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Sample records for matter physics chemistry

  1. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  2. Neutron scattering in soft matter physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Recent experiments area of soft matter science show that self assembly on the micron scale as well as the nanometer scale can be directed chemically. This lecture illustrates how such processes can be studied using the contrast variation available in neutron scattering through isotopic replacement and the techniques of neutron small angle scattering and neutron reflectivity. Related dynamical information at nanometer resolution and on time scales between a nanosecond and a few tenths of a picosecond will become accessible with brighter neutron sources. The examples presented concern the template induced crystallisation of zeolites, the liquid crystal template induced synthesis of mesoporous materials and the structure of thin films at the air water interface. (J.P.N.)

  3. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. Theresearch in physics is concentrated on neutron...... molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures.Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods...

  4. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2001-03-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 2000 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  5. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebech, B [ed.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scalestructures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  6. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  7. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department. 1 January - 31 December 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.

    2000-02-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1999 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  8. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans`l, R.; Johannsen, I. [eds.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au) 2 tabs., 142 ills., 169 refs.

  9. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Bechgaard, K; Clausen, K N; Feidenhans` l, R; Johannsen, I [eds.

    1998-01-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical and chemical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1997 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics in concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems in undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au). 129 ills., 213 refs.

  10. Annual progress report of the Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department 1 January - 31 December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechgaard, K.; Clausen, K.N.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Johannsen, I.

    1999-04-01

    The Condensed Matter Physics and Chemistry Department is concerned with both fundamental and applied research into the physical properties of materials. The principal activities in the year 1998 are presented in this progress report. The research in physics is concentrated on neutron and x-ray scattering measurements and the problems studied include two- and three-dimensional structures, magnetic ordering and spin dynamics, superconductivity, phase transitions and nano-scale structures. The research in chemistry includes chemical synthesis and physico-chemical investigation of small molecules and polymers, with emphasis on polymers with new optical properties, block copolymers, surface-modified polymers, and supramolecular structures. Theoretical work related to these problems is undertaken, including Monte Carlo simulations, computer simulation of molecules and polymers and methods of data analysis. (au)

  11. Plutonium metallurgy: The materials science challenges bridging condensed-matter physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)], E-mail: schwartz6@llnl.gov

    2007-10-11

    Although there exists evidence of metallurgical practices dating back over 6000 years, studies of Pu and Pu alloys have been conducted for barely 60 years. During the time of the Manhattan Project and extending for some time afterward, the priority to produce the metal took precedence over the fundamental understanding of the metallurgical principals. In the past decade or so, there has been a resurgence in the basic metallurgy, condensed-matter physics, and chemistry of Pu and Pu alloys. These communities have made substantial progress, both experimentally and theoretically in many areas; however, many challenges still remain. The intent of this brief overview is to highlight a number important challenges that we face in the metallurgy of Pu including phase transformations and phase stability, aging, and the connection between electronic structure and metallurgy.

  12. Reasoning Using Particulate Nature of Matter: An Example of a Sociochemical Norm in a University-Level Physical Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nicole; Rasmussen, Chris; Sweeney, George; Wawro, Megan; Towns, Marcy; Cole, Renee

    2013-01-01

    In college level chemistry courses, reasoning using molecular and particulate descriptions of matter becomes central to understanding physical and chemical properties. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's model of argumentation in order to describe the ways in which students develop…

  13. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  14. Chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Barendsen, G.W.; Kal, H.B.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    This book contains the extended abstracts of the contributions of the poster workshop sessions on chemistry and physics of the 7th international congress of radiation research. They cover the following main topics: primary processes in radiation physics and chemistry, general chemistry in radiation chemistry, DNA and model systems in radiation chemistry, molecules of biological interest in radiation chemistry, techniques in radiation chemistry, hot atom chemistry. refs.; figs.; tabs

  15. From Matter to Life: Chemistry?!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chemistry came along at milder temperatures; particles formed atoms; these ... Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest ..... information. The progression from elementary particles to the nucleus, the.

  16. Research into condensed matter using large-scale apparatus. Physics, chemistry, biology. Progress report 1992-1995. Summarizing reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Activities for research into condensed matter have been supported by the German BMBF with approx. 102 million Deutschmarks in the years 1992 through 1995. These financial means have been distributed among 314 research projects in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and other fields, which all rely on the intensive utilization of photon and particle beams generated in large-scale apparatus of institutions for basic research. The volume in hand first gives information of a general kind and statistical data on the distribution of financial means, for a number of priority research projects. The project reports are summarizing reports on the progress achieved in the various projects. (CB) [de

  17. Physical chemistry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    1992-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Physical Chemistry II includes reaction mechanisms, theoretical approaches to chemical kinetics, gravitational work, electrical and magnetic work, surface work, kinetic theory, collisional and transport properties of gases, statistical mechanics, matter and waves, quantum mechanics, and rotations and vibrations of atoms and molecules.

  18. Physical Chemistry Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Trimm, Harold H

    2011-01-01

    Physical chemistry covers diverse topics, from biochemistry to materials properties to the development of quantum computers. Physical chemistry applies physics and math to problems that interest chemists, biologists, and engineers. Physical chemists use theoretical constructs and mathematical computations to understand chemical properties and describe the behavior of molecular and condensed matter. Their work involves manipulations of data as well as materials. Physical chemistry entails extensive work with sophisticated instrumentation and equipment as well as state-of-the-art computers. This

  19. Physics matters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.

  20. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry is the ideal supplementary text for practicing chemists and students who want to sharpen their mathematics skills while enrolled in general through physical chemistry courses. This book specifically emphasizes the use of mathematics in the context of physical chemistry, as opposed to being simply a mathematics text. This 4e includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The early chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, wit

  1. Experiments in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, J M; Denaro, A R

    1968-01-01

    Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Second Edition provides a compilation of experiments concerning physical chemistry. This book illustrates the link between the theory and practice of physical chemistry. Organized into three parts, this edition begins with an overview of those experiments that generally have a simple theoretical background. Part II contains experiments that are associated with more advanced theory or more developed techniques, or which require a greater degree of experimental skill. Part III consists of experiments that are in the nature of investigations wherein these invest

  2. Carrier-doped aromatic hydrocarbons: a new platform in condensed matter chemistry and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heguri, Satoshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi

    2018-02-27

    High-quality bulk samples of the first four polyacenes, which are naphthalene, anthracene, tetracene, and pentacene, doped with alkali metal in 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 stoichiometries were prepared and their fundamental properties were systematically studied. A new systematic understanding on the electronic states of electron-doped polyacenes sensitive to the energetic balance among on-site Coulomb repulsion, bandwidth and the Peierls instability was provided. The carrier-doped typical aromatic hydrocarbons showed a large variety of properties as well as charge transfer complexes and metal-doped fullerides. We open a new avenue for organometallic and inorganic chemistry.

  3. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 2. 3. Solid state physics and materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  4. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics, using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 1. 1. Atomic and molecular physics. 2. Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  5. Mathematics for physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Mortimer, Robert G

    2005-01-01

    Mathematics for Physical Chemistry, Third Edition, is the ideal text for students and physical chemists who want to sharpen their mathematics skills. It can help prepare the reader for an undergraduate course, serve as a supplementary text for use during a course, or serve as a reference for graduate students and practicing chemists. The text concentrates on applications instead of theory, and, although the emphasis is on physical chemistry, it can also be useful in general chemistry courses. The Third Edition includes new exercises in each chapter that provide practice in a technique immediately after discussion or example and encourage self-study. The first ten chapters are constructed around a sequence of mathematical topics, with a gradual progression into more advanced material. The final chapter discusses mathematical topics needed in the analysis of experimental data.* Numerous examples and problems interspersed throughout the presentations * Each extensive chapter contains a preview, objectives, and ...

  6. Progress in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Hempelmann, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of recent ""Review Articles"" published in the ""Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie"". The second volume of Progress in Physical Chemistry is a collection of thematically closely related minireview articles written by the members of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 277 of the German Research Foundation (DFG). These articles are based on twelve years of intense coordinated research efforts. Central topics are the synthesis and the characterization of interface-dominated, i.e. nanostructured materials, mainly in the solid state but also as

  7. Astronomy Matters for Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Jay S.; Vergenz, Robert A.; Smith, Terry L.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to encourage more chemistry teachers to become familiar with some of the basic ideas described in typical introductory astronomy courses (1 - 9), including those about the origin of elements and forms of matter. These ideas would enrich chemistry courses and help resolve some basic misconceptions that are expressed in many introductory texts (10 - 16) and journal articles for chemistry teachers (17, 18). These misconceptions are typified by statements such as "we can classify all substances as either elements or compounds," and "nature has provided 92 elements out of which all matter is composed." If students accept these misconceptions, they could be deprived of (i) an appreciation of the history of elements and knowing that the elemental composition of the universe continues to evolve, (ii) knowing that of the first 92 elements in the periodic table, technetium and promethium do not occur naturally on Earth, and (iii) understanding that there are forms of matter other than elements and compounds. This paper briefly explores these ideas.

  8. PHYS: Division of Physical Chemistry 258 - Properties and Origins of Cometary and Asteroidal Organic Matter Delivered to the Early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Nguyen, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Comets and asteroids may have contributed much of the Earth's water and organic matter. The Earth accretes approximately 4x10(exp 7) Kg of dust and meteorites from these sources every year. The least altered meteorites contain complex assemblages of organic compounds and abundant hydrated minerals. These carbonaceous chondrite meteorites probably derive from asteroids that underwent hydrothermal processing within the first few million years after their accretion. Meteorite organics show isotopic and chemical signatures of low-T ion-molecule and grain-surface chemistry and photolysis of icy grains that occurred in cold molecular clouds and the outer protoplanetary disk. These signatures have been overprinted by aqueously mediated chemistry in asteroid parent bodies, forming amino acids and other prebiotic molecules. Comets are much richer in organic matter but it is less well characterized. Comet dust collected in the stratosphere shows larger H and N isotopic anomalies than most meteorites, suggesting better preservation of primordial organics. Rosetta studies of comet 67P coma dust find complex organic matter that may be related to the macromolecular material that dominates the organic inventory of primitive meteorites. The exogenous organic material accreting on Earth throughout its history is made up of thousands of molecular species formed in diverse processes ranging from circumstellar outflows to chemistry at near absolute zero in dark cloud cores and the formative environment within minor planets. NASA and JAXA are currently flying sample return missions to primitive, potentially organic-rich asteroids. The OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2 missions will map their target asteroids, Bennu and Ryugu, in detail and return regolith samples to Earth. Laboratory analyses of these pristine asteroid samples will provide unprecedented views of asteroidal organic matter relatively free of terrestrial contamination within well determined geological context. Studies of

  9. Atmosphere physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, R.; Megie, G.; Peuch, V.H.

    2005-10-01

    Since the 1970's, the awareness about the atmospheric pollution threat has led to a spectacular development of the researches on the complex interactions between the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the climate. This book makes a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in this very active domain of research. Content: introduction, atmosphere dynamics and transport, matter-radiation interaction and radiant transfer, physico-chemical processes, atmospheric aerosol and heterogenous chemistry, anthropic and natural emissions and deposition, stratospheric chemical system, tropospheric chemical system, polluted boundary layer, paleo-environments and ice archives, role of atmospheric chemistry in global changes, measurement principles and instruments, numerical modeling, experimental strategy, regulation and management of the atmospheric environment, index. (J.S.)

  10. Textbook of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedler, G.

    1982-01-01

    The textbook presents an introduction to physical-chemical fundamentals and working methods, deals with the chemical thermodynamics, structure of matter, the statistical theory of matter, and transport phenomena. The kinetics are presented by means of experimental methods and the evaluation of kinetic measurements; furtheron formal kinetic of more complicated reactions, reaction mechanisms, the theory of kinetics, the kinetics of reactions in solution, of heterogeneous reactions of electrode processes, and the catalysis are described. A mathematical appendix (determinants, vectors, operators, series, integrals, differential equations, Schroedinger equation, wave functions) and the solutions of the numerical calculation examples complete this book. (HK) [de

  11. The physical basis of chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, Warren S

    2000-01-01

    If the text you're using for general chemistry seems to lack sufficient mathematics and physics in its presentation of classical mechanics, molecular structure, and statistics, this complementary science series title may be just what you're looking for. Written for the advanced lower-division undergraduate chemistry course, The Physical Basis of Chemistry, Second Edition, offers students an opportunity to understand and enrich the understanding of physical chemistry with some quantum mechanics, the Boltzmann distribution, and spectroscopy. Posed and answered are questions concerning eve

  12. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  13. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The condensed matter physics research in the Physics Department of Risoe National Laboratory is predominantly experimental utilising diffraction of neutrons and x-rays. The research topics range from studies of structure, excitations and phase transitions in model systems to studies of ion transport, texture and recrystallization kinetics with a more applied nature. (author)

  14. Condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is a summary of condensed matter physics in Brazil. It discusses as well, the perspectives and financing evolved in this research area for the next decade. It is specially concerned with semiconductors, magnetic materials, superconductivity, polymers, glasses, crystals ceramics, statistical physics, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy. (A.C.A.S.)

  15. Physical Chemistry '98: Fourth International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Physical Chemistry - Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribnikar, S.; Anic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings has following chapters: Plenary lectures; Chemical Thermodynamics; Spectroscopy, Molecular Structures, Physical Chemistry of Plasma; Kinetics, Catalysis, Nonlinear Dynamics; Electrochemistry; Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry; Solid State Physical Chemistry, Material Science; Macromolecular Physical Chemistry; Environmental Protection; Phase Boundaries; Complex Compounds; General Physical Chemistry. A separated abstract was prepared for each of the 20 papers selected from the three chapters: Biophysical Chemistry, Photochemistry, Radiation Chemistry; Radiochemistry, Nuclear Chemistry. and Environmental Protection. Refs and figs

  16. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Isihara, A

    2007-01-01

    More than a graduate text and advanced research guide on condensed matter physics, this volume is useful to plasma physicists and polymer chemists, and their students. It emphasizes applications of statistical mechanics to a variety of systems in condensed matter physics rather than theoretical derivations of the principles of statistical mechanics and techniques. Isihara addresses a dozen different subjects in separate chapters, each designed to be directly accessible and used independently of previous chapters. Topics include simple liquids, electron systems and correlations, two-dimensional

  17. Research on condensed matter and atomic physics using major experimental facilities and devices: Physics, chemistry, biology. Reports on results. Vol. 3. 4. Chemistry. 5. Biology. 6. Development of methods and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report in three volumes substantiates the contents of the programme survey published in September 1989. The progress reports cover the following research areas: Vol. I, (1). Atomic and molecular physics - free atoms, molecules, macromolecules, clusters, matrix-isolated atoms and molecules. (2) Physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces - epitaxy, surface structure, adsorption, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties, thin films, synthetic layer structure. Vol. II, (3). Solid-state physics, and materials science -structural research, lattice dynamics, magnetic structure and dynamics, electronic states; load; spin and pulse density fluctuations; diffusion and internal motion, defects, unordered systems and liquids. Vol. III, (4). Chemistry - bonding and structure, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, polymer research, analysis and synthesis. (5). Biology, - structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules, membrane and cell biology. (6) Development of methods and instruments - neutron sources, synchrotron sources, special accelerators, research with interlinked systems and devices. (orig.) [de

  18. Physical chemistry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Garrett, B.C.; Kolb, C.E. Jr.; Shaw, R.W.; Choppin, G.R.; Wagner, A.F.

    1994-08-01

    From the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect to plastics recycling and hazardous waste disposal, society faces a number of issues, the solutions to which require an unprecedented understanding of the properties of molecules. We are coming to realize that the environment is a coupled set of chemical systems, its dynamics determining the welfare of the biosphere and of humans in particular. These chemical systems are governed by fundamental molecular interactions, and they present chemists with an unparalleled challenge. The application of current concepts of molecular behavior and of up-to-date experimental and computational techniques can provide us with insights into the environment that are needed to mitigate past damage, to anticipate the impact of current human activity, and to avoid future insults to the environment. Environmental chemistry encompasses a number of separate, yet interlocking, areas of research. In all of these areas progress is limited by an inadequate understanding of the underlying chemical processes involved. Participation of all chemical approaches -- experimental, theoretical and computational -- and of all disciplines of chemistry -- organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and biochemistry -- will be required to provide the necessary fundamental understanding. The Symposium on ''Physical Chemistry and the Environment'' was designed to bring the many exciting and challenging physical chemistry problems involved in environmental chemistry to the attention of a larger segment of the physical chemistry community

  19. Condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Marder, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    This Second Edition presents an updated review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, granular materials, quantum dots, Berry phases, the quantum Hall effect, and Luttinger liquids.

  20. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels [fr

  1. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  2. Muonic Chemistry in Condensed Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    When polarized muons (@m|+) stop in condensed matter, muonic atoms are formed in the final part of their range, and direct measurements of the @m|+-spin polarization are possible via the asymmetric decay into positrons. The hyperfine interaction determines the characteristic precession frequencies of the @m|+ spin in muonium, @w(Mu). Such frequencies can be altered by the interactions of the muonium's electron spin with the surrounding medium. The measurement of @w(Mu) in a condensed system is known often to provide unique information regarding the system. \\\\ \\\\ In particular, the use of muonium atoms as a light isotope of the simple reactive radical H|0 allows the investigation of fast reactions of radicals over a typical time scale 10|-|9~@$<$~t~@$<$~10|-|5~sec, which is determined by the instrumental resolution at one end and by the @m|+ lifetime at the other. \\\\ \\\\ In biological macromolecules transient radicals, such as the constituents of DNA itself, exist on a time scale of sub-microseconds, acco...

  3. Radiation applications of physical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many chemical energy problems have a physical chemistry nature connected with chemical kinetics and thermodynamics. In our country, the development in this field is associated with the name N.N. Semenov, who was involved in a large number of fundamental and applied physical chemistry problems.Energy development during the last decades created or sharpened new problems. Our new Institute, the Institute of Energy problems of Chemical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, is dealing with some of them. The present article is an overview of our work on radiation applications. Examples of the use of radiation in power industry (such as coal gasification), tire production, mechanical joints, metal powder production and sterilization of pharmaceutical products are given. Methods and problems involved in these applications are discussed and the great potential for vast utilization is demonstrated. (authors)

  4. Russian science readings (chemistry, physics, biology)

    CERN Document Server

    Light, L

    1949-01-01

    Some years' experience in teaching Russian to working scientists who had already acquired the rudiments of the grammar convinced me of the need for a reader of the present type that would smooth the path of those wishing to study Russian scientific literature in the original. Although the subject matter comprises what I have described for convenience as chemistry, physics and biology, it could be read with equal profit by those engaged in any branch of pure or applied science. All the passages are taken from school textbooks, and acknowledgements are due to the authors of the works listed at the foot of the contents page.

  5. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulski, J.

    1994-01-01

    The research program at the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry of the Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics is described. The Department consist of three laboratories. First - Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Separation Processes on which the activity is concentrated on production and separation of neutron deficient isotopes for medical diagnostic. Recently, the main interest was in 111 In which is a promising tracer for cancer diagnostic. To increase the effectiveness of production of indium 111 In the reaction with deuterons on the enriched cadmium target was carried out instead of the previously used one with alpha particles on natural silver. In the second one - Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry - the systematic studies of physicochemical properties of transition elements in solutions are carried out. The results of the performed experiments were used for the elaboration of new rapid and selective methods for various elements. Some of these results have been applied for separation of trans actinide elements at U-400 cyclotron of JINR Dubna. The third one laboratory -Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory - conducts continuous monitoring of radioactivity contamination of atmosphere. The investigation of different radionuclides concentration in natural environment, mainly in the forest had been carried out

  6. Condensed matter physics in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornyshev, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Some topics in electrochemistry are considered from the condensed matter physics viewpoint in relation to the problems discussed in this book. Examples of the successful application of condensed matter physics to electrochemistry are discussed together with prospective problems and pressing questions. (author). 127 refs, 4 figs

  7. Supplemental Instruction in Physical Chemistry I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toby, Ellen; Scott, Timothy P.; Migl, David; Kolodzeji, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Physical chemistry I at Texas A&M University is an upper division course requiring mathematical and analytical skills. As such, this course poses a major problem for many Chemistry, Engineering, Biochemistry and Genetics majors. Comparisons between participants and non-participants in Supplemental Instruction for physical chemistry were made…

  8. Dark matter and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, A [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Pascoli, S [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2001-11-15

    Dark matter constitutes a key-problem at the interface between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Indeed, the observational facts which have been accumulated in the last years on dark matter point to the existence of an amount of non-baryonic dark matter. Since the Standard Model of Particle Physics does not possess any candidate for such non-baryonic dark matter, this problem constitutes a major indication for new Physics beyond the Standard Model. We analyze the most important candidates for non-baryonic dark matter in the context of extensions of the Standard Model (in particular supersymmetric models). The recent hints for the presence of a large amount of unclustered 'vacuum' energy (cosmological constant?) is discussed from the Astrophysical and Particle Physics perspective. (author)

  9. Walter Kohn and the Rise of Condensed Matter Physics T V ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramakrishnan T V

    Condensed Matter Physics: ( Physics of condensed matter, which is mostly solid, ... The nature and description of electronic states in solids. ( also with coulomb ... materials, molecular complexes, etc.. (Chemistry, biology, materials science….).

  10. A Quantum Chemistry Concept Inventory for Physical Chemistry Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick-Perez, Marilu; Luxford, Cynthia J.; Windus, Theresa L.; Holme, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A 14-item, multiple-choice diagnostic assessment tool, the quantum chemistry concept inventory or QCCI, is presented. Items were developed based on published student misconceptions and content coverage and then piloted and used in advanced physical chemistry undergraduate courses. In addition to the instrument itself, data from both a pretest,…

  11. Global atmospheric chemistry – which air matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Prather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An approach for analysis and modeling of global atmospheric chemistry is developed for application to measurements that provide a tropospheric climatology of those heterogeneously distributed, reactive species that control the loss of methane and the production and loss of ozone. We identify key species (e.g., O3, NOx, HNO3, HNO4, C2H3NO5, H2O, HOOH, CH3OOH, HCHO, CO, CH4, C2H6, acetaldehyde, acetone and presume that they can be measured simultaneously in air parcels on the scale of a few km horizontally and a few tenths of a km vertically. As a first step, six global models have prepared such climatologies sampled at the modeled resolution for August with emphasis on the vast central Pacific Ocean basin. Objectives of this paper are to identify and characterize differences in model-generated reactivities as well as species covariances that could readily be discriminated with an unbiased climatology. A primary tool is comparison of multidimensional probability densities of key species weighted by the mass of such parcels or frequency of occurrence as well as by the reactivity of the parcels with respect to methane and ozone. The reactivity-weighted probabilities tell us which parcels matter in this case, and this method shows skill in differentiating among the models' chemistry. Testing 100 km scale models with 2 km measurements using these tools also addresses a core question about model resolution and whether fine-scale atmospheric structures matter to the overall ozone and methane budget. A new method enabling these six global chemistry–climate models to ingest an externally sourced climatology and then compute air parcel reactivity is demonstrated. Such an objective climatology containing these key species is anticipated from the NASA Atmospheric Tomography (ATom aircraft mission (2015–2020, executing profiles over the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins. This modeling study addresses a core part of the design of ATom.

  12. Dark matter and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Astrophysicists now know that 80% of the matter in the universe is 'dark matter', composed of neutral and weakly interacting elementary particles that are not part of the Standard Model of particle physics. I will summarize the evidence for dark matter. I will explain why I expect dark matter particles to be produced at the CERN LHC. We will then need to characterize the new weakly interacting particles and demonstrate that they the same particles that are found in the cosmos. I will describe how this might be done. (author)

  13. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 7. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore, connections with biology and medicine are considered. The chapters on physiological chemistry, computer and information theory, chemistry and ecology, and metabolism have been rewritten. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  15. Mathematical methods for physical and analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Goodson, David Z

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical Methods for Physical and Analytical Chemistry presents mathematical and statistical methods to students of chemistry at the intermediate, post-calculus level. The content includes a review of general calculus; a review of numerical techniques often omitted from calculus courses, such as cubic splines and Newton's method; a detailed treatment of statistical methods for experimental data analysis; complex numbers; extrapolation; linear algebra; and differential equations. With numerous example problems and helpful anecdotes, this text gives chemistry students the mathematical

  16. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    This book is an introduction into physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of colid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, anorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Futhermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (HSI) [de

  17. Physical organic chemistry in the making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engberts, J.B.F.N.

    The discipline of physical organic chemistry will continue to occupy a central position in chemistry. The rapid increase in instrumentation and important theoretical developments allow the investigation of many problems of great complexity and challenge. In the next century the leading theme will

  18. Strange matter and dihyperon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    A short review of the properties of Strange Matter is followed by a discussion of dihyperon physics. Calculations of the mass, lifetime and decay modes of the H particle are discussed, along with a review of experiments designed to search for the H Dibaryon. 32 refs., 15 figs

  19. The 2016 Nobel Prize: Chemistry and Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Filardo Bassalo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will deal with the 2016 Nobel Prizes: Chemistry and Physics, since they are related to the same theme: nanostructures / molecular machines (conception, fabrication and topological theoretical explanation.

  20. Contributing Chemistry and Compelling Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemistry as an integral part of biology has been studied and utilised to yield numerous solutions in healthcare. Both the in vivo and in vitro applications of chemically synthesized compounds as drugs and the culture media used for cell culture respectively have been an indispensable tool in therapeutic and research arena in healthcare. The evolving specialty of regenerative medicine has been exploring the physical characteristics of the cell culture environment to see its effect on the behaviour of cells in vitro. For instance, mere change of matrix stiffness gives rise to a cascade of chemical events leading to different biological outputs as reported (1 in which softer matrices induced the mesenchymal stem cells to give rise to neuronal cells and increasing the matrix stiffness made the same stem cells to differentiate into chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages. The regulated movement of ions across membranes have been found to influence cell morphogenesis and stem cell regeneration (2. The influence of variety of media, reagents, growth factors, scaffolds etc. on the different types of cells and the varying needs of each type of cell are being continuously studied with an aim of advancing regenerative medicine based solutions. In this issue, the article by Kazemnejad et al is reporting the role of wnt signalling on menstrual blood derived stem cells (MenSCs by studying the influence of Lithium chloride on the proliferation of these cells. They have come out results that prove that the MenSCs have unique immunophenotyping properties and that Wnt signaling pathway regulates MenSCs proliferation via the trans-localization of activated-ß-catenin protein. Another article by Sharma et al has focussed on the gene expression pathways and on the specific modification or modulation of a key molecular player of homing and engraftment of the hematopoietic progenitor cells which will help in enhancing the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell

  1. Physics and chemistry of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: In the pleasant and hospitable atmosphere of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich in the Federal Republic of Germany, the IAEA symposium on the Physics and Chemistry of Fission took place. Almost 200 scientists attended, 154 abstracts were submitted, and 57 papers presented, but more important than the numbers was the quality of the contributions and the progress reported at the symposium. The neutron was discovered almost 50 years ago; 40 years ago the idea of nuclear fission was born. Since then, a number of laboratories have worked hard to explain the phenomenon of fission One would expect that by now scientists would know exactly what happens in a nucleus before and during the process of fission, particularly as there are hundreds of power and research reactors in operation, and fission of uranium isotopes is the basis of their functioning. At first glance, fission seems a simple process: a neutron hits and penetrates the uranium nucleus which becomes excited, i.e. has a surplus of energy. One way to get rid of this energy is for the nucleus to split into two parts; additional products of this process are energy and more neutrons. Nature, however, seems to dislike such straightforward explanations. In the case of fission, scientists have observed a number of phenomena which disagree with a simple model. Sometimes, a nucleus will split into two parts without being 'attacked' by a neutron; this spontaneous fission opens up a new line of fission research and several contributions at the symposium reported on sophisticated experiments designed to unravel some of its specific details. Sometimes, a fissioning nucleus will emit another particle: ternary fission has become a powerful tool for studying the properties of nuclei during the fission process. For the scientist, it is fascinating to observe how the nucleus behaves during fission. They invent models which are supposed to reproduce the most probable course of events leading to fission. In one of these

  2. Condensed matter physics aspects of electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.P.; Kornyshev, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume collects the proceedings of the Working Party on ''Electrochemistry: Condensed Matter, Atomic and Molecular Physics Aspects'', held for two weeks in the summer of 1990 at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste. The goal of the meeting was to discuss those areas of electrochemistry that are accessible to the modern methods of theoretical condensed matter, atomic and molecular physics, in order to stimulate insight and deeper involvement by theoretical physicists into the field. The core of the ICTP Working Party was a set of topically grouped plenary lectures, accompanied by contributed seminars and by the formulation of joint research projects. In the tradition of the ICTP, it was not a meeting of pure theoreticians: about half of the lecturers were professional experimentalists - experts in electrochemistry, physical chemistry, surface science, technical applications. A set of topics was chosen for discussion at the meeting: Liquids, solvation, solutions; The interface (structure, characterization, electric properties, adsorption); Electrodynamics, optics, photo-emission; Charge transfer kinetics (homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions and processes); Superconducting electrodes; Fractal electrodes; Applied research (energy conversion and power sources, electrocatalysis, electroanalysis of turbulent flows). Refs, figs and tabs

  3. The link between physics and chemistry in track modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.J.B.; Bolton, C.E.; Spencer-Smith, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The physical structure of a radiation track provides the initial conditions for the modelling of radiation chemistry. These initial conditions are not perfectly understood, because there are important gaps between what is provided by a typical track structure model and what is required to start the chemical model. This paper addresses the links between the physics and chemistry of tracks, with the intention of identifying those problems that need to be solved in order to obtain an accurate picture of the initial conditions for the purposes of modelling chemistry. These problems include the reasons for the increased yield of ionisation relative to homolytic bond breaking in comparison with the gas phase. A second area of great importance is the physical behaviour of low-energy electrons in condensed matter (including thermolisation and solvation). Many of these processes are not well understood, but they can have profound effects on the transient chemistry in the track. Several phenomena are discussed, including the short distance between adjacent energy loss events, the molecular nature of the underlying medium, dissociative attachment resonances and the ability of low-energy electrons to excite optically forbidden molecular states. Each of these phenomena has the potential to modify the transient chemistry substantially and must therefore be properly characterised before the physical model of the track can be considered to be complete. (orig.)

  4. Charge Migration in DNA Perspectives from Physics, Chemistry, and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Tapash

    2007-01-01

    Charge migration through DNA has been the focus of considerable interest in recent years. A deeper understanding of the nature of charge transfer and transport along the double helix is important in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. It has also important implications in biology, in particular in DNA damage and repair. This book presents contributions from an international team of researchers active in this field. It contains a wide range of topics that includes the mathematical background of the quantum processes involved, the role of charge transfer in DNA radiation damage, a new approach to DNA sequencing, DNA photonics, and many others. This book should be of value to researchers in condensed matter physics, chemical physics, physical chemistry, and nanoscale sciences.

  5. Topology and condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mj, Mahan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces aspects of topology and applications to problems in condensed matter physics. Basic topics in mathematics have been introduced in a form accessible to physicists, and the use of topology in quantum, statistical and solid state physics has been developed with an emphasis on pedagogy. The aim is to bridge the language barrier between physics and mathematics, as well as the different specializations in physics. Pitched at the level of a graduate student of physics, this book does not assume any additional knowledge of mathematics or physics. It is therefore suited for advanced postgraduate students as well. A collection of selected problems will help the reader learn the topics on one's own, and the broad range of topics covered will make the text a valuable resource for practising researchers in the field.  The book consists of two parts: one corresponds to developing the necessary mathematics and the other discusses applications to physical problems. The section on mathematics is a qui...

  6. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  7. Physics, radiology and chemistry. 6. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The scientific basic disciplines of physics and chemistry are the beginning of all medical teaching. They are suitable to clarify medical and biochemical problems in their causality by means of their own thinking methodics as well as by the information provided. This book attempts to point out the relationships of physics, radiology and chemistry to neighbouring disciplines, especially to practical medicine. Greater importance must naturally be given here to the examples of individual fundamental facts than to the conveying of pure theory from books. The statements and questions on self control ordered according to chapter represent a minimum learning for the students which can be extended as required. (orig./ORU) [de

  8. Collection of problems in physical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bareš, Jirí; Fried, Vojtech

    1961-01-01

    Collection of Problems in Physical Chemistry provides illustrations and problems covering the field of physical chemistry. The material has been arranged into illustrations that are solved and supplemented by problems, thus enabling readers to determine the extent to which they have mastered each subject. Most of the illustrations and problems were taken from original papers, to which reference is made. The English edition of this book has been translated from the manuscript of the 2nd Czech edition. It has been changed slightly in some places and enlarged on in others on the basis of further

  9. Nuclear matter physics at NICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram is one of the most exciting and challenging projects of modern nuclear physics. In particular, the investigation of nuclear matter at high baryon densities offers the opportunity to find characteristic structures such as a first-order phase transition with a region of phase coexistence and a critical endpoint. The experimental discovery of these prominent landmarks of the QCD phase diagram would be a major breakthrough in our understanding of the properties of nuclear matter. Equally important is the quantitative experimental information on the properties of hadrons in dense matter which may shed light on chiral symmetry restoration and the origin of hadron masses. Worldwide, substantial efforts at the major heavy-ion accelerators are devoted to the clarification of these fundamental questions, and new dedicated experiments are planned at future facilities like CBM at FAIR in Darmstadt and MPD at NICA/JINR in Dubna. In this article the perspectives for MPD at NICA will be discussed. (orig.)

  10. Integrating Condensed Matter Physics into a Liberal Arts Physics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Jeffrey

    2008-03-01

    The emergence of nanoscale science into the popular consciousness presents an opportunity to attract and retain future condensed matter scientists. We inject nanoscale physics into recruiting activities and into the introductory and the core portions of the curriculum. Laboratory involvement and research opportunity play important roles in maintaining student engagement. We use inexpensive scanning tunneling (STM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopes to introduce students to nanoscale structure early in their college careers. Although the physics of tip-surface interactions is sophisticated, the resulting images can be interpreted intuitively. We use the STM in introductory modern physics to explore quantum tunneling and the properties of electrons at surfaces. An interdisciplinary course in nanoscience and nanotechnology course team-taught with chemists looks at nanoscale phenomena in physics, chemistry, and biology. Core quantum and statistical physics courses look at effects of quantum mechanics and quantum statistics in degenerate systems. An upper level solid-state physics course takes up traditional condensed matter topics from a structural perspective by beginning with a study of both elastic and inelastic scattering of x-rays from crystalline solids and liquid crystals. Students encounter reciprocal space concepts through the analysis of laboratory scattering data and by the development of the scattering theory. The course then examines the importance of scattering processes in band structure and in electrical and thermal conduction. A segment of the course is devoted to surface physics and nanostructures where we explore the effects of restricting particles to two-dimensional surfaces, one-dimensional wires, and zero-dimensional quantum dots.

  11. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  12. Basic radiation physics and chemistry of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybytniak, G.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    2006-01-01

    Composites are increasingly more important in the applied and fundamental polymer science, and the participation of radiation processing of these systems increase. In presented paper the newest achievements of radiation physics and chemistry of composites are reviewed. It is stressed, that although main experimental effort is directed towards the development of composites as such, and investigation of their specific properties, mechanical, physicochemical and physical, the radiation processing will enter the field on the wider scale, especially as concerns specialized plastics

  13. Ultrafast phenomena in molecular sciences femtosecond physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bañares, Luis

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the latest developments in Femtosecond Chemistry and Physics for the study of ultrafast photo-induced molecular processes. Molecular systems, from the simplest H2 molecule to polymers or biological macromolecules, constitute central objects of interest for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, and despite the broad range of phenomena that they exhibit, they share some common behaviors. One of the most significant of those is that many of the processes involving chemical transformation (nuclear reorganization, bond breaking, bond making) take place in an extraordinarily short time, in or around the femtosecond temporal scale (1 fs = 10-15 s). A number of experimental approaches - very particularly the developments in the generation and manipulation of ultrashort laser pulses - coupled with theoretical progress, provide the ultrafast scientist with powerful tools to understand matter and its interaction with light, at this spatial and temporal scale. This book is an attempt to reunite some of the ...

  14. Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrotsky, Alexandra

    1994-11-01

    Stressing the fundamental solid state behavior of minerals, and emphasizing both theory and experiment, this text surveys the physics and chemistry of earth materials. The author begins with a systematic tour of crystal chemistry of both simple and complex structures (with completely new structural drawings) and discusses how to obtain structural and thermodynamic information experimentally. Dr. Navrotsky also reviews the quantitative concepts of chemical bonding--band theory, molecular orbit and ionic models. She then covers physical properties and relates microscopic features to macroscopic thermodynamic behavior and treats high pressure phase transitions, amorphous materials and solid state reactions. The author concludes with a look at the interface between mineral physics and materials science. Highly illustrated throughout, this book fills the gap between undergraduate texts and specialized review volumes and is appropriate for students and researchers in earth science and materials science.

  15. Physics and chemistry of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, John S

    2004-01-01

    Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System, 2nd Edition, is a comprehensive survey of the planetary physics and physical chemistry of our own solar system. It covers current research in these areas and the planetary sciences that have benefited from both earth-based and spacecraft-based experimentation. These experiments form the basis of this encyclopedic reference, which skillfully fuses synthesis and explanation. Detailed chapters review each of the major planetary bodies as well as asteroids, comets, and other small orbitals. Astronomers, physicists, and planetary scientists can use this state-of-the-art book for both research and teaching. This Second Edition features extensive new material, including expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, spacecraft findings from Mars Pathfinder through Mars Odyssey 2001, recent reflections on brown dwarfs, and descriptions of planned NASA, ESA, and Japanese planetary missions.* New edition features expanded treatment of new meteorite classes, the latest spacecraft...

  16. Life is physics and chemistry and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzany, Guenther

    2015-04-01

    Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger's concept of "life is physics and chemistry" through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into "life is physics and chemistry and information." Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language. However, the basics of scientific knowledge changed dramatically within the second half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, Eigen ignored the results of the philosophy of science discourse on essential features of natural languages and codes: a natural language or code emerges from populations of living agents that communicate. This contribution will look at some of the highlights of this historical development and the results relevant for biological theories about life. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Matter and Interactions: a particle physics perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Organtini, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    In classical mechanics matter and fields are completely separated. Matter interacts with fields. For particle physicists this is not the case. Both matter and fields are represented by particles. Fundamental interactions are mediated by particles exchanged between matter particles. In this paper we explain why particle physicists believe in such a picture, introducing the technique of Feynman diagrams starting from very basic and popular analogies with classical mechanics, making the physics ...

  18. Evaluation of Chemical Representations in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Wood, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    That different levels of representation are important for complete understanding of chemistry is an accepted fact in the chemistry education community. This study sought to uncover types of representations used in given physical chemistry textbooks. Textbooks play a central role in the teaching and learning of science (chemistry), and in some…

  19. Laser experiments for chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Compton, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Lasers are employed throughout science and technology, in fundamental research, the remote sensing of atmospheric gases or pollutants, communications, medical diagnostics and therapies, and the manufacturing of microelectronic devices. Understanding the principles of their operation, which underlie all of these areas, is essential for a modern scientific education. This text introduces the characteristics and operation of lasers through laboratory experiments designed for the undergraduate curricula in chemistry and physics. Introductory chapters describe the properties of light, the history of laser invention, the atomic, molecular, and optical principles behind how lasers work, and the kinds of lasers available today. Other chapters include the basic theory of spectroscopy and computational chemistry used to interpret laser experiments. Experiments range from simple in-class demonstrations to more elaborate configurations for advanced students. Each chapter has historical and theoretical background, as well...

  20. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding

  1. Statistical physics and condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document is divided into 4 sections: 1) General aspects of statistical physics. The themes include: possible geometrical structures of thermodynamics, the thermodynamical foundation of quantum measurement, transport phenomena (kinetic theory, hydrodynamics and turbulence) and out of equilibrium systems (stochastic dynamics and turbulence). The techniques involved here are typical of applied analysis: stability criteria, mode decomposition, shocks and stochastic equations. 2) Disordered, glassy and granular systems: statics and dynamics. The complexity of the systems can be studied through the structure of their phase space. The geometry of this phase space is studied in several works: the overlap distribution can now be computed with a very high precision; the boundary energy between low lying states does not behave like in ordinary systems; and the Edward's hypothesis of equi-probability of low lying metastable states is invalidated. The phenomenon of aging, characteristic of glassy dynamics, is studied in several models. Dynamics of biological systems or of fracture is shown to bear some resemblance with that of disordered systems. 3) Quantum systems. The themes include: mesoscopic superconductors, supersymmetric approach to strongly correlated electrons, quantum criticality and heavy fermion compounds, optical sum rule violation in the cuprates, heat capacity of lattice spin models from high-temperature series expansion, Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem in dimension larger than one, quantum Hall effect, Bose-Einstein condensation and multiple-spin exchange model on the triangular lattice. 4) Soft condensed matter and biological systems. Path integral representations are invaluable to describe polymers, proteins and self-avoiding membranes. Using these methods, problems as diverse as the titration of a weak poly-acid by a strong base, the denaturation transition of DNA or bridge-hopping in conducting polymers have been addressed. The problems of RNA folding has

  2. Probes for dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    The existence of cosmological dark matter is in the bedrock of the modern cosmology. The dark matter is assumed to be nonbaryonic and consists of new stable particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) miracle appeals to search for neutral stable weakly interacting particles in underground experiments by their nuclear recoil and at colliders by missing energy and momentum, which they carry out. However, the lack of WIMP effects in their direct underground searches and at colliders can appeal to other forms of dark matter candidates. These candidates may be weakly interacting slim particles, superweakly interacting particles, or composite dark matter, in which new particles are bound. Their existence should lead to cosmological effects that can find probes in the astrophysical data. However, if composite dark matter contains stable electrically charged leptons and quarks bound by ordinary Coulomb interaction in elusive dark atoms, these charged constituents of dark atoms can be the subject of direct experimental test at the colliders. The models, predicting stable particles with charge ‑ 2 without stable particles with charges + 1 and ‑ 1 can avoid severe constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements and provide solution for the puzzles of dark matter searches. In such models, the excessive ‑ 2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium atoms, maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter. The successful development of composite dark matter scenarios appeals for experimental search for doubly charged constituents of dark atoms, making experimental search for exotic stable double charged particles experimentum crucis for dark atoms of composite dark matter.

