament by Francesco Calogero, Professor of theoretical physics at Rome's 'La Sapienza' University, demonstrating that CERN people are not only interested in purely scientific matters, but also in the implications for society. Professor Calogero, a former Secretary General of Pugwash1) and currently Chairman of the Pugwash Council, observed that, 'even if I dealt, albeit tersely, with the...

  7. Why the Difference Between Explanation and Argument Matters to Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandt, Ingo

    2016-05-01

    Contributing to the recent debate on whether or not explanations ought to be differentiated from arguments, this article argues that the distinction matters to science education. I articulate the distinction in terms of explanations and arguments having to meet different standards of adequacy. Standards of explanatory adequacy are important because they correspond to what counts as a good explanation in a science classroom, whereas a focus on evidence-based argumentation can obscure such standards of what makes an explanation explanatory. I provide further reasons for the relevance of not conflating explanations with arguments (and having standards of explanatory adequacy in view). First, what guides the adoption of the particular standards of explanatory adequacy that are relevant in a scientific case is the explanatory aim pursued in this context. Apart from explanatory aims being an important aspect of the nature of science, including explanatory aims in classroom instruction also promotes students seeing explanations as more than facts, and engages them in developing explanations as responses to interesting explanatory problems. Second, it is of relevance to science curricula that science aims at intervening in natural processes, not only for technological applications, but also as part of experimental discovery. Not any argument enables intervention in nature, as successful intervention specifically presupposes causal explanations. Students can fruitfully explore in the classroom how an explanatory account suggests different options for intervention.

  8. Evolution: Its Treatment in K-12 State Science Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    State standards are the basis upon which states and local schools build curricula. Usually taking the form of lists of what students are expected to learn at specified grades or clusters of grades, they influence statewide examinations, textbooks, teacher education and credentialing, and other areas in which states typically exercise control over local curriculum development. State science standards vary very widely in overall quality.1,2 This is especially true in their treatment of evolution, both in the life sciences and to a somewhat lesser extent in geology and astronomy. Not surprisingly, a detailed evaluation of the treatment of evolution in state science standards3 has evoked considerably more public interest than the preceding studies of overall quality. We here consider the following questions: What constitutes a good treatment of evolution in science standards and how does one evaluate the standards? Which states have done well, and which less well? What nonscientific influences have been brought to bear on standards, for what reasons, and by whom? What strategies have been used to obscure or distort the role of evolution as the central organizing principle of the historical sciences? What are the effects of such distortions on students' overall understanding of science? What can the scientific community do to assure the publication of good science standards and to counteract attacks on good science teaching? 1. Lerner, L. S., State Science Standards: An Appraisal of Science Standards in 36 States, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 1998. 2. Lerner, L. S. et al ., The State of State Standards 2000, ibid., January 2000. 3. Lerner, L. S., Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution In the States, ibid., September 2000.

  9. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA

  10. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Lontok

    Full Text Available Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM. Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  11. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  12. Answers to Teachers' Questions about the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workosky, Cindy; Willard, Ted

    2015-01-01

    K-12 teachers of science have been digging into the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS") (NGSS Lead States 2013) to begin creating plans and processes for translating them for classroom instruction. As teachers learn about the NGSS, they have asked about the general structure of the standards document and how to read…

  13. Standardization in library and information science in selected European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Anna

    2015-02-01

    Standardization plays an important role in library and information science (LIS), because it gives rules to identify, classify, access, select, exploit, communicate, exchange and preserve information. Standards are developed by national, European and international organizations. The objective of the study is to present the situation of standardization in library and information science in the countries that joined the European Union in 2004. The research covered Technical Committees that take the problems of LIS, their cooperation with European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The second part of the study is an analysis of LIS standards published in the last 10 years. Data on published documents were gathered from online standards directories. The documents were searched using International Classification for Standards. Retrieved standards were analyzed for their origin and status. The research illustrates the changes in the national standardization, most popular topics and the growing importance of international cooperation in standardization.

  14. Next Generation Science Standards: Adoption and Implementation Workbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzman, Alissa; Rodriguez, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) represent the culmination of years of collaboration and effort by states, science educators and experts from across the United States. Based on the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" and developed in partnership with 26 lead states, the NGSS, when…

  15. The international development of forensic science standards - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Wilde, Linzi

    2018-04-16

    Standards establish specifications and procedures designed to ensure products, services and systems are safe, reliable and consistently perform as intended. Standards can be used in the accreditation of forensic laboratories or facilities and in the certification of products and services. In recent years there have been various international activities aiming at developing forensic science standards and guidelines. The most significant initiative currently underway within the global forensic community is the development of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. This paper reviews the main bodies working on standards for forensic science, the processes used and the implications for accreditation. This paper specifically discusses the work of ISO Technical Committee TC272, the future TC272 work program for the development of forensic science standards and associated timelines. Also discussed, are the lessons learnt to date in navigating the complex environment of multi-country stakeholder deliberations in standards development. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2010

    2010-01-01

    This appendix accompanies the report "Taking the Lead in Science Education: Forging Next-Generation Science Standards. International Science Benchmarking Report," a study conducted by Achieve to compare the science standards of 10 countries. This appendix includes the following: (1) PISA and TIMSS Assessment Rankings; (2) Courses and…

  17. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"), due to be released this spring, represents a revolutionary step toward establishing modern, national K-12 science education standards. Based on the recommendations of the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting…

  18. World-Class Ambitions, Weak Standards: An Excerpt from "The State of State Science Standards 2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A solid science education program begins by clearly establishing what well-educated youngsters need to learn about this multifaceted domain of human knowledge. The first crucial step is setting clear academic standards for the schools--standards that not only articulate the critical science content students need to learn, but that also properly…

  19. The Science Standards and Students of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Samantha L.

    2017-01-01

    In a 2014 report, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) projected that by the year 2022, minority students will outnumber non-Hispanic white students enrolled in public schools. As the diversity of the student population in the United States increases, concerns arise about student performance in science classes, especially among…

  20. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  1. Next Generation Science Standards and edTPA: Evidence of Science and Engineering Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, Erica M.; Horvath, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Science teacher educators in the United States are currently preparing future science teachers to effectively implement the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and, in thirteen states, to successfully pass a content-specific high stakes teacher performance assessment, the edTPA. Science education and teacher performance assessment…

  2. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Process Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard E.; Enloe, Yonsook

    2007-01-01

    NASA has impaneled several internal working groups to provide recommendations to NASA management on ways to evolve and improve Earth Science Data Systems. One of these working groups is the Standards Process Group (SPC). The SPG is drawn from NASA-funded Earth Science Data Systems stakeholders, and it directs a process of community review and evaluation of proposed NASA standards. The working group's goal is to promote interoperability and interuse of NASA Earth Science data through broader use of standards that have proven implementation and operational benefit to NASA Earth science by facilitating the NASA management endorsement of proposed standards. The SPC now has two years of experience with this approach to identification of standards. We will discuss real examples of the different types of candidate standards that have been proposed to NASA's Standards Process Group such as OPeNDAP's Data Access Protocol, the Hierarchical Data Format, and Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Map Server. Each of the three types of proposals requires a different sort of criteria for understanding the broad concepts of "proven implementation" and "operational benefit" in the context of NASA Earth Science data systems. We will discuss how our Standards Process has evolved with our experiences with the three candidate standards.

  3. 40 CFR 266.105 - Standards to control particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... matter. 266.105 Section 266.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... prescribed in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, methods 1 through 5, and appendix IX of this part. (b) An owner or operator meeting the requirements of § 266.109(b) for the low risk waste exemption is exempt from the...

  4. MSSM (Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model) Dark Matter Without Prejudice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gainer, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently we examined a large number of points in a 19-dimensional parameter subspace of the CP-conserving MSSM with Minimal Flavor Violation. We determined whether each of these points satisfied existing theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints. Here we discuss the properties of the parameter space points allowed by existing data that are relevant for dark matter searches.

  5. Addressing Three Common Myths about the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) were released over two years ago, misconceptions about what they are--and are not--persist. The "NGSS" provide for consistent science education opportunities for all students--regardless of demographics--with a level of rigor expected in every location and…

  6. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  7. Connecting dark matter annihilation to the vertex functions of Standard Model fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jason; Light, Christopher, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu, E-mail: lightc@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, Hawaii (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We consider scenarios in which dark matter is a Majorana fermion which couples to Standard Model fermions through the exchange of charged mediating particles. The matrix elements for various dark matter annihilation processes are then related to one-loop corrections to the fermion-photon vertex, where dark matter and the charged mediators run in the loop. In particular, in the limit where Standard Model fermion helicity mixing is suppressed, the cross section for dark matter annihilation to various final states is related to corrections to the Standard Model fermion charge form factor. These corrections can be extracted in a gauge-invariant manner from collider cross sections. Although current measurements from colliders are not precise enough to provide useful constraints on dark matter annihilation, improved measurements at future experiments, such as the International Linear Collider, could improve these constraints by several orders of magnitude, allowing them to surpass the limits obtainable by direct observation.

  8. Science and trans-science in standard setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majone, G.

    1984-01-01

    Standard-setting is a blending of scientific, trans-scientific, and political elements which result in a number of consequences. Health standards, for example, are influenced by biological and philosophical assumptions and scientific traditions, with the dose-response function treated as a trans-scientific question because of scientific uncertainties. Costs and benefits and other values besides health, safety, or environment also enter into the balancing of regulatory decisions and keep regulations from a purely scientific knowledge is desirable. Recommendations that industry be self-regulatory reflect a shift in emphasis from legal enforcement to information-based compliance

  9. Risk Analysis as Regulatory Science: Toward The Establishment of Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio

    2016-09-01

    Understanding how to establish standards is essential for risk communication and also provides perspectives for further study. In this paper, the concept of risk analysis as regulatory science for the establishment of standards is demonstrated through examples of standards for evacuation and provisional regulation values in foods and drinking water. Moreover, academic needs for further studies related to standards are extracted. The concepts of the traditional 'Standard I', which has a paternalistic orientation, and 'Standard II', established through stakeholder consensus, are then systemized by introducing the current status of the new standards-related movement that developed after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, and the perspectives of the standards are discussed. Preparation of standards on the basis of stakeholder consensus through intensive risk dialogue before a potential nuclear power plant accident is suggested to be a promising approach to ensure a safe society and enhance subjective well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  10. New fermionic dark matters, extended Standard Model and cosmic rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Kwang

    2017-08-01

    Three generations of leptons and quarks correspond to the lepton charges (LCs) in this work. Then, the leptons have the electric charges (ECs) and LCs. The quarks have the ECs, LCs and color charges (CCs). Three heavy leptons and three heavy quarks are introduced to make the missing third flavor of EC. Then the three new particles which have the ECs are proposed as the bastons (dark matters) with the rest masses of 26.121 eV/c2, 42.7 GeV/c2 and 1.9 × 1015 eV/c2. These new particles are applied to explain the origins of the astrophysical observations like the ultra-high energy cosmic rays and supernova 1987A anti-neutrino data. It is concluded that the 3.5 keV X-ray peak observed from the cosmic X-ray background spectra is originated not from the pair annihilations of the dark matters but from the X-ray emission of the Q1 baryon atoms which are similar in the atomic structure to the hydrogen atom. The presence of the 3.5 keV cosmic X-ray supports the presence of the Q1 quark with the EC of -4/3. New particles can be indirectly seen from the astrophysical observations like the cosmic ray and cosmic gamma ray. In this work, the systematic quantized charges of EC, LC and CC for the elementary particles are used to consistently explain the decay and reaction schemes of the elementary particles. Also, the strong, weak and dark matter forces are consistently explained.

  11. Dark matter dynamics in Abell 3827: new data consistent with standard cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard; Harvey, David; Liesenborgs, Jori; Richard, Johan; Stach, Stuart; Swinbank, Mark; Taylor, Peter; Williams, Liliya; Clowe, Douglas; Courbin, Frédéric; Edge, Alastair; Israel, Holger; Jauzac, Mathilde; Joseph, Rémy; Jullo, Eric; Kitching, Thomas D.; Leonard, Adrienne; Merten, Julian; Nagai, Daisuke; Nightingale, James; Robertson, Andrew; Romualdez, Luis Javier; Saha, Prasenjit; Smit, Renske; Tam, Sut-Ieng; Tittley, Eric

    2018-06-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of galaxy cluster Abell 3827, using Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) and Very Large Telescope/Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. It reveals an unusual configuration of strong gravitational lensing in the cluster core, with at least seven lensed images of a single background spiral galaxy. Lens modelling based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging had suggested that the dark matter associated with one of the cluster's central galaxies may be offset. The new spectroscopic data enable better subtraction of foreground light, and better identification of multiple background images. The inferred distribution of dark matter is consistent with being centred on the galaxies, as expected by Λ cold dark matter. Each galaxy's dark matter also appears to be symmetric. Whilst, we do not find an offset between mass and light (suggestive of self-interacting dark matter) as previously reported, the numerical simulations that have been performed to calibrate Abell 3827 indicate that offsets and asymmetry are still worth looking for in collisions with particular geometries. Meanwhile, ALMA proves exceptionally useful for strong lens image identifications.

  12. Cosmological Signature of the Standard Model Higgs Vacuum Instability: Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J R; Racco, D; Riotto, A

    2018-03-23

    For the current central values of the Higgs boson and top quark masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops an instability at a scale of the order of 10^{11}  GeV. We show that a cosmological signature of such instability could be dark matter in the form of primordial black holes seeded by Higgs fluctuations during inflation. The existence of dark matter might not require physics beyond the standard model.

  13. Cosmological Signature of the Standard Model Higgs Vacuum Instability: Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J. R.; Racco, D.; Riotto, A.

    2018-03-01

    For the current central values of the Higgs boson and top quark masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops an instability at a scale of the order of 1 011 GeV . We show that a cosmological signature of such instability could be dark matter in the form of primordial black holes seeded by Higgs fluctuations during inflation. The existence of dark matter might not require physics beyond the standard model.

  14. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K–8 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K–8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students’ performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K–4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5–8 standards. PMID:24006402

  15. Assessing the life science knowledge of students and teachers represented by the K-8 national science standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M; Coyle, Harold; Smith, Nancy Cook; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test takers hold either a misconception or an accepted scientific view. Tested nationally with 30,594 students, following their study of life science, and their 353 teachers, these items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC standards. Teachers also answered test items and demonstrated a high level of subject matter knowledge reflecting the standards of the grade level at which they teach, but exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. In addition, teachers predicted the difficulty of each item for their students and which of the wrong answers would be the most popular. Teachers were found to generally overestimate their own students' performance and to have a high level of awareness of the particular misconceptions that their students hold on the K-4 standards, but a low level of awareness of misconceptions related to the 5-8 standards.

  16. Questioning the Fidelity of the "Next Generation Science Standards" for Astronomy and Space Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are not federally mandated national standards or performance expectations for K-12 schools in the United States, they stand poised to become a de facto national science and education policy, as state governments, publishers of curriculum materials, and assessment providers across the country…

  17. The Nature of Science and the "Next Generation Science Standards": Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are…

  18. The "Next Generation Science Standards" and the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Michael E. Wysession comments on the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS), which are based on the recommendations of the National Research Council and represent a revolutionary step toward establishing modern, national K-12 science education standards. The NGSS involves significant changes from traditional…

  19. MAP Science for Use with Next Generation Science Standards. NWEA External FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) Science for use with Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) assessments are available for the 2016-17 school year. These new assessments measure student growth toward understanding of the multidimensional NGSS performance expectations. This report presents MAP Science for use with NGSS by presenting and…

  20. Perception of Science Standards' Effectiveness and Their Implementation by Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klieger, Aviva; Yakobovitch, Anat

    2011-06-01

    The introduction of standards into the education system poses numerous challenges and difficulties. As with any change, plans should be made for teachers to understand and implement the standards. This study examined science teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of the standards for teaching and learning, and the extent and ease/difficulty of implementing science standards in different grades. The research used a mixed methods approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods. The research tools were questionnaires that were administered to elementary school science teachers. The majority of the teachers perceived the standards in science as effective for teaching and learning and only a small minority viewed them as restricting their pedagogical autonomy. Differences were found in the extent of implementation of the different standards and between different grades. The teachers perceived a different degree of difficulty in the implementation of the different standards. The standards experienced as easiest to implement were in the field of biology and materials, whereas the standards in earth sciences and the universe and technology were most difficult to implement, and are also those evaluated by the teachers as being implemented to the least extent. Exposure of teachers' perceptions on the effectiveness of standards and the implementation of the standards may aid policymakers in future planning of teachers' professional development for the implementation of standards.

  1. Implications of the Next Generation Science Standards for Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.; Colson, M.; Duschl, R. A.; Huff, K.; Lopez, R. E.; Messina, P.; Speranza, P.; Matthews, T.; Childress, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), due to be released in 2013, set a new direction for K-12 science education in America. These standards will put forth significant changes for Earth and space sciences. The NGSS are based upon the recommendations of the National Research Council's 2011 report "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas." The standards are being written by a large group of authors who represent many different constituencies, including 26 participating states, in a process led by Achieve, Inc. The standards encourage innovative ways to teach science at the K-12 level, including enhanced integration between the content, practices, and crosscutting ideas of science and greater assimilation among the sciences and engineering, and among the sciences, mathematics, and English language arts. The NGSS presents a greater emphasis on Earth and space sciences than in previous standards, recommending a year at both the middle and high school levels. The new standards also present a greater emphasis on areas of direct impact between humans and the Earth system, including climate change, natural hazards, resource management, and sustainability.

  2. Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data

  3. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate

  4. Dark matter dynamics in Abell 3827: new data consistent with standard cold dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Massey , Richard; Harvey , David; Liesenborgs , Jori; Richard , Johan; Stach , Stuart; Swinbank , Mark; Taylor , Peter; Williams , Liliya; Clowe , Douglas; Courbin , Frédéric; Edge , Alastair; Israel , Holger; Jauzac , Mathilde; Joseph , Remy; Jullo , Eric

    2018-01-01

    10 pages, 5 figures. Comments welcome; International audience; We present integral field spectroscopy of galaxy cluster Abell 3827, using ALMA and VLT/MUSE. It reveals an unusual configuration of strong gravitational lensing in the cluster core, with at least seven lensed images of a single background spiral galaxy. Lens modelling based on HST imaging had suggested that the dark matter associated with one of the cluster's central galaxies may be offset. The new spectroscopic data enable bette...

  5. Dark matter dynamics in Abell 3827 : new data consistent with standard cold dark matter.

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, R.; Harvey, D.; Liesenborgs, J.; Richard, J.; Stach, S.; Swinbank, M.; Taylor, P.; Williams, L.; Clowe, D.; Courbin, F.; Edge, A.; Israel, H.; Jauzac, M.; Joseph, R.; Jullo, E.

    2018-01-01

    We present integral field spectroscopy of galaxy cluster Abell 3827, using Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) and Very Large Telescope/Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. It reveals an unusual configuration of strong gravitational lensing in the cluster core, with at least seven lensed images of a single background spiral galaxy. Lens modelling based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging had suggested that the dark matter associated with one of the cluster's central galaxies may be offset. The ...

  6. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... to the 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, ``Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel... for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels, A2. Reference Materials and Blending Accessories, (``ASTM... [Docket No. NHTSA-2011-0185] RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by...

  7. ESO science data product standard for 1D spectral products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micol, Alberto; Arnaboldi, Magda; Delmotte, Nausicaa A. R.; Mascetti, Laura; Retzlaff, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Phase 3 process allows the upload, validation, storage, and publication of reduced data through the ESO Science Archive Facility. Since its introduction, 2 million data products have been archived and published; 80% of them are one-dimensional extracted and calibrated spectra. Central to Phase3 is the ESO science data product standard that defines metadata and data format of any product. This contribution describes the ESO data standard for 1d-spectra, its adoption by the reduction pipelines of selected instrument modes for in-house generation of reduced spectra, the enhanced archive legacy value. Archive usage statistics are provided.

  8. Notes on the Particulate Matter Standards in the European Union and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Priemus

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Particulate Matter in the atmosphere, resulting from emissions produced by cars, trucks, ships, industrial estates and agricultural complexes, is a topical public health problem that has increased in recent decades due to environmental factors in advanced economies in particular. This contribution relates the health impact caused by concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM in ambient air to the PM standards, the size of the particles and spatial planning. Diverging impacts of PM standards in legal regulation are discussed. The authors present a review of the development of legal PM standards in the European Union, with a specific reference to The Netherlands.

  9. Doing Science that Matters to Address India's Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, V.

    2017-12-01

    Addressing water security in developing regions involves predicting water availability under unprecedented rates of population and economic growth. India is one of the most water stressed countries in the world. Despite appreciable increases in funding for water research, high quality science that is usable by stakeholders remains elusive. The absence of usable research, has been driven by notions of what is publishable in the developed world. This can be attributed to the absence of problem driven research on questions that actually matter to stakeholders, unwillingness to transcend disciplinary boundaries and the demise of a field-work research culture in favour of computer simulation. Yet the combination of rapid change, inadequate data and human modifications to watersheds poses a challenge, as researchers face a poorly constrained water resources modelling problem. Instead, what India and indeed all developing regions need is to approach the problem from first principles, identifying the most critical knowledge gaps, then prioritizing data collection using novel sensing and modelling approaches to address them. This might also necessitate consideration of underlying social and governance drivers of hydrologic change. Using examples from research in the Cauvery Basin, a highly contentious inter-state river basin, I offer some insights into framing "use-inspired" research agenda and show how the research generates not just new scientific insights but may be translated into practice.

  10. Framework for Leading Next Generation Science Standards Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Katherine; Mundry, Susan; DiRanna, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    In response to the need to develop leaders to guide the implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), the Carnegie Corporation of New York provided funding to WestEd to develop a framework that defines the leadership knowledge and actions needed to effectively implement the NGSS. The development of the framework entailed…

  11. Asymmetric dark matter from spontaneous cogenesis in the supersymmetric standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Masahide [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-01-15

    The observational relation between the density of baryon and dark matter in the Universe, {omega}{sub DM}/{omega}{sub B}{approx_equal}5, is one of the most difficult problems to solve in modern cosmology. We discuss a scenario that explains this relation by combining the asymmetric dark matter scenario and the spontaneous baryogenesis associated with the flat direction in the supersymmetric standard model. A part of baryon asymmetry is transferred to charge asymmetry D that dark matter carries, if a symmetry violating interaction that works at high temperature breaks not only B-L but also D symmetries simultaneously. In this case, the present number density of baryon and dark matter can be same order if the symmetric part of dark matter annihilates sufficiently. Moreover, the baryon number density can be enhanced as compared to that of dark matter if another B-L violating interaction is still in thermal equilibrium after the spontaneous genesis of dark matter, which accommodates a TeV scale asymmetric dark matter model. (orig.)

  12. Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards: Impacts on Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    This is a critical time for the geoscience community. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) have been released and are now being adopted by states (a dozen states and Washington, DC, at the time of writing this), with dramatic implications for national K-12 science education. Curriculum developers and textbook companies are working hard to construct educational materials that match the new standards, which emphasize a hands-on practice-based approach that focuses on working directly with primary data and other forms of evidence. While the set of 8 science and engineering practices of the NGSS lend themselves well to the observation-oriented approach of much of the geosciences, there is currently not a sufficient number of geoscience educational modules and activities geared toward the K-12 levels, and geoscience research organizations need to be mobilizing their education & outreach programs to meet this need. It is a rare opportunity that will not come again in this generation. There are other significant issues surrounding the implementation of the NGSS. The NGSS involves a year of Earth and space science at the high school level, but there does not exist a sufficient workforce is geoscience teachers to meet this need. The form and content of the geoscience standards are also very different from past standards, moving away from a memorization and categorization approach and toward a complex Earth Systems Science approach. Combined with the shift toward practice-based teaching, this means that significant professional development will therefore be required for the existing K-12 geoscience education workforce. How the NGSS are to be assessed is another significant question, with an NRC report providing some guidance but leaving many questions unanswered. There is also an uneasy relationship between the NGSS and the Common Core of math and English, and the recent push-back against the Common Core in many states may impact the implementation of the NGSS.

  13. How can history of science matter to scientists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maienschein, Jane; Laubichler, Manfred; Loettgers, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    History of science has developed into a methodologically diverse discipline, adding greatly to our understanding of the interplay between science, society, and culture. Along the way, one original impetus for the then newly emerging discipline--what George Sarton called the perspective "from the point of view of the scientist"--dropped out of fashion. This essay shows, by means of several examples, that reclaiming this interaction between science and history of science yields interesting perspectives and new insights for both science and history of science. The authors consequently suggest that historians of science also adopt this perspective as part of their methodological repertoire.

  14. The Nature of Science and the Next Generation Science Standards: Analysis and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, William F.; Nouri, Noushin

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the inclusion of aspects of nature of science (NOS) in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In this new standards document, NOS elements in eight categories are discussed in Appendix H along with illustrative statements (called exemplars). Many, but not all, of these exemplars are linked to the standards by their association with either the "practices of science" or "crosscutting concepts," but curiously not with the recommendations for science content. The study investigated all aspects of NOS in NGSS including the accuracy and inclusion of the supporting exemplar statements and the relationship of NOS in NGSS to other aspects of NOS to support teaching and learning science. We found that while 92 % of these exemplars are acceptable, only 78 % of those written actually appear with the standards. "Science as a way of knowing" is a recommended NOS category in NGSS but is not included with the standards. Also, several other NOS elements fail to be included at all grade levels thus limiting their impact. Finally, NGSS fails to include or insufficiently emphasize several frequently recommended NOS elements such as creativity and subjectivity. The paper concludes with a list of concerns and solutions to the challenges of NOS in NGSS.

  15. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  16. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  17. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Krupa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  18. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  19. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  20. How Climate Science got to be in the Next Generation Science Standards (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    Climate science plays a prominent role in the new national K-12 Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This represents the culmination of a significant amount of effort by many different organizations that have worked hard to educate the public on one of the most interesting, complex, complicated, and societally important aspects of geoscience. While there are significant challenges to the full implementation of the NGSS, especially those aspects that relate to climate change, the fact that so many states are currently adopting the NGSS represents a significant milestone in geoscience education. When grade 6-12 textbooks were written ten years ago, such as Pearson's high school Physical Science: Concepts in Action (Wysession et al., 2004), very little mention of climate change was incorporated because it did not appear in state standards. Now, climate and climate change are an integral part of the middle school and high school NGSS standards, and textbook companies are fully incorporating this content into their programs. There are many factors that have helped the shift toward teaching about climate, such as the IPCC report, Al Gore's 'An Inconvenient Truth,' and the many reports on climate change published by the National Research Council (NRC). However, four major community-driven literacy documents (The Essential Principles of Ocean Science, Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts for Atmospheric Science Literacy, The Earth Science Literacy Principles, and The Essential Principles of Climate Science) were essential in that they directly informed the construction of the Earth and Space Science (ESS) content of the NRC's 'Framework for K-12 Science Education' by the ESS Design Team. The actual performance expectations of the NGSS were then informed directly by the disciplinary core ideas of the NRC Framework, which were motivated by the community-driven literacy documents and the significant credentials these bore. The work in getting climate science

  1. Particle physics and cosmology beyond the Standard Model: inflation, dark matter and flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtier, L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has been focusing on beyond the Standard Model aspects of particle physics and their implication in cosmology. We have gone through this work along the timeline of the Universe History focusing on three major topics that are the inflationary period, the dark matter relic density production and detection, and finally the question of flavor changing constraints on low energy supersymmetric theories. In the first part of this thesis, after reviewing the theoretical and phenomenological aspects of both the Big Bang theory and the theory of Inflation we will study in detail how describing Inflation in a high energy supersymmetric theory. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to dark matter. We have studied phenomenological aspects of simple models, extending the present Standard Model with simple abelian symmetries, by assuming that the constituent of dark matter would be able to exchange information with the visible sector by the help of a mediator particle. We have studied in particular possible interactions of heavy or light dark matter with respectively the strong and the electroweak sectors of the Standard Model. Our models are strongly constrained of course by experiments. The third part of this work will be dedicated to a different aspect of beyond Standard Model theories, that is the treatment of the flavour changing processes of particle physics. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), as one of these possible enlargement of the Standard Model, introduces new processes of flavour changing that are highly constrained by experiment. We present some works in which we consider the possibility of adding so called Dirac Gauginos to the MSSM to render flavour changing weaker in the theory, and propose different flavour patterns theories

  2. Secluded and putative flipped dark matter and Stueckelberg extensions of the standard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, E. C. F. S.; Pleitez, V.; Stecker, F. W.

    2018-02-01

    We consider here three dark matter models with the gauge symmetry of the standard model plus an additional local U(1)D factor. One model is truly secluded and the other two models begin flipped, but end up secluded. All of these models include one dark fermion and one vector boson that gains mass via the Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that the would be flipped models provide an example dark matter composed of "almost least interacting particles" (ALIPs). Such particles are therefore compatible with the constraints obtained from both laboratory measurements and astrophysical observations.

  3. Secluded and Putative Flipped Dark Matter and Stueckelberg Extensions of the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, E. C. F. S.; Pleitez, V.; Stecker, F. W.

    2018-01-01

    We consider here three dark matter models with the gauge symmetry of the standard model plus an additional local U(1)D factor. One model is truly secluded and the other two models begin flipped, but end up secluded. All of these models include one dark fermion and one vector boson that gains mass via the Stueckelberg mechanism. We show that the would be flipped models provide an example dark matter composed of "almost least interacting particles" (ALIPs). Such particles are therefore compatible with the constraints obtained from both laboratory measurements and astrophysical observations.

  4. Adiabatic density perturbations and matter generation from the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, Kari; Kasuya, Shinta; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2003-03-07

    We propose that the inflaton is coupled to ordinary matter only gravitationally and that it decays into a completely hidden sector. In this scenario both baryonic and dark matter originate from the decay of a flat direction of the minimal supersymmetric standard model, which is shown to generate the desired adiabatic perturbation spectrum via the curvaton mechanism. The requirement that the energy density along the flat direction dominates over the inflaton decay products fixes the flat direction almost uniquely. The present residual energy density in the hidden sector is typically shown to be small.

  5. Disciplinary Identity as Analytic Construct and Design Goal: Making Learning Sciences Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Heidi B.

    2017-01-01

    Bent Flyvbjerg (2001), in his book "Making Social Science Matter: Why Social Inquiry Fails and How It Can Succeed Again," argues that social science's aims and methods are currently, and perhaps always will be, ill suited to the type of cumulative and predictive theory that characterizes inquiry and knowledge generation in the natural…

  6. National standards in science education: Teacher perceptions regarding utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Carol Louise Parsons

    The purpose of this naturalistic study was to determine what factors most influence middle school science teachers' intentions to utilize or ignore national standards, as a toot for reform in their classrooms, schools, or districts. Results indicate. that teachers with. minimal training were unlikely to use national standards documents due to their perceptions of a lack of support from peers, administrators and a high-stakes state accountability system. Teachers with more extensive training were more inclined to use national standards documents as philosophical guides for reform because they believed in the validity of the recommendations. Implications are discussed, chief among them that short-term professional development may actually do more harm than good if teachers retain or develop unexamined misconceptions about national standards recommendations as a result. In addition, due to the concerns expressed by teachers regarding state curriculum mandates and standardized testing, this study indicates that changes in these external factors must be instituted before teachers will commit themselves to standards-based reforms. It is suggested that staff development focus on opportunities for reflection and application which will promote conceptual change in teachers. A model predicated on the notion that the process of implementing reform is essentially an issue of promoting conceptual change in teachers is proposed. This model, termed the Reform Implementation as Conceptual Change, or RICC, focuses specifically on the cognitive processes teachers may go through when they are exposed to an innovation such as national standards. Stages such as integrated application, accommodation, assimilation, disconnection, and false accommodation, are described. The impact that professional development and training may have on the likelihood that teachers will experience these various stages is also discussed. This model serves as a theoretical framework for explaining why some

  7. Does standard deviation matter? Using "standard deviation" to quantify security of multistage testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.

  8. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: S1 Dark Matter Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.; Aprile, E.; Baltz, E.A.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Gaitskell, R.J.; Gondolo, P.; Hime, A.; Martoff, C.J.; Mei, D.-M.; Nelson, H.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R.W.; Sonnenschein, A.H.; Strigari, L.E.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of dark matter is of fundamental importance to cosmology, astrophysics, and elementary particle physics. A broad range of observations from the rotation speed of stars in ordinary galaxies to the gravitational lensing of superclusters tell us that 80-90% of the matter in the universe is in some new form, different from ordinary particles, that does not emit or absorb light. Cosmological observations, especially the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe of the cosmic microwave background radiation, have provided spectacular confirmation of the astrophysical evidence. The resulting picture, the so-called ''Standard Cosmology'', finds that a quarter of the energy density of the universe is dark matter and most of the remainder is dark energy. A basic foundation of the model, Big Bang Nucleonsynthesis (BBN), tells us that at most about 5% is made of ordinary matter, or baryons. The solution to this ''dark matter problem'' may therefore lie in the existence of some new form of non-baryonic matter. With ideas on these new forms coming from elementary particle physics, the solution is likely to have broad and profound implications for cosmology, astrophysics, and fundamental interactions. While non-baryonic dark matter is a key component of the cosmos and the most abundant form of matter in the Universe, so far it has revealed itself only through gravitational effects--determining its nature is one of the greatest scientific issues of our time. Many potential new forms of matter that lie beyond the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions have been suggested as dark matter candidates, but none has yet been produced in the laboratory. One possibility is that the dark matter is comprised of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, that were produced moments after the Big Bang from collisions of ordinary matter. WIMPs refer to a general class of particles characterized primarily by a mass and annihilation cross section that would allow them

  9. Classification of effective operators for interactions between the Standard Model and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duch, M.; Grzadkowski, B.; Wudka, J.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a basis for effective operators responsible for interactions between the Standard Model and a dark sector composed of particles with spin ≤1. Redundant operators are eliminated using dim-4 equations of motion. We consider simple scenarios where the dark matter components are stabilized against decay by ℤ_2 symmetries. We determine operators which are loop-generated within an underlying theory and those that are potentially tree-level generated.

  10. Doing Science That Matters to Address India's Water Crisis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research, high quality science that is us- able by ... ising watersheds, I offer some methods and insights. 1. India's ... of training students to think critically about the broader ..... ecosystem service management, and sustainable de- velopment ...

  11. Is intelligent design science, and does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P W Bateman

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The debate between evolution and intelligent design is usually presented by evolutionary biologists as a clash between science and non-science (creationism and religion and therefore as a sterile argument which science wins by default. Countering this is intelligent design (ID and irreducible complexity (IC which posit that the diversity and complexity of life on earth indicates the hand of a designer, although the nature of that designer is not speculated on. In doing so, proponents of� ID and IC bring the argument squarely into the scientific camp and fulfil the requirements of being science, although this is difficult� to define. Here, we discuss the claims of ID and IC to provide an alternative to evolution and propose that science can adequately deal with and refute these claims. At the same time, ID and IC fulfil an important role as foils to �scientism�� � the belief that science is the best way of answering all questions. In the final analysis, however , despite their value in the debate, ID and IC are not found to be robust or reliable enough to replace evolution as the best way of explaining the diversity of life on earth.

