WorldWideScience

Sample records for matrix splitting principles

  1. Algebraic techniques for diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix in split quaternionic mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tongsong, E-mail: jiangtongsong@sina.com [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China); Department of Mathematics, Heze University, Heze, Shandong 274015 (China); Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong [Department of Mathematics, Linyi University, Linyi, Shandong 276005 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.

  2. Radial Matrix Elements of Hydrogen Atom and the Correspondence Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. N. Chakrabarty

    2004-03-01

    Radial dipole matrix elements having astrophysical importance have been computed for highly excited states of hydrogen atom. Computation is based on Heisenberg’s form of correspondence principle for Coulomb potential. Particular attention has been paid to the choice of classical analogue (c) of principal quantum number (). The computed radial matrix elements are in good agreement with quantum mechanical results. Further, radial matrix elements for few transitions involving high neighboring states of hydrogen atom are presented.

  3. A Review of Multimedia Learning Principles: Split-Attention, Modality, and Redundancy Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin YUKSEL ARSLAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a literature review on three principles of multimedia learningincluding split attention, modality, and redundancy effects with regard to their contribution to cognitiveload theory. According to cognitive load theory, information should be presented by considering excessiveload on working memory. The first principle states that attending to two distinct sources of informationmay impose a high cognitive load, and this process is referred to as the split-attention effect (Kalyuga,Chandler & Sweller, 1991, 1992. The second principle, Modality effect claims that on-screen text shouldbe presented in an auditory form instead of visually when designing a multimedia environment (Moreno &Mayer, 1999. Using more than one sensory mode augments forceful working memory that producesprogressive effects on learning. The third principle redundancy effect occurs when information presentedrepeatedly interferes with learning. This study provides guidance how to create more effective instructionwith multimedia materials for instructional designers.

  4. A Review of Multimedia Learning Principles: Split-Attention, Modality, and Redundancy Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin YUKSEL ARSLAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to present a literature review on three principles of multimedia learningincluding split attention, modality, and redundancy effects with regard to their contribution to cognitiveload theory. According to cognitive load theory, information should be presented by considering excessiveload on working memory. The first principle states that attending to two distinct sources of informationmay impose a high cognitive load, and this process is referred to as the split-attention effect (Kalyuga,Chandler & Sweller, 1991, 1992. The second principle, Modality effect claims that on-screen text shouldbe presented in an auditory form instead of visually when designing a multimedia environment (Moreno &Mayer, 1999. Using more than one sensory mode augments forceful working memory that producesprogressive effects on learning. The third principle redundancy effect occurs when information presentedrepeatedly interferes with learning. This study provides guidance how to create more effective instructionwith multimedia materials for instructional designers.

  5. Magnetic Photon Splitting the $S$-Matrix Formulation in the Landau Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G

    2000-01-01

    Calculations of reaction rates for the third-order QED process of photon splitting in strong magnetic fields traditionally have employed either the effective Lagrangian method or variants of Schwinger's proper-time technique. Recently, Mentzel, Berg and Wunner (1994) presented an alternative derivation via an S-matrix formulation in the Landau representation. Advantages of such a formulation include the ability to compute rates near pair resonances above pair threshold. This paper presents new developments of the Landau representation formalism as applied to photon splitting, providing significant advances beyond the work of Mentzel et al. by summing over the spin quantum numbers of the electron propagators, and analytically integrating over the component of momentum of the intermediate states that is parallel to field. The ensuing tractable expressions for the scattering amplitudes are satisfyingly compact, and of an appearance familiar to S-matrix theory applications. Such developments can facilitate numeri...

  6. Magnetic Photon Splitting: The S-Matrix Formulation in the Landau Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    1999-01-01

    Calculations of reaction rates for the third-order QED process of photon splitting gamma yields gamma.gamma in strong magnetic fields traditionally have employed either the effective Lagrangian method or variants of Schwinger's proper-time technique. Recently, Mentzel, Berg and Wunner [1] presented an alternative derivation via an S-matrix formulation in the Landau representation. Advantages of such a formulation include the ability to compute rates near pair resonances above pair threshold. This paper presents new developments of the Landau representation formalism as applied to photon splitting, providing significant, advances beyond the work of [1] by summing over the spin quantum numbers of the electron propagators, and analytically integrating over the component of momentum of the intermediate states that is parallel to field. The ensuing tractable expressions for the scattering amplitudes are satisfyingly compact, and of an appearance familiar to S-matrix theory applications. Such developments can facilitate numerical computations of splitting considerably both below and above pair threshold. Specializations to two regimes of interest are obtained, namely the limit of highly supercritical fields and the domain where photon energies are far inferior to that for the threshold of single-photon pair creation. In particular, for the first time the low-frequency amplitudes are simply expressed in terms of the Gamma function, its integral and its derivatives. In addition, the equivalence of the asymptotic forms in these two domains to extant results from effective Lagrangian/proper- time formulations is demonstrated.

  7. Spin-split bands of metallic hydrogenated ZnO ( 10 1 ¯ 0 surface: First-principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Adhib Ulil Absor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For spintronics applications, generation of significant spin transport is required, which is achieved by applying a semiconductor surface exhibiting metallic spin-split surface-state bands. We show that metallic spin-split surface-state bands are achieved on hydrogenated ZnO ( 10 1 ¯ 0 surface by using first-principles density-functional theory calculations. We find that these metallic surface-state bands with dominant Zn-s and p orbitals exhibit Rashba spin splitting with a strong anisotropic character. This finding makes spintronics devices using oxide electronics surface materials possible.

  8. Design principles for maximizing photovoltage in metal-oxide-protected water-splitting photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Andrew G; Lawrence, John P; Kemp, Kyle W; Ito, T; Walsh, Adrian; Chidsey, Christopher E D; Hurley, Paul K; McIntyre, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxide protection layers for photoanodes may enable the development of large-scale solar fuel and solar chemical synthesis, but the poor photovoltages often reported so far will severely limit their performance. Here we report a novel observation of photovoltage loss associated with a charge extraction barrier imposed by the protection layer, and, by eliminating it, achieve photovoltages as high as 630 mV, the maximum reported so far for water-splitting silicon photoanodes. The loss mechanism is systematically probed in metal-insulator-semiconductor Schottky junction cells compared to buried junction p(+)n cells, revealing the need to maintain a characteristic hole density at the semiconductor/insulator interface. A leaky-capacitor model related to the dielectric properties of the protective oxide explains this loss, achieving excellent agreement with the data. From these findings, we formulate design principles for simultaneous optimization of built-in field, interface quality, and hole extraction to maximize the photovoltage of oxide-protected water-splitting anodes.

  9. First principles study on defectives BN nanotubes for water splitting and hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andressa C.; Rupp, Caroline J.; Baierle, Rogério J.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations within the spin polarized density functional approximation have been addressed to investigate the energetic stability, electronic and optical properties of defective BN nanotubes. Our results show that the presence of carbon impurities interacting with vacancies gives rise to defective electronic levels inside the nanotube band gap. By calculating the absorbance index, we have obtained a strong inter-band optical absorption in the visible region (around 2.1 eV) showing that defective BN nanotubes could be an efficient catalytic semiconductor material to be used within solar energy for water splitting. In addition, we observe that the adsorption energy for one and two H2 molecules on the defective surface is in the desired window for the system to be useful as a hydrogen storage medium.

  10. Weak Interactions Effect on the P-N Mass Splitting and the Principle of Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Chamoun, N

    2002-01-01

    We estimate the difference of nucleon matrix elements for the product of two weak currents operator in order to evaluate and include weak interactions effect on the individual nucleons contribution to the nucleus mass when analysing Eotvos experimental results. For this we use the Bag model and the constituent quark model as two extreme relativistic and non-relativistic representations of the quarks inside the nucleon. When compared to estimates considering only the binding energy contribution, we find both models agree on lowering the bound of a possible weak interactions violation to the equivalence principle by one order of magnitude from 1e-2 to 1e-3.

  11. Investigation on AQ11, ID3 and the Principle of Discernibility Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珏; 崔佳; 赵凯

    2001-01-01

    The principle of discernibility matrix serves as a tool to discuss and analyze two algorithms of traditional inductive machine learning, AQ11 and ID3. The results are: (1) AQ11 and its family can be completely specified by the principle of discernibility matrix; (2) ID3 can be partly, but not naturally, specified by the principle of discernibility matrix; and (3) The principle of discernibility matrix is employed to analyze Cendrowska sample set, and it shows the weaknesses of knowledge representation style of decision tree in theory.

  12. The Principle of Equivalence as a Guide towards Matrix Theory Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Peñalba, J P

    1998-01-01

    The principle of equivalence is translated into the language of the world-volume field theories that define matrix and string theories. This idea leads to explore possible matrix descriptions of M-theory compactifications. An interesting case is the relationship between D=6 N=1 U(M) SYM and Matrix Theory on K3.

  13. Discovery of Novel Perovskites for Solar Thermochemical Water Splitting from High-Throughput First-Principles Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Antoine; Wolverton, Chris

    Among the several possible routes of hydrogen synthesis, thermochemical water splitting (TWS) cycles is a promising method for large scale production of hydrogen. The choice of metal oxide used in a TWS cycle is critical since it governs the rate and efficiency of the gas splitting process. In this work, we present a high-throughput density functional theory (HT-DFT) study of ABO3 perovskite compounds to screen for thermodynamically favorable two-step thermochemical water splitting materials. We demonstrate the use of two screens, based on thermodynamic stability and oxygen vacancy formation energy, on 5,329 different compositions to predict 139 stable potential candidate materials for water splitting applications. Several of these compounds have not been experimentally explored yet and present promising avenues for further research. Additionally, the large dataset of compounds and stability in our possession allowed us to revisit the structural maps for perovskites. This study shows the benefit of using first-principles calculations to efficiently screen an exhaustively large number of compounds at once. It provides a baseline for further studies involving more detailed exploration of a restricted number of those compounds.

  14. Another algebraic variational principle for the spectral curve of matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative variational principle whose critical point is the algebraic plane curve associated to a matrix model (the spectral curve, i.e. the large $N$ limit of the resolvent). More generally, we consider a variational principle that is equivalent to the problem of finding a plane curve with given asymptotics and given cycle integrals. This variational principle is not given by extremization of the energy, but by the extremization of an "entropy".

  15. Entropy of Operator-valued Random Variables A Variational Principle for Large N Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Akant, L; Rajeev, S G

    2002-01-01

    We show that, in 't Hooft's large N limit, matrix models can be formulated as a classical theory whose equations of motion are the factorized Schwinger--Dyson equations. We discover an action principle for this classical theory. This action contains a universal term describing the entropy of the non-commutative probability distributions. We show that this entropy is a nontrivial 1-cocycle of the non-commutative analogue of the diffeomorphism group and derive an explicit formula for it. The action principle allows us to solve matrix models using novel variational approximation methods; in the simple cases where comparisons with other methods are possible, we get reasonable agreement.

  16. Mechanics Principle and Engineering Application of Split Layer and Bed Separation of Mining Overburden

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang-ming; ZHANG Chun-hui; SU Zhong-jie; FAN Xue-li; PAN Yong-zhan; LIU Fu-shun

    2005-01-01

    To control land surface subsidence caused the underground mineral exploitation and the catastrophic phenomena such as serious damage of buildings, waterbodies, cultivated lands, railways, bridges caused by land subsidence, bed separation grouting technology of overburden is put forward. To provide theoretical support for the technology, the characteristics and the mechanics mechanism of mining overburden from layer-split to formation of bed separation are studied. On the basis of elastic sheet board theory, calculation formula of rock sheet deflection is presented, and the mechanics criteria of the separation formation and the calculation formula of bed separation volume are set up. Finally, the applications and technics of bed separation grout technology of mining overburden to control land subsidence in china are introduced.

  17. A new class of photo-catalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light - MgB2 as unexpected example

    OpenAIRE

    Kravets, V. G.; A. N. Grigorenko

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photo-catalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photo-catalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water s...

  18. Hopping matrix elements from first-principles studies of overlapping fragments : Double exchange parameters in manganites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanova, A.; Sousa, C.; De Graaf, C.; Broer, R.

    2006-01-01

    We recently developed a scheme for first-principles calculations of hopping matrix elements between localized states in extended systems. We apply the scheme to the determination of double exchange (DE) parameters in lightly hole-doped LaMnO(3) and electron-doped CaMnO(3). DE is one of the important

  19. Anisotropy induced Kondo splitting in a mechanically stretched molecular junction: A first-principles based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Hou, Dong, E-mail: houdong@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Xiao, E-mail: xz58@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-Material Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Guizhou Normal College, Guiyang, Guizhou 550018 (China); Yan, YiJing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-01-21

    The magnetic anisotropy and Kondo phenomena in a mechanically stretched magnetic molecular junction are investigated by combining the density functional theory (DFT) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach. The system is comprised of a magnetic complex Co(tpy–SH){sub 2} sandwiched between adjacent gold electrodes, which is mechanically stretched in experiments done by Parks et al. [Science 328, 1370 (2010)]. The electronic structure and mechanical property of the stretched system are investigated via the DFT calculations. The HEOM approach is then employed to characterize the Kondo resonance features, based on the Anderson impurity model parameterized from the DFT results. It is confirmed that the ground state prefers the S = 1 local spin state. The structural properties, the magnetic anisotropy, and corresponding Kondo peak splitting in the axial stretching process are systematically evaluated. The results reveal that the strong electron correlations and the local magnetic properties of the molecule magnet are very sensitive to structural distortion. This work demonstrates that the combined DFT+HEOM approach could be useful in understanding and designing mechanically controlled molecular junctions.

  20. Split-and-Combine Singular Value Decomposition for Large-Scale Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jengnan Tzeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The singular value decomposition (SVD is a fundamental matrix decomposition in linear algebra. It is widely applied in many modern techniques, for example, high- dimensional data visualization, dimension reduction, data mining, latent semantic analysis, and so forth. Although the SVD plays an essential role in these fields, its apparent weakness is the order three computational cost. This order three computational cost makes many modern applications infeasible, especially when the scale of the data is huge and growing. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a fast SVD method in modern era. If the rank of matrix is much smaller than the matrix size, there are already some fast SVD approaches. In this paper, we focus on this case but with the additional condition that the data is considerably huge to be stored as a matrix form. We will demonstrate that this fast SVD result is sufficiently accurate, and most importantly it can be derived immediately. Using this fast method, many infeasible modern techniques based on the SVD will become viable.

  1. A new class of photo-catalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light - MgB2 as unexpected example

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, V G

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photo-catalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photo-catalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts based on ionic binary metals with layered graphite-like structures which effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons an...

  2. Matrix isolation, zero-field splitting parameters, and photoreactions of septet 2,4,6-trinitrenopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapyshev, Sergei V; Ushakov, Evgeny N; Neuhaus, Patrik; Sander, Wolfram

    2014-07-03

    The key intermediates of decomposition of high-energy 2,4,6-triazidopyrimidine and its 5-chloro-substituted derivative, the detonation of which is used for preparation of carbon nitrides, were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations. The decomposition of the triazides was carried out photochemically, using the matrix isolation technique. The photodecomposition of both triazides with 254 nm light in argon matrices at 5 K occurred selectively to subsequently give the corresponding triplet 4,6-diazido-2-nitrenopyrimidines, quintet 4-azido-2,6-dinitrenopyrimidines, and septet 2,4,6-trinitrenopyrimidines. The latter were photochemically unstable and decomposed to form triplet nitrenes NCN and NNC as well as triplet carbenes NCCCN, HCCN, and HCCCCN. The results obtained provide important information about exchange interactions in high-spin nitrenes with the pyrimidine ring and the mechanism of the formation of carbon nitrides during thermolysis of 2,4,6-triazidopyrimidine.

  3. New class of photocatalytic materials and a novel principle for efficient water splitting under infrared and visible light: MgB2 as unexpected example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, V G; Grigorenko, A N

    2015-11-30

    Water splitting is unanimously recognized as environment friendly, potentially low cost and renewable energy solution based on the future hydrogen economy. Especially appealing is photocatalytic water splitting whereby a suitably chosen catalyst dramatically improves efficiency of the hydrogen production driven by direct sunlight and allows it to happen even at zero driving potential. Here, we suggest a new class of stable photocatalysts and the corresponding principle for catalytic water splitting in which infrared and visible light play the main role in producing the photocurrent and hydrogen. The new class of catalysts - ionic or covalent binary metals with layered graphite-like structures - effectively absorb visible and infrared light facilitating the reaction of water splitting, suppress the inverse reaction of ion recombination by separating ions due to internal electric fields existing near alternating layers, provide the sites for ion trapping of both polarities, and finally deliver the electrons and holes required to generate hydrogen and oxygen gases. As an example, we demonstrate conversion efficiency of ~27% at bias voltage Vbias = 0.5V for magnesium diboride working as a catalyst for photoinduced water splitting. We discuss its advantages over some existing materials and propose the underlying mechanism of photocatalytic water splitting by binary layered metals.

  4. Hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 1 promotes osteosarcoma metastasis via matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, A; Setoguchi, T; Matsunoshita, Y; Nagao-Kitamoto, H; Nagano, S; Yokouchi, M; Maeda, S; Ishidou, Y; Yamamoto, T; Komiya, S

    2015-03-31

    Activation of the Notch pathway has been reported in various types of cancers. However, the role of the hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif protein 1 (HEY1) in osteosarcoma is unknown. We examined the function of HEY1 in osteosarcoma. Expression of HEY1 was studied in human osteosarcoma. The effects of HEY1 in osteosarcoma were evaluated in vitro and in a xenograft model. Moreover, we examined the function of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) as a downstream effector of HEY1. HEY1 was upregulated in human osteosarcoma. Knockdown of HEY1 inhibited the invasion of osteosarcoma cell lines. In contrast, the forced expression of HEY1 increased the invasion of mesenchymal stem cell. In addition, lung metastases were significantly inhibited by the knockdown of HEY1. We found that MMP9 was a downstream effector of HEY1 that promotes the invasion of osteosarcoma cells. Knockdown of HEY1 decreased the expression of MMP9. Addition of MMP9 rescued the invasion of osteosarcoma cells that had been rendered less invasive by knockdown of HEY1 expression. Our findings suggested that HEY1 augmented the metastasis of osteosarcoma via upregulation of MMP9 expression. Therefore, inhibition of HEY1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing osteosarcoma metastasis.

  5. A Risk Assessment Matrix for Public Health Principles: The Case for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Daniela; Chowdhury, Azim; Ferro, Giancarlo Antonio; Nalis, Federico Giuseppe; Polosa, Riccardo

    2017-03-31

    Besides nicotine replacement therapies, a realistic alternative for smoking cessation or for smoking substitution may come from electronic cigarettes (ECs), whose popularity has been steadily growing. As for any emerging behaviour associated with exposure to inhalational agents, there is legitimate cause for concern and many health organizations and policy makers have pushed for restrictive policy measures ranging from complete bans to tight regulations of these products. Nonetheless, it is important to reframe these concerns in context of the well-known harm caused by cigarette smoking. In this article, we discuss key public health principles that should be considered when regulating ECs. These include the concept of tobacco harm reduction, importance of relative risk and risk continuum, renormalization of smoking, availability of low-risk product, proportionate taxation, and reassessment of the role of non-tobacco flavours. These public health principles may be systematically scrutinized using a risk assessment matrix that allows: (1) to determine the measure of certainty that a risk will occur; and (2) to estimate the impact of such a risk on public health. Consequently, the ultimate goal of responsible ECs regulation should be that of maximizing the favourable impact of these reduced-risk products whilst minimizing further any potential risks. Consumer perspectives, sound EC research, continuous post-marketing surveillance and reasonable safety and quality product standards should be at the very heart of future regulatory schemes that will address concerns while minimizing unintended consequences of ill-informed regulation.

  6. The Use of Matrix Algebra in the Simplification of Accounting Transactions Based on the Principle of Double Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oke James Ajogbeje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is need for students to be exposed to different methods of solving a given problem in order to facilitate a better understanding of accounting procedures based on the principle of double entry. This paper examined the use of matrix algebra in financial records. It is important to emphasize the use of matrix concepts for accountants, bankers and students of accounting to equip them for the emerging trends in the business/financial world. The business world is rapidly changing with new innovations in almost every discipline including accounting and finance. With the computer age, virtually all data and information required by management are going to be computerized before the turn of the decade. Hence, this calls for greater awareness in both students and practitioners of the accounting profession to have insight into the operations of the computer system. The aim of this paper is not to give a critical analysis of the computer operations but to bring into focus the use of matrix algebra in the simplification of some accounting procedures based on the principle of double entry.

  7. Embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Illmensee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian embryo splitting has successfully been established in farm animals. Embryo splitting is safely and efficiently used for assisted reproduction in several livestock species. In the mouse, efficient embryo splitting as well as single blastomere cloning have been developed in this animal system. In nonhuman primates embryo splitting has resulted in several pregnancies. Human embryo splitting has been reported recently. Microsurgical embryo splitting under Institutional Review Board approval has been carried out to determine its efficiency for blastocyst development. Embryo splitting at the 6–8 cell stage provided a much higher developmental efficiency compared to splitting at the 2–5 cell stage. Embryo splitting may be advantageous for providing additional embryos to be cryopreserved and for patients with low response to hormonal stimulation in assisted reproduction programs. Social and ethical issues concerning embryo splitting are included regarding ethics committee guidelines. Prognostic perspectives are presented for human embryo splitting in reproductive medicine.