  3. Physics through the 1990s: condensed-matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume presents the current status of condensed-matter physics from developments since the 1970s to opportunities in the 1990s. Topics include electronic structure, vibrational properties, critical phenomena and phase transitions, magnetism, semiconductors, defects and diffusion, surfaces and interfaces, low-temperature physics, liquid-state physics, polymers, nonlinear dynamics, instabilities, and chaos. Appendices cover the connections between condensed-matter physics and applications of national interest, new experimental techniques and materials, laser spectroscopy, and national facilities for condensed-matter physics research. The needs of the research community regarding support for individual researchers and for national facilities are presented, as are recommendations for improved government-academic-industrial relations

  4. Academic excellence workshops in chemistry and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan Rose

    In the mid-1970's, Uri Treisman, at the University of California, Berkeley, developed an academic excellence workshop program that had important successes in increasing minority student achievement and persistence in calculus. The present dissertation research is an in-depth study of chemistry and physics workshops at the California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Data for the first, longitudinal component of this study were obtained by tracking to Spring 1998 all workshop minority students, i.e., Latino, African American, and Native American workshop students, a random sample of non-workshop minority students, and a random sample of non-targeted students, i.e., Anglo and Asian students, enrolled in first-quarter General Chemistry or Physics during specific quarters of 1992 or 1993. Data for the second component were obtained by administering questionnaires, conducting interviews, and observing science students during Fall, 1996. Workshop participation was a significant predictor of first-quarter course grade for minority students in both chemistry and physics, while verbal and mathematics Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores were not significant predictors of beginning course grade for minority science students. The lack of predictive ability of the SAT and the importance of workshop participation in minority students' beginning science course performance are results with important implications for educators and students. In comparing pre-college achievement measures for workshop and non-targeted students, non-targeted students' mathematics SAT scores were significantly higher than chemistry and physics workshop students' scores. Nonetheless, workshop participation "leveled the field" as workshop and non-targeted students performed similarly in beginning science courses. Positive impacts of workshop participation on achievement, persistence, efficiency, social integration, and self-confidence support the continued and expanded funding of workshop programs

  5. The Contributions of James Moir to Physical Chemistry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Physical chemistry, spectroscopy, ruby, solar spectrum, history of chemistry. 1. Introduction ... band in the green, which appears and disappears as the gem is rotated. ..... (5) He also used various screens, such as a methylviolet screen to.

  6. Bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry an engineering and molecular approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amore, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The field of bioscience methodologies in physical chemistry stands at the intersection of the power and generality of classical and quantum physics with the minute molecular complexity of chemistry and biology. This book provides an application of physical principles in explaining and rationalizing chemical and biological phenomena. It does not stick to the classical topics that are conventionally considered as part of physical chemistry; instead it presents principles deciphered from a modern point of view, which is the strength of this book.

  7. Cobalt oxides from crystal chemistry to physics

    CERN Document Server

    Raveau, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Unparalleled in the breadth and depth of its coverage of all important aspects, this book systematically treats the electronic and magnetic properties of stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric cobaltites in both ordered and disordered phases. Authored by a pioneer and a rising star in the field, the monograph summarizes, organizes and streamlines the otherwise difficult-to-obtain information on this topic. An introductory chapter sets forth the crystal chemistry of cobalt oxides to lay the groundwork for an understanding of the complex phenomena observed in this materials class. Special emphasis is placed on a comprehensive discussion of cobaltite physical properties in different structural families. Providing a thorough introduction to cobalt oxides from a chemical and physical viewpoint as a basis for understanding their intricacies, this is a must-have for both experienced researchers as well as entrants to the field.

  8. Pre-Service Physics and Chemistry Teachers' Conceptual Integration of Physics and Chemistry Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, Mustafa; Bektas, Oktay; Geban, Omer; Ozturk, Gokhan; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the pre-service teachers' opinions about conceptual integration (CI) and their understanding of it. A qualitative phenomenology design was used in the study. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews comprising ten guiding questions. Three pre-service physics and three pre-service chemistry teachers…

  9. Gravitational probes of dark matter physics

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2017-01-01

    The nature of dark matter is one of the most pressing questions in particle physics. Yet all our present knowledge of the dark sector to date comes from its gravitational interactions with astrophysical systems. Moreover, astronomical results still have immense potential to constrain the particle properties of dark matter. We introduce a simple 2D parameter space which classifies models in terms of a particle physics interaction strength and a characteristic astrophysical scale on which new p...

  10. Atmospheric chemistry and physics from air pollution to climate change

    CERN Document Server

    Seinfeld, John H

    2016-01-01

    Expanded and updated with new findings and new features Since the second edition of Seinfeld and Pandis’ classic textbook, significant progress has taken place in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics, particularly in the areas of tropospheric chemistry, aerosols, and the science of climate change. A new edition of this comprehensive work has been developed by the renowned author team. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 3rd Edition, as the previous two editions have done, provides a rigorous and comprehensive treatment of the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere – including the chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere, aerosol physics and chemistry, atmospheric new particle formation, physical meteorology, cloud physics, global climate, statistical analysis of data, and mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Each of these topics is covered in detail and in each area the central results are developed from first principles. In this way the reader gains a significant un...

  11. Physics in Brazil in the next decade: condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This book gives a general overview of the present situation in Brazil, concerning research in the different areas of condensed matter physics. The main areas discussed here are: semiconductors, magnetism and magnetic materials, superconductivity liquid crystals and polymers, ceramics, glasses and crystals, statistical physics and solid state physics, crystallography, magnetic resonance and Moessbauer spectroscopy, among others. (A.C.A.S.)

  12. Physics and chemistry of the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J I

    1997-06-01

    The solar system is thought to have begun in a flattened disk of gas and dust referred to traditionally as the solar nebula. Such a construct seems to be a natural product of the collapse of dense parts of giant molecular clouds, the vast star-forming regions that pepper the Milky Way and other galaxies. Gravitational, magnetic and thermal forces within the solar nebula forced a gradual evolution of mass toward the center (where the sun formed) and angular momentum (borne by a small fraction of the mass) toward the outer more distant regions of the disk. This evolution was accompanied by heating and a strong temperature contrast from the hot, inner regions to the cold, more remote parts of the disk. The resulting chemistry in the disk determined the initial distribution of organic matter in the planets; most of the reduced carbon species, in condensed form, were located beyond the asteroid belt (the 'outer' solar system). The Earth could have received much of its inventory of pre-biological material from comets and other icy fragments of the process of planetary formation in the outer solar system.

  13. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelenz, B.

    1999-01-01

    , UJ) and use of Pu and Cs contaminations as tracers to follow-up natural processes in peat bog (University of Agriculture, Cracow); d) preparation of α-spectrometric sources by electrodeposition (other groups of the Department) and determination of 241 Pu in α-spectrometric Pu sources (Silesian University, Katowice, Poland); e) comparative measurements of γ-background dose rate, using the PMS station, TL detectors and Gamma-Tracer probe (Health Physics Section of the Institute). In recognition of his expertise in radioecology, Dr Mietelski has been admitted as a Regular Member of the U.I.R. (Union Internationale de Radioecologie). Mrs Jasinska, Mr Kozak and Dr Mietelski received the Prize of the President of the City of Cracow for ''Organising and conducting continuous radiological monitoring of the air in Cracow and for the researches at the radioactive contamination of the environment''. The project on construction of the internal target assembly for isotope production was continued in the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, in cooperation with the Cyclotron Section and Division of Mechanical Constructions of the Institute, and with the JINR, Dubna. In the meantime, in pilot experiments on the internal beam of the AIC-144 cyclotron, small activities of 11 C PET tracer were obtained from proton irradiated B 2 0 3 targets. A joint project with the Silesian Medical Academy, on applications of 32 P sources pure (β - emitter) in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT), was started. Chemical and ionic methods of preparation of 32 P sources and their TL dosimetry were tested in cooperation with the Laboratory of the Ion Implanter and with the Health Physics Section of the Institute. Measurements of the activity of selenoenzymes in the context of human thyroid health or disease were continued in cooperation with the Medical College of the Jagiellonian University, and with the Rowett Research Institute, Aberdeen, Scotland

  14. Holographic duality in condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaanen, Jan; Sun, Ya-Wen; Schalm, Koenraad

    2015-01-01

    A pioneering treatise presenting how the new mathematical techniques of holographic duality unify seemingly unrelated fields of physics. This innovative development morphs quantum field theory, general relativity and the renormalisation group into a single computational framework and this book is the first to bring together a wide range of research in this rapidly developing field. Set within the context of condensed matter physics and using boxes highlighting the specific techniques required, it examines the holographic description of thermal properties of matter, Fermi liquids and superconductors, and hitherto unknown forms of macroscopically entangled quantum matter in terms of general relativity, stars and black holes. Showing that holographic duality can succeed where classic mathematical approaches fail, this text provides a thorough overview of this major breakthrough at the heart of modern physics. The inclusion of extensive introductory material using non-technical language and online Mathematica not...

  15. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglewski, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Research in the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry concentrates on three main topics: 1. Radiochemistry of transactinide elements; 2. Environmental radioactivity and related problems; 3. Preparation and applications of radioactive isotopes. The investigations on radiochemistry of transactinide elements are carried out in the Laboratory of Chemistry and Radiochemistry. Practical difficulties due to short half-lives and very low cross sections of formation of the superheavy nuclei are being overcome by developing fast and efficient methods of chemical separation, basing mostly on ion-exchange processes which are thoroughly studied via model experiments on lighter homologues of the elements of interest. During the year 2001, work with composite ferrocyanide sorbents was continued, and the efforts resulted in a patent application. The developed ion-exchangers (whose characteristics are constantly checked and improved in the laboratory) can find practical applications in environmental protection as well as in fundamental studies on the most exotic elements: 104 Rf, 105 Db, 106 Sg, 107 Bh, 108 Hs, and more. As to the latter, the discovery in Dubna of the relatively long-lived element 114 (t 1/2 =30s) gives hope that studies on aqueous chemistry of the elements Z =107 would be feasible. In this context, chemical methods of separation and identification of the heaviest elements are necessary to know the behaviour of the whole decay chains, for example: 114 -α-112 -α-110 -α-108 -α-106. The group is contributing its expertise to the top specialist international co-operation, involving the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, the Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, and three German institutions: the Technical University of Dresden, the University of Mainz, and the GSI Darmstadt. The Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory is following up traces of α, β, and γ radioactive

  16. Peatland Organic Matter Chemistry Trends Over a Global Latitudinal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, B. A.; Hodgkins, S. B.; Carson, M. A.; Lamit, L. J.; Lilleskov, E.; Chanton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands contain a significant amount of the global soil carbon, and the climate feedback of carbon cycling within these peatland systems is still relatively unknown. Organic matter composition of peatlands plays a major role in determining carbon storage, and while high latitude peatlands seem to be the most sensitive to climate change, a global picture of peat organic matter chemistry is required to improve predictions and models of greenhouse gas emissions fueled by peatland decomposition. The objective of this research is to test the hypothesis that carbohydrate content of peatlands near the equator will be lower than high latitude peatlands, while aromatic content will be higher. As a part of the Global Peatland Microbiome Project (GPMP), around 2000 samples of peat from 10 to 70 cm across a latitudinal gradient of 79 N to 53 S were measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to examine the organic matter functional groups of peat. Carbohydrate and aromatic content, as determined by FTIR, are useful proxies of decomposition potential and recalcitrance, respectively. We found a highly significant relationship between carbohydrate and aromatic content, latitude, and depth. Carbohydrate content of high latitude sites were significantly greater than at sites near the equator, in contrast to aromatic content which showed the opposite trend. It is also clear that carbohydrate content decreases with depth while aromatic content increases with depth. Higher carbohydrate content at higher latitudes indicates a greater potential for lability and resultant mineralization to form the greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, whereas the composition of low latitude peatlands is consistent with their apparent stability. We speculate that the combination of low carbohydrates and high aromatics at warmer locations near the equator could foreshadow the organic matter composition of high latitude peat transitioning to a more recalcitrant form with a

  17. Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falicov, L.M.

    1988-08-01

    The 1970's and 1980's can be considered the third stage in the explosive development of condensed matter physics. After the very intensive research of the 1930's and 1940's, which followed the formulation of quantum mechanics, and the path-breaking activity of the 1950's and 1960's, the problems being faced now are much more complex and not always susceptible to simple modelling. The (subjectively) open problems discussed here are: high temperature superconductivity, its properties and the possible new mechanisms which lead to it; the integral and fractional quantum Hall effects; new forms of order in condensed-matter systems; the physics of disorder, especially the problem of spin glasses; the physics of complex anisotropic systems; the theoretical prediction of stable and metastable states of matter; the physics of highly correlated states (heavy fermions); the physics of artificially made structures, in particular heterostructures and highly metastable states of matter; the determination of the microscopic structure of surfaces; and chaos and highly nonlinear phnomena. 82 refs

  18. On physical scales of dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    It is common practice to describe formal size and mass scales of dark matter halos as spherical overdensities with respect to an evolving density threshold. Here, we critically investigate the evolutionary effects of several such commonly used definitions and compare them to the halo evolution within fixed physical scales as well as to the evolution of other intrinsic physical properties of dark matter halos. It is shown that, in general, the traditional way of characterizing sizes and masses of halos dramatically overpredicts the degree of evolution in the last 10 Gyr, especially for low-mass halos. This pseudo-evolution leads to the illusion of growth even though there are no major changes within fixed physical scales. Such formal size definitions also serve as proxies for the virialized region of a halo in the literature. In general, those spherical overdensity scales do not coincide with the virialized region. A physically more precise nomenclature would be to simply characterize them by their very definition instead of calling such formal size and mass definitions 'virial'. In general, we find a discrepancy between the evolution of the underlying physical structure of dark matter halos seen in cosmological structure formation simulations and pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities. We question the importance of the role of formal virial quantities currently ubiquitously used in descriptions, models, and relations that involve properties of dark matter structures. Concepts and relations based on pseudo-evolving formal virial quantities do not properly reflect the actual evolution of dark matter halos and lead to an inaccurate picture of the physical evolution of our universe.

  19. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.

    2000-01-01

    taking part in the proficiency test on the determination of 239 Pu, 241 Pu and 241 Am in mineral matrix, organised by the IAEA. Ten dust samples, delivered by the University of Bremen (Germany) were analysed for the presence of 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Pu, 241 Am and 244 Cm. In 1999, the equipment of the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory was enriched with a low- background liquid scintillator spectrometer (Wallac 1414-003 Guardian), which opened a whole new branch of possible work connected with determination of pure beta-emitters. First isotopes of interest were 90 Sr and 241 Pu accumulated in animal bones. For 90 Sr measurements, an extensive library of scintillation quenching corrections was prepared. The spectrometer was also applied for tests of the purity of 32 P for the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry. A new project on transfer of plutonium from forest soil and litter to fungi and plants has been started. It is a pilot study for a planned in-Lab experiment to be performed during the incoming year at the University of Extremadura, Caceres, Spain. Other projects conducted during 1999 in the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory are described in short abstracts below. In the Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, the project on construction of the internal target assembly for isotope production was continued, in cooperation with the Institute's Division of Mechanical Construction and with the Cyclotron Section. At the same time, much investment was made into necessary renovations in the radiochemical laboratory. Research in the Laboratory was concentrated on preparation and evaluation of 32 P sources for intravascular brachytherapy. With the help of the Institute's Health Physics Laboratory, liquid Na 2 H 32 PO 4 sources were calibrated by TL dosimetry, and in cooperation with the Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy, some solid state sources containing 32 P were prepared. Liquid 32 P sources calibrated in the Institute were first applied in pre-clinical intravascular

  20. Education-oriented Physics-Chemistry for Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Spoelstra

    1985-03-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of well-qualified Science teachers is discussed, and possible contributing factors are mentioned. The need for an education-oriented university education in Physics and Chemistry, parallel to the existing courses in Physics and Chemistry, is justified. At the University of Zululand a subject called “Physical Science” (“Natuurwetenskap” was established, bearing in mind the specific requirements of a teaching career in Physical Science at secondary level. “Physical Science” is offered at second and third year level and the syllabus covers equal amounts of Chemistry and Physics. A less formal-mathematical and more descriptive approach is followed, and as wide a field as possible is covered which includes new developments in the physical sciences. We believe that this new course will enhance the training of well-prepared teachers of Physical Science for secondary schools, where a severe shortage prevails. Special reference is made here to the situation in Black schools.

  1. Physics through the 1990s: Condensed-matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In this survey of condensed-matter physics we describe the current status of the field, present some of the significant discoveries and developments in it since the early 1970s, and indicate some areas in which we expect that important discoveries will be made in the next decade. We also describe the resources that will be required to produce these discoveries. This volume is organized as follows. The first part is devoted to a discussion of the importance of condensed-matter physics; to brief descriptions of several of the most significant discoveries and advances in condensed-matter physics made in the 1970s and early 1980s, and of areas that appear to provide particularly exciting research opportunities in the next decade; and to a presentation of the support needs of condensed-matter physicists in the next decade and of recommendations aimed at their provision. Next, the subfields of condensed-matter physics are reviewed in detail. The volume concludes with several appendixes in which new materials, new experimental techniques, and the National Facilities are reviewed

  2. Terminology dictionary for physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deuk

    1988-03-01

    This book introduces as many as terms covering from basic chemistry and applied chemistry to general industry and tries to explain them correctly. If it is not needed to explain the terms or they are not general, it omits explanation. However, it accurately and precisely, without omitting, describes elementary reaction and operation, representative materials, naming, idiom, and method of measurement. It also adds to supplement all the materials which are helpful in daily lives and are convenient to studying and understanding.

  3. Using Physics Principles in the Teaching of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulden, Warren

    1996-01-01

    Presents three examples that show how students can use traditional physics principles or laws for the purpose of understanding chemistry better. Examples include Coulomb's Law and melting points, the Faraday Constant, and the Rydberg Constant. Presents a list of some other traditional topics in a chemistry course that could be enhanced by the…

  4. On the Applicability of the Green Chemistry Principles to Sustainability of Organic Matter on Asteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. Kolb

    2010-01-01

    The connection between astrobiology and green chemistry represents a new approach to sustainability of organic matter on asteroids or similar bodies. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for chemistry to be green is to use water as a solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Many astrobiological reactions occur in the aqueous medium, for example in the prebiotic soup or during the aqueous alteration period on asteroids. Thus any advances in th...

  5. Extreme state of matter physics at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris Sharkov

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented.

  6. Fair for extreme state of matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkov, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe, FAIR, will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing for a large variety of unprecedented fore-front research in extreme state of matter physics and applied science. Indeed, it is the largest basic research project on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum of Research Infrastructures (ESFRI), and it is cornerstone of the European Research Area. FAIR offers to scientists from the whole world an abundance of outstanding research opportunities, broader in scope than any other contemporary large-scale facility worldwide. More than 2500 scientists are involved in setting up and exploiting the FAIR facility. They will push the frontiers of our knowledge in hadron, nuclear, atomic and applied physics far ahead, with important implications also for other fields in science such as cosmology, astro and particle physics, and technology. It includes 14 initial experiments, which form the four scientific pillars of FAIR. The main thrust of intense heavy ion and laser beam-matter interaction research focuses on the structure and evolution of matter on both a microscopic and on a cosmic scale. This presentation outlines the current status of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research. It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction will be described. Also the physics program of FAIR, based on the acquired funding, will be presented. (author)

  7. Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology Nobel Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Gräslund, Astrid; Widengren, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    Written by the leading experts in the field, this book describes the development and current state-of-the-art in single molecule spectroscopy. The application of this technique, which started 1989, in physics, chemistry and biosciences is displayed.

  8. Physics and chemistry of irradiated protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Johan

    not resemble so-called hot corinos or warm carbon-chain chemistry sources (the previously known types of low-mass Class 0 objects as defined by their chemistry). The absence of complex organic molecules in combination with high abundances of radicals such as cyanide (CN) and hydroxyl (OH) suggest...... that the chemistry is dominated by radiation from R CrA. In the high-resolution interferometry data we also detect signs of a 100 AU Keplerian disc around the Class 0/I object IRS7B. The disc may be responsible for the lack of detections of complex organic molecules on the smaller scales as it may have flattened......) and chemistry (such as molecular abundances) in low-mass protostellar envelopes is studied. The work studies the nearby low-mass star-forming region Corona Australis, in which a large proportion of the youngest low-mass protostars (so-called Class 0 and Class I objects) are located in a dense cloud situated...

  9. Supramolecular chemistry: from molecular information towards self-organization and complex matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    supramolecular polymers and liquid crystals, and provide an original approach to nanoscience and nanotechnology. In particular, the spontaneous but controlled generation of well-defined, functional supramolecular architectures of nanometric size through self-organization represents a means of performing programmed engineering and processing of nanomaterials. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry, in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when a molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibly, so as to make possible a continuous change in constitution and structure by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. This behaviour defines a constitutional dynamic chemistry that allows self-organization by selection as well as by design at both the molecular and supramolecular levels. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization by selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation in a Darwinistic fashion. The merging of the features, information and programmability, dynamics and reversibility, constitution and structural diversity, points towards the emergence of adaptative and evolutionary chemistry. Together with the corresponding fields of physics and biology, it constitutes a science of informed matter, of organized, adaptative complex matter

  10. Annual progress report of the physical chemistry department. Basic research 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic research for 1987 in physical chemistry of the French Atomic Energy Commission are reviewed. Topics include molecular chemistry, isotopic geochemistry, molecular photophysics, laser photochemistry, solid and surface physical chemistry. A list of publications and thesis is given [fr

  11. Physical chemistry for engineering and applied sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Foulkes, Frank R

    2012-01-01

    THINGS YOU SHOULD KNOW BUT PROBABLY FORGOT Basic Definitions SI Units Dalton's Atomic Theory Stoichiometry Equivalent Weight Amount of Substance: the Mole Avogadro's HypothesisConservation of Mass Conservation of ChargeAtomic Mass Scales STATES OF MATTER AND THE PROPERTIES OF GASES The Three States of Matter Pressure Archimedes' Principle Temperature THE IDEAL GAS The Ideal Gas Equation of State Molar Volumes Combined Gas Equation Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures Mole Fractions Partial Volumes THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Postulates Simplified Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law The Meaning of Pre

  12. Collaboration in Australian condensed matter physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushion, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This year marks the 'coming of age' of the annual Condensed Matter Physics Meetings which has constituted possibly the most successful physics series which has been run in Australia and New Zealand. The conferences have become colloquially known as the 'Wagga conferences' to the community, leading to such strange but interpretable phrases as 'Wagga is in New Zealand this year'. It seems an appropriate time to take stock of some of the changes which have taken place in Australian condensed matter physics research over the past 21 years. Statistics will be presented on some of the trends over this time, using the Wagga abstract books as the data source. Particular emphasis will be placed on the increase in collaborative research which has occurred, fuelled by a combination of government policies, reduction in resources and increasing complexity of some of the research projects. Collaborative papers now frequently include authors from more than one university as well as from CSIRO, ANSTO/AINSE, other government and semi-government laboratories and private industry. None of these occurred in the 'early days' but most would agree that the health of the discipline has been improved by the change. It is also appropriate to point out the role of the Wagga conferences in fostering these collaborations by bringing together the groups so that they could meet, interact and discover which people had the missing expertise to make a particular project viable

  13. Medicinal chemistry matters - a call for discipline in our discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Craig

    2012-06-01

    Medicinal chemistry makes a vital contribution to small molecule drug discovery, and the quality of it contributes directly to research effectiveness as well as to downstream costs, speed and survival in development. In recent years, the discipline of medicinal chemistry has evolved and witnessed many noteworthy contributions that propose and offer potential improvements to medicinal chemistry practice; however, the impact of these ideas is limited by their acceptance and deployment into every-day activity and, as a result, the quality of medicinal chemistry remains variable. For the good of the industry and the medicinal chemistry discipline, there is a need to move from retrospective learning to prospective control of medicinal chemistry practice to improve cost effectiveness, probability of success and survival rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Physics of superheavy dark matter in supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addazi, Andrea; Marciano, Antonino; Ketov, Sergei V.; Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    New trends in inflationary model building and dark matter production in supergravity are considered. Starobinsky inflation is embedded into 𝒩 = 1 supergravity, avoiding instability problems, when the inflaton belongs to a vector superfield associated with a U(1) gauge symmetry, instead of a chiral superfield. This gauge symmetry can be spontaneously broken by the super-Higgs mechanism resulting in a massive vector supermultiplet including the (real scalar) inflaton field. Both supersymmetry (SUSY) and the R-symmetry can also be spontaneously broken by the Polonyi mechanism at high scales close to the inflationary scale. In this case, Polonyi particles and gravitinos become superheavy, and can be copiously produced during inflation by the Schwinger mechanism sourced by the universe expansion. The Polonyi mass slightly exceeds twice the gravitino mass, so that Polonyi particles are unstable and decay into gravitinos. Considering the mechanisms of superheavy gravitino production, we find that the right amount of cold dark matter composed of gravitinos can be achieved. In our scenario, the parameter space of the inflaton potential is directly related to the dark matter one, providing a new unifying framework of inflation and dark matter genesis. A multi-superfield extension of the supergravity framework with a single (inflaton) superfield can result in a formation of primordial nonlinear structures like mini- and stellar-mass black holes, primordial nongaussianity, and the running spectral index of density fluctuations. This framework can be embedded into the SUSY GUTs inspired by heterotic string compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds, thus unifying particle physics with quantum gravity.

  15. Particle dark matter from physics beyond the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matchev, Konstantin

    2004-01-01

    In this talk I contrast three different particle dark matter candidates, all motivated by new physics beyond the Standard Model: supersymmetric dark matter, Kaluza-Klein dark matter, and scalar dark matter. I then discuss the prospects for their discovery and identification in both direct detection as well as collider experiments

  16. Physics and Its Interfaces with Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo N.; Andricopulo, Adriano D.

    2013-08-01

    Medicinal chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject that integrates knowledge from a variety of fields of science, including, but not limited to, chemistry, biology, and physics. The area of drug design involves the cooperative work of scientists with a diverse range of backgrounds and technical skills, trying to tackle complex problems using an integration of approaches and methods. One important contribution to this field comes from physics through studies that attempt to identify and quantify the molecular interactions between small molecules (drugs) and biological targets (receptors), such as the forces that govern the interactions, the thermodynamics of the drug-receptor interactions, and so on. In this context, the interfaces of physics, medicinal chemistry, and drug design are of vital importance for the development of drugs that not only have the right chemistry but also the right intermolecular properties to interact at the macromolecular level, providing useful information about the principles and molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic action of drugs. This article highlights some of the most important connections between physics and medicinal chemistry in the design of new drugs.

  17. Framing a program designed to train new chemistry/physics teachers for California outlying regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodily, Gerald P., Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to develop guidelines for a new high school chemistry and physics teacher training program. Eleven participants were interviewed who attended daylong workshops, every other Saturday, for 10 months. The instructors used Modeling Instruction pedagogy and curriculum. All the instructors had high school teaching experience, but only one possessed a doctorate degree. The interview questions focused on four themes: motivation, epistemology, meta-cognition, and self-regulation; and the resulting transcripts were analyzed using a methodology called Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. The cases expressed a strong preference for the program's instruction program over learning subject matter knowledge in university classrooms. The data indicated that the cases, as a group, were disciplined scholars seeking a deep understanding of the subject matter knowledge needed to teach high school chemistry and physics. Based on these results a new approach to training teachers was proposed, an approach that offers novel answers to the questions of how and who to train as science teachers. The how part of the training involves using a program called Modeling Instruction. Modeling instruction is currently used to upgrade experienced science teachers and, in the new approach, replaces the training traditionally administered by professional scientists in university science departments. The who aspect proposes that the participants be college graduates, selected not for university science training, but for their high school math and science background. It is further proposed that only 10 months of daily, face-to-face instruction is required to move the learner to a deep understanding of subject matter knowledge required to teach high school chemistry and physics. Two outcomes are sought by employing this new training paradigm, outcomes that have been unachievable by current educational practices. First, it is hoped that new chemistry and physics teachers can

  18. Developments in muonium chemistry and chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S.F.J.

    1987-12-01

    The experimental technique of muon Level Crossing Resonance is described, as applied to molecular species containing Muonium. The results of measurements by this technique are reviewed for two classes of paramagnetic species - organic radicals and Muonium defect centres. Some old questions concerning the nature of these species, i.e. their structure and the distributions of spin density, the mechanism of their formation following muon implantation in the host material, and the origin of the hyperfine isotope effect are examined in the light of the new results. Various proposals for new studies are made. The text is divided into two parts, corresponding to invited talks given at the 2nd International Symposium on Muon and Pion Interactions with Matter (Dubna, June 30-July 4, 1987). (author)

  19. Physical-chemical processes of astrophysical interest: nitrogen chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loison, Jean-Christophe; Hickson, Kevin; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Faure, Alexandre; Vuitton, Veronique; Bacmann, A.; Maret, Sebastien; Legal, Romane; Rist, Claire; Roncero, Octavio; Larregaray, Pascal; Hochlaf, Majdi; Senent, M. L.; Capron, Michael; Biennier, Ludovic; Carles, Sophie; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Le Picard, Sebastien; Cordier, Daniel; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Trolez, Yann; Bertin, M.; Poderoso, H.A.M.; Michaut, X.; Jeseck, P.; Philippe, L.; Fillion, J.H.; Fayolle, E.C.; Linnartz, H.; Romanzin, C.; Oeberg, K.I.; Roueff, Evelyne; Pagani, Laurent; Padovani, Marco; Wakelam, Veronique; Honvault, Beatrice; Zvereva-Loete, Natalia; Ouk, Chanda-Malis; Scribano, Yohann; Hartmann, J.M.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Hernandez, Mario; Lique, Francois; Kalugina, Yulia N.; Stoecklin, T.; Hochlaf, M.; Crespos, C.; Larregaray, P.; Martin-Gondre, L.; Petuya, R.; Quintas Sanchez, E.L.; Zanchet, Alexandre; Rodriguez-Lazcano, Yamilet; Mate, Belen

    2013-06-01

    This document contains the programme and abstracts of contributions to a workshop on nitrogen chemistry within an astrophysical perspective. These contributions have been presented in sessions: Introduction (opening lecture, experimental approaches to molecular astrophysics, theoretical approaches to astrophysics, observations in molecular astrophysics), Physical-chemical theory of the gas phase (time-dependent approach in elementary activity, statistic approach in elementary activity in the case of the N+H_2 reaction, potential energy surfaces for inelastic and reactive collisions, collision rate for N_2H"+, ortho/para selection rules in the chemistry of nitrogen hydrides, cyanides/iso-cyanides excitation in the ISM, CN excitation, radiative association with N_2H as new interstellar anion, ro-vibratory excitation of HCN) Laboratory astrophysics (measurement of reaction products in the CRESUSOL project, reactivity of the CN- anion, N_2 photo-desorption in ices, CRESU study of nitrogen chemistry, chemistry of nitrogen complex molecules), Observations and chemistry of astrophysical media (the problem of interstellar nitrogen fractioning, abundance of N_2 in proto-stellar cores, HNC in Titan atmosphere and nitrogen-related mechanisms in hot Jupiters, HCN and HNC in dark clouds or how theoretical modelling helps in interpreting observations, nitrogen chemistry in cold clouds, deuteration of nitrogen hydrides, nitrogen in interstellar ices, biochemical molecules on Titan, coupling between excitation and chemistry, radiative transfer of nitrogen hydrides, ortho/para chemistry of nitrogen hydrides), Physical-chemical theory of gas-grain interactions (nitrogen reactivity on surfaces, IR spectra of ices of NH_3 and NH_3/N_2 mixtures)

  20. Physics and chemistry of aging - early developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Va'vra, J.

    2003-01-01

    The aging phenomena are very complex physical and chemical processes. The author attempts to qualitatively discuss various physical processes contributing to aging. A satisfactory quantitative explanation is not presently available. In this sense, little progress has been made since the 1986 LBL Aging Workshop. However, what was accomplished during the past decade is a heightened awareness from the research and management sides to pay more attention to this problem, and as a result a number of aging tests have increased in quantity and quality. These efforts will undoubtedly yield some new results in the future. Examples in this paper are mainly from a 'pre-LHC and pre-HERA-B era of aging', where the total charge doses are limited to much less than 1 C/cm

  1. Teaching a Chemistry MOOC with a Virtual Laboratory: Lessons Learned from an Introductory Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Patrick J.; Agger, Jonathan R.; Anderson, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the experience and lessons learned of running a MOOC in introductory physical chemistry. The course was unique in allowing students to conduct experimental measurements using a virtual laboratory constructed using video and simulations. A breakdown of the student background and motivation for taking the course is…

  2. Progress in organic and physical chemistry structures and mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Zaikov, Gennady E; Lobanov, Anton V

    2013-01-01

    Progress in Organic and Physical Chemistry: Structures and Mechanisms provides a collection of new research in the field of organic and physical properties, including new research on: The physical principles of the conductivity of electrical conducting polymer compounds The dependence on constants of electromagnetic interactions upon electron spacial-energy characteristics Effects of chitosan molecultural weight on rehological behavior of chitosan modified nanoclay at hight hydrated state Bio-structural energy criteria of functional states in normal and pathological conditions Potentiometric study on the international between devalent cations and sodium carboxylates in aqueous solutions Structural characteristic changes in erythrocyte membranes of mice bearing Alzheimer's-like disease caused by the olfactory bulbetomy This volume is intended to provide an overview of new studies and research for engineers, faculty, researchers, and upper-level students in the field of organic and physical chemistry.

  3. The Sequencing of Basic Chemistry Topics by Physical Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Doras; Hobden, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' preferred teaching sequence for basic chemistry topics in Physical Science in South Africa, to obtain their reasons underpinning their preferred sequence, and to compare these sequences with the prescribed sequences in the current curriculum. The study was located within a pragmatic paradigm and…

  4. Empowering Girls with Chemistry, Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Emily D.; Ciccomascolo, Lori E.; Clapham, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that a girl's career interests in the areas of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) declines between grades 6 and 8. Similarly, in middle school, there is a decrease in physical activity among girls. Researchers at the University of Rhode Island (URI) conducted a chemistry-based science camp that took place…

  5. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for chemistry and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Information on renewable energy sources is provided for students in this teachers' guide. With the chemistry and physics student in mind, solar energy topics such as absorber plate coatings for solar collectors and energy collection and storage methods are studied. (BCS)

  6. Analysis of condensed matter physics records in databases. Science and technology indicators in condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, C.D.

    1999-05-01

    An analysis of the literature on Condensed Matter Physics, with particular emphasis on High Temperature Superconductors, was performed on the contents of the bibliographic database International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Quantitative data were obtained on various characteristics of the relevant INIS records such as subject categories, language and country of publication, publication types, etc. The analysis opens up the possibility for further studies, e.g. on international research co-operation and on publication patterns. (author)

  7. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isbell, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to -36 degrees centigrade but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 - 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of -36 to - 54 degrees centigrade. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point -5 to -39 degrees centigrade) and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadow foam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties. (Author).

  8. Microfluidics and nanofluidics handbook chemistry, physics, and life science principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Sushanta K

    2011-01-01

    The Microfluidics and Nanofluidics Handbook: Two-Volume Set comprehensively captures the cross-disciplinary breadth of the fields of micro- and nanofluidics, which encompass the biological sciences, chemistry, physics and engineering applications. To fill the knowledge gap between engineering and the basic sciences, the editors pulled together key individuals, well known in their respective areas, to author chapters that help graduate students, scientists, and practicing engineers understand the overall area of microfluidics and nanofluidics. Topics covered include Cell Lysis Techniques in Lab-on-a-Chip Technology Electrodics in Electrochemical Energy Conversion Systems: Microstructure and Pore-Scale Transport Microscale Gas Flow Dynamics and Molecular Models for Gas Flow and Heat Transfer Microscopic Hemorheology and Hemodynamics Covering physics and transport phenomena along with life sciences and related applications, Volume One: Chemistry, Physics, and Life Science Principles provides readers with the fun...

  9. Feasibility of Integration of Selected Aspects of (CBA) Chemistry, (CHEMS) Chemistry and (PSSC) Physics into a Two Year Physical Science Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiasca, Michael Aldo

    Compared, for selected outcomes, were integrated chemistry-physics courses with chemistry and physics courses taught separately. Three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee (PSSC)-Chemical Bond Approach (CBA), and three classes studying integrated Physical Science Study Committee-Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEMS)…

  10. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  11. Chemistry and physical properties of estolides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbell, Terry A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Estolides are a developing class of natural and synthetic compounds that have been synthesized from hydroxy oils like castor and lesquerella or by the condensation of fatty acids across the olefin of a second fatty acid. Castor and lesquerella estolides are derived from either their triglycerides or their free fatty acids utilizing their hydroxyl moiety to establish the estolide bond. The triglyceride estolides have pour points of 9 to –36ºC but suffer poor oxidative stability with RPVOT times of 29 – 52 minutes even with 1% of an anti-oxidant package incorporated into the samples. In contrast to the triglyceride estolides of castor and lesquerella, the estolides from lesquerolic and ricinoleic acids have very good pour points of –36 to –54ºC. Estolides derived from the acid catalyzed condensation of oleic acid with a variety of fatty acids can be made in good yield and posses a wide range of physical properties. Of particular interest are the saturated capped estolides of oleic that have both good low temperature properties (pour point –5 to – 39ºC and good oxidative stability. Estolides from meadowfoam fatty acids do not have good low temperature properties but have been extensively used in cosmetics where they provide good moisturizing properties.

    Los estólidos son una familia de compuestos sintetizados a partir de aceites hidroxilados como los de ricino o lesquerella o mediante la condensación de ácidos grasos sobre el doble enlace de un segundo ácido graso insaturado. Los estólidos de ricino y lesquerela se derivan tanto de sus triglicéridos como de sus ácidos grasos libres empleándose el residuo hidroxilo para formar los ésteres estólidos de los mismos. Los triglicéridos estólidos tienen puntos de fluidez crítica de entre 9 y -36ºC y baja estabilidad, con tiempos de oxidación en recipiente vacío a presión (RPVOT de entre 29 y 52 minutos incluso con la adición de un 1% de una mezcla antioxidante a las

  12. Do airborne microbes matter for atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2014-06-01

    The role of airborne microbial cells in the chemistry of the atmosphere and cloud formation remains essentially speculative. Recent studies have indicated that microbes might be more important than previously anticipated for atmospheric processes. However, more work and direct communication between microbiologists and atmospheric scientists and modellers are necessary to better understand and model bioaerosol-cloud-precipitation-climate interactions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Proceedings of the 9. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The 9. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics presents works developed in the following fields: amorphous materials, atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, crystallography, defects, growth and critical phenomena, instrumentation, liquid crystals, magnetism, matter science/mechanical properties, metals and alloys, optic, magnetic resonance and semiconductors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Separating the effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangar, Ahmad Gholamalizadeh; Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S; Chittleborough, David J

    2008-06-01

    Even though it is well established that soil C content is the primary determinant of the sorption affinity of soils for non-ionic compounds, it is also clear that organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(OC)) vary considerably between soils. Two factors that may contribute to K(OC) variability are variations in organic matter chemistry between soils and interactions between organic matter and soil minerals. Here, we quantify these effects for two non-ionic sorbates-diuron and phenanthrene. The effect of organic matter-mineral interactions were evaluated by comparing K(OC) for demineralized (HF-treated) soils, with K(OC) for the corresponding whole soils. For diuron and phenanthrene, average ratios of K(OC) of the HF-treated soils to K(OC) of the whole soils were 2.5 and 2.3, respectively, indicating a substantial depression of K(OC) due to the presence of minerals in the whole soils. The effect of organic matter chemistry was determined by correlating K(OC) against distributions of C types determined using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. For diuron, K(OC) was positively correlated with aryl C and negatively correlated with O-alkyl C, for both whole and HF-treated soils, whereas for phenanthrene, these correlations were only present for the HF-treated soils. We suggest that the lack of a clear effect of organic matter chemistry on whole soil K(OC) for phenanthrene is due to an over-riding influence of organic matter-mineral interactions in this case. This hypothesis is supported by a correlation between the increase in K(OC) on HF-treatment and the soil clay content for phenanthrene, but not for diuron.