  12. Developing Practical Knowledge of the Next Generation Science Standards in Elementary Science Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Zangori, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Just as the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSSs) call for change in what students learn and how they are taught, teacher education programs must reconsider courses and curriculum in order to prepare teacher candidates to understand and implement new standards. In this study, we examine the development of prospective elementary teachers' practical knowledge of the NGSS in the context of a science methods course and innovative field experience. We present three themes related to how prospective teachers viewed and utilized the standards: (a) as a useful guide for planning and designing instruction, (b) as a benchmark for student and self-evaluation, and (c) as an achievable vision for teaching and learning. Our findings emphasize the importance of collaborative opportunities for repeated teaching of the same lessons, but question what is achievable in the context of a semester-long experience.

  13. How does a Next Generation Science Standard Aligned, Inquiry Based, Science Unit Impact Student Achievement of Science Practices and Student Science Efficacy in an Elementary Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Kayla Lee

    This study examined the impact of an inquiry based Next Generation Science Standard aligned science unit on elementary students' understanding and application of the eight Science and Engineering Practices and their relation in building student problem solving skills. The study involved 44 second grade students and three participating classroom teachers. The treatment consisted of a school district developed Second Grade Earth Science unit: What is happening to our playground? that was taught at the beginning of the school year. Quantitative results from a Likert type scale pre and post survey and from student content knowledge assessments showed growth in student belief of their own abilities in the science classroom. Qualitative data gathered from student observations and interviews performed at the conclusion of the Earth Science unit further show gains in student understanding and attitudes. This study adds to the existing literature on the importance of standard aligned, inquiry based science curriculum that provides time for students to engage in science practices.

  14. Teaching the "Geo" in Geography with the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysession, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS; Achieve 2014, 532; Figure 1A) represent a new approach to K-12 science education that involves the interweaving of three educational dimensions: Science and Engineering Practices (SEPs), Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs), and Crosscutting Concepts (CCCs). Unlike most preexisting state science standards for…

  15. Mainstream web standards now support science data too

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, S. M.; Cox, S. J. D.; Janowicz, K.; Fox, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The science community has developed many models and ontologies for representation of scientific data and knowledge. In some cases these have been built as part of coordinated frameworks. For example, the biomedical communities OBO Foundry federates applications covering various aspects of life sciences, which are united through reference to a common foundational ontology (BFO). The SWEET ontology, originally developed at NASA and now governed through ESIP, is a single large unified ontology for earth and environmental sciences. On a smaller scale, GeoSciML provides a UML and corresponding XML representation of geological mapping and observation data. Some of the key concepts related to scientific data and observations have recently been incorporated into domain-neutral mainstream ontologies developed by the World Wide Web consortium through their Spatial Data on the Web working group (SDWWG). OWL-Time has been enhanced to support temporal reference systems needed for science, and has been deployed in a linked data representation of the International Chronostratigraphic Chart. The Semantic Sensor Network ontology has been extended to cover samples and sampling, including relationships between samples. Gridded data and time-series is supported by applications of the statistical data-cube ontology (QB) for earth observations (the EO-QB profile) and spatio-temporal data (QB4ST). These standard ontologies and encodings can be used directly for science data, or can provide a bridge to specialized domain ontologies. There are a number of advantages in alignment with the W3C standards. The W3C vocabularies use discipline-neutral language and thus support cross-disciplinary applications directly without complex mappings. The W3C vocabularies are already aligned with the core ontologies that are the building blocks of the semantic web. The W3C vocabularies are each tightly scoped thus encouraging good practices in the combination of complementary small ontologies. The W3C

  16. Analysis of condensed matter physics records in databases. Science and technology indicators in condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, C.D.

    1999-05-01

    An analysis of the literature on Condensed Matter Physics, with particular emphasis on High Temperature Superconductors, was performed on the contents of the bibliographic database International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Quantitative data were obtained on various characteristics of the relevant INIS records such as subject categories, language and country of publication, publication types, etc. The analysis opens up the possibility for further studies, e.g. on international research co-operation and on publication patterns. (author)

  17. Reconceptualizing the Nature of Science for Science Education: Why Does it Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Erduran, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Two fundamental questions about science are relevant for science educators: (a) What is the nature of science? and (b) what aspects of nature of science should be taught and learned? They are fundamental because they pertain to how science gets to be framed as a school subject and determines what aspects of it are worthy of inclusion in school…

  18. Why technology matters as much as science in improving healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerba Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than half a million new items of biomedical research are generated every year and added to Medline. How successful are we at applying this steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and so improving the practice of medicine in the USA? Discussion The conventional wisdom is that the US healthcare system is plagued by serious cost, access, safety and quality weaknesses. A comprehensive solution must involve the better translation of an abundance of clinical research into improved clinical practice. Yet the application of knowledge (i.e. technology remains far less well funded and less visible than the generation, synthesis and accumulation of knowledge (i.e. science, and the two are only weakly integrated. Worse, technology is often seen merely as an adjunct to practice, e.g. electronic health records. Several key changes are in order. A helpful first step lies in better understanding the distinction between science and technology, and their complementary strengths and limitations. The absolute level of funding for technology development must be increased as well as being more integrated with traditional science-based clinical research. In such a mission-oriented federal funding strategy, the ties between basic science research and applied research would be better emphasized and strengthened. Summary It bears repeating that only by applying the wealth of existing and future scientific knowledge can healthcare delivery and patient care ever show significant improvement.

  19. Safety Matters! Safety for Primary Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education in Science, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses where teachers stand from a legal point of view when pupils, who have been told to wear eye protection, take it off during the practical lesson, and an accident happens. It also discusses the disposal of dissection and other waste from animal parts used in school science. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  20. Special issue on "Frontiers in Materials Science: Condensed matters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nam-Nhat; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Pham, Duc-Thang

    2018-03-01

    This special issue includes the editor-invited and selected papers from 3rd International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2016), held in Hanoi, Vietnam, from the 28th to 30th of September 2016, which coincided with the 65th anniversary of the Faculty of Physics, Hanoi University of Education. The FMS2016 is a continuation of a series of meetings starting from 2010. A first event was a bilateral Vietnamese-German meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in 2010, and the second one was held in Frankfurt, Germany, in 2011. The idea at that time was to initiate interactions between scientists from both countries and to further develop the field of materials science in Southeast Asia. After these successful bilateral meetings, a next step was taken by advancing the format of the symposium into an international event. In 2013, the 1st International Symposium on Frontiers in Materials Science (FMS2013) was successfully organized in Hanoi, which followed 2nd symposium, FMS2015, in Tokyo, in 2015. The FMS2016 continues this idea of providing an international forum for physicists, material scientists and chemists for discussing their latest results and the recent developments in the important field of materials science.

  1. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Taking Action on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) emphasizes the foundational role of science in understanding global change and its impacts on the environment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an integral and important part of that effort

  2. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  3. The role of subject-matter analysis in science didactics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiklin, Seth

    Cultural-historical theory is primarily a psychological theory about and human action and development within meaningful contexts. As a psychologically-oriented theory, it can be relevant to science education research, even if it was not been developed or elaborated specifically in relation...... to problems within science education. STEM education research can be reduced (roughly) to four major problem areas: curriculum, empirical evaluation of existing practices and conditions, didactics, and professional development, where each of these categories can be concretised further according to grade...... paper is primarily on the didactics category, and slightly on the professional development category. The purpose of this paper is to outline three significant points that have been developed within the cultural-historical tradition that have consequences for these two categories: (a) the relation...

  4. Direct detection of singlet dark matter in classically scale-invariant standard model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Endo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical scale invariance is one of the possible solutions to explain the origin of the electroweak scale. The simplest extension is the classically scale-invariant standard model augmented by a multiplet of gauge singlet real scalar. In the previous study it was shown that the properties of the Higgs potential deviate substantially, which can be observed in the International Linear Collider. On the other hand, since the multiplet does not acquire vacuum expectation value, the singlet components are stable and can be dark matter. In this letter we study the detectability of the real singlet scalar bosons in the experiment of the direct detection of dark matter. It is shown that a part of this model has already been excluded and the rest of the parameter space is within the reach of the future experiment.

  5. Why public dissemination of science matters: a manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagleman, David M

    2013-07-24

    Communicating science to the public takes time away from busy research careers. So why would you do it? I here offer six reasons. First, we owe that understanding to the people who fund our experiments, the taxpaying public. Second, we can leverage our skills as scientists to inspire critical thinking in public and political dialog. Third, researchers are optimally positioned to stem the flow of scientific misinformation in the media. Fourth, we can explain the ways and the means by which science can (and cannot) improve law and social policy. Fifth, it is incumbent upon us to explain what science is and is not: while it is a way of thinking that upgrades our intuitions, it also comes with a deep understanding of (and tolerance for) uncertainty. Finally, we find ourselves in the pleasurable position of being able to share the raw beauty of the world around us-and in the case of neuroscience, the world inside us. I suggest that scientists are optimally stationed to increase their presence in the public sphere: our training positions us to synthesize large bodies of data, weigh the evidence, and communicate with nuance, sincerity and exactitude.

  6. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  7. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr

    2010-01-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  8. 4. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This book includes more than 200 abstracts on various aspects of: materials processing and characterization, crystal growth methods, solid-state and crystal technology, development of condensed matter theory and modeling of materials properties, solid-state device physics, nano science and nano technology, heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells and wires, advanced quantum physics for nano systems

  9. The Effect of Constructivist Science Teaching on 4th Grade Students' Understanding of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakici, Yilmaz; Yavuz, Gulben

    2010-01-01

    In the last three decades, the constructivist approach has been the dominant ideology in the field of educational research. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of constructivist science teaching on the students' understanding about matter, and to compare the effectiveness of a constructivist approach over traditional teaching methods.…

  10. NASA’s Universe of Learning: Engaging Subject Matter Experts to Support Museum Alliance Science Briefings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Emma; Slivinski, Carolyn; Lawton, Brandon L.; Smith, Denise A.; Squires, Gordon K.; Biferno, Anya A.; Lestition, Kathleen; Cominsky, Lynn R.; Lee, Janice C.; Rivera, Thalia; Walker, Allyson; Spisak, Marilyn

    2018-06-01

    NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University and is part of the NASA SMD Science Activation Collective. The NASA’s Universe of Learning projects pull on the expertise of subject matter experts (scientist and engineers) from across the broad range of NASA Astrophysics themes and missions. One such project, which draws strongly on the expertise of the community, is the NASA’s Universe of Learning Science Briefings, which is done in collaboration with the NASA Museum Alliance. This collaboration presents a monthly hour-long discussion on relevant NASA astrophysics topics or events to an audience composed largely of informal educators from informal learning environments. These professional learning opportunities use experts and resources within the astronomical community to support increased interest and engagement of the informal learning community in NASA Astrophysics-related concepts and events. Briefings are designed to create a foundation for this audience using (1) broad science themes, (2) special events, or (3) breaking science news. The NASA’s Universe of Learning team engages subject matter experts to be speakers and present their science at these briefings to provide a direct connection to NASA Astrophysics science and provide the audience an opportunity to interact directly with scientists and engineers involved in NASA missions. To maximize the usefulness of the Museum Alliance Science Briefings, each briefing highlights resources related to the science theme to support informal educators in incorporating science content into their venues and/or interactions with the public. During this

  11. runDM: Running couplings of Dark Matter to the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Kavanagh, Bradley J.; Panci, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    runDM calculates the running of the couplings of Dark Matter (DM) to the Standard Model (SM) in simplified models with vector mediators. By specifying the mass of the mediator and the couplings of the mediator to SM fields at high energy, the code can calculate the couplings at low energy, taking into account the mixing of all dimension-6 operators. runDM can also extract the operator coefficients relevant for direct detection, namely low energy couplings to up, down and strange quarks and to protons and neutrons.

  12. Earth Matters: Promoting Science Exploration through Blogs and Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K.; Voiland, A. P.; Carlowicz, M. J.; Simmon, R. B.; Allen, J.; Scott, M.; Przyborski, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observatory (EO) is a 13-year old online publication focusing on the communication of NASA Earth science research, including climate change, weather, geology, oceanography, and solar flares. We serve two primary audiences: the "attentive public"--people interested in and willing to seek out information about science, technology, and the environment--and popular media. We use the EO website (earthobservatory.nasa.gov) to host a variety of content including image-driven stories (natural events and research-based), articles featuring NASA research and, more recently, blogs that give us the ability to increase interaction with our users. For much of our site's history, our communication has been largely one way, and we have relied primarily on traditional online marketing techniques such as RSS and email listservs. As the information ecosystem evolves into one in which many users expect to play a more active role in distributing and even developing content through social media, we've experimented with various social media outlets (blogs, Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.) that offer new opportunities for people to interact with NASA data, scientists, and the EO editorial team. As part of our explorations, we are learning about how, and to what extent, these outlets can be used for interaction and outright promotion and how to achieve those goals with existing personnel and resources.

  13. Partial volume correction and image segmentation for accurate measurement of standardized uptake value of grey matter in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bural, Gonca; Torigian, Drew; Basu, Sandip; Houseni, Mohamed; Zhuge, Ying; Rubello, Domenico; Udupa, Jayaram; Alavi, Abass

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to explore a novel quantitative method [based upon an MRI-based image segmentation that allows actual calculation of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes] for overcoming the difficulties associated with conventional techniques for measuring actual metabolic activity of the grey matter. We included four patients with normal brain MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET scans (two women and two men; mean age 46±14 years) in this analysis. The time interval between the two scans was 0-180 days. We calculated the volumes of grey matter, white matter and CSF by using a novel segmentation technique applied to the MRI images. We measured the mean standardized uptake value (SUV) representing the whole metabolic activity of the brain from the F-FDG-PET images. We also calculated the white matter SUV from the upper transaxial slices (centrum semiovale) of the F-FDG-PET images. The whole brain volume was calculated by summing up the volumes of the white matter, grey matter and CSF. The global cerebral metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV with total brain volume. The whole brain white matter metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV for the white matter by the white matter volume. The global cerebral metabolic activity only reflects those of the grey matter and the white matter, whereas that of the CSF is zero. We subtracted the global white matter metabolic activity from that of the whole brain, resulting in the global grey matter metabolism alone. We then divided the grey matter global metabolic activity by grey matter volume to accurately calculate the SUV for the grey matter alone. The brain volumes ranged between 1546 and 1924 ml. The mean SUV for total brain was 4.8-7. Total metabolic burden of the brain ranged from 5565 to 9617. The mean SUV for white matter was 2.8-4.1. On the basis of these measurements we generated the grey matter SUV, which ranged from 8.1 to 11.3. The

  14. How the Environment Is Positioned in the "Next Generation Science Standards": A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.; Henderson, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how the environment and environmental issues are conceptualized and positioned in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) to examine underlying assumptions about the environment. The NGSS are a recent set of science standards in the USA, organized and led by Achieve Inc., that propose science education…

  15. Chemistry in Past and New Science Frameworks and Standards: Gains, Losses, and Missed Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Sevian, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Science education frameworks and standards play a central role in the development of curricula and assessments, as well as in guiding teaching practices in grades K-12. Recently, the National Research Council published a new Framework for K-12 Science Education that has guided the development of the Next Generation Science Standards. In this…

  16. Right-handed neutrino dark matter in a U(1) extension of the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Peter; Han, Chengcheng; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2018-01-01

    We consider minimal U(1) extensions of the Standard Model in which one of the right-handed neutrinos is charged under the new gauge symmetry and plays the role of dark matter. In particular, we perform a detailed phenomenological study for the case of a U(1)(B‑L)3 flavoured B‑L symmetry. If perturbativity is required up to high-scales, we find an upper bound on the dark matter mass of mχlesssim2 TeV, significantly stronger than that obtained in simplified models. Furthermore, if the U(1)(B‑L)3 breaking scalar has significant mixing with the SM Higgs, there are already strong constraints from direct detection. On the other hand, there remains significant viable parameter space in the case of small mixing, which may be probed in the future via LHC Z' searches and indirect detection. We also comment on more general anomaly-free symmetries consistent with a TeV-scale RH neutrino dark matter candidate, and show that if two heavy RH neutrinos for leptogenesis are also required, one is naturally led to a single-parameter class of U(1) symmetries.

  17. Why formal learning theory matters for cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Sean; Chater, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews a number of different areas in the foundations of formal learning theory. After outlining the general framework for formal models of learning, the Bayesian approach to learning is summarized. This leads to a discussion of Solomonoff's Universal Prior Distribution for Bayesian learning. Gold's model of identification in the limit is also outlined. We next discuss a number of aspects of learning theory raised in contributed papers, related to both computational and representational complexity. The article concludes with a description of how semi-supervised learning can be applied to the study of cognitive learning models. Throughout this overview, the specific points raised by our contributing authors are connected to the models and methods under review. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Student Engagement with a Science Simulation: Aspects that Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that multimedia technology affords an opportunity to better visualise complex relationships often seen in chemistry. This paper describes the influence of chemistry simulation design facets on user progress through a simulation. Three versions of an acid-base titration simulation were randomly allocated to 36 volunteers to examine their interactions with the simulation. The impact of design alterations on the total number of interactions and their patterns was analysed for the following factors: (a the place of a feature on the screen, (b alignment of the sequence of instructions, (c additional instruction before the simulation, (d interactivity of a feature. Additionally, interactions between individual factors, such as age, prior experience with science simulations and computer games, perception of the difficulty of science simulations, and general subject knowledge, on one hand, and the efficiency of using the simulation, on the other hand, were examined. The findings suggestthat: (a centrality of the position of an element significantly affects the number of interactions with the element, (b re-arranging the sequence of instructions on the screen in left-to-right order improves the following of instructions, (c providing users with additional written advice to follow numbered instructions does not have a significant impact on student behaviour, (d interactivity of a feature was found to have a strong positive correlation with the number of interactions with that feature, which warrants a caution about unnecessary interactivity that may hinder simulation efficiency. Surprisingly, neither prior knowledge of chemistry nor theage of the participants had a significant effect on either the number of interactions or the ability to follow on-screen instructions.

  19. Dark matter constraints in the minimal and nonminimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, A.

    1998-01-01

    We determine the allowed parameter space and the particle spectra of the minimal SUSY standard model (MSSM) and nonminimal SUSY standard model (NMSSM) imposing correct electroweak gauge symmetry breaking and recent experimental constraints. The parameters of the models are evolved with the SUSY renormalization group equations assuming universality at the grand unified scale. Applying the new unbounded from below constraints we can exclude the lightest SUSY particle singlinos and light scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs singlets of the NMSSM. This exclusion removes the experimental possibility to distinguish between the MSSM and NMSSM via the recently proposed search for an additional cascade produced in the decay of the B-ino into the LSP singlino. Furthermore, the effects of the dark matter condition for the MSSM and NMSSM are investigated and the differences concerning the parameter space, the SUSY particle, and Higgs sector are discussed. thinsp copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  1. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  2. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  3. Perturbative extension of the standard model with a 125 GeV Higgs and Magnetic Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissauer, Karin; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Hapola, Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    among several direct dark matter search experiments. We further constrain the parameters of the underlying theory using results from the Large Hadron Collider. The extension can accommodate the recently observed properties of the Higgs-like state and leads to interesting predictions. Finally we show......We introduce a perturbative extension of the standard model featuring a new dark matter sector together with a 125 GeV Higgs. The new sector consists of a vector-like heavy electron E, a complex scalar electron S and a standard model singlet Dirac fermion \\chi. The interactions among the dark...... matter candidate \\chi and the standard model particles occur via loop-induced processes involving the operator SE\\chi y, with y being the Yukawa-like coupling. The model is an explicit underlying realization of the light magnetic dark matter effective model introduced earlier to alleviate the tension...

  4. Factors of Engagement: Professional Standards and the Library Science Internship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Kaye B.; Dotson-Blake, Kylie P.

    2015-01-01

    In today's technological world, school librarians planning to be leaders should be ready to keep up with advances in standards significant to the profession. The professional standards, specifically American Association of School Librarians (AASL) Standards and International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) Standards for Coaches offer…

  5. New Constraints on Dark Matter Effective Theories from Standard Model Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    We consider an effective field theory for a gauge singlet Dirac dark matter (DM) particle interacting with the Standard Model (SM) fields via effective operators suppressed by the scale $\\Lambda \\gtrsim 1$ TeV. We perform a systematic analysis of the leading loop contributions to spin-independent (SI) DM--nucleon scattering using renormalization group evolution between $\\Lambda$ and the low-energy scale probed by direct detection experiments. We find that electroweak interactions induce operator mixings such that operators that are naively velocity-suppressed and spin-dependent can actually contribute to SI scattering. This allows us to put novel constraints on Wilson coefficients that were so far poorly bounded by direct detection. Constraints from current searches are comparable to LHC bounds, and will significantly improve in the near future. Interestingly, the loop contribution we find is maximally isospin violating even if the underlying theory is isospin conserving.

  6. Measurement uncertainties for vacuum standards at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. S.; Shin, Y. H.; Chung, K. H.

    2006-01-01

    The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science has three major vacuum systems: an ultrasonic interferometer manometer (UIM) (Sec. II, Figs. 1 and 2) for low vacuum, a static expansion system (SES) (Sec. III, Figs. 3 and 4) for medium vacuum, and an orifice-type dynamic expansion system (DES) (Sec. IV, Figs. 5 and 6) for high and ultrahigh vacuum. For each system explicit measurement model equations with multiple variables are, respectively, given. According to ISO standards, all these system variable errors were used to calculate the expanded uncertainty (U). For each system the expanded uncertainties (k=1, confidence level=95%) and relative expanded uncertainty (expanded uncertainty/generated pressure) are summarized in Table IV and are estimated to be as follows. For UIM, at 2.5-300 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -2 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -2 ; at 1-100 kPa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -5 . For SES, at 3-100 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -1 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -3 . For DES, at 4.6x10 -3 -1.3x10 -2 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -4 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -3 ; at 3.0x10 -6 -9.0x10 -4 Pa generated pressure, the expanded uncertainty is -6 Pa and the relative expanded uncertainty is -2 . Within uncertainty limits our bilateral and key comparisons [CCM.P-K4 (10 Pa-1 kPa)] are extensive and in good agreement with those of other nations (Fig. 8 and Table V)

  7. Directing Matter and Energy: Five Challenges for Science and the Imagination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, J.; Fleming, G.; Ratner, M.

    2007-12-20

    The twin aspects of energy and control (or direction) are the underlying concepts. Matter and energy are closely linked, and their understanding and control will have overwhelming importance for our civilization, our planet, our science, and our technology. This importance ranges even beyond the large portfolio of BES, both because these truly significant Grand Challenges confront many other realms of science and because even partial solutions to these challenges will enrich scientists’ collective imagination and ability to solve problems with new ideas and new methods.

  8. Instructional leadership in elementary science: How are school leaders positioned to lead in a next generation science standards era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Kathleen Mary

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are the newest K-12 science content standards created by a coalition of educators, scientists, and researchers available for adoption by states and schools. Principals are important actors during policy implementation especially since principals are charged with assuming the role of an instructional leader for their teachers in all subject areas. Science poses a unique challenge to the elementary curricular landscape because traditionally, elementary teachers report low levels of self-efficacy in the subject. Support in this area therefore becomes important for a successful integration of a new science education agenda. This study analyzed self-reported survey data from public elementary principals (N=667) to address the following three research questions: (1) What type of science backgrounds do elementary principals have? (2) What indicators predict if elementary principals will engage in instructional leadership behaviors in science? (3) Does self-efficacy mediate the relationship between science background and a capacity for instructional leadership in science? The survey data were analyzed quantitatively. Descriptive statistics address the first research question and inferential statistics (hierarchal regression analysis and a mediation analysis) answer the second and third research questions.The sample data show that about 21% of elementary principals have a formal science degree and 26% have a degree in a STEM field. Most principals have not had recent experience teaching science, nor were they every exclusively a science teacher. The analyses suggests that demographic, experiential, and self-efficacy variables predict instructional leadership practices in science.

  9. Science in the everyday world: Why perspectives from the history of science matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandora, Katherine; Rader, Karen A

    2008-06-01

    The history of science is more than the history of scientists. This essay argues that various modem "publics" should be counted as belonging within an enlarged vision of who constitutes the "scientific community"--and describes how the history of science could be important for understanding their experiences. It gives three examples of how natural knowledge-making happens in vernacular contexts: Victorian Britain's publishing experiments in "popular science" as effective literary strategies for communicating to lay and specialist readers; twentieth-century American science museums as important and contested sites for conveying both scientific ideas and ideas about scientific practice; and contemporary mass-mediated images of the "ideal" scientist as providing counternarratives to received professional scientific norms. Finally, it suggests how humanistic knowledge might help both scientists and historians grapple more effectively with contemporary challenges presented by science in public spheres. By studying the making and elaboration of scientific knowledge within popular culture, historians of science can provide substantively grounded insights into the relations between the public and professionals.

  10. QUANTITIES AND UNITS IN MEDICAL SCIENCE - A PLEA FOR STANDARDIZATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG

    1993-01-01

    The paper puts forward the idea that a relative lack of interest in the quantitative aspects of pathophysiological processes has made medical practice as well as medical research vulnerable to misconceptions carried into the field by technical innovations. More attention to these matters may not

  11. Finding Alignment: The Perceptions and Integration of the Next Generation Science Standards Practices by Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janette; Nadelson, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Preparing elementary-level teachers to teach in alignment with the eight Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) practices could prove to be a daunting endeavor. However, the process may be catalyzed by leveraging elements of teacher science instruction that inherently attend to the practice standards. In this study, we investigated the science…

  12. Values Underpinning STEM Education in the USA: An Analysis of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Darren G.; Bencze, John Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were designed to address poor science and math performance in United States schools by inculcating globally competitive science, technology, engineering, and mathematics literacies relevant to participation in future society. Considering the complex network of influences involved in the development of…

  13. Next Generation Science Standards: A National Mixed-Methods Study on Teacher Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Susan; Megowan, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) science and engineering practices are ways of eliciting the reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. As research has revealed barriers to states and schools adopting the NGSS, this mixed-methods study attempts to identify characteristics of professional development (PD) that will support NGSS…

  14. Cognitive Language and Content Standards: Language Inventory of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Kathleen M.; Mi Choi, Kyong; Hand, Brian

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is a current focus of many educators and policymakers and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) with the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) are foundational documents driving curricular and instructional decision making for teachers and students in K-8 classrooms across the United States. Thus, practitioners…

  15. Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukroger, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing the Life Science Knowledge of Students and Teachers Represented by the K-8 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.; Coyle, Harold; Cook Smith, Nancy; Miller, Jaimie; Mintzes, Joel; Tanner, Kimberly; Murray, John

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on the National Research Council (NRC) K-8 life sciences content standards. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we constructed 476 unique multiple-choice items that measure the degree to which test…

  17. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students’ Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life sciences across ethnic groups of freshman college students, as moderated by generational status. Results from a longitudinal survey (N = 249) demonstrated that freshman URM students who enter with a greater belief that science can be used to help their communities identified as scientists more strongly over time, but only among first-generation college students. Analysis of the survey data were consistent with content analysis of 11 transcripts from simultaneously conducted focus groups (N = 67); together, these studies reveal important differences in motivational characteristics both across and within ethnicity across educational generation status. First-generation URM students held the strongest prosocial values for pursuing a science major (e.g., giving back to the community). URM students broadly reported additional motivation to increase the status of their family (e.g., fulfilling aspirations for a better life). These findings demonstrate the importance of culturally connected career motives and for examining intersectional identities to understand science education choices and inform efforts to broaden participation. PMID:27543631

  18. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Standards Endorsement Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ullman, Richard E; Enloe, Yonsook

    2005-01-01

    Starting in January 2004, NASA instituted a set of internal working groups to develop ongoing recommendations for the continuing broad evolution of Earth Science Data Systems development and management within NASA...

  19. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s t...

  20. Aligning Science Achievement and STEM Expectations for College Success: A Comparative Study of Curricular Standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Han

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lack of preparation in science leads to high rates of attrition among science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors, even among students who are highly oriented toward STEM. Using data for twenty-seven countries from the 2006 Program for International Student Assessment, we compare the United States with other industrialized countries in terms of fifteen-year-olds’ science achievement and their expectations to focus on STEM in the future. The United States trails most countries in the mean science achievement of the general student population and among students expecting to pursue STEM majors or careers. Lack of curricular standardization in the United States is related to this lower science achievement. Countries with higher curricular standardization exhibit higher average science achievement scores; science achievement and students’ future orientation toward science are also better aligned in these countries. We discuss the implications of these findings for American colleges and universities as they seek to reduce student attrition in STEM fields.

  1. Nanoscale control of energy and matter: challenges and opportunities for plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, Kostya

    2013-01-01

    Multidisciplinary challenges and opportunities in the ultimate ability to achieve nanoscale control of energy and matter are discussed using an example of the Plasma Nanoscience. This is an emerging multidisciplinary research field at the cutting edge of a large number of disciplines including but not limited to physics and chemistry of plasmas and gas discharges, materials science, surface science, nanoscience and nanotechnology, solid state physics, space physics and astrophysics, photonics, optics, plasmonics, spintronics, quantum information, physical chemistry, biomedical sciences and related engineering subjects. The origin, progress and future perspectives of this research field driven by the global scientific and societal challenges, is examined. The future potential of the Plasma Nanoscience to remain as a highly topical area in the global research and technological agenda in the Age of Fundamental-Level Control for a Sustainable Future is assessed using a framework of the five Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences recently mapped by the US Department of Energy. It is concluded that the ongoing research is very relevant and is expected to substantially expand to competitively contribute to the solution of all of these Grand Challenges. The approach to control energy and matter at nano- and subnanoscales is based on identifying the prevailing carriers and transfer mechanisms of the energy and matter at the spatial and temporal scales that are most relevant to any particular nanofabrication process. Strong accent is made on the competitive edge of the plasma-based nanotechnology in applications related to the major socio-economic issues (energy, food, water, health and environment) that are crucial for a sustainable development of humankind. Several important emerging topics, opportunities and multidisciplinary synergies for the Plasma Nanoscience are highlighted. The main nanosafety issues are also discussed and the environment- and human health

  2. From Prescribed Curriculum to Classroom Practice: An Examination of the Implementation of the New York State Earth Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Julie; Anderson, O. Roger

    2013-01-01

    In New York State (NYS), Earth science teachers use the "National Science Education Standards" (NSES), the NYS "Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science and Technology" (NYS Standards), and the "Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum" (Core Curriculum) to create local curricula and daily lessons. In this…

  3. Science That Matters: The Importance of a Cultural Connection in Underrepresented Students' Science Pursuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew C.; Galvez, Gino; Landa, Isidro; Buonora, Paul; Thoman, Dustin B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that underrepresented minority (URM) college students, and especially first-generation URMs, may lose motivation to persist if they see science careers as unable to fulfill culturally relevant career goals. In the present study, we used a mixed-methods approach to explore patterns of motivation to pursue physical and life…

  4. 6. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 6th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics. The aim of this event is two-fold. First, it provides a nice opportunity for discussions and the dissemination of the latest results on selected topics in materials science, condensed-matter physics, and electrical methods of materials treatment. On the other hand, this is an occasion for sketching a broad perspective of scientific research and technological developments for the participants through oral and poster presentations. The abstracts presented in the book cover certain issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as crystal growth, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, methods of fabrication and characterization of nanostructures including nanocomposites, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes; quantum wells and superlattices; molecular-based materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of structural and mechanical characterization; optical, transport, magnetic and superconductor properties, non-linear phenomena, size and interface effects; condensed matter theory; modelling of materials and structural properties including low dimensional systems; advanced materials and fabrication processes, device modelling and simulation of structures and elements; optoelectronics and photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; degradation and reliability, advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical methods and equipment for materials machining, including modification of surfaces; electrophysical technologies of intensification of heat- and mass-transfer; treatment of biological preparations and foodstuff.

  5. A comparative analysis of Science-Technology-Society standards in elementary, middle and high school state science curriculum frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen Marie

    An analysis of curriculum frameworks from the fifty states to ascertain the compliance with the National Science Education Standards for integrating Science-Technology-Society (STS) themes is reported within this dissertation. Science standards for all fifty states were analyzed to determine if the STS criteria were integrated at the elementary, middle, and high school levels of education. The analysis determined the compliance level for each state, then compared each educational level to see if the compliance was similar across the levels. Compliance is important because research shows that using STS themes in the science classroom increases the student's understanding of the concepts, increases the student's problem solving skills, increases the student's self-efficacy with respect to science, and students instructed using STS themes score well on science high stakes tests. The two hypotheses for this study are: (1) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school levels. (2) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school level when examined individually. The Analysis of Variance F ratio was used to determine the variance between and within the three educational levels. This analysis addressed hypothesis one. The Analysis of Variance results refused to reject the null hypothesis, meaning there is significant difference in the compliance to STS themes between the elementary, middle and high school educational levels. The Chi-Square test was the statistical analysis used to compare the educational levels for each individual criterion. This analysis addressed hypothesis two. The Chi-Squared results showed that none of the states were equally compliant with each

  6. The science behind the proposed maturity standard change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current maturity standard for navel oranges in California has been in place for nearly 100 years yet does not always do a good job of ensuring that consumers obtain good-tasting fruit during the early season. Early work that was performed which supported adoption of the standard may have been ad...

  7. Preservation Study for Ultra-Dilute VX Standards | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) supplies ultra-dilute (10 µg/mL) chemical warfare agent (CWA) standards to the Environmental Response Laboratory Network (ERLN) laboratories to allow the use of authentic standards to assist in analyses required for a remediation event involving CWAs. For this reason, it is important to collect data regarding the shelf-lives of these standards. The instability has the potential to impact quality control in regional ERLN laboratories, resulting in data that are difficult to interpret. Thus, this study investigated the use of chemical stabilizers to increase the shelf-life of VX standards. VX standards with long shelf-lives are desirable, as long shelf-life would significantly reduce the costs associated with synthesizing and resupplying the ERLN laboratories with VX.

  8. Political Science: Witchcraft or Craftsmanship? Standards for Good Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Asbjørn Sonne

    2008-01-01

    Scientific debate requires a common understanding of what constitutes good research. The purpose of this article is to establish such an understanding. The purpose of political science is to uncover, understand and explain the conformist aspect of social behavior, well aware that not all behavior...... is systematically determined by society. Good political science ought to be grounded in two questions: What do we know, and what are we going to learn? Research question and theory are decisive, while all discussion about methodology and design is about subjecting our prejudices and expectations to the most...

  9. Next Generation Science Standards: Considerations for Curricula, Assessments, Preparation, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief provides an overview of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), discusses policy considerations for adopting or adapting the new standards, and presents examples from states considering or implementing the NGSS. Changing academic standards is a complex process that requires significant investments of time, money, and human…

  10. Translational science matters: forging partnerships between biomedical and behavioral science to advance the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Czajkowski, Susan M

    2018-03-29

    The prevention and effective treatment of many chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes are dependent on behaviors such as not smoking, adopting a physically-active lifestyle, eating a healthy diet, and adhering to prescribed medical and behavioral regimens. Yet adoption and maintenance of these behaviors pose major challenges for individuals, their families and communities, as well as clinicians and health care systems. These challenges can best be met through the integration of the biomedical and behavioral sciences that is achieved by the formation of strategic partnerships between researchers and practitioners in these disciplines to address pressing clinical and public health problems. The National Institutes of Health has supported a number of clinical trials and research initiatives that demonstrate the value of biomedical and behavioral science partnerships in translating fundamental discoveries into significant improvements in health outcomes. We review several such examples of collaborations between biomedical and behavioral researchers, describe key initiatives focused on advancing a transdisciplinary translational perspective, and outline areas which require insights, tools and findings from both the biomedical and behavioral sciences to advance the public's health.