  8. First principle simulation of the temperature dependent magnetic circular dichroism of a trinuclear copper complex in the presence of zero field splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhekova, Hristina R; Seth, Michael; Ziegler, Tom

    2011-09-22

    We present a test of a recently developed density functional theory (DFT) based methodology for the calculation of magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra in the presence of zero-field splitting (ZFS). The absorption and MCD spectra of the trinuclear copper complex μ(3)O ([Cu(3)(L)(μ(3)-O)](4+)), which models the native intermediate produced in the catalytic cycle of the multicopper oxidases, have been simulated from first principle within the framework of adiabatic time dependent density functional theory. The effects of the ZFS of the quartet (4)A(2) ground state on the theoretical MCD spectrum of μ(3)O have been analyzed. The simulated spectra are consistent with the experimental ones. The theoretical assignments of the MCD spectra are based on direct simulation as well as a detailed analysis of the molecular orbitals in μ(3)O. Some of the assignments differ from those given in previous studies. The ZFS effects in the presence of a strong external magnetic field (7 T) prove negligible. The change of the sign of the ZFS changes systematically the intensity of the MCD bands of the z-polarized excitations. The effect of the ZFS on the x,y-polarized excitations is not uniform.

  9. Few Group Collapsing of Covariance Matrix Data Based on a Conservation Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Hiruta; G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores; R. Arcilla, Jr.; R. D. McKnight; G. Aliberti; P. Oblozinsky; W. S. Yang

    2008-12-01

    A new algorithm for a rigorous collapsing of covariance data is proposed, derived, implemented, and tested. The method is based on a conservation principle that allows the uncertainty calculated in a fine group energy structure for a specific integral parameter, using as weights the associated sensitivity coefficients, to be preserved at a broad energy group structure.

  10. Rotordynamic analysis using the Complex Transfer Matrix: An application to elastomer supports using the viscoelastic correspondence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Philip; Green, Itzhak

    2014-11-01

    Numerous methods are available to calculate rotordynamic whirl frequencies, including analytic methods, finite element analysis, and the transfer matrix method. The typical real-valued transfer matrix (RTM) suffers from several deficiencies, including lengthy computation times and the inability to distinguish forward and backward whirl. Though application of complex coordinates in rotordynamic analysis is not novel per se, specific advantages gained from using such coordinates in a transfer matrix analysis have yet to be elucidated. The present work employs a complex coordinate redefinition of the transfer matrix to obtain reduced forms of the elemental transfer matrices in inertial and rotating reference frames, including external stiffness and damping. Application of the complex-valued state variable redefinition results in a reduction of the 8×8 RTM to the 4×4 Complex Transfer Matrix (CTM). The CTM is advantageous in that it intrinsically separates forward and backward whirl, eases symbolic manipulation by halving the transfer matrices’ dimension, and provides significant improvement in computation time. A symbolic analysis is performed on a simple overhung rotor to demonstrate the mathematical motivation for whirl frequency separation. The CTM's utility is further shown by analyzing a rotordynamic system supported by viscoelastic elastomer rings. Viscoelastic elastomer ring supports can provide significant damping while reducing the cost and complexity associated with conventional components such as squeeze film dampers. The stiffness and damping of a viscoelastic damper ring are determined herein as a function of whirl frequency using the viscoelastic correspondence principle and a constitutive fractional calculus viscoelasticity model. The CTM is then employed to obtain the characteristic equation, where the whirl frequency dependent stiffness and damping of the elastomer supports are included. The Campbell diagram is shown, demonstrating the CTM

  11. Cografts of artificial dermis matrix and autogenetic split-thickness of repaired skin in severe hand wounds in patients with deep burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongqi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of using artificial dermis matrix plus autologous split-thickness skin (ADM and ASTS in the treatment of deep-burns in hands of severely burned patients.We recruited a total of 58 patients with large area burns greater than 80% that were eschar-excised. Twenty-eight of them were treated with ADM and ASTS (test group; 30 were treated with autologous medium-thickness skin (AMTS (control group. The healing time of the hand wound was noted, clinical and photographic evaluations were performed, and a Jebsen-Taylor hand function test was compared and analyzed in the two groups. The wound healing time in the test group (24.22±3.34 days were longer than that of the control group (13.42±3.36 days and statistically significant. The healing time of skin graft donor sites was shorter than that of the control group (7.14±1.63 vs. 14.28±2.37 days and statistically significant (P<0.05. The 3rd and 6th month follow-up with clinical and functional evaluations revealed no differences between the two groups. In addition, there was no obvious scar formation and less pigmentation in either group. The repair of deeply burned hands with artificial dermis matrix was beneficial to both wound healing and the donor site, and was beneficial to the whole body rehabilitation of severely burned patients.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: a longitudinal randomized split-mouth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavarro, Cristiane; Teles, Ricardo Palmier; Capelli Júnior, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    This randomized split-mouth study aimed to examine the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points during orthodontic tooth movement. A total of 16 healthy orthodontic subjects (7 females, 9 males; mean age, 17.7 years) who needed their first upper premolars extracted were enrolled. One randomly chosen maxillary canine was subjected to a distalizing force and was considered to be the test side. The contralateral canine, which was not subjected to any force but was included in the orthodontic appliance, was used as a control side. GCF sampling was performed at both the mesial (tension) and distal (pressure) test and control sites at baseline, immediately before applying the orthodontic appliance, and after 1 and 24 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days. A multiplexed bead immunoassay was used to analyse the GCF samples. The mean levels of the MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 were not significantly different between the test and control groups in each time showed. The comparisons between the tension and pressure sites were also not significantly different at each individual time. A few variations focused on MMP-1 and -3, but the expression of MMP-8 was higher than that of the other MMPs. MMPs are released in sufficient quantities such that tooth movement occurs but with no significant increase in GCF levels.

  13. On mathematical and physical principles of transformations of the coherent radar backscatter matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Bebbington, David

    2013-01-01

    The congruential rule advanced by Graves for polarization basis transformation of the radar backscatter matrix is now often misinterpreted as an example of consimilarity transformation. However, consimilarity transformations imply a physically unrealistic antilinear time-reversal operation. This is just one of the approaches found in literature to the description of transformations where the role of conjugation has been misunderstood. In this paper, the different approaches are examined in particular in respect to the role of conjugation. In order to justify and correctly derive the congruential rule for polarization basis transformation and properly place the role of conjugation, the origin of the problem is traced back to the derivation of the antenna hight from the transmitted field. In fact, careful consideration of the role played by the Green's dyadic operator relating the antenna height to the transmitted field shows that, under general unitary basis transformation, it is not justified to assume a scal...

  14. What makes plants different? Principles of extracellular matrix function in 'soft' plant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W S; Hagemann, W; Deri Tomos, A

    2000-02-01

    An overview of the biomechanic and morphogenetic function of the plant extracellular matrix (ECM) in its primary state is given. ECMs can play a pivotal role in cellular osmo- and volume-regulation, if they enclose the cell hermetically and constrain hydrostatic pressure evoked by osmotic gradients between the cell and its environment. From an engineering viewpoint, such cell walls turn cells into hydraulic machines, which establishes a crucial functional differences between cell walls and other cellular surface structures. Examples of such hydraulic machineries are discussed. The function of cell walls in the control of pressure, volume, and shape establishes constructional evolutionary constraints, which can explain aspects commonly considered typical of plants (sessility, autotrophy). In plants, 'cell division' by insertion of a new cell wall is a process of internal cytoplasmic differentiation. As such it differs fundamentally from cell separation during cytokinesis in animals, by leaving the coherence of the dividing protoplast basically intact. The resulting symplastic coherence appears more important for plant morphogenesis than histological structure; similar morphologies are realized on the basis of distinct tissue architectures in different plant taxa. The shape of a plant cell is determined by the shape its cell wall attains under multiaxial tensile stress. Consequently, the development of form in plants is achieved by a differential plastic deformation of the complex ECM in response to this multiaxial force (hydrostatic pressure). Current concepts of the regulation of these deformation processes are briefly evaluated.

  15. Symmetric geometric transfer matrix partial volume correction for PET imaging: principle, validation and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattarivand, Mike; Kusano, Maggie; Poon, Ian; Caldwell, Curtis

    2012-11-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) often requires partial volume correction (PVC) to improve the accuracy of quantitative PET studies. Conventional region-based PVC methods use co-registered high resolution anatomical images (e.g. computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images) to identify regions of interest. Spill-over between regions is accounted for by calculating regional spread functions (RSFs) in a geometric transfer matrix (GTM) framework. This paper describes a new analytically derived symmetric GTM (sGTM) method that relies on spill-over between RSFs rather than between regions. It is shown that the sGTM is mathematically equivalent to Labbe's method; however it is a region-based method rather than a voxel-based method and it avoids handling large matrices. The sGTM method was validated using two three-dimensional (3D) digital phantoms and one physical phantom. A 3D digital sphere phantom with sphere diameters ranging from 5 to 30 mm and a sphere-to-background uptake ratio of 3-to-1 was used. A 3D digital brain phantom was used with four different anatomical regions and a background region with different activities assigned to each region. A physical sphere phantom with the same geometry and uptake as the digital sphere phantom was manufactured and PET-CT images were acquired. Using these three phantoms, the performance of the sGTM method was assessed against that of the GTM method in terms of accuracy, precision, noise propagation and robustness. The robustness was assessed by applying mis-registration errors and errors in estimates of PET point spread function (PSF). In all three phantoms, the results showed that the sGTM method has accuracy similar to that of the GTM method and within 5%. However, the sGTM method showed better precision and noise propagation than the GTM method, especially for spheres smaller than 13 mm. Moreover, the sGTM method was more robust than the GTM method when mis-registration errors or

  16. Pendulum separatrix splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, G; Mastropietro, V

    1997-01-01

    An exact expression for the determinant of the splitting matrix is derived: it allows us to analyze the asympotic behaviour needed to amend the large angles theorem proposed in Ann. Inst. H. Poincaré, B-60, 1, 1994. The asymptotic validity of Melnokov's formulae is proved for the class of models considered, which include polynomial perturbations.

  17. [Tablet splitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinzler, R; Haefeli, W E

    2006-06-01

    The splitting of scored tablets provides many advantages. One benefit is to achieve dose flexibility to account for the huge interindividual differences in dose requirements for instance in paediatric and geriatric patients, which are often not covered by the available strengths in the market. Moreover, large-sized tablets can easier be swallowed if broken before swallowing and medication costs can often be reduced by splitting brands with higher strength. But not all tablets, mostly unscored tablets, are suitable for splitting. Splitting of extended release formulations can result in an overdose by uncontrolled release of the active component and degradation of the compound can occur if an enteric coating is destroyed by the splitting process. Whether tablets are suitable for splitting depends on the properties of the active component (e.g. light sensitivity), the galenics, the shape of the tablet, and the shape of the scoreline. Moreover, not all patients are informed, able, or willing to split tablets and the majority of the elderly population is not capable to break tablets. When split tablets are prescribed it is therefore important to view the shape of the tablet, to assess the patients ability and willingness to break tablets, to properly inform the patient about the appropriate way of splitting, and if necessary to suggest (and instruct) the use of a tablet splitting device.

  18. A Principle-Attribute Matrix for Environmentally Sustainable Management Education and Its Application: The Case for Change-Oriented Service-Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rands, Gordon P.

    2009-01-01

    The environmental threats humanity faces have led businesses to increasingly commit to improve their environmental performance and to increasing attempts to address environmental issues in management education. This article presents a matrix of (a) principles that can underlie and (b) attributes that can be generated by environmentally focused…

  19. Fee splitting in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Alex V; Ganesh, Anuradha; Al-Busaidi, Ahmed

    2011-02-01

    Fee splitting and co-management are common practices in ophthalmology. These arrangements may conflict with the ethical principles governing the doctor-patient relationship, may constitute professional misconduct, and at times, may be illegal. Implications and perceptions of these practices may vary between different cultures. Full disclosure to the patient may minimize the adverse effects of conflicts of interest that arise from these practices, and may thereby allow these practices to be deemed acceptable by some cultural morays, professional guidelines, or by law. Disclosure does not necessarily relieve the physician from a potential ethical compromise. This review examines the practice of fee splitting in ophthalmology, its legal implications, the policies or guidelines governing such arrangements, and the possible ethical ramifications. A comparative view between 3 countries, Canada, the United States, and Oman, was conducted; illustrating that even in disparate cultures, there may be some universality to the application of ethical principles.

  20. Compensation of band-edge positions in titanium-doped Ta3N5 photoanode for enhanced water splitting performance: A first-principles insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guozheng; Wang, Xin; Fu, Hongwei; Feng, Jianyong; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Ta3N5 is a promising photoanode for solar water splitting. However, it often suffers from high onset potential for water oxidation, which may be partially ascribed to the oxygen impurities in Ta3N5 . Oxygen impurities, which are always introduced into Ta3N5 during the preparation process, are difficult to remove due to the low formation energy of O-doped Ta3N5 . The valence- and conduction-band-edge positions shift almost in parallel towards more positive potentials with addition of oxygen impurities, which may increase the onset potential for water oxidation. In this study, the hybrid-DFT (density functional theory) calculations of Ti-doped Ta3N5 show that as Ti doping concentration increases, both the valence- and conduction-band-edge positions of Ta3N5 move towards more negative potentials, which is opposite to the role of oxygen impurties. In the case of Ti-O codoped Ta3N5 , Ti doping can compensate the effect of oxygen impurities and may reduce the onset potential for water oxidation. Defect formation energies reveal that Ti-O codoped Ta3N5 is thermodynamically stable. Therefore we propose that by controlling the amount of O and Ti, the band-edge positions can be modified to a proper level so that better photoelectrochemical performances for solar water splitting can be achieved.

  1. Splitting Descartes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Kognition og Pædagogik vol. 48:10-18. 2003 Short description : The cognitivistic paradigm and Descartes' view of embodied knowledge. Abstract: That the philosopher Descartes separated the mind from the body is hardly news: He did it so effectively that his name is forever tied to that division....... But what exactly is Descartes' point? How does the Kartesian split hold up to recent biologically based learning theories?...

  2. A first-principles approach to the calculation of the on-site zero-field splitting in polynuclear transition metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retegan, Marius; Cox, Nicholas; Pantazis, Dimitrios A; Neese, Frank

    2014-11-03

    The interpretation of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of polynuclear transition metal complexes in terms of individual contributions from each paramagnetic center can be greatly facilitated by the availability of theoretical methods that enable the reliable prediction of local spectroscopic parameters. In this work we report an approach that enables the application of multireference ab initio methods for the calculation of local zero field splitting tensors, one of the leading terms in the spin Hamiltonian for exchange-coupled systems of high nuclearity. The method referred to as local complete active space configuration interaction (L-CASCI) represents a multireference calculation with an active space composed of local orbitals of the center of interest. By successive permutation of the active space to include the localized orbitals corresponding to a particular center of the complex, all on-site parameters can be easily obtained at a high-level of theory with a corresponding low computational cost. Benchmark calculations on synthetic complexes confirm the validity of the approach. As an example of the applicability of the L-CASCI method to large systems, we determine the local anisotropy of the Mn(III) ion of the tetranuclear manganese cluster of photosystem II in both structural forms of its S2 state.

  3. Treatment of intrabony defects with an enamel matrix protein derivative or bioabsorbable membrane: an 8-year follow-up split-mouth study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Schwarz, F.; Miliauskaite, A.; Kiss, A.; Arweiler, N.B.; Becker, J.M.; Brecx, M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatments with either an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) or guided tissue regeneration (GTR) have been shown to promote periodontal regeneration. However, until recently, only limited data have been available on the long-term clinical results following these regenerative techniqu

  4. Regulation of complement by cartilage oligomeric matrix protein allows for a novel molecular diagnostic principle in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Happonen, Kaisa E; Saxne, Tore; Aspberg, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage, where it catalyzes collagen fibrillogenesis. Elevated amounts of COMP are found in serum during increased turnover of cartilage associated with active joint disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthr......Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a structural component of cartilage, where it catalyzes collagen fibrillogenesis. Elevated amounts of COMP are found in serum during increased turnover of cartilage associated with active joint disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA......) and osteoarthritis (OA). This study was undertaken to investigate the ability of COMP to regulate complement, a capacity that has previously been shown for some other cartilage proteins....

  5. SPLITTING MODULUS FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR ORTHOGONAL ANISOTROPIC PLATE BENGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党发宁; 荣廷玉; 孙训方

    2001-01-01

    Splitting modulus variational principle in linear theory of solid mechanics was introduced, the principle for thin plate was derived, and splitting modulus finite element method of thin plate was established too. The distinctive feature of the splitting model is that its functional contains one or more arbitrary additional parameters, called splitting factors,so stiffness of the model can be adjusted by properly selecting the splitting factors. Examples show that splitting modulus method has high precision and the ability to conquer some illconditioned problems in usual finite elements. The cause why the new method could transform the ill-conditioned problems into well-conditioned problem, is analyzed finally.

  6. Lifetimes of excited electrons in Fe and Ni: first-principles GW and the T-matrix theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, V P; Chulkov, E V; Echenique, P M

    2005-03-25

    We present the results of an ab initio calculation of excited electron lifetimes in ferromagnetic materials which incorporates non-spin-flip and spin-flip processes within GW and T-matrix approaches. The method we develop is applied to low-energy electron excitations in Fe and Ni. It is found that the spin-wave generation in Fe essentially reduces the lifetimes of the spin-minority d states whereas the free-electron-like spin-minority states and all the spin-majority states are affected much less. The influence of spin-flip scattering on the lifetimes in Ni appears to be weak. The T-matrix non-spin-flip processes are important for the lifetimes of excited spin-minority states.

  7. Design of equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances based on admittance matrix%基于导纳矩阵的任意端口阻抗等分功分器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪晨; 郑学政; 吴文

    2014-01-01

    To decrease the circuit size of non-fifty Ω port impedances power dividers, equal-split power dividers with arbitrary port impedances are studied. It is theoretically verified that if two output ports of an equal-split power divider are connected by a resistor,the impedance matching of arbitrary ports and output port isolation cannot be realized simultaneously. A new circuit topology of equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances is proposed. Different microstrip lines are added in series with the isolation resistor at both ends;short/open stubs are loaded at each port. Impedance matching and output port isolation can be achieved simultaneously by adopting this configuration. The closed design formulae of this equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances are derived using an admittance matrix. As an example, an equal-split power divider is designed with 30 Ω, 53 Ω,47 Ω port impedances and operating at 1 GHz. The circuit size designed by the method proposed here decreases by about 66% compared with that of the traditional design method. Experimental results demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed circuit topology of equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances.%为减小非50Ω功分器电路尺寸,研究了任意端口阻抗等分功分器。理论证明了若等分功分器的输出端口之间只使用电阻连接,不能同时实现任意端口阻抗匹配和输出端口隔离。提出了一种新的任意端口阻抗等分功分器结构。在隔离电阻两端串联不同的微带线,在各端口加载短路/开路短截线。利用此结构同时实现了各端口匹配与输出端口之间的互相隔离。基于导纳矩阵推导了该功分器的设计公式,并据此设计研制了中心频率为1 GHz,端口阻抗分别为30Ω、53Ω、47Ω的等分功分器。该文方法设计的功分器电路尺寸比传统设计方法减小了约66%。测试结果验证了该等分功分器结构简单有效。

  8. Principles of hydrogen radical mediated peptide/protein fragmentation during matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Daiki

    2016-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization in-source decay (MALDI-ISD) is a very easy way to obtain large sequence tags and, thereby, reliable identification of peptides and proteins. Recently discovered new matrices have enhanced the MALDI-ISD yield and opened new research avenues. The use of reducing and oxidizing matrices for MALDI-ISD of peptides and proteins favors the production of fragmentation pathways involving "hydrogen-abundant" and "hydrogen-deficient" radical precursors, respectively. Since an oxidizing matrix provides information on peptide/protein sequences complementary to that obtained with a reducing matrix, MALDI-ISD employing both reducing and oxidizing matrices is a potentially useful strategy for de novo peptide sequencing. Moreover, a pseudo-MS(3) method provides sequence information about N- and C-terminus extremities in proteins and allows N- and C-terminal side fragments to be discriminated within the complex MALDI-ISD mass spectrum. The combination of high mass resolution of a Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) analyzer and the software suitable for MALDI-ISD facilitates the interpretation of MALDI-ISD mass spectra. A deeper understanding of the MALDI-ISD process is necessary to fully exploit this method. Thus, this review focuses first on the mechanisms underlying MALDI-ISD processes, followed by a discussion of MALDI-ISD applications in the field of proteomics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 35:535-556, 2016.

  9. Surgical therapy by sandwich transplantation using a dermal collagen-elastin matrix and full thickness split grafts and gait rehabilitation with individualized orthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Painful callosities of the feet (PCOF are a rare complaint in children with severe impairment of mobility and quality of life. There is no medical treatment available.We investigated the usefulness of a recently developed combined transplant technique-the sandwich transplantation with dermal collagen-elastin template in this rare condition. A 14-year-old boy suffered from PCOF for several years without any improvement by topical therapy, dermabrasion, and oral retinoids. He was unable to walk normally and suffered from severe pain. We performed a complete deep excision of the hyperkeratotic plantar tissue in general anaesthesia in combination with sandwich transplantation in the same setting. Dry sheets of collagen-elastin matrix (1 mm thickness were placed on the soft tissue defects and covered by full-thickness mesh graft transplants from the upper leg. An individualized orthosis was produced for gait rehabilitation. Two weeks after surgery the gait-related pain was reduced remarkably. Using the orthosis, the boy was able to walk pain-free even on staircase. Surgery of PCOF with sandwich transplantation and gait rehabilitation appears to be a promising strategy for this rare condition.

  10. First principles calculations of double ionization energy spectra and two-electron distribution function using T-matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Yoshifumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Computational Materials Science Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)], E-mail: NOGUCHI.Yoshifumi@nims.go.jp; Ishii, Soh; Ohno, Kaoru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2007-05-15

    Short-range electron correlation plays a very important role in small systems and significantly affects the double ionization energy (DIE) spectra and the two-electron distribution functions of a CO molecule, for example. In our calculations, the local density approximation (LDA) of the density functional theory is chosen as a starting point, the GW approximation (GWA) is performed in a next step, and finally the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the T-matrix, describing the particle-particle ladder diagrams up to the infinite order, is solved via the eigenvalue problem. The calculated DIE spectra, which are directly given by the eigenvalues, reflect the short-range electron correlation and are in good agreement with the experiment. We confirm that the Coulomb hole appears in the two-electron distribution function constructed from the eigenfunction.