  15. The physics and chemistry of the Schottky barrier height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Raymond T.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is a complex problem because of the dependence of the SBH on the atomic structure of the metal-semiconductor (MS) interface. Existing models of the SBH are too simple to realistically treat the chemistry exhibited at MS interfaces. This article points out, through examination of available experimental and theoretical results, that a comprehensive, quantum-mechanics-based picture of SBH formation can already be constructed, although no simple equations can emerge, which are applicable for all MS interfaces. Important concepts and principles in physics and chemistry that govern the formation of the SBH are described in detail, from which the experimental and theoretical results for individual MS interfaces can be understood. Strategies used and results obtained from recent investigations to systematically modify the SBH are also examined from the perspective of the physical and chemical principles of the MS interface

  16. Preparing Physics and Chemistry Teachers at the University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novodvorsky, Ingrid

    2006-04-01

    Beginning in 2000, science majors at the University of Arizona who wish to teach in middle or high schools have enrolled in the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program (CoS TPP). Students in the program take General Education courses, content courses, and science pedagogy courses that make them eligible for teacher certification. Students can remain in their science degree programs, and take the required science pedagogy courses, or they can enroll in a BS in Science Education degree that includes the pedagogy courses, with concentrations available in Biology, Chemistry, Earth Science, and Physics. Science educators from six different departments, two permanent Adjunct Instructors, and two Teachers in Residence teach the program's courses. (One of the Teachers in Residence is supported by the PhysTEC project.) Most of the pedagogy courses include field experiences in area science classrooms; the program works with some 115 mentor teachers from throughout the Tucson area, who host preservice teachers in their field experiences. In the first six years of the program, 14 program graduates have been chemistry and physics teachers. This compares to a total of six chemistry and physics teachers produced by the College of Education program in the four years preceding the creation of the CoS TPP. In this presentation, I will describe the unique features of the courses that prospective chemistry and physics teachers take and the field experiences in which they participate. In addition, I will describe how PhysTEC-supplied resources have been used to improve the program, and the ways in which we are assessing the program's success.

  17. Expression of results in quantum chemistry physical chemistry division commission on physicochemical symbols, terminology and units

    CERN Document Server

    Whiffen, D H

    2013-01-01

    Expression of Results in Quantum Chemistry recommends the appropriate insertion of physical constants in the output information of a theoretical paper in order to make the numerical end results of theoretical work easily transformed to SI units by the reader. The acceptance of this recommendation would circumvent the need for a set of atomic units each with its own symbol and name. It is the traditional use of the phrase """"atomic units"""" in this area which has obscured the real problem. The four SI dimensions of length, mass, time, and current require four physical constants to be permitte

  18. NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry |

    Science.gov (United States)

    News | NREL 7 » NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry News Release: NREL Senior Research Fellow Honored by The Journal of Physical Chemistry January 10, 2007 The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. The Dec. 21 issue was titled The Arthur J. Nozik Festschrift (Volume 110

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprile, Elena; Profumo, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    The quest for the nature of dark matter has reached a historical point in time, with several different and complementary experiments on the verge of conclusively exploring large portions of the parameter space of the most theoretically compelling particle dark matter models. This focus issue on dark matter and particle physics brings together a broad selection of invited articles from the leading experimental and theoretical groups in the field. The leitmotif of the collection is the need for a multi-faceted search strategy that includes complementary experimental and theoretical techniques with the common goal of a sound understanding of the fundamental particle physical nature of dark matter. These include theoretical modelling, high-energy colliders and direct and indirect searches. We are confident that the works collected here present the state of the art of this rapidly changing field and will be of interest to both experts in the topic of dark matter as well as to those new to this exciting field. Focus on Dark Matter and Particle Physics Contents DARK MATTER AND ASTROPHYSICS Scintillator-based detectors for dark matter searches I S K Kim, H J Kim and Y D Kim Cosmology: small-scale issues Joel R Primack Big Bang nucleosynthesis and particle dark matter Karsten Jedamzik and Maxim Pospelov Particle models and the small-scale structure of dark matter Torsten Bringmann DARK MATTER AND COLLIDERS Dark matter in the MSSM R C Cotta, J S Gainer, J L Hewett and T G Rizzo The role of an e+e- linear collider in the study of cosmic dark matter M Battaglia Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter Howard Baer, Eun-Kyung Park and Xerxes Tata INDIRECT PARTICLE DARK MATTER SEARCHES:EXPERIMENTS PAMELA and indirect dark matter searches M Boezio et al An indirect search for dark matter using antideuterons: the GAPS experiment C J Hailey Perspectives for indirect dark matter search with AMS-2 using cosmic-ray electrons and positrons B Beischer, P von

  20. Field theories in condensed matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres

    In this thesis, field theory is applied to different problems in the context of condensed matter physics. In the first part of this work, a classical problem in which an elastic instability appears is studied. By taking advantage of the symmetries of the system, it is shown that when a soft substrate has a stiff crust and the whole system is forced to reduce its volume, the stiff crust rearranges in a way that will break the initial rotational symmetry, producing a periodic pattern that can be manipulated at our will by suitable changes of the external parameters. It is shown that elastic interactions in this type of systems can be mapped into non-local effective potentials. The possible application of these instabilities is also discussed. In the second part of this work, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is analyzed as an emergent theory that allows us to describe the low energy excitations in two-dimensional nodal systems. In particular, the ballistic electronic transport in graphene-like systems is analyzed. We propose a novel way to control massless Dirac fermions in graphene and systems alike by controlling the group velocity through the sample. We have analyzed this problem by computing transport properties using the transmission matrix formalism and, remarkably, it is found that a behavior conforming with a Snell's-like law emerges in this system: the basic ingredient needed to produce electronic wave guides. Finally, an anisotropic and strongly interacting version of QED 3 is applied to explain the non-universal emergence of antiferromagnetic order in cuprate superconductors. It is pointed out that the dynamics of interacting vortex anti-vortex fluctuations play a crucial role in defining the strength of interactions in this system. As a consequence, we find that different phases (confined and deconfined) are possible as a function of the relative velocity of the photons with respect to the Fermi and gap velocities for low energy excitation in cuprates.

  1. Principles of interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and basic radiation chemistry processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santar, I.; Bednar, J.

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles are given of the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter and the main trends are pointed out in radiation chemistry. A brief characteristics is given of the basic radiation chemical processes in gases and in the condensed phase, namely in water and in organic substances. (B.S.)

  2. 7th International Conference on Physics of Liquid Matter : Modern Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chalyi, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a collection of selected lectures discussing current problems in molecular physics and reviews the main cutting-edge advances in condensed and soft matter physics. It offers deep insights and a powerful basis for scientists and engineers to study complicated problems in physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The unification of experimental, theoretical, and computational methods allows milestone results to be achieved in areas such as ionic and ionic-electronic liquids, magnetic liquid systems, liquid systems with nanoparticles, structural phase transitions and critical phenomena, and small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering in liquids and liquid systems.   The lectures selected for this book were held at the 7th International Conference “Physics of Liquid Matter: Modern Problems” (PLMMP-2016), 27–31 May in Kiev, Ukraine.

  3. Sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and bioaccumulation of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene by earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, Jason W., E-mail: kelsey@muhlenberg.ed [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States); Slizovskiy, Ilya B.; Peters, Richard D.; Melnick, Adam M. [Program in Environmental Science and Department of Chemistry, Muhlenberg College, 2400 Chew Street, Allentown, PA 18104 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of soil sterilization on the bioavailability of spiked p,p'-DDE and anthracene to the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris. Physical and chemical changes to soil organic matter (SOM) induced by sterilization were also studied. Uptake of both compounds added after soil was autoclaved or gamma irradiated increased for E. fetida. Sterilization had no effect on bioaccumulation of p,p'-DDE by L. terrestris, and anthracene uptake increased only in gamma-irradiated soils. Analyses by FT-IR and DSC indicate sterilization alters SOM chemistry and may reduce pollutant sorption. Chemical changes to SOM were tentatively linked to changes in bioaccumulation, although the effects were compound and species specific. Artifacts produced by sterilization could lead to inaccurate risk assessments of contaminated sites if assumptions derived from studies carried out in sterilized soil are used. Ultimately, knowledge of SOM chemistry could aid predictions of bioaccumulation of organic pollutants. - Soil sterilization affects soil organic matter chemistry and pollutant bioaccumulation.

  4. Quantum simulations with photons and polaritons merging quantum optics with condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book reviews progress towards quantum simulators based on photonic and hybrid light-matter systems, covering theoretical proposals and recent experimental work. Quantum simulators are specially designed quantum computers. Their main aim is to simulate and understand complex and inaccessible quantum many-body phenomena found or predicted in condensed matter physics, materials science and exotic quantum field theories. Applications will include the engineering of smart materials, robust optical or electronic circuits, deciphering quantum chemistry and even the design of drugs. Technological developments in the fields of interfacing light and matter, especially in many-body quantum optics, have motivated recent proposals for quantum simulators based on strongly correlated photons and polaritons generated in hybrid light-matter systems. The latter have complementary strengths to cold atom and ion based simulators and they can probe for example out of equilibrium phenomena in a natural driven-dissipative sett...

  5. Applications of holography to condensed matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Simon F.

    2012-10-01

    Holography is one of the key insights to emerge from string theory. It connects quantum gravity to field theory, and thereby provides a non-perturbative formulation of string theory. This has enabled progress on a range of theoretical issues, from the quantum description of spacetime to the calculation of scattering amplitudes in supersymmetric field theories. There have been important insights into both the field theories and the spacetime picture. More recently, applied holography has been the subject of intense and rapid development. The idea here is to use the spacetime description to address questions about strongly coupled field theory relevant to application areas such as finite-temperature QCD and condensed matter physics; the focus in this special issue is on the latter. This involves the study of field theory at finite temperature and with chemical potentials for appropriate charges, described in spacetime by charged black hole solutions. The use of holography to study these systems requires a significant extrapolation, from the field theories where classical gravitational calculations in the bulk are a useful approximation to the experimentally relevant theories. Nonetheless, the approach has had some striking qualitative successes, including the construction of holographic versions of superconducting or superfluid phase transitions, the identification of Fermi liquids with a variety of thermal behaviours, and the construction of a map between a class of gravity solutions and the hydrodynamic regime in the field theory. The use of holography provides a qualitatively new perspective on these aspects of strong coupling dynamics. In addition to insight into the behaviour of the strongly coupled field theories, this work has led to new insights into the bulk dynamics and a deeper understanding of holography. The purpose of this focus issue is to strengthen the connections between this direction and other gravitational research and to make the gravity

  6. Proceedings 20. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2014-01-01

    The 20. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 25-28 June, 2014 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Forty-six contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  7. MIANN models in medicinal, physical and organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Arrasate, Sonia; Sotomayor, Nuria; Lete, Esther; Munteanu, Cristian R; Pazos, Alejandro; Besada-Porto, Lina; Ruso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    Reducing costs in terms of time, animal sacrifice, and material resources with computational methods has become a promising goal in Medicinal, Biological, Physical and Organic Chemistry. There are many computational techniques that can be used in this sense. In any case, almost all these methods focus on few fundamental aspects including: type (1) methods to quantify the molecular structure, type (2) methods to link the structure with the biological activity, and others. In particular, MARCH-INSIDE (MI), acronym for Markov Chain Invariants for Networks Simulation and Design, is a well-known method for QSAR analysis useful in step (1). In addition, the bio-inspired Artificial-Intelligence (AI) algorithms called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are among the most powerful type (2) methods. We can combine MI with ANNs in order to seek QSAR models, a strategy which is called herein MIANN (MI & ANN models). One of the first applications of the MIANN strategy was in the development of new QSAR models for drug discovery. MIANN strategy has been expanded to the QSAR study of proteins, protein-drug interactions, and protein-protein interaction networks. In this paper, we review for the first time many interesting aspects of the MIANN strategy including theoretical basis, implementation in web servers, and examples of applications in Medicinal and Biological chemistry. We also report new applications of the MIANN strategy in Medicinal chemistry and the first examples in Physical and Organic Chemistry, as well. In so doing, we developed new MIANN models for several self-assembly physicochemical properties of surfactants and large reaction networks in organic synthesis. In some of the new examples we also present experimental results which were not published up to date.

  8. Gamification and Physics and Chemistry of Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe QUINTANAL PEREZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposal was made during the 2014–2015 school year with 4th year’s students of Secondary Education who have chosen as optional the subject of Physics and Chemistry. This project is based on the use of various gamebased strategies applied to the subject of Physics and Chemistry. We have chosen this theme by the pedagogical benefits that games have on the attraction of students and the development of their motivation. Students have participated individually, in pairs and in teams. Games used have been “chemical formulas on the run”, “chemical formulas championship”, “wheel of Physics and Chemistry”, “the sunken treasure” and “challenge problems”. The students have also developed a game based on the theme of waves and several teams did using Scratch. Finally there has been an increase in the academic performance of the subject. This experience was a success according to the results of the evaluation by the students. They have highlighted chemical formulas championship, the sunken treasure and the development of the game based on waves. As conclusions are that gamifying is not limited to only use video games, it can be gamify with little technology, personal, social and intellectual skills are developed and the method employed can be extrapolated to other subjects and courses.

  9. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Physics 2000: a personal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. J.

    1997-03-01

    The author expresses his personal views of how Physics for A-level should develop towards the year 2000. These cover: the historical treatment of core topics, syllabus structure and the relevance of practical physics.

  10. Developing Technical Writing Skills in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory: A Progressive Approach Employing Peer Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragson, Derek E.; Hagen, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Writing formal "journal-style" lab reports is often one of the requirements chemistry and biochemistry students encounter in the physical chemistry laboratory. Helping students improve their technical writing skills is the primary reason this type of writing is a requirement in the physical chemistry laboratory. Developing these skills is an…

  11. Introduction to Physics and Chemistry of Combustion Explosion, Flame, Detonation

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Most of the material covered in this book deals with the fundamentals of chemistry and physics of key processes and fundamental mechanisms for various combustion and combustion related phenomena in gaseous combustible mixture. It provides the reader with basic knowledge of burning processes and mechanisms of reaction wave propagation. The combustion of a gas mixture (flame, explosion, detonation) is necessarily accompanied by motion of the gas. The process of combustion is therefore not only a chemical phenomenon but also one of gas dynamics. The material selection focuses on the gas phase and

  12. Dynamic light scattering with applications to chemistry, biology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berne, Bruce J

    2000-01-01

    Lasers play an increasingly important role in a variety of detection techniques, making inelastic light scattering a tool of growing value in the investigation of dynamic and structural problems in chemistry, biology, and physics. Until the initial publication of this work, however, no monograph treated the principles behind current developments in the field.This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles underlying laser light scattering, focusing on the time dependence of fluctuations in fluid systems; it also serves as an introduction to the theory of time correlation f

  13. Resource Letter HCMP-1: History of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2017-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the history of condensed matter physics, including discussions of the development of the field and strategies for approaching its complicated historical trajectory. Following the presentation of general resources, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: conceptual development; institutional and community structure; social, cultural, and political history; and connections between condensed matter physics and technology.

  14. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  15. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  16. On the Applicability of the Green Chemistry Principles to Sustainability of Organic Matter on Asteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. Kolb

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The connection between astrobiology and green chemistry represents a new approach to sustainability of organic matter on asteroids or similar bodies. Green chemistry is chemistry which is environmentally friendly. One obvious way for chemistry to be green is to use water as a solvent, instead of more toxic organic solvents. Many astrobiological reactions occur in the aqueous medium, for example in the prebiotic soup or during the aqueous alteration period on asteroids. Thus any advances in the green organic reactions in water are directly applicable to astrobiology. Another green chemistry approach is to abolish use of toxic solvents. This can be accomplished by carrying out the reactions without a solvent in the solventless or solid-state reactions. The advances in these green reactions are directly applicable to the chemistry on asteroids during the periods when water was not available. Many reactions on asteroids may have been done in the solid mixtures. These reactions may be responsible for a myriad of organic compounds that have been isolated from the meteorites.

  17. Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2017-01-01

    Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity

  18. Proceedings of the 12. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The XII National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics presented works in the areas: atomic and molecular physics; biophysics; crystallography; defects growth and characterization of crystals; instrumentation; liquid crystals; magnetism; science of materials, metals and alloys; magnetic resonance; semiconductors; superconductivity and; surfaces and thin films. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  20. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Particle physics: Matter and antimatter scrutinized

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, Klaus Peter

    2015-01-01

    A search for differences in the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and antiprotons, conducted at unprecedented levels of precision, results in stringent limits to the validity of fundamental physical symmetries.

  2. Physics of condensed matter at extreme conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.

    1988-01-01

    The study of matter under extreme conditions is a highly interdisciplinary subject with broad applications to materials science, geophysics and astrophysics. High-pressure properties are studied in the laboratory using static and dynamic techniques. The two differ drastically in the methods of generating and measuring pressure and in the fundamentally different nature of the final compressed state. This article covers a very broad range of conditions, intended to present an overview of important recent developments and to emphasize the behavior of materials and the kinds of properties now being studied

  3. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  4. Space, Time, Matter, and Form Essays on Aristotle's Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bostock, David

    2006-01-01

    Space, Time, Matter, and Form collects ten of David Bostock's essays on themes from Aristotle's Physics, four of them published here for the first time. The first five papers look at issues raised in the first two books of the Physics, centred on notions of matter and form, and the idea of substance as what persists through change. They also range over other of Aristotle's scientific works, such as his biology and psychology and the account of change in his De Generatione et Corruptione. The volume's remaining essays examine themes in later books of the Physics, including infinity, place, time

  5. Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry Advanced – WPPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the “2nd Workshop on Processing Physic-Chemistry advanced (WPPCA)”, that was held from, April 4-8, 2016, at the Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Bucaramanga, Colombia. The proceedings consist of 17 contributions that were presented as plenary talks at the event. The abstracts of all participants contributions were published in the Abstract Book with ISSN 2500-8420. The scientific program of the 2nd WPPCA consisted of 12 Magisterial Conferences, 28 Poster Presentations and 2 Courses with the participation of undergraduate and graduate students, professors, researchers and entrepreneurs from Colombia, Spain, Unite States of America, Mexico and Chile. Moreover, the 2nd WPPCA allowed to establish a shared culture of the research and innovation that enriches the area of the processing physical-chemistry of the materials and the industrial applications. All papers in these Proceedings refer to one from the following topics: Semiconductors, Superconductivity, Nanostructure Materials and Modelling, Simulation and Diagnostics. The editor hopes that those interested in the area of the science of materials can to enjoy this reading, that reflects a wide variety of current issues. On behalf of the organizing committee of the 2nd WPPCA, we are extremely thankful to all authors for providing their valuable contributions for these Proceedings as well as the reviewers for their constructive recommendations and criticism aiding to improve the presented articles. Besides, especially we appreciate the great support provided by the Sponsors and Partners. (paper)

  6. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage in physics, chemistry, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    The technique of stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP), which allows efficient and selective population transfer between quantum states without suffering loss due to spontaneous emission, was introduced in 1990 by Gaubatz et al.. Since then STIRAP has emerged as an enabling methodology with widespread successful applications in many fields of physics, chemistry, and beyond. This article reviews the many applications of STIRAP emphasizing the developments since 2001, the time when the last major review on the topic was written (Vitanov, Fleischhauer et al.). A brief introduction into the theory of STIRAP and the early applications for population transfer within three-level systems is followed by the discussion of several extensions to multilevel systems, including multistate chains and tripod systems. The main emphasis is on the wide range of applications in atomic and molecular physics (including atom optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics, formation of ultracold molecules, etc.), quantum information (including single- and two-qubit gates, entangled-state preparation, etc.), solid-state physics (including processes in doped crystals, nitrogen-vacancy centers, superconducting circuits, semiconductor quantum dots and wells), and even some applications in classical physics (including waveguide optics, polarization optics, frequency conversion, etc.). Promising new prospects for STIRAP are also presented (including processes in optomechanics, precision experiments, detection of parity violation in molecules, spectroscopy of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states, population transfer with x-ray pulses, etc.).

  7. Physics of the galaxy and interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, H.; Elsasser, H.

    1988-01-01

    This book is based on the authors' long standing experience in teaching astronomy courses. It presents in a modern and complete way our present picture of the physics of the Milky Way system. The first part of the book deals with topics of more empirical character, such as the positions and motions of stars, the structure and kinetics of the stellar systems and interstellar phenomena. The more advanced second part is devoted to the interpretation of observational results, i.e. to the physics of interstellar gas and dust, to stellar dynamics, to the theory of spiral structures and the dynamics of interstellar gas

  8. The 1989 progress report: Physics of the condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The laboratory research fields are the physics of semiconductors and the physics of disordered states. The 1989 main results were the determination of the fractal dimension of silicon aerogels by means of nuclear magnetic resonance and the observation of local vibrations of a fractal drum. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  9. Condensed matter physics with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, H.

    1996-01-01

    An overview of the present uses of radioactive ion beams from ISOLDE for condensed matter research is presented. As simple examples of such work, tracer studies of diffusion processes with radioisotopes and blocking/channeling measurements of emitted particles for lattice location are discussed. Especially the application of nuclear hyperfine interaction techniques such as PAC or Moessbauer spectroscopy has become a powerful tool to study local electronic and structural properties at impurities. Recently, interesting information on impurity properties in semiconductors has been obtained using all these methods. The extreme sensitivity of nuclear techniques makes them also well suited for investigations of surfaces, interfaces, and biomolecules. Some ideas for future uses of high energy radioactive ion beams beyond the scope of the present projects are outlined: the study of diffusion in highly immiscible systems by deep implantation, nuclear polarization with the tilted-foil technique, and transmutation doping of wide-bandgap semiconductors. (orig.)

  10. String Theory Methods for Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastase, Horatiu

    2017-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction; Part I. Condensed Matter Models and Problems: 1. Lightning review of statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, phases and phase transitions; 2. Magnetism in solids; 3. Electrons in solids: Fermi gas vs. Fermi liquid; 4. Bosonic quasi-particles: phonons and plasmons; 5. Spin-charge separation in 1+1 dimensional solids: spinons and holons; 6. The Ising model and the Heisenberg spin chain; 7. Spin chains and integrable systems; 8. The thermodynamic Bethe ansatz; 9. Conformal field theories and quantum phase transitions; 10. Classical vs. quantum Hall effect; 11. Superconductivity: Landau-Ginzburg, London and BCS; 12. Topology and statistics: Berry and Chern-Simons, anyons and nonabelions; 13. Insulators; 14. The Kondo effect and the Kondo problem; 15. Hydrodynamics and transport properties: from Boltzmann to Navier-Stokes; Part II. Elements of General Relativity and String Theory: 16. The Einstein equation and the Schwarzschild solution; 17. The Reissner-Nordstrom and Kerr-Newman solutions and thermodynamic properties of black holes; 18. Extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein; 19. Electromagnetism and gravity in various dimensions. Consistent truncations; 20. Gravity plus matter: black holes and p-branes in various dimensions; 21. Weak/strong coupling dualities in 1+1, 2+1, 3+1 and d+1 dimensions; 22. The relativistic point particle and the relativistic string; 23. Lightcone strings and quantization; 24. D-branes and gauge fields; 25. Electromagnetic fields on D-branes. Supersymmetry and N = 4 SYM. T-duality of closed strings; 26. Dualities and M theory; 27. The AdS/CFT correspondence: definition and motivation; Part III. Applying String Theory to Condensed Matter Problems: 28. The pp wave correspondence: string Hamiltonian from N = 4 SYM; 29. Spin chains from N = 4 SYM; 30. The Bethe ansatz: Bethe strings from classical strings in AdS; 31. Integrability and AdS/CFT; 32. AdS/CFT phenomenology: Lifshitz, Galilean and Schrodinger

  11. Bioceramics for Hip Joints: The Physical Chemistry Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pezzotti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Which intrinsic biomaterial parameter governs and, if quantitatively monitored, could reveal to us the actual lifetime potential of advanced hip joint bearing materials? An answer to this crucial question is searched for in this paper, which identifies ceramic bearings as the most innovative biomaterials in hip arthroplasty. It is shown that, if in vivo exposures comparable to human lifetimes are actually searched for, then fundamental issues should lie in the physical chemistry aspects of biomaterial surfaces. Besides searching for improvements in the phenomenological response of biomaterials to engineering protocols, hip joint components should also be designed to satisfy precise stability requirements in the stoichiometric behavior of their surfaces when exposed to extreme chemical and micromechanical conditions. New spectroscopic protocols have enabled us to visualize surface stoichiometry at the molecular scale, which is shown to be the key for assessing bioceramics with elongated lifetimes with respect to the primitive alumina biomaterials used in the past.

  12. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  13. Introduction: the changing face of accelerator target physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The explosive growth of the small accelerator industry, an offshoot of the expansion of both clinical and research PET imaging, is driving a changing perspective in the field of accelerator targetry. To meet the new demands placed on targetry by the increasingly active and demanding PET institutions it has become necessary to design targets capable of producing large amounts of the four common positron-emitting radionuclides ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C, 18 F) with unfailing reliability and simplicity. The economic clinical and research survival of PET absolutely relies upon these capabilities. In response to this perceived need, the lion's share of the effort in the field of target physics and chemistry is being directed toward the profuse production of these four common radioisotopes. (author)

  14. Overview. Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry. Section 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeglowski, Z [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    In the papers presented bellow the activities of the Department of Nuclear Physical Chemistry in 1994 are presented. A further effort was made towards routine production of neutron-deficient isotopes for nuclear medicine - and namely {sup 67} Ga and {sup 139} Ce. Small activities of {sup 111} In were produced by the {alpha} bombardment of Ag target. In order to improve the {sup 111} In production the deuterons reaction with cadmium target was studied. The other field of the Department research is studying of the physicochemical properties of transactinoid elements (104,105, 106). The Department is also engaged in works of the National Network of Early Detection of Radioactive Contamination in Air. In this section, apart of the detail descriptions of mentioned activities, the information about personnel employed in the Department, papers and reports published in 1994, contribution to conferences and grants are also given.

  15. Physics and chemistry of plasma pollution control technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J S

    2008-01-01

    Gaseous pollution control technologies for acid gases (NO x , SO x , etc), volatile organic compounds, greenhouse gases, ozone layer depleting substances, etc have been commercialized based on catalysis, incineration and adsorption methods. However, non-thermal plasma techniques based on electron beams and corona discharges are becoming significant due to advantages such as lower costs, higher removal efficiency and smaller space volume. In order to commercialize this new technology, the pollution gas removal rate, energy efficiency of removal, pressure drop of reactors and useable by-product production rates must be improved and identification of major fundamental processes and optimizations of reactor and power supply for an integrated system must be investigated. In this work, the chemistry and physics of plasma pollution control are discussed and the limitation of this type of plasma is outlined based on the plasma parameters.

  16. Physical Chemistry of Bile: Detailed Pathogenesis of Cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Malak; Dubinsky, Theodore J

    2017-09-01

    Despite the overwhelming prevalence of cholelithiasis, many health care professionals are not familiar with the basic pathophysiology of gallstone formation. This article provides an overview of the biochemical pathways related to bile, with a focus on the physical chemistry of bile. We describe the important factors in bile synthesis and secretion that affect the composition of bile and consequently its liquid state. Within this biochemical background lies the foundation for understanding the clinical and sonographic manifestation of cholelithiasis, including the pathophysiology of cholesterol crystallization, gallbladder sludge, and gallstones. There is a brief discussion of the clinical manifestations of inflammatory and obstructive cholestasis and the impact on bile metabolism and subsequently on liver function tests. Despite being the key modality in diagnosing cholelithiasis, ultrasound has a limited role in the characterization of stone composition.

  17. The Logical and Psychological Structure of Physical Chemistry and Its Relevance to the Organization/Sequencing of the Major Areas Covered in Physical Chemistry Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaparlis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Jensen's scheme for the logical structure of chemistry is taken as reference to study the logical structure of physical chemistry. The scheme distinguishes three dimensions (composition and structure, energy, and time), with each dimension treated at one of the three levels (molar, molecular, and electrical). Such a structure places the outer…

  18. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  19. Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, John

    2017-01-01

    Light–matter interaction is pervasive throughout the disciplines of optical and atomic physics, condensedmatter physics, and electrical engineering with frequency and length scales extending over many orders of magnitude. The frequency range extends from a few tens of Hz for sea communications to hundreds of petaHz (1015 s–1) for X-ray imaging systems. Length scales range from thousands of kilometres to a few hundred picometres. Although the present work does not offer an exhaustive treatise on this vast subject, it does aim to provide advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers from these diverse disciplines the principal tools required to understand and contribute to rapidly advancing developments in light–matter interaction centred at optical frequencies and length scales. Classical electrodynamics, with an emphasis on the macroscopic expressions of Maxwell’s equations, physical optics, and quantum mechanics provide unique perspectives to the interaction of light and matter at these...

  20. Physical activity school intervention: context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, J D; Andersen, P T; von Seelen, J; Leppin, A

    2018-06-01

    School-based interventions for increasing physical activity among children are widespread, however there is still a lack of knowledge about how school context factors are linked to implementation quality and effectiveness of programmes. The aim of this paper is to examine teacher-perceived effectiveness of a Danish national classroom-based health programme 'Active Around Denmark' and in particular, to investigate whether perceptions vary as a function of school social context factors. After completion of the programme all teachers (N = 5.892) received an electronic questionnaire. 2.097 completed the questionnaire (response rate 36%) and 1.781 datasets could be used for analysis. The teachers were asked about their perceptions of changes in children's attitudes towards and levels of physical activity after the competition. Our results indicated that certain contextual factors, such as schools' prioritization of health promotion, teachers' support by their school principal in implementation as well as teacher's satisfaction with the school' physical environment made a significant difference in teacher-perceived effectiveness. To conclude, teacher-perceived effectiveness of the health programme does vary as a function of school social context factors.

  1. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-08-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers' interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)-related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students' experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students' STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students' intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance.

  2. Interest in STEM is contagious for students in biology, chemistry, and physics classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Cribbs, Jennifer D.; Godwin, Allison; Scott, Tyler D.; Klotz, Leidy

    2017-01-01

    We report on a study of the effect of peers’ interest in high school biology, chemistry, and physics classes on students’ STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics)–related career intentions and course achievement. We define an interest quorum as a science class where students perceive a high level of interest for the subject matter from their classmates. We hypothesized that students who experience such an interest quorum are more likely to choose STEM careers. Using data from a national survey study of students‘ experiences in high school science, we compared the effect of five levels of peer interest reported in biology, chemistry, and physics courses on students‘ STEM career intentions. The results support our hypothesis, showing a strong, positive effect of an interest quorum even after controlling for differences between students that pose competing hypotheses such as previous STEM career interest, academic achievement, family support for mathematics and science, and gender. Smaller positive effects of interest quorums were observed for course performance in some cases, with no detrimental effects observed across the study. Last, significant effects persisted even after controlling for differences in teaching quality. This work emphasizes the likely importance of interest quorums for creating classroom environments that increase students’ intentions toward STEM careers while enhancing or maintaining course performance. PMID:28808678

  3. Making Physics Matter in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Jackie; Cox, Wendy; Poole, Amanda; Watson, Jenny; Greygoose, Kirstin

    2016-04-01

    "Efforts to broaden students' aspirations, particularly in relation to STEM, need to begin in primary school." Kings College London "Aspires" Research Project 2013 From my outreach activity I have learnt that primary teachers could feel under pressure when faced with delivering the science curriculum. The teachers could be lacking confidence in their subject knowledge, lacking the equipment needed to deliver practical science or lacking enthusiasm for the subject. In addition, English and Mathematics were the subjects that were externally tested and reported to the authorities and so some teachers felt that time for science was being marginalised to ensure the best results in the externally assessed subjects. In my work with The Ogden Trust Primary Science team I have been involved in developing a range of strategies to address some of the issues outlined above. • CPD (Teacher Training) Programme We have provided free training to improve teachers knowledge and understanding of key physics concepts to GCSE standard and a practical workshop consisting of ten investigations, extension and challenge tasks. The teachers each receive a book of lesson plans and a resource box containing a class set of the equipment required. The four year programme covers Forces Light and Sound Electricity Earth & Space • "Phiz Labs" Funding from The Ogden Trust has allowed us to set up science laboratories within primary schools. The pupils have lab coats, goggles and access to a range of equipment that allows them to participate in more practical science activity and open-ended investigative work. My Phiz Lab is in the secondary school where I teach physics and practical workshops for primary pupils and teachers are held there on a regular basis. • Enrichment In order to enthuse and challenge the primary pupils a variety of enrichment activities take place. These include "Physics of Go-Karts" and "Particle Physics for Primary" workshops, competitions and regional Science Fairs

  4. Physics of hot hadronic matter and quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-07-01

    This Introductory talk contains a brief review of the current status of theoretical and experimental activities related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we discuss latest lattice results on the phase transition, recent progress in chiral symmetry physics based on the theory of interacting instantons, new in the theory of QGP and of hot hadronic matter, mean p t and collective flow, the shape of p t distribution, strangeness production, J/ψ suppression and φ enhancement, two puzzles connected with soft pion and soft photon enhancements, and some other ''ultrasoft'' phenomena. 56 refs., 6 figs

  5. Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Datz, Sheldon

    1983-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc

  6. On importance of dark matter for LHC physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyakov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to attract attention of the LHC high-energy physics community to non-accelerator, low-energy experiments that are also very sensitive to new physics. This example concerns the search for supersymmetric dark matter particles. It is shown that non-observation of the SUSY dark matter candidates with a high-accuracy detector can exclude large domains of the MSSM parameter space and, in particular, can make especially desirable collider search for light SUSY charged Higgs boson

  7. Jahn-Teller effect fundamentals and implications for physics and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Koppel, Horst; Barentzen, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect continues to be a paradigm for structural instabilities and dynamical processes in molecules and in the condensed phase. While the basic theorem, first published in 1937, had to await experimental verification for 15 years, the intervening years have seen rapid development, initially in the theoretical arena, followed increasingly by experimental work on molecules and crystals. Among the many important developments in the field we mention cooperative phenomena in crystals, the general importance of pseudo-Jahn-Teller couplings for symmetry-lowering phenomena in molecular systems, nonadiabatic processes at conical intersections of potential energy surfaces and extensions of the basic theory in relation to the discovery of fullerenes and other icosahedral systems. The aim of the present volume is to provide a survey of the state-of-the art in Jahn-Teller interactions at the interface of quantum chemistry and condensed matter physics.

  8. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Eyring, L.

    1982-01-01

    This handbook is a six-volume work which covers the entire rare earth field in an integrated manner. Each chapter is a comprehensive, up-to-date, critical review of a particular segment of the field. The first volume is devoted to the rare earth metals, the second to rare earth alloys and intermetallics, and the third and fourth volumes to the non-metallic rare earth materials, including solutions, complexes and bioinorganic substances, in addition to solid inorganic compounds. The electronic structure of these unique elements is the primary basis of understanding their physical, metallurgical and chemical natures. The interrelationship of the 4f and valence electrons and the observed optical, electrical, magnetic, crystallographic, elastic, thermal, mechanical, chemical, geochemical and biological behaviors is brought forth time and again throughout the chapters. Also discussed are the preparative, separation and solution chemistry of the elements and their compounds and the various chemical and physical analytical methods for determining the rare earths in various materials and impurities in a rare earth matrix. Vol. 5 is a update complement of the previous volumes. Volume 6 is concerned with ternary and higher order materials. (Auth.)

  9. Topological data analysis: A promising big data exploration tool in biology, analytical chemistry and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offroy, Marc; Duponchel, Ludovic

    2016-03-03

    An important feature of experimental science is that data of various kinds is being produced at an unprecedented rate. This is mainly due to the development of new instrumental concepts and experimental methodologies. It is also clear that the nature of acquired data is significantly different. Indeed in every areas of science, data take the form of always bigger tables, where all but a few of the columns (i.e. variables) turn out to be irrelevant to the questions of interest, and further that we do not necessary know which coordinates are the interesting ones. Big data in our lab of biology, analytical chemistry or physical chemistry is a future that might be closer than any of us suppose. It is in this sense that new tools have to be developed in order to explore and valorize such data sets. Topological data analysis (TDA) is one of these. It was developed recently by topologists who discovered that topological concept could be useful for data analysis. The main objective of this paper is to answer the question why topology is well suited for the analysis of big data set in many areas and even more efficient than conventional data analysis methods. Raman analysis of single bacteria should be providing a good opportunity to demonstrate the potential of TDA for the exploration of various spectroscopic data sets considering different experimental conditions (with high noise level, with/without spectral preprocessing, with wavelength shift, with different spectral resolution, with missing data). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Redox chemistry and natural organic matter (NOM): Geochemists' dream, analytical chemists' nightmare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Donald L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) is an inherently complex mixture of polyfunctional organic molecules. Because of their universality and chemical reversibility, oxidation/reductions (redox) reactions of NOM have an especially interesting and important role in geochemistry. Variabilities in NOM composition and chemistry make studies of its redox chemistry particularly challenging, and details of NOM-mediated redox reactions are only partially understood. This is in large part due to the analytical difficulties associated with NOM characterization and the wide range of reagents and experimental systems used to study NOM redox reactions. This chapter provides a summary of the ongoing efforts to provide a coherent comprehension of aqueous redox chemistry involving NOM and of techniques for chemical characterization of NOM. It also describes some attempts to confirm the roles of different structural moieties in redox reactions. In addition, we discuss some of the operational parameters used to describe NOM redox capacities and redox states, and describe nomenclature of NOM redox chemistry. Several relatively facile experimental methods applicable to predictions of the NOM redox activity and redox states of NOM samples are discussed, with special attention to the proposed use of fluorescence spectroscopy to predict relevant redox characteristics of NOM samples.

  11. Astrophysical dark matter: candidates from particle physics and detection possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this talk, I will discuss the arguments that 50% to 90% of the matter in galaxies, including our own, is made of an unknown type of dark matter. I will review the reason why cosmologists believe Ω = 1 and illustrate the contrast with the limits on the amount of baryonic matter from element abundances in Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Other arguments for nonbaryonic dark matter will also be discussed. Candidates for the dark matter from particle physics will be presented. I will focus on cold dark matter candidates known as WIMPs, weakly interacting massive (O(GeV)) particles. I will try to illustrate why these particles are interesting for astrophysics and outline ideas for cornering them. Detection possibilities for these particles include indirect detection, which takes advantage of the annihilation products of these particles in the galactic halo, the sun, or the earth. Direct detection via newly proposed cryogenic detectors must be sensitive to <∼ keV energy deposits. Annual modulation of the dark matter signal can be used as a signature for these halo particles. I hope to motivate the interest in these particles and discuss ideas for finding them

  12. Lectures on holographic methods for condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A

    2009-01-01

    These notes are loosely based on lectures given at the CERN Winter School on Supergravity, Strings and Gauge theories, February 2009, and at the IPM String School in Tehran, April 2009. I have focused on a few concrete topics and also on addressing questions that have arisen repeatedly. Background condensed matter physics material is included as motivation and easy reference for the high energy physics community. The discussion of holographic techniques progresses from equilibrium, to transport and to superconductivity.

  13. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  14. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics

  15. 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The Report comprises abstracts of 68 communications (oral and posters) presented during the 8. International Conference on Pulse Investigations in Chemistry, Biology and Physics - PULS'2008, held on September 6 - 12, 2008 in Cracow. Presentations cover a variety of research fields representing different fields of pulse radiolysis in chemistry, biology and physics.

  16. Low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Yosuke

    1992-01-01

    This issue is devoted to the Proceedings of the Fourth Yukawa International Seminar (YKIS '91) on Low Dimensional Field Theories and Condensed Matter Physics, which was held on July 28 to August 3 in Kyoto. In recent years there have been great experimental discoveries in the field of condensed matter physics: the quantum Hall effect and the high temperature superconductivity. Theoretical effort to clarify mechanisms of these phenomena revealed that they are deeply related to the basic problem of many-body systems with strong correlation. On the other hand, there have been important developments in field theory in low dimensions: the conformal field theory, the Chern-Simons gauge theory, etc. It was found that these theories work as a powerful method of approach to the problems in condensed matter physics. YKIS '91 was devoted to the study of common problems in low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics. The 17 of the presented papers are collected in this issue. (J.P.N.)

  17. Nuclear physics: the core of matter, the fuel of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Dramatic progress has been made in all branches of physics since the National Research Council's 1986 decadal survey of the field. The Physics in a New Era series explores these advances and looks ahead to future goals. The series includes assessments of the major subfields and reports on several smaller subfields, and preparation has begun on an overview volume on the unity of physics, its relationships to other fields, and its contributions to national needs. Nuclear Physics is the latest volume of the series. The book describes current activity in understanding nuclear structure and symmetries, the behavior of matter at extreme densities, the role of nuclear physics in astrophysics and cosmology, and the instrumentation and facilities used by the field. It makes recommendations on the resources needed for experimental and theoretical advances in the coming decade. Nuclear physics addresses the nature of matter making up 99.9 percent of the mass of our everyday world. It explores the nuclear reactions that fuel the stars, including our Sun, which provides the energy for all life on Earth. The field of nuclear physics encompasses some 3,000 experimental and theoretical researchers who work at universities and national laboratories across the United States, as well as the experimental facilities and infrastructure that allow these researchers to address the outstanding scientific questions facing us. This report provides an overview of the frontiers of nuclear physics as we enter the next millennium, with special attention to the state of the science in the United States.The current frontiers of nuclear physics involve fundamental and rapidly evolving issues. One is understanding the structure and behavior of strongly interacting matter in terms of its basic constituents, quarks and gluons, over a wide range of conditions - from normal nuclear matter to the dense cores of neutron stars, and to the Big Bang that was the birth of the universe. Another is to describe

  18. Students' Energy Understanding Across Biology, Chemistry, and Physics Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, S. T.; Neumann, K.; Bernholt, S.; Harms, U.