  11. Popper's Fact-Standard Dualism Contra "Value Free" Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements (unlike empirical statements) do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate…

  12. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  13. Dark Matter in B – L supersymmetric Standard Model with inverse seesaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdallah, W. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Khalil, S., E-mail: awaleed@sci.cu.edu.eg, E-mail: s.khalil@zewailcity.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, 6 October City, Giza 12588 (Egypt)

    2017-04-01

    We show that the B – L Supersymmetric Standard Model with Inverse Seesaw (BLSSMIS) provides new Dark Matter (DM) candidates (lightest right-handed sneutrino and lightest B – L neutralino) with mass of order few hundreds GeV, while most of other SUSY spectrum can be quite heavy, consistently with the current Large Hadron Collider (LHC) constraints. We emphasize that the thermal relic abundance and direct detection experiments via relic neutralino scattering with nuclei impose stringent constraints on the B – L neutralinos. These constraints can be satisfied by few points in the parameter space where the B – L lightest neutralino is higgsino-like, which cannot explain the observed Galactic Center (GC) gamma-ray excess measured by Fermi-LAT. The lightest right-handed sneutrino DM is analysed. We show that for a wide region of parameter space the lightest right-handed sneutrino, with mass between 80 GeV and 1.2 TeV, can satisfy the limits of the relic abundance and the scattering cross section with nuclei. We also show that the lightest right-handed sneutrino with mass O(100) GeV can account for the observed GC gamma-ray results.

  14. Constraints on Dark Matter Interactions with Standard Model Particles from Cosmic Microwave Background Spectral Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Chluba, Jens; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2015-08-14

    We propose a new method to constrain elastic scattering between dark matter (DM) and standard model particles in the early Universe. Direct or indirect thermal coupling of nonrelativistic DM with photons leads to a heat sink for the latter. This results in spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the amplitude of which can be as large as a few times the DM-to-photon-number ratio. We compute CMB spectral distortions due to DM-proton, DM-electron, and DM-photon scattering for generic energy-dependent cross sections and DM mass m_{χ}≳1 keV. Using Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer measurements, we set constraints on the cross sections for m_{χ}≲0.1 MeV. In particular, for energy-independent scattering we obtain σ_{DM-proton}≲10^{-24} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, σ_{DM-electron}≲10^{-27} cm^{2} (keV/m_{χ})^{1/2}, and σ_{DM-photon}≲10^{-39} cm^{2} (m_{χ}/keV). An experiment with the characteristics of the Primordial Inflation Explorer would extend the regime of sensitivity up to masses m_{χ}~1 GeV.

  15. Inelastic dark matter, non-standard halos and the DAMA/LIBRA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Russell, John; McCabe, Christopher; McCullough, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The DAMA collaboration have claimed to detect particle dark matter (DM) via an annual modulation in their observed recoil event rate. This appears to be in strong disagreement with the null results of other experiments if interpreted in terms of elastic DM scattering, while agreement for a small region of parameter space is possible for inelastic DM (iDM) due to the altered kinematics of the collision. To date most analyses assume a simple galactic halo DM velocity distribution, the Standard Halo Model, but direct experimental support for the SHM is severely lacking and theoretical studies indicate possible significant differences. We investigate the dependence of DAMA and the other direct detection experiments on the local DM velocity distribution, utilizing the results of the Via Lactea and Dark Disc numerical simulations. We also investigate effects of varying the solar circular velocity, the DM escape velocity, and the DAMA quenching factor within experimental limits. Our data set includes the latest ZEPLIN-III results, as well as full publicly available data sets. Due to the more sensitive dependence of the inelastic cross section on the velocity distribution, we find that with Via Lactea the DAMA results can be consistent with all other experiments over an enlarged region of iDM parameter space, with higher mass particles being preferred, while Dark Disc does not lead to an improvement. A definitive test of DAMA for iDM requires heavy element detectors.

  16. Science and Math Lesson Plans to Meet the Ohio Revised Science Standards and the Next Generation of Standards for Today; Technology (Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pre-service teachers (K-12 developed and taught lesson plans that met the state and national science and technology standards by integrating Excel and PowerPoint into their lesson. A sample of 74 pre-service teachers in our science education program were required to integrate technology (Excel as they developed science and math lesson plans with graphing as a requirement. These students took pre-test and post-test (n=74 to determine their understanding of Excel in relation to the need of current technology for todays' science classroom. The test results showed that students obtained content gains in Excel graphing in all the inquiry-based lab experiments. They also gained experience in developing math skills, inquiry-based science lesson plans, and communication and presentation skills.

  17. 7. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 7th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP) which celebrates this year its 50th anniversary. The conference reports have been delivered in a broad range of topics in materials science, condensed matter physics, electrochemistry reflecting the research results of the scientific staff and Ph.D. students from the IAP as well as those by distinguished guests from different countries. The abstracts cover special issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structural properties; ordering and phase transitions; quantum optics and electronics; strong correlated electronic systems; crystal growth; electronic processes and transport properties of semiconductors and superconductors; ordering processes in magnetic and multiferroic systems; interaction of light and matter, and optical phenomena; properties of composites, meta materials and molecular materials; crystal engineering of solid state structures; metal-organic materials; porous materials; advanced materials with magnetic, luminescent, nonlinear optical , thermoelectric, catalytic, analytic and pharmaceutical properties; defects engineering and mechanical properties; crystallography of organic, inorganic and supramolecular compounds; advanced physics of nanosystems; methods of nanostructures and nanomaterials fabrication and characterization; electronic properties of quantum wells, superlattices, nanowires and nanodots; meso- and nanoelectronics, optical processes in nanostructures; emerging phenomena in nanocomposites and nanomaterials; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; photovoltaics: crystals, thin films, nanoparticles

  18. Hybrid Light-Matter States in a Molecular and Material Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesen, Thomas W

    2016-11-15

    The notion that light and matter states can be hybridized the way s and p orbitals are mixed is a concept that is not familiar to most chemists and material scientists. Yet it has much potential for molecular and material sciences that is just beginning to be explored. For instance, it has already been demonstrated that the rate and yield of chemical reactions can be modified and that the conductivity of organic semiconductors and nonradiative energy transfer can be enhanced through the hybridization of electronic transitions. The hybridization is not limited to electronic transitions; it can be applied for instance to vibrational transitions to selectively perturb a given bond, opening new possibilities to change the chemical reactivity landscape and to use it as a tool in (bio)molecular science and spectroscopy. Such results are not only the consequence of the new eigenstates and energies generated by the hybridization. The hybrid light-matter states also have unusual properties: they can be delocalized over a very large number of molecules (up to ca. 10 5 ), and they become dispersive or momentum-sensitive. Importantly, the hybridization occurs even in the absence of light because it is the zero-point energies of the molecular and optical transitions that generate the new light-matter states. The present work is not a review but rather an Account from the author's point of view that first introduces the reader to the underlying concepts and details of the features of hybrid light-matter states. It is shown that light-matter hybridization is quite easy to achieve: all that is needed is to place molecules or a material in a resonant optical cavity (e.g., between two parallel mirrors) under the right conditions. For vibrational strong coupling, microfluidic IR cells can be used to study the consequences for chemistry in the liquid phase. Examples of modified properties are given to demonstrate the full potential for the molecular and material sciences. Finally an

  19. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. PMID:26164236

  20. U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    A number of initiatives are underway in the United States in response to the 2009 critique of forensic science by a National Academy of Sciences committee. This article provides a broad review of activities including efforts of the White House National Science and Technology Council Subcommittee on Forensic Science and a partnership between the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to create the National Commission on Forensic Science and the Organization of Scientific Area Committees. These initiatives are seeking to improve policies and practices of forensic science. Efforts to fund research activities and aid technology transition and training in forensic science are also covered. The second portion of the article reviews standards in place or in development around the world for forensic DNA. Documentary standards are used to help define written procedures to perform testing. Physical standards serve as reference materials for calibration and traceability purposes when testing is performed. Both documentary and physical standards enable reliable data comparison, and standard data formats and common markers or testing regions are crucial for effective data sharing. Core DNA markers provide a common framework and currency for constructing DNA databases with compatible data. Recent developments in expanding core DNA markers in Europe and the United States are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Earth Science for Educators: Preparing 7-12 Teachers for Standards-based, Inquiry Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, H.

    2002-05-01

    "Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as

  2. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L

    2013-12-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study's target population, whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of subsamples within a study's target population, the recruitment efforts and costs they entail, whether they yield sufficient power to detect subsample differences, and whether they introduce "noise" related to variation in subsamples and whether that "noise" can be accounted for statistically. We use sample composition of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status to illustrate and assess the four sampling strategies. Finally, we tally the use of the four sampling strategies in five prominent developmental science journals and make recommendations about best practices for sample selection and reporting.

  3. Sampling in Developmental Science: Situations, Shortcomings, Solutions, and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Jager, Justin; Putnick, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Sampling is a key feature of every study in developmental science. Although sampling has far-reaching implications, too little attention is paid to sampling. Here, we describe, discuss, and evaluate four prominent sampling strategies in developmental science: population-based probability sampling, convenience sampling, quota sampling, and homogeneous sampling. We then judge these sampling strategies by five criteria: whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of a study’s target population, whether they yield representative and generalizable estimates of subsamples within a study’s target population, the recruitment efforts and costs they entail, whether they yield sufficient power to detect subsample differences, and whether they introduce “noise” related to variation in subsamples and whether that “noise” can be accounted for statistically. We use sample composition of gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status to illustrate and assess the four sampling strategies. Finally, we tally the use of the four sampling strategies in five prominent developmental science journals and make recommendations about best practices for sample selection and reporting. PMID:25580049

  4. Voluntarist theology and early-modern science: The matter of the divine power, absolute and ordained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Francis

    2018-03-01

    This paper is an intervention in the debate inaugurated by Peter Harrison in 2002 when he called into question the validity of what has come to be called 'the voluntarism and early-modern science thesis'. Though it subsequently drew support from such historians of science as J. E. McGuire, Margaret Osler, and Betty-Joe Teeter Dobbs, the origins of the thesis are usually traced back to articles published in 1934 and 1961 respectively by the philosopher Michael Foster and the historian of ideas Francis Oakley. Central to Harrison's critique of the thesis are claims he made about the meaning of the scholastic distinction between the potentia dei absoluta et ordinata and the role it played in the thinking of early-modern theologians and natural philosophers. This paper calls directly into question the accuracy of Harrison's claims on that very matter.

  5. Life — As a Matter of Fat The Emerging Science of Lipidomics

    CERN Document Server

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2005-01-01

    LIFE - as a Matter of Fat Lipidomics is the science of the fats called lipids. Lipids are as important for life as proteins, sugars, and genes. The present book gives a multi-disciplinary perspective on the physics of life and the particular role played by lipids and the lipid-bilayer component of cell membranes. The book is aimed at undergraduate students and young research workers within physics, chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, nutrition, as well as pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences. The emphasis is on the physical properties of lipid membranes seen as soft and molecularly structured interfaces. By combining and synthesizing insights obtained from a variety of recent studies, an attempt is made to clarify what membrane structure is and how it can be quantitatively described. Furthermore, it is shown how biological function mediated by membranes is controlled by lipid membrane structure and organization on length scales ranging from the size of the individual molecule, across molecular assem...

  6. Integrating the New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) into K- 6 teacher training and curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, S.; Carlson, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards is an initiative, adopted by 26 states, to set national education standards that are "rich in content and practice, arranged in a coherent manner across disciplines and grades to provide all students an internationally benchmarked science education." Educators now must integrate these standards into existing curricula. Many grade-school (K-6) teachers face a particularly daunting task, as they were traditionally not required to teach science or only at a rudimentary level. The majority of K-6 teachers enter teaching from non-science disciplines, making this transition even more difficult. Since the NGSS emphasizes integrated and coherent progression of knowledge from grade to grade, prospective K-6 teachers must be able to deliver science with confidence and enthusiasm to their students. CalTeach/MAST (Mathematics and Science Teaching Program) at the University of California Davis, has created a two-quarter sequence of integrated science courses for undergraduate students majoring in non-STEM disciplines and intending to pursue multiple-subject K-6 credentials. The UCD integrated science course provides future primary school teachers with a basic, but comprehensive background in the physical and earth/space sciences. Key tools are taught for improving teaching methods, investigating complex science ideas, and solving problems relevant to students' life experiences that require scientific or technological knowledge. This approach allows prospective K-6 teachers to explore more effectively the connections between the disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific and engineering practices, as outlined in the NGSS. In addition, they develop a core set of science teaching skills based on inquiry activities and guided lab discussions. With this course, we deliver a solid science background to prospective K-6 teachers and facilitate their ability to teach science following the standards as articulated in the NGSS.

  7. Standards guide for space and earth sciences computer software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G.; Chapman, R.; Klinglesmith, D.; Linnekin, J.; Putney, W.; Shaffer, F.; Dapice, R.

    1972-01-01

    Guidelines for the preparation of systems analysis and programming work statements are presented. The data is geared toward the efficient administration of available monetary and equipment resources. Language standards and the application of good management techniques to software development are emphasized.

  8. Viable dark matter via radiative symmetry breaking in a scalar singlet Higgs portal extension of the standard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, T G; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Contreras, D; Mann, R B

    2014-05-02

    We consider the generation of dark matter mass via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking in an extension of the conformal standard model containing a singlet scalar field with a Higgs portal interaction. Generating the mass from a sequential process of radiative electroweak symmetry breaking followed by a conventional Higgs mechanism can account for less than 35% of the cosmological dark matter abundance for dark matter mass M(s)>80 GeV. However, in a dynamical approach where both Higgs and scalar singlet masses are generated via radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, we obtain much higher levels of dark matter abundance. At one-loop level we find abundances of 10%-100% with 106 GeVdark matter mass. The dynamical approach also predicts a small scalar-singlet self-coupling, providing a natural explanation for the astrophysical observations that place upper bounds on dark matter self-interaction. The predictions in all three approaches are within the M(s)>80 GeV detection region of the next generation XENON experiment.

  9. Science, technique, technology: passages between matter and knowledge in imperial Chinese agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Francesca

    2008-09-01

    Many historians today prefer to speak of knowledge and practice rather than science and technology. Here I argue for the value of reinstating the terms science, techniques and technology as tools for a more precise analysis of governmentality and the workings of power. My tactic is to use these three categories and their articulations to highlight flows between matter and ideas in the production and reproduction of knowledge. In any society, agriculture offers a wonderfully rich case of how ideas, material goods and social relations interweave. In China agronomy was a science of state, the basis of legitimate rule. I compare different genres of agronomic treatise to highlight what officials, landowners and peasants respectively contributed to, and expected from, this charged natural knowledge. I ask how new forms of textual and graphic inscription for encoding agronomic knowledge facilitated its dissemination and ask how successful this knowledge proved when rematerialized and tested as concrete artefacts or techniques. I highlight forms of innovation in response to crisis, and outline the overlapping interpretative frameworks within which the material applications of Chinese agricultural science confirmed and extended its truth across space and time.

  10. Addressing Next Generation Science Standards: A Method for Supporting Classroom Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellien, Tamara; Rothenburger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will define science education for the foreseeable future, yet many educators struggle to see the bridge between current practice and future practices. The inquiry-based methods used by Extension professionals (Kress, 2006) can serve as a guide for classroom educators. Described herein is a method of…

  11. Sustainability, the Next Generation Science Standards, and the Education of Future Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Anne E.; Kastens, Kim A.; Turrin, Margaret K.

    2017-01-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) emphasize how human activities affect the Earth and how Earth processes impact humans, placing the concept of sustainability within the Earth and Space Sciences. We ask: how prepared are future teachers to address sustainability and systems thinking as encoded in the NGSS? And how can geoscientists…

  12. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  13. The Impact of the Next Generation Science Standards on Future Professional Development and Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn

    2013-06-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards will have a profound impact on the future science education of students and professional development for teachers. The science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas laid out in the Framework for K-12 Science Education (NRC, 2011) will change the focus and methods of how we prepare teachers to meet these new standards. Extending beyond just the use of inquiry in the classroom, teachers will need support designing and implementing integrated experiences for students that require them to apply knowledge of content and practices. Integrating the three dimensions central to the new standards will pose curricular challenges and create opportunities for innovative space science projects and instruction. The science research and technology community will have an important role in supporting authentic classroom practices as well as training and support of teachers in these new ways of presenting science and technology. These changes will require a new focus for teacher professional development and new ways to research impacts of teacher training and changes in classroom practice. In addition, new and innovative tools will be needed to assess mastery of students’ knowledge of practices and the ways teachers effectively help students achieve these new goals. The astronomy education community has much to offer as K-12 and undergraduate level science educators rethink and redefine what it means to be scientifically literate and figure out how to truly measure the success of these new ways of teaching science.

  14. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  15. Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminger, John C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sarrao, John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); University of Illinois, Chicago; Flemming, Graham [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ratner, Mark [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    FIVE TRANSFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISCOVERY SCIENCE As a result of this effort, it has become clear that the progress made to date on the five Grand Challenges has created a springboard for seizing five new Transformative Opportunities that have the potential to further transform key technologies involving matter and energy. These five new Transformative Opportunities and the evidence supporting them are discussed in this new report, “Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science.” Mastering Hierarchical Architectures and Beyond-Equilibrium Matter Complex materials and chemical processes transmute matter and energy, for example from CO2 and water to chemical fuel in photosynthesis, from visible light to electricity in solar cells and from electricity to light in light emitting diodes (LEDs) Such functionality requires complex assemblies of heterogeneous materials in hierarchical architectures that display time-dependent away-from-equilibrium behaviors. Much of the foundation of our understanding of such transformations however, is based on monolithic single- phase materials operating at or near thermodynamic equilibrium. The emergent functionalities enabling next-generation disruptive energy technologies require mastering the design, synthesis, and control of complex hierarchical materials employing dynamic far-from-equilibrium behavior. A key guide in this pursuit is nature, for biological systems prove the power of hierarchical assembly and far- from-equilibrium behavior. The challenges here are many: a description of the functionality of hierarchical assemblies in terms of their constituent parts, a blueprint of atomic and molecular positions for each constituent part, and a synthesis strategy for (a) placing the atoms and molecules in the proper positions for the component parts and (b) arranging the component parts into the required hierarchical structure. Targeted functionality will open the door

  16. The Development of a Conceptual Framework for New K-12 Science Education Standards (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, T.

    2010-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences has created a committee of 18 National Academy of Science and Engineering members, academic scientists, cognitive and learning scientists, and educators, educational policymakers and researchers to develop a framework to guide new K-12 science education standards. The committee began its work in January, 2010, released a draft of the framework in July, 2010, and intends to have the final framework in the first quarter of 2011. The committee was helped in early phases of the work by consultant design teams. The framework is designed to help realize a vision for science and engineering education in which all students actively engage in science and engineering practices in order to deepen their understanding of core ideas in science over multiple years of school. These three dimensions - core disciplinary ideas, science and engineering practices, and cross-cutting elements - must blend together to build an exciting, relevant, and forward looking science education. The framework will be used as a base for development of next generation K-12 science education standards.

  17. The South Carolina Amazing Coast Program: Using Ocean Sciences to Address Next Generation Science Standards in Grades 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. V.; Thomas, C.; Weiss, B.; Bliss, A.; Spence, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are more inclusive of ocean sciences than the National Science Standards and respective state science standards. In response, the Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-SouthEast (COSEE SE) is piloting the South Carolina's Amazing Coast (SCAC) program: a three-year initiative that incorporates ocean science concepts in grades 3-5 with the goals of addressing NGSS, STEM (science-technology-engineering-math) disciplines, and inquiry skills. The SCAC program targeted two Charleston County, South Carolina elementary schools that were demographically similar: Title 1 status (75% free or reduced lunch), > 90% African American student population, grade level size inquiry skills. Specifically, third grade students learn about coastal habitats, animal and plant adaptations, and human impacts to the environment, and engage in a salt marsh restoration capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSS Core Ideas 3-LS1, 3-LS3, 3-LS4, 3-ESS3. The fourth grade students learn about weather, organism responses to the environment, and engage in a weather buoy construction capstone project. This part of the curriculum aligns with the NGSSS Core Ideas 4-LS1, 4-ESS2, 4-ESS3, 3-5-ETS1. In 5th grade, students focus specifically on the ocean ecosystem, human impacts on the environment and engage in a capstone project of designing and constructing remotely operated vehicles. This part of the curriculum aligns with NGSS Core Ideas 5-PS2, 5-LS1, 5-LS2, 5-ESS2, 3-5-ETS1. Initial evaluation results indicate that the SCAC teachers value the coach mentor approach for teacher professional development as well as the impact of field based experiences, place-based learning, and a culminating capstone project on student learning. Teacher feedback also indicates elements of sustainability that extend beyond the scope of the pilot project.These initial evaluation results poise the SCAC curriculum to be replicated in other

  18. Seventy Years of Radio Science, Technology, Standards, and Measurement at the National Bureau of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    This large volume describes all the forms of radio research done at the National Bureau of Standards (now, National Institute of Standards and Technology) from its founding in 1901 until about 1980. The volume truly reflects its subtitle; it describes in great detail research in radio propagation and all its connections with geophysics and geospace, but also radio as instrument for discovery and application in meteorology, navigation, and in standards of measurement and testing in electronics.The book is a bit unwieldy and some of its chapters will be of most interest to former NBS employees. For example, there is a lengthy chapter on the transfer of radio research work from Washington, D.C, to Boulder, Colo., in the early 1950s, complete with photostat of the quit claim deed to NBS from the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. On the other hand, radio research developed and flourished in this country in the early days at industrial (Bell Telephone, General Electric, Westinghouse) and government (NBS, Naval Research Laboratory) labs more than in academia, and it is very interesting to learn how the labs interacted and to read details of the organizational structure. I can attest personally to the great difficulties in locating materials concerning radio history. While we have numerous volumes devoted to certain popular radio heroes, little is available concerning government radio pioneers such as L. W. Austin, who directed the U.S. Navy's radio research for many years while situated physically at the Bureau of Standards, or J. H. Dellinger, long-time chief of the Radio Section and head spokesman on radio for the U.S. government until the 1930s.

  19. Revolutionizing Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: Report and Recommendations from a 50-State Analysis of Earth Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martos; Barstow, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) commissioned TERC to complete a review of science education standards for all 50 states. The study analyzed K-12 Earth science standards to determine how well each state addresses key Earth-science content, concepts and skills. This report reveals that few states have thoroughly integrated…

  20. The Astronomy and Space Science Concept Inventory: Assessment Instruments Aligned with the K-12 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on those K-12 national standards which involve astronomy and space science. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we have constructed 211 unique items that measure the degree to which students abandon such ideas for accepted scientific views. Piloted nationally with 7599 students and their 88 teachers spanning grades 5-12, the items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC Standards and AAAS Benchmarks. Teachers generally perform well on items covering the standards of the grade level at which they teach, exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. Teachers dramatically overestimate their students’ performance, perhaps because they are unaware of their students’ misconceptions. Examples are given showing how the developed instruments can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to evaluate the impact of professional development activities for teachers.

  1. Using Explanatory Item Response Models to Evaluate Complex Scientific Tasks Designed for the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tina

    This dissertation includes three studies that analyze a new set of assessment tasks developed by the Learning Progressions in Middle School Science (LPS) Project. These assessment tasks were designed to measure science content knowledge on the structure of matter domain and scientific argumentation, while following the goals from the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The three studies focus on the evidence available for the success of this design and its implementation, generally labelled as "validity" evidence. I use explanatory item response models (EIRMs) as the overarching framework to investigate these assessment tasks. These models can be useful when gathering validity evidence for assessments as they can help explain student learning and group differences. In the first study, I explore the dimensionality of the LPS assessment by comparing the fit of unidimensional, between-item multidimensional, and Rasch testlet models to see which is most appropriate for this data. By applying multidimensional item response models, multiple relationships can be investigated, and in turn, allow for a more substantive look into the assessment tasks. The second study focuses on person predictors through latent regression and differential item functioning (DIF) models. Latent regression models show the influence of certain person characteristics on item responses, while DIF models test whether one group is differentially affected by specific assessment items, after conditioning on latent ability. Finally, the last study applies the linear logistic test model (LLTM) to investigate whether item features can help explain differences in item difficulties.

  2. California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

  3. Windmills by Design: Purposeful Curriculum Design to Meet Next Generation Science Standards in a 9-12 Physics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concannon, James; Brown, Patrick L.

    2017-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) challenges science teachers to think beyond specific content standards when considering how to design and implement curriculum. This lesson, "Windmills by Design," is an insightful lesson in how science teachers can create and implement a cross-cutting lesson to teach the concepts…

  4. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  5. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on "de Broglie Matter Waves" Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecek Baybars, Meryem; Kucukozer, Huseyin

    2018-01-01

    The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the…

  6. Technical comments on EPA`s proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipfert, F.W.

    1997-03-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed new ambient air quality standards specifically for fine particulate matter, regulating concentrations of particles with median aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}). Two new standards have been proposed: a maximum 24-hr concentration that is intended to protect against acute health effects, and an annual concentration limit that is intended to protect against longer-term health effects. EPA has also proposed a slight relaxation of the 24-hr standard for inhalable particles (PM{sub 10}), by allowing additional exceedances each year. Fine particles are currently being indirectly controlled by means of regulations for PM{sub 10} and TSP, under the Clean Air Act of 1970 and subsequent amendments. Although routine monitoring of PM{sub 2.5} is rare and data are sparse, the available data indicate that ambient concentrations have been declining at about 6% per year under existing regulations.

  7. Science standards: The foundation of evolution education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Watts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Science standards and textbooks have a huge impact on the manner in which evolution is taught in American classrooms. Standards dictate how much time and what points have to be dedicated to the subject in order to prepare students for state-wide assessments, while the textbooks will largely determine how the subject is presented in the classroom. In the United States both standards and textbooks are determined at the state-level through a political process. Currently there is a tremendous amount of pressure arising from anti-evolutionists in the United States to weaken or omit the teaching of evolution despite recommendations from central institutions such as the National Academy of Science. Results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA showed that not only are American students performing below average, but also that their performance is declining as they scored worse in 2012 than they did in 2010. Interestingly PISA also found that the internal variation within a country is often greater than between countries with a variation of up to 300 points, which is equivalent to seven years of education pointing to the extreme heterogeneous quality of education within a country (OECD, 2012. An implementation of strong standards would not only help to increase the average performance of American students but could also alleviate the vast discrepancy between the highest and lowest scoring groups of American students. Although the Next Generation Science Standards have been in existence since 2013 and A Framework for K-12 Science Education has been available to the public since 2011 many American states still continue to create their own standards that, according to the Fordham study, are well below par (Lerner et al., 2012. Due to the political nature of the adoption procedure of standards and textbooks, there are many opportunities for interested individuals to get involved in the process of improving these fundamental elements of

  8. Implementation of National Science Education Standards in suburban elementary schools: Teachers' perceptions and classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rubina Samer

    2005-07-01

    This was an interpretive qualitative study that focused on how three elementary school science teachers from three different public schools perceived and implemented the National Science Education Standards based on the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol and individual interviews with the teachers. This study provided an understanding of the standards movement and teacher change in the process. Science teachers who were experienced with the National Science Education Standards were selected as the subjects of the study. Grounded in the theory of teacher change, this study's phenomenological premise was that the extent to which a new reform has an effect on students' learning and achievement on standardized tests depends on the content a teacher teaches as well as the style of teaching. It was therefore necessary to explore how teachers understand and implement the standards in the classrooms. The surveys, interviews and observations provided rich data from teachers' intentions, reflections and actions on the lessons that were observed while also providing the broader contextual framework for the understanding of the teachers' perspectives.

  9. 77 FR 38760 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ...% discount rate) for alternative PM 2.5 standard levels of 11/35 [mu]g/m\\3\\ (annual and 24- hour standards...\\ Net benefits \\b\\ Alternate PM2.5 standards (annual/ 24-hour, in [mu]g/m\\3\\) 3% Discount 7% Discount rate rate 3% Discount rate 7% Discount rate 3% Discount rate \\c\\ 7% Discount rate 13/35 $2.9 $2.9 $88...

  10. Designing Computer-Supported Complex Systems Curricula for the Next Generation Science Standards in High School Science Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. Yoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a curriculum and instruction framework for computer-supported teaching and learning about complex systems in high school science classrooms. This work responds to a need in K-12 science education research and practice for the articulation of design features for classroom instruction that can address the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS recently launched in the USA. We outline the features of the framework, including curricular relevance, cognitively rich pedagogies, computational tools for teaching and learning, and the development of content expertise, and provide examples of how the framework is translated into practice. We follow this up with evidence from a preliminary study conducted with 10 teachers and 361 students, aimed at understanding the extent to which students learned from the activities. Results demonstrated gains in students’ complex systems understanding and biology content knowledge. In interviews, students identified influences of various aspects of the curriculum and instruction framework on their learning.

  11. Dissecting the Science of "Angels and Demons" or Antimatter and Other Matters (Vernon W. Hughes Memorial Lecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Howard

    2009-05-27

    Howard Gordon, a physicist from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, and local educators will separate the science facts from the science fiction of “Angels & Demons,” a major motion picture based on Dan Brown’s best-selling novel. The film, which opens nationally in theaters today, focuses on a plot to destroy the Vatican using antimatter stolen from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European particle physics laboratory CERN. Speakers will explain the real science of the LHC, including antimatter – oppositely charged cousins of ordinary matter with intriguing properties.

  12. Dissecting the Science of 'Angels and Demons' or Antimatter and Other Matters (Vernon W. Hughes Memorial Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Howard Gordon, a physicist from the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, and local educators will separate the science facts from the science fiction of 'Angels and Demons,' a major motion picture based on Dan Brown's best-selling novel. The film, which opens nationally in theaters today, focuses on a plot to destroy the Vatican using antimatter stolen from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European particle physics laboratory CERN. Speakers will explain the real science of the LHC, including antimatter - oppositely charged cousins of ordinary matter with intriguing properties.

  13. STANDARDIZATION OF CUPPING THERAPY POINTS AND MECHANISM OF ACTION IN THE LIGHT OF SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Izharul Hasan

    2018-01-01

    Now a day’s cupping therapy is an established therapeutic modality among Indian system of medicine as well as worldwide. Inspite of that, standard operative procedure (SOPs) for cupping therapy is yet to develop. In this paper author comprises the possible indications of cupping therapy along with procedures, application points, safety concerns, historical perspective, surgical operative standards described in traditional system of medicine as well as in the light of science. Cupping may be d...

  14. Planning Instruction to Meet the Intent of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcik, Joseph; Codere, Susan; Dahsah, Chanyah; Bayer, Renee; Mun, Kongju

    2014-03-01

    The National Research Council's Framework for K- 12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states. The National Academies Press, Washington, 2013) move teaching away from covering many isolated facts to a focus on a smaller number of disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) and crosscutting concepts that can be used to explain phenomena and solve problems by engaging in science and engineering practices. The NGSS present standards as knowledge-in-use by expressing them as performance expectations (PEs) that integrate all three dimensions from the Framework for K- 12 Science Education. This integration of core ideas, practices, and crosscutting concepts is referred to as three-dimensional learning (NRC in Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The National Academies Press, Washington, 2014). PEs state what students can be assessed on at the end of grade level for K-5 and at the end of grade band for 6-8 and 9-12. PEs do not specify how instruction should be developed nor do they serve as objectives for individual lessons. To support students in developing proficiency in the PEs, the elements of the DCIs will need to be blended with various practices and crosscutting concepts. In this paper, we examine how to design instruction to support students in meeting a cluster or "bundle" of PEs and how to blend the three dimensions to develop lesson level PEs that can be used for guiding instruction. We provide a ten-step process and an example of that process that teachers and curriculum designers can use to design lessons that meet the intent of the Next Generation of Science Standards.

  15. Topic maps standard and its application in library and information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Baji

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Topic maps are an ISO standard (ISO 13250 that is used for presenting the information about information resources structures. The initial idea of this standard was raised in 1991 and due to its strength; it turned into an ISO standard. This paper investigates concepts and model of topic maps and aims to mention applications of this standard in library and information science (LIS realm. A topic map, as a type of document is defined as XML or SGML technically. Research show that this standard is compatible with some of LIS techniques and rules especially in knowledge organization, but it attempts to use these rules in the web. So it can be said that according to some challenges that LIS field faces in adapting traditional techniques for knowledge organization in the Web, topic maps standard can help in solving such problems and challenges and this is what some experts of LIS tried to do.

  16. Attitudes towards Study Effort Response to Higher Grading Standards: Do Gender and Personality Distinctions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars; Opstad, Leiv

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how gender and personality preferences affect student attitudes towards effort response to higher grading standards. Data collected from 150 economics and business students at a Scandinavian business school reveals that higher grading standards enhance effort and time devoted to learning to a higher degree…

  17. Fundamental Data Standards for Science Data System Interoperability and Data Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Rye, Elizabeth; Crichton, Daniel

    The advent of the Web and languages such as XML have brought an explosion of online science data repositories and the promises of correlated data and interoperable systems. However there have been relatively few successes in meeting the expectations of science users in the internet age. For example a Google-like search for images of Mars will return many highly-derived and appropriately tagged images but largely ignore the majority of images in most online image repositories. Once retrieved, users are further frustrated by poor data descriptions, arcane formats, and badly organized ancillary information. A wealth of research indicates that shared information models are needed to enable system interoperability and data correlation. However, at a more fundamental level, data correlation and system interoperability are dependant on a relatively few shared data standards. A com-mon data dictionary standard, for example, allows the controlled vocabulary used in a science repository to be shared with potential collaborators. Common data registry and product iden-tification standards enable systems to efficiently find, locate, and retrieve data products and their metadata from remote repositories. Information content standards define categories of descriptive data that help make the data products scientifically useful to users who were not part of the original team that produced the data. The Planetary Data System (PDS) has a plan to move the PDS to a fully online, federated system. This plan addresses new demands on the system including increasing data volume, numbers of missions, and complexity of missions. A key component of this plan is the upgrade of the PDS Data Standards. The adoption of the core PDS data standards by the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) adds the element of international cooperation to the plan. This presentation will provide an overview of the fundamental data standards being adopted by the PDS that transcend science domains and that

  18. Informal Assessment of Competences in the Context of Science Standards in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffl, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Science standards have been a topic in educational research in Austria for about ten years now. Starting in 2005, competency structure models have been developed for junior and senior classes of different school types. After evaluating these models, prototypic tasks were created to point out the meaning of the models to teachers. At the moment,…

  19. Grid-enabled measures: using Science 2.0 to standardize measures and share data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W; Shaikh, Abdul R; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry Y; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-05-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment--a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) with two overarching goals: (1) promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. The first is accomplished by creating an online venue where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting on, and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. The second is accomplished by connecting the constructs and measures to an ontological framework with data standards and common data elements such as the NCI Enterprise Vocabulary System (EVS) and the cancer Data Standards Repository (caDSR). This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories--for data sharing). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  1. States Move toward Computer Science Standards. Policy Update. Vol. 23, No. 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley-Coulson, Eve

    2016-01-01

    While educators and parents recognize computer science as a key skill for career readiness, only five states have adopted learning standards in this area. Tides are changing, however, as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) recognizes with its call on states to provide a "well-rounded education" for students, to include computer science…

  2. The Politics of Developing and Maintaining Mathematics and Science Curriculum Content Standards. Research Monograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Michael W.; Bird, Robin L.