  11. Partitions of generalized split graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Shklarsky, Oren

    2012-01-01

    We discuss matrix partition problems for graphs that admit a partition into k independent sets and ` cliques. We show that when k + ` 6 2, any matrix M has finitely many (k; `) minimal obstructions and hence all of these problems are polynomial time solvable. We provide upper bounds for the size of any (k; `) minimal obstruction when k = ` = 1 (split graphs), when k = 2; ` = 0 (bipartite graphs), and when k = 0; ` = 2 (co-bipartite graphs). When k = ` = 1, we construct an exponential size spl...

  12. Direct demonstration of tissue uptake of an inhaled drug: proof-of-principle study using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehniger, Thomas E; Végvári, Akos; Rezeli, Melinda; Prikk, Kaiu; Ross, Peeter; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Edula, Goutham; Sepper, Ruth; Marko-Varga, György

    2011-11-01

    Drug therapy is often directed to specific organ and tissue compartments where the mode of action of the compound affects specifically targeted biological processes. However, the direct measurement of drug uptake in terms of a time kinetic and concentrations attained at the local sites has not been readily available as a clinical index for most drugs. A proof-of-principle study was conducted to test the utility of applying matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) to demonstrate the qualitative distribution pattern of a locally administered drug within tissue sites of targeted action. Here we have measured the occurrence of an inhaled bronchodilator, the muscarinic receptor antagonist ipratropium, within human bronchial biopsies obtained by fiber optic bronchoscopy shortly after dosing exposure. Cryo-preserved biopsy samples from five subjects being evaluated for airway obstruction or potential tumor development were prepared as thin frozen sections. Samples coated with a MALDI matrix were analyzed by a MALDI LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer at large (100 μm) and small (30 μm) raster sizes. Our results demonstrate that ipratropium is rapidly absorbed into the airway wall. Ipratropium parent ion (m/z 332.332) and daughter ions (m/z 166.2 and 290.2) were coincidently partitioned within submucosal spaces containing targeted airway smooth muscle in four out of five subjects. The signal intensity of ipratropium fragment ions provided estimates that local drug concentrations between 3 and 80 nM were achieved within the airway wall. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study in applying MALDI-MSI to demonstrate the localization of a drug administered at therapeutic levels. The study highlights the potential benefit of MALDI-MSI to provide important measurements of drug efficacy in clinical settings.

  13. Unifying time evolution and optimization with matrix product states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegeman, Jutho; Lubich, Christian; Oseledets, Ivan; Vandereycken, Bart; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-10-01

    We show that the time-dependent variational principle provides a unifying framework for time-evolution methods and optimization methods in the context of matrix product states. In particular, we introduce a new integration scheme for studying time evolution, which can cope with arbitrary Hamiltonians, including those with long-range interactions. Rather than a Suzuki-Trotter splitting of the Hamiltonian, which is the idea behind the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method or time-evolving block decimation, our method is based on splitting the projector onto the matrix product state tangent space as it appears in the Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational principle. We discuss how the resulting algorithm resembles the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for finding ground states so closely that it can be implemented by changing just a few lines of code and it inherits the same stability and efficiency. In particular, our method is compatible with any Hamiltonian for which ground-state DMRG can be implemented efficiently. In fact, DMRG is obtained as a special case of our scheme for imaginary time evolution with infinite time step.

  14. Quantum tunneling splittings from path-integral molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyus, Edit; Wales, David J.; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate how path-integral molecular dynamics can be used to calculate ground-state tunnelling splittings in molecules or clusters. The method obtains the splittings from ratios of density matrix elements between the degenerate wells connected by the tunnelling. We propose a simple thermodynamic integration scheme for evaluating these elements. Numerical tests on fully dimensional malonaldehyde yield tunnelling splittings in good overall agreement with the results of diffusion Monte Carlo calculations.

  15. One-loop triple collinear splitting amplitudes in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Badger, Simon; Peraro, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    We study the factorisation properties of one-loop scattering amplitudes in the triple collinear limit and extract the universal splitting amplitudes for processes initiated by a gluon. The splitting amplitudes are derived from the analytic Higgs plus four partons amplitudes. We present compact results for primitive helicity splitting amplitudes making use of super-symmetric decompositions. The universality of the collinear factorisation is checked numerically against the full colour six parton squared matrix elements.

  16. Split liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yersiz, H; Cameron, A M; Carmody, I; Zimmerman, M A; Kelly, B S; Ghobrial, R M; Farmer, D G; Busuttil, R W

    2006-03-01

    Seventy-five thousand Americans develop organ failure each year. Fifteen percent of those on the list for transplantation die while waiting. Several possible mechanisms to expand the organ pool are being pursued including the use of extended criteria donors, living donation, and split deceased donor transplants. Cadaveric organ splitting results from improved understanding of the surgical anatomy of the liver derived from Couinaud. Early efforts focused on reduced-liver transplantation (RLT) reported by both Bismuth and Broelsch in the mid-1980s. These techniques were soon modified to create both a left lateral segment graft appropriate for a pediatric recipient and a right trisegment for an appropriately sized adult. Techniques of split liver transplantation (SLT) were also modified to create living donor liver transplantation. Pichlmayr and Bismuth reported successful split liver transplantation in 1989 and Emond reported a larger series of nine split procedures in 1990. Broelsch and Busuttil described a technical modification in which the split was performed in situ at the donor institution with surgical division completed in the heart beating cadaveric donor. In situ splitting reduces cold ischemia, simplifies identification of biliary and vascular structures, and reduces reperfusion hemorrhage. However, in situ splits require specialized skills, prolonged operating room time, and increased logistical coordination at the donor institution. At UCLA over 120 in situ splits have been performed and this technique is the default when an optimal donor is available. Split liver transplantation now accounts for 10% of adult transplantations at UCLA and 40% of pediatric transplantations.

  17. Split Cord Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurdal Gezercan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Split cord malformations are rare form of occult spinal dysraphism in children. Split cord malformations are characterized by septum that cleaves the spinal canal in sagittal plane within the single or duplicated thecal sac. Although their precise incidence is unknown, split cord malformations are exceedingly rare and represent %3.8-5 of all congenital spinal anomalies. Characteristic neurological, urological, orthopedic clinical manifestations are variable and asymptomatic course is possible. Earlier diagnosis and surgical intervention for split cord malformations is associated with better long-term fuctional outcome. For this reason, diagnostic imaging is indicated for children with associated cutaneous and orthopedic signs. Additional congenital anomalies usually to accompany the split cord malformations. Earlier diagnosis, meticuolus surgical therapy and interdisciplinary careful evaluation and follow-up should be made for good prognosis. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 199-207

  18. Accuracy of tablet splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, J T; Gurst, A H; Chen, Y

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to determine the accuracy of manually splitting hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Ninety-four healthy volunteers each split ten 25-mg hydrochlorothiazide tablets, which were then weighed using an analytical balance. Demographics, grip and pinch strength, digit circumference, and tablet-splitting experience were documented. Subjects were also surveyed regarding their willingness to pay a premium for commercially available, lower-dose tablets. Of 1752 manually split tablet portions, 41.3% deviated from ideal weight by more than 10% and 12.4% deviated by more than 20%. Gender, age, education, and tablet-splitting experience were not predictive of variability. Most subjects (96.8%) stated a preference for commercially produced, lower-dose tablets, and 77.2% were willing to pay more for them. For drugs with steep dose-response curves or narrow therapeutic windows, the differences we recorded could be clinically relevant.

  19. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...... as possible. Evaluations show that the proposed protocol provides considerable gains over the standard tree splitting protocol applying SIC. The improvement comes at the expense of an increased feedback and receiver complexity....

  20. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  1. Concentric Split Flow Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A concentric split flow filter may be configured to remove odor and/or bacteria from pumped air used to collect urine and fecal waste products. For instance, filter may be designed to effectively fill the volume that was previously considered wasted surrounding the transport tube of a waste management system. The concentric split flow filter may be configured to split the air flow, with substantially half of the air flow to be treated traveling through a first bed of filter media and substantially the other half of the air flow to be treated traveling through the second bed of filter media. This split flow design reduces the air velocity by 50%. In this way, the pressure drop of filter may be reduced by as much as a factor of 4 as compare to the conventional design.

  2. Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

  3. Timelike single-logarithm-resummed splitting functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, S.; Bolzoni, P.; Kniehl, B.A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, A.V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2011-08-15

    We calculate the single logarithmic contributions to the quark singlet and gluon matrix of timelike splitting functions at all orders in the modified minimal-subtraction (MS) scheme. We fix two of the degrees of freedom of this matrix from the analogous results in the massive-gluon regularization scheme by using the relation between that scheme and the MS scheme. We determine this scheme transformation from the double logarithmic contributions to the timelike splitting functions and the coefficient functions of inclusive particle production in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation now available in both schemes. The remaining two degrees of freedom are fixed by reasonable physical assumptions. The results agree with the fixed-order results at next-to-next-to-leading order in the literature. (orig.)

  4. Poincaré Map Based on Splitting Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GANG Tie-Qiang; CHEN Li-Jie; MEI Feng-Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Firstly, by using the Liouville formula, we prove that the Jacobian matrix determinants of splitting methods are equal to that of the exact flow. However, for the explicit Runge-Kutta methods, there is an error term of order p + 1 for the Jacobian matrix determinants. Then, the volume evolution law of a given region in phase space is discussed for different algorithms. It is proved that splitting methods can exactly preserve the sum of Lyapunov exponents invariable. Finally, a Poincaré map and its energy distribution of the Duffing equation are computed by using the second-order splitting method and the Heun method (a second-order Runge-Kutta method). Computation illustrates that the results by splitting methods can properly represent systems' chaotic phenomena.

  5. (O)Mega Split

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, Karim; Goodsell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study two realisations of the Fake Split Supersymmetry Model (FSSM), the simplest model that can easily reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass for an arbitrarily high supersymmetry scale, as a consequence of swapping higgsinos for equivalent states, fake higgsinos, with suppressed Yukawa couplings. If the LSP is identified as the main Dark matter component, then a standard thermal history of the Universe implies upper bounds on the supersymmetry scale, which we derive. On the other hand, we show that renormalisation group running of soft masses above the supersymmetry scale barely constrains the model - in stark contrast to Split Supersymmetry - and hence we can have a "Mega Split" spectrum even with all of these assumptions and constraints, which include the requirements of a correct relic abundance, a gluino life-time compatible with Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and absence of signals in present direct detection experiments of inelastic dark matter. In an appendix we describe a related scenario, ...

  6. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Split Malcev Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; Manuel Forero Piulestán; José M Sánchez Delgado

    2012-05-01

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form $M=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_jI_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of satisfying $[I_j, I_k]=0$ if ≠ . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of a semisimple split Lie algebra and a direct sum of simple non-Lie Malcev algebras.

  8. A SHIFT-SPLITTING PRECONDITIONER FOR NON-HERMITIAN POSITIVE DEFINITE MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-zhi Bai; Jun-feng Yin; Yang-feng Su

    2006-01-01

    A shift splitting concept is introduced and, correspondingly, a shift-splitting iteration scheme and a shift-splitting preconditioner are presented, for solving the large sparse system of linear equations of which the coefficient matrix is an ill-conditioned non-Hermitian positive definite matrix. The convergence property of the shift-splitting iteration method and the eigenvalue distribution of the shift-splitting preconditioned matrix are discussed in depth, and the best possible choice of the shift is investigated in detail. Numerical computations show that the shift-splitting preconditioner can induce accurate, robust and effective preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration methods for solving the large sparse non-Hermitian positive definite systems of linear equations.

  9. The Splitting Loope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Teaching experiments have generated several hypotheses concerning the construction of fraction schemes and operations and relationships among them. In particular, researchers have hypothesized that children's construction of splitting operations is crucial to their construction of more advanced fractions concepts (Steffe, 2002). The authors…

  10. Communication: Wigner functions in action-angle variables, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, the Heisenberg correspondence principle, and a symmetrical quasi-classical approach to the full electronic density matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H; Cotton, Stephen J

    2016-08-28

    It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory-e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states-and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.

  11. Communication: Wigner functions in action-angle variables, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, the Heisenberg correspondence principle, and a symmetrical quasi-classical approach to the full electronic density matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H.; Cotton, Stephen J.

    2016-08-01

    It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory—e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states—and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.

  12. Syntax for Split Preorders

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2009-01-01

    A split preorder is a preordering relation on the disjoint union of two sets, which function as source and target when one composes split preorders. The paper presents by generators and equations the category SplPre, whose arrows are the split preorders on the disjoint union of two finite ordinals. The same is done for the subcategory Gen of SplPre, whose arrows are equivalence relations, and for the category Rel, whose arrows are the binary relations between finite ordinals, and which has an isomorphic image within SplPre by a map that preserves composition, but not identity arrows. It was shown previously that SplPre and Gen have an isomorphic representation in Rel in the style of Brauer. The syntactical presentation of Gen and Rel in this paper exhibits the particular Frobenius algebra structure of Gen and the particular bialgebraic structure of Rel, the latter structure being built upon the former structure in SplPre. This points towards algebraic modelling of various categories motivated by logic, and re...

  13. Modelling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Ping, Yuan; Galli, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight offers a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential. Here we review recent progress and open challenges in predicting physicochemical properties of heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting applications using first-principles-based approaches, and highlights the key role of these calculations in interpreting increasingly complex experiments.

  14. Modelling heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Ping, Yuan; Galli, Giulia

    2017-01-09

    The generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight others a promising approach for producing scalable and sustainable carbon-free energy. The key of a successful solar-to-fuel technology is the design of efficient, long-lasting and low-cost photoelectrochemical cells, which are responsible for absorbing sunlight and driving water splitting reactions. To this end, a detailed understanding and control of heterogeneous interfaces between photoabsorbers, electrolytes and catalysts present in photoelectrochemical cells is essential. Here we review recent progress and open challenges in predicting physicochemical properties of heterogeneous interfaces for solar water splitting applications using first-principles-based approaches, and highlights the key role of these calculations in interpreting increasingly complex experiments.

  15. A design process model of integrated morphological matrix and conflict resolving principles%集成形态学矩阵与冲突解决原理的设计过程模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦泽; 祁国宁; 傅建中; 樊蓓蓓; 许静

    2012-01-01

    基于发明问题解决理论(TRIZ)和形态学方法在产品设计原理求解中具有的时序相关性与功能互补性,提出集成形态学矩阵和TRIZ冲突解决原理的设计过程模型.该模型体系包括概念模型、流程模型以及关联模型,分别从过程理念、设计流程、方法关联三方面进行了建模,遵循螺旋式自顶向下的设计特征.以系统设计方法为背景,将形态学分析的适用范围拓展到概念层,展开原理解的组合性分析,使得在设计前端即可发现耦合问题;将冲突解决原理在原理解的产生与设计解耦两方面进行综合应用,以保证设计过程的连贯性与设计结果的创新性.以手持电钻的创新研发过程为例,验证了面向新设计的双矩阵应用过程以及面向变型设计的嵌套子循环实现过程,证明了该模型及方法在针对不同设计问题时的灵活性与可操作性.%Based on the temporal correlation and function complement between morphological methods and theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) on generating and analyzing the principle solutions in product design process, a double-matrix integrated model which combined morphological matrix and conflict resolving principles was proposed. The model system consists of concept model, process model and relation model which build models from approach idea, design process and relations between methods respectively, and follows a top-down spiral design approach. Based on the background of systematic design approach, the applicable scope of morphological analysis is extended to concept level by the model, and the combination capability of principle solutions can be analyzed, so that the coupling problems can be found in the early front-end of design process; the conflict resolving principles ars used on generating solutions and solving design decoupling in order to ensure the continuity of the design process and the creativity of the results. Taking the innovative

  16. Basic dynamics of split Stirling refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Liang, W.

    2008-09-01

    The basic features of the split Stirling refrigerator, driven by a linear compressor, are described. Friction of the compressor piston and of the regenerator, and the viscous losses due to the gas flow through the regenerator matrix are taken into account. The temperature at the cold end is an input parameter. The general equations are derived which are subsequently treated in the harmonic approximation. Examples are given of application of the relations for describing optimum-performance conditions as well as the interrelationship between cooler and heat-engine operation.

  17. Split Q-balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the presence of non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in (1 , 1) spacetime dimensions. The model engenders the global U (1) symmetry and is of the k-field type, since it contains a new term, of the fourth-order power in the derivative of the complex scalar field. It supports analytical solution of the Q-ball type which is stable quantum mechanically. The new solution engenders an interesting behavior, with the charge and energy densities unveiling a splitting profile.

  18. Klein and Conformal Superspaces, Split Algebras and Spinor Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Fioresi, Rita; Marrani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We discuss $\\mathcal{N}=1$ Klein and Klein-Conformal superspaces in $D=(2,2)$ space-time dimensions, realizing them in terms of their functor of points over the split composition algebra $\\mathbb{C}_{s}$. We exploit the observation that certain split form of orthogonal groups can be realized in terms of matrix groups over split composition algebras; this leads to a natural interpretation of the the sections of the spinor bundle in the critical split dimensions $D=4$, $6$ and $10$ as $\\mathbb{C}_{s}^{2}$, $\\mathbb{H}_{s}^{2}$ and $\\mathbb{O}_{s}^{2}$, respectively. Within this approach, we also analyze the non-trivial spinor orbit stratification that is relevant in our construction since it affects the Klein-Conformal superspace structure.

  19. Performance Models for Split-execution Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL; McCaskey, Alex [ORNL; Schrock, Jonathan [ORNL; Seddiqi, Hadayat [ORNL; Britt, Keith A [ORNL; Imam, Neena [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Split-execution computing leverages the capabilities of multiple computational models to solve problems, but splitting program execution across different computational models incurs costs associated with the translation between domains. We analyze the performance of a split-execution computing system developed from conventional and quantum processing units (QPUs) by using behavioral models that track resource usage. We focus on asymmetric processing models built using conventional CPUs and a family of special-purpose QPUs that employ quantum computing principles. Our performance models account for the translation of a classical optimization problem into the physical representation required by the quantum processor while also accounting for hardware limitations and conventional processor speed and memory. We conclude that the bottleneck in this split-execution computing system lies at the quantum-classical interface and that the primary time cost is independent of quantum processor behavior.

  20. Analytical Model of Planar Double Split Ring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on accurate modelling of microstrip double split ring resonators. The impedance matrix representation for coupled lines is applied for the first time to model the SRR, resulting in excellent model accuracy over a wide frequency range. Phase compensation is implemented to take...

  1. ALLOPHONIC SPLITS IN L2 PHONOLOGY: THE QUESTION OF LEARNABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K . Iverson

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper is intended as a contribution to the understanding of several wellknown problems relating to the leaming of phonemic contrasts in second language (L2 phonology. The paper describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957 hypothesized to represent maximum diffículty in second language pronunciation, narnely, a phonemic split. This is the process involved when an L2 learner must split native language (NL allophones into separate target language (TL phonemes. Two core principles of phonological theory are described and evaluated for their relevante in explaining the series of well-defined, implicationally-related stages involved in a phonemic split. Finally, the paper reports the results of an empirical study designed to test the explanatory adequacy of these principles, and concludes with a discussion of the implications of these studies for second language phonology in general.

  2. Solar water splitting: efficiency discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Juodkazyte, Jurga; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Sebeka, Benjaminas; Savickaja, Irena; Malinauskas, Tadas; Badokas, Kazimieras; Juodkazis, Kestutis; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    The current state of the art in direct water splitting in photo-electrochemical cells (PECs) is presented together with: (i) a case study of water splitting using a simple solar cell with the most efficient water splitting electrodes and (ii) a detailed mechanism analysis. Detailed analysis of the energy balance and efficiency of solar hydrogen production are presented. The role of hydrogen peroxide formation as an intermediate in oxygen evolution reaction is newly revealed and explains why a...

  3. Split Quasi-adequate Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jiang GUO; Ting Ting PENG

    2012-01-01

    The so-called split IC quasi-adequate semigroups are in the class of idempotent-connected quasi-adequate semigroups.It is proved that an IC quasi-adequate semigroup is split if and only if it has an adequate transversal.The structure of such semigroup whose band of idempotents is regular will be particularly investigated.Our obtained results enrich those results given by McAlister and Blyth on split orthodox semigroups.

  4. Comet LINEAR Splits Further

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Third Nucleus Observed with the VLT Summary New images from the VLT show that one of the two nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2), now about 100 million km from the Earth, has just split into at least two pieces . The three fragments are now moving through space in nearly parallel orbits while they slowly drift apart. This comet will pass through its perihelion (nearest point to the Sun) on May 25, 2001, at a distance of about 116 million kilometres. It has brightened considerably due to the splitting of its "dirty snowball" nucleus and can now be seen with the unaided eye by observers in the southern hemisphere as a faint object in the southern constellation of Lepus (The Hare). PR Photo 18a/01 : Three nuclei of Comet LINEAR . PR Photo 18b/01 : The break-up of Comet LINEAR (false-colour). Comet LINEAR splits and brightens ESO PR Photo 18a/01 ESO PR Photo 18a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 438 pix - 55k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 875 pix - 136k] ESO PR Photo 18b/01 ESO PR Photo 18b/01 [Preview - JPEG: 367 x 400 pix - 112k] [Normal - JPEG: 734 x 800 pix - 272k] Caption : ESO PR Photo 18a/01 shows the three nuclei of Comet LINEAR (C/2001 A2). It is a reproduction of a 1-min exposure in red light, obtained in the early evening of May 16, 2001, with the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN (UT4) telescope at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 18b/01 shows the same image, but in a false-colour rendering for more clarity. The cometary fragment "B" (right) has split into "B1" and "B2" (separation about 1 arcsec, or 500 km) while fragment "A" (upper left) is considerably fainter. Technical information about these photos is available below. Comet LINEAR was discovered on January 3, 2001, and designated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) as C/2001 A2 (see IAU Circular 7564 [1]). Six weeks ago, it was suddenly observed to brighten (IAUC 7605 [1]). Amateurs all over the world saw the comparatively faint comet reaching naked-eye magnitude and soon thereafter, observations with professional telescopes indicated

  5. Non-split and split deformations of AdS_5

    CERN Document Server

    Hoare, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The eta-deformation of the AdS_5 x S^5 superstring depends on a non-split r matrix for the superalgebra psu(2,2|4). Much of the investigation into this model has considered one particular choice, however there are a number of inequivalent alternatives. This is also true for the bosonic sector of the theory with su(2,2), the isometry algebra of AdS_5, admitting one split and three non-split r matrices. In this article we explore these r matrices and the corresponding geometries. We investigate their contraction limits, comment on supergravity backgrounds and demonstrate their relation to gauged-WZW deformations. We then extend the three non-split cases to AdS_5 x S^5 and compute four separate bosonic two-particle tree-level S-matrices based on inequivalent BMN-type light-cone gauges. The resulting S-matrices, while different, are related by momentum-dependent one-particle changes of basis.