    2017-07-01

    Energy is considered both as a disciplinary core idea and as a concept cutting across science disciplines. Most previous approaches studied progressing energy understanding in specific disciplinary contexts, while disregarding the relation of understanding across them. Hence, this study provides a systematic analysis of cross-disciplinary energy learning. On the basis of a cross-sectional study with n = 742 students from grades 6, 8, and 10, we analyze students' progression in understanding energy across biology, chemistry, and physics contexts. The study is guided by three hypothetical scenarios that describe how the connection between energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts changes across grade levels. These scenarios are compared using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results suggest that, from grade 6 to grade 10, energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts is highly interrelated, thus indicating a parallel progression of energy understanding in the three disciplinary contexts. In our study, students from grade 6 onwards appeared to have few problems to apply one energy understanding across the three disciplinary contexts. These findings were unexpected, as previous research concluded that students likely face difficulties in connecting energy learning across disciplinary boundaries. Potential reasons for these results and the characteristics of the observed cross-disciplinary energy understanding are discussed in the light of earlier findings and implications for future research, and the teaching of energy as a core idea and a crosscutting concept are addressed.

  19. Physical chemistry of Nanogap-Enhanced Raman Scattering (NERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yung Doug; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2017-08-01

    Plasmonically coupled electromagnetic field localization has generated a variety of new concepts and applications, and this has been one of the hottest topics in nanoscience, materials science, chemistry, physics and engineering and increasingly more important over the last decade. In particular, plasmonically coupled nanostructures with ultra-small gap ( 1-nm or smaller) gap have been of special interest due to their ultra-strong optical properties that can be useful for a variety of signal enhancements such surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and nanoantenna. These promising nanostructures with extraordinarily strong optical signal, however, have rendered a limited success in widespread use and commercialization largely due to the lack of designing principles, high-yield synthetic strategies with nm-level structural controllability and reproducibility and lack of systematic single-molecule and single-particle level studies. All these are extremely important challenges because even small changes ( 1 nm) of the coupled nanogap structures can significant affect plasmon mode and signal intensity and therefore structural and signal reproducibility and controllability can be in question. The plasmonic nanogap-enhanced Raman scattering (NERS) is defined as the plasmonic nanogap-based Raman signal enhancement within plasmonic nanogap particles with 1 nm gap and a Raman dye positioned inside the gap.

  20. Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, John

    2013-01-01

    This book draws together the essential elements of classical electrodynamics, surface wave physics, plasmonic materials, and circuit theory of electrical engineering to provide insight into the essential physics of nanoscale light-matter interaction and to provide design methodology for practical nanoscale plasmonic devices. A chapter on classical and quantal radiation also highlights the similarities (and differences) between the classical fields of Maxwell's equations and the wave functions of Schrodinger's equation. The aim of this chapter is to provide a semiclassical picture of atomic absorption and emission of radiation, lending credence and physical plausibility to the "rules" of standard wave-mechanical calculations.

  1. Physics understanding the properties of matter and energy

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Without physics, modern life would not exist. Instead of electric light, we would read by the light of candles. We couldn''t build skyscrapers. We could not possibly bridge rivers, much less build a jet or interplanetary craft. Computers and smartphones would be unimaginable. Physics is concerned with the most fundamental aspects of matter and energy and how they interact to make the physical universe work. In accessible language and with explanatory graphics and visual aids, this book introduces readers to the science that is at the very center of all other sciences and essential to our very

  2. The first sustainable material designed for air particulate matter capture: An introduction to Azure Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, A; Bilo, F; Depero, L E; Zappa, D; Bontempi, E

    2018-07-15

    This work presents a new porous material (SUNSPACE) designed for air particulate matter (PM) capture. It was developed in answer to the European Commission request of an innovative, affordable, and sustainable solution, based on design-driven material, to reduce the concentration of air particulate matter in urban areas. SUNSPACE material was developed from by-products and low-cost materials, such as silica fume and sodium alginate. Its capability to catch ultrafine PM was evaluated by different ad-hoc tests, considering diesel exhaust fumes and incense smoke PM. Despite the fact that procedures and materials can be designed for remediation, the high impact on the environment, for example in terms of natural resources consumption and emissions, are not usually considered. Instead, we believe that the technologies must be always evaluated in terms of material embodied energy (EE) and carbon footprint (CF). We define our approach to solve environment problems by a sustainable methodology "Azure Chemistry". For the SUNSPACE synthesis, the multi-criteria decision analysis was performed to select the best sustainable solution. The emissions and the energies involved in the synthesis of SUNSPACE material were evaluated with the Azure Chemistry approach, showing that this could be the best available technology to face the problem of capturing the PM in urban area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The integration of the contents of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I in Biology-Chemistry specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sc. Luis AZCUY LORENZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is the result of a research task developed in the Natural Sciences Education Department during 2013-2014 academic year, and it emerged from the necessity of solving some insufficiencies in the use of the real potentialities offered by the content of the subject Physics-Chemistry (I, that is part of the curriculum of the Biology-Chemistry career. Its main objective is to offer a set of exercises to contribute to achieve the integration of contents from the subject Physics-chemistry (I in the mentioned career at «Ignacio Agramonte Loynaz» University of Camaguey. The exercises proposed are characterized for being related to the real practice and to other subjects of the career. Their implementation through review lessons, partial tests and final evaluations during the formative experiment made possible a better academic result in the learners overall performance.

  4. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E.; Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J.

    2011-11-01

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  5. Biomaterials — where biology, physics, chemistry, engineering and medicine meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, K. A.

    2008-03-01

    The success or failure of an implant material in the body depends on a complex interaction between a synthetic 'foreign body' and the 'host tissue'. These interactions occur at many levels from the sub-microscopic level, where subtle changes in the surface physio-chemistry can substantially alter the nature of the biomaterial-host tissue interface, through the microscopical level (e.g. sensitivity to surface topography) to the macrostructural level (e.g. dependence on scaffold porosity). Thus the factors that control these responses are not only biologically determined but also mechanically, physically and chemically mediated, although identifying where one starts and the other finishes can be difficult. Design of a successful medical device has therefore to call on expertise within a wide range of disciplines. In terms of both investigating the basic science behind the factors which orchestrate a biological response and developing research tools that enable study of these responses. However, a medical device must also meet the economic and practical demands of health care professionals who will ultimately be using it in the clinic. Bone graft substitute materials are used in orthopaedics as an alternative or adjunct to autografting, a practice where the patient 'donates' bone from a healthy site to aid bone repair at a damaged or diseased site. These materials are used in a wide range of procedures from total hip revision to spinal fusion and their evolution over the last 10 years illustrates how an interdisciplinary approach has benefited their development and may lead to further innovation in the future.

  6. Extreme states of matter in strong interaction physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    This book is a course-tested primer on the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter – a profound and challenging area of both theoretical and experimental modern physics. Analytical and numerical studies of statistical quantum chromodynamics provide the main theoretical tool, while in experiments, high-energy nuclear collisions are the key for extensive laboratory investigations. As such, the field straddles statistical, particle and nuclear physics, both conceptually and in the methods of investigation used. The book addresses, above all, the many young scientists starting their scientific research in this field, providing them with a general, self-contained introduction that highlights the basic concepts and ideas and explains why we do what we do. Much of the book focuses on equilibrium thermodynamics: first it presents simplified phenomenological pictures, leading to critical behavior in hadronic matter and to a quark-hadron phase transition. This is followed by elements of finite temperature latti...

  7. Physics, radiology, and chemistry. An introduction to natural science. 8. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, O.K.; Knigge, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction to physics and chemistry especially for medical personnel. After a general introduction, measurement methods, mechanics including mechanics of solid bodies, fluids and gases, heat, optics, acoustics, electricity, radiations including their biological effects, general chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry are treated. Every chapter contains exercises mostly in connection with medical and biological effects. Furthermore connections with biology and medicine are considered. (orig./HP) With 104 figs., 51 tabs [de

  8. Many body quantum physics at the condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano, M. de

    1981-01-01

    The non-relativistic, continuous (as opposed to spin) many-body problem as it relates to condensed matter at absolute zero temperature is reviewed in simple, non-technical terms, mainly from the standpoint of infinite order perturbation theory, for physical systems where all the particles have the same mass but which otherwise interact with arbitrary short- or long-ranged two-body forces. (author)

  9. Proceedings 17. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudis, D.; Kubicova, I.; Bury, P.

    2011-01-01

    The 17. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 22-24 June, 2011 in Spa Novy Smokovec, High Tatras, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of nano-science and technology, thin films, MOS structures, optical phenomena, GaN-based heterostructures, simulation methods, heterostructures and devices, solid state characterization and analysis, materials and radiation, sensors and detection methods, and material sciences. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (55 contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  10. Fusing a Reversed and Informal Learning Scheme and Space: Student Perceptions of Active Learning in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Julie; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2018-01-01

    Physical chemistry students often have negative perceptions and low expectations for success in physical chemistry, attitudes that likely affect their performance in the course. Despite the results of several studies indicating increased positive perception of physical chemistry when active learning strategies are used, a recent survey of faculty…

  11. Chemistry and physics of fogwater collection. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeschke, W.; Enderle, K.H. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Increasing interest in the problems of air pollution and source receptor relationships has led to a significant expansion of knowledge in the field of atmospheric chemistry. In recent years the multiphase atmospheric chemistry was given great scholarly attention, and slogans like acid precipitation, dirty cloud or killer fog indicated these phenomena. The report describes results of collection and chemical analysis of fog water with emphasis or fog microphysics, of the heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry project in the Po-valley, of the development of the Great Dun Fell project, of the mountain cloud chemistry project in eastern U.S., of the design of fog water collectors and of the numerical study of the radiation fog event on October 10/11, 1982 in Albany, N.Y.

  12. Phase Equilibrium, Chemical Equilibrium, and a Test of the Third Law: Experiments for Physical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannhauser, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Described is an experiment designed to provide an experimental basis for a unifying point of view (utilizing theoretical framework and chemistry laboratory experiments) for physical chemistry students. Three experiments are described: phase equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, and a test of the third law of thermodynamics. (Author/DS)

  13. Challenges in QCD matter physics -The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Agarwal, K.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, F.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.; Akindinov, A.; Akishin, P.; Akishina, E.; Akishina, T.; Akishina, V.; Akram, A.; Al-Turany, M.; Alekseev, I.; Alexandrov, E.; Alexandrov, I.; Amar-Youcef, S.; Anđelić, M.; Andreeva, O.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anisimov, Yu.; Appelshäuser, H.; Argintaru, D.; Atkin, E.; Avdeev, S.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Baban, V.; Bach, M.; Badura, E.; Bähr, S.; Balog, T.; Balzer, M.; Bao, E.; Baranova, N.; Barczyk, T.; Bartoş, D.; Bashir, S.; Baszczyk, M.; Batenkov, O.; Baublis, V.; Baznat, M.; Becker, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Belogurov, S.; Belyakov, D.; Bendarouach, J.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berendes, R.; Berezin, G.; Bergmann, C.; Bertini, D.; Bertini, O.; Beşliu, C.; Bezshyyko, O.; Bhaduri, P. P.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Biswas, S.; Blank, T.; Blau, D.; Blinov, V.; Blume, C.; Bocharov, Yu.; Book, J.; Breitner, T.; Brüning, U.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Büsching, H.; Bus, T.; Butuzov, V.; Bychkov, A.; Byszuk, A.; Cai, Xu; Cãlin, M.; Cao, Ping; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Carević, I.; Cătănescu, V.; Chakrabarti, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaus, A.; Chen, Hongfang; Chen, LuYao; Cheng, Jianping; Chepurnov, V.; Cherif, H.; Chernogorov, A.; Ciobanu, M. I.; Claus, G.; Constantin, F.; Csanád, M.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Das, Supriya; Das, Susovan; de Cuveland, J.; Debnath, B.; Dementiev, D.; Deng, Wendi; Deng, Zhi; Deppe, H.; Deppner, I.; Derenovskaya, O.; Deveaux, C. A.; Deveaux, M.; Dey, K.; Dey, M.; Dillenseger, P.; Dobyrn, V.; Doering, D.; Dong, Sheng; Dorokhov, A.; Dreschmann, M.; Drozd, A.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubnichka, S.; Dubnichkova, Z.; Dürr, M.; Dutka, L.; Dželalija, M.; Elsha, V. V.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Eremin, V.; Eşanu, T.; Eschke, J.; Eschweiler, D.; Fan, Huanhuan; Fan, Xingming; Farooq, M.; Fateev, O.; Feng, Shengqin; Figuli, S. P. D.; Filozova, I.; Finogeev, D.; Fischer, P.; Flemming, H.; Förtsch, J.; Frankenfeld, U.; Friese, V.; Friske, E.; Fröhlich, I.; Frühauf, J.; Gajda, J.; Galatyuk, T.; Gangopadhyay, G.; García Chávez, C.; Gebelein, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gläßel, S.; Goffe, M.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Golovatyuk, V.; Golovnya, S.; Golovtsov, V.; Golubeva, M.; Golubkov, D.; Gómez Ramírez, A.; Gorbunov, S.; Gorokhov, S.; Gottschalk, D.; Gryboś, P.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Gudima, K.; Gumiński, M.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Yu.; Han, Dong; Hartmann, H.; He, Shue; Hehner, J.; Heine, N.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrmann, N.; Heß, B.; Heuser, J. M.; Himmi, A.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Hu, Dongdong; Huang, Guangming; Huang, Xinjie; Hutter, D.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanischev, D.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, P.; Ivanov, Valery; Ivanov, Victor; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivashkin, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Jahan, H.; Jain, V.; Jakovlev, V.; Janson, T.; Jiang, Di; Jipa, A.; Kadenko, I.; Kähler, P.; Kämpfer, B.; Kalinin, V.; Kallunkathariyil, J.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kaptur, E.; Karabowicz, R.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karmanov, D.; Karnaukhov, V.; Karpechev, E.; Kasiński, K.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kaur, M.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Kekelidze, G.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Khasanov, F.; Khvorostukhin, A.; Kirakosyan, V.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiryakov, A.; Kiš, M.; Kisel, I.; Kisel, P.; Kiselev, S.; Kiss, T.; Klaus, P.; Kłeczek, R.; Klein-Bösing, Ch.; Kleipa, V.; Klochkov, V.; Kmon, P.; Koch, K.; Kochenda, L.; Koczoń, P.; Koenig, W.; Kohn, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Kolosova, A.; Komkov, B.; Korolev, M.; Korolko, I.; Kotte, R.; Kovalchuk, A.; Kowalski, S.; Koziel, M.; Kozlov, G.; Kozlov, V.; Kramarenko, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krebs, E.; Kreidl, C.; Kres, I.; Kresan, D.; Kretschmar, G.; Krieger, M.; Kryanev, A. V.; Kryshen, E.; Kuc, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucher, V.; Kudin, L.; Kugler, A.; Kumar, Ajit; Kumar, Ashwini; Kumar, L.; Kunkel, J.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, N.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Kushpil, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Kyva, V.; Ladygin, V.; Lara, C.; Larionov, P.; Laso García, A.; Lavrik, E.; Lazanu, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E.; Lehnert, J.; Lehrbach, J.; Leifels, Y.; Lemke, F.; Li, Cheng; Li, Qiyan; Li, Xin; Li, Yuanjing; Lindenstruth, V.; Linnik, B.; Liu, Feng; Lobanov, I.; Lobanova, E.; Löchner, S.; Loizeau, P.-A.; Lone, S. A.; Lucio Martínez, J. A.; Luo, Xiaofeng; Lymanets, A.; Lyu, Pengfei; Maevskaya, A.; Mahajan, S.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Mahmoud, T.; Maj, P.; Majka, Z.; Malakhov, A.; Malankin, E.; Malkevich, D.; Malyatina, O.; Malygina, H.; Mandal, M. M.; Mandal, S.; Manko, V.; Manz, S.; Marin Garcia, A. M.; Markert, J.; Masciocchi, S.; Matulewicz, T.; Meder, L.; Merkin, M.; Mialkovski, V.; Michel, J.; Miftakhov, N.; Mik, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Mikhaylov, V.; Milanović, B.; Militsija, V.; Miskowiec, D.; Momot, I.; Morhardt, T.; Morozov, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Müntz, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Muñoz Castillo, C. E.; Murin, Yu.; Najman, R.; Nandi, C.; Nandy, E.; Naumann, L.; Nayak, T.; Nedosekin, A.; Negi, V. S.; Niebur, W.; Nikulin, V.; Normanov, D.; Oancea, A.; Oh, Kunsu; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ososkov, G.; Otfinowski, P.; Ovcharenko, E.; Pal, S.; Panasenko, I.; Panda, N. R.; Parzhitskiy, S.; Patel, V.; Pauly, C.; Penschuck, M.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Petráček, V.; Petri, M.; Petriş, M.; Petrovici, A.; Petrovici, M.; Petrovskiy, A.; Petukhov, O.; Pfeifer, D.; Piasecki, K.; Pieper, J.; Pietraszko, J.; Płaneta, R.; Plotnikov, V.; Plujko, V.; Pluta, J.; Pop, A.; Pospisil, V.; Poźniak, K.; Prakash, A.; Prasad, S. K.; Prokudin, M.; Pshenichnov, I.; Pugach, M.; Pugatch, V.; Querchfeld, S.; Rabtsun, S.; Radulescu, L.; Raha, S.; Rami, F.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Raportirenko, A.; Rautenberg, J.; Rauza, J.; Ray, R.; Razin, S.; Reichelt, P.; Reinecke, S.; Reinefeld, A.; Reshetin, A.; Ristea, C.; Ristea, O.; Rodriguez Rodriguez, A.; Roether, F.; Romaniuk, R.; Rost, A.; Rostchin, E.; Rostovtseva, I.; Roy, Amitava; Roy, Ankhi; Rożynek, J.; Ryabov, Yu.; Sadovsky, A.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sahu, S. K.; Saini, J.; Samanta, S.; Sambyal, S. S.; Samsonov, V.; Sánchez Rosado, J.; Sander, O.; Sarangi, S.; Satława, T.; Sau, S.; Saveliev, V.; Schatral, S.; Schiaua, C.; Schintke, F.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, K.; Scholten, J.; Schweda, K.; Seck, F.; Seddiki, S.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Semennikov, A.; Senger, A.; Senger, P.; Shabanov, A.; Shabunov, A.; Shao, Ming; Sheremetiev, A. D.; Shi, Shusu; Shumeiko, N.; Shumikhin, V.; Sibiryak, I.; Sikora, B.; Simakov, A.; Simon, C.; Simons, C.; Singaraju, R. N.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singhal, V.; Singla, M.; Sitzmann, P.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Škoda, L.; Skwira-Chalot, I.; Som, I.; Song, Guofeng; Song, Jihye; Sosin, Z.; Soyk, D.; Staszel, P.; Strikhanov, M.; Strohauer, S.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sultanov, R.; Sun, Yongjie; Svirida, D.; Svoboda, O.; Szabó, A.; Szczygieł, R.; Talukdar, R.; Tang, Zebo; Tanha, M.; Tarasiuk, J.; Tarassenkova, O.; Târzilă, M.-G.; Teklishyn, M.; Tischler, T.; Tlustý, P.; Tölyhi, T.; Toia, A.; Topil'skaya, N.; Träger, M.; Tripathy, S.; Tsakov, I.; Tsyupa, Yu.; Turowiecki, A.; Tuturas, N. G.; Uhlig, F.; Usenko, E.; Valin, I.; Varga, D.; Vassiliev, I.; Vasylyev, O.; Verbitskaya, E.; Verhoeven, W.; Veshikov, A.; Visinka, R.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Volkov, S.; Volochniuk, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Voronin, Aleksey; Voronin, Alexander; Vovchenko, V.; Vznuzdaev, M.; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xi-Wei; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Yi; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wessels, J. P.; Wiebusch, M.; Wiechula, J.; Wielanek, D.; Wieloch, A.; Wilms, A.; Winckler, N.; Winter, M.; Wiśniewski, K.; Wolf, Gy.; Won, Sanguk; Wu, Ke-Jun; Wüstenfeld, J.; Xiang, Changzhou; Xu, Nu; Yang, Junfeng; Yang, Rongxing; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yuldashev, B.; Yushmanov, I.; Zabołotny, W.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Zamiatin, N. I.; Zanevsky, Yu.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Zheng, Jiajun; Zheng, Sheng; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Jing; Zhu, Xianglei; Zinchenko, A.; Zipper, W.; Żoładź, M.; Zrelov, P.; Zryuev, V.; Zumbruch, P.; Zyzak, M.

    2017-03-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√{s_{NN}}= 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials ( μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter.

  14. Soft matter food physics--the physics of food and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from 'hard matter systems', such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to 'soft matter' in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.

  15. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1979-September 1980: fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Research is reported on the physics and chemistry of atoms, ions, and molecules, especially their interactions with external agents such as photons and electrons. Individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base

  16. Cold molecules: Progress in quantum engineering of chemistry and quantum matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, John L.; Rey, Ana Maria; Ye, Jun

    2017-09-01

    Cooling atoms to ultralow temperatures has produced a wealth of opportunities in fundamental physics, precision metrology, and quantum science. The more recent application of sophisticated cooling techniques to molecules, which has been more challenging to implement owing to the complexity of molecular structures, has now opened the door to the longstanding goal of precisely controlling molecular internal and external degrees of freedom and the resulting interaction processes. This line of research can leverage fundamental insights into how molecules interact and evolve to enable the control of reaction chemistry and the design and realization of a range of advanced quantum materials.

  17. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  18. Quantum Chemistry; A concise introduction for students of physics, chemistry, biochemistry and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Ajit J.

    2017-09-01

    This book provides non-specialists with a basic understanding of the underlying concepts of quantum chemistry. It is both a text for second- or third-year undergraduates and a reference for researchers who need a quick introduction or refresher. All chemists and many biochemists, materials scientists, engineers, and physicists routinely use spectroscopic measurements and electronic structure computations in their work. The emphasis of Quantum Chemistry on explaining ideas rather than enumerating facts or presenting procedural details makes this an excellent foundation text/reference.

  19. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  20. Physical stress, mass, and energy for non-relativistic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.

    2017-06-01

    For theories of relativistic matter fields there exist two possible definitions of the stress-energy tensor, one defined by a variation of the action with the coframes at fixed connection, and the other at fixed torsion. These two stress-energy tensors do not necessarily coincide and it is the latter that corresponds to the Cauchy stress measured in the lab. In this note we discuss the corresponding issue for non-relativistic matter theories. We point out that while the physical non-relativistic stress, momentum, and mass currents are defined by a variation of the action at fixed torsion, the energy current does not admit such a description and is naturally defined at fixed connection. Any attempt to define an energy current at fixed torsion results in an ambiguity which cannot be resolved from the background spacetime data or conservation laws. We also provide computations of these quantities for some simple non-relativistic actions.

  1. Kant and the nature of matter: Mechanics, chemistry, and the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaukroger, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Kant believed that the ultimate processes that regulate the behavior of material bodies can be characterized exclusively in terms of mechanics. In 1790, turning his attention to the life sciences, he raised a potential problem for his mechanically-based account, namely that many of the operations described in the life sciences seemed to operate teleologically. He argued that the life sciences do indeed require us to think in teleological terms, but that this is a fact about us, not about the processes themselves. Nevertheless, even were we to concede his account of the life sciences, this would not secure the credentials of mechanics as a general theory of matter. Hardly any material properties studied in the second half of the eighteenth century were, or could have been, conceived in mechanical terms. Kant's concern with teleology is tangential to the problems facing a general matter theory grounded in mechanics, for the most pressing issues have nothing to do with teleology. They derive rather from a lack of any connection between mechanical forces and material properties. This is evident in chemistry, which Kant dismisses as being unscientific on the grounds that it cannot be formulated in mechanical terms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring Different Types of Assessment Items to Measure Linguistically Diverse Students' Understanding of Energy and Matter in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kihyun; Toutkoushian, Emily; Bedell, Kristin

    2018-01-01

    Energy and matter are fundamental, yet challenging concepts in middle school chemistry due to their abstract, unobservable nature. Although it is important for science teachers to elicit a range of students' ideas to design and revise their instruction, capturing such varied ideas using traditional assessments consisting of multiple-choice items…

  3. 7. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 7th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics, traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP) which celebrates this year its 50th anniversary. The conference reports have been delivered in a broad range of topics in materials science, condensed matter physics, electrochemistry reflecting the research results of the scientific staff and Ph.D. students from the IAP as well as those by distinguished guests from different countries. The abstracts cover special issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as advances in condensed matter theory; theory of low dimensional systems; modelling of materials and structural properties; ordering and phase transitions; quantum optics and electronics; strong correlated electronic systems; crystal growth; electronic processes and transport properties of semiconductors and superconductors; ordering processes in magnetic and multiferroic systems; interaction of light and matter, and optical phenomena; properties of composites, meta materials and molecular materials; crystal engineering of solid state structures; metal-organic materials; porous materials; advanced materials with magnetic, luminescent, nonlinear optical , thermoelectric, catalytic, analytic and pharmaceutical properties; defects engineering and mechanical properties; crystallography of organic, inorganic and supramolecular compounds; advanced physics of nanosystems; methods of nanostructures and nanomaterials fabrication and characterization; electronic properties of quantum wells, superlattices, nanowires and nanodots; meso- and nanoelectronics, optical processes in nanostructures; emerging phenomena in nanocomposites and nanomaterials; device modelling and simulation, device structures and elements; photovoltaics: crystals, thin films, nanoparticles

  4. Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences (by Raymond Chang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounds, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    This book does offer an alternative approach to physical chemistry that is particularly well suited for those who want to pursue a course of study more focused on the biological sciences. It could also be an excellent choice for schools that mainly serve preprofessional programs or for schools that have split physical chemistry tracks to independently serve the B.S. and B.A. degrees. Since the book focuses on single-variable mathematics, schools that require only one year of calculus for their chemistry degree could also think about adopting it. However, in general, the use of the text as a drop-in replacement for physical chemistry for the B.S. degree is questionable owing to its lack of focus on quantum mechanics and its implications for spectroscopy.

  5. Non-Commutative Mechanics in Mathematical & in Condensed Matter Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horváthy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutative structures were introduced, independently and around the same time, in mathematical and in condensed matter physics (see Table 1. Souriau's construction applied to the two-parameter central extension of the planar Galilei group leads to the ''exotic'' particle, which has non-commuting position coordinates. A Berry-phase argument applied to the Bloch electron yields in turn a semiclassical model that has been used to explain the anomalous/spin/optical Hall effects. The non-commutative parameter is momentum-dependent in this case, and can take the form of a monopole in momentum space.

  6. Australian and New Zealand Institutes of Physics. Eighteenth annual condensed matter physics meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, D.; Hutchinson, W.; Yazidjoglou, N.; Stewart, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Handbook contains abstracts of oral and poster presentations covering various aspects of condensed matter physics such as magnetism, superconductivity, semiconductor materials and their properties, as well as the use of nuclear techniques in studies of these materials. 162 contributions have been considered to be in the INIS subject scope and were indexed separately

  7. Physical chemistry of the interface between oxide and aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The behavior and properties of small oxide particles in aqueous suspension are dominated by the physico-chemistry of their surface. It is electrostatically charged and strongly solvated. The origin of the surface charge is discussed through the MUSIC model [Hiemstra 1996], allowing to estimate the acid-base behavior of surface oxygen atoms. The stability of aqueous dispersions of particles is analysed following the DLVO model, with a special attention on the hydration layers allowing the peptization of flocs. Different adsorption mechanisms of metal cations are presented in terms of coordination chemistry (outer- and inner-sphere complexes) emphasizing the coordinating ability of the surface towards metal complexes in solution. The anion adsorption is also studied in relation with some interesting consequences on spinel iron oxide nano-particles. (author)

  8. Challenges in QCD matter physics. The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablyazimov, T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Information Technologies; Abuhoza, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Adak, R.P. [Bose Institute, Kolkata (India). Dept. of Physics; and others

    2017-03-15

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√(s{sub NN}) = 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (μ{sub B} > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter. (orig.)

  9. Challenges in QCD matter physics. The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablyazimov, T.; Adak, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial experimental and theoretical efforts worldwide are devoted to explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter. At LHC and top RHIC energies, QCD matter is studied at very high temperatures and nearly vanishing net-baryon densities. There is evidence that a Quark-Gluon-Plasma (QGP) was created at experiments at RHIC and LHC. The transition from the QGP back to the hadron gas is found to be a smooth cross over. For larger net-baryon densities and lower temperatures, it is expected that the QCD phase diagram exhibits a rich structure, such as a first-order phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter which terminates in a critical point, or exotic phases like quarkyonic matter. The discovery of these landmarks would be a breakthrough in our understanding of the strong interaction and is therefore in the focus of various high-energy heavy-ion research programs. The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR will play a unique role in the exploration of the QCD phase diagram in the region of high net-baryon densities, because it is designed to run at unprecedented interaction rates. High-rate operation is the key prerequisite for high-precision measurements of multi-differential observables and of rare diagnostic probes which are sensitive to the dense phase of the nuclear fireball. The goal of the CBM experiment at SIS100 (√(s_N_N) = 2.7-4.9 GeV) is to discover fundamental properties of QCD matter: the phase structure at large baryon-chemical potentials (μ_B > 500 MeV), effects of chiral symmetry, and the equation of state at high density as it is expected to occur in the core of neutron stars. In this article, we review the motivation for and the physics programme of CBM, including activities before the start of data taking in 2024, in the context of the worldwide efforts to explore high-density QCD matter. (orig.)

  10. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD x , these fluctuations begin to occur as x → 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD x the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  11. Framework for understanding LENR processes, using conventional condensed matter physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, Scott R. [Research Systems Inc., 9822 Pebble Weigh Ct., Burke VA 22015-3378 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Conventional condensed matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding low-energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) in solids. In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact. Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C and C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-matrix theory). In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that, implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENRs can proceed without. the emission of high-energy particles. In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier ion band state (IBS) model by C and C. The general model clarifies the origin of coherent. processes that initiate LENRs, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nano-scale crystals. In the case of PdD{sub x}, these fluctuations begin to occur as x {yields} 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm. The resulting LENRs are triggered by the polarization between injected d's and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals. During the prolonged charging of PdD{sub x} the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators. But because the fluctuations are ionic and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures, a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD. Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields. (authors)

  12. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  13. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  14. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Science)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) is engaged by the DOE to conduct studies of the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium elements (TRU; primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium; Np, Pu, Am) and technetium T c in alkaline media. This work is being supported by the DOE because the radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRU and T c , are alkaline, and the chemistries of TRU and T c are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry and on coprecipitation. Work continuing in FY 1996 will focus more on the applied chemistry of the TRU and T c in alkaline media and continue effort on the coprecipitation task

  15. Fundamentals of nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The author of the book has had 25 years of experience at the Nuclear Chemistry of Prague Technical University. In consequence, the book is intended as a basic textbook for students of this field. Its main objectives are an easily understandable presentation of the complex subject and in spite of the uncertainty which still characterizes the definition and subjects of nuclear chemistry - a systematic classification and logical structure. Contents: 1. Introduction (history and definition); 2. General nuclear chemistry (physical fundamentals, hot atom chemistry, interaction of nuclear radiation with matter, radioactive elements, isotope effects, isotope exchange, chemistry of radioactive trace elements); 3. Methods of nuclear chemistry of nuclear chemistry (radiochemical methods, activation, separation and enrichment chemistry); 4. Preparative nuclear chemistry (isotope production, labelled compounds); 5. Analytival nuclear chemistry; 6. Applied nuclear chemistry (isotope applications in general physical and analytical chemistry). The book is supplemented by an annex with tables, a name catalogue and a subject index which will facilitate access to important information. (RB) [de

  16. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel

  17. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  18. A Python Program for Solving Schro¨dinger's Equation in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, Matthew N.; Upadhyay, Shiv; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2017-01-01

    In undergraduate physical chemistry, Schrödinger's equation is solved for a variety of cases. In doing so, the energies and wave functions of the system can be interpreted to provide connections with the physical system being studied. Solving this equation by hand for a one-dimensional system is a manageable task, but it becomes time-consuming…

  19. IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Progress report - 1995-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The biannual progress report of 1995-1996 of IPEN's Nuclear Physics and Chemistry Department - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: neutron activation and radiochemical analysis; nuclear structure and reactions; neutron diffraction; hyperfine interactions; applied physics and instrumentation; publications; academic activities; services; and personnel.

  20. An Absolute Phase Space for the Physicality of Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, John S.

    2010-01-01

    We define an abstract and absolute phase space (''APS'') for sub-quantum intrinsic wave states, in three axes, each mapping directly to a duality having fundamental ontological basis. Many aspects of quantum physics emerge from the interaction algebra and a model deduced from principles of 'unique solvability' and 'identifiable entity', and we reconstruct previously abstract fundamental principles and phenomena from these new foundations. The physical model defines bosons as virtual continuous waves pairs in the APS, and fermions as real self-quantizing snapshots of those waves when simple conditions are met. The abstraction and physical model define a template for the constitution of all fermions, a template for all the standard fundamental bosons and their local interactions, in a common framework and compactified phase space for all forms of real matter and virtual vacuum energy, and a distinct algebra for observables and unobservables. To illustrate our scheme's potential, we provide examples of slit experiment variations (where the model finds theoretical basis for interference only occurring between two final sources), QCD (where we may model most attributes known to QCD, and a new view on entanglement), and we suggest approaches for other varied applications. We believe this is a viable candidate for further exploration as a foundational proposition for physics.

  1. Radiation Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Chitosan and Other Polysaccharides. Fundamental Studies and Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Czechowska-Biskup, Renata; Rokita, Bożena; Olejnik, Alicja K.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of activities performed at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry (IARC) within the framework of the CRP project. It consists of two parts. Part I is a brief account of the activities related to design, tests, sample procurement and characterization and formulation of “Protocol for determination of intrinsic viscosity of chitosan” designed to be the basis of the interlaboratory study on viscometric determination of chitosan molecular weight as well as on radiation degradation of chitosan in controlled conditions. Part II contains the text of the Protocol, and is given in the Annex. (author)

  2. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences: FY 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    The Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences is conducting a program of fundamental and applied research into the chemistry of the actinides and technetium in alkaline media such as are present in the Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. This work is being coordinated and the results disseminated through a technical liaison maintained at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The technical liaison is performing laboratory studies on plutonium chemistry in alkaline media. The activities at the Institute of Physical Chemistry and through the liaison are pursued to improve understanding of the chemical behavior of key long-lived radioactive elements under current operating and proposed tank waste processing conditions. Both activities are supported by the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program under the Office of Science and Technology of the U.S. Department of Energy

  3. Eureka! Physics of Particles, Matter and the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, Colm T

    1997-01-01

    To provide a simple account of the whole of physics within 200 pages (excluding a glossary and index) of a small-format book is an extraordinarily ambitious project, yet this is what Roger Blin-Stoyle has attempted in Eureka! and, on the whole, he has succeeded admirably. Furthermore, he has achieved this without resorting to much more than a dozen mathematical expressions, most of them in the treatment of special relativity. To say that the account is comprehensive would be something of an understatement; this reviewer failed to detect a single topic, pure or applied, which could be described as part of mainstream physics which did not get at least a mention in these pages. The book is well written and the explanations are clear, as one would expect from an author who is an eminent scientist and who has given a professional lifetime to physics education and the promotion of the discipline. The reader should be warned, however, not to expect anything very radical - there are no novel treatments, no unique insights. The strength of the book lies in its clarity and compactness. The material is presented in a matter-of-fact manner with no forced emphasis on the exotic, so often a feature of recent attempts to present physics to the lay reader. The modern trend towards early specialization in physics courses in schools and universities has many unhappy consequences, not least of which is the loss of awareness of the essential unity of the subject. In this little book Professor Blin-Stoyle makes a valiant and welcome attempt to address the balance. Anyone with an interest in getting to know what is involved in that area of human knowledge we call physics could do a lot worse than start here. (book review)

  4. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-01-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical research and development efforts related to the design and ultimate operation of molten-salt breeder reactor systems are concentrated on fuel- and coolant-salt chemistry, including the development of analytical methods for use in these systems. The chemistry of tellurium in fuel salt is being studied to help elucidate the role of this element in the intergranular cracking of Hastelloy N. Studies were continued of the effect of oxygen-containing species on the equilibrium between dissolved UF 3 and dissolved UF 4 , and, in some cases, between the dissolved uranium fluorides and graphite, and the UC 2 . Several aspects of coolant-salt chemistry are under investigation. Hydroxy and oxy compounds that could be formed in molten NaBF 4 are being synthesized and characterized. Studies of the chemistry of chromium (III) compounds in fluoroborate melts were continued as part of a systematic investigation of the corrosion of structural alloys by coolant salt. An in-line voltammetric method for determining U 4+ /U 3+ ratios in fuel salt was tested in a forced-convection loop over a six-month period. (LK)

  6. Dark matter physics, flavor physics and LHC constraints in the dark matter model with a bottom partner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Tomohiro [Institute for Advanced Research, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Kawamura, Junichiro [Department of Physics, Waseda University,Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Okawa, Shohei [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe,Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-03-10

    In the scenario that dark matter (DM) is a weakly interacting massive particle, there are many possibilities of the interactions with the Standard Model (SM) particles to achieve the relic density of DM. In this paper, we consider a simple DM model where the DM candidate is a complex scalar boson. The model contains a new complex gauge singlet scalar boson and a new fermion whose gauge charge is the same as the right-handed down-type quark. We dub the new fermion the bottom partner. These new particles have Yukawa interactions with the SM down-type quarks. The DM candidate interacts with the SM particles through the Yukawa interactions. The Yukawa interactions are not only relevant to the annihilation process of the DM but also contribute to the flavor physics, such as the ΔF=2 processes. In addition, the flavor alignment of the Yukawa couplings is related to the decay modes of the bottom partner, and thus we can find the explicit correlations among the physical observables in DM physics, flavor physics, and the signals at the LHC. We survey the ΔF=2 processes based on the numerical analyses of the thermal relic density, the direct detection of the DM, and the current LHC bounds. We investigate the perturbative bound on the Yukawa coupling as well. A Study of a fermionic DM model with extra scalar quarks is also given for comparison.

  7. S.E.A. Lab. Science Experiments and Activities. Marine Science for High School Students in Chemistry, Biology and Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kathy, Ed.

    A series of science experiments and activities designed for secondary school students taking biology, chemistry, physics, physical science or marine science courses are outlined. Each of the three major sections--chemistry, biology, and physics--addresses concepts that are generally covered in those courses but incorporates aspects of marine…

  8. Graphene a new paradigm in condensed matter and device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2014-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the science and possible applications of Graphene, the first one-atom-thick crystalline form of matter. Discovered in 2004 by now Nobelists Geim and Novoselov, the single layer of graphite, a hexagonal network of carbon atoms, has astonishing electrical and mechanical properties. It supports the highest electrical current density of any material, far exceeding metals copper and silver. Its absolute minimum thickness, 0.34 nanometers, provides an inherent advantage in possible forms of digital electronics past the era of Moore's Law. The book describes the unusual physics of the material, that it offers linear rather than parabolic energy bands. The Dirac-like electron energy bands lead to high constant carrier speed, similar to light photons. The lattice symmetry further implies a two-component wave-function, which has a practical effect of cancelling direct backscattering of carriers. The resulting high carrier mobility allows observation of the Quantum Hall Effect at room temp...

  9. Scandium: its occurrence, chemistry, physics, metallurgy, biology, and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    This book describes the following aspects of scandium: discovery and history, occurrence in nature, geochemistry and mineralogy, chemical, physical and technological properties, fabrication and metallurgy, its biological significance and toxicology, and its uses. (Extensive references for each chapter)

  10. Saclay Center of Nuclear Studies, Direction of Materials and Nuclear Fuels, Department of Physico-Chemistry, Division of Physical Chemistry. 1968 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Clerc, M.; Le Calve, J.; Bourene, M.; Lesigne, B.; Gillois, M.; Devillers, C.; Arvis, M.; Gilles, L.; Moreau, M.; Sutton, J.; Faraggi, M.; Desalos, J.; Tran Dinh Son; Barat, F.; Hickel, B.; Chachaty, C.; Forchioni, A.; Shiotani, M.; Larher, Y.; Maurice, P.; Le Bail, H.; Nenner, T.