    The movement toward math and science curriculum standards is inextricably linked with high-stakes politics. There are two major types of politics discussed in this paper: the allocation of curriculum content, and the political issues involved in systemic change. Political strategies for gaining assent to national, state, and local content…

  3. RAFTing with Raptors: Connecting Science, English Language Arts, and the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Gary J.; McMurtrie, Deborah H.; Coleman, Bridget K.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores using the RAFT strategy (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) for writing in science classes. The framework of the RAFT strategy will be explained, and connections with Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for ELA/Literacy will be discussed. Finally, there will be a discussion of a professional learning experience for teachers in…

  4. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.

    2008-12-01

    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  5. Taiwanese Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards and Earth Systems Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    In the past several years, curriculum reform has received increasing attention from educators in many countries around the world. Recently, Taiwan has developed new Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards (SaLTS) for grades 1-9. SaLTS features a systematic way for developing students' understanding and appreciation of…

  6. From Standards to Standard Practice: A Critical Look at the Perceptions and Process of Integrating the Next Generation Science Standards in the Nation's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Katie Lynn

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are the culmination of reform efforts spanning more than three decades and are the first major reform movement in science education since Sputnik. When implementing these new standards, teachers are faced with many barriers. NGSS requires critical thinking, cross-curricular learning, and key changes in teaching, learning, and assessment. Implementation nationwide has been slow, due to sweeping changes, and controversial content within the standards. Resistance to implementation occurs in nearly all levels for these reasons. The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the perceptions of in-service teachers of the NGSS Framework, to identify barriers that inhibit implementation, and to identify commonalities among teachers who have successfully implemented the Framework, as well as assist others who may do the same in the future. Teachers from public, private, and charter schools from across the United States participated in the study. Based upon teacher response, a three-stage action plan and series of necessary recommendations were developed to assist teachers and administrators in K-12 schools to develop plans to implement the NGSS.

  7. Standardization of reflectance measurements in dispersed organic matter: Results of an exercise to improve interlaboratory agreement

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hackley, P.C.; Araujo, C.V.; Borrego, A.G.; Bouzinos, A.; Cardott, B.J.; Cook, A.C.; Eble, C.; Flores, D.; Gentzis, T.; Goncalves, P.A.; Mendonca Filho, J.G.; Hámor-Vidó, M.; Jelonek, I.; Kommeren, K.; Knowles, W.; Kus, J.; Mastalerz, M.; Menezes, T.R.; Newman, J.; Oikonomopoulos, I.K.; Pawlewicz, M.; Pickel, W.; Potter, J.; Ranasinghe, P.; Read, H.; Reyes, J.; De La Rosa Rodriguez, G.; de Souza, I.V.A.F.; Suárez-Ruiz, I.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Valentine, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, JAN (2015), s. 22-34 ISSN 0264-8172 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : vitrinite reflectance * thermal maturity * shale petroleum systems * microscopy * hydrocarbon exploration Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.788, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264817214002402

  8. On dark matter interactions with the Standard Model through an anomalous Z'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Katz, Andrey; Racco, Davide

    2017-10-01

    We study electroweak scale Dark Matter (DM) whose interactions with baryonic matter are mediated by a heavy anomalous Z'. We emphasize that when the DM is a Majorana particle, its low-velocity annihilations are dominated by loop suppressed annihilations into the gauge bosons, rather than by p-wave or chirally suppressed annihilations into the SM fermions. Because the Z ' is anomalous, these kinds of DM models can be realized only as effective field theories (EFTs) with a well-defined cutoff, where heavy spectator fermions restore gauge invariance at high energies. We formulate these EFTs, estimate their cutoff and properly take into account the effect of the Chern-Simons terms one obtains after the spectator fermions are integrated out. We find that, while for light DM collider and direct detection experiments usually provide the strongest bounds, the bounds at higher masses are heavily dominated by indirect detection experiments, due to strong annihilation into W + W -, ZZ, Zγ and possibly into gg and γγ. We emphasize that these annihilation channels are generically significant because of the structure of the EFT, and therefore these models are prone to strong indirect detection constraints. Even though we focus on selected Z' models for illustrative purposes, our setup is completely generic and can be used for analyzing the predictions of any anomalous Z'-mediated DM model with arbitrary charges.

  9. Standard coupling unification in SO(10), hybrid seesaw neutrino mass and leptogenesis, dark matter, and proton lifetime predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, M.K.; Nayak, Bidyut Prava; Satpathy, Rajesh [Centre of Excellence in Theoretical and Mathematical Sciences,Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University,Khandagiri Square, Bhubaneswar 751030 (India); Awasthi, Ram Lal [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Knowledge City, Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Manauli 140306 (India)

    2017-04-12

    We discuss gauge coupling unification of SU(3){sub C}×SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} descending directly from non-supersymmetric SO(10) while providing solutions to the three outstanding problems of the standard model: neutrino masses, dark matter, and the baryon asymmetry of the universe. Conservation of matter parity as gauged discrete symmetry for the stability and identification of dark matter in the model calls for high-scale spontaneous symmetry breaking through 126{sub H} Higgs representation. This naturally leads to the hybrid seesaw formula for neutrino masses mediated by heavy scalar triplet and right-handed neutrinos. Being quadratic in the Majorana coupling, the seesaw formula predicts two distinct patterns of right-handed neutrino masses, one hierarchical and another not so hierarchical (or compact), when fitted with the neutrino oscillation data. Predictions of the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis are investigated through the decays of both the patterns of RHν masses. A complete flavor analysis has been carried out to compute CP-asymmetries including washouts and solutions to Boltzmann equations have been utilised to predict the baryon asymmetry. The additional contribution to vertex correction mediated by the heavy left-handed triplet scalar is noted to contribute as dominantly as other Feynman diagrams. We have found successful predictions of the baryon asymmetry for both the patterns of right-handed neutrino masses. The SU(2){sub L} triplet fermionic dark matter at the TeV scale carrying even matter parity is naturally embedded into the non-standard fermionic representation 45{sub F} of SO(10). In addition to the triplet scalar and the triplet fermion, the model needs a nonstandard color octet fermion of mass ∼5×10{sup 7} GeV to achieve precision gauge coupling unification at the GUT mass scale M{sub U}{sup 0}=10{sup 15.56} GeV. Threshold corrections due to superheavy components of 126{sub H} and other representations are estimated and found to be

  10. Remodeling Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David

    2013-01-01

    Radical reform in science and mathematics education is needed to prepare citizens for challenges of the emerging knowledge-based global economy. We consider definite proposals to establish: (1) "Standards of science and math literacy" for all students. (2) "Integration of the science curriculum" with structure of matter,…

  11. The impact of Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) professional development on the self-efficacy of science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Somi Devi M.

    In 2012, the National Research Council introduced the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), which were created to improve the K-12 education in the U.S. and stress the importance of providing professional development (PD) to acquire the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy to design lessons to meet high standards of teaching and learning. Bandura's (1977) theory of self-efficacy posits that people are motivated to perform an action if they are confident that they can perform the action successfully. The purpose of this survey research was to investigate the impact of professional development on the self-efficacy of science teachers with regard to the NGSS practice of Analyzing and Interpreting Data as well as to probe teachers' perceptions of barriers to their self-efficacy in applying this practice. The study found that focused and targeted PD helped improve participants' self-efficacy in incorporating the NGSS practices and addressed several barriers to teacher self-efficacy. In response to findings, Akella's Science Teaching Efficacy Professional Development (ASTEPD) model is proposed as a tool to guide PD practice and, thus, helps improve teacher self-efficacy.

  12. Power-controlled transition from standard to negative refraction in reorientational soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, Armando; Alberucci, Alessandro; Kravets, Nina; Buchnev, Oleksandr; Assanto, Gaetano

    2014-11-25

    Refraction at a dielectric interface can take an anomalous character in anisotropic crystals, when light is negatively refracted with incident and refracted beams emerging on the same side of the interface normal. In soft matter subject to reorientation, such as nematic liquid crystals, the nonlinear interaction with light allows tuning of the optical properties. We demonstrate that in such material a beam of light can experience either positive or negative refraction depending on input power, as it can alter the spatial distribution of the optic axis and, in turn, the direction of the energy flow when traveling across an interface. Moreover, the nonlinear optical response yields beam self-focusing and spatial localization into a self-confined solitary wave through the formation of a graded-index waveguide, linking the refractive transition to power-driven readdressing of copolarized guided-wave signals, with a number of output ports not limited by diffraction.

  13. Confirmatory factors analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand world-class standard schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thawinkarn, Dawruwan

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to analyze factors of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools. The research instrument was a five scale rating questionnaire with reliability 0.986. The sample group included 500 science teachers from World-Class Standard Schools who had been selected by using the stratified random sampling technique. Factor analysis of science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools was conducted by using M plus for Windows. The results are as follows: The results of confirmatory factor analysis on science teacher leadership in the Thailand World-Class Standard Schools revealed that the model significantly correlated with the empirical data. The consistency index value was x2 = 105.655, df = 88, P-Value = 0.086, TLI = 0.997, CFI = 0.999, RMSEA = 0.022, and SRMR = 0.019. The value of factor loading of science teacher leadership was positive, with statistical significance at the level of 0.01. The value of six factors was between 0.880-0.996. The highest factor loading was the professional learning community, followed by child-centered instruction, participation in development, the role model in teaching, transformational leaders, and self-development with factor loading at 0.996, 0.928, 0.911, 0.907, 0.901, and 0.871, respectively. The reliability of each factor was 99.1%, 86.0%, 83.0%, 82.2%, 81.0%, and 75.8%, respectively.

  14. 77 FR 751 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... Recommended Practice J1133, ``School Bus Stop Arm,'' revised April 1984, into Sec. 571.131. (45) SAE Standard... constriction requirement of S5.3.1 after having been subjected to a temperature of 248 degrees Fahrenheit (120... mandatory requirements. * * * * * S6.4.5 School bus signal lamp aiming. Each school bus signal lamp must be...

  15. 45 CFR 73.735-1304 - Referral of matters arising under the standards of this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this part. 73.735-1304 Section 73.735-1304 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... under the standards of this part. (a) The Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Inspector General... Department Ethics Counselor may refer to the Office of Government Ethics, or the Inspector General may refer...

  16. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  17. Crowd science : it is not just a matter of time (or funding)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science, or crowd science, or volunteer science, has increased in the last 4–5 years, with an accompanying increase in the literature. The main argument in such literature is that citizen science has many advantages, not only for scientists and the science that is produced, but also for the

  18. Professional Development in Climate Science Education as a Model for Navigating the Next Generations Science Standards - A High School Science Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, C.; Buhr, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards attempt to move the American K12 education system into the 21st century by focusing on science and engineering practice, crosscutting concepts, and the core ideas of the different disciplines. Putting these standards into practice will challenge a deeply entrenched system and science educators will need significant financial support from state and local governments, professional development from colleges and universities, and the creation of collegial academic networks that will help solve the many problems that will arise. While all of this sounds overwhelming, there are proven strategies and mechanisms already in place. Educators who tackle challenging topics like global climate change are turning to scientists and other like-minded teachers. Many of these teachers have never taken a class in atmospheric science but are expected to know the basics of climate and understand the emerging science as well. Teachers need scientists to continue to reach out and provide rigorous and in-depth professional development opportunities that enable them to answer difficult student questions and deal with community misconceptions about climate science. Examples of such programs include Earthworks, ICEE (Inspiring Climate Education Excellence) and ESSEA (Earth System Science Education Alliance). Projects like CLEAN (Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network) provide excellent resources that teachers can integrate into their lessons. All of these benefit from the umbrella of documents like Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Support from the aforementioned networks has encouraged the development of effective approaches for teaching climate science. From the perspective of a Geoscience master teacher and instructional coach, this presentation will demonstrate how scientists, researchers, and science education professionals have created models for professional development that create long-term networks supporting

  19. Closing the science achievement gap for ninth grade English learners through standards- and inquiry-based science instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Myrna Hipol

    In light of the need to close the achievement gap among our culturally and linguistically diverse students, more specifically the Hispanics and the Hispanic English Learners (ELs), the effects of teacher professional development (2 year PD vs. 1 Year PD vs. no PD) on the implementation of a standards-aligned and inquiry-based science curriculum program---the Integrated Coordinated Science for the 21st Century published by It's About Time, Inc. (ICS-IAT)---on the LAUSD ninth graders science scores were examined. Participants included 8,937 9th grade students (7,356 Hispanics). The primary outcome measurement was scaled scores from the California Standard Test (CST) in Integrated Coordinated Science (CST_ICS1). Correlations between California English Language Development Test (CELDT) component subscores (reading, listening and speaking) and CST scores were also examined. Results indicated that the science scores of the students of teachers who participated in two year PD were significantly higher compared to the scores of students of the one year PD group and the control group. The results show that all ethnic groups benefited from two years of teacher PD, except the African American group. Among Hispanics, students classified as IFEP, RFEP and EO gained from the teachers having two years of professional development. But the target population, ELs did not benefit from two years of teacher PD. The correlations between the CELDT and CST_ELA were much higher than the CELDT and CST_ICS1 correlations. This finding validates Abedi's claim (2004) that EL students are disadvantaged because of their language handicap on tests that have a greater language load. Two year PD participation significantly enhanced the accessibility of science to the ninth graders. The essential features in the PD were classroom simulation of all the activities identified in the storyboard with the actual and correct use of needed equipment and materials; creation and presentation of sample or model

  20. The development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter to train science literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choirunnisak; Ibrahim, M.; Yuliani

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter that are feasible (valid, practical, and effective) to train students’ science literacy. This research used 4D development model and tested on 15 students of biology education 2016 the State University of Surabaya with using one group pretest-posttest design. Learning devices developed include (a) Semester Lesson Plan (b) Lecture Schedule, (c) Student Activity Sheet, (d) Student Textbook, and (e) testability of science literacy. Research data obtained through validation method, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results were analyzed descriptively quantitative and qualitative. The ability of science literacy was analyzed by n-gain. The results of this research showed that (a) learning devices that developed was categorically very valid, (b) learning activities performed very well, (c) student’s science literacy skills improved that was a category as moderate, and (d) students responses were very positively to the learning that already held. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it is concluded that the development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter was feasible to train students literacy science skills.

  1. Improving LMA predictions with non-standard interactions: neutrino decay in solar matter?

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R

    2010-01-01

    It has been known for some time that the well established LMA solution to the observed solar neutrino deficit fails to predict a flat energy spectrum for SuperKamiokande as opposed to what the data indicates. It also leads to a Chlorine rate which appears to be too high as compared to the data. We investigate the possible solution to these inconsistencies with non standard neutrino interactions, assuming that they come as extra contributions to the $\

  2. EPA Science Matters Newsletter: Chemical Warfare Agent Analytical Standards Facilitate Lab Testing (Published November 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the EPA chemists' efforts to develop methods for detecting extremely low concentrations of nerve agents, such as sarin, VX, soman and cyclohexyl sarin, and the blister agent sulfur mustard.

  3. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  4. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  5. Conformal complex singlet extension of the Standard Model: scenario for dark matter and a second Higgs boson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Steele, T.G. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan,116 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Hanif, T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Dhaka,Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Mann, R.B. [Department of Physics, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2016-08-09

    We consider a conformal complex singlet extension of the Standard Model with a Higgs portal interaction. The global U(1) symmetry of the complex singlet can be either broken or unbroken and we study each scenario. In the unbroken case, the global U(1) symmetry protects the complex singlet from decaying, leading to an ideal cold dark matter candidate with approximately 100 GeV mass along with a significant proportion of thermal relic dark matter abundance. In the broken case, we have developed a renormalization-scale optimization technique to significantly narrow the parameter space and in some situations, provide unique predictions for all the model’s couplings and masses. We have found there exists a second Higgs boson with a mass of approximately 550 GeV that mixes with the known 125 GeV Higgs with a large mixing angle sin θ≈0.47 consistent with current experimental limits. The imaginary part of the complex singlet in the broken case could provide axion dark matter for a wide range of models. Upon including interactions of the complex scalar with an additional vector-like fermion, we explore the possibility of a diphoton excess in both the unbroken and the broken cases. In the unbroken case, the model can provide a natural explanation for diphoton excess if extra terms are introduced providing extra contributions to the singlet mass. In the broken case, we find a set of coupling solutions that yield a second Higgs boson of mass 720 GeV and an 830 GeV extra vector-like fermion F, which is able to address the 750 GeV LHC diphoton excess. We also provide criteria to determine the symmetry breaking pattern in both the Higgs and hidden sectors.

  6. Conformal complex singlet extension of the Standard Model: scenario for dark matter and a second Higgs boson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Steele, T. G.; Hanif, T.; Mann, R. B.

    2016-08-01

    We consider a conformal complex singlet extension of the Standard Model with a Higgs portal interaction. The global U(1) symmetry of the complex singlet can be either broken or unbroken and we study each scenario. In the unbroken case, the global U(1) symmetry protects the complex singlet from decaying, leading to an ideal cold dark matter candidate with approximately 100 GeV mass along with a significant proportion of thermal relic dark matter abundance. In the broken case, we have developed a renormalization-scale optimization technique to significantly narrow the parameter space and in some situations, provide unique predictions for all the model's couplings and masses. We have found there exists a second Higgs boson with a mass of approximately 550 GeV that mixes with the known 125 GeV Higgs with a large mixing angle sin θ ≈ 0.47 consistent with current experimental limits. The imaginary part of the complex singlet in the broken case could provide axion dark matter for a wide range of models. Upon including interactions of the complex scalar with an additional vector-like fermion, we explore the possibility of a diphoton excess in both the unbroken and the broken cases. In the unbroken case, the model can provide a natural explanation for diphoton excess if extra terms are introduced providing extra contributions to the singlet mass. In the broken case, we find a set of coupling solutions that yield a second Higgs boson of mass 720 GeV and an 830 GeV extra vector-like fermion F , which is able to address the 750 GeV LHC diphoton excess. We also provide criteria to determine the symmetry breaking pattern in both the Higgs and hidden sectors.

  7. Engaging a middle school teacher and students in formal-informal science education: Contexts of science standards-based curriculum and an urban science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Shamarion Gladys

    This is a three-article five chapter doctoral dissertation. The overall purpose of this three-pronged study is to engage a middle school science teacher and students in formal-informal science education within the context of a science standards-based curriculum and Urban Science Center. The goals of the study were: (1) to characterize the conversations of formal and informal science educators as they attempted to implement a standards-based curriculum augmented with science center exhibits; (2) to study the classroom discourse between the teacher and students that foster the development of common knowledge in science and student understanding of the concept of energy before observing science center exhibits on energy; (3) to investigate whether or not a standards-driven, project-based Investigating and Questioning our World through Science and Technology (IQWST) curriculum unit on forms and transformation of energy augmented with science center exhibits had a significant effect on urban African-American seventh grade students' achievement and learning. Overall, the study consisted of a mixed-method approach. Article one consists of a case study featuring semi-structured interviews and field notes. Article two consists of documenting and interpreting teacher-students' classroom discourse. Article three consists of qualitative methods (classroom discussion, focus group interviews, student video creation) and quantitative methods (multiple choice and open-ended questions). Oral discourses in all three studies were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. In article one, the community of educators' conversations were critically analyzed to discern the challenges educators encountered when they attempted to connect school curriculum to energy exhibits at the Urban Science Center. The five challenges that characterize the emergence of a third space were as follows: (a) science terminology for lesson focus, (b) "dumb-down" of science exhibits, (c) exploration distracts

  8. Crowd science : it is not just a matter of time (or funding)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.

    2014-01-01

    The last years, citizen science, or crowd science, has increased tremendously, both in number of projects, and number of participants. Most literature on crowd science focuses on its advantages, for both scientists, and the participating citizens. The challenges of crowd science come mainly from

  9. Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards SCP Science (Conostan) Qualification Report for D19-0, D3-100, and D12-XXX Series Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-20

    Joint Oil Analysis Program Spectrometer Standards SCP Science (Conostan) Qualification Report For D19-0, D3-100, and D12- XXX Series Standards NF...Candidate Type D19-0 ICP-AES Results ..................................................................... 4 Table V. Candidate Type D12- XXX ...Physical Property Results .................................................. 5 Table VI. Candidate Type D12- XXX Rotrode-AES Results

  10. Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Next Generation Science Standards: Convergences and Discrepancies Using Argument as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    2017-01-01

    As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts (ELA)/literacy and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) highlight connections across subject areas, convergences and discrepancies come into view. As a prominent example, this article focuses on how the CCSS and the NGSS treat "argument," especially in Grades…

  11. From Standard Application Packages to Enterprise Systems - A Matter of Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders G.

    The purpose of this chapter is to make clearer the meaning behind the concepts of “standard application package” and “enterprise system.” There is today a confusion in our IS field about the connection between the two concepts and how they have appeared historically? The main idea is to contrast them against each other and in this sense to study which opportunities organizations and companies can achieve with these two different IT environments. This transparency will give business and IT people a better understanding for managing investments in information systems more professionally. The research approach is characterized as “consumable research” (Robey, and Markus, Information Resources Management Journal, 11(1): 7-15, 1998) based on theoretical knowledge integrated with business practice from the IS field. Our background is through working with practical methods for customer involvement (purchasing, implementation, maintenance) as well as performing vendor studies of the software application industry.

  12. Standardization of reflectance measurements in dispersed organic matter: results of an exercise to improve interlaboratory agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Bouzinos, Antonis; Cardott, Brian; Cook, Alan C.; Eble, Cortland; Flores, Deolinda; Gentzis, Thomas; Gonçalves, Paula Alexandra; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Hámor-Vidó, Mária; Jelonek, Iwona; Kommeren, Kees; Knowles, Wayne; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Menezes, Taíssa Rêgo; Newman, Jane; Pawlewicz, Mark; Pickel, Walter; Potter, Judith; Ranasinghe, Paddy; Read, Harold; Reyes, Julito; Rodriguez, Genaro De La Rosa; de Souza, Igor Viegas Alves Fernandes; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sýkorová, Ivana; Valentine, Brett J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance generally is considered the most robust thermal maturity parameter available for application to hydrocarbon exploration and petroleum system evaluation. However, until 2011 there was no standardized methodology available to provide guidelines for vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale. Efforts to correct this deficiency resulted in publication of ASTM D7708: Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite dispersed in sedimentary rocks. In 2012-2013, an interlaboratory exercise was conducted to establish precision limits for the D7708 measurement technique. Six samples, representing a wide variety of shale, were tested in duplicate by 28 analysts in 22 laboratories from 14 countries. Samples ranged from immature to overmature (0.31-1.53% Ro), from organic-lean to organic-rich (1-22 wt.% total organic carbon), and contained Type I (lacustrine), Type II (marine), and Type III (terrestrial) kerogens. Repeatability limits (maximum difference between valid repetitive results from same operator, same conditions) ranged from 0.03-0.11% absolute reflectance, whereas reproducibility limits (maximum difference between valid results obtained on same test material by different operators, different laboratories) ranged from 0.12-0.54% absolute reflectance. Repeatability and reproducibility limits degraded consistently with increasing maturity and decreasing organic content. However, samples with terrestrial kerogens (Type III) fell off this trend, showing improved levels of reproducibility due to higher vitrinite content and improved ease of identification. Operators did not consistently meet the reporting requirements of the test method, indicating that a common reporting template is required to improve data quality. The most difficult problem encountered was the petrographic distinction of solid bitumens and low-reflecting inert macerals from vitrinite when vitrinite occurred with reflectance ranges overlapping

  13. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  14. Towards a Standard for Provenance and Context for Preservation of Data for Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprian, Hampapuram K.; Moses, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term data sets with data from many missions are needed to study trends and validate model results that are typical in Earth System Science research. Data and derived products originate from multiple missions (spaceborne, airborne and/or in situ) and from multiple organizations. During the missions as well as well past their termination, it is essential to preserve the data and products to support future studies. Key aspects of preservation are: preserving bits and ensuring data are uncorrupted, preserving understandability with appropriate documentation, and preserving reproducibility of science with appropriate documentation and other artifacts. Computer technology provides adequate standards to ensure that, with proper engineering, bits are preserved as hardware evolves. However, to ensure understandability and reproducibility, it is essential to plan ahead to preserve all the relevant data and information. There are currently no standards to identify the content that needs to be preserved, leading to non-uniformity in content and users not being sure of whether preserved content is comprehensive. Each project, program or agency can specify the items to be preserved as a part of its data management requirements. However, broader community consensus that cuts across organizational or national boundaries would be needed to ensure comprehensiveness, uniformity and long-term utility of archived data. The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), a diverse network of scientists, data stewards and technology developers, has a forum for ESIP members to collaborate on data preservation issues. During early 2011, members discussed the importance of developing a Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS) and developed an initial list of content items. This list is based on the outcome of a NASA and NOAA meeting held in 1998 under the auspices of the USGCRP, documentation requirements from NOAA and our experience with some of the NASA Earth science

  15. Making Science Matter: Collaborations between Informal Science Education Organizations and Schools. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, and for many decades, science-rich cultural institutions, such as zoos, aquaria, museums, and others, have collaborated with schools to provide students, teachers and families with opportunities to expand their experiences and understanding of science. However, these collaborations have generally failed to institutionalize:…

  16. Does print size matter for reading? A review of findings from vision science and typography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Gordon E; Bigelow, Charles A

    2011-08-09

    The size and shape of printed symbols determine the legibility of text. In this paper, we focus on print size because of its crucial role in understanding reading performance and its significance in the history and contemporary practice of typography. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the distribution of print sizes in historical and contemporary publications falls within the psychophysically defined range of fluent print size--the range over which text can be read at maximum speed. The fluent range extends over a factor of 10 in angular print size (x-height) from approximately 0.2° to 2°. Assuming a standard reading distance of 40 cm (16 inches), the corresponding physical x-heights are 1.4 mm (4 points) and 14 mm (40 points). We provide new data on the distributions of print sizes in published books and newspapers and in typefounders' specimens, and consider factors influencing these distributions. We discuss theoretical concepts from vision science concerning visual size coding that help inform our understanding of historical and modern typographical practices. While economic, social, technological, and artistic factors influence type design and selection, we conclude that properties of human visual processing play a dominant role in constraining the distribution of print sizes in common use.

  17. Reducing the standard deviation in multiple-assay experiments where the variation matters but the absolute value does not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A

    2013-01-01

    When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty.

  18. Science and art of setting performance standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimo

    2013-12-01

    Setting standards and cutoff scores is essential to any measurement and evaluation practice. Two evaluation frameworks, norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR), have often been used for setting standards. Although setting fitness standards based on the NR evaluation is relatively easy as long as a nationally representative sample can be obtained and regularly updated, it has several limitations-namely, time dependency, population dependence, discouraging low-level performers, and favoring advantaged or punishing disadvantaged individuals. Fortunately, these limitations can be significantly eliminated by employing the CR evaluation, which was introduced to kinesiology by Safrit and colleagues in the 1980s and has been successfully applied to some practical problems (e.g., set health-related fitness standards for FITNESSGRAM). Yet, the CR evaluation has its own challenges, e.g., selecting an appropriate measure for a criterion behavior, when the expected relationship between the criterion behavior and a predictive measure is not clear, and when standards are not consistent among multiple field measures. Some of these challenges can be addressed by employing the latest statistical methods (e.g., test equating). This article provides a comprehensive review of the science and art of setting standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology. After a brief historical overview of the standard-setting practice in kinesiology is presented, a case analysis of a successful CR evaluation, along with related challenges, is described. Lessons learned from past and current practice as well as how to develop a defendable standard are described. Finally, future research needs and directions are outlined.

  19. Why Understanding Science Matters: The IES Research Guidelines as a Case in Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, John L.

    2014-01-01

    The author outlines the rise of a hard-science model advocated by the Institute for Education Sciences, including the application of research and development approaches to education following the Second World War, and describes the attraction of these hard-science approaches for education policymakers. He notes that in the face of complex and…

  20. NASA Reverb: Standards-Driven Earth Science Data and Service Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechini, M. F.; Mitchell, A.; Pilone, D.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a core capability in NASA's Earth Science Data Systems Program. NASA's EOS ClearingHOuse (ECHO) is a metadata catalog for the EOSDIS, providing a centralized catalog of data products and registry of related data services. Working closely with the EOSDIS community, the ECHO team identified a need to develop the next generation EOS data and service discovery tool. This development effort relied on the following principles: + Metadata Driven User Interface - Users should be presented with data and service discovery capabilities based on dynamic processing of metadata describing the targeted data. + Integrated Data & Service Discovery - Users should be able to discovery data and associated data services that facilitate their research objectives. + Leverage Common Standards - Users should be able to discover and invoke services that utilize common interface standards. Metadata plays a vital role facilitating data discovery and access. As data providers enhance their metadata, more advanced search capabilities become available enriching a user's search experience. Maturing metadata formats such as ISO 19115 provide the necessary depth of metadata that facilitates advanced data discovery capabilities. Data discovery and access is not limited to simply the retrieval of data granules, but is growing into the more complex discovery of data services. These services include, but are not limited to, services facilitating additional data discovery, subsetting, reformatting, and re-projecting. The discovery and invocation of these data services is made significantly simpler through the use of consistent and interoperable standards. By utilizing an adopted standard, developing standard-specific adapters can be utilized to communicate with multiple services implementing a specific protocol. The emergence of metadata standards such as ISO 19119 plays a similarly important role in discovery as the 19115 standard

  1. University Programme Preferences of High School Science Students in Singapore and Reasons that Matter in their Preferences: A Rasch analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oon, Pey-Tee; Subramaniam, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored an under-researched area in science education-the university programmes preferred by high school students who take physical science subjects and the reasons that matter in their preferences. A total of 1,071 upper secondary and pre-university students in Singapore, who take physical science subjects among their range of subjects, participated in this study. A survey method was adopted and the Rasch model was used to analyse the data. Overall, Business Studies was ranked as the predominant choice; nonetheless, scientific programmes such as Science, Engineering, and Mathematics are generally still well liked by the students. When gender differences were examined, we found that students largely followed gender-typical programme preferences, in which males tend to incline towards Engineering while females tend to incline towards Arts and Social Sciences. Students prefer a university programme based on their individual interest and ability, with career aspiration and remuneration coming next. Interestingly, females place greater emphasis on career aspiration than males. Some implications of the study are discussed.

  2. Assessment that Matters: Integrating the "Chore" of Department-Based Assessment with Real Improvements in Political Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Michelle D.; Folger, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment requirements often raise great concerns among departments and faculty: fear of loss of autonomy, distraction from primary departmental goals, and the creation of alien and artificial external standards. This article demonstrates how one political science department directly responded to their own unique circumstances in assessing their…

  3. Double beta and dark matter search-window to new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear double beta decay provides an extraordinarily broad potential to search beyond Standard Model physics, probing already now the TeV scale, on which new physics should manifest itself. These possibilities are reviewed here. First, the results of present generation experiments are presented. The most sensitive one of them - the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment in the Gran Sasso - probes the electron mass now in the sub eV region and will reach a limit of ∼ 0.1 eV in a few years. Basing to a large extend on the theoretical work of the Heidelberg Double Beta Group in the last two years, results are obtained also for SUSY models (R-parity breaking, sneutrino mass), leptoquarks (leptoquark-Higgs coupling), compositeness, right-handed W boson mass, test of special relativity and equivalence principle in the neutrino sector and others. These results are comfortably competitive to corresponding results from high-energy accelerators like TEVATRON, HERA, etc. One of the enriched 76 Ge detectors also yields the most stringent limits for cold dark matter (WIMPs) to date by using raw data. Second, future perspectives of ββ research are discussed. A new Heidelberg experimental proposal (GENIUS) is described which would allow to increase the sensitivity for Majorana neutrino masses from the present level at best 0.1 eV down to 0.01 eV or even 0.001 eV. Its physical potential would be a breakthrough into the multi-TeV range for many beyond standard models. Its sensitivity for neutrino oscillation parameters would be larger than of all present terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments and of those planned for the future. It could probe directly the atmospheric neutrino problem and the large angle, and for almost degenerate neutrino mass scenarios even the small angle solution of the solar neutrino problem. It would further, already in a first step using only 100 kg of natural Ge detectors, cover almost the full MSSM parameter space for prediction of neutralinos as cold

  4. 76 FR 36951 - In the Matter of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.): Order of Suspension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.): Order of Suspension of Trading June 21, 2011. It appears to the... securities of Animal Cloning Sciences, Inc. (n/k/a Bancorp Energy, Inc.) because it has not filed any...

  5. Energy matters: An investigation of drama pedagogy in the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrutz, Megan

    The purpose of this study is to explore and document how informal and improvisational drama techniques affect student learning in the science classroom. While implementing a drama-based science unit, I examined multiple notions of learning, including, but not limited to, traditional notions of achievement, student understanding, student participation in the science classroom, and student engagement with, and knowledge of, science content. Employing an interpretivist research methodology, as outlined by Fredrick Erickson for qualitative analysis in the classroom, I collected data through personal observations; student and teacher interviews; written, artistic and performed class work; video-recorded class work; written tests; and questionnaires. In analyzing the data, I found strong support for student engagement during drama-based science instruction. The drama-based lessons provided structures that drew students into lessons, created enthusiasm for the science curriculum, and encouraged meaningful engagement with, and connections to, the science content, including the application and synthesis of science concepts and skills. By making student contributions essential to each of the lessons, and by challenging students to justify, explain, and clarify their understandings within a dramatic scenario, the classroom facilitators created a conducive learning environment that included both support for student ideas and intellectual rigor. The integration of drama-based pedagogy most affected student access to science learning and content. Students' participation levels, as well as their interest in both science and drama, increased during this drama-based science unit. In addition, the drama-based lessons accommodated multiple learning styles and interests, improving students' access to science content and perceptions of their learning experience and abilities. Finally, while the drama-based science lessons provided multiple opportunities for solidifying understanding of

  6. Learning environments matter: Identifying influences on the motivation to learn science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomé Schulze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the poor academic achievement in science by secondary school students in South Africa, students' motivation for science learning should be enhanced. It is argued that this can only be achieved with insight into which motivational factors to target, with due consideration of the diversity in schools. The study therefore explored the impact of six motivational factors for science learning in a sample of 380 Grade Nine boys and girls from three racial groups, in both public and independent schools. The students completed the Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire. Significant differences were identified between different groups and school types. The study is important for identifying the key role of achievement goals, science learning values and science self-efficacies. The main finding emphasises the significant role played by science teachers in motivating students for science in terms of the learning environments that they create. This has important implications for future research, aimed at a better understanding of these environments. Such insights are needed to promote scientific literacy among the school students, and so contribute to the improvement of science achievement in South Africa.

  7. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  8. The Union of Spirit and Matter: Science, Consciousness, and a Life Divine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynda Lester

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The once unbridgeable chasm between spirit and matter is closing. While the scientific method and scientific materialism have brought untold benefits to humanity, quantum physics has changed our view of matter as solid, objective, and obvious to a view that is more complex and which includes the possibility that consciousness has a part in manifesting reality. This shift mirrors Sri Aurobindo’s integral philosophy, which states that the universe is a manifestation of consciousness. This manifestation occurs through a process of involution followed by evolution, the next step of which is the emergence of a suprahumanity whose native state of consciousness will be supramental. Interestingly, some of Mother Mirra Alfassa’s experiences in bringing supramental consciousness into her body bear similarities to the discoveries of quantum physics. Unlike previous spiritual realizations, the supramental realization has the power to unify spirit and matter and usher in a life divine on earth.

  9. STEM Is Elementary: Challenges Faced by Elementary Teachers in the Era of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.