  6. Thermally induced photon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Elmfors, P; Elmfors, Per; Skagerstam, Bo-Sture

    1998-01-01

    We calculate thermal corrections to the non-linear QED effective action for low-energy photon interactions in a background electromagnetic field. The high-temperature expansion shows that at $T \\gg m$ the vacuum contribution is exactly cancelled to all orders in the external field except for a non-trivial two-point function contribution. The high-temperature expansion derived reveals a remarkable cancellation of infrared sensitive contributions. As a result photon-splitting in the presence of a magnetic field is suppressed in the presence of an electron-positron QED-plasma at very high temperatures. In a cold and dense plasma a similar suppression takes place. At the same time Compton scattering dominates for weak fields and the suppression is rarely important in physical situations.

  7. Leptogenesis from split fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Yukinori; Perez, Gilad

    2004-01-11

    We present a new type of leptogenesis mechanism based on a two-scalar split-fermions framework. At high temperatures the bulk scalar vacuum expectation values (VEVs) vanish and lepton number is strongly violated. Below some temperature, T{sub c}, the scalars develop extra dimension dependent VEVs. This transition is assumed to proceed via a first order phase transition. In the broken phase the fermions are localized and lepton number violation is negligible. The lepton-bulk scalar Yukawa couplings contain sizable CP phases which induce lepton production near the interface between the two phases. We provide a qualitative estimation of the resultant baryon asymmetry which agrees with current observation. The neutrino flavor parameters are accounted for by the above model with an additional approximate U(1) symmetry.

  8. Causality Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Do Minh

    2001-01-01

    We advance a famous principle - causality principle - but under a new view. This principle is a principium automatically leading to most fundamental laws of the nature. It is the inner origin of variation, rules evolutionary processes of things, and the answer of the quest for ultimate theories of the Universe.

  9. Thermochemical production of hydrogen via multistage water splitting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents and reviews the fundamental thermodynamic principles underlying thermochemical water splitting processes. The overall system is considered first and the temperature limitation in process thermal efficiency is developed. The relationship to an ideal water electrolysis cell is described and the nature of efficient multistage reaction processes is discussed. The importance of the reaction entropy change and the relation of the reaction free energy change to the work of separation is described. A procedure for analyzing thermochemical water splitting processes is presented and its use to calculate individual stage efficiency is demonstrated. A number of processes are used to illustrate the concepts and procedures.

  10. Split-ball resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, Arseniy I; Fu, Yuan Hsing; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Rahmani, Mohsen; Valuckas, Vytautas; Kivshar, Yuri; Pickard, Daniel S; Lukiyanchuk, Boris

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of split-ball resonator and demonstrate a strong omnidirectional magnetic dipole response for both gold and silver spherical plasmonic nanoparticles with nanometer-scale cuts. Tunability of the magnetic dipole resonance throughout the visible spectral range is demonstrated by a change of the depth and width of the nanoscale cut. We realize this novel concept experimentally by employing the laser-induced transfer method to produce near-perfect spheres and helium ion beam milling to make cuts with the nanometer resolution. Due to high quality of the spherical particle shape, governed by strong surface tension forces during the laser transfer process, and the clean, straight side walls of the cut made by helium ion milling, magnetic resonance is observed at 600 nm in gold and at 565 nm in silver nanoparticles. Structuring arbitrary features on the surface of ideal spherical resonators with nanoscale dimensions provides new ways of engineering hybrid resonant modes and ultra-high near-f...

  11. Linearized supergravity from Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, D; Kabat, Daniel; Taylor, Washington

    1998-01-01

    We show that the linearized supergravity potential between two objects arising from the exchange of quanta with zero longitudinal momentum is reproduced to all orders in 1/r by terms in the one-loop Matrix theory potential. The essential ingredient in the proof is the identification of the Matrix theory quantities corresponding to moments of the stress tensor and membrane current. We also point out that finite-N Matrix theory violates the Equivalence Principle.

  12. Splitting full matrix algebras over algebraic number fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanyos, Gábor; Schicho, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Let K be an algebraic number field of degree d and discriminant D over Q. Let A be an associative algebra over K given by structure constants such that A is siomorphic to the algebra M_n(K) of n by n matrices over K for some positive integer n. Suppose that d, n and D are bounded. Then an isomorphism of A with M_n(K) can be constructed by a polynomial time ff-algorithm. (An ff-algorithm is a deterministic procedure which is allowed to call oracles for factoring integers and factoring univariate polynomials over finite fields.) As a consequence, we obtain a polynomial time ff-algorithm to compute isomorphisms of central simple algebras of bounded degree over K.

  13. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-07-25

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Split and delay photon correlation spectroscopy with a visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Marten

    2016-04-15

    The development and performance of a setup constructed with the aim for the split pulse photon correlation spectroscopy is presented in this thesis. The double pulse time structure is accomplished with help of an Acusto-Optic Modulator (AOM) crystal, which mimics the splitting and delaying of photon pulses. The setup provides double pulses and allows to control the pulse width and delay and to synchronize them into one camera exposure window. The performance of the setup was successfully verified in a proof of principle experiment with a model system of polystyrene particles following Brownian motion. The measured radius of particles obtained with from the split pulse experiment (R{sub h}=(2.567±0.097) μm) is in agreement with the particle size provided by the manufacturer (R=(2.26±0.08) μm). The achieved results show higher statistics compared to a standard Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurement.

  15. Semantic Parameters of Split Intransitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Valin, Jr., Robert D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper argues that split-intransitive phenomena are better explained in semantic terms. A semantic analysis is carried out in Role and Reference Grammar, which assumes the theory of verb classification proposed in Dowty 1979. (49 references) (JL)

  16. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  17. Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Demidov, S.; Gorbunov, D; Kirpichnikov, D.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we re-consider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for t...

  18. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  19. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    1994-06-01

    Split torque designs, proposed as alternatives to traditional planetary designs for helicopter main rotor transmissions, can save weight and be more reliable than traditional designs. This report presents the results of an analytical study of the system dynamics and performance of a split torque gearbox that uses a balance beam mechanism for load sharing. The Lagrange method was applied to develop a system of equations of motion. The mathematical model includes time-varying gear mesh stiffness, friction, and manufacturing errors. Cornell's method for calculating the stiffness of spur gear teeth was extended and applied to helical gears. The phenomenon of sidebands spaced at shaft frequencies about gear mesh fundamental frequencies was simulated by modeling total composite gear errors as sinusoid functions. Although the gearbox has symmetric geometry, the loads and motions of the two power paths differ. Friction must be considered to properly evaluate the balance beam mechanism. For the design studied, the balance beam is not an effective device for load sharing unless the coefficient of friction is less than 0.003. The complete system stiffness as represented by the stiffness matrix used in this analysis must be considered to precisely determine the optimal tooth indexing position.

  20. A SPLITTING METHOD FOR QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏紫銮

    2001-01-01

    A matrix splitting method is presented for minimizing a quadratic programming (QP)problem, and a general algorithm is designed to solve the QP problem and generates a sequence of iterative points. We prove that the sequence generated by the algorithm converges to the optimal solution and has an R-linear rate of convergence if the QP problem is strictly convex and nondegenerate, and that every accumulation point of the sequence generated by the general algorithm is a KKT point of the original problem under the hypothesis that the value of the objective function is bounded below on the constrained region, and that the sequence converges to a KKT point if the problem is nondegenerate and the constrained region is bounded.

  1. Trap split with Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamideh Kazemi, Seyedeh; Ghanbari, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    We present a convenient and effective way to generate a novel phenomenon of trapping, named ‘trap split’, in a conventional four-level double-Λ atomic system, driven by four femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses. We find that trap split can always be achieved when atoms are trapped by such laser pulses, as compared to Gaussian ones. This feature is enabled by the interaction of the atomic system and the Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses with zero intensity in the center. A further advantage of using Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses is the insensitivity to fluctuation in the intensity of the lasers in such a way that the separation between the traps remains constant. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the suggested scheme with Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses can form optical traps with spatial sizes that are not limited by the wavelength of the laser, and can, in principle, become smaller than the wavelength of light. This work would greatly facilitate the trapping and manipulating of particles and the generation of trap split. It may also suggest the possibility of extension into new research fields, such as micro-machining and biophysics.

  2. Several splittings for non-Hermitian linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    For large sparse non-Hermitian positive definite system of linear equations,we present several variants of the Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting(HSS)about the coefficient matrix and establish correspondingly several HSS-based iterative schemes.Theoretical analyses show that these methods are convergent unconditionally to the exact solution of the referred system of linear equations,and they may show advantages on problems that the HSS method is ineffiective.

  3. Several splittings for non-Hermitian linear systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zhong-Zhi

    2008-01-01

    For large sparse non-Hermitian positive definite system of linear equations, we present several variants of the Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (HSS) about the coefficient matrix and establish correspondingly several HSS-based iterative schemes. Theoretical analyses show that these methods are convergent unconditionally to the exact solution of the referred system of linear equations,and they may show advantages on problems that the HSS method is ineffective.

  4. Rational design of semiconductors for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Su-Huai

    2013-12-01

    Using first-principles method as a tool, we discuss the general strategies for the rational design of semiconductors to simultaneously meet all of requirements for high-efficiency, solar-driven photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting devices. Our studies demonstrate that theoretical calculations, which provided deep understanding of the underlying physics behind these PEC materials, can greatly accelerate scientific discovery of new PEC materials in this exciting field.

  5. A Generalization of the Alias Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, S.

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of aliases or biases is important for the interpretation of the results from factorial experiments. For two-level fractional factorials this can be facilitated through their group structure. For more general arrays the alias matrix can be used. This tool is traditionally based...... on the assumption that the error structure is that associated with ordinary least squares. For situations where that is not the case, we provide in this article a generalization of the alias matrix applicable under the generalized least squares assumptions. We also show that for the special case of split plot error...... structure, the generalized alias matrix simplifies to the ordinary alias matrix....

  6. Solar water splitting: efficiency discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Juodkazyte, Jurga; Sebeka, Benjaminas; Savickaja, Irena; Malinauskas, Tadas; Badokas, Kazimieras; Juodkazis, Kestutis; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    The current state of the art in direct water splitting in photo-electrochemical cells (PECs) is presented together with: (i) a case study of water splitting using a simple solar cell with the most efficient water splitting electrodes and (ii) a detailed mechanism analysis. Detailed analysis of the energy balance and efficiency of solar hydrogen production are presented. The role of hydrogen peroxide formation as an intermediate in oxygen evolution reaction is newly revealed and explains why an oxygen evolution is not taking place at the thermodynamically expected 1.23 V potential. Solar hydrogen production with electrical-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 52% is demonstrated using a simple ~0.7%-efficient n-Si/Ni Schottky solar cell connected to a water electrolysis cell. This case study shows that separation of the processes of solar harvesting and electrolysis avoids photo-electrode corrosion and utilizes optimal electrodes for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions and achieves ~10% efficiency in light...

  7. Lattice splitting under intermittent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Schläpfer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We study the splitting of regular square lattices subject to stochastic intermittent flows. By extensive Monte Carlo simulations we reveal how the time span until the occurence of a splitting depends on various flow patterns imposed on the lattices. Increasing the flow fluctuation frequencies shortens this time span which reaches a minimum before rising again due to inertia effects incorporated in the model. The size of the largest connected component after the splitting is rather independent of the flow fluctuations but sligthly decreases with the link capacities. Our results are relevant for assessing the robustness of real-life systems, such as electric power grids with a large share of renewable energy sources including wind turbines and photovoltaic systems.

  8. On Split Lie Triple Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín

    2009-04-01

    We begin the study of arbitrary split Lie triple systems by focussing on those with a coherent 0-root space. We show that any such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j≠ k$. Under certain conditions, it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of is characterized. The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems.

  9. Split supersymmetry in brane models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ignatios Antoniadis

    2006-11-01

    Type-I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with sin2 W = 3/8 at the com-pactification scale of GUT ≃ 2 × 1016 GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.

  10. Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, S. V.; Gorbunov, D. S.; Kirpichnikov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    In light of the Higgs boson discovery and other results of the LHC we re-consider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector (non-minimal split SUSY). We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within a phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.

  11. Splitting strings on integrable backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicedo, Benoit

    2011-05-15

    We use integrability to construct the general classical splitting string solution on R x S{sup 3}. Namely, given any incoming string solution satisfying a necessary self-intersection property at some given instant in time, we use the integrability of the worldsheet {sigma}-model to construct the pair of outgoing strings resulting from a split. The solution for each outgoing string is expressed recursively through a sequence of dressing transformations, the parameters of which are determined by the solutions to Birkhoff factorization problems in an appropriate real form of the loop group of SL{sub 2}(C). (orig.)

  12. Split Supersymmetry in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2006-01-01

    Type I string theory in the presence of internal magnetic fields provides a concrete realization of split supersymmetry. To lowest order, gauginos are massless while squarks and sleptons are superheavy. For weak magnetic fields, the correct Standard Model spectrum guarantees gauge coupling unification with \\sin^2{\\theta_W}=3/8 at the compactification scale of M_{\\rm GUT}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^{16} GeV. I discuss mechanisms for generating gaugino and higgsino masses at the TeV scale, as well as generalizations to models with split extended supersymmetry in the gauge sector.

  13. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  14. Resonant Peak Splitting for Ballistic Conductance in Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Under Electromagnetic Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ru-Zhi; YAN Xiao-Hong

    2000-01-01

    By developing a transfer-matrix method, the resonant peaks splitting of ballistic conductance are investigated into the two-dimensional electron gas system with both electric and magnetic modulations of nanoscale periods. It is found that there exists the n-fold resonant peak splitting for ballistic conductance through n perpendicular magnetic barriers to n electric barriers. With a combination of m magnetic barriers and n electric barriers by increasing the amplitude of electric field, the folds of the splitting would shift from m - 1 to n - 1.

  15. Matrix Factorization and Matrix Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Lester

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the constrained factorization problems of sparse principal components analysis (PCA) for gene expression modeling, low-rank matrix completion for recommender systems, and robust matrix factorization for video surveillance, this dissertation explores the modeling, methodology, and theory of matrix factorization.We begin by exposing the theoretical and empirical shortcomings of standard deflation techniques for sparse PCA and developing alternative methodology more suitable for def...

  16. Beam splitting on weak illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A W; Buryak, A V; Mitchell, D J

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate, in both two and three dimensions, how a self-guided beam in a non-Kerr medium is split into two beams on weak illumination. We also provide an elegant physical explanation that predicts the universal character of the observed phenomenon. Possible applications of our findings to guiding light with light are also discussed.

  17. Torque-Splitting Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, J.

    1991-01-01

    Geared drive train transmits torque from input shaft in equal parts along two paths in parallel, then combines torques in single output shaft. Scheme reduces load on teeth of meshing gears while furnishing redundancy to protect against failures. Such splitting and recombination of torques common in design of turbine engines.

  18. Water splitting by cooperative catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G.H. Hetterscheid; J.I. van der Vlugt; B. de Bruin; J.N.H. Reek

    2009-01-01

    A mononuclear Ru complex is shown to efficiently split water into H2 and O2 in consecutive steps through a heat- and light-driven process (see picture). Thermally driven H2 formation involves the aid of a non-innocent ligand scaffold, while dioxygen is generated by initial photochemically induced re

  19. TWO APPROACHES TO CALCULATION OF SPLIT PHASE DANCING OF OVERHEAD ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows two approaches to mathematical modeling of split phase dancing of overhead electrical transmission line. The first approach is based on calculative method when a phase is in the shape of flexible elastic thread connected with rigid rods. The phase is represented with equivalent wire in the second approach. Principle of mechanics relations has been used to set combined boundary problem of split phase dynamics. Two packets of computer programs for calculation of split phase dancing of overhead (electric power line have been set up and tested.

  20. Towards three-loop QCD corrections to the time-like splitting functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gituliar, Oleksandr

    2015-01-01

    We report on the status of a direct computation of the time-like splitting functions at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. Time-like splitting functions govern the collinear kinematics of inclusive hadron production and the evolution of the parton fragmentation distributions. Current knowledge about them at three loops has been inferred by means of crossing symmetry from their related space-like counterparts, which has left certain parts of the off-diagonal quark-gluon splitting function undetermined. This motivates an independent calculation from first principles. We review the tools and methods which are applied to attack the problem.

  1. Tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Jijie; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-07-07

    Solar energy utilization is one of the most promising solutions for the energy crises. Among all the possible means to make use of solar energy, solar water splitting is remarkable since it can accomplish the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. The produced hydrogen is clean and sustainable which could be used in various areas. For the past decades, numerous efforts have been put into this research area with many important achievements. Improving the overall efficiency and stability of semiconductor photocatalysts are the research focuses for the solar water splitting. Tantalum-based semiconductors, including tantalum oxide, tantalate and tantalum (oxy)nitride, are among the most important photocatalysts. Tantalum oxide has the band gap energy that is suitable for the overall solar water splitting. The more negative conduction band minimum of tantalum oxide provides photogenerated electrons with higher potential for the hydrogen generation reaction. Tantalates, with tunable compositions, show high activities owning to their layered perovskite structure. (Oxy)nitrides, especially TaON and Ta3N5, have small band gaps to respond to visible-light, whereas they can still realize overall solar water splitting with the proper positions of conduction band minimum and valence band maximum. This review describes recent progress regarding the improvement of photocatalytic activities of tantalum-based semiconductors. Basic concepts and principles of solar water splitting will be discussed in the introduction section, followed by the three main categories regarding to the different types of tantalum-based semiconductors. In each category, synthetic methodologies, influencing factors on the photocatalytic activities, strategies to enhance the efficiencies of photocatalysts and morphology control of tantalum-based materials will be discussed in detail. Future directions to further explore the research area of tantalum-based semiconductors for solar water splitting

  2. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  3. Genetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the basic principles of genetics, including the classification of genetic disorders and a consideration of the rules and mechanisms of inheritance. The most common pitfalls in clinical genetic diagnosis are described, with emphasis on the problem of the negative or misleading family history.

  4. Cosmological principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-10-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)

  5. Visualization of a stock market correlation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Alethea; Rea, William

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Neighbor-Net, a clustering algorithm developed for constructing a phylogenetic network in the field of evolutionary biology, to visualizing a correlation matrix. We apply Neighbor-Net as implemented in the SplitsTree software package to 48 stocks listed on the New Zealand Stock Exchange. We show that by visualizing the correlation matrix using a Neighbor-Net splits graph and its associated circular ordering of the stocks that some of the problems associated with understanding the large number of correlations between the individual stocks can be overcome. We compare the visualization of Neighbor-Net with that provided by hierarchical clustering trees and minimum spanning trees. The use of Neighbor-Net networks, or splits graphs, yields greater insight into how closely individual stocks are related to each other in terms of their correlations and suggests new avenues of research into how to construct small diversified stock portfolios.

  6. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid, Spain and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain); Buljan, Marina [Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  7. Compressed data separation via dual frames based split-analysis with Weibull matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yun; LI Song

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider data separation problem, where the original signal is composed of two distinct subcomponents, via dual frames based Split-analysis approach. We show that the two distinct subcomponents, which are sparse in two diff erent general frames respectively, can be exactly recovered with high probability, when the measurement matrix is a Weibull random matrix (not Gaussian) and the two frames satisfy a mutual coherence property. Our result may be significant for analysing Split-analysis model for data separation.

  8. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  9. Dirac and Maxwell equations in Split Octonions

    CERN Document Server

    Beradze, Revaz

    2016-01-01

    The split octonionic form of Dirac and Maxwell equations are found. In contrast with the previous attempts these equations are derived from the octonionic analyticity condition and also we use different basis of the 8-dimensional space of split octonions.

  10. Splitting parameter yield (SPY): A program for semiautomatic analysis of shear-wave splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccarelli, Lucia; Bianco, Francesca; Zaccarelli, Riccardo

    2012-03-01

    SPY is a Matlab algorithm that analyzes seismic waveforms in a semiautomatic way, providing estimates of the two observables of the anisotropy: the shear-wave splitting parameters. We chose to exploit those computational processes that require less intervention by the user, gaining objectivity and reliability as a result. The algorithm joins the covariance matrix and the cross-correlation techniques, and all the computation steps are interspersed by several automatic checks intended to verify the reliability of the yields. The resulting semiautomation generates two new advantages in the field of anisotropy studies: handling a huge amount of data at the same time, and comparing different yields. From this perspective, SPY has been developed in the Matlab environment, which is widespread, versatile, and user-friendly. Our intention is to provide the scientific community with a new monitoring tool for tracking the temporal variations of the crustal stress field.