    1969-03-01

    This document is the 1968 annual report of research activities at the Physico-Chemistry Department (Physical Chemistry Division), part of the Directorate of Materials and Nuclear Fuels of the CEA Saclay center of nuclear studies. The report is divided into two main parts: radiolysis and photolysis studies (gaseous phase, condensed phase), and general physico-chemical studies (sorption, molecular jets)

  11. PREFACE: 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics & 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38) and the 1st International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Physics: Condensed Matter, Soft Matter and Materials Physics (IWTCP-1). Both the conference and the workshop were held from 29 July to 1 August 2013 in Pullman hotel, Da Nang, Vietnam. The IWTCP-1 was a new activity of the Vietnamese Theoretical Physics Society (VTPS) organized in association with the 38th National Conference on Theoretical Physics (NCTP-38), the most well-known annual scientific forum dedicated to the dissemination of the latest development in the field of theoretical physics within the country. The IWTCP-1 was also an External Activity of the Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP). The overriding goal of the IWTCP is to provide an international forum for scientists and engineers from academia to share ideas, problems and solution relating to the recent advances in theoretical physics as well as in computational physics. The main IWTCP motivation is to foster scientific exchanges between the Vietnamese theoretical and computational physics community and world-wide scientists as well as to promote high-standard level of research and education activities for young physicists in the country. About 110 participants coming from 10 countries participated in the conference and the workshop. 4 invited talks, 18 oral contributions and 46 posters were presented at the conference. In the workshop we had one keynote lecture and 9 invited talks presented by international experts in the fields of theoretical and computational physics, together with 14 oral and 33 poster contributions. The proceedings were edited by Nguyen Tri Lan, Trinh Xuan Hoang, and Nguyen Ai Viet. We would like to thank all invited speakers, participants and sponsors for making the conference and the workshop successful. Nguyen Ai Viet Chair of NCTP-38 and IWTCP-1

  12. FOREWORD: 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Genova, Julia; Nesheva, Diana; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2014-12-01

    We are delighted to present the Proceedings of the 18th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Challenges of Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials, Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and chaired by Professor Alexander G Petrov. On this occasion the School was held in memory of Professor Nikolay Kirov (1943-2013), former Director of the Institute and Chairman between 1991 and 1998. The 18ISCMP was one of several events dedicated to the 145th anniversary of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in 2014, and was held in the welcoming Black Sea resort of St. Constantine and Helena near Varna, at the Hotel and Congress Centre Frederic Joliot-Curie. Participants from 16 countries delivered 32 invited lectures, and 71 contributed posters were presented over three lively and well-attended evening sessions. Manuscripts submitted to the Proceedings were refereed in accordance with the guidelines of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series, and we believe the papers published herein testify to the high technical quality and diversity of contributions. A satellite meeting, Transition Metal Oxide Thin Films - Functional Layers in Smart Windows and Water Splitting Devices: Technology and Optoelectronic Properties was held in parallel with the School (http://www.inera.org, 3-6 Sept 2014). This activity, which took place under the FP7-funded project INERA, offered opportunities for crossdisciplinary discussions and exchange of ideas between both sets of participants. As always, a major factor in the success of the 18ISCMP was the social programme, headed by the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and enhanced in no small measure by a variety of pleasant local restaurants, bars and beaches. We are most grateful to staff of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for their continued support for the School, this being the third occasion on which the Proceedings have been published under its

  13. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2013-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly), which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student's ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. Detailed Illustrations and links to reference material online help further comprehension. The

  14. Radiation physics and chemistry of biomolecules. Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotheim-Maurizot, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    A chapter of the book ;Radiation chemistry. From basics to application in materials and life sciences (EDP Science, Paris, France, 2008); was devoted to the state-of-the-art in the research on ionizing radiation (IR) effects on biomolecules. An update, eight years later, seemed pertinent enough to the editors of this journal who accepted to dedicate a Special Issue to the latest developments in this area of high interest for cancer radiotherapy, nuclear workers' radioprotection and food radiosterilisation. We sincerely thank them and the authors who accepted to present reviews of their most recent work. Obviously, only a small part of the research in the fascinating domain of molecular radiobiology can be covered here. Some articles are presenting the contribution of biophysical models and computational techniques to the understanding of IR effects on molecules such as DNA and proteins, or on larger systems such as chromatin, chromosomes and even cells (Nikjoo et al., Štěpán & Davídková, Ballarini & Carante, and Nikitaki et al.). In these papers, as well as in many others, several qualities of IR are compared in order to explain the observed differences of effects. The damages induced by the low energy electrons and new techniques involved in their study are discussed in great detail (Sanche and Fromm & Boulanouar). The chemistry behind the IR induced damages (single or clustered), studied in many laboratories around the world is presented in several papers (Cadet & Wagner, Sevilla et al., Chatgilialoglu et al., and Greenberg). One of them addresses a very useful comparison between the effects of IR and UV exposure on DNA (Ravanat & Douki). The majority of the papers in this Special Issue is dealing with DNA and this reflects the real situation: damages of DNA are more studied than those of other biomolecules. This is due to the role of DNA as main support of hereditary information. Nevertheless, more and more studies are outlining the influence of epigenetic

  15. Combining research in physical chemistry and chemical education: Part A. The femtosecond molecular dynamics of small gas-phase anion clusters. Part B. Surveying student beliefs about chemistry and the development of physical chemistry learning tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Jack

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation combines work in the areas of experimental physical chemistry and chemical education. In the area of physical chemistry, femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy is used to interrogate the time-dependence for energy redistribution, solvent reorientation, and dissociation dynamics in small gas-phase anion clusters. The chemical education research addressed in this manuscript include the development and validation of a survey to measure students' beliefs about chemistry and the learning of chemistry and the development and testing of learning tutorials for use in undergraduate physical chemistry courses in thermodynamics and kinetics. In the first part of this dissertation, the Cu(CD3OD) dynamics are investigated using a combination of femtosecond pump-probe experiments and ab initio calculations. Dissociation of this complex into Cu and CD3OD occurs on two distinct time scales: 3 and 30 ps, which arise, respectively, from the coupling of intermolecular solvent rotations and excited methyl rotor rotation into the Cu-O dissociation component upon electron photodetachment of the precursor anion. In the second part of this dissertation, the time-resolved recombination of photodissociated IBr-(CO2)n (n = 5 - 10) cluster anions is investigated. Upon excitation to the A' 2pi 1/2 state of the chromophore, the bare anion results in I- and Br products, upon solvation with CO2, the IBr- chromophore regains near-IR absorption after recombination and vibrational relaxation on the ground electronic state. The recombination times vary with the number of solvent molecules from 12 ps for n = 5 to 900 ps for n = 10. Extensive electronic structure and non-adiabatic molecular dynamic simulations provide a framework to understand this behavior. In the third part of this dissertation, the modification and validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) for use in chemistry is presented in detail. The CLASS survey is designed to measure student

  16. Computer simulation studies in condensed-matter physics 5. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, D.P.; Mon, K.K.; Schuettler, H.B.

    1993-01-01

    As the role of computer simulations began to increase in importance, we sensed a need for a ''meeting place'' for both experienced simulators and neophytes to discuss new techniques and results in an environment which promotes extended discussion. As a consequence of these concerns, The Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics. This year's workshop was the fifth in this series and the interest which the scientific community has shown demonstrates quite clearly the useful purpose which the series has served. The workshop was held at the University of Georgia, February 17-21, 1992, and these proceedings from a record of the workshop which is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the papers to a wider audience. The proceedings are divided into four parts. The first part contains invited papers which deal with simulational studies of classical systems and includes an introduction to some new simulation techniques and special purpose computers as well. A separate section of the proceedings is devoted to invited papers on quantum systems including new results for strongly correlated electron and quantum spin models. The third section is comprised of a single, invited description of a newly developed software shell designed for running parallel programs. The contributed presentations comprise the final chapter. (orig.). 79 figs

  17. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

  18. Enthalpy of Vaporization by Gas Chromatography: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Herbert R.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to measure the enthalpy of vaporization of volatile compounds like methylene chloride, carbon tetrachloride, and others by using gas chromatography. This physical property was measured using a very tiny quantity of sample revealing that it is possible to measure the enthalpies of two or more compounds at the same time.

  19. Workshop on the interface between radiation chemistry and radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Twenty-four papers are grouped under the session headings: measurements of physical and chemical properties, track structure modeling, spurs and track structure, and the 10 - 16 to 10 - 12 second region. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the papers; four of the remaining papers had previously been abstracted

  20. A Study of Faculty Approaches to Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael Ryan

    Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.

  1. Expanding frontiers in materials chemistry and physics with multiple anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Katsuro; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Attfield, J Paul; Hiroi, Zenji; Rondinelli, James M; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R

    2018-02-22

    During the last century, inorganic oxide compounds laid foundations for materials synthesis, characterization, and technology translation by adding new functions into devices previously dominated by main-group element semiconductor compounds. Today, compounds with multiple anions beyond the single-oxide ion, such as oxyhalides and oxyhydrides, offer a new materials platform from which superior functionality may arise. Here we review the recent progress, status, and future prospects and challenges facing the development and deployment of mixed-anion compounds, focusing mainly on oxide-derived materials. We devote attention to the crucial roles that multiple anions play during synthesis, characterization, and in the physical properties of these materials. We discuss the opportunities enabled by recent advances in synthetic approaches for design of both local and overall structure, state-of-the-art characterization techniques to distinguish unique structural and chemical states, and chemical/physical properties emerging from the synergy of multiple anions for catalysis, energy conversion, and electronic materials.

  2. Physics of dense matter, neutron stars, and supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.

    1989-02-01

    Nuclear and astrophysical evidence on the equation of state of dense matter is examined. The role of hyperonization of matter in the development of proto-neutron stars is briefly discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs

  3. Life as physics and chemistry: A system view of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baverstock, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Cellular life can be viewed as one of many physical natural systems that extract free energy from their environments in the most efficient way, according to fundamental physical laws, and grow until limited by inherent physical constraints. Thus, it can be inferred that it is the efficiency of this process that natural selection acts upon. The consequent emphasis on metabolism, rather than replication, points to a metabolism-first origin of life with the adoption of DNA template replication as a second stage development. This order of events implies a cellular regulatory system that pre-dates the involvement of DNA and might, therefore, be based on the information acquired as peptides fold into proteins, rather than on genetic regulatory networks. Such an epigenetic cell regulatory model, the independent attractor model, has already been proposed to explain the phenomenon of radiation induced genomic instability. Here it is extended to provide an epigenetic basis for the morphological and functional diversity that evolution has yielded, based on natural selection of the most efficient free energy transduction. Empirical evidence which challenges the current genetic basis of cell and molecular biology and which supports the above proposal is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Research progress is reported in programs on fuel-salt chemistry, properties of compounds in the Li--Te system, Te spectroscopy UF 4 --H equilibria, porous electrode studies of molten salts, fuel salt-coolant salt reactions, thermodynamic properties of transition-metal fluorides, and properties of sodium fluoroborate. Developmental work on analytical methods is summarized including in-line analysis of molten MSBR fuel, analysis of coolant-salts for tritium, analysis of molten LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 for Fe and analysis of LiF--BeF--ThF 4 for Te

  5. Emergence of life: Physical chemistry changes the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Jan; Pielak, Gary J; Poolman, Bert

    2015-06-10

    Origin of life research has been slow to advance not only because of its complex evolutionary nature (Franklin Harold: In Search of Cell History, 2014) but also because of the lack of agreement on fundamental concepts, including the question of 'what is life?'. To re-energize the research and define a new experimental paradigm, we advance four premises to better understand the physicochemical complexities of life's emergence: (1) Chemical and Darwinian (biological) evolutions are distinct, but become continuous with the appearance of heredity. (2) Earth's chemical evolution is driven by energies of cycling (diurnal) disequilibria and by energies of hydrothermal vents. (3) Earth's overall chemical complexity must be high at the origin of life for a subset of (complex) chemicals to phase separate and evolve into living states. (4) Macromolecular crowding in aqueous electrolytes under confined conditions enables evolution of molecular recognition and cellular self-organization. We discuss these premises in relation to current 'constructive' (non-evolutionary) paradigm of origins research - the process of complexification of chemical matter 'from the simple to the complex'. This paradigm artificially avoids planetary chemical complexity and the natural tendency of molecular compositions toward maximum disorder embodied in the second law of thermodynamics. Our four premises suggest an empirical program of experiments involving complex chemical compositions under cycling gradients of temperature, water activity and electromagnetic radiation.

  6. Concrete durability: physical chemistry of the water attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucon, P.

    1997-01-01

    Cement paste constitutes an basic medium, thermodynamically stable for high pH's. For this reason, water constitutes an aggressive environment. For hydraulic structures, or nuclear waste disposal, water must be considered as a 'chemical loading'. In the short- and medium-term water-degradation of cement paste is principally due to transport of matter between the healthy zone and the aggressive solution through diffusion of ionic species from the interstitial solution of the cement paste. In the long-term, dissolution of the surface may occur. Various cement pastes were prepared and leached with continually demineralized water. After a critical time, which depends on the type of paste, the dissolution of the surface layer in contact with water will control the degradation kinetics. The diffusive and chemical properties of the degraded layer are therefore fundamental for the prediction of the long-term behaviour of concrete in water. 29 Si Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) combined with 27 A1 MAS NMR and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy indicate that the superficial layer is formed by a CSH with a molecular structure near from the tobermorite mineral. Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques allow us to demonstrate the fundamental role of cationic substitutions occurring in the CSH during degradation on the superficial layer solubility. Our experimental results were used to model the cement paste behaviour taking into account the diffusion and the dissolution of the material. (author)

  7. Revisiting the concept of recalcitrance and organic matter persistence in soils and aquatic systems: Does environment trump chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.

    2014-12-01

    Most ecological models of decomposition rely on plant litter chemistry. However, growing evidence suggests that the chemical composition of organic matter (OM) is not a good predictor of its eventual fate in terrestrial or aquatic environments. New data on variable decomposition rates of select organic compounds challenge concepts of chemical recalcitrance, i.e. the inherent ability of certain molecular structures to resist biodegradation. The role of environmental or "ecosystem" properties on influencing decomposition dates back to some of the earliest research on soil OM. Despite early recognition that the physical and aqueous matrices are critical in determining the fate of organic compounds, the prevailing paradigm hinges on intrinsic chemical properties as principal predictors of decay rate. Here I build upon recent reviews and discuss new findings that contribute to three major transformations in our understanding of OM persistence: (1) a shift away from an emphasis on chemical recalcitrance as a primary predictor of turnover, (2) new interpretations of radiocarbon ages which challenge predictions of reactivity, and (3) the recognition that most detrital OM accumulating in soils and in water has been microbially processed. Predictions of OM persistence due to aromaticity are challenged by high variability in lignin and black C turnover observed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Contradictions in the behavior of lignin are, in part, influenced by inconsistent methodologies among research communities. Even black C, long considered to be one of the most recalcitrant components of OM, is susceptible to biodegradation, challenging predictions of the stability of aromatic structures. At the same time, revised interpretations of radiocarbon data suggest that organic compounds can acquire long mean residence times by various mechanisms independent of their molecular structure. Understanding interactions between environmental conditions and biological

  8. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  9. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  10. For the Love of Learning Science: Connecting Learning Orientation and Career Productivity in Physics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Zahra; Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John

    2010-01-01

    An individual's motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this…

  11. EPR Studies of Spin-Spin Exchange Processes: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Michael P.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical background, experimental procedures, and analysis of experimental results are provided for an undergraduate physical chemistry experiment on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidths. Source of line broadening observed in a spin-spin exchange process between radicals formed in aqueous solutions of potassium peroxylamine…

  12. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  13. Essential Concepts and Underlying Theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics for "Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry,…

  14. Retention of Differential and Integral Calculus: A Case Study of a University Student in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukic Matic, Ljerka; Dahl, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study on retention of differential and integral calculus concepts of a second-year student of physical chemistry at a Danish university. The focus was on what knowledge the student retained 14 months after the course and on what effect beliefs about mathematics had on the retention. We argue that if a student can quickly…

  15. Subject Knowledge Enhancement Courses for Creating New Chemistry and Physics Teachers: The Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Richard; Jones, Robert Bryn; Mallaburn, Andrea; Clays, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses are one option open in England to graduates with a science background whose first degree content is judged to be insufficient to train to become chemistry or physics teachers. Previous articles in "School Science Review" have discussed the structure of one type of extended SKE course offered at…

  16. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us. (paper)

  17. Coherence of Physics and Chemistry Curricula in Terms of the Electron Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Ivanova

    2016-08-01

    One of the major contradictions in subject teaching is the contradiction between the unity of the world and the discrete separated generalized content of natural sciences that study natural phenomena. These are physics, chemistry, biology and more. One can eliminate the conflict if opens the content's interdisciplinary links set by the events that are studied by different disciplines. The corresponding contexts of the phenomenon content arise depending on the discipline, and they are not enough coordinated. Obviously, we need a mechanism that allows establishing interdisciplinary links in the content quickly and without losing the logic of the material and assess their coherence in academic disciplines. This article uses a quantitative method of coherence assessment elaborated by T.N. Gnitetskaya. The definition of the concept of the semantic state introduced by the authors is given in this article. The method is applied to coherence assessment of physics and chemistry textbooks. The coherence of two pairs of chemistry and physics textbooks by different authors in different combinations was calculated. The most cohered pairs of textbooks (chemistry-physics) were identified. One can recommend using the pair of textbooks for eighth grade that we offered that favors the development of holistic understandings of the world around us.

  18. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  19. Selected chapters from general chemistry in physics teaching with the help of e - learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feszterová, Melánia

    2017-01-01

    Education in the field of natural disciplines - Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Ecology and Biology takes part in general education at all schools on the territory of Slovakia. Its aim is to reach the state of balanced development of all personal characteristics of pupils, to teach them correctly identify and analyse problems, propose solutions and above all how to solve the problem itself. High quality education can be reached only through the pedagogues who have a good expertise knowledge, practical experience and high level of pedagogical abilities. The teacher as a disseminator of natural-scientific knowledge should be not only well-informed about modern tendencies in the field, but he/she also should actively participate in project tasks This is the reason why students of 1st year of study (bachelor degree) at the Department of Physics of Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra attend lectures in the frame of subject General Chemistry. In this paper we present and describe an e - learning course called General Chemistry that is freely accessible to students. One of the aims of this course is to attract attention towards the importance of cross-curricular approach which seems to be fundamental in contemporary natural-scientific education (e.g. between Physics and Chemistry). This is why it is so important to implement a set of new topics and tasks that support development of abilities to realise cross-curricular goals into the process of preparation of future teachers of Physics.

  20. Computational Modeling of the Optical Rotation of Amino Acids: An "in Silico" Experiment for Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott; Autschbach, Jochen; Zurek, Eva

    2013-01-01

    A computational experiment that investigates the optical activity of the amino acid valine has been developed for an upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory course. Hybrid density functional theory calculations were carried out for valine to confirm the rule that adding a strong acid to a solution of an amino acid in the l…

  1. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  2. Preservice Teachers' Epistemological Beliefs in Physics, Chemistry, and Biology: A Mixed Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to assess preservice teachers' domain-specific epistemological beliefs and to investigate whether preservice teachers distinguish disciplinary differences (physics, chemistry, and biology) in domain-specific epistemological beliefs. Mixed-method research design guided the present research. The researcher explored…

  3. Where Is Earth Science? Mining for Opportunities in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Julie; Ivey, Toni; Puckette, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The Earth sciences are newly marginalized in K-12 classrooms. With few high schools offering Earth science courses, students' exposure to the Earth sciences relies on the teacher's ability to incorporate Earth science material into a biology, chemistry, or physics course. ''G.E.T. (Geoscience Experiences for Teachers) in the Field'' is an…

  4. A Game-Based Approach to an Entire Physical Chemistry Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenfeld, Thorsten; Zenker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    We designed, implemented, and evaluated a game-based learning approach to increase student motivation and achievement for an undergraduate physical chemistry course. By focusing only on the most important game aspects, the implementation was realized with a production ratio of 1:8 (study load in hours divided by production effort in hours).…

  5. A Procedure to Create a Pedagogic Conversational Agent in Secondary Physics and Chemistry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Marín, Diana; Boza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogic Conversational Agents are computer applications that can interact with students in natural language. They have been used with satisfactory results on the instruction of several domains. The authors believe that they could also be useful for the instruction of Secondary Physics and Chemistry Education. Therefore, in this paper, the…

  6. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Spermine-DNA Interactions - Nanostructure and Physical Supramolecular Chemistry of DNA Condensation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kral, Teresa; Langner, M.; Hof, Martin; Adjimatera, N.; Blagbrough, I. S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, Supplement (2004), s22-s23 ISSN 0009-2770 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : fluorescence * nanostructure * DNA condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.348, year: 2004

  7. The Gravity of Regenerative Medicine; Physics, Chemistry & Biology behind it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedeepiya V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The in-vitro expansion of cells of the organs/tissues and their re-implantation into the affected region/ tissue for treating cell/organ failure have been in practice for long, but in limited specialties. The in-vitro cell culture protocols use variety of biological reagents derived from animal sources and recombinant technologies. However, the optimal quantity of such biological components such as growth factors, cytokines etc.,needed for such cells to be grown in a non-physiological environment is still unknown. The use of such biological components have started to stir a controversy of late, due to the recognition of its potential hazards such as spread of prion diseases and contamination with non-human sialic acid proteins. Therefore synthetic reproducible biomaterials are gaining popularity in cell culture and tissue engineering. The biomaterials made of several chemical components based on physical parameters are starting to change certain concepts about the niche of cell culture and that of stem cell expansion and differentiation to specific lineages. Engler et al have already proven that a simple change in the matrix elasticity alone could change the lineage of the cells. Spencer et al have reported that a change in bioelectricity could change the morphogenesis during development. NCRM has been involved in cell culture and tissue engineering using approximately 240 different materials ranging from polymer hydrogel, gel with adherent inserts, nano composite materials, nano-coating technologies, nano-sheets and nano-films. These materials are used in cell culture in different hybrid combinations such as Floating 3D cell culture without adherent components in a homogenous hydrogel. Floating 3D cell culture with anchorage inserts. Flat surface- 2D adherent cell culture. Combined flat surface 2D cell culture (for differentiating cells and floating 3D culture (for undifferentiated cells. These combinations have started yielding several

  8. The chemistry and physics of nonlinear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Eimerl, D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer new nonlinear optical materials with specific desired characteristics has engendered a need for a theoretical description of optical properties which is readily accessible to chemists, yet correctly treats the essential physics of dielectric response. This paper describes a simple empirical molecular orbital model which gives useful insights into the relationship between chemical composition, crystalline structure, and optical susceptibilities. The authors compare the probabilities of finding new harmonic generators in various chemical classes. Rigorous bounds on the magnitudes of linear and nonlinear optical coefficients and their anisotropies are also discussed

  9. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  10. Academic Achievement in Physics-Chemistry: The Predictive Effect of Attitudes and Reasoning Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo N. Vilia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Science education plays a critical role as political priority due to its fundamental importance in engaging students to pursue technological careers considered essential in modern societies, in order to face scientific development challenges. High-level achievement on science education and positive attitudes toward science constitutes a crucial challenge for formal education. Several studies indicate close relationships between students’ attitudes, cognitive abilities, and academic achievement. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of student’s attitudes toward the school discipline of Physics and Chemistry and their reasoning abilities on academic achievement on that school subject, among Portuguese 9th grade students using the data collected during the Project Academic Performance and Development: a longitudinal study on the effects of school transitions in Portuguese students (PTDC/CPE-CED/104884/2008. The participants were 470 students (267 girls – 56.8% and 203 boys – 43.2%, aged 14–16 years old (μ = 14.3 ± 0.58. The attitude data were collected using the Attitude toward Physics-Chemistry Questionnaire (ATPCQ and, the Reasoning Test Battery (RTB was used to assess the students reasoning abilities. Achievement was measured using the students’ quarterly (9-week grades in the physics and chemistry subject. The relationships between the attitude dimensions toward Physics-chemistry and the reasoning dimensions and achievement in each of the three school terms were assessed by multiple regression stepwise analyses and standardized regression coefficients (β, calculated with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software. Both variables studied proved to be significant predictor variables of school achievement. The models obtained from the use of both variables were always stronger accounting for higher proportions of student’s grade variations. The results show that ATPCQ and RTB had a significantly positive relationship with

  11. Essential concepts and underlying theories from physics, chemistry, and mathematics for "biochemistry and molecular biology" majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ann; Provost, Joseph; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two years, through an NSF RCN UBE grant, the ASBMB has held regional workshops for faculty members from around the country. The workshops have focused on developing lists of Core Principles or Foundational Concepts in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, a list of foundational skills, and foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that all Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors must understand to complete their major coursework. The allied fields working group created a survey to validate foundational concepts from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics identified from participant feedback at various workshops. One-hundred twenty participants responded to the survey and 68% of the respondents answered yes to the question: "We have identified the following as the core concepts and underlying theories from Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics that Biochemistry majors or Molecular Biology majors need to understand after they complete their major courses: 1) mechanical concepts from Physics, 2) energy and thermodynamic concepts from Physics, 3) critical concepts of structure from chemistry, 4) critical concepts of reactions from Chemistry, and 5) essential Mathematics. In your opinion, is the above list complete?" Respondents also delineated subcategories they felt should be included in these broad categories. From the results of the survey and this analysis the allied fields working group constructed a consensus list of allied fields concepts, which will help inform Biochemistry and Molecular Biology educators when considering the ASBMB recommended curriculum for Biochemistry or Molecular Biology majors and in the development of appropriate assessment tools to gauge student understanding of how these concepts relate to biochemistry and molecular biology. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  12. The physical basis of thermodynamics with applications to chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Richet, Pascal

    2001-01-01

    Given that thermodynamics books are not a rarity on the market, why would an additional one be useful? The answer is simple: at any level, thermodynamics is usually taught as a somewhat abstruse discipline where many students get lost in a maze of difficult concepts. However, thermodynamics is not as intricate a subject as most people feel. This book fills a niche between elementary textbooks and mathematically oriented treatises, and provides readers with a distinct approach to the subject. As indicated by the title, this book explains thermodynamic phenomena and concepts in physical terms before proceeding to focus on the requisite mathematical aspects. It focuses on the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on thermodynamic properties and places emphasis on rapidly evolving fields such as amorphous materials, metastable phases, numerical simulations of microsystems and high-pressure thermodynamics. Topics like redox reactions are dealt with in less depth, due to the fact that there is a...

  13. The Physics of Life. Part I: The Animate Organism as an Active Condensed Matter Body

    OpenAIRE

    Kukuruznyak , Dmitry ,

    2017-01-01

    Nonequilibrium "active agents" establish bonds with each other and create a quickly evolving condensed state known as active matter. Recently, active matter composed of motile self-organizing biopolymers demonstrated a biotic-like motion similar to cytoplasmic streaming. It was suggested that the active matter could produce cells. However, active matter physics cannot yet define an " organism " and thus make a satisfactory connection to biology. This paper describes an organism made of active...

  14. Higgs inflation, seesaw physics and fermion dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuchika Okada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an inflationary model in which the Standard Model Higgs doublet field with non-minimal coupling to gravity drives inflation, and the effective Higgs potential is stabilized by new physics which includes a dark matter particle and right-handed neutrinos for the seesaw mechanism. All of the new particles are fermions, so that the Higgs doublet is the unique inflaton candidate. With central values for the masses of the top quark and the Higgs boson, the renormalization group improved Higgs potential is employed to yield the scalar spectral index ns≃0.968, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r≃0.003, and the running of the spectral index α=dns/dln⁡k≃−5.2×10−4 for the number of e-folds N0=60 (ns≃0.962, r≃0.004, and α≃−7.5×10−4 for N0=50. The fairly low value of r≃0.003 predicted in this class of models means that the ongoing space and land based experiments are not expected to observe gravity waves generated during inflation.

  15. Preparation for College General Chemistry: More than Just a Matter of Content Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cracolice, Mark S.; Busby, Brittany D.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of five factors that may be predictive of success in college general chemistry courses: prior knowledge of common alternate conceptions, intelligence, scientific reasoning ability, proportional reasoning ability, and attitude toward chemistry. We found that both prior knowledge and scientific reasoning ability…

  16. Basic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories: ACTILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K; Konashi, K; Fujii, T; Uehara, A; Nagasaki, S; Ohtori, N; Tokunaga, Y; Kambe, S

    2010-01-01

    Basic research in actinide chemistry and physics is indispensable to maintain sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. Actinides, especially minor actinides of americium and curium, need to be handled in special facilities with containment and radiation shields. To promote and facilitate actinide research, close cooperation with the facilities and sharing of technical and scientific information must be very important and effective. A three-year-program B asic actinide chemistry and physics research in close cooperation with hot laboratories , ACTILAB, was started to form the basis of sustainable development of innovative nuclear technology. In this program, research on actinide solid-state physics, solution chemistry and solid-liquid interface chemistry is made using four main facilities in Japan in close cooperation with each other, where basic experiments with transuranium elements can be made. The 17 O-NMR measurements were performed on (Pu 0.91 Am 0.09 )O 2 to study the electronic state and the chemical behaviour of Am and Cm ions in electrolyte solutions was studied by distribution experiments.

  17. Physical chemistry and modelling of the sintering of actinide oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechelle, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This report gives a synthesis of the work I have carried out or to which I have numerically contributed to from 1996 up to 2012 in the Department of Plutonium Uranium and minor Actinides in Cadarache CEA Center. Their main goal is the study and the modeling of the sintering process of nuclear fuels which is the unifying thread of this document. Both in order to take into account the physical and chemical features of the actinide bearing oxide material and in order to combine the different transport phenomena leading to sintering, a sub-granular scale model is under development. Extension to a varying chemical composition as well as exchanges with the gaseous phase are foreseen. A simulation on a larger scale (pellet scale) is ongoing in the framework of a PhD thesis. Validation means have been tested with (U,Pu)O 2 material on the scale of the pellet (Small Angle Neutron Diffusion), on the scale of powder granules (X-Ray High Resolution Micro-Tomography) and with CeO 2 at the 'Institut de Chimie Separative' in Marcoule on a single crystal scale (Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope). The required microstructure homogeneity for nuclear fuels has led to a campaign of experimental studies about the role of Cr 2 O 3 as a sintering aid. Whole of these studies improve our understanding of fuel sintering and hence leads to an improved mastering of this process. (author) [fr

  18. Before big science the pursuit of modern chemistry and physics, 1800-1940

    CERN Document Server

    Nye, Mary Jo

    1999-01-01

    Today's vast multinational scientific monoliths bear little resemblance to the modest laboratories of the early nineteenth century. Yet early in the nineteenth century--when heat and electricity were still counted among the elements--changes were already under way that would revolutionize chemistry and physics into the "big science" of the late twentieth century, expanding tiny, makeshift laboratories into bustling research institutes and replacing the scientific amateurs and generalist savants of the early Victorian era with the professional specialists of contemporary physical science. Mary Jo Nye traces the social and intellectual history of the physical sciences from the early 1800s to the beginning of the Second World War, examining the sweeping transformation of scientific institutions and professions during the period and the groundbreaking experiments that fueled that change, from the earliest investigations of molecular chemistry and field dynamics to the revolutionary breakthroughs of quantum mecha...

  19. PREFACE: 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova-Malinovska, Doriana; Nesheva, Diana; Pecheva, Emilia; Petrov, Alexander G.; Primatarowa, Marina T.

    2012-12-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 17th International School on Condensed Matter Physics: Open Problems in Condensed Matter Physics, Biomedical Physics and their Applications, organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. The Chairman of the School was Professor Alexander G Petrov. Like prior events, the School took place in the beautiful Black Sea resort of Saints Constantine and Helena near Varna, going back to the refurbished facilities of the Panorama hotel. Participants from 17 different countries delivered 31 invited lecturers and 78 posters, contributing through three sessions of poster presentations. Papers submitted to the Proceedings were refereed according to the high standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series and the accepted papers illustrate the diversity and the high level of the contributions. Not least significant factor for the success of the 17 ISCMP was the social program, both the organized events (Welcome and Farewell Parties) and the variety of pleasant local restaurants and beaches. Visits to the Archaeological Museum (rich in valuable gold treasures of the ancient Thracian culture) and to the famous rock monastery Aladja were organized for the participants from the Varna Municipality. These Proceedings are published for the second time by the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We are grateful to the Journal's staff for supporting this idea. The Committee decided that the next event will take place again in Saints Constantine and Helena, 1-5 September 2014. It will be entitled: Challenges of the Nanoscale Science: Theory, Materials and Applications. Doriana Dimova-Malinovska, Diana Nesheva, Emilia Pecheva, Alexander G Petrov and Marina T Primatarowa Editors

  20. FOREWORD: Third Nordic Symposium on Computer Simulation in Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaski, K.; Salomaa, M.

    1990-01-01

    ), physics (fluid-dynamical and quantum-mechanical calculations; extensive numerical simulations of various condensed-matter systems; the development of stellar constellations, even the early Universe), chemistry (quantum-chemical calculations on the structures of new chemical compounds; chemical reactions and reaction dynamics), and biology (various models, for example, in population dynamics). We succeeded in our effort to assemble several internationally recognized researchers of Computational Science to deliver invited talks on a couple of exceptionally beautiful late-summer days in the modern premises of the Adult Education Center at Lahti. Among the plenary speakers, Per Bak described his highly original work on self-organized criticality. David Ceperley discussed pioneering numerical simulations of superfluid helium in which, for the first time, Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics has been implemented on a computer. Jim Gunton presented his comprehensive studies of the Cahn-Hilliard equation for the dynamics of ordering in a condensed-matter system far from equilibrium, while Alex Hansen explained those on nonlinear breakdown in disordered materials. Representing the important field of computational chemistry, Bo Jönsson dealt with attractive forces between polyelectrolytes. Kurt Kremer gave an interesting account on computer-simulation studies of complex polymer systems, while Ole Mouritsen reviewed studies of interfacial fluctuations in lipid membranes. Pekka Pyykkö introduced his pioneering work which has led to predictions of completely novel chemical species. Annette Zippelius gave an expert introduction to the highly active field of neural networks. It is evident from each of these intriguing plenary contributions that, indeed, the computational approach is a frontier field of science, possibly providing the most versatile research method available today. We also arranged a competition for the best Posters presented at the Symposium; the

  1. The Chemistry Departement of the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, L.

    1977-01-01

    In 1946, the Institute for Nuclear Physics Research (IKO) in Amsterdam was founded as a typical post World War II effort to cope with the surge in scientific research, primarily in the USA. At present, the Institute encompasses almost 250 workers - including a Philips research group - out of which nearly 30 are members of the Chemistry Department. In the beginning, the investigations dealt with more or less conventional tracerwork using long-lived radionuclides produced in nuclear reactors. This changed rapidly with the synchrocyclotron coming into operation in 1947. The present can be best characterized as a sort of a transition state. Emphasis has been laid upon more typical chemical aspects of the research program: a shift from ''nuclear'' chemistry to ''radio'' chemistry. The future is determined by the 500 MeV linear electron accelerator, dubbed MEA (Medium Energy Accelerator) already under construction. (T.G.)

  2. All basic condensed matter physics phenomena and notions mirror ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biology an opportunity to explore a variety of condensed matter phenomena and situations, some of which have ... The biological matter such as the tiniest of life, an amoeba, is alive ..... and black-holes, nature fascinates physicists. It is the ...

  3. Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferris, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Research and development activities dealing with the chemical problems related to design and ultimate operation of molten-salt reactor systems are described. An experimental test stand was constructed to expose metallurgical test specimens to Te 2 vapor at defined temperatures and deposition rates. To better define the chemistry of fluoroborate coolant, several aspects are being investigated. The behavior of hydroxy and oxy compounds in molten NaBF 4 is being investigated to define reactions and compounds that may be involved in corrosion and/or could be involved in methods for trapping tritium. Two corrosion products of Hastelloy N, Na 3 CrF 6 and Na 5 Cr 3 F 14 , were identified from fluoroborate systems. The evaluation of fluoroborate and alternate coolants continued. Research on the behavior of hydrogen and its isotopes is summarized. The solubilities of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium in Li 2 BeF 4 are very low. The sorption of tritium on graphite was found to be significant (a few milligrams of tritium per kilogram of graphite), possibly providing a means of sequestering a portion of the tritium produced. Development of analytical methods continued with emphasis on voltammetric and spectrophotometric techniques for the in-line analysis of corrosion products such as Fe 2+ and Cr 3+ and the determination of the U 3+ /U 4+ ratio in MSBR fuel salt. Similar studies were conducted with the NaBF 4 --NaF coolant salt. Information developed during the previous operation of the CSTF has been assessed and used to formulate plans for evaluation of in-line analytical methods in future CSTF operations. Electroanalytical and spectrophotometric research suggests that an electroactive protonic species is present in molten NaBF 4 --NaF, and that this species rapidly equilibrates with a volatile proton-containing species. Data obtained from the CSTF indicated that tritium was concentrated in the volatile species. (JGB)

  4. Delayed Reaction: The Tardy Embrace of Physical Organic Chemistry by the German Chemical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weininger, Stephen J

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of physical organic chemistry, which focuses on the mechanisms and structures of organic reactions and molecules using the tools of physical chemistry, was a major development in twentieth-century chemistry. It first flourished in the interwar period, in the UK and then in the US. Germany, by contrast, did not embrace the field until almost a half century later. The great success of classical organic chemistry, especially in synthesis, encouraged indifference to the new field among German chemists, as did their inductivist research philosophy, as enunciated by Walter Hückel's ground-breaking textbook (1931). This author also resisted new concepts and representations, especially those of the American theoretician, Linus Pauling. The arrival of the Nazi regime reinforced such resistance. Postwar conditions initiated a reaction against this conservative, nationalistic attitude, especially in the American Occupation Zone. Exposure to American textbooks and visiting lecturers influenced attitudes of younger chemists. The accompanying shift towards a more explanatory, less hierarchical mode of pedagogy was consonant with larger social and political developments.

  5. Dark clouds in particle physics and cosmology: the issues of dark matter and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinmin

    2011-01-01

    Unveiling the nature of dark matter and dark energy is one of the main tasks of particle physics and cosmology in the 21st century. We first present an overview of the history and current status of research in cosmology, at the same time emphasizing the new challenges in particle physics. Then we focus on the scientific issues of dark energy, dark matter and anti-matter, and review the recent progress made in these fields. Finally, we discuss the prospects for future research on the experimental probing of dark matter and dark energy in China. (authors)

  6. MADNESS applied to density functional theory in chemistry and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fann, G I; Harrison, R J; Beylkin, G; Jia, J; Hartman-Baker, R; Shelton, W A; Sugiki, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe some recent mathematical results in constructing computational methods that lead to the development of fast and accurate multiresolution numerical methods for solving quantum chemistry and nuclear physics problems based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Using low separation rank representations of functions and operators in conjunction with representations in multiwavelet bases, we developed a multiscale solution method for integral and differential equations and integral transforms. The Poisson equation, the Schrodinger equation, and the projector on the divergence free functions provide important examples with a wide range of applications in computational chemistry, nuclear physics, computational electromagnetic and fluid dynamics. We have implemented this approach along with adaptive representations of operators and functions in the multiwavelet basis and low separation rank (LSR) approximation of operators and functions. These methods have been realized and implemented in a software package called Multiresolution Adaptive Numerical Evaluation for Scientific Simulation (MADNESS)

  7. Guide to essential math a review for physics, chemistry and engineering students

    CERN Document Server

    Blinder, Sy M

    2008-01-01

    This book reminds students in junior, senior and graduate level courses in physics, chemistry and engineering of the math they may have forgotten (or learned imperfectly) which is needed to succeed in science courses. The focus is on math actually used in physics, chemistry and engineering, and the approach to mathematics begins with 12 examples of increasing complexity, designed to hone the student''s ability to think in mathematical terms and to apply quantitative methods to scientific problems. By the author''s design, no problems are included in the text, to allow the students to focus on their science course assignments.- Highly accessible presentation of fundamental mathematical techniques needed in science and engineering courses- Use of proven pedagogical techniques develolped during the author's 40 years of teaching experience- illustrations and links to reference material on World-Wide-Web- Coverage of fairly advanced topics, including vector and matrix algebra, partial differential equations, speci...

  8. Use of ionising radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide lays down the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education, as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety licence referred to in section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/1991). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionising radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions

  9. Use of ionizing radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The guide specifies the safety requirements for the use of radiation in school education as well as the principles regulating the use of radiation sources without the safety license referred to the Section 16 of the Finnish Radiation Act (592/91). The guide covers the use of radiation sources emitting ionizing radiation in elementary schools and high schools, as well as the use of radiation in the teaching of physics and chemistry in vocational training institutions and corresponding educational institutions. (3 refs.)

  10. Development of Teaching Materials for a Physical Chemistry Experiment Using the QR Code

    OpenAIRE

    吉村, 忠与志

    2008-01-01

    The development of teaching materials with the QR code was attempted in an educational environment using a mobile telephone. The QR code is not sufficiently utilized in education, and the current study is one of the first in the field. The QR code is encrypted. However, the QR code can be deciphered by mobile telephones, thus enabling the expression of text in a small space.Contents of "Physical Chemistry Experiment" which are available on the Internet are briefly summarized and simplified. T...