    2017-01-01

    For students to achieve the goals of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) by Grade 12, thinking and acting like scientists and engineers must begin in the elementary grades. However, elementary teachers may find this challenging -because language arts and mathematics still dominate many classrooms--often at the expense of science. This…

  10. The National Teacher Training Institute for Math, Science and Technology: Exemplary Practice in a Climate of Higher Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlevy, James G., Ed.; Donlevy, Tia Rice, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the NTTI (National Teacher Training Institute) for Math, Science and Technology model that trains teachers to use video and Internet resources to enhance math and science instruction. Discusses multimedia methodology; standards-based training; program impact in schools; and lesson plans available on the NTTI Web site. (Author/LRW)

  11. W. E. B. Du Bois at the center: from science, civil rights movement, to Black Lives Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Aldon

    2017-03-01

    I am honoured to present the 2016 British Journal of Sociology Annual Lecture at the London School of Economics. My lecture is based on ideas derived from my new book, The Scholar Denied: W.E.B. Du Bois and the Birth of Modern Sociology. In this essay I make three arguments. First, W.E.B. Du Bois and his Atlanta School of Sociology pioneered scientific sociology in the United States. Second, Du Bois pioneered a public sociology that creatively combined sociology and activism. Finally, Du Bois pioneered a politically engaged social science relevant for contemporary political struggles including the contemporary Black Lives Matter movement. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. Designing Innovative Lessons Plans to Support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) issued earlier in 2013 provide the opportunity to enhance pre-college curricula through a new focus on the ';Big Ideas' in Science, more attention to reading and writing skills needed for college and career readiness, and incorporation of engineering and technology. We introduce a set of lesson plans about scientific ocean drilling which can serve as a exemplars for developing curricula to meet NGSS approaches. Designed for middle and high school students, these can also be utilized in undergraduate courses. Development of these lessons was supported through a grant from the Deep Earth Academy of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership. They will be disseminated through websites of the Deep Earth Academy (http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/) and Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers (http://www.earth2class.org), as well as through workshops at science education conferences sponsored by the National Earth Science Teachers Association (www.nestanet.org) and other organizations. Topics include 'Downhole Logging,' 'Age of the Ocean Floors,' 'Tales of the Resolution,' and 'Continental Shelf Sediments and Climate Change Patterns.' 'Downhole Logging' focuses on the engineering and technology utilized to obtain more information about sediments and rocks cored by the JOIDES Resolution scientific drilling vessel. 'Age of the Ocean Floor' incorporates the GeoMap App visualization tools (http://www.geomapapp.org/) to compare sea bottom materials in various parts of the world. 'Tales of the Resolution' is a series of ';graphic novels' created to describe the scientific discoveries, refitting of the JOIDES Resolution, and variety of careers available in the marine sciences (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/BRG/outreach/media/tales/). The fourth lesson focuses on discoveries made during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313, which investigated patterns in the sediments beneath the continental shelf off New

  13. The CoRe of the Matter: Developing Primary Teachers' Professional Knowledge in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In an educational landscape of primary teachers' underdeveloped professional knowledge and low feelings of self-efficacy around science teaching, the prospects for science losing status in the primary school curriculum seems grim. This paper reports positive findings from a New Zealand research project designed to support and enhance primary…

  14. Implementation Science: Why It Matters for the Future of Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the gap between research and practice is a critical frontier for the future of social work. Integrating implementation science into social work can advance our profession's effort to bring research and practice closer together. Implementation science examines the factors, processes, and strategies that influence the uptake, use, and…

  15. Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…

  16. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on 'de Broglie Matter Waves' Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Gorecek Baybars

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the Faculty of Education-Science Teaching students (2nd year / 48 individual in the academic year of 2010-2011. The study was planned as a single group pretest-posttest design. A two-step question was used in the study, prior to and after the instruction. Lessons were conducted using the 7E learning model in the instruction process. When all these results are evaluated, it can be said that the conceptual understanding of the prospective teachers regarding "de Broglie; matter waves" has been taken place. In general, when all the sections are examined, it has been observed that the prospective teachers have more alternative concepts prior to the instruction and more scientific concepts after the instruction. In this process, besides instruction, the prospective teachers have not taken any place in a different application regarding the basic concepts of quantum physics. Therefore, it has been determined that the 7E learning model used in the research and the activities included in the 7E learning model are effective in conceptual understanding.

  17. Strategies for Leading Academics to Rethink Humanities and Social Sciences Curricula in the Context of Discipline Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theda; Wallace, Joy; Allen, Pamela; Clark, Jennifer; Jones, Adrian; Lawrence, Jill; Cole, Bronwyn; Sheridan Burns, Lynette

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of discipline standards in Australia has required a comprehensive rethinking of humanities and social science curricula from first year through to graduation. This paper proposes a model to facilitate academics' engagement with discipline standards and their implication for first-year curricula. The model supports…

  18. Representation and Analysis of Chemistry Core Ideas in Science Education Standards between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanlan; Bi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Chemistry core ideas play an important role in students' chemistry learning. On the basis of the representations of chemistry core ideas about "substances" and "processes" in the Chinese Chemistry Curriculum Standards (CCCS) and the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we conduct a critical comparison of chemistry…

  19. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  20. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  1. "Science SQL" as a Building Block for Flexible, Standards-based Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We have learnt to live with the pain of separating data and metadata into non-interoperable silos. For metadata, we enjoy the flexibility of databases, be they relational, graph, or some other NoSQL. Contrasting this, users still "drown in files" as an unstructured, low-level archiving paradigm. It is time to bridge this chasm which once was technologically induced, but today can be overcome. One building block towards a common re-integrated information space is to support massive multi-dimensional spatio-temporal arrays. These "datacubes" appear as sensor, image, simulation, and statistics data in all science and engineering domains, and beyond. For example, 2-D satellilte imagery, 2-D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geophysical voxel data, and 4-D x/y/z/t climate data contribute to today's data deluge in the Earth sciences. Virtual observatories in the Space sciences routinely generate Petabytes of such data. Life sciences deal with microarray data, confocal microscopy, human brain data, which all fall into the same category. The ISO SQL/MDA (Multi-Dimensional Arrays) candidate standard is extending SQL with modelling and query support for n-D arrays ("datacubes") in a flexible, domain-neutral way. This heralds a new generation of services with new quality parameters, such as flexibility, ease of access, embedding into well-known user tools, and scalability mechanisms that remain completely transparent to users. Technology like the EU rasdaman ("raster data manager") Array Database system can support all of the above examples simultaneously, with one technology. This is practically proven: As of today, rasdaman is in operational use on hundreds of Terabytes of satellite image timeseries datacubes, with transparent query distribution across more than 1,000 nodes. Therefore, Array Databases offering SQL/MDA constitute a natural common building block for next-generation data infrastructures. Being initiator and editor of the standard we present principles

  2. Archiving InSight Lander Science Data Using PDS4 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T.; Guinness, E. A.; Slavney, S.

    2017-12-01

    The InSight Mars Lander is scheduled for launch in 2018, and science data from the mission will be archived in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) using the new PDS4 standards. InSight is a geophysical lander with a science payload that includes a seismometer, a probe to measure subsurface temperatures and heat flow, a suite of meteorology instruments, a magnetometer, an experiment using radio tracking, and a robotic arm that will provide soil physical property information based on interactions with the surface. InSight is not the first science mission to archive its data using PDS4. However, PDS4 archives do not currently contain examples of the kinds of data that several of the InSight instruments will produce. Whereas the existing common PDS4 standards were sufficient for most of archiving requirements of InSight, the data generated by a few instruments required development of several extensions to the PDS4 information model. For example, the seismometer will deliver a version of its data in SEED format, which is standard for the terrestrial seismology community. This format required the design of a new product type in the PDS4 information model. A local data dictionary has also been developed for InSight that contains attributes that are not part of the common PDS4 dictionary. The local dictionary provides metadata relevant to all InSight data sets, and attributes specific to several of the instruments. Additional classes and attributes were designed for the existing PDS4 geometry dictionary that will capture metadata for the lander position and orientation, along with camera models for stereo image processing. Much of the InSight archive planning and design work has been done by a Data Archiving Working Group (DAWG), which has members from the InSight project and the PDS. The group coordinates archive design, schedules and peer review of the archive documentation and test products. The InSight DAWG archiving effort for PDS is being led by the PDS Geosciences

  3. Assessing the Curricula of Political Sciences’ Programs at the Palestinian Universities in Accordance with the Academic Standards of Political Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa H. A . Aburedwan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at answering the following key question: Are academic standards of political sciences fulfilled in the curricula of political science programs at the Palestinian universities? Accordingly, the study included a theoretical section that explained the basic concepts of quality in education, and some international experiences adopted for quality assurance of political sciences programs. Then the study analyzed, according to the standard criteria, the curricula of four departments that grant a bachelor's degree in political sciences, based on information published on the departments’ sites on the internet, and according to the academic guidebook of each department. The study concluded that the mission and objectives of three departments are clear, while the findings of the analysis showed that there is mismatch of requirements in the Palestinian curricula with academic standards. Most programs are rich with major materials, but need a little adjustment to conform to the standards. The findings also showed a number of negative points in study plans, which do not contain enough credit hours for scientific research, computer applications, and field training, while they have extra credit hours for university requirements. The study made several recommendations to address the problems of the curricula, including: Inviting departments to form committees to ensure quality, to modify the curricula, and develop it in accordance with international standards. Keywords: Academic program, Academic standards, Curricula assessment, Political sciences.

  4. The Earth2Class Model for Professional Development to Implement the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Assumpcao, C. M.; Baggio, F. D.; Hemming, S. R.; Goodwillie, A. M.; Brenner, C.

    2014-12-01

    Professional development for teachers involved in the implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) will require a multifaceted approach combining curriculum development, understanding the nature of science, applications of engineering and technology, integrating reading and writing, and other pedagogical components. The Earth2Class Workshops (E2C) at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University (LDEO) provides one model for creating effective training to meet the NGSS challenges. E2C has provided more than 135 workshops since 1998 that have brought together LDEO research scientists with classroom teachers and students from the New York metropolitan area and elsewhere. Each session provides teachers with the chance to learn first-hand about the wide range of investigations conducted at LDEO. This approach aligns strongly with the NGSS goals: mastery of the disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, understanding the nature of science, and cross-cutting relationships. During workshops, participating teachers interact with scientists to gain understanding of what stimulated research questions, how scientists put together all the components of investigations, and ways in which results are disseminated. Networking among teachers often leads to developing lesson plans based on the science, as well as support for professional growth not always possible within the school setting. Through the E2C website www.earth2class.org, teachers and students not able to attend the live workshops can access archival versions of the sessions. The website also provides a wide variety of educational resources. These have proved to be valuable on a national basis, as evidenced by an average of more than 300,000 hits per month from thousands of site visitors. Participating researchers have found E2C to be an effective approach to provide broader outreach of their results. During the next couple of years, the E2C program will expand to provide

  5. Leveraging Open Standards and Technologies to Enhance Community Access to Earth Science Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Nandigam, V.; Krishnan, S.; Cowart, C.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2011-12-01

    Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) data, collected from space, airborne and terrestrial platforms, have emerged as an invaluable tool for a variety of Earth science applications ranging from ice sheet monitoring to modeling of earth surface processes. However, lidar present a unique suite of challenges from the perspective of building cyberinfrastructure systems that enable the scientific community to access these valuable research datasets. Lidar data are typically characterized by millions to billions of individual measurements of x,y,z position plus attributes; these "raw" data are also often accompanied by derived raster products and are frequently terabytes in size. As a relatively new and rapidly evolving data collection technology, relevant open data standards and software projects are immature compared to those for other remote sensing platforms. The NSF-funded OpenTopography Facility project has developed an online lidar data access and processing system that co-locates data with on-demand processing tools to enable users to access both raw point cloud data as well as custom derived products and visualizations. OpenTopography is built on a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) in which applications and data resources are deployed as standards compliant (XML and SOAP) Web services with the open source Opal Toolkit. To develop the underlying applications for data access, filtering and conversion, and various processing tasks, OpenTopography has heavily leveraged existing open source software efforts for both lidar and raster data. Operating on the de facto LAS binary point cloud format (maintained by ASPRS), open source libLAS and LASlib libraries provide OpenTopography data ingestion, query and translation capabilities. Similarly, raster data manipulation is performed through a suite of services built on the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL). OpenTopography has also developed our own algorithm for high-performance gridding of lidar point cloud data

  6. Using National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter to assess regional wildland fire smoke and air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo; Traina, Samuel; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A; Shaw, Glenn

    2017-10-01

    Wildland fire is an important ecological process in the California Sierra Nevada. Personal accounts from pre-20th century describe a much smokier environment than present day. The policy of suppression beginning in the early 20th century and climate change are contributing to increased megafires. We use a single particulate monitoring site at the wildland urban interface to explore impacts from prescribed, managed, and full suppression wildland fires from 2006 to 2015 producing a contextual assessment of smoke impacts over time at the landscape level. Prescribed fire had little effect on local fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) air quality with readings typical of similar non-fire times; hourly and daily good to moderate Air Quality Index (AQI) for PM 2.5 , maximum hourly concentrations 21-103 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations between 7.7 and 13.2 μg m -3 . Hourly and daily AQI was typically good or moderate during managed fires with 3 h and one day reaching unhealthy while the site remained below National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), with maximum hourly concentrations 27-244 μg m -3 , and mean concentrations 6.7-11.7 μg m -3 . The large high intensity fire in this area created the highest short term impacts (AQI unhealthy for 4 h and very unhealthy for 1 h), 11 unhealthy for sensitive days, and produced the only annual value (43.9 μg m -3 ) over the NAAQS 98th percentile for PM 2.5 (35 μg m -3 ). Pinehurst remained below the federal standards for PM 2.5 when wildland fire in the local area was managed to 7800 ha (8-22% of the historic burn area). Considering air quality impacts from smoke using the NAAQS at a landscape level over time can give land and air managers a metric for broader evaluation of smoke impacts particularly when assessing ecologically beneficial fire. Allowing managers to control the amount and timing of individual wildland fire emissions can help lessen large smoke impacts to public health from a megafire

  7. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  9. What are the constituents of matter? an essay concerning the ontological side of science

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    This essay seeks to understand just what it is that modern science tells us about nature. For the longest time the story told by science appeared to be fully reflective of our common experience: nature was discovered as a collection of reciprocally influencing objects governed by laws which were consistent with that experience. And then, about a hundred years ago, the story suddenly became obscure. Science introduced into nature quantum objects which were supposed to look nothing like anything we had ever seen before and the laws governing them no longer appeared to make much sense to us. Thereafter, what science told us about nature was no longer quite as clear. This shift in the story is conspicuous and bespeaks of an earlier moment in the development of science when the project might have inadvertently taken a step which would eventually make her strange. The essay suggests that the scientific community had in fact made a fateful decision which inevitably led it to the strangeness of quantum mechanics and ...

  10. Bodies, hearts, and minds: Why emotions matter to historians of science and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Fay Bound

    2009-12-01

    The histories of emotion address many fundamental themes of science and medicine. These include the ways the body and its workings have been historically observed and measured, the rise of the mind sciences, and the anthropological analyses by which "ways of knowing" are culturally situated. Yet such histories bring their own challenges, not least in how historians of science and medicine view the relationship between bodies, minds, and emotions. This essay explores some of the methodological challenges of emotion history, using the sudden death of the surgeon John Hunter from cardiac disease as a case study. It argues that we need to let go of many of our modem assumptions about the origin of emotions, and "brainhood", that dominate discussions of identity, in order to explore the historical meanings of emotions as products of the body as well as the mind.

  11. Voice Matters: Buffering the Impact of a Negative Climate for Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settles, Isis H.; Cortina, Lilia M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Malley, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined whether women scientists' perceptions of voice moderate the impact of poor workplace climates on job satisfaction and whether effective leadership and mentoring promote women's voice. Survey data were collected from 135 faculty women in the natural sciences. The results from multiple regression analyses indicated that…

  12. Doing Science That Matters to Address India'sWater Crisis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    India is one of the most water stressedcountries in the world. However, despiteappreciable increase in funding for waterresearch, high quality science that is usableby stakeholders remains elusive. I arguethat this can be attributed to the absenceof research on questions that actuallymatter to stakeholders, unwillingnessto ...

  13. [A political matter: science and ideology in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrig, Bettina

    2010-06-01

    In the last two decades, history of science and science studies have been quite reluctant to adopt the notion of ideology when analyzing the dynamics of science. This may be an effect of the decreasing popularity of neo-marxist approaches within this disciplinary field; but it is also due to the fact that alternative approaches have been developed, for example Michel Foucault's notion of problematization, Roland Barthes' semiotic mythology, Bruno Latour's re-interpretation of the ontological difference between fact and fetish in science, or Donna Haraway's semi-fictional re-narrations of the techno-scientific world. This contribution undertakes to sketch the impact of two strands of 19th century immanentism on the authors named above, and on their use of concepts related to the notion of ideology, namely fetish, fetishism, myth and mythology respectively. It is argued that in some respect, Marx' concept of commodity fetishism is worth being re-examined, since it articulates a dialectical relation of 'reality' and 'seeming', and its impact on Barthes' mythology is deeper than it might appear at first glance.

  14. Family Matters: Familial Support and Science Identity Formation for African American Female STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical…

  15. Pedagogy Matters: Engaging Diverse Students as Community Researchers in Three Computer Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Jean Jinsun

    2013-01-01

    Computing occupations are among the fastest growing in the U.S. and technological innovations are central to solving world problems. Yet only our most privileged students are learning to use technology for creative purposes through rigorous computer science education opportunities. In order to increase access for diverse students and females who…

  16. Academic Studies, Science, and Democracy: Conceptions of Subject Matter from Harris to Thorndike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    When Ellen Condliffe Lagemann described what she called the troubling history of education research, she claimed that, in the early years of the twentieth century, Edward Lee Thorndike's narrow model of science replaced John Dewey's more open ideas. According to Lagemann, sexism was an important reason for Thorndike's triumph. In describing the…

  17. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, Jennifer W. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hugelius, Gustaf [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Ahlstrom, Anders [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund (Sweden); Blankinship, Joseph C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Bond-Lamberty, Ben [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lawrence, Corey R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Loisel, Julie [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Malhotra, Avni [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Robert B. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Ogle, Stephen [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Phillips, Claire [USDA-ARS Forage Seed and Cereal Research Unit, Corvallis, OR (United States); Ryals, Rebecca [Univ. of Hawai' i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Todd-Brown, Katherine [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vargas, Rodrigo [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Vergara, Sintana E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Keiluweit, Marco [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Heckman, Katherine A. [USDA Forest Service, Houghton, MI (United States); Crow, Susan E. [Univ. of Hawai' i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Silver, Whendee L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); DeLonge, Marcia [Union of Concerned Scientists, Washington, D.C. (United States); Nave, Lucas E. [Univ. of Michigan, Pellston, MI (United States)

    2017-10-05

    Here, soil organic matter supports the Earth’s ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retain the largest pool of actively cycling carbon (C). Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance land productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well-established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil organic matter and C and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  18. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  19. 5. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics and symposium 'Electrical methods of materials treatment'. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 5th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed-Matter Physics and at the Symposium dedicated to the 100th anniversary of academician Boris Lazarenko, the prominent scientist and inventor, the first director of the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. The abstracts presented in the book cover a vast range of subjects, such as: advanced materials and fabrication processes; methods of crystal growth, post-growth technological processes, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, engineering of molecular assembly; methods of nanostructures and nano materials fabrication and characterization; quantum wells and superlattices; nano composite, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes, molecular materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of material and structure characterization; structure and mechanical characterization; optical, electrical, magnetic and superconductor properties, transport processes, nonlinear phenomena, size and interface effects; advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structure properties; development of theoretical methods of solid-state characterization; phase transition; advanced quantum physics for nano systems; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; micro- and optoelectronics; photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; microsystems; degradation and reliability, solid-state device design; theory and advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical and combined methods of materials machining and treatment, including modification of surfaces; theory and advanced technologies of using electric fields, currents and discharges so as to intensify heat mass-transfer, to raise the efficiency of treatment of materials, of biological preparations and foodstuff; modern equipment for

  20. THE NATURE OF DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS AND THEIR HOSTS IN THE STANDARD COLD DARK MATTER UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen Renyue

    2012-01-01

    Using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with a physically motivated supernova feedback prescription, we show that the standard cold dark matter model can account for extant observed properties of damped Lyα systems (DLAs). With detailed examination of DLAs identified for each redshift snapshot through ray tracing through the simulation volumes containing thousands of galaxies, we find the following: (1) While DLA hosts roughly trace the overall population of galaxies at all redshifts, they are always gas-rich and have tendencies of being slightly smaller and bluer. (2) The history of DLA evolution is cosmological in nature and reflects primarily the evolution of the underlying cosmic density, galaxy size, and galaxy interactions. With higher density and more interactions at high redshift the size of DLAs is a larger fraction of their virial radius. (3) The variety of DLAs at high redshift is richer with a large contribution coming from galactic aqueducts, created through close galaxy interactions. The portion of gaseous disks of galaxies where most stars reside makes a relatively small contribution to DLA incidence at z = 3-4. (4) The majority of DLAs arise in halos of mass M h = 10 10 -10 12 M ☉ at z = 1.6-4, as these galaxies dominate the overall population of galaxies then. At z = 3-4, 20%-30% of DLA hosts are Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), 10%-20% are due to galaxies more massive than LBGs, and 50%-70% are from smaller galaxies. (5) Galactic winds play an indispensable role in shaping the kinematic properties of DLAs. Specifically, the high velocity width DLAs are a mixture of those arising in high-mass, high velocity dispersion halos and those arising in smaller mass systems where cold gas clouds are entrained to high velocities by galactic winds. (6) In agreement with observations, we see a weak but noticeable evolution in DLA metallicity. The metallicity distribution centers at [Z/H] = –1.5 to –1 and spans more than three

  1. Selected science: an industry campaign to undermine an OSHA hexavalent chromium standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurie Peter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI has been associated with increased lung cancer risk for more than 50 years, the chemical is not currently regulated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA on the basis of its carcinogenicity. The agency was petitioned in 1993 and sued in 1997 and 2002 to lower the workplace Cr(VI exposure limit, resulting in a court order to issue a final standard by February 2006. Faced with the threat of stronger regulation, the chromium industry initiated an effort to challenge the scientific evidence supporting a more protective standard. This effort included the use of "product defense" consultants to conduct post hoc analyses of a publicly-funded study to challenge results viewed unfavorably by the industry. The industry also commissioned a study of the mortality experience of workers at four low-exposure chromium plants, but did not make the results available to OSHA in a timely manner, despite multiple agency requests for precisely these sorts of data. The commissioned study found a statistically significant elevation in lung cancer risk among Cr(VI-exposed workers at levels far below the current standard. This finding changed when the multi-plant cohort was divided into two statistically underpowered components and then published separately. The findings of the first paper published have been used by the chromium industry to attempt to slow OSHA's standard setting process. The second paper was withheld from OSHA until it was accepted for publication in a scientific journal, after the rulemaking record had closed. Studies funded by private sponsors that seek to influence public regulatory proceedings should be subject to the same access and reporting provisions as those applied to publicly funded science. Parties in regulatory proceedings should be required to disclose whether the studies were performed by researchers who had the right to present their findings without the

  2. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  3. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlstrom, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, S.M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine EO; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana; Cotrufo, Francesca; Keiluweit, M.; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan; Silver, Whendee; Delonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas

    2018-02-01

    Over 75% of soil organic carbon (C) in the upper meter of earth’s terrestrial surface has been subjected to cropping, grazing, forestry, or urbanization. As a result, terrestrial C cycling cannot be studied out of land use context. Meanwhile, amendments by soil organic matter demonstrate reliable methodologies to restore and improve soils to a more productive state, therefore soil health and productivity cannot be understood without reference to soil C. Measurements for detecting changes in soil C are needed to constrain and monitor best practices and must reflect processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales in order to quantify C sequestration at regional to global scales. We have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of soil carbon and its management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  4. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  5. Interdisciplinary Climate Change Curriculum Materials based on the Next Generation Science Standards and The Earth Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, A.; Robertson, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 2012, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies' reported that one of the major issues associated with the development of climate change curriculum was the lack of interdisciplinary materials that also promoted a correlation between science standards and content. Therefore, in order to respond to this need, our group has developed an interdisciplinary climate change curriculum that has had as its fundamental basis the alignment with the guidelines presented by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the ones presented by the international document entitled The Earth Charter. In this regards, while the alignment with NGSS disciplinary core ideas, cross-concepts and students' expectations intended to fulfill the need for the development of climate change curriculum activities that were directly associated with the appropriate set of NGSS guidelines, the alignment with The Earth Charter document intended to reinforce the need the for the integration of sociological, philosophical and intercultural analysis of the theme 'climate change'. Additionally, our curriculum was also developed as part of a collaborative project between climate scientists and engineers, who are responsible for the development of a Regional Arctic Simulation Model (RASM). Hence, another important curriculum constituent was the feedback, suggestions and reviews provided by these professionals, who have also contributed to these pedagogical materials' scientific accuracy by facilitating the integration of datasets and visualizations developed by RASM. Furthermore, our group has developed a climate change curriculum for two types of audience: high school and early undergraduate students. Each curriculum unit is divided into modules and each module contains a set of lesson plans. The topics selected to compose each unit and module were designated according to the surveys conducted with scientists and engineers involved with the development of the climate change

  6. Methods and Strategies: Beyond the Textbook--But Not Just "Hands On". Using High-Quality Informational Texts to Meet the "Next Generation Science Standards"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Science teaching continues to move away from teaching science as merely a body of facts and figures to be memorized to a process of exploring and drawing conclusions. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) emphasize eight science and engineering practices that ask students to apply scientific and engineering reasoning and explanation. This…

  7. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Secondary Science Teachers' Subject Matter Knowledge and Knowledge of Student Conceptions While Teaching Evolution by Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Margaret M.; Petrosino, Anthony J.; Delgado, Cesar

    2017-01-01

    The fundamental scientific concept of evolution occurring by natural selection is home to many deeply held alternative conceptions and considered difficult to teach. Science teachers' subject matter knowledge (SMK) and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) component of knowledge of students' conceptions (KOSC) can be valuable resources for…

  9. A Case Study of Beginning Science Teachers' Subject Matter (SMK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Teaching Chemical Reaction in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…

  10. Is Large-Scale-Structure formation a new probe of the Dark Matter interactions with Standard Model particles?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, there have been extensive efforts made to discover dark matter particles through a significant experimental program based on direct and indirect detection techniques. However so far these searches remain unsuccessful, thus questioning our ability to elucidate one of the biggest challenges of modern Cosmology. In this talk I will review some of the key aspects of these techniques and present a new strategy to characterise the dark matter interactions with the visible sector without having to rely on critical assumptions.

  11. Making Earth Science Relevant in the K-8 Classroom. The Development of an Instructional Soils Module for Pre-Service Elementary Teachers Using the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, K. A.; Hauge, R.; Dechaine, J. M.; Varrella, G.; Egger, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The development and adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) raises a challenge in teacher preparation: few current teacher preparation programs prepare students to teach science the way it is presented in the NGSS, which emphasize systems thinking, interdisciplinary science, and deep engagement in the scientific process. In addition, the NGSS include more geoscience concepts and methods than previous standards, yet this is a topic area in which most college students are traditionally underprepared. Although nationwide, programmatic reform is needed, there are a few targets where relatively small, course-level changes can have a large effect. One of these targets is the 'science methods' course for pre-service elementary teachers, a requirement in virtually all teacher preparation programs. Since many elementary schools, both locally and across the country, have adopted a kit based science curriculum, examining kits is often a part of a science methods course. Unfortunately, solely relying on a kit based curriculum may leave gaps in science content curriculum as one prepares teachers to meet the NGSS. Moreover, kits developed at the national level often fall short in connecting geoscientific content to the locally relevant societal issues that engage students. This highlights the need to train pre-service elementary teachers to supplement kit curriculum with inquiry based geoscience investigations that consider relevant societal issues, promote systems thinking and incorporate connections between earth, life, and physical systems. We are developing a module that teaches geoscience concepts in the context of locally relevant societal issues while modeling effective pedagogy for pre-service elementary teachers. Specifically, we focus on soils, an interdisciplinary topic relevant to multiple geoscience-related societal grand challenges (e.g., water, food) that is difficult to engage students in. Module development is funded through InTeGrate, NSF

  12. Engaging Teenagers in Astronomy Using the Lens of Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Sean; Wolf, Debbie; Harrison, Jeremiah

    2017-06-01

    The Vanguard Double Star Workshop has been developed to teach eighth graders the technique of measuring position angle and separation of double stars. Through this program, the students follow in the footsteps of a professional scientist by researching the topic, performing the experiment, writing a scientific article, publishing a scientific article, and finally presenting the material to peers. An examination of current educational standards grounds this program in educational practice and philosophy.

  13. Engaging Teenagers in Astronomy Using the Lens of Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, S.; Wolf, D.; Harrison, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Vanguard Double Star Workshop has been developed to teach eighth graders the technique of measuring position angle and separation of double stars. Through this program, the students follow in the footsteps of a professional scientist by researching the topic, performing the experiment, writing a scientific article, publishing a scientific article, and finally presenting the material to peers. An examination of current educational standards grounds this program in educational practice and philosophy.

  14. Does Reality Matter? Social and Science Bases of Public Beliefs about Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Schaefer, K. M.; Schaeffer, K. P.; Schaefer, K. M.; Hamilton, L.

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of public perceptions about trends in Arctic sea ice find that over two-thirds are aware of the multi-decade decrease. This awareness differs sharply across ideological and educational subgroups, however. It does not appear to shift in response to scientific and media discussion following a September with unusually low (2012) or somewhat higher (2013) sea ice extent. Other perceptions about Arctic change, such as impacts on mid-latitude weather, follow similar patterns with sharp ideological difference and limited response to external events, including science reports. On the other hand, public accuracy on basic factual questions that do not by themselves imply directional change (such as location of the North Pole) may be very low, and among some subgroups accurate knowledge shows an oddly negative correlation with self-confidence about understanding of climate change. These results from 13 surveys over 2011-2015 suggest that biased assimilation filters the acceptance of information about Arctic change, with implications for science communication.

  15. Results from the first science run of the ZEPLIN-III dark matter search experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V. N.; Bewick, A.; Currie, A.; Davidge, D.; Dawson, J.; Horn, M.; Howard, A. S.; Jones, W. G.; Joshi, M.; Liubarsky, I.; Quenby, J. J.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.; Araujo, H. M.; Edwards, B.; Barnes, E. J.; Ghag, C.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Scovell, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    The ZEPLIN-III experiment in the Palmer Underground Laboratory at Boulby uses a 12 kg two-phase xenon time-projection chamber to search for the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) that may account for the dark matter of our Galaxy. The detector measures both scintillation and ionization produced by radiation interacting in the liquid to differentiate between the nuclear recoils expected from WIMPs and the electron-recoil background signals down to ∼10 keV nuclear-recoil energy. An analysis of 847 kg·days of data acquired between February 27, 2008, and May 20, 2008, has excluded a WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering spin-independent cross section above 8.1x10 -8 pb at 60 GeVc -2 with a 90% confidence limit. It has also demonstrated that the two-phase xenon technique is capable of better discrimination between electron and nuclear recoils at low-energy than previously achieved by other xenon-based experiments.

  16. Networking our science to characterize the state, vulnerabilities, and management opportunities of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Ahlström, Anders; Blankinship, Joseph C.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Lawrence, Corey; Loisel, Julie; Malhotra, Avni; Jackson, Robert B.; Ogle, Stephen M.; Phillips, Claire; Ryals, Rebecca; Todd-Brown, Katherine; Vargas, Rodrigo; Vergara, Sintana E.; Cotrufo, M. Francesca; Keiluweit, Marco; Heckman, Katherine; Crow, Susan E.; Silver, Whendee L.; DeLonge, Marcia; Nave, Lucas E.

    2018-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) supports the Earth's ability to sustain terrestrial ecosystems, provide food and fiber, and retains the largest pool of actively cycling carbon. Over 75% of the soil organic carbon (SOC) in the top meter of soil is directly affected by human land use. Large land areas have lost SOC as a result of land use practices, yet there are compensatory opportunities to enhance productivity and SOC storage in degraded lands through improved management practices. Large areas with and without intentional management are also being subjected to rapid changes in climate, making many SOC stocks vulnerable to losses by decomposition or disturbance. In order to quantify potential SOC losses or sequestration at field, regional, and global scales, measurements for detecting changes in SOC are needed. Such measurements and soil-management best practices should be based on well established and emerging scientific understanding of processes of C stabilization and destabilization over various timescales, soil types, and spatial scales. As newly engaged members of the International Soil Carbon Network, we have identified gaps in data, modeling, and communication that underscore the need for an open, shared network to frame and guide the study of SOM and SOC and their management for sustained production and climate regulation.

  17. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  18. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  19. Investigation of Science Inquiry Items for Use on an Alternate Assessment Based on Modified Achievement Standards Using Cognitive Lab Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Gilmore, Joanna A.; Price, Karen J.; Bennett, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the benefits of item enhancements applied to science-inquiry items for incorporation into an alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards for high school students. Six items were included in the cognitive lab sessions involving both students with and without disabilities. The enhancements (e.g., use of visuals,…

  20. Teachers' Practices in High School Chemistry Just Prior to the Adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesdorfer, Sarah B.; Staude, Kristin D.

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional development that influences teachers' classroom practices starts with what teachers know, understand, and do in their classroom. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) challenge teachers to make changes to their classroom; to help teachers make these changes, it is necessary to know what they are doing in their…

  1. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  2. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a profile of professional competence, required for effective inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools in the Netherlands. This article reviews literature and compares the outcomes to the American National Science Education Standards (NSES). In so doing, it seeks to answer the following research questions: What elements of competencies required by primary school teachers who teach inquiry-based science are mentioned, discussed and researched in recent literature? To what extent are the American NSES (introduced 15 years ago) consistent with elements of competencies found in recent literature? A comprehensive literature review was conducted using Educational Resources Information Centre and Google Scholar databases. Fifty-seven peer-reviewed scientific journal articles from 2004 to 2011 were found using keyword combinations. Analysis of these articles resulted in the identification and classification of 22 elements of competencies. This outcome was compared to the American NSES, revealing gaps in the standards with respect to a lack of focus on how teachers view science teaching and themselves as teachers. We also found that elements of competencies are connected and poor mastery of one may affect a teacher's mastery of another. Therefore, we propose that standards for the Netherlands should be presented in a non-linear, holistic, competence-based model.

  3. The Mesoscale Science of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Montoya, Donald Raymond [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) requires the ability to understand and test how material structures, defects, and interfaces determine performance in extreme environments such as in nuclear weapons. To do this, MaRIE will be an x-ray source that is laser-like and brilliant with very fl exible and fast pulses to see at weapons-relevant time scales, and with high enough energy to study critical materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) has determined there is a mission need for MaRIE to deliver this capability. MaRIE can use some of the existing infrastructure of the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) and its accelerator capability. MaRIE will be built as a strategic partnership of DOE national laboratories and university collaborators.