  11. Split Left GC-Lpp Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Zhen LI; Xiao Jiang GUO; Zhi Qing FU

    2012-01-01

    A left GC-lpp semigroup S is called split if the natural homomorphism γb of S onto S/γ induced by γ is split.It is proved that a left GC-lpp semigroup is split if and only if it has a left adequate transversal.In particular,a construction theorem for split left GC-lpp semigroups is established.

  12. Effect of enamel matrix proteins on the treatment of intrabony defects: a split-mouth randomized controlled trial study O efeito da proteína da matriz do esmalte no tratamento de defeitos infra-ósseos: um estudo clínico controlado randomizado boca-dividida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chambrone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this split-mouth, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was to compare the clinical effect of treatment of 2- or 3-wall intrabony defects with open flap debridement (OFD combined or not with enamel matrix proteins (EMP. Thirteen volunteers were selected with one pair of or more intrabony defects and probing pocket depth (PPD > 5 mm. All individuals received instructions regarding oral hygiene and were submitted to scaling and root planing. Each participant received the two treatment modalities: test sites were treated with OFD and EMP, and control sites received only OFD. After 6 months, a significant reduction was observed in PPD for the EMP group (from 6.42 ± 1.08 mm to 2.67 ± 1.15 mm and for the OFD group (from 6.08 ± 1.00 mm to 2.00 ± 0.95 mm (p O objetivo deste estudo clínico controlado, randomizado, duplo-cego, tipo boca-dividida foi comparar o efeito clínico do tratamento de defeitos infra-ósseos de 2 ou 3 paredes com retalho de espessura total (RET associado ou não com a proteína da matriz do esmalte (PME. Treze voluntários com 1 par ou mais de defeitos infra-ósseos foram selecionados com profundidade clínica de sondagem (PCS > 5 mm. Todos receberam instruções de higiene bucal, raspagem e alisamento radicular. Cada participante recebeu os dois tipos de tratamento: o lado teste foi tratado com RET e PME, e o lado controle recebeu somente RET. Após 6 meses, foi observada uma redução significante na PCS para o grupo PME (de 6,42 ± 1,08 mm para 2,67 ± 1,15 mm e para o grupo RET (de 6,08 ± 1,00 mm para 2,00 ± 0,95 mm (p < 0,0001, mas não houve diferença significante entre os grupos (p = 0,13. Um ganho significante de nível clínico de inserção relativo (NCIR foi observado em ambos os grupos (PME: de 13,42 ± 1,88 mm para 10,75 ± 2,26 mm, p < 0,001; RET: de 12,42 ± 1,98 mm para 10,58 ± 2,23 mm, p = 0,013, mas não houve diferença significante entre os grupos (p = 0,85. A retração gengival

  13. 7 CFR 51.2002 - Split shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Split shell. 51.2002 Section 51.2002 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Filberts in the Shell 1 Definitions § 51.2002 Split shell. Split shell means a shell... of the shell, measured in the direction of the crack....

  14. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  15. Split NMSSM with electroweak baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Demidov, S V; Kirpichnikov, D V

    2016-01-01

    In light of the Higgs boson discovery we reconsider generation of the baryon asymmetry in the non-minimal split Supersymmetry model with an additional singlet superfield in the Higgs sector. We find that successful baryogenesis during the first order electroweak phase transition is possible within phenomenologically viable part of the model parameter space. We discuss several phenomenological consequences of this scenario, namely, predictions for the electric dipole moments of electron and neutron and collider signatures of light charginos and neutralinos.

  16. The Split Variational Inequality Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Censor, Yair; Reich, Simeon

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new variational problem which we call the Split Variational Inequality Problem (SVIP). It entails finding a solution of one Variational Inequality Problem (VIP), the image of which under a given bounded linear transformation is a solution of another VIP. We construct iterative algorithms that solve such problems, under reasonable conditions, in Hilbert space and then discuss special cases, some of which are new even in Euclidean space.

  17. Torsional Split Hopkinson Bar Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    pillow blocks used to mount the incident and transmitter bars are cast iron based- mounted Babbitt -lined bearing split, for 1 in. shaft diameter...Total 1 McMaster-CARR 5911k16 1" Dia, 6" long anodized aluminum shaft $15.38 8 $123.04 2 McMaster-CARR 6359k37 Cast iron base-mounted babbitt

  18. Geometrical Applications of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that physical signals and space-time intervals modeled on split-octonion geometry naturally exhibit properties from conventional (3 + 1-theory (e.g., number of dimensions, existence of maximal velocities, Heisenberg uncertainty, and particle generations. This paper demonstrates these properties using an explicit representation of the automorphisms on split-octonions, the noncompact form of the exceptional Lie group G2. This group generates specific rotations of (3 + 4-vector parts of split octonions with three extra time-like coordinates and in infinitesimal limit imitates standard Poincare transformations. In this picture translations are represented by noncompact Lorentz-type rotations towards the extra time-like coordinates. It is shown how the G2 algebra’s chirality yields an intrinsic left-right asymmetry of a certain 3-vector (spin, as well as a parity violating effect on light emitted by a moving quantum system. Elementary particles are connected with the special elements of the algebra which nullify octonionic intervals. Then the zero-norm conditions lead to free particle Lagrangians, which allow virtual trajectories also and exhibit the appearance of spatial horizons governing by mass parameters.

  19. Testing split supersymmetry with inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Green, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Split supersymmetry (SUSY) — in which SUSY is relevant to our universe but largely inaccessible at current accelerators — has become increasingly plausible given the absence of new physics at the LHC, the success of gauge coupling unification, and the observed Higgs mass. Indirect probes of split SUSY such as electric dipole moments (EDMs) and flavor violation offer hope for further evidence but are ultimately limited in their reach. Inflation offers an alternate window into SUSY through the direct production of superpartners during inflation. These particles are capable of leaving imprints in future cosmological probes of primordial non-gaussianity. Given the recent observations of BICEP2, the scale of inflation is likely high enough to probe the full range of split SUSY scenarios and therefore offers a unique advantage over low energy probes. The key observable for future experiments is equilateral non-gaussianity, which will be probed by both cosmic microwave background (CMB) and large scale structure (LSS) surveys. In the event of a detection, we forecast our ability to find evidence for superpartners through the scaling behavior in the squeezed limit of the bispectrum.

  20. Alternating tip splitting in directional solidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, B; Ragnarsson, R; Bodenschatz, E

    2001-05-14

    We report experimental results on the tip splitting dynamics of seaweed growth in directional solidification of succinonitrile alloys. Despite the random appearance of the growth, a tip splitting morphology was observed in which the tip alternately splits to the left and to the right. The tip splitting frequency f was found to be related to the growth velocity V as a power law f~V1.5. This finding is consistent with the predictions of a tip splitting model that is also presented. Small anisotropies are shown to lead to different kinds of seaweed morphologies.

  1. Matrix Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Nguyen, Kévin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  2. CBM split title in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Laurin, W.

    2006-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) coal underlies most of central and southern Alberta. This article discussed disputes surrounding CBM ownership and split-titles. Historically, ownership of lands in Alberta implied possession and rights of all under- and overground substances. Surface estates are now typically separated from the subsurface estate, and subsurface estates are further divided either on the basis of substances or stratigraphically to create a split-title. Mineral severances are used to separate respective mineral rights among owners. While there is a relative certainty that under provincial Crown tenure CBM is included in natural gas tenure, there is currently no Canadian jurisprudence in respect of CBM entitlement on split-title private lands. Where compressed natural gas (CNG) and coal are separately held, and CBM ownership is not specifically addressed in the mineral severance, there is no Canadian law respecting CBM ownership. Resolution of ownership issues has proceeded on a case by case basis. Coal owners argue that there is a distinct interrelationship between CBM and its host coal strata. Gas owners argue that the chemical composition of CBM is identical to CNG, and that the recovery method is similar to that of CNG. Courts have historically applied the vernacular test to resolve mineral substance ownership disputes, which considers the meanings of the word coal and coalbed methane as defined by industry. The most recent and relevant application of the vernacular test were the Borys/Anderson, which effectively implemented a gas-oil interface ownership determination, which if applied to a coal grant or reservation, may lead to the conclusion that the coal strata includes CBM. It was concluded that there are 26,000 individual mineral owners in Alberta that may become involved in CBM litigation. and could become parties to litigation. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Generalized Forward-Backward Splitting

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper introduces a generalized forward-backward splitting algorithm for finding a zero of a sum of maximal monotone operators $B + \\sum_{i=1}^{n} A_i$, where $B$ is cocoercive. It involves the computation of $B$ in an explicit (forward) step and of the parallel computation of the resolvents of the $A_i$'s in a subsequent implicit (backward) step. We prove its convergence in infinite dimension, and robustness to summable errors on the computed operators in the expl...

  4. ZrO2 nanoparticles' effects on split tensile strength of self compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, split tensile strength of self compacting concrete with different amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles has been investigated. ZrO2 nanoparticles with the average particle size of 15 nm were added partially to cement paste (Portland cement together with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and split tensile strength of the specimens has been measured. The results indicate that ZrO2 nanoparticles are able to improve split tensile strength of concrete and recover the negative effects of polycarboxylate superplasticizer. ZrO2 nanoparticle as a partial replacement of cement up to 4 wt. (% could accelerate C-S-H gel formation as a result of increased crystalline Ca(OH2 amount at the early age of hydration. The increased the ZrO2 nanoparticles' content more than 4 wt. (%, causes the reduced the split tensile strength because of unsuitable dispersion of nanoparticles in the concrete matrix.

  5. Gamescape Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framewo...... as to understand how learners posses or can develop broader critical media literacies and visual digital literacies in education.......This paper proposes a new theoretical framework or visual grammar for analysing visual aspects of digital 3D games, and for understanding more deeply the notion of Visual Digital Game Literacy. The framework focuses on the development of a visual grammar by drawing on the digital literacy framework...... and interviews) collected during a game workshop where students, studying to become game designers, developed a number of games. The visual digital literacy framework we propose consists of five main major components: Gamescape Principles, Interpretation, Style, Experiences and Practices. For the purpose...

  6. Spin-splitting calculation for zincblende semiconductors using an atomic bond-orbital model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsiu-Fen; Lo, Ikai; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Chen, Chun-Nan; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Ren, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Meng-En; Wu, Chieh-Lung; Gau, Ming-Hong

    2012-10-17

    We develop a 16-band atomic bond-orbital model (16ABOM) to compute the spin splitting induced by bulk inversion asymmetry in zincblende materials. This model is derived from the linear combination of atomic-orbital (LCAO) scheme such that the characteristics of the real atomic orbitals can be preserved to calculate the spin splitting. The Hamiltonian of 16ABOM is based on a similarity transformation performed on the nearest-neighbor LCAO Hamiltonian with a second-order Taylor expansion k at the Γ point. The spin-splitting energies in bulk zincblende semiconductors, GaAs and InSb, are calculated, and the results agree with the LCAO and first-principles calculations. However, we find that the spin-orbit coupling between bonding and antibonding p-like states, evaluated by the 16ABOM, dominates the spin splitting of the lowest conduction bands in the zincblende materials.

  7. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency rang...

  8. Student paper competition: Splitting the determinants of upper Hessenberg matrices and the Hyman method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiulin [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this article, an iterative algorithm is established that splits the evaluation of determinant of an upper Hessenberg matrix into two independent parts so that the evaluation can be done in parallel. This algorithm has application in parallel non-symmetric eigenvalue problems.

  9. The 30-band k ṡ p theory of valley splitting in silicon thin layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukarić, Nemanja A.; Partoens, Bart; Tadić, Milan Ž.; Arsoski, Vladimir V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-05-01

    The valley splitting of the conduction-band states in a thin silicon-on-insulator layer is investigated using the 30-band k ṡ p theory. The system composed of a few nm thick \\text{Si} layer embedded within thick SiO2 layers is analyzed. The valley split states are found to cross periodically with increasing quantum well width, and therefore the energy splitting is an oscillatory function of the quantum well width, with period determined by the wave vector K 0 of the conduction band minimum. Because the valley split states are classified by parity, the optical transition between the ground hole state and one of those valley split conduction band states is forbidden. The oscillations in the valley splitting energy decrease with electric field and with smoothing of the composition profile between the well and the barrier by diffusion of oxygen from the SiO2 layers to the Si quantum well. Such a smoothing also leads to a decrease of the interband transition matrix elements. The obtained results are well parametrized by the effective two-valley model, but are found to disagree from previous 30-band calculations. This discrepancy could be traced back to the fact that the basis for the numerical solution of the eigenproblem must be restricted to the first Brillouin zone in order to obtain quantitatively correct results for the valley splitting.

  10. Rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits under different excitations at microwave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zahertar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, transmission characteristics of rectangular split-ring resonators with single-split and two-splits are analyzed at microwave frequencies. The resonators are coupled with monopole antennas for excitation. The scattering parameters of the devices are investigated under different polarizations of E and H fields. The magnetic resonances induced by E and H fields are identified and the differences in the behavior of the resonators due to orientations of the fields are explained based on simulation and experimental results. The addition of the second split of the device is investigated considering different configurations of the excitation vectors. It is demonstrated that the single-split and the two-splits resonators exhibit identical transmission characteristics for a certain excitation configuration as verified with simulations and experiments. The presented resonators can effectively function as frequency selective media for varying excitation conditions.

  11. Generalized Forward-Backward Splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Raguet, Hugo; Peyré, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the generalized forward-backward splitting algorithm for minimizing convex functions of the form $F + \\sum_{i=1}^n G_i$, where $F$ has a Lipschitz-continuous gradient and the $G_i$'s are simple in the sense that their Moreau proximity operators are easy to compute. While the forward-backward algorithm cannot deal with more than $n = 1$ non-smooth function, our method generalizes it to the case of arbitrary $n$. Our method makes an explicit use of the regularity of $F$ in the forward step, and the proximity operators of the $G_i$'s are applied in parallel in the backward step. This allows the generalized forward backward to efficiently address an important class of convex problems. We prove its convergence in infinite dimension, and its robustness to errors on the computation of the proximity operators and of the gradient of $F$. Examples on inverse problems in imaging demonstrate the advantage of the proposed methods in comparison to other splitting algorithms.

  12. THE SPLITTING OF COMET HALLEY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Daohan; Liu Linzhong; Alan Gilmore

    2000-01-01

    In combination with the authors previous obsewation about the splitting of Comet Halley in March 1986, the events involving the sharp, straight feature in the antisolar direction observed in the head of Comet Halley in 1910 (such as those occurring on May 14, 25 and 31, and June 2) are rediscussed The analysis leads to the following scenario: When Comet Halley explodes and splits, a fragment jettisoned or thrown off from the nucleus will, after moving in the direction of its tail, develop into a mini-comet. Although not well developed or permanent, it has its own plasma tail and, sometimes, a dust tail. If Bobrovnikoffs definition of a secondary nucleus is assumed, then the fragment should be considered as a real secondary nucleus. It seems that the current idea of a tailward jet suggested by Sekanina and Larson is a wrong explanation for the plasma tail of a mini-comet and hence the rotation period of 52-53h for Comet Halley is doubtful

  13. The splitting of Comet Halley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道汉; 刘麟仲; Alan Gilmore

    1995-01-01

    In combination with the authors’ previous observation about the splitting of Comet Halley in March 1986, the events involving the sharp, straight feature in the antisolar direction observed in the bead of Comet Halley in 1910 (such as those occurring on May 14, 25 and 31, and June 2) are rediscussed. The analysis leads to the following scenario: When Comet Halley explodes and splits, a fragment jettisoned or thrown off from the nucleus will, after moving in the direction of its tail, develop into a mini-comet. Although not well developed or permanent, it has its own plasma tail and, sometimes, a dust tail. If Bobrovnikoff’s definition of a secondary nucleus is assumed, then the fragment should be considered as a real secondary nucleus. It seems that the current idea of a tailward jet suggested by Sekanina and Larson is a wrong explanation for the plasma tail of a mini-comet and hence the rotation period of 52- 53 h for Comet Halley is doubtful.

  14. The discrete maximum principle for finite element approximations of anisotropic diffusion problems on arbitrary meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svyatskiy, Daniil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shashkov, Mikhail [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuzmin, D [DORTMUND UNIV

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the design of constrained finite element approximations to second-order elliptic problems is introduced. This approach guarantees that the finite element solution satisfies the discrete maximum principle (DMP). To enforce these monotonicity constrains the sufficient conditions for elements of the stiffness matrix are formulated. An algebraic splitting of the stiffness matrix is employed to separate the contributions of diffusive and antidiffusive numerical fluxes, respectively. In order to prevent the formation of spurious undershoots and overshoots, a symmetric slope limiter is designed for the antidiffusive part. The corresponding upper and lower bounds are defined using an estimate of the steepest gradient in terms of the maximum and minimum solution values at surrounding nodes. The recovery of nodal gradients is performed by means of a lumped-mass L{sub 2} projection. The proposed slope limiting strategy preserves the consistency of the underlying discrete problem and the structure of the stiffness matrix (symmetry, zero row and column sums). A positivity-preserving defect correction scheme is devised for the nonlinear algebraic system to be solved. Numerical results and a grid convergence study are presented for a number of anisotropic diffusion problems in two space dimensions.

  15. Telugu Bigram Splitting using Consonant-based and Phrase-based Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kameswara Rao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Splitting is a conventional process in most of Indian languages according to their grammar rules. It is called ‘pada vicchEdanam’ (a Sanskrit term for word splitting and is widely used by most of the Indian languages. Splitting plays a key role in Machine Translation (MT particularly when the source language (SL is an Indian language. Though this splitting may not succeed completely in extracting the root words of which the compound is formed, but it shows considerable impact in Natural Language Processing (NLP as an important phase. Though there are many types of splitting, this paper considers only consonant based and phrase based splitting.

  16. Splitting the BLOSUM Score into Numbers of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical tools developed in the context of Shannon information theory were used to analyze the meaning of the BLOSUM score, which was split into three components termed as the BLOSUM spectrum (or BLOSpectrum. These relate respectively to the sequence convergence (the stochastic similarity of the two protein sequences, to the background frequency divergence (typicality of the amino acid probability distribution in each sequence, and to the target frequency divergence (compliance of the amino acid variations between the two sequences to the protein model implicit in the BLOCKS database. This treatment sharpens the protein sequence comparison, providing a rationale for the biological significance of the obtained score, and helps to identify weakly related sequences. Moreover, the BLOSpectrum can guide the choice of the most appropriate scoring matrix, tailoring it to the evolutionary divergence associated with the two sequences, or indicate if a compositionally adjusted matrix could perform better.

  17. Split Bregman method for large scale fused Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Gui-Bo

    2010-01-01

    rdering of regression or classification coefficients occurs in many real-world applications. Fused Lasso exploits this ordering by explicitly regularizing the differences between neighboring coefficients through an $\\ell_1$ norm regularizer. However, due to nonseparability and nonsmoothness of the regularization term, solving the fused Lasso problem is computationally demanding. Existing solvers can only deal with problems of small or medium size, or a special case of the fused Lasso problem in which the predictor matrix is identity matrix. In this paper, we propose an iterative algorithm based on split Bregman method to solve a class of large-scale fused Lasso problems, including a generalized fused Lasso and a fused Lasso support vector classifier. We derive our algorithm using augmented Lagrangian method and prove its convergence properties. The performance of our method is tested on both artificial data and real-world applications including proteomic data from mass spectrometry and genomic data from array...

  18. Silicon and tungsten oxide nanostructures for water splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Gil, Karla R.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2009-08-01

    Inorganic semiconductors are promising materials for driving photoelectrochemical water-splitting reactions. However, there is not a single semiconductor material that can sustain the unassisted splitting of water into H2 and O2. Instead, we are developing a three part cell design where individual catalysts for water reduction and oxidation will be attached to the ends of a membrane. The job of splitting water is therefore divided into separate reduction and oxidation reactions, and each catalyst can be optimized independently for a single reaction. Silicon might be suitable to drive the water reduction. Inexpensive highly ordered Si wire arrays were grown on a single crystal wafer and transferred into a transparent, flexible polymer matrix. In this array, light would be absorbed along the longer axial dimension while the resulting electrons or holes would be collected along the much shorter radial dimension in a massively parallel array resembling carpet fibers on a microscale, hence the term "solar carpet". Tungsten oxide is a good candidate to drive the water oxidation. Self-organized porous tungsten oxide was successfully synthesized on the tungsten foil by anodization. This sponge-like structure absorbs light efficiently due to its high surface area; hence we called it "solar sponge".

  19. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  20. Salt splitting with ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop ceramic membrane technologies for salt splitting of radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions. This technology has the potential to reduce the low-level waste (LLW) disposal volume, the pH and sodium hydroxide content for subsequent processing steps, the sodium content of interstitial liquid in high-level waste (HLW) sludges, and provide sodium hydroxide free of aluminum for recycle within processing plants at the DOE complex. Potential deployment sites include Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The technical approach consists of electrochemical separation of sodium ions from the salt solution using sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON). As the name implies, sodium ions are transported rapidly through these ceramic crystals even at room temperatures.

  1. Signature splitting in 129Ce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; WU Xiao-Guang; ZHU Li-Hua; LI Guang-Sheng; HE Chuang-Ye; LI Xue-Qin; PAN Bo; HAO Xin; LI Li-Hua; WANG Zhi-Min; LI Zhong-Yu; XU Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The high spin states of 129Ce have been populated via heavy-ion fusion evaporation reaction 96Mo (37C1, 1p3n) 129Ce. The γ-γ coincidence and intensity balance used to measure the B(M1; I→I-1)/B(E2; I→I-2) (the probability ratio of the dipole and quadrupole transition) in v7/2[523] rotational band of 129Ce. And the energy splitting (Δe') has been got through the experimental Routhians. The lifetimes and quadrupole moments Qt have been extracted from the lineshape analyses using DSAM. The deformation of the v7/2[523] rotational band of 129Ce was extracted from the Qt and moment of inertia JRR.