  11. Intense Ion Beams for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimbucher, Lynn; Coleman, Joshua Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K + ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally, comparisons of

  12. Intense Ion Beam for Warm Dense Matter Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Joshua Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physical limits of compression and focusing of ion beams for heating material to warm dense matter (WDM) and fusion ignition conditions. The NDCX is a beam transport experiment with several components at a scale comparable to an inertial fusion energy driver. The NDCX is an accelerator which consists of a low-emittance ion source, high-current injector, solenoid matching section, induction bunching module, beam neutralization section, and final focusing system. The principal objectives of the experiment are to control the beam envelope, demonstrate effective neutralization of the beam space-charge, control the velocity tilt on the beam, and understand defocusing effects, field imperfections, and limitations on peak intensity such as emittance and aberrations. Target heating experiments with space-charge dominated ion beams require simultaneous longitudinal bunching and transverse focusing. A four-solenoid lattice is used to tune the beam envelope to the necessary focusing conditions before entering the induction bunching module. The induction bunching module provides a head-to-tail velocity ramp necessary to achieve peak axial compression at the desired focal plane. Downstream of the induction gap a plasma column neutralizes the beam space charge so only emittance limits the focused beam intensity. We present results of beam transport through a solenoid matching section and simultaneous focusing of a singly charged K+ ion bunch at an ion energy of 0.3 MeV. The results include a qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results after the solenoid matching section, which include time resolved current density, transverse distributions, and phase-space of the beam at different diagnostic planes. Electron cloud and gas measurements in the solenoid lattice and in the vicinity of intercepting diagnostics are also presented. Finally

  13. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2013-01-01

    The 19. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 19-21 June, 2013 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  14. Assessment of two physical parameterization schemes for desert dust emissions in an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astitha, M.; Abdel Kader, M.; Pozzer, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter and more specific desert dust has been the topic of numerous research studies in the past due to the wide range of impacts in the environment and climate and the uncertainty of characterizing and quantifying these impacts in a global scale. In this work we present two physical parameterizations of the desert dust production that have been incorporated in the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy2.41 Atmospheric Chemistry). The scope of this work is to assess the impact of the two physical parameterizations in the global distribution of desert dust and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using either technique. The dust concentration and deposition has been evaluated using the AEROCOM dust dataset for the year 2000 and data from the MODIS and MISR satellites as well as sun-photometer data from the AERONET network was used to compare the modelled aerosol optical depth with observations. The implementation of the two parameterizations and the simulations using relatively high spatial resolution (T106~1.1deg) has highlighted the large spatial heterogeneity of the dust emission sources as well as the importance of the input parameters (soil size and texture, vegetation, surface wind speed). Also, sensitivity simulations with the nudging option using reanalysis data from ECMWF and without nudging have showed remarkable differences for some areas. Both parameterizations have revealed the difficulty of simulating all arid regions with the same assumptions and mechanisms. Depending on the arid region, each emission scheme performs more or less satisfactorily which leads to the necessity of treating each desert differently. Even though this is a quite different task to accomplish in a global model, some recommendations are given and ideas for future improvements.

  15. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G.; Pastore, A.; Piazza, F.; Temussi, P. A.

    2013-08-01

    held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding through an

  16. Macromolecular crowding: chemistry and physics meet biology (Ascona, Switzerland, 10-14 June 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foffi, G; Pastore, A; Piazza, F; Temussi, P A

    2013-08-02

    conference held in Ascona from 10 to 14 June 2012. In the unique scenario of the Maggiore lake and absorbed in the magic atmosphere of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF) at Monte Verità, we enjoyed three-and-a-half days of intense and inspiring activity, where not only many of the most prominent scientists working on macromolecular crowding, but also experts in closely related fields such as colloids and soft matter presented their work. The meeting was intended and has been organized to bring theoreticians and experimentalists together in the attempt to promote an active dialogue. Moreover, we wanted different disciplines to be represented, notably physics and chemistry, besides biology, as cross-fertilization is proving an increasingly fundamental source of inspiration and advancement. This issue of Physical Biology (PB) features a selection of the oral contributions presented at the conference, expanded in the form of research or review articles. PB, one of the scientific journals of the Institute of Physics (IOP), is one of the most dynamic and lively forums active at the interface between biology on one side, and physics and mathematics on the other. As its mission is stated by IOP, PB 'focuses on research in which physics-based approaches lead to new insights into biological systems at all scales of space and time, and all levels of complexity'. For these reasons, and also in view of its high reputation and broad readership, PB appears to be the ideal place for disseminating the thriving pieces of research presented at the conference. We are extremely grateful to PB and its kind and efficient editorial staff who helped make this issue a great scientific follow-up to the conference. The opening lecture of the conference, the first of four day-opening keynote lectures, was given by Allen P Minton from NIH (USA), possibly the most influential among the pioneers in the field. He provided a lucid and well-thought-out overview of the concept of macromolecular crowding

  17. Distinct optical chemistry of dissolved organic matter in urban pond ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    McEnroe, N. A.; Williams, C. J.; Xenopoulos, M. A.; Porcal, Petr; Frost, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013), e80334 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dissolved organic matter * photodegradation * fluorescence * PARAFAC Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  18. Perceived Mattering to the Family and Physical Violence within the Family by Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Colangelo, Melissa; Gelles, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Mattering is the extent to which people believe they make a difference in the world around them. This study hypothesizes that adolescents who believe they matter less to their families will more likely threaten or engage in intrafamily physical violence. The data come from a national sample of 2,004 adolescents. Controlling for respondents' age,…

  19. Experimental and Computational Techniques in Soft Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsen, Jeffrey

    2010-09-01

    1. Microscopy of soft materials Eric R. Weeks; 2. Computational methods to study jammed Systems Carl F. Schrek and Corey S. O'Hern; 3. Soft random solids: particulate gels, compressed emulsions and hybrid materials Anthony D. Dinsmore; 4. Langmuir monolayers Michael Dennin; 5. Computer modeling of granular rheology Leonardo E. Silbert; 6. Rheological and microrheological measurements of soft condensed matter John R. de Bruyn and Felix K. Oppong; 7. Particle-based measurement techniques for soft matter Nicholas T. Ouellette; 8. Cellular automata models of granular flow G. William Baxter; 9. Photoelastic materials Brian Utter; 10. Image acquisition and analysis in soft condensed matter Jeffrey S. Olafsen; 11. Structure and patterns in bacterial colonies Nicholas C. Darnton.

  20. Does Teaching Sequence Matter When Teaching High School Chemistry with Scientific Visualisations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Ian; Geelan, David; Mukherjee, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Five Canadian high school Chemistry classes in one school, taught by three different teachers, studied the concepts of dynamic chemical equilibria and Le Chatelier's Principle. Some students received traditional teacher-led explanations of the concept first and used an interactive scientific visualisation second, while others worked with the…

  1. Chemistry and the development of research into the structure of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldanskij, V.

    1977-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to explain the structure of the atomic nucleus and the structure of the electron shell of the atom using a unified quantum mechanics description. The applications are surveyed of the knowledge of the nucleus and electron shell structure in chemistry. Electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and gamma resonance spectrometry are presented as examples. (J.B.)

  2. Chemistry and the development of research into the structure of matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coldanskii, V

    1977-06-01

    Efforts have been made recently to explain the structure of the atomic nucleus and the structure of the electron shell of the atom using a unified quantum mechanics description. The applications are surveyed of the knowledge of the nucleus and electron shell structure in chemistry. Electron paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance and gamma resonance spectrometry are presented as examples.

  3. Proceedings of the 14. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Studies on atomic and molecular physics, crystallography, statistical physics and critical phenomena, instrumentation, liquid crystals, magnetism, metals and alloys, magnetic resonance, superconductivity and semi-conductors are presented. (M.C.K.)

  4. Searching for Dark Matter at the Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquijo Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available facility to be built in 2016, located 1 km below the surface in western Victoria, Australia. I will discuss the status of the proposed SABRE experiment, which will be comprised of a pair of high purity 50-60 kg NaI crystal detectors with active veto shielding to be located in labs in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively. I also discuss projects beyond SABRE, including directional dark matter detectors, which will be used to determine the origin of any true dark matter signals.

  5. Searches for dark matter and new physics with unconventional signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulz, C.-E.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Selected results on searches for dark matter and unconventional signatures with the CMS detector are presented. Dark matter searches in channels with one or two jets, single photons, vector bosons, or top and bottom quarks combined with missing momentum in the final states are described. Unusual signatures such as displaced objects, disappearing or kinked tracks, delayed or stopped particles have also been explored. The analyses were performed with proton-proton data recorded at LHC centre-of-mass energies up to 13TeV.

  6. Nuclear and Condensed Matter Physics: VI Regional CRRNSM Conference. AIP Conference Proceedings, No. 513 [APCPCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messina, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book contains 102 scientific contributions in the areas of nuclear and condensed matter physics. The conference was attended by 144 physicists, most of them belonging to the Sicilian Universities of Palermo, Catania and Messina

  7. Context Matters: Systematic Observation of Place-Based Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is place-based, and being able to assess the number of people and their characteristics in specific locations is important both for public health surveillance and for practitioners in their design of physical activity spaces and programs. Although physical activity measurement has improved recently, many investigators avoid or…

  8. At LEP, a new Physics. The dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.; Haissinski, J.; Perrottet, M.; Renard, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Savoy, C.; Treille, D.

    1990-01-01

    Different observational and theoric reasons of thinking that the major portion of universe matter is dark, are examined, with a particular attention about the milky way halo question. Among the proposed explanations, the interpretation in terms of WINPs (weakly interacting massive particles) and the indirect detection possibilities by their astrophysic consequences are principally presented [fr

  9. Supernova Neutrino Physics with Xenon Dark Matter Detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichard, S.; Lang, R.F.; McCabe, C.; Selvi, M.; Tamborra, I.

    2017-01-01

    The dark matter experiment XENON1T is operational and sensitive to all flavors of neutrinos emitted from a supernova. We show that the proportional scintillation signal (S2) allows for a clear observation of the neutrino signal and guarantees a particularly low energy threshold, while the

  10. An analysis of interest in students learning of physical chemistry experiment using Scientific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widinda Normalia Arlianty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to analyze interest in student learning of physical chemistry experiment on Chemistry Education students, Islamic University of Indonesia. The research was quantitative. The samples of this research were 2nd-semester student academic year 2015. The data learning interest of students were collected by questionnaire and documentation of seven title experimental. Learning interest consisted of three indicators, concluded feeling good, attention and activity in the learning process. The results of this research showed that score mean of feeling good  indicator was  25,9;  score  mean  of attention indicator 17,8, and score mean of  activity indicator 8,41.  Score Mean  students for the questionnaire interest in student learning  was 51,83 and this data was categorized as “good”.

  11. Materials of 4. international meeting on pulse investigations in physics, chemistry and biology. PULS'94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    4. International Meeting on Pulse Investigations in Physics, Chemistry and Biology, PULS'94 has been organized in honor of Professor Jerzy Kroh, the precursor of radiation chemistry in Poland. The meeting has been divided into three sessions: the historical session (H) with four review lectures, lecture session (L) collected 23 papers and poster session (P) with 39 posters. The fundamental studies on early stages of radiolysis have been presented for different systems being irradiated. The pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis methods has been predominantly used in reported experimental works. The reaction of intermediate products of radiolysis and photolysis such a trapped and solvated electrons, ions and radicals has been extensively studied. The reaction mechanisms and kinetics have been also discussed

  12. Physics and Chemistry of Star and Planet Formation in the Alma ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, Edwin

    2014-06-01

    ALMA will open up new avenues of exploration encompassing the wide range of star formation in our galaxy and peering into the central heart of planet-forming circumstellar disks. As we seek to explore the origins of stars and planets molecular emission will be at the front and center of many studies probing gas physics and chemistry. In this talk I will discus some of the areas where we can expect significant advances due to the increased sensitivity and superb spatial resolution of ALMA. In star-forming cores, a rich chemistry is revealed that may be the simpler molecular precursors to more complex organics, such as amino acids, seen within primitive rocks in our own solar system. ALMA will provide new information regarding the relative spatial distribution within a given source for a host of organics, sampling tens to hundreds of transitions of a variety of molecules, including presumably new ones. In this area there is a rich synergy with existing ground and space-based data, including Herschel/Spitzer. Here the increased sampling of sources to be enabled by ALMA should bring greater clarity toward the key products of interstellar chemistry and further constrain processes. On smaller Solar System scales, for over a decade most observations of planet-forming disks focused on the dust thermal continuum emission as a probe of the gas content and structure. ALMA will enable reliable and direct studies of gas to explore the evolving physics of planet-formation, the gas dissipation timescales (i.e. the upper limit to the timescale for giant planet birth), and also the chemistry. It is this chemistry that sets the composition of gas giants and also influences the ultimate composition of water and organic materials that are delivered to terrestrial worlds. Here I will show how we can use molecular emission to determine the gas thermal structure of a disk system and the total gas content - key astrophysical quantities. This will also enable more constrained chemical

  13. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  14. Physics and Chemistry of the Interstellar Medium. General Colloquium, 19-21 November 2012, Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguillon, Francois; Alata, Ivan; Alcaraz, Christian; Alves, Marta; Andre, Philippe; Bachiller, Rafael; Bacmann, Aurore; Baklouti, Donia; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Berne, Olivier; Beroff, Karine; Bertin, Mathieu; Biennier, Ludovic; Bocchio, Marco; Bonal, Lydie; Bontemps, Sylvain; Bouchez Giret, Aurelia; Boulanger, Francois; Bracco, Andrea; Bron, Emeric; Brunetto, Rosario; Cabrit, Sylvie; Canosa, Andre; Capron, Michael; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Cernicharo, Jose; Chaabouni, Henda; Chabot, Marin; Chen, Hui-Chen; Chiavassa, Thierry; Cobut, Vincent; Commercon, Benoit; Congiu, Emanuele; Coutens, Audrey; Danger, Gregoire; Daniel, Fabien; Dartois, Emmanuel; Demyk, Karine; Denis, Alpizar; Despois, Didier; D'hendecourt, Louis; Dontot, Leo; Doronin, Mikhail; Dubernet, Marie-Lise; Dulieu, Francois; Dumouchel, Fabien; Duvernay, Fabrice; Ellinger, Yves; Falgarone, Edith; Falvo, Cyril; Faure, Alexandre; Fayolle, Edith; Feautrier, Nicole; Feraud, Geraldine; Fillion, Jean-Hugues; Gamboa, Antonio; Gardez, Aline; Gavilan, Lisseth; Gerin, Maryvonne; Ghesquiere, Pierre; Godard, Benjamin; Godard, Marie; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gratier, Pierre; Grenier, Isabelle; Gruet, Sebastien; Gry, Cecile; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Guilloteau, Stephane; Gusdorf, Antoine; Guzman, Viviana; Habart, Emilie; Hennebelle, Patrick; Herrera, Cinthya; Hily-Blant, Pierre; Hincelin, Ugo; Hochlaf, Majdi; Huet, Therese; Iftner, Christophe; Jallat, Aurelie; Joblin, Christine; Kahane, Claudine; Kalugina, Yulia; Kleiner, Isabelle; Koehler, Melanie; Kokkin, Damian; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Krim, Lahouari; Lallement, Rosine; Lanza, Mathieu; Lattelais, Marie; Le Bertre, Thibaut; Le Gal, Romane; Le Petit, Franck; Le Picard, Sebastien; Lefloch, Bertrand; Lemaire, Jean Louis; Lesaffre, Pierre; Lique, Francois; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Lopez Sepulcre, Ana; Maillard, Jean-Pierre; Margules, Laurent; Martin, Celine; Mascetti, Joelle; Michaut, Xavier; Minissale, Marco; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Mokrane, Hakima; Momferratos, Georgios; Montillaud, Julien; Montmerle, Thierry; Moret-Bailly, Jacques; Motiyenko, Roman; Moudens, Audrey; Noble, Jennifer; Padovani, Marco; Pagani, Laurent; Pardanaud, Cedric; Parisel, Olivier; Pauzat, Francoise; Pernet, Amelie; Pety, Jerome; Philippe, Laurent; Piergiorgio, Casavecchia; Pilme, Julien; Pinto, Cecilia; Pirali, Olivier; Pirim, Claire; Puspitarini, Lucky; Rist, Claire; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Romanzin, Claire; Roueff, Evelyne; Rousseau, Patrick; Sabbah, Hassan; Saury, Eleonore; Schneider, Ioan; Schwell, Martin; Sims, Ian; Spielfiedel, Annie; Stoecklin, Thierry; Talbi, Dahbia; Taquet, Vianney; Teillet-Billy, Dominique; Theule, Patrice; Thi, Wing-Fai; Trolez, Yann; Valdivia, Valeska; Van Dishoeck, Ewine; Verstraete, Laurent; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Wiesenfeld, Laurent; Ysard, Nathalie; Yvart, Walter; Zicler Eleonore

    2012-11-01

    This document publishes the oral contributions and the 66 posters presented during a colloquium on physics and chemistry of interstellar medium. The following themes have been addressed: New views on the interstellar medium with Herschel, Planck and Alma, Cycle of interstellar dusts, Physics and Dynamics of the interstellar medium, Molecular complexifying and the link towards pre-biotic chemistry. More precisely, the oral contributions addressed the following topics: Interstellar medium with Herschel and Planck; The anomalous microwave emission: a new window on the physics of small grains; Sub-millimetre spectroscopy of complex molecules and of radicals for ALMA and Herschel missions; Analysing observations of molecules in the ISM: theoretical and experimental studies of energy transfer; Unravelling the labyrinth of star formation with Herschel; Star formation regions with Herschel and Alma: astro-chemistry in the Netherlands; Physical structure of gas and dust in photo-dissociation regions observed with Herschel; Photo-desorption of analogues of interstellar ices; Formation of structures in the interstellar medium: theoretical and numerical aspects; Towards a 3D mapping of the galactic ISM by inversion of absorption individual measurements; Low velocity shocks as signatures of turbulent dissipation in diffuse irradiated gas; Early phases of solar system formation: 3D physical and chemical modelling of the collapse of pre-stellar dense core; Cosmic-ray propagation in molecular clouds; Protostellar shocks in the time of Herschel; A new PDR model of the physics and chemistry of the interstellar gas; Molecular spectroscopy in the ALMA era and laboratory Astrophysics in Spain; Which molecules to be searched for in the interstellar medium; Physics and chemistry of UV illuminated neutral gas: the Horsehead case; Nitrogen fractionation in dark clouds; Molecular spectral surveys from millimetre range to far infrared; Mechanisms and synthesis at the surface of cold grains

  15. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  16. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38{sup th} JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment.

  17. Programme and Abstracts. 38. Journees des Actinides together with the 7. School on the Physics and Chemistry of the Actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Journees des Actinides (JdA) is a traditional informal actinide forum, including physics, chemistry, and materials research. It regularly brings together experts from fields involved, taking place in a very informal way, emphasizing exchanges and discussions on current issues in actinide science. At the 38 th JdA (10-15 April 2008; Wroclaw, Poland) scientific communications on the following topics on physics and chemistry of the actinides were presented: (a) inorganic and organometallic chemistry; (b) strongly correlated behaviour, superconductivity, quantum criticality; (c) materials science; (d) theory, electronic structure; (e) nuclear fuel cycle, environment

  18. High energy physics. Ultimate structure of matter and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    Some of the principle discoveries and insights and their development up to today are sketched. It is shown how one layer after another was discovered by penetrating farther into the structure of matter. Covered are the mounting energy scale, discoveries at high energy frontier, the families of quarks and leptons, the four forces of nature, some achievements of the past few years, particle accelerators and experimental apparatus. A glossary of terms is included

  19. SOLAR NEUTRINO PHYSICS: SENSITIVITY TO LIGHT DARK MATTER PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Ilidio [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: ilopes@uevora.pt, E-mail: silk@astro.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France)

    2012-06-20

    Neutrinos are produced in several neutrino nuclear reactions of the proton-proton chain and carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle that take place at different radii of the Sun's core. Hence, measurements of solar neutrino fluxes provide a precise determination of the local temperature. The accumulation of non-annihilating light dark matter particles (with masses between 5 GeV and 16 GeV) in the Sun produces a change in the local solar structure, namely, a decrease in the central temperature of a few percent. This variation depends on the properties of the dark matter particles, such as the mass of the particle and its spin-independent scattering cross-section on baryon-nuclei, specifically, the scattering with helium, oxygen, and nitrogen among other heavy elements. This temperature effect can be measured in almost all solar neutrino fluxes. In particular, by comparing the neutrino fluxes generated by stellar models with current observations, namely {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes, we find that non-annihilating dark matter particles with a mass smaller than 10 GeV and a spin-independent scattering cross-section with heavy baryon-nuclei larger than 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -37} cm{sup -2} produce a variation in the {sup 8}B neutrino fluxes that would be in conflict with current measurements.

  20. Dark matter physics in neutrino specific two Higgs doublet model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Seungwon; Nomura, Takaaki [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-10

    Although the seesaw mechanism is a natural explanation for the small neutrino masses, there are cases when the Majorana mass terms for the right-handed neutrinos are not allowed due to symmetry. In that case, if neutrino-specific Higgs doublet is introduced, neutrinos become Dirac particles and their small masses can be explained by its small VEV. We show that the same symmetry, which we assume a global U(1){sub X}, can also be used to explain the stability of dark matter. In our model, a new singlet scalar breaks the global symmetry spontaneously down to a discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. The dark matter particle, lightest Z{sub 2}-odd fermion, is stabilized. We discuss the phenomenology of dark matter: relic density, direct detection, and indirect detection. We find that the relic density can be explained by a novel Goldstone boson channel or by resonance channel. In the most region of parameter space considered, the direct detections is suppressed well below the current experimental bound. Our model can be further tested in indirect detection experiments such as FermiLAT gamma ray searches or neutrinoless double beta decay experiments.

  1. Proceedings of the 10. National Meeting on Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Papers on: amorphous materials; atomic and molecular physics; biophysics; crystallography; defects, growth and characterization of crystals; statistical physics; instrumentation; liquid crystals; magnetism; science of materials/mechanical properties; metals and alloys; optic; magnetic resonance; and semiconductors are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes through silica based porous media: influences of aquatic chemistry, surface chemistry, and natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Bitter, Julie L; Smith, Billy A; Fairbrother, D Howard; Ball, William P

    2013-12-17

    This paper provides results from studies of the transport of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNTs) of varying surface oxygen concentrations under a range of aquatic conditions and through uniform silica glass bead media. In the presence of Na(+), the required ionic strength (IS) for maximum particle attachment efficiency (i.e., the critical deposition concentration, or CDC) increased as the surface oxygen concentration of the O-MWCNTs or pH increased, following qualitative tenets of theories based on electrostatic interactions. In the presence of Ca(2+), CDC values were lower than those with Na(+) present, but were no longer sensitive to surface oxygen content, suggesting that Ca(2+) impacts the interactions between O-MWCNTs and glass beads by mechanisms other than electrostatic alone. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) decreased the attachment efficiency of O-MWCNTs in the presence of either Na(+) or Ca(2+), but with more pronounced effects when Na(+) was present. Nevertheless, low concentrations of SRNOM (organic carbon) were sufficient to mobilize all O-MWCNTs studied at CaCl2 concentrations as high as 10 mM. Overall, this study reveals that NOM content, pH, and cation type show more importance than surface chemistry in affecting O-MWCNTs deposition during transport through silica-based porous media.

  3. Evaluation of an Integrated Curriculum in Physics, Mathematics, Engineering, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert

    1997-04-01

    An experimental, student centered, introductory curriculum called IMPEC (for Integrated Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, and Chemistry curriculum) is in its third year of pilot-testing at NCSU. The curriculum is taught by a multidisciplinary team of professors using a combination of traditional lecturing and alternative instructional methods including cooperative learning, activity-based class sessions, and extensive use of computer modeling, simulations, and the world wide web. This talk will discuss the research basis for our design and implementation of the curriculum, the qualitative and quantitative methods we have been using to assess its effectiveness, and the educational outcomes we have noted so far.

  4. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Tianquan [PI, Emory Univ.

    2013-09-20

    The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN (Sept. 8-12) featured the following sessions (approx. 6 speakers per session): (1) Quantum Dots and Nanorods for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (2) Artificial Photosynthesis: Water Oxidation; (3) Artificial Photosynthesis: Solar Fuels (2 half-day sessions); (4) Organic Solar Cells; (5) Novel Concepts for Solar Energy Conversion (2 half-day sessions); (6) Emerging Techniques for Solar Energy Conversion; (7) Interfacial Electron Transfer

  5. Bunsen conference 1999. Atmospheric physical chemistry; Bunsentagung 1999. Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutzen, P.J.; Zellner, R. [comps.

    2000-07-01

    The main subject of the 1999 Bunsen conference was atmospheric physical chemistry. There were lectures and posters on measurement and distribution of atmospheric trace gases, photochemical reactions in the different parts of the atmosphere, natural and anthropogenic emissions resulting from biomass combustion, thermodynamics and microphysics of aerosol, and air pollution abatement. [German] Die Bunsentagung 1999 beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema Physikalische Chemie der Atmosphaere. Themen der Vortraege und Poster waren u.a. die Messung und Verteilung von Spurengasen in der Atmosphaere, photochemische Reaktionen in den verschiedenen Schichten der Atmosphaere, natuerliche und anthropogene Emissionen durch Verbrennung von Biomasse, Thermodynamik und Microphysik von Aerosolen und Klimaschutz.

  6. Symmetry-adapted basis sets automatic generation for problems in chemistry and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2012-01-01

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for the Hamiltonian of a many-particle system is usually so difficult that it requires approximate methods, the most common of which is expansion of the eigenfunctions in terms of basis functions that obey the boundary conditions of the problem. The computational effort needed

  7. 4. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    This book includes more than 200 abstracts on various aspects of: materials processing and characterization, crystal growth methods, solid-state and crystal technology, development of condensed matter theory and modeling of materials properties, solid-state device physics, nano science and nano technology, heterostructures, superlattices, quantum wells and wires, advanced quantum physics for nano systems

  8. 5th International Heidelberg Conference on Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Arnowitt, Richard; DARK 2004; Dark Matter in Astro- and Particle Physics

    2006-01-01

    The search for dark matter in the universe has established itself as one of the most exciting and central fields of astrophysics, particle physics and cosmology. The lectures and talks in this book emphasize the experimental and theoretical status and future perspectives, stressing in particular the interplay between astro- and particle physics.

  9. Eighteenth Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schüttler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVIII

    2006-01-01

    This volume represents a "status report" emanating from presentations made during the 18th Annual Workshop on Computer Simulations Studies in Condensed Matter Physics at the Center for Simulational Physics at the University of Georgia in March 2005. It provides a broad overview of the most recent advances in the field, spanning the range from statistical physics to soft condensed matter and biological systems. Results on nanostructures and materials are included as are several descriptions of advances in quantum simulations and quantum computing as well as.methodological advances.

  10. AN INVARIANT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DISCIPLINE CHEMISTRY-PHYSIC IN THE FORMATION OF TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY / UN INVARIANTE DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA DISCIPLINA QUÍMICA-FÍSICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORES DE QUÍMICA

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri; Carlos Ortigoza Garcell; Enrique Nelson Pacheco Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a mastership thesis on the Didactic of Chemistry. Here it is offered the first approximation which will constitute the invariant of knowledge of the discipline Chemistry-Physic for the measurement as bachelor in education in the specialty of Chemistry; with this invariant, that knowledge is meaningful for the importance of the teachers to be professional work.

  11. Liaison activities with the Institute of Physical Chemistry/Russian Academy of Science Fiscal Year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    Investigations into the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste (TTP RL4-3-20-04) were conducted in Fiscal Year 1995 at Westinghouse Hanford Company under the support of the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (EM-53). The investigation had two main subtasks: liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science and further laboratory testing of the chemistry of thermal reconstitution of Hanford Site tank waste. Progress, which was achieved in the liaison subtask during Fiscal Year 1995, is summarized as follows: (1) A technical dialogue has been established with Institute scientists. (2) Editing was done on a technical literature review on the chemistry of transuranic elements and technetium in alkaline media written by researchers at the Institute. The report was issued in May 1995 as a Westinghouse Hanford Company document. (3) Four tasks from the Institute were selected for support by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work on three tasks commenced on 1 March 1995; the fourth task commenced on 1 April 1995. (4) Technical information describing the composition of Hanford Site tank waste was supplied to the Institute. (5) A program review of the four tasks was conducted at the Institute during a visit 25 August to 1 September, 1995. A lecture on the origin, composition, and proposed treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes was presented during this visit. Eight additional tasks were proposed by Institute scientists for support in Fiscal Year 1996. (6) A paper was presented at the Fifth International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Remediation (ICEM'95) in Berlin, Germany on 3 to 9 September, 1995 on the solubility of actinides in alkaline media

  12. Challenges in QCD matter physics -The scientific programme of the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at FAIR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ablyazimov, T.; Abuhoza, A.; Adak, R. P.; Adamczyk, M.; Kugler, Andrej; Kushpil, Vasilij; Mikhaylov, Vasily; Petráček, V.; Pospíšil, V.; Prakash, Arun; Škoda, L.; Svoboda, Ondřej; Tlustý, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), č. článku 60. ISSN 1434-6001 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : FAIR * RHIC * LHC Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2016

  13. Annual report of the Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; transport properties of MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr

  14. Annual report of the Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, and the Biophysics Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research on photoemission and photoluminescence in quantum wells; photoemission assisted by electric fields; the electrochemistry of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface; MESFET's; fractal physics; amorphous silicon; superionic and mixed conductors; solids chemistry and NMR; internal motion of nucleic acids; cardiophysiology; imaging of microscopic internal motions; and Ap4A metabolism is presented [fr

  15. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  16. Inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Loverude

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe an inquiry-based course in physics and chemistry for preservice K-8 teachers developed at California State University Fullerton. The course is one of three developed primarily to enhance the science content understanding of prospective teachers. The course incorporates a number of innovative instructional strategies and is somewhat unusual for its interdisciplinary focus. We describe the course structure in detail, providing examples of course materials and assessment strategies. Finally, we provide research data illustrating both the need for the course and the effectiveness of the course in developing student understanding of selected topics. Student responses to various questions reflect a lack of understanding of many relatively simple physical science concepts, and a level of performance that is usually lower than that in comparable courses serving a general education audience. Additional data suggest that course activities improve student understanding of selected topics, often dramatically.

  17. Research Data in Core Journals in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Physics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Womack

    Full Text Available This study takes a stratified random sample of articles published in 2014 from the top 10 journals in the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics, as ranked by impact factor. Sampled articles were examined for their reporting of original data or reuse of prior data, and were coded for whether the data was publicly shared or otherwise made available to readers. Other characteristics such as the sharing of software code used for analysis and use of data citation and DOIs for data were examined. The study finds that data sharing practices are still relatively rare in these disciplines' top journals, but that the disciplines have markedly different practices. Biology top journals share original data at the highest rate, and physics top journals share at the lowest rate. Overall, the study finds that within the top journals, only 13% of articles with original data published in 2014 make the data available to others.

  18. Complex Reaction Kinetics in Chemistry: A Unified Picture Suggested by Mechanics in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Agliari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex biochemical pathways can be reduced to chains of elementary reactions, which can be described in terms of chemical kinetics. Among the elementary reactions so far extensively investigated, we recall the Michaelis-Menten and the Hill positive-cooperative kinetics, which apply to molecular binding and are characterized by the absence and the presence, respectively, of cooperative interactions between binding sites. However, there is evidence of reactions displaying a more complex pattern: these follow the positive-cooperative scenario at small substrate concentration, yet negative-cooperative effects emerge as the substrate concentration is increased. Here, we analyze the formal analogy between the mathematical backbone of (classical reaction kinetics in Chemistry and that of (classical mechanics in Physics. We first show that standard cooperative kinetics can be framed in terms of classical mechanics, where the emerging phenomenology can be obtained by applying the principle of least action of classical mechanics. Further, since the saturation function plays in Chemistry the same role played by velocity in Physics, we show that a relativistic scaffold naturally accounts for the kinetics of the above-mentioned complex reactions. The proposed formalism yields to a unique, consistent picture for cooperative-like reactions and to a stronger mathematical control.

  19. Indus-I beamlines for condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandedkar, R.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: A 450 MeV electron storage ring Indus-I is now operational. This storage ring gives synchrotron radiation in soft x-ray vacuum ultra violet (VUV) and to visible region. On this storage ring six beamlines are now being set up for atomic and molecular spectroscopy experiments, solid state spectroscopy experiments and soft and VUV reflectivity experiments. In this talk, present status of beamlines which condense matter physicists will be interested in will be given along with some commissioning experiments. These beam lines are based on a toroidal grating monochromators in the range 40 - 1000 A with moderate energy resolution. Some experiments which can be conducted using these beam lines will be discussed

  20. Physical considerations relevant to HZE-particle transport in matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmerling, W

    1988-06-01

    High-energy, highly charged (HZE) heavy nuclei may seem at first sight to be an exotic type of radiation, only remotely connected with nuclear power generation. On closer examination it becomes evident that heavy-ion accelerators are being seriously considered for driving inertial confinement fusion reactors, and high-energy heavy nuclei in the cosmic radiation are likely to place significant constraints on satellite power system deployment and space-based power generation. The use of beams of heavy nuclei in an increasing number of current applications, as well as their importance for the development of the state of the art of the future, makes it necessary to develop at the same time a good understanding of their transport through matter.

  1. Physics of neutrino flavor transformation through matter-neutrino resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Ru; Duan, Huaiyu; Qian, Yong-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In astrophysical environments such as core-collapse supernovae and neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers where dense neutrino media are present, matter-neutrino resonances (MNRs) can occur when the neutrino propagation potentials due to neutrino-electron and neutrino-neutrino forward scattering nearly cancel each other. We show that neutrino flavor transformation through MNRs can be explained by multiple adiabatic solutions similar to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism. We find that for the normal neutrino mass hierarchy, neutrino flavor evolution through MNRs can be sensitive to the shape of neutrino spectra and the adiabaticity of the system, but such sensitivity is absent for the inverted hierarchy.

  2. Little effects on soil organic matter chemistry of density fractions after seven years of forest soil warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO 2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling, the soil in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for seven consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO 2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results, which included organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, δ 13 C, Δ 14 C, δ 15 N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. Surprisingly, the differences in the three density fractions were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and soil depth. Warming led to reduced N content in topsoil oPOM and subsoil fPOM and to reduced relative abundance of N-bearing compounds in subsoil MaOM. Further, warming increased the δ 13 C of MaOM at both sampling depths, reduced the relative abundance of carbohydrates while it increased the relative abundance of lignins in subsoil oPOM. As the size of the functionally different SOM pools did not significantly change, we assume that the few and small

  3. The Use of Textbooks for Advanced-Level GCE Courses in Physics, Chemistry and Biology by Sixth-Form Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of sixth-form students to determine the level of A-level textbook use in physics, chemistry, and biology in English schools found that texts are used primarily after the lesson, at the student's discretion, and with great variations between students. Biology texts were used most, and physics texts used least. (MBR)

  4. What matters? Assessing and developing inquiry and multivariable reasoning skills in high school chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftedar Abdelhadi, Raghda Mohamed

    Although the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) present a detailed set of Science and Engineering Practices, a finer grained representation of the underlying skills is lacking in the standards document. Therefore, it has been reported that teachers are facing challenges deciphering and effectively implementing the standards, especially with regards to the Practices. This analytical study assessed the development of high school chemistry students' (N = 41) inquiry, multivariable causal reasoning skills, and metacognition as a mediator for their development. Inquiry tasks based on concepts of element properties of the periodic table as well as reaction kinetics required students to conduct controlled thought experiments, make inferences, and declare predictions of the level of the outcome variable by coordinating the effects of multiple variables. An embedded mixed methods design was utilized for depth and breadth of understanding. Various sources of data were collected including students' written artifacts, audio recordings of in-depth observational groups and interviews. Data analysis was informed by a conceptual framework formulated around the concepts of coordinating theory and evidence, metacognition, and mental models of multivariable causal reasoning. Results of the study indicated positive change towards conducting controlled experimentation, making valid inferences and justifications. Additionally, significant positive correlation between metastrategic and metacognitive competencies, and sophistication of experimental strategies, signified the central role metacognition played. Finally, lack of consistency in indicating effective variables during the multivariable prediction task pointed towards the fragile mental models of multivariable causal reasoning the students had. Implications for teacher education, science education policy as well as classroom research methods are discussed. Finally, recommendations for developing reform-based chemistry

  5. Twentieth ANZIP condensed matter physics meeting. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Theoretical and experimental short communications included in these proceedings cover recent achievements in high temperatures superconductivity, superconducting devices, nuclear techniques in studies of the structure of solids, lattice models and dynamics, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 180 items in INIS scope

  6. Mind over matter: The intellectual content of experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telegdi, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents a new way of teaching experimental physics using Selenyi's experiment on dipole radiation, Michelson's optical demonstration of the earth rotation, the direct measurement of the helicity of the electron neutrino by Goldhaber, grodzins, and Sunyar and the determination of the helicity of the muonic neutrino by Grenas et al. (HSI)

  7. Twentieth ANZIP condensed matter physics meeting. Conference handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical and experimental short communications included in these proceedings cover recent achievements in high temperatures superconductivity, superconducting devices, nuclear techniques in studies of the structure of solids, lattice models and dynamics, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 180 items in INIS scope

  8. Twentieth ANZIP condensed matter physics meeting. Conference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental short communications included in these proceedings cover recent achievements in high temperatures superconductivity, superconducting devices, nuclear techniques in studies of the structure of solids, lattice models and dynamics, physics studies of surfaces, interfaces and thin films. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 180 items in INIS scope

  9. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  10. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Detlev [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Luftchemie und Luftreinhaltung

    2015-07-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  11. Chemistry for environmental scientists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Non-chemists in environmental sciences and engineering (e.g. physicists, biologists, ecologists, geographers, soil scientists, hydrologists, meteorologists, economists, engineers) need chemical basic knowledge for understanding chemical processes in the environment. This book focuses on general and fundamental chemistry (including required physics) such as properties and bonding of matter, chemical kinetics and mechanisms, phase and chemical equilibrium, the basic features of air (gases), water (liquids) and soil (solids) and the most important substances and their reactions in the environment. Selected key environmental chemical processes are shortly characterised in the light of multi-component and multiphase chemistry. This book is also useful for chemists who are beginning work on environmental issues.

  12. At LEP, a new Physics. The dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.; Haissinski, J.; Perrottet, M.; Renard, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Savoy, C.; Treille, D.

    1990-01-01

    The starting of LEP (European Large Electron-Positron storage rings) took place, in July 1989 and the 5 reports introduced during the 21th Summer School on Particle Physics (Ecole de Gif) locate, after a rapid recall of standard model, the problems that LEP will have to resolve in a more or less long time, LEP 100 or LEP 200. These reports are indexed separately [fr

  13. Prevention Research Matters-Communities Working to Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-02-15

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.  Created: 2/15/2018 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/15/2018.

  14. From quantum physics to consciousness. Cosmos, spirit, and matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernitz, Thomas; Goernitz, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The present book is a consequent continuation and deepening of a new concept layed down ba Thomas and Brigitte Goernitz in several writings. Starting from quantum theory they describe the evolution of the spirituality from the origin of the cosmos until the origin of the consciousness. Obtained was this knowledge by profund physical and mathematical research lasting for decades and in cooperation lasting for years with scientists and philosophers, especially with Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker.

  15. The research of condensed matter physics by using intense proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endoh, Yasuo

    1990-01-01

    The present article covers the application of intense protons to basic condensed matter physics. Major recent neutron scattering activities in condensed matter physics are first outlined, emphasizing the fact that the contribution of accelerator base science has a tremendous impact on this basic science. Application of spallation neutrons to condensed matter physics is discussed in relation to such subjects as high energy (epithermal) excitations and small angle neutron scattering. Then the specific subject of high Tc superconductor is addressed, focusing on how neutrons as well as muons provide experimental results that serve significantly in exploring the mechanism of exotic high Tc superconductivity. Techniques for neutron polarization must be developed in the future. The neutron spin reflectivity ratio has been shown to be a sensitive probe of surface depth profile of magnetization. Another new method is neutron depolarization to probe bulk magnetic induction throughout a slab which neutrons pass through. (N.K.)