  4. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory Student Research Opportunities in Support of the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passow, M. J.; Xu, C.; Newton, R.; Turrin, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Framework for K-12 Science and Next Generation Science Standards envision that students engage in practices that scientists use to deepen understanding of scientific ideas over time. The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (LDEO) of Columbia University provides a suite of educational programs for high school students which strongly support this goal. Through summer and school year programs, LDEO offers access to vibrant, world-class research laboratories and scientists who have contributed to our understanding about the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, climate change, ice sheets, and more. Students become part of a research campus with state-of-the-art facilities. Programs include: A Day in the Life (collecting water variable data to construct a picture of Hudson River estuary dynamics); Rockland PLUS (experiences for students interested in planning sustainable development in their own communities); the Secondary School Field Research program (project-based research focused on biodiversity and environmental problem in New York metro area wetlands); Earth2Class (monthly Saturday workshops on a range of themes); and internships with cooperating researchers . Other examples of the scientific content include analyzing deep-sea sediments, examining rocks formed during an interglacial period 125,000 years ago to gain new insights about sea-level change, and monitoring invasive species in a nearby salt marsh. Students from NYC have their first exposure to collecting water samples, seining, and canoeing in the Hudson River, a contrast to the laboratory-based experiences ASR programs in cooperating hospitals. Students attend talks about cutting-edge investigations from Lamont scientists who are leaders in many fields, as well as advice about careers and college choices. Programs differ in length and location, but have fundamental commonalities: mentoring by early career and senior scientists, minimum scaffolding, treating data as publishable, and ensuring rigorous

  5. Middle school students' understanding of time: Implications for the National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemann, Deborah Jean

    2000-10-01

    Measures of time are essential to human life, especially in the Western world. Human understanding of time develops from the preschool stages of using "before" and "after" to an adult understanding and appreciation of time. Previous researchers (for example, Piaget, Friedman) have investigated and described stages of time development. Time, as it was investigated here, can be classified as conventional, logical or experiential. Conventional time is the ordered representation of time; the days of the week, the months of the year, or clock time: seconds and hours. Logical time is the deduction of duration based on regular events; for example, calculating the passage of time based on two separate events. Experiential time involves the duration of events and estimating intervals. With the recent production of the National Science Education Standards (NSES), many schools are aligning their science curriculum with the NSES. Time appears both implicitly and explicitly in the NSES. Do Middle School students possess the understanding of time necessary to meet the recommendations of the NSES? An interview protocol of four sessions was developed to investigate middle school students understanding of time. The four sessions included: building and testing water clocks; an interview about water clocks and time intervals; a laserdisc presentation about relative time spans; and a mind mapping session. Students were also given the GALT test of Logical Thinking. The subjects of the study were interviewed; eleven eighth grade students and thirteen sixth grade students. The data was transcribed and coded, and a rubric was developed to evaluate students based on their responses to the four sessions. The Time Analysis Rubric is a grid of the types of time: conventional, logical and experiential time versus the degree of understanding of time. Student results were assigned to levels of understanding based on the Time Analysis Rubric. There was a relationship (although not significant

  6. Meeting the Next Generation Science Standards Through "Rediscovered" Climate Model Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, L. E.; Chandler, M. A.; Zhou, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the Educational Global Climate Model (EdGCM) Project made its debut in January 2005, over 150 institutions have employed EdGCM software for a variety of uses ranging from short lab exercises to semester-long and year-long thesis projects. The vast majority of these EdGCM adoptees have been at the undergraduate and graduate levels, with few users at the K-12 level. The K-12 instructors who have worked with EdGCM in professional development settings have commented that, although EdGCM can be used to illustrate a number of the Disciplinary Core Ideas and connects to many of the Common Core State Standards across subjects and grade levels, significant hurdles preclude easy integration of EdGCM into their curricula. Time constraints, a scarcity of curriculum materials, and classroom technology are often mentioned as obstacles in providing experiences to younger grade levels in realistic climate modeling research. Given that the NGSS incorporates student performance expectations relating to Earth System Science, and to climate science and the human dimension in particular, we feel that a streamlined version of EdGCM -- one that eliminates the need to run the climate model on limited computing resources, and provides a more guided climate modeling experience -- would be highly beneficial for the K-12 community. This new tool currently under development, called EzGCM, functions through a browser interface, and presents "rediscovery experiments" that allow students to do their own exploration of model output from published climate experiments, or from sensitivity experiments designed to illustrate how climate models as well as the climate system work. The experiments include background information and sample questions, with more extensive notes for instructors so that the instructors can design their own reflection questions or follow-on activities relating to physical or human impacts, as they choose. An added benefit of the EzGCM tool is that, like EdGCM, it helps

  7. submitter BioSharing: curated and crowd-sourced metadata standards, databases and data policies in the life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    McQuilton, Peter; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Thurston, Milo; Lister, Allyson; Maguire, Eamonn; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta

    2016-01-01

    BioSharing (http://www.biosharing.org) is a manually curated, searchable portal of three linked registries. These resources cover standards (terminologies, formats and models, and reporting guidelines), databases, and data policies in the life sciences, broadly encompassing the biological, environmental and biomedical sciences. Launched in 2011 and built by the same core team as the successful MIBBI portal, BioSharing harnesses community curation to collate and cross-reference resources across the life sciences from around the world. BioSharing makes these resources findable and accessible (the core of the FAIR principle). Every record is designed to be interlinked, providing a detailed description not only on the resource itself, but also on its relations with other life science infrastructures. Serving a variety of stakeholders, BioSharing cultivates a growing community, to which it offers diverse benefits. It is a resource for funding bodies and journal publishers to navigate the metadata landscape of the ...

  8. Does mentoring matter: results from a survey of faculty mentees at a large health sciences university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mitchell D.; Arean, Patricia A.; Marshall, Sally J.; Lovett, Mark; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine the characteristics associated with having a mentor, the association of mentoring with self-efficacy, and the content of mentor–mentee interactions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), we conducted a baseline assessment prior to implementing a comprehensive faculty mentoring program. Method We surveyed all prospective junior faculty mentees at UCSF. Mentees completed a web-based, 38-item survey including an assessment of self-efficacy and a needs assessment. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association between having a mentor and gender, ethnicity, faculty series, and self-efficacy. Results Our respondents (n=464, 56%) were 53% female, 62% white, and 7% from underrepresented minority groups. More than half of respondents (n=319) reported having a mentor. There were no differences in having a mentor based on gender or ethnicity (p≥0.05). Clinician educator faculty with more teaching and patient care responsibilities were statistically significantly less likely to have a mentor compared with faculty in research intensive series (pmentor was associated with greater satisfaction with time allocation at work (pmentor, 5.33 (sd = 1.35, pmentors, but rated highest requiring mentoring assistance with issues of promotion and tenure. Conclusion Findings from the UCSF faculty mentoring program may assist other health science institutions plan similar programs. Mentoring needs for junior faculty with greater teaching and patient care responsibilities must be addressed. PMID:20431710

  9. Matters of Fact: Language, Science, and the Status of Truth in Late Colonial Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Hanscom

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the status of the fact in literary and historical discourses in late colonial Korea, focusing on the elaboration of the relationship between scientific and literary truths primarily in the work of philosopher and critic Sŏ Insik (1906–?. It points to a growing tendency in late 1930s and early 1940s Korea to question the veracity of the fact (or of empiricism more broadly in an environment where the enunciation of the colonial subject had been rendered problematic and objective statements had arguably lost their connection with social reality. In a period when the relationship between signifier and referent had come into question, how did this major critic understand the relationship between science and literature, or between truth and subjectivity? Sŏ warns against a simplistic apprehension of the notion of truth as unilaterally equivalent with what he calls “scientific truth” (kwahakchŏk chilli—a nomological truth based on objective observation and confirmation by universal principles—and argues that a necessary complement to apparently objective truth is “literary truth” (munhakchŏk chinsil. Against the fixed, conceptual form of scientific thought, literary truth presents itself as an experiential truth that returns to the sensory world of the sociolinguistic subject (chuch’e as a source of credibility.

  10. Science and technology on the nanoscale with swift heavy ions in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Reinhard, E-mail: r.neumann@gsi.de

    2013-11-01

    Swift heavy ions have stimulated developments of science and technology on the nanoscale due to the specific manner of transferring their kinetic energy in a solid successively in small portions along their trajectories. They thus create absolutely straight, almost cylindrical, and very narrow damage trails of diameter 5–10 nm. In various materials, such as polymers, a suitable etchant can transform these tracks into narrow channels of cylindrical, conical, or other desired shapes. These channels represent a starting point particularly for two major fields: they can be chemically modified to control small species and act, e.g., as sensors and transmitters of specific biomolecules. Irradiation of a sample with only one heavy ion allows the fabrication of single-nanochannel devices enabling measurements of enormous sensitivity. Filling nanochannels with a material provides nanowires. These objects of restricted dimensions exhibit finite-size and quantum behavior and give rise to a broad range of fundamental and applied research. This contribution briefly recollects microtechnological achievements with swift heavy ions that began already in the 1970s, preparing the ground for gradual size decrease down to the nanoscopic objects now under study. Various examples of material modifications on the nanoscale are presented, including recent results obtained with nanochannels and nanowires. Emerging developments are addressed, encompassing in situ recording of processes in biological cells stimulated by well-aimed ion irradiation, the fabrication of three-dimensional nanowire architectures, and plasmonic effects in nanowires.

  11. Does mentoring matter: results from a survey of faculty mentees at a large health sciences university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell D. Feldman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the characteristics associated with having a mentor, the association of mentoring with self-efficacy, and the content of mentor–mentee interactions at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF, we conducted a baseline assessment prior to implementing a comprehensive faculty mentoring program. Method: We surveyed all prospective junior faculty mentees at UCSF. Mentees completed a web-based, 38-item survey including an assessment of self-efficacy and a needs assessment. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to determine the association between having a mentor and gender, ethnicity, faculty series, and self-efficacy. Results: Our respondents (n=464, 56% were 53% female, 62% white, and 7% from underrepresented minority groups. More than half of respondents (n=319 reported having a mentor. There were no differences in having a mentor based on gender or ethnicity (p≥0.05. Clinician educator faculty with more teaching and patient care responsibilities were statistically significantly less likely to have a mentor compared with faculty in research intensive series (p<0.001. Having a mentor was associated with greater satisfaction with time allocation at work (p<0.05 and with higher academic self-efficacy scores, 6.07 (sd = 1.36 compared with those without a mentor, 5.33 (sd = 1.35, p<0.001. Mentees reported that they most often discussed funding with the mentors, but rated highest requiring mentoring assistance with issues of promotion and tenure. Conclusion: Findings from the UCSF faculty mentoring program may assist other health science institutions plan similar programs. Mentoring needs for junior faculty with greater teaching and patient care responsibilities must be addressed.

  12. An exploration of administrators' perceptions of elementary science: A case study of the role of science in two elementary schools based on the interactions of administrators with colleagues, science content and state standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogdon, Lori-Anne Stelmark

    This research is a case study on the perceptions and attitudes of administrators in the area of elementary science and how their responses reflect agreement or dissonance with the perceptions of elementary teachers on the subject of science within the same district. The study used Likert-type surveys and interviews from both administrators and teachers on five key areas: 1) Attitudes towards science and teaching 2) Attitudes towards teaching science 3) Attitudes towards administrators 4) Time teaching science and 5) Attitudes about policy and standards. Survey data was analyzed within and across areas to identify similarity and difference within each group. The medians from the administrative and teacher surveys were then crossed referenced through the use of a Mann Whitney test to identify areas of similarity. Interview data was coded around three major themes: 1) Standards 2) Classroom Instruction and 3) Conversations. The findings show that even though administrators' perceptions favor the inclusion of science in the elementary classroom, both administrators and teachers in this study reported limited involvement from, and conversation with, each other on the topic of science education. Heavy reliance by the administrators was placed on the use of consultants to provide professional development in the area of science instruction and to review the use of state standards, resulting in limited conversation between administrators and teachers about science. Teachers reported a heavy reliance upon their colleagues in the area of science instruction and curriculum planning. In addition, both administrators and teachers reported a greater focus on math and English for classroom instruction. Findings in this research support implications that more focus should be placed on the role of administrators in the implementation of science instruction. Administrators can play a crucial role in the success of science programs at the building, district and state levels

  13. An exploratory study of the influence of national and state standards on middle school science teachers' classroom assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWaters, Kathy Jean

    2001-07-01

    Classroom assessment practices of middle school science teachers were identified and the influence of national and state science standards on these practices was examined. In Phase I of this study a mail questionnaire was sent to 450 middle school (grades 5,6,7 and 8) science teachers in 17 parishes in Louisiana to obtain information about their classroom assessment practices. In Phase II, nine middle school teachers in eight departmentalized classrooms, two classes at each grade, participated in a qualitative study. Data were collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, interviews and document analysis. Data analysis revealed three major categories of classroom assessment targets: (a) student achievement, (b) student attitudes and, (c) student products. Results indicated that most teachers are using different assessment methods when assessing different achievement targets, as recommended by science reform documents. It was also determined that many teachers are using appropriate methods to assess student learning. While teachers reported that students spend an inordinate amount of time engaged in assessment activities, classroom observations suggested that the activities were not always written tests or graded activities. Another key finding is that there is a disconnect between the quality of teaching and the quality of assessment. Teachers who teach the material recommended by science reform documents and use recommended instructional strategies were observed to stop teaching and engage students in a "test rehearsal" geared towards rote memorization of factual information. Data suggest that the national and state science content standards are influencing the content and the format of teacher-made tests. Teachers' reported using the standards during assessment construction or selection in a wide variety of ways. The most direct use of the standards reported was to select content, format and cognitive level for test items. A more circumspect approach

  14. High School Physics: An Interactive Instructional Approach That Meets the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaobo; Mejia, Joel Alejandro; Becker, Kurt; Neilson, Drew

    2015-01-01

    Improving high school physics teaching and learning is important to the long-term success of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Efforts are currently in place to develop an understanding of science among high school students through formal and informal educational experiences in engineering design activities…

  15. Normative Beliefs, Discursive Claims, and Implementation of Reform-Based Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Riley Lloyd, Mary E.; Howell, Malia R.; Peters, John

    2016-01-01

    Reform-based science instruction is guided by teachers' normative beliefs. Discursive claims are how teachers say they teach science. Previous research has studied the change in teachers' beliefs and how beliefs influence intended practice and action in the classroom. Few studies have connected what teachers believe, how they say they teach, and…

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  17. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Accomplishing the Visions for Teacher Education Programs Advocated in the National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan; Yager, Robert

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the advantages of an approach to instruction using current problems and issues as curriculum organizers and illustrating how teaching must change to accomplish real learning. The study sample consisted of 41 preservice science teachers (13 males and 28 females) in a model science teacher education program. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to determine success with science discipline-specific “Societal and Educational Applications” courses as one part of a total science teacher education program at a large Midwestern university. Students were involved with idea generation, consideration of multiple points of views, collaborative inquiries, and problem solving. All of these factors promoted grounded instruction using constructivist perspectives that situated science with actual experiences in the lives of students.

  19. 77 FR 39205 - Public Hearings for Proposed Rules-National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., respectively, and to make corresponding revisions to the data handling conventions for PM and ambient air.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Ariel Rios Building, 1200...

  20. Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Ed

    2007-04-01

    In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

  1. Using Innovative Resources and Programs to Prepare Pre- and In-Service Teachers for New Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, R. J.; Short, J.; Contino, J.; Cooke-Nieves, N.; Howes, E.; Kravitz, D.; Randle, D.; Trowbridge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Leveraging the Rose Center for Earth and Space and active research departments in Earth and Planetary Science, Astrophysics, and Paleontology, the Education Department at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) offers an MAT program to prepare new Earth Science teachers (~100 new teachers by 2018) as well as a range of professional development (PD) opportunities for over 3,000 K-12 teachers annually, providing opportunities to learn with scientists; inquiry-based experiences; and standards-aligned resources. The AMNH produces innovative geoscience and other STEM resources supporting teacher and student science investigations with data visualizations and analysis tools, teaching case materials and other resources that provide rich nonfiction reading and writing opportunities for use in Earth and space science curricula that are integrated in the MAT and PD programs. Museum resources and the MAT and PD programs are aligned to support the recently released Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core State Standards. The NGSS is a set of science and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts and disciplinary core ideas to help cultivate teachers' and K-12 students' scientific habits of mind, develop their knowledge and abilities to engage in scientific investigations, and teach them how to reason in context; goals that closely align with those of the AMNH's teacher preparation and professional development programs. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (NRC, 2012) is a required text for the MAT program, and this text as well as the NGSS Performance Expectations guide the PD programs as well. Researchers working with Museum scientists and educators find it is not enough for programs for pre- and in-service teachers to provide access to resources. Research suggests that these programs need to engage pre- and in-service teachers in using and reflecting on these types of resources, as well as take

  2. The Impact of Data-Based Science Instruction on Standardized Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Tia W.

    Increased teacher accountability efforts have resulted in the use of data to improve student achievement. This study addressed teachers' inconsistent use of data-driven instruction in middle school science. Evidence of the impact of data-based instruction on student achievement and school and district practices has been well documented by researchers. In science, less information has been available on teachers' use of data for classroom instruction. Drawing on data-driven decision making theory, the purpose of this study was to examine whether data-based instruction impacted performance on the science Criterion Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) and to explore the factors that impeded its use by a purposeful sample of 12 science teachers at a data-driven school. The research questions addressed in this study included understanding: (a) the association between student performance on the science portion of the CRCT and data-driven instruction professional development, (b) middle school science teachers' perception of the usefulness of data, and (c) the factors that hindered the use of data for science instruction. This study employed a mixed methods sequential explanatory design. Data collected included 8th grade CRCT data, survey responses, and individual teacher interviews. A chi-square test revealed no improvement in the CRCT scores following the implementation of professional development on data-driven instruction (chi 2 (1) = .183, p = .67). Results from surveys and interviews revealed that teachers used data to inform their instruction, indicating time as the major hindrance to their use. Implications for social change include the development of lesson plans that will empower science teachers to deliver data-based instruction and students to achieve identified academic goals.

  3. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  4. Creating Next Generation Teacher Preparation Programs to Support Implementation of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards in K-12 Schools: An Opportunity for the Earth and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, E. E.; Egger, A. E.; Julin, S.; Ronca, R.; Vokos, S.; Ebert, E.; Clark-Blickenstaff, J.; Nollmeyer, G.

    2015-12-01

    A consortium of two and four year Washington State Colleges and Universities in partnership with Washington's Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI), the Teachers of Teachers of Science, and Teachers of Teachers of Mathematics, and other key stakeholders, is currently working to improve science and mathematics learning for all Washington State students by creating a new vision for STEM teacher preparation in Washington State aligned with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics and Language Arts. Specific objectives include: (1) strengthening elementary and secondary STEM Teacher Preparation courses and curricula, (2) alignment of STEM teacher preparation programs across Washington State with the NGSS and CCSS, (3) development of action plans to support implementation of STEM Teacher Preparation program improvement at Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) across the state, (4) stronger collaborations between HEIs, K-12 schools, government agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations, and STEM businesses, involved in the preparation of preservice STEM teachers, (5) new teacher endorsements in Computer Science and Engineering, and (6) development of a proto-type model for rapid, adaptable, and continuous improvement of STEM teacher preparation programs. A 2015 NGSS gap analysis of teacher preparation programs across Washington State indicates relatively good alignment of courses and curricula with NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Scientific practices, but minimal alignment with NGSS Engineering practices and Cross Cutting Concepts. Likewise, Computer Science and Sustainability ideas and practices are not well represented in current courses and curricula. During the coming year teams of STEM faculty, education faculty and administrators will work collaboratively to develop unique action plans for aligning and improving STEM teacher preparation courses and curricula at their institutions.

  5. Utilizing the National Research Council's (NRC) Conceptual Framework for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): A Self-Study in My Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvo, Arthur Francis

    Given the reality that active and competitive participation in the 21 st century requires American students to deepen their scientific and mathematical knowledge base, the National Research Council (NRC) proposed a new conceptual framework for K--12 science education. The framework consists of an integration of what the NRC report refers to as the three dimensions: scientific and engineering practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas in four disciplinary areas (physical, life and earth/spaces sciences, and engineering/technology). The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS ), which are derived from this new framework, were released in April 2013 and have implications on teacher learning and development in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Given the NGSS's recent introduction, there is little research on how teachers can prepare for its release. To meet this research need, I implemented a self-study aimed at examining my teaching practices and classroom outcomes through the lens of the NRC's conceptual framework and the NGSS. The self-study employed design-based research (DBR) methods to investigate what happened in my secondary classroom when I designed, enacted, and reflected on units of study for my science, engineering, and mathematics classes. I utilized various best practices including Learning for Use (LfU) and Understanding by Design (UbD) models for instructional design, talk moves as a tool for promoting discourse, and modeling instruction for these designed units of study. The DBR strategy was chosen to promote reflective cycles, which are consistent with and in support of the self-study framework. A multiple case, mixed-methods approach was used for data collection and analysis. The findings in the study are reported by study phase in terms of unit planning, unit enactment, and unit reflection. The findings have implications for science teaching, teacher professional development, and teacher education.

  6. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Proceedings of PHENO1: The First Workshop on Beyond Standard Model Physics at IISER Mohali ... on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science ... Proceedings of the National Mathematics Initiative Workshop on Nonlinear ... Proceedings of the International Symposium on Nuclear Physics.

  7. Failure, The Next Generation: Why Rigorous Standards are not Sufficient to Improve Science Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Antony Bair

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although many states in the United States are adopting policies that require all students to complete college-preparatory science classes to graduate from high school, such policies have not always led to improved student outcomes. There is much speculation about the cause of the dismal results, but there is scant research on the processes by which the policies are being implemented at the school level, especially in schools that enroll large numbers of historically non-college-bound students. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a four-year ethnographic case study of policy implementation at one racially and socioeconomically diverse high school in Michigan. Guided by the structuration theory of Anthony Giddens (1984, we gathered and analyzed information from interviews with administrators and science teachers, observations of science classes, and relevant curriculum and policy documents. Our findings reveal the processes and rationales by which a state policy mandating three years of college-preparatory science for all students was implemented at the school. Four years after the policy was implemented, there was little improvement in science outcomes. The main reason for this, we found, was the lack of correspondence between the state policy and local policies developed in response to that state policy.

  8. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. 23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    23 March 2015 - Tree planting ceremony Chemin Auguer, by His Holiness the XIIth Gyalwang Drukpa and CERN Director-General, on the occasion of the event Connecting Worlds: Science Meets Buddhism Great Minds, Great Matters.

  10. A Systematic Review: The Next Generation Science Standards and the Increased Cultural Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asowayan, Alaa A.; Ashreef, Samaar Y.; Omar, Sozan H.

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aims to explore the effect of NGSS on students' academic excellence. Specifically, considering increased cultural diversity, it is appropriate to identify student's science-related values, respectful features of teachers' cultural competence, and underlying challenges and detect in what ways these objectives are addressed by…

  11. High School Class for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences and Pupils' Skills Measured by Standard and Pisa Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, G. S.; Pavlovic-Babic, D.

    2010-01-01

    The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia (www.pmf.ni.ac.yu/f_odeljenje) in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, six years after establishing of this specialized class, and 3 years after the previous report, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. More precisely results are compared to the progress results of the pupils in a standard Grammar School and the corresponding classes of the Mathematical Gymnasiums in Nis. Analysis of achievement data should clarify what are benefits of introducing in school system track for gifted students. Additionally, item analysis helps in understanding and improvement of learning strategies' efficacy. We make some conclusions and remarks that may be useful for the future work that aims to increase pupils' intrinsic and instrumental motivation for physics and sciences, as well as to increase the efficacy of teaching physics and science.

  12. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  13. Teaching to the Next Generation Science Standards with Energy, Climate, and Water Focused Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Hall, M.; Civjan, N.

    2015-12-01

    We produced two fun-to-play card games with the theme, The Nexus of Energy, Water, and Climate, that directly support teaching to the NGSS. In the games, players come to understand how demand for energy, water use, and climate change are tightly intertwined. Analysis by scientists from the national laboratories ensured that the games are reflect current data and research. The games have been tested with high school and informal science educators and their students and have received a formal evaluation. The games website http://isenm.org/games-for-learning shows how the games align with the NGSS, the Common Core, and the NRC's Strands of Science Learning. It also contains an extensive collection of accessible articles on the nexus to support use of the games in instruction. Thirst for Power is a challenging resource management game. Players, acting as governors of regions, compete to be the first to meet their citizens' energy needs. A governor can choose from a variety of carbon-based or renewable energy sources, but each source uses water and has an environmental—including climate change—impact. Energy needs must be met using only the water resources allocated to the region and without exceeding the environmental impact limit. "ACTION" cards alter game play and increase competition. Challenge and Persuade is a game of scientific argumentation, using evidence on nexus-related fact cards. Players must evaluate information, develop fact-based arguments, and communicate their findings. One card deck contains a set of adjectives, a second a series of fact cards. Players use their fact cards to make the best argument that aligns with an adjective selected by the "Judge". Players take turns being the "Judge," who determines who made the best argument. The games particularly align with NGSS elements: Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Application of Science. Players come to understand the science and engineering behind many energy sources and their impacts

  14. Standards-based teaching and educational digital libraries as innovations: Undergraduate science faculty in the adoption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Judith Sulkes

    This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational

  15. High Pressure Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) Determination of Dissolved Organic Matter Molecular Weight Revisited: Accounting for Changes in Stationary Phases, Analytical Standards, and Isolation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C; Aiken, George R; McKnight, Diane M; Arnold, William A; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-16

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA 280 ) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA 280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA 280 .

  16. High pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) determination of dissolved organic matter molecular weight revisited: Accounting for changes in stationary phases, analytical standards, and isolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Brandon C.; Aiken, George R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Arnold, William A.; Chin, Yu-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We reassessed the molecular weight of dissolved organic matter (DOM) determined by high pressure size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) using measurements made with different columns and various generations of polystyrenesulfonate (PSS) molecular weight standards. Molecular weight measurements made with a newer generation HPSEC column and PSS standards from more recent lots are roughly 200 to 400 Da lower than initial measurements made in the early 1990s. These updated numbers match DOM molecular weights measured by colligative methods and fall within a range of values calculated from hydroxyl radical kinetics. These changes suggest improved accuracy of HPSEC molecular weight measurements that we attribute to improved accuracy of PSS standards and changes in the column packing. We also isolated DOM from wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) using XAD-8, a cation exchange resin, and PPL, a styrene-divinylbenzene media, and observed little difference in molecular weight and specific UV absorbance at 280 nm (SUVA280) between the two solid phase extraction resins, suggesting they capture similar DOM moieties. PPR DOM also showed lower SUVA280 at similar weights compared to DOM isolates from a global range of environments, which we attribute to oxidized sulfur in PPR DOM that would increase molecular weight without affecting SUVA280.

  17. Standard and reference materials for environmental science. Part 1. Technical memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1995-11-01

    This is the fourth edition of the catalog of reference materials suited for use in environmental science, originally compiled in 1986 for NOAA, IOC, and UNEP. The catalog lists more than 1200 reference materials from 28 producers and contains information about their proper use, sources, availability, and analyte concentrations. Indices are included for elements, isotopes, and organic compounds, as are cross references to CAS registry numbers, alternate names, and chemical structures of selected organic compounds.

  18. Standard and reference materials for environmental science. Part 2. Technical memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1995-11-01

    This is the fourth edition of the catalog of reference materials suited for use in environmental science, originally compiled in 1986 for NOAA, IOC, and UNEP. The catalog lists more than 1200 reference materials from 28 producers and contains information about their proper use, sources, availability, and analyte concentrations. Indices are included for elements, isotopes, and organic compounds, as are cross references to CAS registry numbers, alternate names, and chemical structures of selected organic compounds.

  19. Contextualizing Next Generation Science Standards to Guide Climate Education in the U.S. Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A.; Fletcher, C. H.; Sachs, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The USAPI has a population of about 1,800,000 people spread across 4.9 million square miles of the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Islands are characterized by a multitude of indigenous cultures and languages. Many USAPI students live considerably below the poverty line. The Pacific Island region is projected to experience some of the most profound negative impacts of climate change considerably sooner than other regions. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Pacific Islands Climate Education Partnership (PCEP) has developed a detailed strategic plan to collaboratively improve climate knowledge among the region's students and citizens in ways that exemplify modern science and indigenous environmental knowledge, address the urgency of climate change impacts, and honor indigenous cultures. Students and citizens within the region will have the knowledge and skills to advance understanding of climate change, and to adapt to its impacts. Core PCEP partners contribute expertise in climate science, the science of learning, the region's education infrastructure, and the region's cultures and indigenous knowledge and practices. PCEP's strategic education plan is guided by a general, multidisciplinary K-14 Climate Education Framework (CEF) that organizes fundamental science concepts and practices within appropriate grade-span progressions. This CEF is based largely upon the National Research Council's "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas" and the emerging Next Generation Science Standards. While the CEF is based upon these national Next Generation documents, it is also informed and strongly influenced by the region's geographic, climatic, cultural and socioeconomic contexts, notably indigenous knowledge and practices. Guided by the CEF, the PCEP in its initial development/planning phase has prototyped regional approaches to professional development, contextualizing curricula, and supporting community

  20. The Final Year Project (FYP) in Social Sciences: Establishment of Its Associated Competences and Evaluation Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Joan; Escofet, Anna; Martinez, Francesc; Ventura, Javier; Vlachopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental characteristics of the Final Year Project (FYP), its associated competences and some evaluation standards that derived from a research conducted by the regional government of Catalonia (Spain) and the Catalan University Quality Assurance Agency. More analytically, the paper begins with the definition of the…

  1. National Educators' Workshop: Update 1988. Standard Experiments in Engineering Materials Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James E. (Compiler); Jacobs, James A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    Presented here is a collection of experiments presented and demonstrated at the National Educators' Workshop: Update 88, held May 10 to 12, 1988 at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersberg, Maryland. The experiments related to the nature and properties of engineering materials and provided information to assist in teaching about materials in the education community.

  2. Realization of the developing potential of training to computer science in conditions of adoption of the second generation state educational standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Георгиевич Григорьев

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In article requirements to training to computer science and an information technology, formulated with a position of planned results presented in the standard of the second generation are described.

  3. Standard and reference materials for marine science. Third edition. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantillo, A.Y.

    1992-08-01

    The third edition of the catalog of reference materials suited for use in marine science, originally compiled in 1986 for NOAA, IOC, and UNEP. The catalog lists close to 2,000 reference materials from sixteen producers and contains information about their proper use, sources, availability, and analyte concentrations. Indices are included for elements, isotopes, and organic compounds, as are cross references to CAS registry numbers, alternate names, and chemical structures of selected organic compounds. The catalog is being published independently by both NOAA and IOC/UNEP and is available from NOAA/NOS/ORCA in electronic form

  4. Using Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Practices to Address Scientific Misunderstandings Around Complex Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrin, M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The new NGSS provide an important opportunity for scientists to develop curriculum that links the practice of science to research-based data in order to improve understanding in areas of science that are both complex and confusing. Our curriculum focuses in particular on the fate and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides. Radioactivity, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic, is highly debated and largely misunderstood, and for large sections of the population is a source of scientific misunderstanding. Developed as part of the international GEOTRACES project which focuses on identifying ocean processes and quantifying fluxes that control the distributions of selected trace elements and isotopes in the ocean, and on establishing the sensitivity of these distributions to changing environmental conditions, the curriculum topic fits nicely into the applied focus of NGSS with both environmental and topical relevance. Our curriculum design focuses on small group discussion driven by questions, yet unlike more traditional curriculum pieces these are not questions posed to the students, rather they are questions posed by the students to facilitate their deeper understanding. Our curriculum design challenges the traditional question/answer memorization approach to instruction as we strive to develop an educational approach that supports the practice of science as well as the NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts and the Science & Engineering Practices. Our goal is for students to develop a methodology they can employ when faced with a complex scientific issue. Through background readings and team discussions they identify what type of information is important for them to know and where to find a reliable source for that information. Framing their discovery around key questions such as "What type of radioactive decay are we dealing with?", "What is the potential half-life of the isotope?", and "What are the pathways of transport of radioactivity?" allows students to evaluate a

  5. Designing Collaborative Developmental Standards by Refactoring of the Earth Science Models, Libraries, Workflows and Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, E.; Iredell, M.

    2015-12-01

    The operational (OPS) NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) suite, traditionally, consist of a large set of multi- scale HPC models, workflows, scripts, tools and utilities, which are very much depending on the variety of the additional components. Namely, this suite utilizes a unique collection of the in-house developed 20+ shared libraries (NCEPLIBS), certain versions of the 3-rd party libraries (like netcdf, HDF, ESMF, jasper, xml etc.), HPC workflow tool within dedicated (sometimes even vendors' customized) HPC system homogeneous environment. This domain and site specific, accompanied with NCEP's product- driven large scale real-time data operations complicates NCEP collaborative development tremendously by reducing chances to replicate this OPS environment anywhere else. The NOAA/NCEP's Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) missions to develop and improve numerical weather, climate, hydrological and ocean prediction through the partnership with the research community. Realizing said difficulties, lately, EMC has been taken an innovative approach to improve flexibility of the HPC environment by building the elements and a foundation for NCEP OPS functionally equivalent environment (FEE), which can be used to ease the external interface constructs as well. Aiming to reduce turnaround time of the community code enhancements via Research-to-Operations (R2O) cycle, EMC developed and deployed several project sub-set standards that already paved the road to NCEP OPS implementation standards. In this topic we will discuss the EMC FEE for O2R requirements and approaches in collaborative standardization, including NCEPLIBS FEE and models code version control paired with the models' derived customized HPC modules and FEE footprints. We will share NCEP/EMC experience and potential in the refactoring of EMC development processes, legacy codes and in securing model source code quality standards by using combination of the Eclipse IDE, integrated with the

  6. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  7. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  8. Funding Acknowledgements in the Web of Science: inconsistencies in data collection and standardization of funding organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Honk, J.; Calero-Medina, C.; Costas, R.

    2016-07-01

    Funding acknowledgements (FAs), as provided by the Web of Science, are a recent inclusion in the bibliometric toolset. They are starting to be used to study the presence, relationships and effects of funding and funders in the production of new scientific research. The incorporation of this new source of information comes with the need to understand how these data are collected and indexed in the database. This paper discusses important inconsistencies related to the method by which the data for FA and funders are selected, extracted and indexed by WoS, thereby highlighting the need to construct a thesaurus for the data. Problematic areas are found to be the quality of the input data and the conceptualization of what does and does not constitute a funding acknowledgement. Based on this critical analysis of the data and the identification of the main issues, we provide several recommendations for researchers, funders, WoS and other users of the data. (Author)

  9. Evaluation and comparison of medical records department of Iran university of medical sciences teaching hospitals and medical records department of Kermanshah university of medical sciences teaching hospitals according to the international standards ISO 9001-2000 in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam ahmadi

    2010-04-01

    Conclusion: The rate of final conformity of medical records system by the criteria of the ISO 9001-2000 standards in hospitals related to Iran university of medical sciences was greater than in hospitals related to Kermanshah university of medical sciences. And total conformity rate of medical records system in Kermanshah hospitals was low. So the regulation of medical records department with ISO quality management standards can help to elevate its quality.