  2. Method for carbon dioxide splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, James E.; Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Siegel, Nathan P.

    2017-02-28

    A method for splitting carbon dioxide via a two-step metal oxide thermochemical cycle by heating a metal oxide compound selected from an iron oxide material of the general formula A.sub.xFe.sub.3-xO.sub.4, where 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1 and A is a metal selected from Mg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, and Mn, or a ceria oxide compound of the general formula M.sub.aCe.sub.bO.sub.c, where 0

  3. Salt splitting using ceramic membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurath, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Many radioactive aqueous wastes in the DOE complex have high concentrations of sodium that can negatively affect waste treatment and disposal operations. Sodium can decrease the durability of waste forms such as glass and is the primary contributor to large disposal volumes. Waste treatment processes such as cesium ion exchange, sludge washing, and calcination are made less efficient and more expensive because of the high sodium concentrations. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Ceramatec Inc. (Salt Lake City UT) are developing an electrochemical salt splitting process based on inorganic ceramic sodium (Na), super-ionic conductor (NaSICON) membranes that shows promise for mitigating the impact of sodium. In this process, the waste is added to the anode compartment, and an electrical potential is applied to the cell. This drives sodium ions through the membrane, but the membrane rejects most other cations (e.g., Sr{sup +2}, Cs{sup +}). The charge balance in the anode compartment is maintained by generating H{sup +} from the electrolysis of water. The charge balance in the cathode is maintained by generating OH{sup {minus}}, either from the electrolysis of water or from oxygen and water using an oxygen cathode. The normal gaseous products of the electrolysis of water are oxygen at the anode and hydrogen at the cathode. Potentially flammable gas mixtures can be prevented by providing adequate volumes of a sweep gas, using an alternative reductant or destruction of the hydrogen as it is generated. As H{sup +} is generated in the anode compartment, the pH drops. The process may be operated with either an alkaline (pH>12) or an acidic anolyte (pH <1). The benefits of salt splitting using ceramic membranes are (1) waste volume reduction and reduced chemical procurement costs by recycling of NaOH; and (2) direct reduction of sodium in process streams, which enhances subsequent operations such as cesium ion exchange, calcination, and vitrification.

  4. Visible light water splitting using dye-sensitized oxide semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, W Justin; Lee, Seung-Hyun Anna; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2009-12-21

    electron donors (EDTA(2-)) or non-sacrificial donors (I(-)). Through exfoliation of layered metal oxide semiconductors, we construct multilayer electron donor-acceptor thin films or sensitized colloids in which individual nanosheets mediate light-driven electron transfer reactions. When sensitizer molecules are "wired" to IrO(2).nH(2)O nanoparticles, a dye-sensitized TiO(2) electrode becomes the photoanode of a water-splitting photoelectrochemical cell. Although this system is an interesting proof-of-concept, the performance of these cells is still poor (approximately 1% quantum yield) and the dye photodegrades rapidly. We can understand the quantum efficiency and degradation in terms of competing kinetic pathways for water oxidation, back electron transfer, and decomposition of the oxidized dye molecules. Laser flash photolysis experiments allow us to measure these competing rates and, in principle, to improve the performance of the cell by changing the architecture of the electron transfer chain.

  5. Follow-up review on the long-term effect of composite transplantation of allogeneic acellular dermal matrix and split thickness skin autograft%异体脱细胞真皮基质加自体刃厚皮复合移植远期随访评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘云川; 徐家钦; 袁素; 梁尊鸿; 陈思环; 陈茹妹; 林思燕

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价异体ADM+自体刃厚皮复合移植的临床远期效果.方法 选择2001年3月-2008年10月,笔者单位收治的19例行异体ADM+自体刃厚皮复合移植患者为复合移植组(34个创面),同期9例行自体刃厚皮移植患者为对照组(11个创面).患者术后均随访2年以上.随访时,在曼彻斯特瘢痕量表的基础上设计随访对象评估表,评估移植皮肤的颜色、平整度、质地、挛缩、感觉、并发症情况,分值1~4分,得分越高、情况越差;采用温哥华瘢痕量表评估供皮区瘢痕形成情况;发放问卷调查患者满意度、移植期内健康记录;组织病理学方法观察其中4例患者皮肤组织结构.采用中立位法描述术前、术后及随访时患者关节活动范围.对数据进行非参数秩和检验、t检验或x2检验.结果 (1)复合移植组皮肤平整度、挛缩、质地评分分别为(1.6±0.5)、(1.8±0.8)、(1.5±0.8)分,显著低于对照组的(2.0±0.7)、(2.2±0.9)、(2.3±0.7)分(Z值分别为-2.058、-2.220、-2.323,P值均小于0.05);2组皮肤颜色、感觉、并发症评分结果相近(Z值分别为-0.628、-0.428、-2.520,P值均大于0.05).(2)复合移植组仅1个供皮区部分区域有轻度瘢痕.(3)复合移植组和对照组患者在疼痛、瘙痒和满意度方面比较,差异均无统计学意义(x2值分别为0.187、0.019、2.628,P值均大于0.05).(4)病理结果显示,手部复合移植后2年可见神经纤维结构,ADM在受体内未引起强烈的炎症反应.(5)复合移植组11处关节部位功能得到恢复或改善,另2处需再次手术.对照组2处关节部位均明显挛缩.结论 异体ADM+自体刃厚皮复合移植在防止瘢痕挛缩,改善功能及外观方面效果明显,长期存留于成人和儿童患者体内均未出现安全问题.%Objective To review the long-term clinical effect of composite transplantation of allogeneic acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and split thickness skin autograft (STSG). Methods

  6. Matrix Determination of Reflectance of Hidden Object via Indirect Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    resolution elements by method ............26 2. with laser spots 7.5” from C...because of the matrix nature of this research, a large amount of linear algebra is required, particularly relating to matrix inversion. For this...The principles used in developing a transport matrix will receive a fuller treatment here, however, as these were applied in the current research as

  7. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogberashvili M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors. It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  8. Standard Model Particles from Split Octonions

    CERN Document Server

    Gogberashvili, Merab

    2016-01-01

    We model physical signals using elements of the algebra of split octonions over the field of real numbers. Elementary particles are corresponded to the special elements of the algebra that nullify octonionic norms (zero divisors). It is shown that the standard model particle spectrum naturally follows from the classification of the independent primitive zero divisors of split octonions.

  9. Distinguishing division algebras by finite splitting fields

    CERN Document Server

    Krashen, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of determining the number of division algebras which share the same collection of finite splitting fields. As a corollary we are able to determine when two central division algebras may be distinguished by their finite splitting fields over certain fields.

  10. Transferring Goods or Splitting a Resource Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jacob; Van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the consequences for exchange outcomes of the violation of an assumption underlying most social psychological research on exchange. This assumption is that the negotiated direct exchange of commodities between two actors (pure exchange) can be validly represented as two actors splitting a fixed pool of resources (split pool…

  11. 2-Photon tandem device for water splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Brian; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard;

    2014-01-01

    Within the field Of photocatalytic water splitting there are several strategies to achieve the goal of efficient and cheap photocatalytic water splitting. This work examines one particular strategy by focusing on monolithically stacked, two-photon photoelectrochemical cells. The overall aim of th...

  12. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  13. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  14. Cheating More when the Spoils Are Split

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S.

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrated that people are more likely to cheat when the benefits of doing so are split with another person, even an anonymous stranger, than when the actor alone captures all of the benefits. In three of the studies, splitting the benefits of over-reporting one's performance on a task made such over-reporting seem less…

  15. Anisotropic Spin Splitting in Step Quantum Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ya-Fei; CHEN Yong-Hai; HAO Guo-Dong; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2009-01-01

    By the method of finite difference,the anisotropic spin splitting of the Alx Ga1-x As/GaAs/Aly Ga1-y As/Alx Ga1-x As step quantum wells (QWs) are theoretically investigated considering the interplay of the bulk inversion asymmetry and structure inversion asymmetry induced by step quantum well structure and external electric field.We demonstrate that the anisotropy of the total spin splitting can be controlled by the shape of the QWs and the external electric field.The interface related Rashba effect plays an important effect on the anisotropic spin splitting by influencing the magnitude of the spin splitting and the direction of electron spin.The Rashba spin splitting presents in the step quantum wells due to the interface related Rashba effect even without external electric field or magnetic field.

  16. Crushing or splitting medications: unrecognized hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Donna; Spain, Margaret; Edlund, Barbara J

    2012-01-01

    Given the high use and the cost of medications in the current economy, one way older adults may save money on prescription costs is to split some of their medications in half. However, not all oral medications can be split. Splitting inappropriate medications such as extended-release tablets can be harmful and in some instances very dangerous. In addition to splitting medications, older adults who have difficulty swallowing pills may resort to crushing the medication for ease of administration. This option is also problematic and potentially harmful if the medication is not intended to be crushed. Clinicians managing the care of older adults need to discuss medication administration, clarify the dosing schedule, and clearly indicate the route of administration. Patients should be cautioned not to split or crush a medication without checking with the health care provider or pharmacist.

  17. Light splitting with imperfect wave plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom S; Archibald, James L; Durfee, Dallin S

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the use of wave plates with arbitrary retardances, in conjunction with a linear polarizer, to split linearly polarized light into two linearly polarized beams with an arbitrary splitting fraction. We show that for non-ideal wave plates, a much broader range of splitting ratios is typically possible when a pair of wave plates, rather than a single wave plate, is used. We discuss the maximum range of splitting fractions possible with one or two wave plates as a function of the wave plate retardances, and how to align the wave plates to achieve the maximum splitting range possible when simply rotating one of the wave plates while keeping the other one fixed. We also briefly discuss an alignment-free polarization rotator constructed from a pair of half-wave plates.

  18. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  19. A calculation of the three-loop helicity-dependent splitting functions in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, A; Vermaseren, J A M

    2014-01-01

    We have calculated the complete matrix of three-loop helicity-difference (`polarized') splitting functions Delta P_ik^(2), i,k = q,g, in massless perturbative QCD. In this note we briefly discuss some properties of the polarized splitting functions and our non-standard determination of the hitherto missing lower-row quantities Delta P_gq^(2) and Delta P_gg^(2). The resulting next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) corrections to the evolution of polarized parton distributions are illustrated and found to be small even at rather large values of the strong coupling constant alpha_s.

  20. Maverick Comet Splits during Dramatic Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    magnitude 13, quite normal for this comet at the given heliocentric distance. This corresponds to about 700 times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. However, on September 8-12, Jacques Crovisier and his colleagues from the Paris Observatory (Meudon) used the large Nancay radiotelescope to determine the amount of hydroxyle molecules (OH) around SW-3. To their great surprise, they found that it was much larger than predicted. Their careful measurements showed beyond any doubt that SW-3 was emitting enormous amounts of water (H2O), the ``parent'' molecule from which OH is produced by dissociation. Subsequent visual observations by amateur astronomers all over the world confirmed that a dramatic outburst was in progress; on September 17, the comet was recorded at magnitude 8, or 100 times brighter than expected. The overall intensity kept increasing until mid-October, when the magnitude was brighter than 6, or nearly 1000 times brighter than expected, and the comet was in principle visible to the naked eye from dark sites. Only a few comets have ever experienced such an enormous, unexpected increase in brightness. At that time, SW-3 had just passed its perihelion and was ``crossing'' the Earth's orbit on its way out. The distance to the Earth was close to 200 million kilometres. The Observations at ESO It was therefore with particular expectations that the two astronomers went to their respectively ESO telescopes on December 12-14, 1995, to observe SW-3. Although the comet at this time had become about 5 times fainter than when it was brightest, they still hoped that their observations would be able to cast some light on its very peculiar behaviour. And indeed, thanks to the very good image quality, both the EMMI and TIMMI instruments immediately and for the first time showed that the nucleus of SW-3 had split. On the CCD images from EMMI, three distinct light condensations were visible, well aligned with the two outermost at an angular distance of 4

  1. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  2. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review of fracture patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; Becking, A G

    2016-07-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the mandibular sagittal split osteotomy is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Few restorative techniques to manage the situation have been described. In this article, a classification of reported bad split pattern types is proposed and appropriate salvage procedures to manage the different types of undesired fracture are presented. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 33 studies published between 1971 and 2015. These reported a total of 458 cases of bad splits among 19,527 sagittal ramus osteotomies in 10,271 patients. The total reported incidence of bad split was 2.3% of sagittal splits. The most frequently encountered were buccal plate fractures of the proximal segment (types 1A-F) and lingual fractures of the distal segment (types 2A and 2B). Coronoid fractures (type 3) and condylar neck fractures (type 4) have seldom been reported. The various types of bad split may require different salvage approaches.

  3. Segmented holographic spectrum splitting concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Silvana P.; Vorndran, Shelby; Wu, Yuechen; Chrysler, Benjamin; Kostuk, Raymond K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a segmented parabolic concentrator employing holographic spectral filters that provide focusing and spectral bandwidth separation capability to the system. Strips of low band gap silicon photovoltaic (PV) cells are formed into a parabolic surface as shown by Holman et. al. [1]. The surface of the PV segments is covered with holographic elements formed in dichromated gelatin. The holographic elements are designed to transmit longer wavelengths to silicon cells, and to reflect short wavelength light towards a secondary collector where high-bandgap PV cells are mounted. The system can be optimized for different combinations of diffuse and direct solar illumination conditions for particular geographical locations by controlling the concentration ratio and filtering properties of the holographic elements. In addition, the reflectivity of the back contact of the silicon cells is used to increase the optical path length and light trapping. This potentially allows the use of thin film silicon for the low bandgap PV cell material. The optical design combines the focusing properties of the parabolic concentrator and the holographic element to control the concentration ratio and uniformity of the spectral distribution at the high bandgap cell location. The presentation concludes with a comparison of different spectrum splitting holographic filter materials for this application.

  4. Innovative solar thermochemical water splitting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Siegel, Nathan P.; Evans, Lindsey R.; Moss, Timothy A.; Stuecker, John Nicholas (Robocasting Enterprises, Albuquerque, NM); Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); James, Darryl L. (Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX)

    2008-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating the potential of an innovative approach for splitting water into hydrogen and oxygen using two-step thermochemical cycles. Thermochemical cycles are heat engines that utilize high-temperature heat to produce chemical work. Like their mechanical work-producing counterparts, their efficiency depends on operating temperature and on the irreversibility of their internal processes. With this in mind, we have invented innovative design concepts for two-step solar-driven thermochemical heat engines based on iron oxide and iron oxide mixed with other metal oxides (ferrites). The design concepts utilize two sets of moving beds of ferrite reactant material in close proximity and moving in opposite directions to overcome a major impediment to achieving high efficiency--thermal recuperation between solids in efficient counter-current arrangements. They also provide inherent separation of the product hydrogen and oxygen and are an excellent match with high-concentration solar flux. However, they also impose unique requirements on the ferrite reactants and materials of construction as well as an understanding of the chemical and cycle thermodynamics. In this report the Counter-Rotating-Ring Receiver/Reactor/Recuperator (CR5) solar thermochemical heat engine and its basic operating principals are described. Preliminary thermal efficiency estimates are presented and discussed. Our ferrite reactant material development activities, thermodynamic studies, test results, and prototype hardware development are also presented.

  5. Variational principles in instanton problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' yakonov, D.I.; Petrov, V.Yu. (AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1984-01-01

    The authors suggest a simple approximate method of evaluating path integrals for problems in which subbarrier transitions (instantons) play an important role. This method, based on Feyman's variational principle, is a generalization of the semi-classical approximation. When there is a quasiclassical parameter in a problem, the method is reduced to approximate calculations of Gauss' functional integrals (i.e. functional determinants). The authors derive general formulas for such integrals, which prove to be valid for a broad class of potentials, and verify the accuracy of the approximation using the examples of double-well and periodic potentials. In both cases the accuracy in determining the level splitting proves to be within several percent.

  6. Finding nonoverlapping substructures of a sparse matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia

    2004-08-09

    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices, thus the design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of non overlapping rectangular dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which has not been studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum non overlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm for 2 times 2 blocks that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. We discuss alternatives to rectangular blocks such as diagonal blocks and cross blocks and present complexity analysis and approximation algorithms.

  7. Matrix pentagons

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  8. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  9. Rotations in the Space of Split Octonions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merab Gogberashvili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical application of split octonions is considered. The new representation of products of the basis units of split octonionic having David's star shape (instead of the Fano triangle is presented. It is shown that active and passive transformations of coordinates in octonionic “eight-space” are not equivalent. The group of passive transformations that leave invariant the pseudonorm of split octonions is SO(4,4, while active rotations are done by the direct product of O(3,4-boosts and real noncompact form of the exceptional group G2. In classical limit, these transformations reduce to the standard Lorentz group.

  10. Communication: Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergey N.

    2016-09-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the ν2 bending mode starting with 4ν2.

  11. Level of copper in human split ejaculate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandhan, Kalanghot; Valsa, James; Sumangala, Balakrishnan; Jaya, Vasudevan

    2017-02-03

    The purpose of this study was to understand the details of splits of an ejaculate and to locate the origin of release of copper into semen. Laboratory methods routinely followed for semen analysis were carried out. Copper was estimated by employing atomic absorption spectrophotometry. First split of ejaculate showed the highest number of motile sperm, the quality of which decreased from first to third. Copper level in splits 1, 2 and 3 was 29, 23 and 22 µg%, respectively. This study concluded that copper was released from throughout the genital tract.

  12. Splitting Functions at High Transverse Momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Moutafis, Rhea Penelope; CERN. Geneva. TH Department

    2017-01-01

    Among the production channels of the Higgs boson one contribution could become significant at high transverse momentum which is the radiation of a Higgs boson from another particle. This note focuses on the calculation of splitting functions and cross sections of such processes. The calculation is first carried out on the example $e\\rightarrow e\\gamma$ to illustrate the way splitting functions are calculated. Then the splitting function of $e\\rightarrow eh$ is calculated in similar fashion. This procedure can easily be generalized to processes such as $q\\rightarrow qh$ or $g\\rightarrow gh$.

  13. 2S Hyperfine splitting of muonic hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Martynenko, A P

    2004-01-01

    Corrections of orders alpha^5, alpha^6 are calculated in the hyperfine splitting of the 2S state in the muonic hydrogen. The nuclear structure effects are taken into account in the one- and two-loop Feynman amplitudes by means of the proton electromagnetic form factors. Total numerical value of the 2S state hyperfine splitting 22.8148 meV in the (\\mu p) can be considered as reliable estimation for the corresponding experiment with the accuracy 10^{-5}. The value of the Sternheim's hyperfine splitting interval [8\\Delta E^{HFS}(2S)-\\Delta E^{HFS}(1S)] is obtained with the accuracy 10^{-6}.

  14. Tunnelling splitting in the phosphine molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Yurchenko, Sergey N

    2016-01-01

    Splitting due to tunnelling via the potential energy barrier has played a significant role in the study of molecular spectra since the early days of spectroscopy. The observation of the ammonia doublet led to attempts to find a phosphine analogous, but these have so far failed due to its considerably higher barrier. Full dimensional, variational nuclear motion calculations are used to predict splittings as a function of excitation energy. Simulated spectra suggest that such splittings should be observable in the near infrared via overtones of the $\

  15. Beam-splitting code for light scattering by ice crystal particles within geometric-optics approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoshonkin, Alexander V.; Kustova, Natalia V.; Borovoi, Anatoli G.

    2015-10-01

    The open-source beam-splitting code is described which implements the geometric-optics approximation to light scattering by convex faceted particles. This code is written in C++ as a library which can be easy applied to a particular light scattering problem. The code uses only standard components, that makes it to be a cross-platform solution and provides its compatibility to popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE's). The included example of solving the light scattering by a randomly oriented ice crystal is written using Qt 5.1, consequently it is a cross-platform solution, too. Both physical and computational aspects of the beam-splitting algorithm are discussed. Computational speed of the beam-splitting code is obviously higher compared to the conventional ray-tracing codes. A comparison of the phase matrix as computed by our code with the ray-tracing code by A. Macke shows excellent agreement.

  16. Higher-order corrections to the splitting functions from differential equations in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Gituliar, O

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status an ab initio computation of the time-like splitting functions at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. Time-like splitting functions govern the collinear kinematics of inclusive hadron production in $e^+e^-$ annihilation and the evolution of the parton fragmentation distributions. Current knowledge about them at three loops has been inferred by means of crossing symmetry from their related space-like counterparts, the deep-inelastic structure functions and parton densities. In this approach certain parts of the off-diagonal quark-gluon splitting function are left undetermined, which calls for an independent calculation from first principles. We outline the method for calculating master integrals from differential equations which are required to attack the problem.

  17. Gas-Kinetic Theory Based Flux Splitting Method for Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun

    1998-01-01

    A gas-kinetic solver is developed for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The new scheme is based on the direct splitting of the flux function of the MHD equations with the inclusion of "particle" collisions in the transport process. Consequently, the artificial dissipation in the new scheme is much reduced in comparison with the MHD Flux Vector Splitting Scheme. At the same time, the new scheme is compared with the well-developed Roe-type MHD solver. It is concluded that the kinetic MHD scheme is more robust and efficient than the Roe- type method, and the accuracy is competitive. In this paper the general principle of splitting the macroscopic flux function based on the gas-kinetic theory is presented. The flux construction strategy may shed some light on the possible modification of AUSM- and CUSP-type schemes for the compressible Euler equations, as well as to the development of new schemes for a non-strictly hyperbolic system.

  18. Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2011-10-14

    Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.