  16. Synthesis of Organic Matter of Prebiotic Chemistry at the Protoplanetary Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snytnikov, Valeriy; Stoynovskaya, Olga; Rudina, Nina

    We have carried out scanning electron microscopic examination of CM carbonaceous chondrites meteorites Migey, Murchison, Staroe Boriskino aged more than 4.56 billion years (about 50 million years from the beginning of the formation of the Solar system). Our study confirmed the conclusion of Rozanov, Hoover and other researchers about the presence of microfossils of bacterial origin in the matrix of all these meteorites. Since the time of the Solar system formation is 60 - 100 million years, the primary biocenosis emerged in the protoplanetary disc of the Solar system before meteorites or simultaneously with them. It means that prebiological processes and RNA world appeared even earlier in the circumsolar protoplanetary disc. Most likely, this appearance of prebiotic chemistry takes place nowday in massive and medium-massive discs of the observed young stellar objects (YSO) class 0 and I. The timescale of the transition from chemical to biological evolution took less than 50 million years for the Solar system. Further evolution of individual biocenosis in a protoplanetary disc associated with varying physico-chemical conditions during the formation of the Solar system bodies. Biocenosis on these bodies could remove or develop under the influence of many cosmic factors and geological processes in the case of Earth. To complete the primary biosphere formation in short evolution time - millions of years - requires highly efficient chemical syntheses. In industrial chemistry for the efficient synthesis of ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, methanol and other organic species, that are the precursors to obtain prebiotic compounds, catalytic reactors of high pressure are used. Thus (1) necessary amount of the proper catalyst in (2) high pressure areas of the disc can trigger these intense syntheses. The disc contains the solids with the size from nanoparticle to pebble. Iron and magnesium is catalytically active ingredient for such solids. The puzzle is a way to provide hydrogen

  17. Field-matter interaction in atomic and plasma physics, from fluctuations to the strongly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)

  18. Physics of antimatter-matter reactions for interstellar propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, D.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    At the stage of the antiproton-nucleon annihilation chain of events relevant to propulsion the annihilation produces energetic charged pions and gamma rays. If annihilation occurs in a complex nucleus, protons, neutrons, and other nuclear fragments are also produced. The charge, number, and energy of the annihilation products are such that annihilation rocket engine concepts involving relatively low specific impulse (I/sub sp/ ≅ 1000 to 2000 s) and very high I/sub sp/ (3 x 10 7 s) appear feasible and have efficiencies on the order of 50% for annihilation energy to propulsion energy conversion. At I/sub sp/'s of around 15,000 s, however, it may be that only the kinetic energy of the charged nuclear fragments can be utilized for propulsion in engines of ordinary size. An estimate of this kinetic energy was made from known pieces of experimental and theoretical information. Its value is about 10% of the annihilation energy. Control over the mean penetration depth of protons into matter prior to annihilation is necessary so that annihilation occurs in the proper region within the engine. Control is possible by varying the antiproton kinetic energy to obtain a suitable annihilation cross section. The annihilation cross section at low energies is on the order of or larger than atomic areas due to a rearrangement reaction, but it is very low at high energy where its value is closer to nuclear areas

  19. Using Mathematical Software to Introduce Fourier Transforms in Physical Chemistry to Develop Improved Understanding of Their Applications in Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tierney C.; Richardson, John N.; Kegerreis, Jeb S.

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript presents an exercise that utilizes mathematical software to explore Fourier transforms in the context of model quantum mechanical systems, thus providing a deeper mathematical understanding of relevant information often introduced and treated as a "black-box" in analytical chemistry courses. The exercise is given to…

  20. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of the actinides. V. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Keller, C.

    1991-01-01

    In the last 15 years, actinide research has presented unique challenges both for experimentalists and theorists. The uniqueness stems not only from their nuclear properties, which since the early 1940's has led to their important role in nuclear energy and nuclear technology, but also from their unusual chemical and physical properties which have added new excitement and discoveries to both these disciplines. It is the purpose of this handbook to describe in detail the present understanding of the actinides by means of comprehensive, critical, broad and up-to-date reviews covering both the physics and chemistry of these exotic elements. They are intended to serve as an introduction to the subject for the non-specialist, as a convenient reference work for the specialist, and as a guide for future research. The rapid accelerated pace of research in the last decade continues and carries with it new vigor and excitement to a field in a state of transition. The present sixth volume completes the series. Like volumes 3 and 4, the emphasis is on chemistry, though physical aspects, such as self-radiation effects and electron paramagnetic resonance are also treated. The main body of the volume is devoted to systematic and comprehensive studies of a variety of important actinide compounds. These include relatively simple salts as well as various complexes and organic compounds. The data accumulated on such materials are broadly scattered in the literature, due to the interdisciplinary nature of much of the underlying research. Experts on the various substances have now reviewed this literature and brought it together in this book. refs.; figs.; tabs

  1. Seventeenth Workshop on Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, David P; Schütler, Heinz-Bernd; Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed-Matter Physics XVI

    2006-01-01

    This status report features the most recent developments in the field, spanning a wide range of topical areas in the computer simulation of condensed matter/materials physics. Both established and new topics are included, ranging from the statistical mechanics of classical magnetic spin models to electronic structure calculations, quantum simulations, and simulations of soft condensed matter. The book presents new physical results as well as novel methods of simulation and data analysis. Highlights of this volume include various aspects of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, studies of properties of real materials using both classical model simulations and electronic structure calculations, and the use of computer simulations in teaching.

  2. Noise study in condensed matter physics-Towards extension to surrounding fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Atsutaka

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review noise studies in condensed matter physics, such as the shot noise measurement in metals, the dynamic-coherent-volume investigation in charge-density waves, the macroscopic quantum tunneling in superconductors, and the experimental investigation of dynamic phase diagram of driven vortices in high-T c superconductors. With these examples, one finds that the noise studies have played many crucial roles in condensed matter physics. I also discuss a recent theoretical suggestion that noise measurements in Josephson junction may clarify the origin of the dark energy in the universe

  3. Innovation Developments of Coal Chemistry Science in L.M. Litvinenko Institute of Physical-Organic Chemistry and Coal Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shendrik, T.G.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents short historical review and innovation developments of Coal Chemistry Department of L.M. Litvinenko Institute, NAS of Ukraine connected with coal mine exploitation problems, search for decisions toward prevention of spontaneous combustion, dust control in mines, establishing structural chemical features of coal with different genesis and stages of metamorphism with the aim to develop new methods of their modification and rational use. The methods of obtaining inexpensive sorbents from Ukrainian raw materials (including carbon containing waste are proposed. The problems of modern coal chemistry science in IPOCC of NAS of Ukraine are outlined.

  4. Getting the astrophysics and particle physics of dark matter out of next-generation direct detection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Annika H. G.

    2010-01-01

    The next decade will bring massive new data sets from experiments of the direct detection of weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. Mapping the data sets to the particle-physics properties of dark matter is complicated not only by the considerable uncertainties in the dark-matter model, but by its poorly constrained local distribution function (the 'astrophysics' of dark matter). I propose a shift in how to think about direct-detection data analysis. I show that by treating the astrophysical and particle-physics uncertainties of dark matter on equal footing, and by incorporating a combination of data sets into the analysis, one may recover both the particle physics and astrophysics of dark matter. Not only does such an approach yield more accurate estimates of dark-matter properties, but it may illuminate how dark matter coevolves with galaxies.

  5. Comprehensive understanding of mole concept subject matter according to the tetrahedral chemistry education (empirical study on the first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, D. W.; Mulyani, S.; van Pée, K.-H.; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to apprehend: (1) the shape of tetrahedral chemistry education which is called the future of chemistry education, (2) comprehensive understanding of chemistry first-year students of Technische Universität Dresden according to the chemistry education’s tetrahedral shape on mole concept subject matter. This research used quantitative and qualitative; paper and pencil test and interview. The former was conducted in the form of test containing objective test instrument. The results of this study are (1) learning based on tetrahedral shape of chemistry education put the chemical substance (macroscopic), symbolic representation (symbol), and its process (molecular) in the context of human beings (human element) by integrating content and context, without emphasis on one thing and weaken another, (2) first-year chemistry students of Technische Universität Dresden have comprehensively understood the mole concept associated with the context of everyday life, whereby students are able to find out macroscopic information from statements that are contextual to human life and then by using symbols and formulas are able to comprehend the molecular components as well as to interpret and analyse problems effectively.

  6. Group theory Application to the physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhauss, M S; Jorio, A

    2007-01-01

    Every process in physics is governed by selection rules that are the consequence of symmetry requirements. The beauty and strength of group theory resides in the transformation of many complex symmetry operations into a very simple linear algebra. This concise and class-tested book has been pedagogically tailored over 30 years MIT and 2 years at the University Federal of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil. The approach centers on the conviction that teaching group theory in close connection with applications helps students to learn, understand and use it for their own needs. For this reason, the theoretical background is confined to the first 4 introductory chapters (6-8 classroom hours). From there, each chapter develops new theory while introducing applications so that the students can best retain new concepts, build on concepts learned the previous week, and see interrelations between topics as presented. Essential problem sets between the chapters also aid the retention of the new material and for the consolid...

  7. Some problems of quantum cosmology and dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    The quantum cosmology is studied of the string universe obtained by embedding the Robertson-Walker metric in the nonlinear sigma model. It was found that initially the universe exists in a series of metastable bound states with the scale factor taking discrete values. Then it tunnels through a barrier and comes out in an inflationary state. This tunneling (or evolution in imaginary time) also has the effect of heating up the matter field so that we have a condition of chaotic inflation. The asymptotic solutions agree with those obtained from the classical Einstein equations. Quantum cosmology was considered of a 4-D universe using the effective action of superstrings. Both Hartle-Hawking and Vilenkin boundary conditions were applied to the solution of Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Under certain conditions (fermions added) the universe was found to tunnel through to the Lorentzian regime from the Euclidean regime and time is dynamically generated. Chudnovsky and Vilenkin's idea was applied to possible existence of cosmic strings in the Sun. Stellar evolution with cosmic strings at solar age gives a radius and luminosity of the star which are in contradiction with observation. The astrophysical bound was studied on the change of gravitational constant with time. It was found that (G/G) less than 10-12yr-1 is the condition that has to be satisfied in order not to cause the conflict with observation. The effect was studied of axions on the steller evolution of a 10 solar mass star model. If the axion mass is larger than .1 ev the star's age is significantly different at late stages, compared to the star without axions. It is argued that if cosmions (or WIMPS) solve the solar neutrino problem, then they must also play an important role in the evolution of low mass star main sequence stars. If they do so, then a simple (long mean free path) model for the interaction of cosmions with baryons leads to changes in the structure of the nuclear-burning core which may in principle

  8. Teleology in biology, chemistry and physics education: what primary teachers should know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSTAS KAMPOURAKIS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in cognitive psychology suggests that children develop intuitions that may clash with what is accepted by scientists, thus making certain scientific concepts difficult to understand. Children possess intuitions about design and purpose that make them provide teleological explanations to many different sorts of tasks. One possible explanation for the origin of the bias to view objects as made for something derives from an early sensitivity to intentional agents and to their behavior as intentional object users and object makers. What is important is that teleological explanations may not be exclusively restricted in biological phenomena, as commonly assumed. Consequently, primary school teachers should take that into account when teaching biology, chemistry or physics concepts and try to refrain from enforcing students’ teleological intuitions.

  9. Many-electron approaches in physics, chemistry and mathematics a multidisciplinary view

    CERN Document Server

    Site, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad description of the development and (computational) application of many-electron approaches from a multidisciplinary perspective. In the context of studying many-electron systems Computer Science, Chemistry, Mathematics and Physics are all intimately interconnected. However, beyond a handful of communities working at the interface between these disciplines, there is still a marked separation of subjects. This book seeks to offer a common platform for possible exchanges between the various fields and to introduce the reader to perspectives for potential further developments across the disciplines. The rapid advances of modern technology will inevitably require substantial improvements in the approaches currently used, which will in turn make exchanges between disciplines indispensable. In essence this book is one of the very first attempts at an interdisciplinary approach to the many-electron problem.

  10. AN APPLICATION OF THE LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidio Corral-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of intensive properties molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures by experimental densities and tangent method in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory presents the problem of making manually the molar volume curve versus mole fraction and the trace of the tangent line trace. The advantage of using a statistical model the Logistic Regression on a Texas VOYAGE graphing calculator allowed trace the curve and the tangents in situ, and also evaluate the students work during the experimental session. The error percentage between the molar volumes calculated using literature data and those obtained with statistical method is minimal, which validates the model. It is advantageous use the calculator with this application as a teaching support tool, reducing the evaluation time of 3 weeks to 3 hours.

  11. Research on teaching and learning in Physics and Chemistry in NorDiNa Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Kinnunen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of teaching and learning processes in research on physics and chemistry education published in NorDiNa 2005–2013. Using the didactic triangle as our theoretical framework we developed a typology to analyse the data and used this to categorise 89 related research papers, from all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary. The results suggest that students’ characteristics, their understanding of the content and learning outcomes are studied frequently. In contrast, science teachers are studied much less. Most papers reported studies that had been done at the teaching organisation level. Course level studies and society level studies were also frequent. However, international level studies were few in this data pool. We conclude by discussing less popular research topics in the science education field.

  12. Table of isotopes for the 1998/99 handbook of chemistry and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.

    1998-03-01

    Non-neutron nuclear data have been reviewed and recommended values are presented in the Table of the Isotopes to be published in the Chemical Rubber Company's 1998--1999 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. The information, which is presented in the Isotopes Table for each known chemical element and for each ground state and long-lived isomeric state nuclide of each element includes the atomic weight of the element and the atomic mass of the ground state nuclide, isotopic abundance value (if the nuclide is stable) or the radioactive half-life (if the nuclide is not stable), the mode of decay, branching ratio and the total disintegration energy, the discrete energies of the alpha particles, protons or neutrons and end point energies of beta transitions and their respective intensities. The following additional information is also included, the nuclear spin and parity, the magnetic dipole moment and the electrical quadrupole moment and the gamma ray energies and intensities

  13. Physics and chemistry of niobium materials in the context of superconducting RF cavity applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.B.

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities excel over the normal conducting RF cavities in the long pulse or continuous wave high energy particle accelerations, and niobium (Nb) is currently the material of choice for fabrication of such SCRF cavities. However the accelerating gradients attained in the Nb SCRF cavities deployed in various high energy particle accelerators are significantly below the theoretical limit predicted by the superconducting properties of Nb. Thus it is very important to understand the physics and chemistry of Nb materials in some details so as to maximize the SCRF cavity performance. This abstract will discuss some issues which help in the development of high gradient and energy efficient Nb SCRF cavities in a cost effective manner. (author)

  14. Using Physical Organic Chemistry To Shape the Course of Electrochemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Kevin D

    2018-05-09

    While organic electrochemistry can look quite different to a chemist not familiar with the technique, the reactions are at their core organic reactions. As such, they are developed and optimized using the same physical organic chemistry principles employed during the development of any other organic reaction. Certainly, the electron transfer that triggers the reactions can require a consideration of new "wrinkles" to those principles, but those considerations are typically minimal relative to the more traditional approaches needed to manipulate the pathways available to the reactive intermediates formed downstream of that electron transfer. In this review, three very different synthetic challenges-the generation and trapping of radical cations, the development of site-selective reactions on microelectrode arrays, and the optimization of current in a paired electrolysis-are used to illustrate this point.

  15. The physical chemistry and materials science behind sinter-resistant catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yunqian; Lu, Ping; Cao, Zhenming; Campbell, Charles T; Xia, Younan

    2018-06-18

    Catalyst sintering, a main cause of the loss of catalytic activity and/or selectivity at high reaction temperatures, is a major concern and grand challenge in the general area of heterogeneous catalysis. Although all heterogeneous catalysts are inevitably subjected to sintering during their operation, the immediate and drastic consequences can be mitigated by carefully engineering the catalytic particles and their interactions with the supports. In this tutorial review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the physical chemistry and materials science involved in sintering, including the discussion of advanced techniques, such as in situ microscopy and spectroscopy, for investigating the sintering process and its rate. We also discuss strategies for the design and rational fabrication of sinter-resistant catalysts. Finally, we showcase recent success in improving the thermal stability and thus sinter resistance of supported catalytic systems.

  16. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  17. Praxeological Organization of School Knowledge: A comparison of the Clapeyron equation approach in both physics and chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Claro Zanardi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the Didactic Transposition and Anthropological Theory of Didactic of Chevallard and the relationship between them in order to use them as an analysis tool to understand the appearance of content on the Clapeyron equation in both books of Physics and Chemistry. Praxeological analysis revealed a common core to these two science courses, complemented by some concepts which are contextualized to each one of them. This analysis can provide elements that guide the internal didactical transposition, helping teachers of physics and chemistry to minimize the fragmentation of this content in both science courses.

  18. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Foundations of Physical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the mechanism, the rate and the energy transfer that occur when matter undergoes a change. Understanding the key concepts of physical chemistry is essential for solving practical problems in research and industrial appli- cations. A brief outline of the course is ...

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Foundations of Physical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-31

    Dec 31, 2017 ... Physical Chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the mechanism, the rate and the energy transfer that occur when matter undergoes a change. Understanding the key concepts of physical chemistry is essential for solving practical problems in research and industrial appli- cations. A brief outline ...

  20. For the love of learning science: Connecting learning orientation and career productivity in physics and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H. Tai

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An individual’s motivational orientation serves as a drive to action and can influence their career success. This study examines how goal orientation toward the pursuit of a graduate degree in physics and chemistry influences later success outcomes of practicing physicists and chemists. Two main categories of goal orientation are examined in this paper: performance orientation or motivation to demonstrate one’s ability or performance to others, and learning orientation or motivation through the desire to learn about a topic. The data were obtained as part of Project Crossover, a mixed-methods study which focused on studying the transition from graduate student to scientist in the physical sciences and included a survey of members of two national professional physical science organizations. Using regression analysis on data from 2353 physicists and chemists, results indicate that physicists and chemists who reported a learning orientation as their motivation for going to graduate school were more productive, in terms of total career primary and/or first-author publications and grant funding, than those reporting a performance orientation. Furthermore, given equal salary, learning-oriented individuals produced more primary and/or first-author publications than their nonlearning oriented counterparts.

  1. The Physics and Chemistry of Color: The Fifteen Causes of Color, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassau, Kurt

    2001-07-01

    An updated and revised second edition of the acclaimed classic Have you ever wondered why the sky is blue, or a ruby red? This classic volume studies the physical and chemical origins of color by exploring fifteen separate causes of color and their varied and often subtle occurrences in biology, geology, mineralogy, the atmosphere, technology, and the visual arts. It covers all of the fundamental concepts at work and requires no specialized knowledge. Author Kurt Nassau includes hundreds of illustrations, tables, and photographs-as well as end-of-chapter problems-that aid in visualizing the concepts discussed. An updated bibliography permits readers to pursue their own particular interests and an expanded series of appendices cover advanced topics. The Physics and Chemistry of Color, Second Edition is a one-of-a-kind treatment of color that provides both detailed physical and chemical properties of color and a more general overview of the subject. It will prove highly useful to specialists and non-specialists alike-and fascinate those with varied interests from optics to art history.

  2. Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales.

  3. Soft matter food physics—the physics of food and cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the (soft matter) physics of food. Although food is generally not considered as a typical model system for fundamental (soft matter) physics, a number of basic principles can be found in the interplay between the basic components of foods, water, oil/fat, proteins and carbohydrates. The review starts with the introduction and behavior of food-relevant molecules and discusses food-relevant properties and applications from their fundamental (multiscale) behavior. Typical food aspects from ‘hard matter systems’, such as chocolates or crystalline fats, to ‘soft matter’ in emulsions, dough, pasta and meat are covered and can be explained on a molecular basis. An important conclusion is the point that the macroscopic properties and the perception are defined by the molecular interplay on all length and time scales. (report on progress)

  4. EDITORIAL: Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter Richard Palmer: celebrating 37 years with Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, David

    2009-01-01

    It is with a great deal of both happiness and sadness that I have to announce that we are losing one of the real strengths of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter (JPCM). Dr Richard Palmer, our Senior Publisher, announced his retirement, and this issue marks the first without his involvement. Of course, we are happy that he will get to enjoy his retirement, but we are sad to lose such a valuable member of our team. Richard first started work at IOP Publishing in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics. After a few months, he transferred to Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics. During his first year, he was sent on a residential publishing training course and asked to sign an undertaking to stay at IOP Publishing for at least two years. Although Richard refused to sign, as he did not want to commit himself, he has remained with the journal since then. The following year, the Assistant Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Malcolm Haines, walked out without notice in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. I am told that in those days the job consisted mainly of editing and proofreading and peer review. There was no journal development work. At some point in the early 1980s, production and peer review were split into separate departments and Richard then headed a group of journals consisting of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Superconductor Science and Technology, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, and later Nanotechnology and Modelling and Simulation

  5. Get 150 minutes/week of moderate physical activity: It doesn’t matter how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers at the National Cancer Institute have shown that people who engage in more minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity enjoy health benefits (measured here by likelihood of dying during the study period), but it does not matter how those minutes are accumulated.

  6. Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the ... the studies of low-energy neutrino and dark matter physics. .... vs. SAT. 12 (shaping time is 12 μs with partial integration) signals, for both calibration.

  7. The Large Hadron Collider project: organizational and financial matters (of physics at the terascale)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, J.

    2012-01-01

    n this paper, I present a view of organizational and financial matters relevant for the successful construction and operation of the experimental set-ups at the Large Hadron Collider of CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in Geneva. Construction of these experiments was particularly

  8. Neutrino and dark matter physics with sub-keV germanium detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Germanium detectors with sub-keV sensitivities open a window to study neutrino physics to search for light weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We summarize the recent results on spin-independent couplings of light WIMPs from the TEXONO experiment at the Kuo-Sheng Reactor ...

  9. The toroidal moment in condensed-matter physics and its relation to the magnetoelectric effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.; Fiebig, Manfred; Mostovoy, Maxim

    2008-01-01

    The concept of toroidal moments in condensed-matter physics and their long-range ordering in a so-called ferrotoroidic state is reviewed. We show that ferrotoroidicity as a form of primary ferroic order can be understood both from microscopic (multipole expansion) and macroscopic (symmetry-based

  10. Radiation chemistry; principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Rodgers, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    The book attempts to present those fields of radiation chemistry which depend on the principles of radiation chemistry. The first four chapters are some prelude about radiation chemistry principles with respect to how ionizing radiation interacts with matter, and primary results from these interactions and, which kinetic laws are followed by these primary interactions and which equipment for qualitative studies is necessary. Following chapters included principles fields of radiation chemistry. The last six chapters discussed of principle of chemistry from physical and chemical point of view. In this connection the fundamentals of radiation on biological system is emphasised. On one hand, the importance of it for hygiene and safety as neoplasms therapy is discussed. on the other hand, its industrial importance is presented

  11. 19th International School on Condensed Matter Physics (ISCMP): Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce the Proceedings of the 19 th International School on Condensed Matter Physics “Advances in Nanostructured Condensed Matter: Research and Innovations” (19 th ISCMP). The school was held from August 28 th till September 2 nd , 2016 in Varna, Bulgaria. It was organized by the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ISSP-BAS), and took place at one of the fine resorts on the Bulgarian Black Sea “Saints Constantine and Helena”. The aim of this international school is to bring together top experimentalists and theoreticians, with interests in interdisciplinary areas, with the younger generation of scientists, in order to discuss current research and to communicate new forefront ideas. This year special focus was given to discussions on membrane biophysics and quantum information, also not forgotten were some traditionally covered areas, such as characterization of nanostructured materials. Participants from 12 countries presented 28 invited lectures, 12 short oral talks and 44 posters. The hope of the organizing committee is that the 19 th ISCMP provided enough opportunities for direct scientific contacts, interesting discussions and interactive exchange of ideas between the participants. The nice weather certainly helped a lot in this respect. The editors would like to thank all authors for their high-quality contributions and the members of the international program committee for their commitment. The papers submitted for publication in the Proceedings were refereed according to the publishing standards of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Editorial Committee members are very grateful to the Journal’s staff for the continuous fruitful relations and for giving us the opportunity to present the work from the 19 th ISCMP. Prof. DSc Hassan Chamati, Assist. Prof. Dr. Alexander A. Donkov, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Julia Genova, and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Emilia Pecheva (paper)

  12. Space Matters: Physical-Digital and Physical-Virtual Codesign in inSpace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, D.; Voida, S.; McKeon, M.

    2010-01-01

    The physical and social cues on which we rely during collaboration can vanish in the digital realm. inSpace focuses on physical-digital codesign, leveraging an approach grounded in social behavior patterns.......The physical and social cues on which we rely during collaboration can vanish in the digital realm. inSpace focuses on physical-digital codesign, leveraging an approach grounded in social behavior patterns....

  13. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes

  14. Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rangel Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: suziar@yahoo.com The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.

  15. Profile of Scientific Ability of Chemistry Education Students in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suastika, K. G.; Sudyana, I. N.; Lasiani, L.; Pebriyanto, Y.; Kurniawati, N.

    2017-09-01

    The weakness of scientific ability of students in college has been being a concern in this case, especially in terms of laboratory activities to support Laboratory Based Education. Scientific ability is a basic ability that must be dominated by students in basic physics lecturing process as a part of scientific method. This research aims to explore the indicators emergence of the scientific ability of students in Chemistry Education of Study Program, Faculty of Teaching and Education University of Palangka Raya through Inquiry Based Learning in basic physics courses. This research is a quantitative research by using descriptive method (descriptive-quantitative). Students are divided into three categories of group those are excellent group, low group, and heterogeneous group. The result shows that the excellent group and low group have same case that were occured decreasing in the percentage of achievement of scientific ability, while in heterogeneous group was increased. The differentiation of these results are caused by enthusiastic level of students in every group that can be seen in tables of scientific ability achievement aspects. By the results of this research, hoping in the future can be a references for further research about innovative learning strategies and models that can improve scientific ability and scientific reasoning especially for science teacher candidates.

  16. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  17. plasmaFoam: An OpenFOAM framework for computational plasma physics and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy; Verma, Abhishek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    As emphasized in the 2012 Roadmap for low temperature plasmas (LTP), scientific computing has emerged as an essential tool for the investigation and prediction of the fundamental physical and chemical processes associated with these systems. While several in-house and commercial codes exist, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages, a common framework that can be developed by researchers from all over the world will likely accelerate the impact of computational studies on advances in low-temperature plasma physics and chemistry. In this regard, we present a finite volume computational toolbox to perform high-fidelity simulations of LTP systems. This framework, primarily based on the OpenFOAM solver suite, allows us to enhance our understanding of multiscale plasma phenomenon by performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations on unstructured meshes using well-established high performance computing tools that are widely used in the computational fluid dynamics community. In this talk, we will present preliminary results obtained using the OpenFOAM-based solver suite with benchmark three-dimensional simulations of microplasma devices including both dielectric and plasma regions. We will also discuss the future outlook for the solver suite.

  18. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2012-01-01

    The 18th International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 20-22 June, 2012 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; New materials and structures, nanostructures, thin films, their analysis and applications; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Contributions relevant of INIS interest (forty-eight contributions) has been inputted to INIS.

  19. Salamfestschrift. A collection of talks from the conference on highlights of particle and condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Ellis, J.; Randjbar Daemi, S.; eds)

    1994-01-01

    The book contains papers, mainly on particle physics, presented at the meeting held between 8 and 12 March 1993 at the ICTP in Trieste to honor Professor Abdus Salam. The articles have been grouped in 6 chapters: Standard Model (6 papers), Beyond the Standard Model (4 papers), Astro-Particle Physics and Cosmology (3 papers), Strings and Quantum Gravity (5 papers), Mathematical Physics and Condensed Matter (2 papers), Salam's Collaborators and Students (13 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Sol-Gel Application for Consolidating Stone: An Example of Project-Based Learning in a Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    de los Santos, Desiree´ M.; Montes, Antonio; Sa´nchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Navas, Javier

    2014-01-01

    A Project Based Learning (PBL) methodology was used in the practical laboratories of the Advanced Physical Chemistry department. The project type proposed simulates "real research" focusing on sol-gel synthesis and the application of the obtained sol as a stone consolidant. Students were divided into small groups (2 to 3 students) to…

  1. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  2. Temperature and Electron Density Determination on Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) Plasmas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, Maya L.; Chinni, Rosemarie C.

    2013-01-01

    This laboratory is designed for physical chemistry students to gain experience using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in understanding plasma diagnostics. LIBS uses a high-powered laser that is focused on the sample causing a plasma to form. The emission of this plasma is then spectrally resolved and detected. Temperature and electron…

  3. Students' Interest and Experiences in Physics and Chemistry Related Themes: Reflections Based on a ROSE-Survey in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Meisalo, Veijo

    2008-01-01

    Interest in physics and chemistry topics and out-of-school experiences of Finnish secondary school students (n = 3626, median age 15) were surveyed using the international ROSE questionnaire. Based on explorative factor analysis the scores of six out-of-school experience factors (indicating how often students had done something outside of school)…

  4. Conceptual Mobility and Entrenchment in Introductory Geoscience Courses: New Questions Regarding Physics' and Chemistry's Role in Learning Earth Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven W.; Libarkin, Julie C.

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide pre- and posttesting of introductory courses with the Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI) shows little gain for many of its questions. Analysis of more than 3,500 tests shows that 22 of the 73 GCI questions had gains of <0.03, and nearly half of these focused on basic physics and chemistry. We also discovered through an assessment of…

  5. Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

  6. The 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry; Fast Elementary Processes in Chemical and Biological Systems Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tramer, A.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the 54th International Meeting of Physical Chemistry held in Villeneuve d'Ascq in France. Topics discussed include ultrafast studies in biophysics surface phenomena, photochemical processes, electron and proton transfer, crystalline and microdisperse media and isolated molecules. There were 80 papers presented at the meeting and 14 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  7. Utilization of a Microcomputer for the Study of an Iodine Oxidation and Equilibrium Reaction: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment which incorporates the use of a microcomputer to enhance understanding of combined kinetic and equilibrium phenomena, to increase experimental capabilities when working with large numbers of students and limited equipment, and for the student to develop a better understanding of experimental design. (JN)

  8. AN INVARIANT OF KNOWLEDGE FOR THE DISCIPLINE CHEMISTRY-PHYSIC IN THE FORMATION OF TEACHERS OF CHEMISTRY / UN INVARIANTE DE CONOCIMIENTOS PARA LA DISCIPLINA QUÍMICA-FÍSICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PROFESORES DE QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Arturo Ramírez Urizarri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a mastership thesis on the Didactic of Chemistry. Here it is offered the first approximation which will constitute the invariant of knowledge of the discipline Chemistry-Physic for the measurement as bachelor in education in the specialty of Chemistry; with this invariant, that knowledge is meaningful for the importance of the teachers to be professional work.

  9. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C. [eds.] [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  10. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlach, D; Kettle, P R [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1996. Annex I. PSI-F1-Newsletter 1996 nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.; Buechli, C.

    1997-02-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, -applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1996, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1996. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Paul Scherrer Institut annual report 1995. Annex I: PSI-F1-Newsletter 1995. Nuclear and particle physics. Muons in solid-state physics and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlach, D.; Kettle, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter contains reports from the F1-Department and its Divisions. The contributions are categorized as follows: - activities of the F1-Department of PSI, - nuclear and particle physics supported by the Department, - applications of muons in solid-state physics and chemistry. Groups were asked to present new, preliminary or final results obtained in 1995, as well as a publication list, related to F1-supported work which had appeared in scientific journals during 1995. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  13. Students' confidence in the ability to transfer basic math skills in introductory physics and chemistry courses at a community college

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Reginald

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the confidence levels that community college students have in transferring basic math skills to science classes, as well as any factors that influence their confidence levels. This study was conducted with 196 students at a community college in central Mississippi. The study was conducted during the month of November after all of the students had taken their midterm exams and received midterm grades. The instrument used in this survey was developed and validated by the researcher. The instrument asks the students to rate how confident they were in working out specific math problems and how confident they were in working problems using those specific math skills in physics and chemistry. The instrument also provided an example problem for every confidence item. Results revealed that students' demographics were significant predictors in confidence scores. Students in the 18-22 year old range were less confident in solving math problems than others. Students who had retaken a math course were less confident than those who had not. Chemistry students were less confident in solving math problems than those in physics courses. Chemistry II students were less confident than those in Chemistry I and Principals of Chemistry. Students were least confident in solving problems involving logarithms and the most confident in solving algebra problems. In general, students felt that their math courses did not prepare them for the math problems encountered in science courses. There was no significant difference in confidence between students who had completed their math homework online and those who had completed their homework on paper. The researcher recommends that chemistry educators find ways of incorporating more mathematics in their courses especially logarithms and slope. Furthermore, math educators should incorporate more chemistry related applications to math class. Results of hypotheses testing, conclusions, discussions, and

  14. Development of a fluidized bed agglomeration modeling methodology to include particle-level heterogeneities in ash chemistry and granular physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Aditi B.

    The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied

  15. Removal of triazine-based pollutants from water by carbon nanotubes: Impact of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and solution chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Maya; Chefetz, Benny

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of organic pollutants by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment or removal of pollutants during water purification require deep understanding of the impacts of the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is an integral part of environmental systems and plays a key role affecting the behavior of organic pollutants. In this study, the effects of solution chemistry (pH and ionic strength) and the presence of DOM on the removal of atrazine and lamotrigine by single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) was investigated. The solubility of atrazine slightly decreased (∼5%) in the presence of DOM, whereas that of lamotrigine was significantly enhanced (by up to ∼70%). Simultaneous introduction of DOM and pollutant resulted in suppression of removal of both atrazine and lamotrigine, which was attributed to DOM-pollutant competition or blockage of adsorption sites by DOM. However the decrease in removal of lamotrigine was also a result of its complexation with DOM. Pre-introduction of DOM significantly reduced pollutant adsorption by the SWCNTs, whereas introduction of DOM after the pollutant resulted in the release of adsorbed atrazine and lamotrigine from the SWCNTs. These data imply that DOM exhibits higher affinity for the adsorption sites than the triazine-based pollutants. In the absence of DOM atrazine was a more effective competitor than lamotrigine for adsorption sites in SWCNTs. However, competition between pollutants in the presence of DOM revealed lamotrigine as the better competitor. Our findings help unravel the complex DOM-organic pollutant-CNT system and will aid in CNT-implementation in water-purification technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of soil γ-irradiation and spiking on sorption of p,p'-DDE and soil organic matter chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škulcová, Lucia; Scherr, Kerstin E; Chrást, Lukáš; Hofman, Jakub; Bielská, Lucie

    2018-07-15

    The fate of organic chemicals and their metabolites in soils is often investigated in model matrices having undergone various pre-treatment steps that may qualitatively or quantitatively interfere with the results. Presently, effects associated with soil sterilization by γ-irradiation and soil spiking using an organic solvent were studied in one freshly spiked soil (sterilization prior to contamination) and its field-contaminated (sterilization after contamination) counterpart for the model organic compound 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE). Changes in the sorption and potential bioavailability of spiked and native p,p'-DDE were measured by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), XAD-assisted extraction (XAD), and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and linked to qualitative changes in soil organic matter (SOM) chemistry measured by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy. Reduced sorption of p,p´-DDE detected with XAD and SPME was associated more clearly with spiking than with sterilization, but SFE showed a negligible impact. Spiking resulted in an increase of the DRIFT-derived hydrophobicity index, but irradiation did not. Spectral peak height ratio descriptors indicated increasing hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity in pristine soil following sterilization, and a greater reduction of hydrophobic over hydrophilic groups as a consequence of spiking. In parallel, reduced sorption of p,p´-DDE upon spiking was observed. Based on the present samples, γ-irradiation appears to alter soil sorptive properties to a lesser extent when compared to common laboratory processes such as spiking with organic solvents. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. An assemblage of science and home. The gendered lifestyle of Svante Arrhenius and early twentieth-century physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwik, Staffan

    2014-06-01

    This essay explores the gendered lifestyle of early twentieth-century physics and chemistry and shows how that way of life was produced through linking science and home. In 1905, the Swedish physical chemist Svante Arrhenius married Maja Johansson and established a scientific household at the Nobel Institute for Physical Chemistry in Stockholm. He created a productive context for research in which ideas about marriage and family were pivotal. He also socialized in similar scientific sites abroad. This essay displays how scholars in the international community circulated the gendered lifestyle through frequent travel and by reproducing gendered behavior. Everywhere, husbands and wives were expected to perform distinct duties. Shared performances created loyalties across national divides. The essay thus situates the physical sciences at the turn of the twentieth century in a bourgeois gender ideology. Moreover, it argues that the gendered lifestyle was not external to knowledge making but, rather, foundational to laboratory life. A legitimate and culturally intelligible lifestyle produced the trust and support needed for collaboration. In addition, it enabled access to prestigious facilities for Svante Arrhenius, ultimately securing his position in international physical chemistry.

  18. Analysis of the Chemistry activities in 1st level of Spanish Bachelor Physics and Chemistry textbooks from a «Chemistry in context» approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea MARTÍNEZ DÍAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years there are two worrying phenomenon happening in the science teaching environment, on one hand there are fewer students who choose science subjects at the time they’re optional and on the other hand the decreasing number of university students enrolled in science careers, if we add those two facts the results of the latest pisa tests, which show that students who choose these materials do not get satisfactory results, we have a hopeless outlook. One way of analysing the situation is exploring what happens in the classroom and in this context we find that the textbook is a resource used extensively in the teaching of Chemistry; one essential element for learning are planned activities in the classroom, so it seems essential to make a full review of them. The objectives in this study are: Analysing and classifying the activities contextualized of chemistry textbooks currently used in eleventh grade and comparing books from different educational laws based on their contextualized activities. For the review and classification of activities it uses a methodology of analysis for qualitative content. The results demonstrate the anecdotic presence of this kind of activities in textbooks; 8308 activities were reviewed of which only 6,46% corresponded to contextualized activities. In addition when comparing the different books, whether they are currently used or the ones from previous educational laws, we see that there is not a turnaround in what refers to the contextualized activities, as a significant variation is not observed in the percentages and therefore do not adapt well to curriculum changes. 

  19. Influence of Chemical, Physical, Biological and Geochemical Processes of Early Diagenesis and Material Exchange Across the Sediment/Seawater Interface in Margin Sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kastner, Miriam

    1997-01-01

    .... To this end, we provided high resolution characterizations of sediment microfabric, physical properties, chemistry, mineralogy, and organic matter content as well as theoretical work on smectite interlayer hydration...

  20. DNA as information: at the crossroads between biology, mathematics, physics and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Julyan H E; Giannerini, Simone; González, Diego L

    2016-03-13

    On the one hand, biology, chemistry and also physics tell us how the process of translating the genetic information into life could possibly work, but we are still very far from a complete understanding of this process. On the other hand, mathematics and statistics give us methods to describe such natural systems-or parts of them-within a theoretical framework. Also, they provide us with hints and predictions that can be tested at the experimental level. Furthermore, there are peculiar aspects of the management of genetic information that are intimately related to information theory and communication theory. This theme issue is aimed at fostering the discussion on the problem of genetic coding and information through the presentation of different innovative points of view. The aim of the editors is to stimulate discussions and scientific exchange that will lead to new research on why and how life can exist from the point of view of the coding and decoding of genetic information. The present introduction represents the point of view of the editors on the main aspects that could be the subject of future scientific debate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Handbook on the physics and chemistry of the actinides. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.J.; Keller, C.

    1985-01-01

    It is the purpose of the Handbook to describe in detail the present understanding of the actinides by means of comprehensive, critical, broad and up to date reviews covering both physics and chemistry of these exotic elements. Volume 3 is the first of two volumes to cover the more chemical, physico-chemical, structural and environmental aspects of the actinide elements. Leading scientists from Europe, USA and P.R. China present critical reviews on important aspects of the behaviour of this radioactive group of elements. In contrast to most other elements radioactivity has, to a degree, a profound influence on the chemical behaviour of the actinides. The unusual behaviour of the 5f-elements - delocalization of the electrons for the light actinides versus localization for the heavier ones - makes them an outstanding tool for the scientist, which can be seen by the variety of oxidation states ranging from +1 to +7. Special laboratory techniques must be developed to deal with the problem of the transcurium elements only being available in small amounts (nanograms to micrograms) or only in the tracer scale. Special emphasis is also placed on the fate of actinides released in the environment, e.g. their reaction to carbonate and organic complexing agents in aquatic systems. In contrast to volumes 1 and 2 which deal mainly with the less radioactive actinides, this volume and the forthcoming volume 4 cover all actinides, in particular those which can be prepared in weighable quantities (up to fermium, element 100). refs.; figs.; tabs

  2. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Weitz, Joshua S; Nelson, Daniel C

    2010-01-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics

  3. Analysis of scientific argumentation in two physical chemistry classrooms using the POGIL approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Alena C.

    The benefits of facilitating argumentation in science education have been well reported (Jimenez-Aleixandre & Erduran, 2007). Engaging in argumentation has shown to model authentic scientific inquiry as well as promote development of content knowledge. However, less emphasis has been placed on facilitating argumentation in upper level undergraduate courses, though it is important for evaluating undergraduate curricula to characterize upper level students' scientific reasoning. This work considers two implementations of the POGIL physical chemistry curriculum and evaluates the classroom argumentation. The researchers aimed to consider the content of the arguments and dialectical features characteristic of socially constructed arguments (Nielson, 2013). To do this, whole class sessions were videotaped and Toulmin's Argument Pattern (TAP) was used to identify the arguments generated during the class (Erduran, Simon, & Osborne, 2004). A learning progression on chemical thinking (Sevian & Talanquer, 2014) was used as a domain-specific measure of argument quality. Results show differences in argumentation between and across both classrooms that can be explained by analysis of instructor facilitation and the POGIL curriculum. The results from this work will be used to make recommendations for instructor facilitation of argumentation and reform of the POGIL curriculum.

  4. Application of perturbed angular correlations to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinneberg, H H [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-06-01

    The paper reviews the more recent applications of ..gamma..-..gamma.. time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to chemistry and related areas of solid state physics. Topics which are discussed in some detail include: Supertransferred hyperfine fields at diamagnetic impurities in antiferromagnetic transition metal compounds and their relation to the covalency of the transition metal-ligand bond; effects of charge transfer on the quadrupole interactions in various partially covalent insulators measured by PAC; fluctuating electric field gradients in heptafluorohafnates; the influence of charge density waves in TaS/sub 2/ and the effect of intercalating on the field gradients at /sup 181/Ta; recent advances in the understanding of electric field gradients in metals; information obtained by PAC on the microscopic structure of alloys as well as defects in pure metals after quenching, implantation or irradiation. Magnetic and electric phase transitions observed in PAC spectra are briefly mentioned. In addition, recent measurements in liquids and gases are reviewed. Three introductory sections are devoted to a brief discussion of the time-differential PAC technique, to a concise explanation of the theoretical expressions needed to analyse PAC spectra and to a short description of the experimental set-up. An outlook suggests some areas of possible future applications.