  10. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy

  11. Do Thinking Styles Matter for Science Achievement and Attitudes toward Science Class in Male and Female Elementary School Students in Taiwan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Ling; Tseng, Yi-Kuan

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the effects of thinking styles on science achievement and attitudes toward science class among Taiwanese elementary school students and to explore the differences between male and female students in their modes of thinking. Participants included 756 sixth-grade students from 28 classes in four elementary…

  12. Science Education and Teacher Effectiveness: Implications of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): Q&A with Chris Wilson, Ph.D., and Jody Bintz, M.S. REL Mid-Atlantic Teacher Effectiveness Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Mid-Atlantic, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This webinar explored how the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide an instructional framework to support professional growth and inform teacher evaluation systems for science instruction. This Q&A addressed the questions participants had for Dr. Wilson and Jody Bintz following the webinar. The webinar recording and PowerPoint…

  13. An Evaluation of Integrated Curriculum as It Exists in Mathematics and Science SSS as Well as the Subsequent Supportive Presentation of Those Standards in Eighth Grade Mathematics and Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Clara Joanne Schneberger

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to verify points of intersection (POIs) between mathematics and science in the eighth grade Sunshine State Standards (SSS), and to develop a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate these POIs as they were presented in the respective mathematics and science textbooks approved for use in Florida public schools. Shannon and…

  14. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczynski, Dariusz; Xu, Zhengping

    2010-01-27

    There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  15. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczynski Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  16. Influence of subject matter discipline and science content knowledge on National Board Certified science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslyn, Wayne Gene

    The present study investigated differences in the continuing development of National Board Certified Science Teachers' (NBCSTs) conceptions of inquiry across the disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The central research question of the study was, "How does a NBCST's science discipline (biology, chemistry, earth science, or physics) influence their conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry-based teaching and learning?" A mixed methods approach was used that included an analysis of the National Board portfolio entry, Active Scientific Inquiry, for participants (n=48) achieving certification in the 2007 cohort. The portfolio entry provided detailed documentation of teachers' goals and enactment of an inquiry lesson taught in their classroom. Based on the results from portfolio analysis, participant interviews were conducted with science teachers (n=12) from the 2008 NBCST cohort who represented the science disciplines of biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. The interviews provided a broader range of contexts to explore teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals of inquiry. Other factors studied were disciplinary differences in NBCSTs' views of the nature of science, the relation between their science content knowledge and use of inquiry, and changes in their conceptions of inquiry as result of the NB certification process. Findings, based on a situated cognitive framework, suggested that differences exist between biology, chemistry, and earth science teachers' conceptions, enactment, and goals for inquiry. Further, individuals teaching in more than one discipline often held different conceptions of inquiry depending on the discipline in which they were teaching. Implications for the research community include being aware of disciplinary differences in studies on inquiry and exercising caution in generalizing findings across disciplines. In addition, teachers who teach in more than one discipline can highlight the contextual

  17. The Effect of Design Modifications to the Typographical Layout of the New York State Elementary Science Learning Standards on User Preference and Process Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jeffery E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of four different design layouts of the New York State elementary science learning standards on user processing time and preference. Three newly developed layouts contained the same information as the standards core curriculum. In this study, the layout of the core guide is referred to as Book.…

  18. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  19. The validation of science virtual test to assess 7th grade students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic (SVT-MH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sya’bandari, Y.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.

    2018-05-01

    The method used in this research was descriptive research for profiling the validation of SVT-MH to measure students’ critical thinking on matter and heat topic in junior high school. The subject is junior high school students of 7th grade (13 years old) while science teacher and expert as the validators. The instruments that used as a tool to obtain the data are rubric expert judgment (content, media, education) and rubric of readability test. There are four steps to validate SVT-MH in 7th grade Junior High School. These steps are analysis of core competence and basic competence based on Curriculum 2013, expert judgment (content, media, education), readability test and trial test (limited and larger trial test). The instrument validation resulted 30 items that represent 8 elements and 21 sub-elements to measure students’ critical thinking based on Inch in matter and heat topic. The alpha Cronbach (α) is 0.642 which means that the instrument is sufficient to measure students’ critical thinking matter and heat topic.

  20. Exploration of problem-based learning combined with standardized patient in the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of problem-based learning(PBLcombined with standardized patient(SPin the teaching of basic science of ophthalmology. METHODS: Sixty-four students of Optometry in grade 2012 were randomly divided into experimental group(n=32and control group(n=32. Traditional teaching method was implemented in control group while PBL combined with SP was applied in experimental group. At the end of term students were interviewed using self-administered questionnaire to obtain their evaluation for teaching effect. Measurement data were expressed as (-overx±s and analyzed by independent samples t test. Enumeration data were analyzed by χ2 test, and PRESULTS:The mean scores of theory test(83.22±3.75and experimental test(94.28±2.20in experimental group were significantly higher than theory test(70.72±3.95and experimental test(85.44±3.52in control group(all PPPCONCLUSION:Using PBL combined with SP teaching mode in basic science of ophthalmology can highly improve learning enthusiasm of students and cultivate self-learning ability of students, practice ability and ability of clinical analysis.

  1. Dark matter: the astrophysical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of dark matter is one of the most urgent problems in cosmology. I describe the astrophysical case for dark matter, from both an observational and a theoretical perspective. This overview will therefore focus on the observational motivations rather than the particle physics aspects of dark matter constraints on specific dark matter candidates. First, however, I summarize the astronomical evidence for dark matter, then I highlight the weaknesses of the standard cold dark matter model (LCDM) to provide a robust explanation of some observations. The greatest weakness in the dark matter saga is that we have not yet identified the nature of dark matter itself

  2. A tale of three blind men on the proper subject matter of clinical science and practice: commentary on Plaud's behaviorism vs. Ilardi and Feldman's cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, J P; Kelly, M M

    2001-09-01

    Plaud (J Clin Psychol 57, 1089-1102, 1109-1111, 1119-1120) and Ilardi and Feldman (J Clin Psychol 57, 1067-1088, 1103-1107, 1113-1117, 1121-1124) argue for two very different approaches to clinical science and practice (i.e., behavior analysis and cognitive neuroscience, respectively). We comment on the assets and liabilities of both perspectives as presented and attempt to achieve some semblance of balance between the three protagonists embroiled in this current debate. The vision of clinical science we articulate is more ecumenical and evolutionary, rather than paradigmatic and revolutionary. As we see it, the problem clinical psychology faces is much larger than the authors let on; namely, how best to make clinical science meaningful and relevant to practitioners, consumers, the general public, and the behavioral health-care community. Clinical psychology's immediate internal problem is not pluralism with regard to subject matter, worldview, methodology, or school of thought, but pluralism in clinical psychologists' adherence to a scientific epistemology as the only legitimate form of clinical psychology. On this latter point, we still have a very long way to go. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle: A STEM Partnership Between Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Office of Naval Research and Middle School Science Students Bringing Next Generation Science Standards into the Classroom through Ocean Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, D.; Appelgate, B., Jr.; Mauricio, P.

    2014-12-01

    Now in its tenth year, "In the Footsteps of Roger Revelle" (IFRR) is a middle school science education program that draws student interest, scientific content and coherence with Next Generation Science Standards from real-time research at sea in fields of physical science. As a successful collaboration involving Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO),Office of Naval Research (ONR), and San Marcos Middle School (SMMS), IFRR brings physical oceanography and related sciences to students at the San Marcos Middle School in real-time from research vessels at sea using SIO's HiSeasNet satellite communication system. With a generous grant from ONR, students are able to tour the SIO Ships and spend a day at sea doing real oceanographic data collection and labs. Through real-time and near-realtime broadcasts and webcasts, students are able to share data with scientists and gain an appreciation for the value of Biogeochemical research in the field as it relates to their classroom studies. Interaction with scientists and researchers as well as crew members gives students insights into not only possible career paths, but the vital importance of cutting edge oceanographic research on our society. With their science teacher on the ship as an education outreach specialist or ashore guiding students in their interactions with selected scientists at sea, students observe shipboard research being carried out live via videoconference, Skype, daily e-mails, interviews, digital whiteboard sessions, and web interaction. Students then research, design, develop, deploy, and field-test their own data-collecting physical oceanography instruments in their classroom. The online interactive curriculum models the Next Generation Science Standards encouraging active inquiry and critical thinking with intellectually stimulating problem- solving, enabling students to gain critical insight and skill while investigating some of the most provocative questions of our time, and seeing scientists as

  4. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 "Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation" and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Borrelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO was evaluated the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 “Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through crop rotation” and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers who support or not the cross-compliance regime. The monitoring was performed in nine experimental farms of the Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Were also evaluated the soil organic matter and some yield parameters, in a cereal monocropping (treatment counterfactual and a two-year rotation cereal-legume or forage (treatment factual. The two-years application of the standard “crop rotations” has produced contrasting results with regards to the storage of soil organic matter through crop rotation and these were not sufficient to demonstrate a statistically significant effect of treatment in any of the farms considered in monitoring, only in those farms subjected to more years of monitoring was recorded only a slight effect of the standard as a trend. The variations of organic matter in soils in response to changes in the culture technique or in the management of the soil may have long lag times and two years of time are not sufficient to demonstrate the dynamics of SOM associated with the treatment, also in consideration of the large inter annual variability recorded in different monitored sites.

  5. "Deep down Things": In What Ways Is Information Physical, and Why Does It Matter for Information Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawden, David; Robinson, Lyn

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Rolf Landauer declared in 1991 that "information is physical". Since then, information has come to be seen by many physicists as a fundamental component of the physical world; indeed by some as the physical component. This idea is now gaining currency in popular science communication. However, it is often far from clear…

  6. The Effects of Visualizations on Linguistically Diverse Students' Understanding of Energy and Matter in Life Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Bedell, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Although extensive research has shown the educational value of different types of interactive visualizations on students' science learning in general, how such technologies can contribute to English learners' (ELs) understanding of complex scientific concepts has not been sufficiently explored to date. This mixed-methods study investigated how…

  7. Does Personality Matter? Applying Holland's Typology to Analyze Students' Self-Selection into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…

  8. Does Structural Development Matter? The Third Mission through Teaching and R&D at Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtamäki, Vuokko

    2015-01-01

    The latest policy trends of higher education institutions (HEIs) have increasingly highlighted the importance of external stakeholders' expertise and resources. This paper investigated how the third mission through teaching and research and development (R&D) at Finnish universities of applied sciences (UASs) is influenced by the structural…

  9. STEM Graduates and Secondary School Curriculum: Does Early Exposure to Science Matter? CEP Discussion Paper No. 1443

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Philippis, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the number of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) university graduates is considered a key element for long-term productivity and competitiveness in the global economy. Still, little is known about what actually drives and shapes students' choices. This paper focusses on secondary school students at the very top of the…

  10. Coordinating Communities and Building Governance in the Development of Schematic and Semantic Standards: the Key to Solving Global Earth and Space Science Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Information Age in Science is being driven partly by the data deluge as exponentially growing volumes of data are being generated by research. Such large volumes of data cannot be effectively processed by humans and efficient and timely processing by computers requires development of specific machine readable formats. Further, as key challenges in earth and space sciences, such as climate change, hazard prediction and sustainable development resources require a cross disciplinary approach, data from various domains will need to be integrated from globally distributed sources also via machine to machine formats. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the existing standards can be very domain specific and most existing data transfer formats require human intervention. Where groups from different communities do try combine data across the domain/discipline boundaries much time is spent reformatting and reorganizing the data and it is conservatively estimated that this can take 80% of a project's time and resources. Four different types of standards are required for machine to machine interaction: systems, syntactic, schematic and semantic. Standards at the systems (WMS, WFS, etc) and at the syntactic level (GML, Observation and Measurement, SensorML) are being developed through international standards bodies such as ISO, OGC, W3C, IEEE etc. In contrast standards at the schematic level (e.g., GeoSciML, LandslidesML, WaterML, QuakeML) and at the semantic level (ie ontologies and vocabularies) are currently developing rapidly, in a very uncoordinated way and with little governance. As the size of the community that can machine read each others data depends on the size of the community that has developed the schematic or semantic standards, it is essential that to achieve global integration of earth and space science data, the required standards need to be developed through international collaboration using accepted standard proceedures. Once developed the

  11. Dark-matter QCD-axion searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Leslie J

    2015-10-06

    In the late 20th century, cosmology became a precision science. Now, at the beginning of the next century, the parameters describing how our universe evolved from the Big Bang are generally known to a few percent. One key parameter is the total mass density of the universe. Normal matter constitutes only a small fraction of the total mass density. Observations suggest this additional mass, the dark matter, is cold (that is, moving nonrelativistically in the early universe) and interacts feebly if at all with normal matter and radiation. There's no known such elementary particle, so the strong presumption is the dark matter consists of particle relics of a new kind left over from the Big Bang. One of the most important questions in science is the nature of this dark matter. One attractive particle dark-matter candidate is the axion. The axion is a hypothetical elementary particle arising in a simple and elegant extension to the standard model of particle physics that nulls otherwise observable CP-violating effects (where CP is the product of charge reversal C and parity inversion P) in quantum chromo dynamics (QCD). A light axion of mass 10(-(6-3)) eV (the invisible axion) would couple extraordinarily weakly to normal matter and radiation and would therefore be extremely difficult to detect in the laboratory. However, such an axion is a compelling dark-matter candidate and is therefore a target of a number of searches. Compared with other particle dark-matter candidates, the plausible range of axion dark-matter couplings and masses is narrowly constrained. This focused search range allows for definitive searches, where a nonobservation would seriously impugn the dark-matter QCD-axion hypothesis. Axion searches use a wide range of technologies, and the experiment sensitivities are now reaching likely dark-matter axion couplings and masses. This article is a selective overview of the current generation of sensitive axion searches. Not all techniques and experiments

  12. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  13. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  14. The National Shipbuilding Program. Preliminary Impact Analysis of Proposed Revisions of National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Ozone and Particulate Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) and particulate matter (PM). The analysis was performed to provide information to the U.S. ship building and ship repair industry, so that companies in that industry could determine whether to submit comments on these EPA proposals...

  15. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  16. Students' Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Online Evaluative Standards, and Online Searching Strategies for Science Information: The Moderating Role of Cognitive Load Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were…

  17. The Impact of Adapting a General Professional Development Framework to the Constraints of In-Service Professional Development on the Next Generation Science Standards in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Steven; Nutakki, Nivedita

    2017-01-01

    Urban school districts face a dilemma in providing professional development support for teachers in transition to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Districts need to maximize the quality and amount of professional development within practical funding constraints. In this paper, we discuss preliminary results from a…

  18. Explore the concept of “light” and its interaction with matter: an inquiry-based science education project in primary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, P.; Costa, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The exploration process leading to the understanding of physical phenomena, such as light and its interaction with matter, raises great interest and curiosity in children. However, in most primary schools, children rarely have the opportunity to conduct science activities in which they can engage in an enquiry process even if by the action of the teacher. In this context, we have organised several in-service teacher training courses and carried out several pedagogic interventions in Portuguese primary schools, with the aim of promoting inquiry- based science education. This article describes one of those projects, developed with a class of the third grade, which explored the curricular topic “Light Experiments”. Various activities were planned and implemented, during a total of ten hours spread over five lessons. The specific objectives of this paper are: to illustrate and analyse the teaching and learning process promoted in the classroom during the exploration of one of these lessons, and to assess children's learning three weeks after the lessons. The results suggest that children made significant learning which persisted. We conclude discussing some processes that stimulated children’ learning, including the importance of teacher questioning in scaffolding children's learning and some didactic implications for teacher training.

  19. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  20. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for 'next-generation' x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop 'Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources' was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysis of the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions

  1. Toward Control of Matter: Basic Energy Science Needs for a New Class of X-Ray Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenholz, Elke; Belkacem, Ali; Cocke, Lew; Corlett, John; Falcone, Roger; Fischer, Peter; Fleming, Graham; Gessner, Oliver; Hasan, M. Zahid; Hussain, Zahid; Kevan, Steve; Kirz, Janos; McCurdy, Bill; Nelson, Keith; Neumark, Dan; Nilsson, Anders; Siegmann, Hans; Stocks, Malcolm; Schafer, Ken; Schoenlein, Robert; Spence, John; Weber, Thorsten

    2008-09-24

    Over the past quarter century, light-source user facilities have transformed research in areas ranging from gas-phase chemical dynamics to materials characterization. The ever-improving capabilities of these facilities have revolutionized our ability to study the electronic structure and dynamics of atoms, molecules, and even the most complex new materials, to understand catalytic reactions, to visualize magnetic domains, and to solve protein structures. Yet these outstanding facilities still have limitations well understood by their thousands of users. Accordingly, over the past several years, many proposals and conceptual designs for"next-generation" x-ray light sources have been developed around the world. In order to survey the scientific problems that might be addressed specifically by those new light sources operating below a photon energy of about 3 keV and to identify the scientific requirements that should drive the design of such facilities, a workshop"Science for a New Class of Soft X-Ray Light Sources" was held in Berkeley in October 2007. From an analysisof the most compelling scientific questions that could be identified and the experimental requirements for answering them, we set out to define, without regard to the specific technologies upon which they might be based, the capabilities such light sources would have to deliver in order to dramatically advance the state of research in the areas represented in the programs of the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES). This report is based on the workshop presentations and discussions.

  2. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A Literature Study and Critical Review of the American National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a…

  3. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project: Providing Standard and On-Demand SAR products for Hazard Science and Hazard Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Rosen, P. A.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Yun, S. H.; Sacco, G. F.; Liu, Z.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Moore, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    A new era of geodetic imaging arrived with the launch of the ESA Sentinel-1A/B satellites in 2014 and 2016, and with the 2016 confirmation of the NISAR mission, planned for launch in 2021. These missions assure high quality, freely and openly distributed regularly sampled SAR data into the indefinite future. These unprecedented data sets are a watershed for solid earth sciences as we progress towards the goal of ubiquitous InSAR measurements. We now face the challenge of how to best address the massive volumes of data and intensive processing requirements. Should scientists individually process the same data independently themselves? Should a centralized service provider create standard products that all can use? Are there other approaches to accelerate science that are cost effective and efficient? The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. However, there are challenges in defining the optimal InSAR data products for the solid earth science community. In this presentation, we will present our experience with InSAR users, our lessons learned the advantages of on demand and standard products, and our proposal for the most effective path forward.

  4. The science of dynamic compression at the mesoscale and the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Cris W; Funk, David J; Hockaday, Mary P; Sarrao, John L; Stevens, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific transition is underway from traditional observation and validation of materials properties to a new paradigm where scientists and engineers design and create materials with tailored properties for specified functionality. Of particular interest are the regimes of materials' response to thermo-mechanical extremes including materials deforming under imposed strain rates above the quasi-static range (i.e. > 10 −3 s −1 ), material subjected to imposed shocks, but also material response to static, high-pressures. There is a need for the study of materials at the 'mesoscale', the scale at which sub-granular physical processes and inter-granular organization couple to determine microstructure, crucially impacting constitutive response at the engineering macroscale. For these reasons Los Alamos is proposing the MaRIE facility as a National User Facility to meet this need. In particular, three key science challenges will be identified: Link material microstructure to macroscopic behavior under dynamic deformation conditions; Make the transition from observation and validation to prediction and control of dynamic processes; and Develop the next generation of diagnostics, dynamic drivers, and predictive models to enable the necessary, transformative research.

  5. Why Society is a Complex Matter Meeting Twenty-first Century Challenges with a New Kind of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Society is complicated. But this book argues that this does not place it beyond the reach of a science that can help to explain and perhaps even to predict social behaviour. As a system made up of many interacting agents – people, groups, institutions and governments, as well as physical and technological structures such as roads and computer networks – society can be regarded as a complex system. In recent years, scientists have made great progress in understanding how such complex systems operate, ranging from animal populations to earthquakes and weather. These systems show behaviours that cannot be predicted or intuited by focusing on the individual components, but which emerge spontaneously as a consequence of their interactions: they are said to be ‘self-organized’. Attempts to direct or manage such emergent properties generally reveal that ‘top-down’ approaches, which try to dictate a particular outcome, are ineffectual, and that what is needed instead is a ‘bottom-up’ approach that aim...

  6. Science Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS) during School Year 2014-2015. Synthesis Report 99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Christopher M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Federal law requires that all students, including students with disabilities, participate in state assessments used for accountability purposes. It also requires states to assess students in several content areas, including science. Most students with disabilities take the general science assessment with or without accommodations, but a few…

  7. An Exploration of the Use of Eye-Gaze Tracking to Study Problem-Solving on Standardized Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Robert H.; Loehr, John F.; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the capacity of eye-gaze tracking to identify differences in problem-solving behaviours within a group of individuals who possessed varying degrees of knowledge and expertise in three disciplines of science (biology, chemistry and physics). The six participants, all pre-service science teachers, completed an 18-item…

  8. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  9. Re-designing an Earth Sciences outreach program for Rhode Island public elementary schools to address new curricular standards and logistical realities in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, N.; Vachula, R. S.; Pascuzzo, A.; Prilipko Huber, O.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to middle and high school students, elementary school students in Rhode Island (RI) have no access to dedicated science teachers, resulting in uneven quality and scope of science teaching across the state. In an attempt to improve science education in local public elementary schools, the Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences (DEEPS) at Brown University initiated a student-driven science-teaching program that was supported by a NSF K-12 grant from 2007 to 2014. The program led to the development of an extensive in-house lesson plan database and supported student-led outreach and teaching in several elementary and middle school classrooms. After funding was terminated, the program continued on a volunteer basis, providing year-round science teaching for several second-grade classrooms. During the 2016-2017 academic year, New Generation Science Standards (NGSS) were introduced in RI public schools, and it became apparent that our outreach efforts required adaptation to be more efficient and relevant for both elementary school students and teachers. To meet these new needs, DEEPS, in collaboration with the Providence Public School District, created an intensive summer re-design program involving both graduate and undergraduate students. Three multi-lesson units were developed in collaboration with volunteer public school teachers to specifically address NGSS goals for earth science teaching in 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades. In the 2017-2018 academic year DEEPS students will co-teach the science lessons with the public school teachers in two local elementary schools. At the end of the next academic year all lesson plans and activities will be made publically available through a newly designed DEEPS outreach website. We herein detail our efforts to create and implement new educational modules with the goals of: (1) empowering teachers to instruct science, (2) engaging students and fostering lasting STEM interest and competency, (3) optimizing

  10. Teacher Perceptions of Their Curricular and Pedagogical Shifts: Outcomes of a Project-Based Model of Teacher Professional Development in the Next Generation Science Standards

    OpenAIRE

    David J. Shernoff; David J. Shernoff; Suparna Sinha; Denise M. Bressler; Dawna Schultz

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a model of teacher professional development (PD) on the alignment of middle and high school curricula and instruction to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSSs), and evaluated the impact of the PD on teacher participants’ development. The PD model included a 4-day summer academy emphasizing project-based learning (PBL) in the designing of NGSS-aligned curricula and instruction, as well as monthly follow-up Professional Learning Community meetings throughout t...

  11. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  12. Particle Dark Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter in the Universe is likely to be made up of some new, hypothetical particle which would be a part of an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. In this overview, I will first briefly review well motivated particle candidates for dark matter. Next I will focus my attention on the neutralino of supersymmetry which is the by far most popular dark matter candidate. I will discuss some recent progress and comment on prospects for dark matter detection.

  13. A moderated mediated path analysis of factors influencing student performance on a standardized high-stakes science test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkey, Ramona K.

    Gender, ethnicity, family economic status, reading score, mathematics score, and number of science semesters successfully completed were examined for their contributory role to a student's science score on a high-stakes, high school exit examination. Path analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to quantify each variable's influence on science score. Gender, ethnicity, and family economic status were found to be moderators while reading proved to mediate within the model. The path model was created using a calibration sample and cross-validated using a hold-out validation sample. Bootstrapping was used to verify the goodness of fit of the model. A predictive equation explained 66% (R2 = .66) of the variance in observed TAKS science score.

  14. The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David N

    2015-03-06

    A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake - Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Wals, A.E.J.; Oosterheert, I.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils’ application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach

  16. Matter in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  17. First results from the LUX Dark Matter Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of the nature of dark matter is internationally recognized as one of the greatest contemporary challenges in science, fundamental to our understanding of the Universe. The most compelling candidates for dark matter are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that arise naturally in several models of physics beyond the Standard Model. The discovery of galactic WIMPs would therefore enlighten two of the outstanding problems of modern physics - the matter composition of the Universe and the extrapolation of the Standard Model of particle physics to GUT scales. Although no definitive signal has yet been discovered, the worldwide race towards direct detection has been dramatically accelerated by the remarkable progress and evolution of liquid xenon (LXe) time projection chambers (TPCs). They have shifted the scale of target mass by orders of magnitude whilst simultaneously reducing backgrounds to unprecedented low levels, becoming the leaders of the field and offering the most promising prospects fo...

  18. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  19. Dark matter wants Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Asano, M.; Fujii, K.; Takubo, Y.; Honda, T.; Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Humdi, R.S.; Ito, H.; Kanemura, S; Nabeshima, T.; Okada, N.; Suehara, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main purposes of physics at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is to study the property of dark matter such as its mass, spin, quantum numbers, and interactions with particles of the standard model. We discuss how the property can or cannot be investigated at the ILC using two typical cases of dark matter scenario: 1) most of new particles predicted in physics beyond the standard model are heavy and only dark matter is accessible at the ILC, and 2) not only dark matter but also other new particles are accessible at the ILC. We find that, as can be easily imagined, dark matter can be detected without any difficulties in the latter case. In the former case, it is still possible to detect dark matter when the mass of dark matter is less than a half mass of the Higgs boson.

  20. Arrangement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and the Belgian Government for Exchange of Technical Information in Regulatory Matters and in Cooperation in Safety Research and in Standards Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Arrangement was concluded on 6 June 1978 between the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Belgian Government for exchange of technical information in regulatory matters and in co-operation in safety research and in standards development. Both Parties agree to exchange, as available, technical information related to the regulation of safety and the environmental impact of designated nuclear energy facilities and to safety research of designated types of nuclear facilities. As regards co-operation in safety research, the execution of joint programmes and projects under which activities are divided between the two Parties will be agreed on a case by case basis. The Parties further agree to co-operate in the development of regulatory standards applicable to the designated nuclear facilities. The Arrangement is valid for 5 years and may be extended. (NEA) [fr

  1. From Matter to Life: Chemistry?!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemistry came along at milder temperatures; particles formed atoms; these ... Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest ..... information. The progression from elementary particles to the nucleus, the.

  2. Does science speak clearly and fairly in trade and food safety disputes? The search for an optimal response of WTO adjudication to problematic international standard-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuei-Jung

    2013-01-01

    experts would be instrumental to strengthening the mutual supports between the WTO and international standard-setting organizations, and may help avoid the introduction of a prejudice toward a justified science finding.

  3. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  4. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  5. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  6. Why Philosophy Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The motives of philosophers tend to be personal. Philosophy has mattered politically as part of continuing political debates. Its effects on politics, religion and the development of the sciences have been evident. Philosophy has been supposed to have special educational value, from its contents or from the benefits of its methods and arguments.…

  7. The scientifically substantiated art of teaching: A study in the development of standards in the new academic field of neuroeducation (mind, brain, and education science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhama-Espinosa, Tracey Noel

    Concepts from neuroeducation, commonly referred in the popular press as "brain-based learning," have been applied indiscreetly and inconsistently to classroom teaching practices for many years. While standards exist in neurology, psychology and pedagogy, there are no agreed upon standards in their intersection, neuroeducation, and a formal bridge linking the fields is missing. This study used grounded theory development to determine the parameters of the emerging neuroeducational field based on a meta-analysis of the literature over the past 30 years, which included over 2,200 documents. This research results in a new model for neuroeducation. The design of the new model was followed by a Delphi survey of 20 international experts from six different countries that further refined the model contents over several months of reflection. Finally, the revised model was compared to existing information sources, including popular press, peer review journals, academic publications, teacher training textbooks and the Internet, to determine to what extent standards in neuroeducation are met in the current literature. This study determined that standards in the emerging field, now labeled Mind, Brain, and Education: The Science of Teaching and Learning after the Delphi rounds, are the union of standards in the parent fields of neuroscience, psychology, and education. Additionally, the Delphi expert panel agreed upon the goals of the new discipline, its history, the thought leaders, and a model for judging quality information. The study culminated in a new model of the academic discipline of Mind, Brain, and Education science, which explains the tenets, principles and instructional guidelines supported by the meta-analysis of the literature and the Delphi response.

  8. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 2.1 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO. the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance Standard 2.2 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers were evaluated. The monitoring was performed in eight experimental farms of the Council for agricultural research and economics (CREA, distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Yield parameters and several components of soil organic matter were evaluated in two contrasting treatments applied to one-year rotation of winter durum wheat and maize: i incorporation into the soil of crop residues (Factual treatment and ii burning or removal of crop residues (Counterfactual treatment. The application of the standard ‘crop residue management’ has showed contrasting results with differences (for yield and soil between the two treatments resulted almost always non significant. The analysis of economic competitiveness gap showed that the CR incorporation is more expensive than CR burning or removal, but the economic disadvantage can be considered rather small and thus easily compensated by Community aids. Therefore, the soil incorporation of crop residues can be considered a ‘good agricultural practice’ that does not penalize farmers in terms of production and cost and at the same time contributes to the maintenance of fertility and soil biodiversity. On the contrary, the removal and burning of residues result in a low or no-addition of organic matter into the soil. Moreover, burning can contribute to decrease the biodiversity and to increase the risk of air pollution, fires and road accidents.

  9. Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.1 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the Project MO.NA.CO. the Environmental effectiveness of GAEC cross-compliance standard 2.2 ‘Maintaining the level of soil organic matter through management of stubble and crop residues’ and economic evaluation of the competitiveness gap for farmers were evaluated. The monitoring was performed in eight experimental farms of the Council for agricultural research and economics (CREA, distributed throughout Italy and with different soil and climatic conditions. Yield parameters and several components of soil organic matter were evaluated in two contrasting treatments applied to one-year rotation of winter durum wheat and maize: i incorporation into the soil of crop residues (Factual treatment and ii burning or removal of crop residues (Counterfactual treatment. The application of the standard ‘crop residue management’ has showed contrasting results with differences (for yield and soil between the two treatments resulted almost always non significant. The analysis of economic competitiveness gap showed that the CR incorporation is more expensive than CR burning or removal, but the economic disadvantage can be considered rather small and thus easily compensated by Community aids. Therefore, the soil incorporation of crop residues can be considered a ‘good agricultural practice’ that does not penalize farmers in terms of production and cost and at the same time contributes to the maintenance of fertility and soil biodiversity. On the contrary, the removal and burning of residues result in a low or no-addition of organic matter into the soil. Moreover, burning can contribute to decrease the biodiversity and to increase the risk of air pollution, fires and road accidents.

  10. Performance of the Operating Room Personnel in following of the standards of Infection Control in the Educational Hospitals of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rostaminejad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Surgical wound infection is one of the common nosocomial infections. During operation, members of the surgical team which are in contact with the tissue incision should observe the standards of infection control in the operating room since it has a great role in prevention and control of these infections. The present study aimed to determine the performance of the operating room personnel in observing the standards of infection control in educational hospitals of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Materials & Methods: Forty two operating room personnel participated in this cross-sectional analytic-descriptive study. A check list was used for unnoticeably collecting the data about the performance of personnel in respect of infection control standards at three different times. Their performances were classified into four levels (very weak, weak, moderate and good and the results were shown as absolute and relative frequency distribution. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fischer exact test by the SPSS software. Results: Performance of personnel in following the standards of infection control in this study was moderate. Conclusion: The results indicate that the participants of the study do not follow some of the standards of infection control in the operating rooms. Therefore, further activities of the committees of infection control and using of new antiseptic for surgical scrub are recommended.

  11. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  12. Effect of information literacy training course on information literacy skills of undergraduate students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on ACRL standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Zohreh; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Papi, Ahmad; Shahrzadi, Leila; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Information literacy is the basis for lifelong learning. Information literacy skills, especially for student in an environment that is full of information from multiple technologies are being developed is equally important. Information literacy is a set of cognitive and practical skills and like any other science, proper training is needed, and standard-based education is definitely better and evaluation would be easier. This study aimed to determine the impact of information literacy training course on information literacy skills of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences students based on ACRL standard in 2012. The study method is semi-experience with two group design (with pre-test and post-test) and applied. The data collection toll was a questionnaire assessing student's information literacy that developed by Davarpanah and Siamak and validity was confirmed by professional librarians and reliability as measured by Cronbach's alpha, was 0.83. The sample consisted of 50 undergraduate students from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences that by random sampling method was perch in both case and control groups. Before and after the training (once a week), a questionnaire was distributed between the two groups. This training was held in a classroom equipped with computers with internet access and in addition to training using brochures and librarian presentation, interactive methods such as discussion and exercises were used. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software and two level of descriptive (mean and SD) and inferential statistics (t-test and t-paired). The results showed that the students' information literacy scores before the training was lower than average, so that in the control group was 32.96 and in the case group was 33.24; while information literacy scores in the case group significantly increased after the training (46.68). Also, the effect of education, respectively had a greater impact on the ability to access information (the second

  13. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  14. Developing a yearlong Next Generation Science Standard (NGSS) learning sequence focused on climate solutions: opportunities, challenges and reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, E.; Centeno, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the last four years, the Green Ninja Project (GNP) has been developing educational media (e.g., videos, games and online lessons) to help motivate student interest and engagement around climate science and solutions. Inspired by the new emphasis in NGSS on climate change, human impact and engineering design, the GNP is developing a technology focused, integrative, and yearlong science curriculum focused around solutions to climate change. Recognizing the importance of teacher training on the successful implementation of NGSS, we have also integrated teacher professional development into our curriculum. During the presentation, we will describe the design philosophy around our middle school curriculum and share data from a series of classes that are piloting the curriculum during Fall 2015. We will also share our perspectives on how data, media creation and engineering can be used to create educational experiences that model the type of 'three-dimensional learning' encouraged by NGSS.

  15. Mi-STAR Unit Challenges serve as a model for integrating earth science and systems thinking in a Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) aligned curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochis, E. E.; Tubman, S.; Matthys, T.; Bluth, G.; Oppliger, D.; Danhoff, B.; Huntoon, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Michigan Science Teaching and Assessment Reform (Mi-STAR) is developing an NGSS-aligned middle school curriculum and associated teacher professional learning program in which science is taught and learned as an integrated body of knowledge that can be applied to address societal issues. With the generous support of the Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Foundation, Mi-STAR has released several pilot-tested units through the Mi-STAR curriculum portal at mi-star.mtu.edu. Each of these units focuses on an ongoing `Unit Challenge' investigation that integrates STEM content across disciplinary boundaries, stimulates interest, and engages students in using scientific practices to address 21st century challenges. Each Mi-STAR unit is connected to a Unifying NGSS Crosscutting Concept (CCC) that allows students to recognize the concepts that are related to the phenomena or problems under investigation. In the 6th grade, students begin with an exploration of the CCC Systems and System Models. Through repeated applications across units, students refine their understanding of what a system is and how to model a complex Earth system. An example 6th grade unit entitled "Water on the Move: The Water Cycle," provides an example of how Mi-STAR approaches the use of Unifying CCCs and Unit Challenges to enhance middle school students' understanding of the interconnections of Earth system processes and human activities. Throughout the unit, students use a series of hands-on explorations and simulations to explore the hydrologic cycle and how human activity can alter Earth systems. Students develop new knowledge through repeated interactions with the Unit Challenge, which requires development of system models and construction of evidence-based arguments related to flooding problems in a local community. Students have the opportunity to make predictions about how proposed land-use management practices (e.g. development of a skate-park, rain garden, soccer field, etc.) can alter the earth

  16. Applying accreditation standards in a self-evaluation process: The experience of Educational Development Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mirzazadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educational Development Centers (EDCs, as the coordinator in education development in Medical Sciences universities, in order to improve their quality should evaluate their activities. In spite of remarkable performance of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS EDC in previous national rankings, but it faces many challenges and problems. This paper provided the process, results and lessons learned from a self-evaluation experience conducted at TUMS EDC based on accreditation standards. Method: The present study is an Institutional self-evaluation study based on the national accreditation standards of EDCs (2012. Data were gathered using an open-ended questionnaire developed on the basis of the SWOT format. A directional content analysis applied to analyze the data. Results: In total, 84 point of strengths, 87 weaknesses, 15 opportunities, 24 threats and also 99 recommendations for quality improvement were reported. The most important strengths of the center were the existence of an established mechanism regarding research process in education and scholarship of education, holding various faculty development courses and training standardized patient. The most important weaknesses were the lack of specified procedures in some areas such as monitoring the planning and reviewing of educational programs in the field of educational programs and evaluation of empowerment courses. Conclusion: The present evaluation results will be useful in directing future policies of TUMS EDC such as revising its strategic planning. We hope that the current experience can be helpful for administrators in EDCs in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and also other Medical Sciences Universities.