  19. Electroweak Splitting Functions and High Energy Showering

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Junmou; Tweedie, Brock

    2016-01-01

    We derive the electroweak (EW) collinear splitting functions for the Standard Model, including the massive fermions, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. We first present the splitting functions in the limit of unbroken SU(2)xU(1) and discuss their general features in the collinear and soft-collinear regimes. We then systematically incorporate EW symmetry breaking (EWSB), which leads to the emergence of additional "ultra-collinear" splitting phenomena and naive violations of the Goldstone-boson Equivalence Theorem. We suggest a particularly convenient choice of non-covariant gauge (dubbed "Goldstone Equivalence Gauge") that disentangles the effects of Goldstone bosons and gauge fields in the presence of EWSB, and allows trivial book-keeping of leading power corrections in the VEV. We implement a comprehensive, practical EW showering scheme based on these splitting functions using a Sudakov evolution formalism. Novel features in the implementation include a complete accounting of ultra-collinear effects, matching...

  20. Supramolecular Control over Split-Luciferase Complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Ralph P G; Briels, Jeroen M; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; de Greef, Tom F A; Merkx, Maarten; Brunsveld, Luc

    2016-07-25

    Supramolecular split-enzyme complementation restores enzymatic activity and allows for on-off switching. Split-luciferase fragment pairs were provided with an N-terminal FGG sequence and screened for complementation through host-guest binding to cucurbit[8]uril (Q8). Split-luciferase heterocomplex formation was induced in a Q8 concentration dependent manner, resulting in a 20-fold upregulation of luciferase activity. Supramolecular split-luciferase complementation was fully reversible, as revealed by using two types of Q8 inhibitors. Competition studies with the weak-binding FGG peptide revealed a 300-fold enhanced stability for the formation of the ternary heterocomplex compared to binding of two of the same fragments to Q8. Stochiometric binding by the potent inhibitor memantine could be used for repeated cycling of luciferase activation and deactivation in conjunction with Q8, providing a versatile module for in vitro supramolecular signaling networks.

  1. Irrational beliefs, attitudes about competition, and splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P J; Morris, R J; Miller, L

    2001-03-01

    Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) theoretically promotes actualization of both individualistic and social-oriented potentials. In a test of this assumption, the Belief Scale and subscales from the Survey of Personal Beliefs served as measures of what REBT presumes to be pathogenic irrationalities. These measures were correlated with the Hypercompetitive Attitude Scale (HCAS), the Personal Development Competitive Attitude Scale (PDCAS), factors from the Splitting Index, and self-esteem. Results for the HCAS and Self-Splitting supported the REBT claim about individualistic self-actualization. Mostly nonsignificant and a few counterintuitive linkages were observed for irrational beliefs with the PDCAS, Family-Splitting, and Other-Splitting, and these data suggested that REBT may be less successful in capturing the "rationality" of a social-oriented self-actualization.

  2. Split Brain Theory: Implications for Nurse Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Meneses, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Discusses incorporating nontraditional concepts of learning in nursing education. Elements explored include the split brain theory, school design, teaching styles, teacher's role, teaching strategies, adding variety to the curriculum, and modular learning. (CT)

  3. Ray splitting in paraxial optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Puentes, G; Woerdman, J P

    2003-01-01

    We present a numerical investigation of the ray dynamics in a paraxial optical cavity when a ray splitting mechanism is present. The cavity is a conventional two-mirror stable resonator and the ray splitting is achieved by inserting an optical beam splitter perpendicular to the cavity axis. We show that depending on the position of the beam splitter the optical resonator can become unstable and the ray dynamics displays a positive Lyapunov exponent.

  4. Antenna Splitting Functions for Massive Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2011-06-22

    An antenna shower is a parton shower in which the basic move is a color-coherent 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting process. In this paper, we give compact forms for the spin-dependent antenna splitting functions involving massive partons of spin 0 and spin 1/2. We hope that this formalism we have presented will be useful in describing the QCD dynamics of the top quark and other heavy particles at LHC.

  5. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  6. Laser beam splitting by polarization encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao

    2015-03-20

    A scheme is proposed to design a polarization grating that splits an incident linearly polarized beam to an array of linearly polarized beams of identical intensity distribution and various azimuth angles of linear polarization. The grating is equivalent to a wave plate with space-variant azimuth angle and space-variant phase retardation. The linear polarization states of all split beams make the grating suitable for coherent beam combining architectures based on Dammann gratings.

  7. Split School of High Energy Physics 2015

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Split School of High Energy Physics 2015 (SSHEP 2015) was held at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FESB), University of Split, from September 14 to September 18, 2015. SSHEP 2015 aimed at master and PhD students who were interested in topics pertaining to High Energy Physics. SSHEP 2015 is the sixth edition of the High Energy Physics School. Previous five editions were held at the Department of Physics, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  8. Matrix-valued Quantum Lattice Boltzmann Method

    CERN Document Server

    Mendl, Christian B

    2013-01-01

    We develop a numerical framework for the quantum analogue of the "classical" lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), with the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution replaced by the Fermi-Dirac function. To accommodate the spin density matrix, the distribution functions become 2x2-matrix valued. We show that the efficient, commonly used BGK approximation of the collision operator is valid in the present setting. The framework could leverage the principles of LBM for simulating complex spin systems, with applications to spintronics.

  9. Silicon/Carbon Nanotube Photocathode for Splitting Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Greer, Harold F.; Hall, Lee J.; Gray, Harry B.; Subbert, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A proof-of-concept device is being developed for hydrogen gas production based on water-splitting redox reactions facilitated by cobalt tetra-aryl porphyrins (Co[TArP]) catalysts stacked on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that are grown on n-doped silicon substrates. The operational principle of the proposed device is based on conversion of photoelectron energy from sunlight into chemical energy, which at a later point, can be turned into electrical and mechanical power. The proposed device will consist of a degenerately n-doped silicon substrate with Si posts covering the surface of a 4-in. (approximately equal to 10cm) wafer. The substrate will absorb radiation, and electrons will move radially out of Si to CNT. Si posts are designed such that the diameters are small enough to allow considerable numbers of electrons to transport across to the CNT layer. CNTs will be grown on top of Si using conformal catalyst (Fe/Ni) deposition over a thin alumina barrier layer. Both metallic and semiconducting CNT will be used in this investigation, thus allowing for additional charge generation from CNT in the IR region. Si post top surfaces will be masked from catalyst deposition so as to prevent CNT growth on the top surface. A typical unit cell will then consist of a Si post covered with CNT, providing enhanced surface area for the catalyst. The device will then be dipped into a solution of Co[TArP] to enable coating of CNT with Co(P). The Si/CNT/Co [TArP] assembly then will provide electrons for water splitting and hydrogen gas production. A potential of 1.23 V is needed to split water, and near ideal band gap is approximately 1.4 eV. The combination of doped Si/CNT/Co [TArP] will enable this redox reaction to be more efficient.

  10. Basic principles of stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, William; Schofield, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least squares regression analysis should be employed to model potency decay. The use of such tools provides incentive to properly design vaccine stability studies, while holding stability measurements to specification presents a disincentive for collecting valuable data. The laws of kinetics such as Arrhenius behavior help practitioners design effective accelerated stability programs, which can be utilized to manage stability after a process change. Design of stability studies should be carefully considered, with an eye to minimizing the variability of the stability parameter. In the case of measuring the degradation rate, testing at the beginning and the end of the study improves the precision of this estimate. Additional design considerations such as bracketing and matrixing improve the efficiency of stability evaluation of vaccines.

  11. Sparse Parallel MRI Based on Accelerated Operator Splitting Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weisi; Su, Zhenghang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the sparsity which is implicit in MR images has been successfully exploited for fast MR imaging with incomplete acquisitions. In this paper, two novel algorithms are proposed to solve the sparse parallel MR imaging problem, which consists of l1 regularization and fidelity terms. The two algorithms combine forward-backward operator splitting and Barzilai-Borwein schemes. Theoretically, the presented algorithms overcome the nondifferentiable property in l1 regularization term. Meanwhile, they are able to treat a general matrix operator that may not be diagonalized by fast Fourier transform and to ensure that a well-conditioned optimization system of equations is simply solved. In addition, we build connections between the proposed algorithms and the state-of-the-art existing methods and prove their convergence with a constant stepsize in Appendix. Numerical results and comparisons with the advanced methods demonstrate the efficiency of proposed algorithms. PMID:27746824

  12. A Parameterized Splitting Preconditioner for Generalized Saddle Point Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hua Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula, we introduce a preconditioner based on parameterized splitting idea for generalized saddle point problems which may be singular and nonsymmetric. By analyzing the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrix, we find that when α is big enough, it has an eigenvalue at 1 with multiplicity at least n, and the remaining eigenvalues are all located in a unit circle centered at 1. Particularly, when the preconditioner is used in general saddle point problems, it guarantees eigenvalue at 1 with the same multiplicity, and the remaining eigenvalues will tend to 1 as the parameter α→0. Consequently, this can lead to a good convergence when some GMRES iterative methods are used in Krylov subspace. Numerical results of Stokes problems and Oseen problems are presented to illustrate the behavior of the preconditioner.

  13. Building the Platform of Digital Earth with Sphere Split Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jinxin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discrete global grids, a modeling framework for big geo-spatial data, is always used to build the Digital Earth platform. Based on the sphere split bricks (Earth system spatial grids, it can not only build the true three-dimensional digital Earth model, but also can achieve integration, fusion, expression and application of the spatial data which locates on, under or above the Earth subsurface. The theoretical system of spheroid geodesic QTM octree grid is discussed, including the partition principle, analysis of grid geometry features and coding/ decoding method etc, and a prototype system of true-3D digital Earth platform with the sphere split bricks is developed. The functions of the system mainly include the arbitrary sphere segmentation and the visualization of physical models of underground, surface and aerial entities. Results show that the sphere geodesic QTM octree grid has many application advantages, such as simple subdivision rules, the grid system neat, clear geometric features, strong applicability etc. In particular, it can be extended to the ellipsoid, so it can be used for organization, management, integration and application of the global spatial big data.

  14. The Efficiency of Split Panel Designs in an Analysis of Variance Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Guo; Liu, Hai-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We consider split panel design efficiency in analysis of variance models, that is, the determination of the cross-sections series optimal proportion in all samples, to minimize parametric best linear unbiased estimators of linear combination variances. An orthogonal matrix is constructed to obtain manageable expression of variances. On this basis, we derive a theorem for analyzing split panel design efficiency irrespective of interest and budget parameters. Additionally, relative estimator efficiency based on the split panel to an estimator based on a pure panel or a pure cross-section is present. The analysis shows that the gains from split panel can be quite substantial. We further consider the efficiency of split panel design, given a budget, and transform it to a constrained nonlinear integer programming. Specifically, an efficient algorithm is designed to solve the constrained nonlinear integer programming. Moreover, we combine one at time designs and factorial designs to illustrate the algorithm’s efficiency with an empirical example concerning monthly consumer expenditure on food in 1985, in the Netherlands, and the efficient ranges of the algorithm parameters are given to ensure a good solution. PMID:27163447

  15. GENERALIZED PRECONDITIONED HERMITIAN AND SKEW-HERMITIAN SPLITTING METHODS FOR NON-HERMITIAN POSITIVE-DEFINITE LINEAR SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfeng Yin; Quanyu Dou

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a generalized preconditioned Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (GPHSS) iteration method for a non-Hermitian positive-definite matrix is studied,which covers standard Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (HSS) iteration and also many existing variants.Theoretical analysis gives an upper bound for the spectral radius of the iteration matrix.From practical point of view,we have analyzed and implemented inexact generalized preconditioned Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting (IGPHSS) iteration,which employs Krylov subspace methods as its inner processes.Numerical experiments from three-dimensional convection-diffusion equation show that the GPHSS and IGPHSS iterations are efficient and competitive with standard HSS iteration and AHSS iteration.

  16. Molecular concepts of water splitting. Nature's approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Nicholas; Lubitz, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemische Energiekonversion, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Based on studies of natural systems, much has also been learned concerning the design principles required for biomimetic catalysis of water splitting and hydrogen evolution. In summary, these include use of abundant and inexpensive metals, the effective protection of the active sites in functional environments, repair/replacement of active components in case of damage, and the optimization of reaction rates. Biomimetic chemistry aims to mimic all these features; many labs are working toward this goal by developing new approaches in the design and synthesis of such systems, encompassing not only the catalytic center, but also smart matrices and assembly via self-organization. More stable catalysts that do not require self-repair may be obtained from fully artificial (inorganic) catalytic systems that are totally different from the biological ones and only apply some basic principles learned from nature. Metals other than Mn/Ca, Fe, and Ni could be used (e.g. Co) in new ligand spheres and other matrices. For light harvesting, charge separation/stabilization, and the effective coupling of the oxidizing/reducing equivalents to the redox catalysts, different methods have been proposed - for example, covalently linked molecular donor-acceptor systems, photo-voltaic devices, semiconductor-based systems, and photoactive metal complexes. The aim of all these approaches is to develop catalytic systems that split water with sunlight into hydrogen and oxygen while displaying high efficiency and long-term stability. Such a system - either biological, biomimetic, or bioinspired - has the potential to be used on a large scale to produce 'solar fuels' (e.g. hydrogen or secondary products thereof). (orig.)

  17. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  18. Activation of response force by self-splitting objects: where are the limits of feedforward Gestalt processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Filipp; Weber, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-08-21

    Most objects can be recognized easily even when they are partly occluded. This also holds when several overlapping objects share the same surface features (self-splitting objects) which is an illustration of the grouping principle of Good Gestalt. We employed outline and filled contour stimuli in a primed flanker task to test whether the processing of self-splitting objects is in accordance with a simple feedforward model. We obtained priming effects in response time and response force for both types of stimuli, even when increasing the number of occluders up to three. The results for outline contours were in full accordance with a feedforward account. This was not the case for the results for filled contours (i.e., for self-splitting objects), especially under conditions of strong occlusion. We conclude that the implementation of the Good Gestalt principle is fast but still based on recurrent processing. © 2014 ARVO.

  19. The 30-band k ⋅ p theory of valley splitting in silicon thin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čukarić, Nemanja A; Partoens, Bart; Tadić, Milan Ž; Arsoski, Vladimir V; Peeters, F M

    2016-05-18

    The valley splitting of the conduction-band states in a thin silicon-on-insulator layer is investigated using the 30-band k ⋅ p theory. The system composed of a few nm thick [Formula: see text] layer embedded within thick SiO2 layers is analyzed. The valley split states are found to cross periodically with increasing quantum well width, and therefore the energy splitting is an oscillatory function of the quantum well width, with period determined by the wave vector K 0 of the conduction band minimum. Because the valley split states are classified by parity, the optical transition between the ground hole state and one of those valley split conduction band states is forbidden. The oscillations in the valley splitting energy decrease with electric field and with smoothing of the composition profile between the well and the barrier by diffusion of oxygen from the SiO2 layers to the Si quantum well. Such a smoothing also leads to a decrease of the interband transition matrix elements. The obtained results are well parametrized by the effective two-valley model, but are found to disagree from previous 30-band calculations. This discrepancy could be traced back to the fact that the basis for the numerical solution of the eigenproblem must be restricted to the first Brillouin zone in order to obtain quantitatively correct results for the valley splitting.

  20. Generic construction of efficient matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubig, C.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schollwöck, U.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix product operators (MPOs) are at the heart of the second-generation density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm formulated in matrix product state language. We first summarize the widely known facts on MPO arithmetic and representations of single-site operators. Second, we introduce three compression methods (rescaled SVD, deparallelization, and delinearization) for MPOs and show that it is possible to construct efficient representations of arbitrary operators using MPO arithmetic and compression. As examples, we construct powers of a short-ranged spin-chain Hamiltonian, a complicated Hamiltonian of a two-dimensional system and, as proof of principle, the long-range four-body Hamiltonian from quantum chemistry.

  1. Efficient simulation of wave-packet dynamics on multiple coupled potential surfaces with split potential propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonovich, Igal

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method to expedite simulation of quantum wave-packet dynamics by more than a factor of $2$ with the Strang split-operator propagation. Dynamics of quantum wave-packets are often evaluated using the the \\emph{Strang} split-step propagation, where the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian $\\hat{T}$ and the potential part $\\hat{V}$ are piecewise integrated according to $e^{- i \\hat{H} \\delta t} \\approx e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2} e^{- i \\hat{T}\\delta t} e^{- i \\hat{V} \\delta t/2}$, which is accurate to second order in the propagation time $\\delta t$. In molecular quantum dynamics, the potential propagation occurs over multiple coupled potential surfaces and requires matrix exponentiation for each position in space and time which is computationally demanding. Our method employs further splitting of the potential matrix $\\hat{V}$ into a diagonal space dependent part $\\hat{V}_{D}(R)$ and an off-diagonal time-dependent coupling-field $\\hat{V}_{OD}(t)$, which then requires only a single matrix exponentia...

  2. Symmetry-selected spin-split hybrid states in C-60/ferromagnetic interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongzhe; Barreteau, Cyrille; Kawahara, Seiji Leo

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of orbital hybridization and spin polarization at the organic-ferromagnetic interface is essential in the search for efficient hybrid spintronic devices. Here, using first-principles calculations, we report a systematic study of spin-split hybrid states of C60 deposited on various...

  3. Robertson-Schrödinger formulation of Ozawa's uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Nuno Prata, João

    2015-07-01

    A more general measurement disturbance uncertainty principle is presented in a Robertson-Schrödinger formulation. It is shown that it is stronger and having nicer properties than Ozawa's uncertainty relations. In particular it is invariant under symplectic transformations. One shows also that there are states of the probe (measuring device) that saturate the matrix formulation of measurement disturbance uncertainty principle.

  4. Robertson-Schr\\"odinger formulation of Ozawa's Uncertainty Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, Catarina; Bertolami, O; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2014-01-01

    A more general measurement disturbance uncertainty principle is presented in a Robertson-Schr\\"odinger formulation. It is shown that it is stronger and having nicer properties than Ozawa's uncertainty relations. In particular is invariant under symplectic transformations. One shows also that there are states of the probe (measuring device) that saturate the matrix formulation of measurement disturbance uncertainty principle.

  5. Urban pattern: Layout design by hierarchical domain splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2013-11-01

    We present a framework for generating street networks and parcel layouts. Our goal is the generation of high-quality layouts that can be used for urban planning and virtual environments. We propose a solution based on hierarchical domain splitting using two splitting types: streamline-based splitting, which splits a region along one or multiple streamlines of a cross field, and template-based splitting, which warps pre-designed templates to a region and uses the interior geometry of the template as the splitting lines. We combine these two splitting approaches into a hierarchical framework, providing automatic and interactive tools to explore the design space.

  6. Controllable valley splitting in silicon quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Srijit; Slinker, K. A.; Friesen, Mark; McGuire, L. M.; Truitt, J. L.; Tahan, Charles; Klein, L. J.; Chu, J. O.; Mooney, P. M.; van der Weide, D. W.; Joynt, Robert; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon has many attractive properties for quantum computing, and the quantum-dot architecture is appealing because of its controllability and scalability. However, the multiple valleys in the silicon conduction band are potentially a serious source of decoherence for spin-based quantum-dot qubits. Only when a large energy splits these valleys do we obtain well-defined and long-lived spin states appropriate for quantum computing. Here, we show that the small valley splittings observed in previous experiments on Si-SiGe heterostructures result from atomic steps at the quantum-well interface. Lateral confinement in a quantum point contact limits the electron wavefunctions to several steps, and enhances the valley splitting substantially, up to 1.5meV. The combination of electrostatic and magnetic confinement produces a valley splitting larger than the spin splitting, which is controllable over a wide range. These results improve the outlook for realizing spin qubits with long coherence times in silicon-based devices.

  7. Technical Skills Required in Split Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huanqiu; Li, Ruijun; Fu, Jinling; He, Qianyan; Li, Ji

    2016-07-01

    The number of liver grafts obtained from a cadaver can be greatly increased with the application of split liver transplantation. In the last 10 years, pediatric waiting list mortality has been reduced significantly with the use of this form of liver transplantation, which has 2 major forms. In its most commonly used form, the liver can be transplanted into 1 adult and 1 child by splitting it into a right extended and a left lateral graft. For adult and pediatric recipients, the results of this procedure are comparable to those of whole-organ techniques. In another form, 2 hemi-grafts are obtained by splitting the liver, which can be transplanted into a medium-sized adult (the right side) and a large child/small adult (the left side). The adult liver graft pool is expanded through the process of full right/full left splitting; but it is also a critical technique when one considers the knowledge required of the potential anatomic variations and the high technical skill level needed. In this review, we provide some basic insights into the technical and anatomical aspects of these 2 forms of split liver transplantation and present an updated summary of both forms.

  8. Spin splitting in 2D monochalcogenide semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Dat T.; Mahanti, Subhendra D.; Lai, Chih Wei

    2015-11-01

    We report ab initio calculations of the spin splitting of the uppermost valence band (UVB) and the lowermost conduction band (LCB) in bulk and atomically thin GaS, GaSe, GaTe, and InSe. These layered monochalcogenides appear in four major polytypes depending on the stacking order, except for the monoclinic GaTe. Bulk and few-layer ε-and γ -type, and odd-number β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe crystals are noncentrosymmetric. The spin splittings of the UVB and the LCB near the Γ-point in the Brillouin zone are finite, but still smaller than those in a zinc-blende semiconductor such as GaAs. On the other hand, the spin splitting is zero in centrosymmetric bulk and even-number few-layer β-type GaS, GaSe, and InSe, owing to the constraint of spatial inversion symmetry. By contrast, GaTe exhibits zero spin splitting because it is centrosymmetric down to a single layer. In these monochalcogenide semiconductors, the separation of the non-degenerate conduction and valence bands from adjacent bands results in the suppression of Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. Therefore, the electron- and hole-spin relaxation times in these systems with zero or minimal spin splittings are expected to exceed those in GaAs when the D’yakonov-Perel’ spin relaxation mechanism is also suppressed.