  5. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J; Nelson, Daniel C; Weitz, Joshua S

    2010-10-04

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  6. Proceedings 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter and of the Scientific Conference Advanced Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, J.; Jamnicky, I.

    2015-01-01

    The 21. International Conference on Applied Physics of Condensed Matter was held on 24-26 June, 2015 on Strbske Pleso, Strba, Slovakia. The Scientific Conference the Advanced Fast Reactors was part of the 21 st International Conference on APCOM 2015. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems in: Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Advanced fast reactors; Physical properties and structural aspects of solid materials and their influencing; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Computational physics and theory of physical properties of matter; interdisciplinary physics of condensed matter; Nuclear science and technology, influence of irradiation on physical properties of materials, radiation detection; Optical phenomena in materials, photovoltaics and photonics, new principles in sensors and detection methods. Fifty seven contributions relevant of INIS interest has been inputted to INIS.

  7. Physics and Chemistry on Well-Defined Semiconductor and Oxide Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peijun

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and other surface spectroscopic techniques have been employed to investigate the following two classes of surface/interface phenomena on well-defined semiconductor and oxide surfaces: (i) the fundamental physical and chemical processes involved in gas-solid interaction on silicon single crystal surfaces, and (ii) the physical and chemical properties of metal-oxide interfaces. The particular systems reported in this dissertation are: NH_3, PH_3 and B_ {10}H_{14} on Si(111)-(7 x 7); NH_3 on Si(100) -(2 x 1); atomic H on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and boron-modified Si(111); Al on Al_2O_3 and Sn on SiO_2.. On silicon surfaces, the surface dangling bonds function as the primary adsorption sites where surface chemical processes take place. The unambiguous identification of surface species by vibrational spectroscopy allows the elementary steps involved in these surface chemical processes to be followed on a molecular level. For adsorbate molecules such as NH_3 and PH_3, the nature of the initial low temperature (100 -300 K) adsorption is found to be dissociative, while that for B_{10}H_ {14} is non-dissociative. This has been deduced based upon the presence (or absence) of specific characteristic vibrational mode(s) on surface. By following the evolution of surface species as a function of temperature, the elementary steps leading to silicon nitride thin film growth and doping of silicon are elucidated. In the case of NH_3 on Si(111)-(7 x 7) and Si(100)-(2 x 1), a detailed understanding on the role of substrate surface structure in controlling the surface reactivity has been gained on the basis of a Si adatom backbond-strain relief mechanism on the Si(111) -(7 x 7). The electronic modification to Si(111) surface by subsurface boron doping has been shown to quench its surface chemistry, even for the most aggressive atomic H. This discovery is potentially meaningful to the technology of gas-phase silicon etching. The

  8. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Ipsen, J. H.; Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes are examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...... vesicle formation and the proliferation of genus number. In the second section differential geometric methods are used for analyzing the surface structure of proteins and thereby understanding catalytic properties of larger proteins....

  9. Condensed matter physics of biomolecule systems in a differential geometric framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, H.; Ipsen, John Hjort; Markvorsen, S

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution biomolecular systems are analyzed in a framework of differential geometry in order to derive important condensed matter physics information. In the first section lipid bi-layer membranes axe examined with respect to statistical properties and topology, e.g. a relation between...... vesicle formation and the proliferation of genus number. In the second section differential geometric methods are used for analyzing the surface structure of proteins and thereby understanding catalytic properties of larger proteins....

  10. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerib, D; Arnold, R; Balantekin, A; Barabash, A; Barnabe, H; Baroni, S; Baussan, E; Bellini, F; Bobisut, F; Bongrand, M; Brofferio, Ch; Capolupo, A; Enrico, Carrara; Caurier, E; Cermak, P; Chardin, G; Civitarese, O; Couchot, F; Kerret, H de; Heros, C de los; Detwiler, J; Dracos, M; Drexlin, G; Efremenko, Y; Ejiri, H; Falchini, E; Fatemi-Ghomi, N; Finger, M Ch; Finger Miroslav, Ch; Fiorillo, G; Fiorini, E; Fracasso, S; Frekers, D; Fushimi, K I; Gascon, J; Genest, M H; Georgadze, A; Giuliani, A; Goeger-Neff, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Greenfield, M; H de Jesus, J; Hallin, A; Hannestad, St; Hirai, Sh; Hoessl, J; Ianni, A; Ieva, M B; Ishihara, N; Jullian, S; Kaim, S; Kajino, T; Kayser, B; Kochetov, O; Kopylov, A; Kortelainen, M; Kroeninger, K; Lachenmaier, T; Lalanne, D; Lanfranchi, J C; Lazauskas, R; Lemrani, A R; Li, J; Mansoulie, B; Marquet, Ch; Martinez, J; Mirizzi, A; Morfin Jorge, G; Motz, H; Murphy, A; Navas, S; Niedermeier, L; Nishiura, H; Nomachi, M; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H; Ogawa, I; Ohsumi, H; Palladino, V; Paniccia, M; Perotto, L; Petcov, S; Pfister, S; Piquemal, F; Poves, A; Praet, Ch; Raffelt, G; Ramberg, E; Rashba, T; Regnault, N; Ricol, J St; Rodejohann, W; Rodin, V; Ruz, J; Sander, Ch; Sarazin, X; Scholberg, K; Sigl, G; Simkovic, F; Sousa, A; Stanev, T; Strolger, L; Suekane, F; Thomas, J; Titov, N; Toivanen, J; Torrente-Lujan, E; Tytler, D; Vala, L; Vignaud, D; Vitiello, G; Vogel, P; Volkov, G; Volpe, C; Wong, H; Yilmazer, A

    2006-07-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations.

  11. NDM06: 2. symposium on neutrinos and dark matter in nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, D.; Arnold, R.; Balantekin, A.; Barabash, A.; Barnabe, H.; Baroni, S.; Baussan, E.; Bellini, F.; Bobisut, F.; Bongrand, M.; Brofferio, Ch.; Capolupo, A.; Carrara Enrico; Caurier, E.; Cermak, P.; Chardin, G.; Civitarese, O.; Couchot, F.; Kerret, H. de; Heros, C. de los; Detwiler, J.; Dracos, M.; Drexlin, G.; Efremenko, Y.; Ejiri, H.; Falchini, E.; Fatemi-Ghomi, N.; Finger, M.Ch.; Finger Miroslav, Ch.; Fiorillo, G.; Fiorini, E.; Fracasso, S.; Frekers, D.; Fushimi, K.I.; Gascon, J.; Genest, M.H.; Georgadze, A.; Giuliani, A.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Greenfield, M.; H de Jesus, J.; Hallin, A.; Hannestad, St.; Hirai, Sh.; Hoessl, J.; Ianni, A.; Ieva, M.B.; Ishihara, N.; Jullian, S.; Kaim, S.; Kajino, T.; Kayser, B.; Kochetov, O.; Kopylov, A.; Kortelainen, M.; Kroeninger, K.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lalanne, D.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Lazauskas, R.; Lemrani, A.R.; Li, J.; Mansoulie, B.; Marquet, Ch.; Martinez, J.; Mirizzi, A.; Morfin Jorge, G.; Motz, H.; Murphy, A.; Navas, S.; Niedermeier, L.; Nishiura, H.; Nomachi, M.; Nones, C.; Ogawa, H.; Ogawa, I.; Ohsumi, H.; Palladino, V.; Paniccia, M.; Perotto, L.; Petcov, S.; Pfister, S.; Piquemal, F.; Poves, A.; Praet, Ch.; Raffelt, G.; Ramberg, E.; Rashba, T.; Regnault, N.; Ricol, J.St.; Rodejohann, W.; Rodin, V.; Ruz, J.; Sander, Ch.; Sarazin, X.; Scholberg, K.; Sigl, G.; Simkovic, F.; Sousa, A.; Stanev, T.; Strolger, L.; Suekane, F.; Thomas, J.; Titov, N.; Toivanen, J.; Torrente-Lujan, E.; Tytler, D.; Vala, L.; Vignaud, D.; Vitiello, G.; Vogel, P.; Volkov, G.; Volpe, C.; Wong, H.; Yilmazer, A.

    2006-01-01

    This second symposium on neutrinos and dark matter is aimed at discussing research frontiers and perspectives on currently developing subjects. It has been organized around 6 topics: 1) double beta decays, theory and experiments (particularly: GERDA, MOON, SuperNEMO, CUORE, CANDLES, EXO, and DCBA), 2) neutrinos and nuclear physics, 3) single beta decays and nu-responses, 4) neutrino astrophysics, 5) solar neutrino review, and 6) neutrino oscillations. This document is made up of the slides of the presentations

  12. Chemistry and physics of a single atomic layer: strategies and challenges for functionalization of graphene and graphene-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Zheng, Yue Bing; Zhao, Feng; Li, Shoujian; Gao, Xingfa; Xu, Bingqian; Weiss, Paul S; Zhao, Yuliang

    2012-01-07

    Graphene has attracted great interest for its superior physical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical properties that enable a wide range of applications from electronics to nanoelectromechanical systems. Functionalization is among the significant vectors that drive graphene towards technological applications. While the physical properties of graphene have been at the center of attention, we still lack the knowledge framework for targeted graphene functionalization. In this critical review, we describe some of the important chemical and physical processes for graphene functionalization. We also identify six major challenges in graphene research and give perspectives and practical strategies for both fundamental studies and applications of graphene (315 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  13. The Physics and Chemistry of Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Envelopes as Traced by Simple Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Tat

    2018-04-01

    The physics and chemistry of the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of evolved stars are not fully understood despite decades of research. This thesis addresses two issues in the study of the CSEs of oxygen-rich (O-rich) evolved stars. In the first project, the ammonia (NH3) chemistry of O-rich stars is investigated with multi-wavelength observations; in the second project, the extended atmosphere and inner wind of the archetypal asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star o Ceti (Mira) is studied with high-angular resolution observations. One of the long-standing mysteries in circumstellar chemistry is the perplexing overabundance of the NH3 molecule. NH3 in O-rich evolved stars has been found in much higher abundance, by several orders of magnitude, than that expected in equilibrium chemistry. Several mechanisms have been suggested in the literature to explain this high NH3 abundance, including shocks in the inner wind, photodissociation of nitrogen by interstellar ultraviolet radiation, and nitrogen enrichment in stellar nucleosynthesis; however, none of these suggestions can fully explain the abundances of NH3 and various other molecular species in the CSEs of O-rich stars. In order to investigate the distribution of NH3 in O-rich CSEs, observations of the spectral lines of NH3 from a diverse sample of evolved stars and in different wavelength regimes are necessary. In this thesis, the NH3 line emission and absorption from four O-rich stars are studied. These targets include the AGB star IK Tauri, the pre-planetary nebula OH 231.8+4.2, the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris, and the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420. The amount of NH3 observational data has increased drastically thanks to the recent advancement of instrumentation. Observations of NH3 rotational line emission at submillimetre/far-infrared wavelengths were possible with the Herschel Space Observatory (2009–2013). The new wideband correlator in the upgraded Karl G. Janksy Very Large Array (VLA) provided data of

  14. 29th Workshop on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Thirty years ago, because of the dramatic increase in the power and utility of computer simulations, The University of Georgia formed the first institutional unit devoted to the application of simulations in research and teaching: The Center for Simulational Physics. Then, as the international simulations community expanded further, we sensed the need for a meeting place for both experienced simulators and newcomers to discuss inventive algorithms and recent results in an environment that promoted lively discussion. As a consequence, the Center for Simulational Physics established an annual workshop series on Recent Developments in Computer Simulation Studies in Condensed Matter Physics. This year's highly interactive workshop was the 29th in the series marking our efforts to promote high quality research in simulational physics. The continued interest shown by the scientific community amply demonstrates the useful purpose that these meetings have served. The latest workshop was held at The University of Georgia from February 22-26, 2016. It served to mark the 30 th Anniversary of the founding of the Center for Simulational Physics. In addition, during this Workshop we celebrated the 60 th birthday of our esteemed colleague Prof. H.-Bernd Schuttler. Bernd has not only contributed to the understanding of strongly correlated electron system, but has made seminal contributions to systems biology through the introduction of modern methods of computational physics. These Proceedings provide a “status report” on a number of important topics. This on-line “volume” is published with the goal of timely dissemination of the material to a wider audience. This program was supported in part by the President's Venture Fund through the generous gifts of the University of Georgia Partners and other donors. We also wish to offer thanks to the Office of the Vice-President for Research, the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, and the IBM Corporation for partial

  15. 6. International conference on materials science and condensed matter physics. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This book includes abstracts of the communications presented at the 6th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics. The aim of this event is two-fold. First, it provides a nice opportunity for discussions and the dissemination of the latest results on selected topics in materials science, condensed-matter physics, and electrical methods of materials treatment. On the other hand, this is an occasion for sketching a broad perspective of scientific research and technological developments for the participants through oral and poster presentations. The abstracts presented in the book cover certain issues of modern theoretical and experimental physics and advanced technology, such as crystal growth, doping and implantation, fabrication of solid state structures; defect engineering, methods of fabrication and characterization of nanostructures including nanocomposites, nanowires and nano dots; fullerenes and nano tubes; quantum wells and superlattices; molecular-based materials, meso- and nano electronics; methods of structural and mechanical characterization; optical, transport, magnetic and superconductor properties, non-linear phenomena, size and interface effects; condensed matter theory; modelling of materials and structural properties including low dimensional systems; advanced materials and fabrication processes, device modelling and simulation of structures and elements; optoelectronics and photonics; microsensors and micro electro-mechanical systems; degradation and reliability, advanced technologies of electro-physico-chemical methods and equipment for materials machining, including modification of surfaces; electrophysical technologies of intensification of heat- and mass-transfer; treatment of biological preparations and foodstuff.

  16. Illustrating Concepts in Physical Organic Chemistry with 3D Printed Orbitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michael J.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital theory provides a powerful tool for rationalizing and understanding many phenomena in chemistry. In most introductory chemistry courses, students are introduced to atomic and molecular orbitals in the form of two-dimensional drawings. In this work, we describe a general method for producing 3D printing files of orbital models that can be…

  17. Nicotine dependence matters: examining longitudinal association between smoking and physical activity among Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-11-01

    A number of studies point to the inverse relationship between physical activity and smoking; however, none has examined the role of nicotine dependence in physical activity participation among smokers. This study examined whether levels of nicotine dependence modify the association between leisure time physical activity and smoking status. The study used longitudinal data on 6795 adults from the Canadian National Population Health Survey (2004-2010). Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between physical activity, smoking, and nicotine dependence. We found that nicotine dependent smokers were significantly less likely to be physically active compared to non-smokers. Specifically, using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, nicotine dependent smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.55-0.76) were less likely to be physically active while no significant difference was found for non-dependent smokers (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80-1.02) compared to non-smokers. Nicotine dependence matters in shaping engagement in physical activity among daily smokers. Efforts directed at promoting smoking cessation through nicotine dependence treatment intervention may provide additional benefits to health and well-being through an increased participation in physical activity. © 2013.

  18. Japan - UK Conference: Trends in Physics and Chemistry Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    demonstrations by groups of physics and chemistry teachers of apparatus that they had made. This hugely enjoyable session has resulted in a great number of good ideas appearing ready for use in a certain British physics lab. Poaching ideas in teaching can be an international activity as well! One impression that this session left us with is that, making a gross generalization, the Japanese are physics teachers, the British physics teachers. How delightful if we in Britain could more often gather in this fashion to delight in exploring physics for ourselves. A substantial benefit of the conference was the challenge of presenting the substantive arguments behind the philosophy of curriculum change to teachers from a different culture, with thoughts being tempered in the furnace of translation. When each word requires lengthy translation, they become precious. An attempt to explain what was meant by the phrase `positive formative reinforcement' that had been carelessly written on one overhead transparency on the purpose of assessment has left permanent mental scars (and perhaps rightly so!). And what of the future? The conference, and perhaps more especially the surrounding visits, resulted in the start of new friendships and the renewal of old acquaintances. Other visits and conferences will doubtless be arranged. The two groups of physics teachers have much to share and discuss with each other. In the short term it is hoped that fruitful e-mail communication and cooperation can be continued both between participants and among a wider circle of physics teachers from both countries. Philip Britton and Ian Lawrence Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, and Secretary, IoP Education Group King's School Worcester, and Chairman, IoP Education Group

  19. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica de suelos del Centro de Almacenamiento de Desechos Radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  20. Silicon quantum dots: surface matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dohnalová, K.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Kůsová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 17 (2014), 1-28 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon quantum dots * quantum dot * surface chemistry * quantum confinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014

  1. VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials. Collection of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    The materials of the VII Russian annual conference of young scientists and postgraduate students Physical chemistry and technology of inorganic materials, held 8-11 November 2010 in Moscow, are presented. Structure and properties of high-strength nanostructured metal and composite materials, development of research methods and simulation of the structure and properties of materials and nanomaterials, functional ceramic and composite nanomaterials - in sight of the participants. The problems of physicochemical principles and processes for new technologies and forming powder materials and nanomaterials, physicochemical bases of production and processing of advanced inorganic materials, physical chemistry and technology of energy-, resource-saving and environmentally friendly processes for ferrous, non-ferrous and rare metals are under consideration. Promising composite coatings and nanostructured films of functional purposes, physicochemical bases of new processes of shaping and forming of materials and nanomaterials are discussed [ru

  2. Proceedings of the thirty first convention of Orissa Physical Society and national seminar on recent trends in condensed matter physics: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This conference covers issues relevant to condensed matter physics. The research in this area has laid the foundation for development of science and technology in wide areas of energy, information, communication etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  3. 132nd International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Course on Dark Matter in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Primack, Joel R; Provenzale, A; International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Course on Dark Matter in the Universe; Scuola Internazionale di Fisica "Enrico Fermi"

    1996-01-01

    Physics and astrophysics came to dark matter through many different routes, finally accepting it, but often with some distaste. It has been noticed that the existence of dark matter is yet another displacement of humans from the centre of the Universe: not only do our planet and our sun have no central position in the Universe, not only are humans just animals (although with a 'specialized' central nervous system), but even the material of which we are made is only a marginal component of the cosmic substance! If this is the right attitude to take, scientists feeling distaste for dark matter are much like Galileo Galilei's colleagues who refused to look through the telescope to watch the Medici planets. Nevertheless, astronomers, when required to take a ballot in favour of some cosmological model, often still vote for 'pure baryonic' with substantial majorities, although most cosmologists assume that a 'cold' component of dark matter plays a role in producing the world as we observe it. Among the many subject...

  4. Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Ninety-five percent of the present mass-energy density of the Universe is dark. Twenty-five percent is in the form of dark matter holding together galaxies and other large scale structures, and 70% is in the form of dark energy driving an accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark matter and dark energy cannot be explained within the standard model of particle physics. In the first lecture I will review the evidence for dark matter and the observations that point to an explanation in the form of cold dark matter. I will then describe the expected properties of a hypothetical Weakly-Interacting Massive Particle, or WIMP, and review experimental and observational approaches to test the hypothesis. Finally, I will discuss how the LHC might shed light on the problem. In the second lecture I will review the theoretical foundations and observational evidence that the dominant component of the present mass density of the Universe has a negative pressure, which leads to an accelerated expansion of the Universe...

  5. Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Ninety-five percent of the present mass-energy density of the Universe is dark. Twenty-five percent is in the form of dark matter holding together galaxies and other large scale structures, and 70% is in the form of dark energy driving an accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark matter and dark energy cannot be explained within the standard model of particle physics. In the first lecture I will review the evidence for dark matter and the observations that point to an explanation in the form of cold dark matter. I will then describe the expected properties of a hypothetical Weakly-Interacting Massive Particle, or WIMP, and review experimental and observational approaches to test the hypothesis. Finally, I will discuss how the LHC might shed light on the problem. In the second lecture I will review the theoretical foundations and observational evidence that the dominant component of the present mass density of the Universe has a negative pressure, which leads to an accelerated expansion of the Universe...

  6. Particle Physics Foundations of Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Inflation (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Ninety-five percent of the present mass-energy density of the Universe is dark. Twenty-five percent is in the form of dark matter holding together galaxies and other large scale structures, and 70% is in the form of dark energy driving an accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark matter and dark energy cannot be explained within the standard model of particle physics. In the first lecture I will review the evidence for dark matter and the observations that point to an explanation in the form of cold dark matter. I will then describe the expected properties of a hypothetical Weakly-Interacting Massive Particle, or WIMP, and review experimental and observational approaches to test the hypothesis. Finally, I will discuss how the LHC might shed light on the problem. In the second lecture I will review the theoretical foundations and observational evidence that the dominant component of the present mass density of the Universe has a negative pressure, which leads to an accelerated expansion of the Universe...

  7. Integrated Ecological River Health Assessments, Based on Water Chemistry, Physical Habitat Quality and Biological Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yoon Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated integrative river ecosystem health using stressor-based models of physical habitat health, chemical water health, and biological health of fish and identified multiple-stressor indicators influencing the ecosystem health. Integrated health responses (IHRs, based on star-plot approach, were calculated from qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI, nutrient pollution index (NPI, and index of biological integrity (IBI in four different longitudinal regions (Groups I–IV. For the calculations of IHRs values, multi-metric QHEI, NPI, and IBI models were developed and their criteria for the diagnosis of the health were determined. The longitudinal patterns of the river were analyzed by a self-organizing map (SOM model and the key major stressors in the river were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Our model scores of integrated health responses (IHRs suggested that mid-stream and downstream regions were impaired, and the key stressors were closely associated with nutrient enrichment (N and P and organic matter pollutions from domestic wastewater disposal plants and urban sewage. This modeling approach of IHRs may be used as an effective tool for evaluations of integrative ecological river health..

  8. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  9. Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics : Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School : Session CIII

    CERN Document Server

    Chamon, Claudio; Goerbig, Mark O; Moessner, Roderich; Cugliandolo, Leticia F

    2017-01-01

    Topological condensed matter physics is a recent arrival among the disciplines of modern physics of a distinctive and substantive nature. Its roots reach far back, but much of its current importance derives from exciting developments in the last half-century. The field is advancing rapidly, growing explosively, and diversifying greatly. There is now a zoo of topological phenomena–the quantum spin Hall effect, topological insulators, Coulomb spin liquids, non-Abelian anyonic statistics and their potential application in topological quantum computing, to name but a few–as well as an increasingly sophisticated set of concepts and methods underpinning their understanding. The aim of this Les Houches Summer School was to present an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its place on the map of advances in fundamental physics. The school comprised a set of basic lectures (Part I) aimed at a pedagogical introduction to the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectur...

  10. Physical Exercise Habits Correlate with Gray Matter Volume of the Hippocampus in Healthy Adult Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D. S.; Olson, Elizabeth A.; Weber, Mareen

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity facilitates neurogenesis of dentate cells in the rodent hippocampus, a brain region critical for memory formation and spatial representation. Recent findings in humans also suggest that aerobic exercise can lead to increased hippocampal volume and enhanced cognitive functioning in children and elderly adults. However, the association between physical activity and hippocampal volume during the period from early adulthood through middle age has not been effectively explored. Here, we correlated the number of minutes of self-reported exercise per week with gray matter volume of the hippocampus using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in 61 healthy adults ranging from 18 to 45 years of age. After controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume, total minutes of weekly exercise correlated significantly with volume of the right hippocampus. Findings highlight the relationship between regular physical exercise and brain structure during early to middle adulthood.

  11. Using soil organic matter fractions as indicators of soil physical quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido Moncada, Mansonia A.; Lozano, Z; Delgado, M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM), rather than SOM per se, as indicators of soil physical quality (SPQ) based on their effect on aggregate stability (AS). Chemically extracted humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA) were...... used as chemical fractions, and heavy and light fractions (HF and LF) obtained by density separation as physical fractions. The analyses were conducted on medium-textured soils from tropical and temperate regions under cropland and pasture. Results show that soil organic carbon (SOC), SOM fractions...... and AS appear to be affected by land use regardless of the origin of the soils. A general separation of structurally stable and unstable soils between samples of large and small SOC content, respectively, was observed. SOM fractions did not show a better relationship with AS than SOC per se. In both...

  12. Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...

  13. CAREER opportunities at the Condensed Matter Physics Program, NSF/DMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakiewicz, Tomasz

    The Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Program is a Foundation-wide activity, offering prestigious awards in support of junior faculty. Awards are expected to build the careers of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education and the integration of education and research. Condensed Matter Physics Program receives between 35 and 45 CAREER proposals each year, in areas related to fundamental research of phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. Proposal processing, merit review process, funding levels and success rates will be discussed in the presentation. NSF encourages submission of CAREER proposals from junior faculty members from CAREER-eligible organizations and encourages women, members of underrepresented minority groups, and persons with disabilities to apply. NSF/DMR/CMP homepage: https://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=5666

  14. Micro-physics of aircraft-generated aerosols and their potential impact on heterogeneous plume chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B; Luo, B P [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1998-12-31

    Answers are attempted to give to open questions concerning physico-chemical processes in near-field aircraft plumes, with emphasis on their potential impact on subsequent heterogeneous chemistry. Research issues concerning the nucleation of aerosols and their interactions among themselves and with exhaust gases are summarized. Microphysical properties of contrail ice particles, formation of liquid ternary mixtures, and nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in contrails are examined and possible implications for heterogeneous plume chemistry are discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  15. Micro-physics of aircraft-generated aerosols and their potential impact on heterogeneous plume chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Luo, B.P. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung

    1997-12-31

    Answers are attempted to give to open questions concerning physico-chemical processes in near-field aircraft plumes, with emphasis on their potential impact on subsequent heterogeneous chemistry. Research issues concerning the nucleation of aerosols and their interactions among themselves and with exhaust gases are summarized. Microphysical properties of contrail ice particles, formation of liquid ternary mixtures, and nucleation of nitric acid trihydrate particles in contrails are examined and possible implications for heterogeneous plume chemistry are discussed. (author) 19 refs.

  16. Particle physics and cosmology beyond the Standard Model: inflation, dark matter and flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurtier, L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis has been focusing on beyond the Standard Model aspects of particle physics and their implication in cosmology. We have gone through this work along the timeline of the Universe History focusing on three major topics that are the inflationary period, the dark matter relic density production and detection, and finally the question of flavor changing constraints on low energy supersymmetric theories. In the first part of this thesis, after reviewing the theoretical and phenomenological aspects of both the Big Bang theory and the theory of Inflation we will study in detail how describing Inflation in a high energy supersymmetric theory. The second part of this thesis is dedicated to dark matter. We have studied phenomenological aspects of simple models, extending the present Standard Model with simple abelian symmetries, by assuming that the constituent of dark matter would be able to exchange information with the visible sector by the help of a mediator particle. We have studied in particular possible interactions of heavy or light dark matter with respectively the strong and the electroweak sectors of the Standard Model. Our models are strongly constrained of course by experiments. The third part of this work will be dedicated to a different aspect of beyond Standard Model theories, that is the treatment of the flavour changing processes of particle physics. The Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), as one of these possible enlargement of the Standard Model, introduces new processes of flavour changing that are highly constrained by experiment. We present some works in which we consider the possibility of adding so called Dirac Gauginos to the MSSM to render flavour changing weaker in the theory, and propose different flavour patterns theories

  17. Density functional representation of quantum chemistry. II. Local quantum field theories of molecular matter in terms of the charge density operator do not work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primas, H.; Schleicher, M.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the attempts to rephrase molecular quantum mechanics in terms of the particle density operator and the current density or phase density operator is given. All pertinent investigations which have come to attention suffer from severe mathematical inconsistencies and are not adequate to the few-body problem of quantum chemistry. The origin of the failure of these attempts is investigated, and it is shown that a realization of a local quantum field theory of molecular matter in terms of observables would presuppose the solution of many highly nontrivial mathematical problems

  18. Interplay between the b →s l l anomalies and dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Junichiro; Okawa, Shohei; Omura, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    Recently, the LHCb Collaboration has reported the excesses in the b →s l l processes. One of the promising candidates for new physics to explain the anomalies is the extended Standard Model (SM) with vectorlike quarks and leptons. In that model, Yukawa couplings between the extra fermions and SM fermions are introduced, adding extra scalars. Then, the box diagrams involving the extra fields achieve the b →s l l anomalies. It has been known that the excesses require the large Yukawa couplings of leptons, so that this kind of model can be tested by studying correlations with other observables. In this paper, we consider the extra scalar to be a dark matter (DM) candidate, and investigate DM physics as well as the flavor physics and the LHC physics. The DM relic density and the direct-detection cross section are also dominantly given by the Yukawa couplings, so that we find some explicit correlations between DM physics and the flavor physics. In particular, we find the predictions of the b →s l l anomalies against the direct detection of DM.

  19. A fresh approach to forecasting in astroparticle physics and dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas D. P.; Weniger, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    We present a toolbox of new techniques and concepts for the efficient forecasting of experimental sensitivities. These are applicable to a large range of scenarios in (astro-)particle physics, and based on the Fisher information formalism. Fisher information provides an answer to the question 'what is the maximum extractable information from a given observation?'. It is a common tool for the forecasting of experimental sensitivities in many branches of science, but rarely used in astroparticle physics or searches for particle dark matter. After briefly reviewing the Fisher information matrix of general Poisson likelihoods, we propose very compact expressions for estimating expected exclusion and discovery limits ('equivalent counts method'). We demonstrate by comparison with Monte Carlo results that they remain surprisingly accurate even deep in the Poisson regime. We show how correlated background systematics can be efficiently accounted for by a treatment based on Gaussian random fields. Finally, we introduce the novel concept of Fisher information flux. It can be thought of as a generalization of the commonly used signal-to-noise ratio, while accounting for the non-local properties and saturation effects of background and instrumental uncertainties. It is a powerful and flexible tool ready to be used as core concept for informed strategy development in astroparticle physics and searches for particle dark matter.

  20. Probing condensed matter physics with magnetometry based on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casola, Francesco; van der Sar, Toeno; Yacoby, Amir

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic fields generated by spins and currents provide a unique window into the physics of correlated-electron materials and devices. First proposed only a decade ago, magnetometry based on the electron spin of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defects in diamond is emerging as a platform that is excellently suited for probing condensed matter systems; it can be operated from cryogenic temperatures to above room temperature, has a dynamic range spanning from direct current to gigahertz and allows sensor-sample distances as small as a few nanometres. As such, NV magnetometry provides access to static and dynamic magnetic and electronic phenomena with nanoscale spatial resolution. Pioneering work has focused on proof-of-principle demonstrations of its nanoscale imaging resolution and magnetic field sensitivity. Now, experiments are starting to probe the correlated-electron physics of magnets and superconductors and to explore the current distributions in low-dimensional materials. In this Review, we discuss the application of NV magnetometry to the exploration of condensed matter physics, focusing on its use to study static and dynamic magnetic textures and static and dynamic current distributions.

  1. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus converts organic matter in plant litter using a trimmed brown-rot mechanism involving Fenton chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rineau, Francois; Roth, Doris; Shah, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    chemistry similar to that of brown-rot fungi. The set of enzymes expressed by Pa. involutus during the degradation of the organic matter was similar to the set of enzymes involved in the oxidative degradation of wood by brown-rot fungi. However, Pa. involutus lacked transcripts encoding extracellular...... the mycorrhizal fungi. To capture the nitrogen, the fungi must at least partly disrupt the recalcitrant organic matterprotein complexes within which the nitrogen is embedded. This disruption process is poorly characterized. We used spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling to examine the mechanism...... by which the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus degrades organic matter when acquiring nitrogen from plant litter. The fungus partially degraded polysaccharides and modified the structure of polyphenols. The observed chemical changes were consistent with a hydroxyl radical attack, involving Fenton...

  2. Does Everyone's Motivational Beliefs about Physical Science Decline in Secondary School?: Heterogeneity of Adolescents' Achievement Motivation Trajectories in Physics and Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Degol, Jessica Lauren; Eccles, Jacquelynne Sue

    2017-08-01

    Students' motivational beliefs about learning physical science are critical for achieving positive educational outcomes. In this study, we incorporated expectancy-value theory to capture the heterogeneity of adolescents' motivational trajectories in physics and chemistry from seventh to twelfth grade and linked these trajectories to science-related outcomes. We used a cross-sequential design based on three different cohorts of adolescents (N = 699; 51.5 % female; 95 % European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave = 13.2, 14.1, and 15.3 years) coming from ten public secondary schools. Although many studies claim that physical science motivation declines on average over time, we identified seven differential motivational trajectories of ability self-concept and task values, and found associations of these trajectories with science achievement, advanced science course taking, and science career aspirations. Adolescents' ability self-concept and task values in physics and chemistry were also positively related and interlinked over time. Examining how students' motivational beliefs about physical science develop in secondary school offers insight into the capacity of different groups of students to successfully adapt to their changing educational environments.

  3. 6th International Conference on Physics of Liquid Matter : Modern Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Lebovka, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings comprise invited and contributed papers presented at PLMMP-2014, addressing modern problems in the fields of liquids, solutions and confined systems, critical phenomena, as well as colloidal and biological systems. The book focuses on state-of-the-art developments in contemporary physics of liquid matter. The papers presented here are organized into four parts: (i) structure of liquids in confined systems, (ii) phase transitions, supercritical liquids and glasses, (iii) colloids, and (iv) medical and biological aspects and cover the most recent developments in the broader field of liquid state including interdisciplinary problems.

  4. Water physics and chemistry data from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959 (NODC Accession 7101380)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from STD casts from THELMA DALE II and other platforms from 09 August 1954 to 05 March 1959. Data were submitted by...

  5. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from FIXED PLATFORM from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972 (NODC Accession 7400880)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 26 April 1972 to 06 December 1972. Data were submitted by Edgerton,...

  6. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961 (NODC Accession 6800201)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the ASTOR and other platforms from 03 January 1958 to 17 November 1961. Data were submitted by...

  7. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 1976-02-26 to 1976-05-26 (NODC Accession 7800050)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the BLUE FIN from 26 February 1976 to 26 May 1976. Data were submitted by the Skidaway...

  8. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969 (NODC Accession 7100605)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the TAGE from 08 May 1969 to 30 December 1969. Data were submitted by the Stanford University;...

  9. Water physics and chemistry data from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982 (NODC Accession 8500022)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water physics and chemistry data were collected from bottle casts from the MAURY and other platforms from 01 July 1949 to 13 August 1982. Data were submitted by...

  10. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry

  11. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  12. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  13. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  14. The common extremalities in biology and physics maximum energy dissipation principle in chemistry, biology, physics and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Moroz, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This book is the first unified systemic description of dissipative phenomena, taking place in biology, and non-dissipative (conservative) phenomena, which is more relevant to physics. Fully updated and revised, this new edition extends our understanding of nonlinear phenomena in biology and physics from the extreme / optimal perspective. The first book to provide understanding of physical phenomena from a biological perspective and biological phenomena from a physical perspective Discusses emerging fields and analysis Provides examples.

  15. Characterizing physical properties and heterogeneous chemistry of single particles in air using optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Z.; Wang, C.; Pan, Y. L.; Videen, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of solid particles in a gaseous environment are of increasing interest; however, most of the heterogeneous chemistry studies of airborne solids were conducted on particle ensembles. A close examination on the heterogeneous chemistry between single particles and gaseous-environment species is the key to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of hydroscopic growth, cloud nuclei condensation, secondary aerosol formation, etc., and reduce the uncertainty of models in radiative forcing, climate change, and atmospheric chemistry. We demonstrate an optical trapping-Raman spectroscopy (OT-RS) system to study the heterogeneous chemistry of the solid particles in air at single-particle level. Compared to other single-particle techniques, optical trapping offers a non-invasive, flexible, and stable method to isolate single solid particle from substrates. Benefited from two counter-propagating hollow beams, the optical trapping configuration is adaptive to trap a variety of particles with different materials from inorganic substitution (carbon nanotubes, silica, etc.) to organic, dye-doped polymers and bioaerosols (spores, pollen, etc.), with different optical properties from transparent to strongly absorbing, with different sizes from sub-micrometers to tens of microns, or with distinct morphologies from loosely packed nanotubes to microspheres and irregular pollen grains. The particles in the optical trap may stay unchanged, surface degraded, or optically fragmented according to different laser intensity, and their physical and chemical properties are characterized by the Raman spectra and imaging system simultaneously. The Raman spectra is able to distinguish the chemical compositions of different particles, while the synchronized imaging system can resolve their physical properties (sizes, shapes, morphologies, etc.). The temporal behavior of the trapped particles also can be monitored by the OT-RS system at an indefinite time with a resolution from

  16. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996.

  17. Technical liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry (Russian Academy of Sciences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has engaged the IPC/RAS to study the fundamental and applied chemistry of the transuranium actinide elements (primarily neptunium, plutonium, and americium) and technetium in alkaline media. This work is supported by DOE because the alkaline radioactive wastes stored in underground tanks at DOE sites (Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge) contain TRUs and technetium, and these radioelements must be partitioned to the HLW fraction in planned waste processing operations. The chemistries of the TRUs and technetium are not well developed in this system. Previous studies at the IPC/RAS centered on the fundamental chemistry of the TRUs and technetium in alkaline media, and on their coprecipitation reactions. During FY 1996, further studies of fundamental and candidate process chemistries were pursued with continuing effort on coprecipitation. The technical liaison was established at Westinghouse Hanford Company to provide information to the IPC/RAS on the Hanford Site waste system, define and refine the work scope, publish IPC/RAS reports in open literature documents and presentations, provide essential materials and equipment to the IPC/RAS, compare IPC/RAS results with results from other sources, and test chemical reactions or processes proposed by the IPC/RAS with actual Hanford Site tank waste. The liaison task was transferred to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) in October 1996

  18. Opportunities for Teaching Sustainable Development through the Chemistry Component of CAPS Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakeni, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The realisation that education may, in part, have contributed to non-sustainable environmental practices warrants rethinking about what learners experience at school. One approach could involve the promotion of education for sustainable development (ESD). This study analysed the opportunities to integrate ESD presented by the chemistry component…

  19. Spectroscopic characteristics of soil organic matter as a tool to assess soil physical quality in Mediterranean ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Almendros, Gonzalo; Knicker, Heike; López-Martín, María; Carral, Pilar; Álvarez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    In Mediterranean areas, the loss of soil physical quality is of particular concern due to the vulnerability of these ecosystems in relation to unfavourable climatic conditions, which usually lead to soil degradation processes and severe decline of its functionality. As a result, increasing scientific attention is being paid on the exploration of soil properties which could be readily used as quality indicators, including organic matter which, in fact, represents a key factor in the maintenance of soil physical status. In this line, the present research tackles the assessment of the quality of several soils from central Spain with the purpose of identifying the physical properties most closely correlated with the organic matter, considering not only the quantity but also the quality of the different C-forms. The studied attributes consist of a series of physical properties determined in field and laboratory conditions-total porosity, aggregate stability, available water capacity, air provision, water infiltration rate and soil hydric saturation-.The bulk organic matter was characterised by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and the major organic fractions (lipids, free particulate organic matter, fulvic acids, humic acids and humin) were quantified using standard procedures. The humic acids were also analysed by visible and infrared spectroscopies. The use of multidimensional scaling to classify physical properties in conjunction with molecular descriptors of soil organic matter, suggested significant correlations between the two set of variables, which were confirmed with simple and canonical regression models. The results pointed to two well-defined groups of physical attributes in the studied soils: (i) those associated with organic matter of predominantly aromatic character (water infiltration descriptors), and (ii) soil physical variables related to organic matter with marked aliphatic character, high preservation of the lignin signature and comparatively low

  20. Double beta and dark matter search-window to new physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear double beta decay provides an extraordinarily broad potential to search beyond Standard Model physics, probing already now the TeV scale, on which new physics should manifest itself. These possibilities are reviewed here. First, the results of present generation experiments are presented. The most sensitive one of them - the Heidelberg-Moscow experiment in the Gran Sasso - probes the electron mass now in the sub eV region and will reach a limit of ∼ 0.1 eV in a few years. Basing to a large extend on the theoretical work of the Heidelberg Double Beta Group in the last two years, results are obtained also for SUSY models (R-parity breaking, sneutrino mass), leptoquarks (leptoquark-Higgs coupling), compositeness, right-handed W boson mass, test of special relativity and equivalence principle in the neutrino sector and others. These results are comfortably competitive to corresponding results from high-energy accelerators like TEVATRON, HERA, etc. One of the enriched 76 Ge detectors also yields the most stringent limits for cold dark matter (WIMPs) to date by using raw data. Second, future perspectives of ββ research are discussed. A new Heidelberg experimental proposal (GENIUS) is described which would allow to increase the sensitivity for Majorana neutrino masses from the present level at best 0.1 eV down to 0.01 eV or even 0.001 eV. Its physical potential would be a breakthrough into the multi-TeV range for many beyond standard models. Its sensitivity for neutrino oscillation parameters would be larger than of all present terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments and of those planned for the future. It could probe directly the atmospheric neutrino problem and the large angle, and for almost degenerate neutrino mass scenarios even the small angle solution of the solar neutrino problem. It would further, already in a first step using only 100 kg of natural Ge detectors, cover almost the full MSSM parameter space for prediction of neutralinos as cold