  17. Thematic mapper research in the earth sciences: Small scale patches of suspended matter and phytoplankton in the Elbe River Estuary, German Bight and Tidal Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, H.; Doerffer, R.; Fischer, J.; Brockmann, C.; Stoessel, M.

    1987-01-01

    A Thematic Mapper (TM) field experiment was followed by a data analysis to determine TM capabilities for analysis of suspended matter and phytoplankton. Factor analysis showed that suspended matter concentration, atmospheric scattering, and sea surface temperature can be retrieved as independent factors which determine the variation in the TM data over water areas. Spectral channels in the near infrared open the possibility of determining the Angstrom exponent better than for the coastal zone color scanner. The suspended matter distribution may then be calculated by the absolute radiance of channel 2 or 3 or the ratio of both. There is no indication of whether separation of chlorophyll is possible. The distribution of suspended matter and sea surface temperature can be observed with the expected fine structure. A good correlation between water depth and suspended matter distribution as found from ship data can now be analyzed for an entire area by the synoptic view of the TM scenes.

  18. Comparing Ethical and Epistemic Standards for Investigative Journalists and Equity-Oriented Collaborative Community-Based Researchers: Why Working for a University Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2014-01-01

    Criticisms of IRBs are proliferating. In response, we compare the ethical and epistemic standards of two closely related forms of inquiry, investigative journalism and equity-oriented collaborative community-based research (EOCCBR). We argue that a university affiliation justifies formal ethical review of research and suggest how institutionalized…

  19. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST) we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons) are crucial open subjects

  20. Tests and prospects of new physics at very high energy. Beyond the standard basic principles, and beyond conventional matter and space-time. On the possible origin of Quantum Mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent results and announcements by Planck and BICEP2 have led to important controversies in the fields of Cosmology and Particle Physics. As new ideas and alternative approaches can since then more easily emerge, the link between the Mathematical Physics aspects of theories and the interpretation of experimental results becomes more direct. This evolution is also relevant for Particle Physics experiments at very high energy, where the interpretation of data on the highest-energy cosmic rays remains a major theoretical and phenomenological challenge. Alternative particle physics and cosmology can raise fundamental questions such as that of the structure of vacuum and space-time. In particular, the simplified description of the physical vacuum contained in standard quantum field theory does not necessarily correspond to reality at a deeper level, and similarly for the relativistic space-time based on four real variables. In a more general approach, the definition itself of vacuum can be a difficult task. The spinorial space-time (SST we suggested in 1996-97 automatically incorporates a local privileged space direction (PSD for each comoving observer, possibly leading to a locally anisotropic vacuum structure. As the existence of the PSD may have been confirmed by Planck, and a possible discovery of primordial B-modes in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB may turn out to contain new evidence for the SST, we explore other possible implications of this approach to space-time. The SST structure can naturally be at the origin of Quantum Mechanics at distance scales larger than the fundamental one if standard particles are dealt with as vacuum excitations. We also discuss possible implications of our lack of knowledge of the structure of vacuum, as well as related theoretical, phenomenological and cosmological uncertainties. Pre-Big Bang scenarios and new ultimate constituents of matter (including superbradyons are

  1. II. The Standard Model in the Isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen Representation without Higgs Bosons in the Fermion Sector. Spontaneous Breaking of Parity and "Dark Matter" Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Neznamov, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model with massive fermions is formulated in the isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. SU(2)xU(1) - invariance of the theory in this representation is independent of whether fermions possess mass or not, and, consequently, it is not necessary to introduce interactions between Higgs bosons and fermions. The study discusses a possible relation between spontaneous breaking of parity in the isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen representation and the composition of elementary particles of "d...

  2. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  3. NATURAL SCIENCE AND GENERAL EDUCATION COURSES PLANNING AT THE TIME OF INTRODUCTON OF THE NEW FEDERAL EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsu Raufovna Kamaleeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an experience of educational courses planning and technologies of it realization considering level and type of training at the time of new educational standards introduction in Russia. The research was conducted on the basis of specially developed questionnaire, the experimental educational courses and programs observation, the study of existing teachers experience, that permitted to develop methodical recommendations, didactic and experimental supplies. It reveals that planning of educational course within the framework of educational module and student’s competence forming approaches in accordance with the requirements of The Federal State Educational Standards (FSES, is accompanied with the range of difficulties. They are: determination of the course related to the formation of certain required competences; defining the content of the modules; establishing of inter subject connections (preliminary, parallel, and subsequent; strengthening of student’s vocational determination (professional abilities development of the future employee.

  4. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for open-quotes new physics.close quotes The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10 -6 --10 -4 eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs

  5. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ''new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10 -6 eV--10 -4 eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos

  6. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  7. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  8. Formulation and communication of evaluative forensic science expert opinion-A GHEP-ISFG contribution to the establishment of standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, António; Crespillo, Manuel; Luque, Juan A; Prieto, Lourdes; Garcia, Oscar; Gusmão, Leonor; Aler, Mercedes; Barrio, Pedro A; Saragoni, Victor G; Pinto, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Communicating and interpreting genetic evidence in the administration of justice is currently a matter of great concern, due to the theoretical and technical complexity of the evaluative reporting and large difference in expertise between forensic experts and law professionals. A large number of initiatives have been taken trying to bridge this gap, contributing to the education of both parties. Results however have not been very encouraging, as most of these initiatives try to cope globally with the problem, addressing simultaneously theoretical and technical approaches which are in a quite heterogeneous state of development and validation. In consequence, the extension and complexity of the resulting documents disheartens their study by professionals (both jurists and geneticists) and makes a consensus very hard to reach even among the genetic experts' community. Here we propose a 'back-to-basics', example-driven approach, in which a model report for the two most common situations faced by forensic laboratories is presented. We do hope that this strategy will provide a solid basis for a stepwise generalisation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opher, Reuven

    2001-01-01

    We treat here the problem of dark matter in galaxies. Recent articles seem to imply that we are entering into the precision era of cosmology, implying that all of the basic physics of cosmology is known. However, we show here that recent observations question the pillar of the standard model: the presence of nonbaryonic 'dark matter' in galaxies. Using Newton's law of gravitation, observations indicate that most of the matter in galaxies in invisible or dark. From the observed abundances of light elements, dark matter in galaxies must be primarily nonbaryonic. The standard model and its problems in explaining nonbaryonic dark matter will first be discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of a modification of Newton's law of gravitation to explain dark matter in galaxies. (author)

  10. In search of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    The dark matter problem is one of the most fundamental and profoundly difficult to solve problems in the history of science. Not knowing what makes up most of the known universe goes to the heart of our understanding of the Universe and our place in it. In Search of Dark Matter is the story of the emergence of the dark matter problem, from the initial erroneous ‘discovery’ of dark matter by Jan Oort to contemporary explanations for the nature of dark matter and its role in the origin and evolution of the Universe. Written for the educated non-scientist and scientist alike, it spans a variety of scientific disciplines, from observational astronomy to particle physics. Concepts that the reader will encounter along the way are at the cutting edge of scientific research. However the themes are explained in such a way that no prior understanding of science beyond a high school education is necessary.

  11. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  12. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  13. Probing the Underground Science beyond the Standard Model with Ultra-Low Background Experiments at Sanford Lab/DUSEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, D.-M.

    2010-01-01

    We show that an improved sensitivity on effective neutrino mass to the atmospheric neutrino mass scale with the next generation germanium-based double-beta decay experiment together with results from cosmology survey, θ 13 measurements and neutrino oscillation experiments may be able to determine the absolute mass scale of the neutrino, and answer the question of the neutrino nature. To achieve such a sensitivity of 45 meV, the next generation germanium experiment must reduce background by a factor of 440 comparing to the existing results. The planned germanium experiment at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) in western South Dakota aims at achieving such a sensitivity. Sanford Lab supported by the state of South Dakota and a private donor, Mr. T. Denny Sanford, will be up and running within the next year to pave the way for the creation of DUSEL in five years.

  14. Dark matter and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, A [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Pascoli, S [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2001-11-15

    Dark matter constitutes a key-problem at the interface between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Indeed, the observational facts which have been accumulated in the last years on dark matter point to the existence of an amount of non-baryonic dark matter. Since the Standard Model of Particle Physics does not possess any candidate for such non-baryonic dark matter, this problem constitutes a major indication for new Physics beyond the Standard Model. We analyze the most important candidates for non-baryonic dark matter in the context of extensions of the Standard Model (in particular supersymmetric models). The recent hints for the presence of a large amount of unclustered 'vacuum' energy (cosmological constant?) is discussed from the Astrophysical and Particle Physics perspective. (author)

  15. Implementing the Science Assessment Standards: Developing and validating a set of laboratory assessment tasks in high school biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Gouranga Chandra

    Very often a number of factors, especially time, space and money, deter many science educators from using inquiry-based, hands-on, laboratory practical tasks as alternative assessment instruments in science. A shortage of valid inquiry-based laboratory tasks for high school biology has been cited. Driven by this need, this study addressed the following three research questions: (1) How can laboratory-based performance tasks be designed and developed that are doable by students for whom they are designed/written? (2) Do student responses to the laboratory-based performance tasks validly represent at least some of the intended process skills that new biology learning goals want students to acquire? (3) Are the laboratory-based performance tasks psychometrically consistent as individual tasks and as a set? To answer these questions, three tasks were used from the six biology tasks initially designed and developed by an iterative process of trial testing. Analyses of data from 224 students showed that performance-based laboratory tasks that are doable by all students require careful and iterative process of development. Although the students demonstrated more skill in performing than planning and reasoning, their performances at the item level were very poor for some items. Possible reasons for the poor performances have been discussed and suggestions on how to remediate the deficiencies have been made. Empirical evidences for validity and reliability of the instrument have been presented both from the classical and the modern validity criteria point of view. Limitations of the study have been identified. Finally implications of the study and directions for further research have been discussed.

  16. Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Calmet, Xavier; Latosh, Boris

    2018-01-01

    We show that quantum gravity, whatever its ultra-violet completion might be, could account for dark matter. Indeed, besides the massless gravitational field recently observed in the form of gravitational waves, the spectrum of quantum gravity contains two massive fields respectively of spin 2 and spin 0. If these fields are long-lived, they could easily account for dark matter. In that case, dark matter would be very light and only gravitationally coupled to the standard model particles.

  17. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  18. A data science based standardized Gini index as a Lorenz dominance preserving measure of the inequality of distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultsch, Alfred; Lötsch, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    The Gini index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution that can be derived from Lorenz curves. While commonly used in, e.g., economic research, it suffers from ambiguity via lack of Lorenz dominance preservation. Here, investigation of large sets of empirical distributions of incomes of the World's countries over several years indicated firstly, that the Gini indices are centered on a value of 33.33% corresponding to the Gini index of the uniform distribution and secondly, that the Lorenz curves of these distributions are consistent with Lorenz curves of log-normal distributions. This can be employed to provide a Lorenz dominance preserving equivalent of the Gini index. Therefore, a modified measure based on log-normal approximation and standardization of Lorenz curves is proposed. The so-called UGini index provides a meaningful and intuitive standardization on the uniform distribution as this characterizes societies that provide equal chances. The novel UGini index preserves Lorenz dominance. Analysis of the probability density distributions of the UGini index of the World's counties income data indicated multimodality in two independent data sets. Applying Bayesian statistics provided a data-based classification of the World's countries' income distributions. The UGini index can be re-transferred into the classical index to preserve comparability with previous research.

  19. A data science based standardized Gini index as a Lorenz dominance preserving measure of the inequality of distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Ultsch

    Full Text Available The Gini index is a measure of the inequality of a distribution that can be derived from Lorenz curves. While commonly used in, e.g., economic research, it suffers from ambiguity via lack of Lorenz dominance preservation. Here, investigation of large sets of empirical distributions of incomes of the World's countries over several years indicated firstly, that the Gini indices are centered on a value of 33.33% corresponding to the Gini index of the uniform distribution and secondly, that the Lorenz curves of these distributions are consistent with Lorenz curves of log-normal distributions. This can be employed to provide a Lorenz dominance preserving equivalent of the Gini index. Therefore, a modified measure based on log-normal approximation and standardization of Lorenz curves is proposed. The so-called UGini index provides a meaningful and intuitive standardization on the uniform distribution as this characterizes societies that provide equal chances. The novel UGini index preserves Lorenz dominance. Analysis of the probability density distributions of the UGini index of the World's counties income data indicated multimodality in two independent data sets. Applying Bayesian statistics provided a data-based classification of the World's countries' income distributions. The UGini index can be re-transferred into the classical index to preserve comparability with previous research.

  20. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  1. The nongravitational interactions of dark matter in colliding galaxy clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David; Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Taylor, Andy; Tittley, Eric

    2015-03-27

    Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a test of the nongravitational forces acting on dark matter. Dark matter's lack of deceleration in the "bullet cluster" collision constrained its self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m dark matter) for long-ranged forces. Using the Chandra and Hubble Space Telescopes, we have now observed 72 collisions, including both major and minor mergers. Combining these measurements statistically, we detect the existence of dark mass at 7.6σ significance. The position of the dark mass has remained closely aligned within 5.8 ± 8.2 kiloparsecs of associated stars, implying a self-interaction cross section σ(DM)/m < 0.47 cm(2)/g (95% CL) and disfavoring some proposed extensions to the standard model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation - Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and Donor Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation – Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic Agent (cTLA4-Ig) and...Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation – Immunomodulation and Tolerance Induction after VCA using Biologic...wider application. Thus the purpose of this project is to develop novel clinically relevant regimens for immunomodulation and tolerance induction after

  3. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  4. Students' Scientific Epistemic Beliefs, Online Evaluative Standards, and Online Searching Strategies for Science Information: The Moderating Role of Cognitive Load Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating role of cognitive load experience between students' scientific epistemic beliefs and information commitments, which refer to online evaluative standards and online searching strategies. A total of 344 science-related major students participated in this study. Three questionnaires were used to ascertain the students' scientific epistemic beliefs, information commitments, and cognitive load experience. Structural equation modeling was then used to analyze the moderating effect of cognitive load, with the results revealing its significant moderating effect. The relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and the advanced evaluative standards used by the students were significantly stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. Moreover, considering the searching strategies that the students used, the relationships between sophisticated scientific epistemic beliefs and advanced searching strategies were also stronger for low than for high cognitive load students. However, for the high cognitive load students, only one of the sophisticated scientific epistemic belief dimensions was found to positively associate with advanced evaluative standard dimensions.

  5. Advances in high pressure science and technology: proceedings of the fourth national conference on high pressure science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, Mohammad; Subramanian, N.; Govinda Rajan, K.

    1997-09-01

    The proceedings of the fourth National Conference on High Pressure Science and Technology covers a wide area of research and development activities in the field of high pressure science and technology, broadly classified into the following themes: mechanical behaviour of materials; instrumentation and methods in high pressure research; pressure calibration, standards and safety aspects; phase transitions; shock induced reactions; mineral science, geophysics, geochemistry and planetary sciences; optical, electronic and transport properties; synthesis of materials; soft condensed matter physics and liquid crystals; computational methods in high pressure research. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Using inquiry-based instruction to meet the standards of No Child Left Behind for middle school earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of a specific instructional strategy employed to improve performance on the end-of-the-year Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) as mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001. A growing body of evidence suggests that the perceived pressure to produce adequate aggregated scores on the CRCT causes teachers to neglect other relevant aspects of teaching and attend less to individualized instruction. Rooted in constructivist theory, inquiry-based programs provide a o developmental plan of instruction that affords the opportunity for each student to understand their academic needs and strengths. However, the utility of inquiry-based instruction is largely unknown due to the lack of evaluation studies. To address this problem, this quantitative evaluation measured the impact of the Audet and Jordan inquiry-based instructional model on CRCT test scores of 102 students in a sixth-grade science classroom in one north Georgia school. A series of binomial tests of proportions tested differences between CRCT scores of the program participants and those of a matched control sample selected from other district schools that did not adopt the program. The study found no significant differences on CRCT test scores between the treatment and control groups. The study also found no significant performance differences among genders in the sample using inquiry instruction. This implies that the utility of inquiry education might exist outside the domain of test scores. This study can contribute to social change by informing a reevaluation of the instructional strategies that ideally will serve NCLB high-stakes assessment mandates, while also affording students the individual-level skills needed to become productive members of society.

  7. Results of a strategic science study to inform policies targeting extreme thinness standards in the fashion industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Ziff, Sara; Lowy, Alice S; Yu, Kimberly; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The appearance pressures experienced by fashion models have been criticized as harmful to their health, as well as increasing eating disorder risk among youth by promoting ideals of extreme thinness. Given recent legislation to protect models, we undertook a strategic science study to assess professional fashion models' perceptions of the potential impact and feasibility of seven policy proposals. A sample of 85 female fashion models, mean age = 22.7 years (SD 3.7) completed an online survey assessing unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB), perceived pressure from agencies to lose weight, as well as the perceived impact and feasibility of seven potential policy actions. Chi-squared analyses and multivariable logistic regressions compared UWCB among models who were asked to lose weight and those who were not. Friedman and Kendall's W tests were conducted to examine differences in impact and feasibility ratings across the seven policy proposals. Models reported high levels of pressure to lose weight, which was associated with higher odds of engaging in UWCB. The policy approaches rated as most impactful were those to increase worker protections, though they were rated as only moderately feasible. Requiring employers to provide food and a 30-min break for jobs longer than 6 h was rated as both impactful and feasible. Imposing restrictions on minimum BMI was rated as the least impactful. Approaches providing employment protections and healthier working conditions are most supported by professional models. These findings help to illuminate viable policy approaches from the perspective of key stakeholders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Earth Systems Science in an Integrated Science Content and Methods Course for Elementary Education Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J. A.; Allen, D. E.; Donham, R. S.; Fifield, S. J.; Shipman, H. L.; Ford, D. J.; Dagher, Z. R.

    2004-12-01

    With funding from the National Science Foundation, we have designed an integrated science content and methods course for sophomore-level elementary teacher education (ETE) majors. This course, the Science Semester, is a 15-credit sequence that consists of three science content courses (Earth, Life, and Physical Science) and a science teaching methods course. The goal of this integrated science and education methods curriculum is to foster holistic understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in teaching science in their classrooms. During the Science Semester, traditional subject matter boundaries are crossed to stress shared themes that teachers must understand to teach standards-based elementary science. Exemplary approaches that support both learning science and learning how to teach science are used. In the science courses, students work collaboratively on multidisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) activities that place science concepts in authentic contexts and build learning skills. In the methods course, students critically explore the theory and practice of elementary science teaching, drawing on their shared experiences of inquiry learning in the science courses. An earth system science approach is ideally adapted for the integrated, inquiry-based learning that takes place during the Science Semester. The PBL investigations that are the hallmark of the Science Semester provide the backdrop through which fundamental earth system interactions can be studied. For example in the PBL investigation that focuses on energy, the carbon cycle is examined as it relates to fossil fuels. In another PBL investigation centered on kids, cancer, and the environment, the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on surface runoff and ground water contamination is studied. In a PBL investigation that has students learning about the Delaware Bay ecosystem through the story of the horseshoe crab and the biome

  9. From industry to academia: Benefits of integrating a professional project management standard into (geo)science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristini, Luisa

    2017-04-01

    Scientific and technological research carried out within universities and public research institutions often involves large collaborations across several countries. Despite the considerable budget (typically millions of Euros), the high expectations (high impact scientific findings, new technological developments and links with policy makers, industry and civil society) and the length of the project over several years, these international projects often rely heavily on the personal skills of the management team (project coordinator, project manager, principal investigators) without a structured, transferable framework. While this approach has become an established practice, it's not ideal and can jeopardise the success of the entire effort with consequences ranging from schedule delays, loss of templates/systems, financial charges and ultimately project failure. In this presentation I will show the advantages of integrating a globally recognised standard for professional project management, such as the PMP® by the Project Management Institute, into academic research. I will cover the project management knowledge areas (integration management, scope management, time management, cost management, quality management, human resources management, risk management, procurement management, and stakeholder management) and the processes within these throughout the phases of the project lifetime (project initiation, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closure). I will show how application of standardised, transferable procedures, developed within the business & administration sector, can benefit academia and more generally scientific research.

  10. Mālama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability: learning from Hawai`i's displaced place and culture-based science standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2011-03-01

    This response to Mitchell and Mueller's "A philosophical analysis of David Orr's theory of ecological literacy" comments on their critique of Orr's use of the phrase "ecological crisis" and what I perceive as their conflicting views of "crisis." I present my views on ecological crisis informed by standpoint theory and the definition of crisis as turning point. I connect the concept of turning point to tipping point as used in ecology to describe potentially irreversible changes in coupled social-ecological systems. I suggest that sustainable societies may provide models of adaptive learning in which monitoring of ecological phenomena is coupled to human behavior to mitigate threats to sustainability before a crisis/tipping point is reached. Finally, I discuss the Hawai`i State Department of Education's removal of its Indigenous science content standard Mālama I Ka `Āina, Sustainability and its continued use in community-based projects.

  11. Dark matter and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Astrophysicists now know that 80% of the matter in the universe is 'dark matter', composed of neutral and weakly interacting elementary particles that are not part of the Standard Model of particle physics. I will summarize the evidence for dark matter. I will explain why I expect dark matter particles to be produced at the CERN LHC. We will then need to characterize the new weakly interacting particles and demonstrate that they the same particles that are found in the cosmos. I will describe how this might be done. (author)

  12. Searching dark matter at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Mihoko M.

    2007-01-01

    We now believe that the dark matter in our Universe must be an unknown elementary particle, which is charge neutral and weakly interacting. The standard model must be extended to include it. The dark matter was likely produced in the early universe from the high energy collisions of the particles. Now LHC experiment starting from 2008 will create such high energy collision to explore the nature of the dark matter. In this article we explain how dark matter and LHC physics will be connected in detail. (author)

  13. Creating a Learning Continuum: A Critical Look at the Intersection of Prior Knowledge, Outdoor Education, and Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlobohm, Trisha Leigh

    Outdoor School is a cherished educational tradition in the Portland, OR region. This program's success is attributed to its presumed ability to positively impact affective and cognitive student outcomes. Residential programs such as Outdoor School are considered to be an important supplement to the classroom model of learning because they offer an authentic, contextually rich learning environment. References to relevant literature support the idea that student gains in affective and cognitive domains occur as a result of the multi-sensory, enjoyable, hands-on nature of outdoor learning. The sample population for this study was 115 sixth graders from a demographically diverse Portland, OR school district. This study used an instrument developed by the Common Measures System that was administered to students as part of Outdoor School's professional and program development project. The affective student outcome data measured by the Common Measures instrument was complemented by a formative assessment probe ascertaining prior knowledge of the definition of plants and field notes detailing Field Study instructor lesson content. This first part of this study examined the changes that take place in students' attitudes toward science as a result of attending Outdoor School. The second part took a look at how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants field study aligned with NGSS MS-LS Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices. The third section of the study compared how Outdoor School instruction in the Plants Field Study and students' prior knowledge of what defines a plant aligned with NGSS MS-LS DCIs. The intent of the research was to arrive at a more nuanced understanding of how students' attitudes toward science are influenced by participating in an outdoor education program and contribute to the development of a continuum between classroom and outdoor school learning using Next Generation Science Standards Disciplinary Core Ideas and Practices as a framework. Results of

  14. Dark Matter Reality Check: Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory challenges an alternative theory of gravity that eliminates the need for dark matter. The observation also narrows the field for competing forms of dark matter, the elusive material thought to be the dominant form of matter in the universe. An observation of the galaxy NGC 720 shows it is enveloped in a slightly flattened, or ellipsoidal cloud of hot gas that has an orientation different from that of the optical image of the galaxy. The flattening is too large to be explained by theories in which stars and gas are assumed to contain most of the mass in the galaxy. "The shape and orientation of the hot gas cloud require it to be confined by an egg-shaped dark matter halo," said David Buote of the University of California, Irvine, and lead author of a report on this research in the 2002 September 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "This means that dark matter is not just an illusion due to a shortcoming of the standard theory of gravity - it is real." According to the generally accepted standard theory of gravity, the hot X-ray cloud would need an additional source of gravity - a halo of dark matter - to keep the hot gas from expanding away. The mass of dark matter required would be about five to ten times the mass of the stars in the galaxy. If the dark matter tracked the optical light from the stars in the galaxy, the hot X-ray cloud would be more round than it is. The flattened shape of the hot gas cloud requires a flattened dark matter halo. An alternative theory of gravity called MOND, for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, was proposed in 1983 by Mordecai Milgrom of the Weizmann Institute in Israel, and has remained viable over the years. MOND does away with the need for dark matter by modifying the theory where the acceleration produced by gravity is very small, such as the outskirts of galaxies. However, MOND cannot explain the Chandra observation of NGC 720. This is apparently the first dynamical evidence that

  15. Z2 SIMP dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Chu, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter with strong self-interactions provides a compelling solution to several small-scale structure puzzles. Under the assumption that the coupling between dark matter and the Standard Model particles is suppressed, such strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) allow for a successful thermal freeze-out through N-to-N' processes, where N dark matter particles annihilate to N' of them. In the most common scenarios, where dark matter stability is guaranteed by a Z 2 symmetry, the seemingly leading annihilating channel, i.e. 3-to-2 process, is forbidden, so the 4-to-2 one dominate the production of the dark matter relic density. Moreover, cosmological observations require that the dark matter sector is colder than the thermal bath of Standard Model particles, a condition that can be dynamically generated via a small portal between dark matter and Standard Model particles, à la freeze-in. This scenario is exemplified in the context of the Singlet Scalar dark matter model

  16. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  17. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  18. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  19. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  20. The role of differentiation and standards-based grading in the science learning of struggling and advanced learners in a detracked high school honors biology classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Michelina Ruth Carter

    and advanced learners. My fourth finding reflects what I learned about heterogeneous grouping: (4) Heterogeneously grouping students for argumentation through engagement in science inquiry serves both to reinforce proficiency of learning goals for struggling learners and simultaneously push all learners towards advanced proficiency. These findings indicate how planning for and implementing a differentiated, standards-based instructional unit can support the learning needs of both struggling and advanced learners in a detracked, honors biology classroom.

  1. NASA/MSFC/NSSTC Science Communication Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Gallagher, D. L.; Koczor, R. J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the last several years the Science Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center has carried out a diverse program of Internet-based science communication. The Directorate's Science Roundtable includes active researchers, NASA public relations, educators, and administrators. The Science@NASA award-winning family of Web sites features science, mathematics, and space news. The program includes extended stories about NASA science, a curriculum resource for teachers tied to national education standards, on-line activities for students, and webcasts of real-time events. Science stories cover a variety of space-related subjects and are expressed in simple terms everyone can understand. The sites address such questions as: what is space weather, what's in the heart of a hurricane, can humans live on Mars, and what is it like to live aboard the International Space Station? Along with a new look, the new format now offers articles organized by subject matter, such as astronomy, living in space, earth science or biology. The focus of sharing real-time science related events has been to involve and excite students and the public about science. Events have involved meteor showers, solar eclipses, natural very low frequency radio emissions, and amateur balloon flights. In some cases broadcasts accommodate active feedback and questions from Internet participants. Information will be provided about each member of the Science@NASA web sites.

  2. Decaying dark matter from dark instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We construct an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. The dominant dark matter decay channels are to standard model leptons. Annihilation of the dark matter to standard model states occurs primarily through the Higgs portal. We show that the mass and lifetime of the dark matter candidate in this model can be chosen to be consistent with the values favored by fits to data from the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments.

  3. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  4. Asymmetric Higgsino dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Efrati, Aielet; Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Riotto, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In the supersymmetric framework, prior to the electroweak phase transition, the existence of a baryon asymmetry implies the existence of a Higgsino asymmetry. We investigate whether the Higgsino could be a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Thus, supersymmetry can provide the observed dark matter abundance and, furthermore, relate it with the baryon asymmetry, in which case the puzzle of why the baryonic and dark matter mass densities are similar would be explained. To accomplish this task, two conditions are required. First, the gauginos, squarks, and sleptons must all be very heavy, such that the only electroweak-scale superpartners are the Higgsinos. With this spectrum, supersymmetry does not solve the fine-tuning problem. Second, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition must be low, in the (1-10) GeV range. This condition requires an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  5. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  6. Matter and memory

    CERN Document Server

    Bergson, Henri

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of the last century," Walter Benjamin wrote, "philosophy has made a series of attempts to lay hold of the 'true' experience as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses. It is customary to classify these efforts under the heading of a philosophy of life. Towering above this literature is Henri Bergson's early monumental work, Matter and Memory."Along with Husserl's Ideas and Heidegger's Being and Time, Bergson's work represents one of the great twentieth-century investigations into perception and memory, movement and time, matter and mind. Arguably Bergson's most significant book, Matter and Memory is essential to an understanding of his philosophy and its legacy.This new edition includes an annotated bibliography prepared by Bruno Paradis.Henri Bergson (1859-1941) was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1927. His works include Time and Free Will, An Introduction to Metaphysics, Creative Evolution, and The Creative Mind.

  7. Self-interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown by many independent studies that the cold dark matter scenario produces singular galactic dark halos, in strong contrast with observations. Possible remedies are that either the dark matter is warm so that it has significant thermal motion or that the dark matter has strong self-interactions. We combine these ideas to calculate the linear mass power spectrum and the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations for self-interacting warm dark matter. Our results indicate that such models have more power on small scales than is the case for the standard warm dark matter model, with a CMB fluctuation spectrum which is nearly indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter. This enhanced small-scale power may provide better agreement with the observations than does standard warm dark matter. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  8. Dark matter assimilation into the baryon asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Fei, Lin; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Pure singlets are typically disfavored as dark matter candidates, since they generically have a thermal relic abundance larger than the observed value. In this paper, we propose a new dark matter mechanism called a ssimilation , which takes advantage of the baryon asymmetry of the universe to generate the correct relic abundance of singlet dark matter. Through assimilation, dark matter itself is efficiently destroyed, but dark matter number is stored in new quasi-stable heavy states which carry the baryon asymmetry. The subsequent annihilation and late-time decay of these heavy states yields (symmetric) dark matter as well as (asymmetric) standard model baryons. We study in detail the case of pure bino dark matter by augmenting the minimal supersymmetric standard model with vector-like chiral multiplets. In the parameter range where this mechanism is effective, the LHC can discover long-lived charged particles which were responsible for assimilating dark matter

  9. Exploring the mirror matter interpretation of the DAMA experiment: Has the dark matter problem been solved?

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2004-01-01

    The self consistency between the impressive DAMA annual modulation signal and the differential energy spectrum is an important test for dark matter candidates.Mirror matter-type dark matter passes this test while other dark matter candidates, including standard (spin-independent) WIMPs and mini-electric charged particle dark matter, do not do so well.We argue that the unique properties of mirror matter-type dark matter seem to be just those required to fully explain the data, suggesting that ...

  10. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search low ionization-threshold experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu Thakur, Ritoban [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Over 80 years ago we discovered the presence of Dark Matter in our universe. Endeavors in astronomy and cosmology are in consensus with ever improving precision that Dark Matter constitutes an essential 27% of our universe. The Standard Model of Particle Physics does not provide any answers to the Dark Matter problem. It is imperative that we understand Dark Matter and discover its fundamental nature. This is because, alongside other important factors, Dark Matter is responsible for formation of structure in our universe. The very construct in which we sit is defined by its abundance. The Milky Way galaxy, hence life, wouldn't have formed if small over densities of Dark Matter had not caused sufficient accretion of stellar material. Marvelous experiments have been designed based on basic notions to directly and in-directly study Dark Matter, and the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment has been a pioneer and forerunner in the direct detection field. Generations of the CDMS experiment were designed with advanced scientific upgrades to detect Dark Matter particles of mass O(100) GeV/c2. This mass-scale was set primarily by predictions from Super Symmetry. Around 2013 the canonical SUSY predictions were losing some ground and several observations (rather hints of signals) from various experiments indicated to the possibility of lighter Dark Matter of mass O(10) GeV/c2. While the SuperCDMS experiment was probing the regular parameter space, the CDMSlite experiment was conceived to dedicatedly search for light Dark Matter using a novel technology. "CDMSlite" stands for CDMS - low ionization threshold experiment. Here we utilize a unique electron phonon coupling mechanism to measure ionization generated by scattering of light particles. Typically signals from such low energy recoils would be washed under instrumental noise. In CDMSlite via generation of Luke-Neganov phonons we can detect the small ionization energies, amplified in

  11. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  12. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  13. K metodologickým standardům kvantitativních studií v pedagogice: Jak psát o výzkumných zjištěních? / Methodological standards of quantitative studies in educational sciences: How to write about research findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mareš

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main purpose of (quantitative empirical studies as a part of a knowledge base of educational science. The quality and standard of presentation and publication of the results of quantitative research is therefore one of the ever relevant themes of (not only Czech educational science. Thus the quality of (quantitative empirical studies is closely linked to the general discussion of methodological standards of the discipline. Our study begins with a discussion about why to publish research results and consequently, how to publish them. The theoretical basis of the discussion about methodological standard of reportingeducational research is formed by international publication standards (e.g. APA, AERA and methodological literature. By analysing the requirements of Czech peer-reviewed journals and major Czech conferences on educational research we discuss in the second part of our study what is explicitly required and what would be at presentappropriate to require from research and empirical educational studies in the Czech environment, in the context of international practice and standards. We refer to the Czech situation and its consequences – the journals and conference committees donot specify their methodological requirements or standards andassume its implicit sharing in a situation where there is only part of the Czech version of the standards of the educational science available.

  14. Associateship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Small-angle Neutron Scattering in the Studies of Condensed Matter .... Address during Associateship: School of Technology & Computer, Science, TIFR, Homi Bhabha Road, .... Specialization: Elementary Particle Physics

  15. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Condensed Matter Theory, Biological Physics, Statistical Physics ..... Nanomechanics, Thin Films & Self-Organization, Colloid & Interface Science and .... Specialization: Specification & Verification, Real-Time Programs, Logic ...

  16. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specialization: Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Physics & their Applications to Social Sciences ..... Specialization: Robust & Nonparametric Statistics, Statistical Computing, Statistical Methods in Pattern ...

  17. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  18. Teaching secondary science constructing meaning and developing understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Keith; McKechnie, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Now fully updated in its third edition Teaching Secondary Science is a comprehensive guide to all aspects of science teaching, providing a wealth of information and ideas about different approaches. With guidance on how children understand scientific ideas and the implications this has on teaching, teachers are encouraged to construct their own meanings and become reflective in their practice. Relating science to government agendas, such as the National Strategies, Assessment for Learning and Every Child Matters, this new edition reflects and maps to changes in national standards. Ke

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  20. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)