  9. Fano resonance Rabi splitting of surface plasmons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguang; Li, Jiafang; Liu, Zhe; Li, Wuxia; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2017-08-14

    Rabi splitting and Fano resonance are well-known physical phenomena in conventional quantum systems as atoms and quantum dots, arising from strong interaction between two quantum states. In recent years similar features have been observed in various nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic systems. Yet, realization of strong interaction between two or more Fano resonance states has not been accomplished either in quantum or in optical systems. Here we report the observation of Rabi splitting of two strongly coupled surface plasmon Fano resonance states in a three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructure consisting of vertical asymmetric split-ring resonators. The plasmonic system stably supports triple Fano resonance states and double Rabi splittings can occur between lower and upper pairs of the Fano resonance states. The experimental discovery agrees excellently with rigorous numerical simulations, and is well explained by an analytical three-oscillator model. The discovery of Fano resonance Rabi splitting could provide a stimulating insight to explore new fundamental physics in analogous atomic systems and could be used to significantly enhance light-matter interaction for optical sensing and detecting applications.

  10. Resonant multi-turn extraction: Principle and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S S; Martini, M; Métral, E; Scaramuzzi, P; Steerenberg, R; Müller, A S

    2006-01-01

    Recently, a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. In addition to numerical simulations, aimed at assessing the feasibility of the proposed technique, an experimental campaign was launched since the year 2002 at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. During the year 2004 run, a high-intensity single-bunch beam was successfully split and the generated beamlets separated without any measurable losses. The underlying principle will be presented and discussed in details in this paper, as well as the latest experimental results and future applications.

  11. Resonant Multi-Turn Extraction Principle and Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gilardoni, S S; Martini, M; Métral, E; Scaramuzzi, P; Steerenberg, R; Muller, AS

    2006-01-01

    Recently a novel approach to perform multi-turn extraction was proposed based on beam splitting in the transverse phase space by means of trapping inside stable islands. In addition to numerical simulations, aimed at assessing the feasibility of the proposed technique, an experimental campaign was launched since the year 2002 at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. During the year 2004 run, a high-intensity single-bunch beam was successfully split and the generated beamlets separated without any measurable losses. The underlying principle will be presented and discussed in details in this paper, as well as the latest experimental results and future applications.

  12. Feasible Proofs of Matrix Properties with Csanky's Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Soltys, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We show that Csanky's fast parallel algorithm for computing the characteristic polynomial of a matrix can be formalized in the logical theory LAP, and can be proved correct in LAP from the principle of linear independence. LAP is a natural theory for reasoning about linear algebra introduced by Cook and Soltys. Further, we show that several principles of matrix algebra, such as linear independence or the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem, can be shown equivalent in the logical theory QLA. Applying the ...

  13. Inorganic photocatalysts for overall water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jun; Fang, Wen Qi; Zhao, Hui Jun; Yang, Hua Gui

    2012-04-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting using semiconductor photocatalysts has been considered as a "green" process for converting solar energy into hydrogen. The pioneering work on electrochemical photolysis of water at TiO(2) electrode, reported by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, ushered in the area of solar fuel. As the real ultimate solution for solar fuel-generation, overall water splitting has attracted interest from researchers for some time, and a variety of inorganic photocatalysts have been developed to meet the challenge of this dream reaction. To date, high-efficiency hydrogen production from pure water without the assistance of sacrificial reagents remains an open challenge. In this Focus Review, we aim to provide a whole picture of overall water splitting and give an outlook for future research.

  14. Harvesting split thickness costal cartilage graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Gaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are few complications associated with harvesting of full thickness coastal cartilage grafts i.e., pneumothorax (0.9%, contour deformities and prolonged post-operative pain. To address these issues, authors devised special scalpel to harvest split-thickness costal cartilage grafts. Materials and Methods: Standard inframammary incision was used for harvesting rib. Incision was made directly over the desired rib. Specially designed scalpel was used to cut through the rib cartilage to the half of the thickness. The study was conducted in two parts – cadaveric and clinical. Results: There was significantly less pain and no pneumothorax in the patients in whom the split thickness graft was harvested. Wounds healed without any complication. Discussion: Thus, newly devised angulated scalpel used in the current study, showed the potential to supply the reconstructive surgeon with split thickness rib graft without risk of complications such as pneumothorax or warping contour deformities and post-operative pain.

  15. Multiple spectral splits of supernova neutrinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Dighe, Amol; Raffelt, Georg G; Smirnov, Alexei Yu

    2009-07-31

    Collective oscillations of supernova neutrinos swap the spectra f(nu(e))(E) and f(nu[over ](e))(E) with those of another flavor in certain energy intervals bounded by sharp spectral splits. This phenomenon is far more general than previously appreciated: typically one finds one or more swaps and accompanying splits in the nu and nu[over ] channels for both inverted and normal neutrino mass hierarchies. Depending on an instability condition, swaps develop around spectral crossings (energies where f(nu(e))=f(nu(x)), f(nu[over ](e))=f(nu[over ](x)) as well as E-->infinity where all fluxes vanish), and the widths of swaps are determined by the spectra and fluxes. Washout by multiangle decoherence varies across the spectrum and splits can survive as sharp spectral features.

  16. Trap split with Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Mahmoud, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The optical trapping techniques have been extensively used in physics, biophysics, micro-chemistry, and micro-mechanics to allow trapping and manipulation of materials ranging from particles, cells, biological substances, and polymers to DNA and RNA molecules. In this Letter, we present a convenient and effective way to generate a novel phenomenon of trapping, named trap split, in a conventional four-level double-$\\Lambda$ atomic system driven by four femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses. We find that trap split can be always achieved when atoms are trapped by such laser pulses, as compared to Gaussian ones. This work would greatly facilitate the trapping and manipulating the particles and generation of trap split. It may also suggest the possibility of extension into new research fields, such as micro-machining and biophysics.

  17. Biomolecular Principles of Matrix Assembly Related to Fracture Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    mM NaHCO3 / Na2CO3 buffer. For comparison, we present RH values obtained in the same buffer/pH solutions for bovine erythrocyte carbonic...of amino acid spins systems are indicated on the plots. intrinsically disordered protein (Figure 2) that is fold-inducible and assembles to form... disordered supramolecular complexes that possess a high degree of dimensional heterogeneity (Figures 2A, 3). These protein assemblies are “plastic

  18. Principles of project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  19. Split-octonion Lie 3-algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Jardino, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    We extend the concept of a generalized Lie 3-algebra, known to octonions $\\mathbb{O}$, to split-octonions $\\mathbb{SO}$. In order to do that, we introduce a notational device that unifies the two elements product of both of the algebras. We have also proved that $\\mathbb{SO}$ is a Malcev algebra and have recalculated known relations for the structure constants in terms of the introduced structure tensor. An application of the split Lie $3-$algebra to a Bagger and Lambert gauge theory is also discussed.

  20. Recognition of Unipolar and Generalised Split Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin McDiarmid

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A graph is unipolar if it can be partitioned into a clique and a disjoint union of cliques, and a graph is a generalised split graph if it or its complement is unipolar. A unipolar partition of a graph can be used to find efficiently the clique number, the stability number, the chromatic number, and to solve other problems that are hard for general graphs. We present an O(n2-time algorithm for recognition of n-vertex generalised split graphs, improving on previous O(n3-time algorithms.

  1. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  2. Hyperfine splitting in lithium-like bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmann, Matthias; Froemmgen, Nadja; Hammen, Michael; Will, Elisa [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Andelkovic, Zoran; Kuehl, Thomas; Litvinov, Yuri; Winters, Danyal; Sanchez, Rodolfo [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Botermann, Benjamin; Noertershaeuser, Wilfried [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Bussmann, Michael [Helmholtzzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Dax, Andreas [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Hannen, Volker; Joehren, Raphael; Vollbrecht, Jonas; Weinheimer, Christian [Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Geppert, Christopher [Universitaet Mainz (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt (Germany); Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Richard [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Volotka, Andrey [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Wen, Weiqiang [IMP Lanzhou (China)

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurements of the hyperfine splitting values on Li- and H-like bismuth ions, combined with precise atomic structure calculations allow us to test QED-effects in the regime of the strongest magnetic fields that are available in the laboratory. Performing laser spectroscopy at the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI Darmstadt, we have now succeeded in measuring the hyperfine splitting in Li-like bismuth. Probing this transition has not been easy because of its extremely low fluorescence rate. Details about this challenging experiment will be given and the achieved experimental accuracy are presented.

  3. The transversely split gracilis twin free flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyaya Divya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gracilis muscle is a Class II muscle that is often used in free tissue transfer. The muscle has multiple secondary pedicles, of which the first one is the most consistent in terms of position and calibre. Each pedicle can support a segment of the muscle thus yielding multiple small flaps from a single, long muscle. Although it has often been split longitudinally along the fascicles of its nerve for functional transfer, it has rarely been split transversely to yield multiple muscle flaps that can be used to cover multiple wounds in one patient without subjecting him/her to the morbidity of multiple donor areas .

  4. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  5. Torsionally mediated spin-rotation hyperfine splittings at moderate to high J values in methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. P.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu.; Lapinov, A. V.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Mescheryakov, A. A.; Hougen, J. T.; Xu, Li-Hong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an explanation based on torsionally mediated proton-spin-overall-rotation interaction for the observation of doublet hyperfine splittings in some Lamb-dip sub-millimeter-wave transitions between ground-state torsion-rotation states of E symmetry in methanol. These unexpected doublet splittings, some as large as 70 kHz, were observed for rotational quantum numbers in the range of J = 13 to 34, and K = - 2 to +3. Because they increase nearly linearly with J for a given branch, we confined our search for an explanation to hyperfine operators containing one nuclear-spin angular momentum factor I and one overall-rotation angular momentum factor J (i.e., to spin-rotation operators) and ignored both spin-spin and spin-torsion operators, since they contain no rotational angular momentum operator. Furthermore, since traditional spin-rotation operators did not seem capable of explaining the observed splittings, we constructed totally symmetric "torsionally mediated spin-rotation operators" by multiplying the E-species spin-rotation operator by an E-species torsional-coordinate factor of the form e±niα. The resulting operator is capable of connecting the two components of a degenerate torsion-rotation E state. This has the effect of turning the hyperfine splitting pattern upside down for some nuclear-spin states, which leads to bottom-to-top and top-to-bottom hyperfine selection rules for some transitions, and thus to an explanation for the unexpectedly large observed hyperfine splittings. The constructed operator cannot contribute to hyperfine splittings in the A-species manifold because its matrix elements within the set of torsion-rotation A1 and A2 states are all zero. The theory developed here fits the observed large doublet splittings to a root-mean-square residual of less than 1 kHz and predicts unresolvable splittings for a number of transitions in which no doublet splitting was detected.

  6. Fast sparse matrix-vector multiplication by exploiting variable block structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuduc, R W; Moon, H

    2005-07-07

    We improve the performance of sparse matrix-vector multiply (SpMV) on modern cache-based superscalar machines when the matrix structure consists of multiple, irregularly aligned rectangular blocks. Matrices from finite element modeling applications often have this kind of structure. Our technique splits the matrix, A, into a sum, A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + ... + A{sub s}, where each term is stored in a new data structure, unaligned block compressed sparse row (UBCSR) format . The classical alternative approach of storing A in a block compressed sparse row (BCSR) format yields limited performance gains because it imposes a particular alignment of the matrix non-zero structure, leading to extra work from explicitly padded zeros. Combining splitting and UBCSR reduces this extra work while retaining the generally lower memory bandwidth requirements and register-level tiling opportunities of BCSR. Using application test matrices, we show empirically that speedups can be as high as 2.1x over not blocking at all, and as high as 1.8x over the standard BCSR implementation used in prior work. When performance does not improve, split UBCSR can still significantly reduce matrix storage. Through extensive experiments, we further show that the empirically optimal number of splittings s and the block size for each matrix term A{sub i} will in practice depend on the matrix and hardware platform. Our data lay a foundation for future development of fully automated methods for tuning these parameters.

  7. Doublet-Triplet Splitting and Fat Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Maru, N

    2001-01-01

    We consider the doublet-triplet splitting problem in supersymmetric SU(5) grand unified theory in five dimensions where the fifth dimension is non-compact. We point out that an unnatural fine-tuning of parameters in order to obtain the light Higgs doublets is not required due to the exponential suppression of the overlap of the wave functions.

  8. Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydychev, Andrei I.

    2016-10-01

    A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.

  9. Czech, Slovak science ten years after split

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Ten years after the split of Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak science are facing the same difficulties: shortage of money for research, poor salaries, obsolete equipment and brain drain, especially of the young, according to a feature in the Daily Lidove Noviny (1 page).

  10. Splitting up Beta’s change

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we estimated IBM beta from 2000 to 2013, then using differential equation mathematical formula we split up the annual beta’s change attributed to the volatility market effect, the stock volatility effect, the correlation effect and the jointly effect of these variables.

  11. Comparing Electrochemical and Biological Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Dimitrievski, Kristian; Siegbahn, P.

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we compare the free energies of key intermediates in the water splitting reaction over transition metal oxide surfaces to those of the Mn cluster in photo system II. In spite of the very different environments in the enzyme system...

  12. Three-Rainbow Coloring of Split Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玉梅; 刘婷婷

    2015-01-01

    After a necessary condition is given, 3-rainbow coloring of split graphs with time complexity O(m) is obtained by constructive method. The number of corresponding colors is at most 2 or 3 more than the minimum num-ber of colors needed in a 3-rainbow coloring.

  13. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-01-24

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain.

  14. Helioseismic Solar Cycle Changes and Splitting Coefficients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. C. Tripathy; Kiran Jain; A. Bhatnagar

    2000-09-01

    Using the GONG data for a period over four years, we have studied the variation of frequencies and splitting coefficients with solar cycle. Frequencies and even-order coefficients are found to change significantly with rising phase of the solar cycle. We also find temporal variations in the rotation rate near the solar surface.

  15. On Split Lie Triple Systems II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; M Forero Piulestán

    2010-04-01

    In [4] it is studied that the structure of split Lie triple systems with a coherent 0-root space, that is, satisfying $[T_0,T_0,T]=0$ and $[T_0,T_,T_0]≠ 0$ for any nonzero root and where $T_0$ denotes the 0-root space and $T_$ the -root space, by showing that any of such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j≠ k$. It is also shown in [4] that under certain conditions, a split Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces.

  16. Magnetic impurities in spin-split superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven Oei, W.-V.; Tanasković, D.; Žitko, R.

    2017-02-01

    Hybrid semiconductor-superconductor quantum dot devices are tunable physical realizations of quantum impurity models for a magnetic impurity in a superconducting host. The binding energy of the localized subgap Shiba states is set by the gate voltages and external magnetic field. In this work we discuss the effects of the Zeeman spin splitting, which is generically present both in the quantum dot and in the (thin-film) superconductor. The unequal g factors in semiconductor and superconductor materials result in respective Zeeman splittings of different magnitude. We consider both classical and quantum impurities. In the first case we analytically study the spectral function and the subgap states. The energy of bound states depends on the spin-splitting of the Bogoliubov quasiparticle bands as a simple rigid shift. For the case of collinear magnetization of impurity and host, the Shiba resonance of a given spin polarization remains unperturbed when it overlaps with the branch of the quasiparticle excitations of the opposite spin polarization. In the quantum case, we employ numerical renormalization group calculations to study the effect of the Zeeman field for different values of the g factors of the impurity and of the superconductor. We find that in general the critical magnetic field for the singlet-doublet transition changes nonmonotonically as a function of the superconducting gap, demonstrating the existence of two different transition mechanisms: Zeeman splitting of Shiba states or gap closure due to Zeeman splitting of Bogoliubov states. We also study how in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, modeled as an additional noncollinear component of the magnetic field at the impurity site, the Shiba resonance overlapping with the quasiparticle continuum of the opposite spin gradually broadens and then merges with the continuum.

  17. Turbulent flow mwasurements with a triple-split hot-film probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, M. D.; Zingg, D. W.

    1994-09-01

    Complex turbulent shear flows occur in many aerospace applications, such as aerodynamic devices and gas turbine engines. Measurements of mean and fluctuating velocity components can greatly aid our understanding of such flows. Experimental data are particularly useful in assessing and validating turbulence models used in computational fluid dynamics codes. Velocity measurements are generally made using a pitot-static tube, a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer, or a laser Doppler anemometer (LDA). For separated turbulent flows, pitot-static tubes and conventional hot-wire probes are generally inapplicable. Because of the high cost of LDA measurements, modified hot-wire techniques have been developed which are suitable for reversed flows. These include pulsed hot wires and flying hot wires. Disadvantages of these approaches are discussed by Nakayama. Triple-split hot-film probes are a potentially useful alternative for velocity measurements in separated turbulent flows. Such probes typically consist of three separate films deposited on a cylinder. The operating principle is based on the variation of the local heat transfer coefficient on a cylinder with the magnitude and direction of the oncoming flow velocity. Most studies involving split-film anemometry have been with double-split hot-film probes. These operate on the same principle but retain the directional ambiguity of conventional hot wires and, hence, are not applicable to separated turbulent flows. The results of these studies indicate that split-film probes provide comparable accuracy to hot-wire probes for mean velocities but have a more limited frequency response. Despite their potential, especially for measurements of mean velocities, triple-split hot-film probes have received little use. The only example of their use known to the authors is reported by Modera, who used a triple-split probe for low-frequency reversed flow measurements over a 0 - 8 m/s flow speed range. The purpose of this Note is to

  18. General Quantum Interference Principle and Duality Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Gui-Lu

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we propose a general principle of quantum interference for quantum system, and based on this we propose a new type of computing machine, the duality computer, that may outperform in principle both classical computer and the quantum computer. According to the general principle of quantum interference, the very essence of quantum interference is the interference of thesub-waves of the quantum system itself. A quantum system considered here can be any quantum system: a single microscopic particle, a composite quantum system such as an atom or a molecule, or a loose collection of a few quantum objects such as two independent photons. In the duality computer,the wave of the duality computer is split into several sub-waves and they pass through different routes, where different computing gate operations are performed. These sub-waves are then re-combined to interfere to give the computational results. The quantum computer, however, has only used the particle nature of quantum object. In a duality computer,it may be possible to find a marked item from an unsorted database using only a single query, and all NP-complete problems may have polynomial algorithms. Two proof-of-the-principle designs of the duality computer are presented:the giant molecule scheme and the nonlinear quantum optics scheme. We also propose thought experiment to check the related fundamental issues, the measurement efficiency of a partial wave function.

  19. Magnetic Photon Splitting Computations of Proper-time Rates and Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Harding, Alice K.

    1997-01-01

    The splitting of photons in the presence of an intense magnetic field has recently found astrophysical applications in polar cap models of gamma-ray pulsars and in magnetar scenarios for soft gamma repeaters. Numerical computation of the polarization-dependent rates of this third order QED process for arbitrary field strengths and energies below pair creation threshold is difficult: thus early analyses focused on analytic developments and simpler asymptotic forms. The recent astrophysical interest spurred the use of the S-matrix approach by Mentzel, Berg and Wunner to determine splitting rates. In this paper, we present numerical computations of a full proper-time expression for the rate of splitting that was obtained by Stoneham, and is exact up to the pair creation threshold. While the numerical results derived here are in accord with the earlier asymptotic forms due to Adler, our computed rates still differ by as much as factors of 3 from the S-matrix re-evaluation of Wilke and Wunner, reflecting the extre...

  20. Splitting, splitting and splitting again: A brief history of the development of regional government in Indonesia since independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Booth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the changes in the structure and role of provincial and sub-provincial governments in Indonesia since independence. Particular attention is paid to the process of splitting both provinces and districts (kabupaten and kota into smaller units. The paper points out that this process has been going on since the 1950s, but has accelerated in the post-Soeharto era. The paper examines why the splitting of government units has occurred in some parts of the Outer Islands to a much greater extent than in Java, and also examines the implications of developments since 1999 for the capacity of local government units to deliver basic services such as health and education.

  1. Giant Rashba-type spin splitting in bulk BiTeI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, K; Bahramy, M S; Murakawa, H; Sakano, M; Shimojima, T; Sonobe, T; Koizumi, K; Shin, S; Miyahara, H; Kimura, A; Miyamoto, K; Okuda, T; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Arita, R; Nagaosa, N; Kobayashi, K; Murakami, Y; Kumai, R; Kaneko, Y; Onose, Y; Tokura, Y

    2011-06-19

    There has been increasing interest in phenomena emerging from relativistic electrons in a solid, which have a potential impact on spintronics and magnetoelectrics. One example is the Rashba effect, which lifts the electron-spin degeneracy as a consequence of spin-orbit interaction under broken inversion symmetry. A high-energy-scale Rashba spin splitting is highly desirable for enhancing the coupling between electron spins and electricity relevant for spintronic functions. Here we describe the finding of a huge spin-orbit interaction effect in a polar semiconductor composed of heavy elements, BiTeI, where the bulk carriers are ruled by large Rashba-like spin splitting. The band splitting and its spin polarization obtained by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy are well in accord with relativistic first-principles calculations, confirming that the spin splitting is indeed derived from bulk atomic configurations. Together with the feasibility of carrier-doping control, the giant-Rashba semiconductor BiTeI possesses excellent potential for application to various spin-dependent electronic functions.

  2. Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial-water-splitting catalyst system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torella, Joseph P; Gagliardi, Christopher J; Chen, Janice S; Bediako, D Kwabena; Colón, Brendan; Way, Jeffery C; Silver, Pamela A; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-02-24

    Photovoltaic cells have considerable potential to satisfy future renewable-energy needs, but efficient and scalable methods of storing the intermittent electricity they produce are required for the large-scale implementation of solar energy. Current solar-to-fuels storage cycles based on water splitting produce hydrogen and oxygen, which are attractive fuels in principle but confront practical limitations from the current energy infrastructure that is based on liquid fuels. In this work, we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols. Water-splitting catalysis was performed using catalysts that are made of earth-abundant metals and enable low overpotential water splitting. In this integrated setup, equivalent solar-to-biomass yields of up to 3.2% of the thermodynamic maximum exceed that of most terrestrial plants. Moreover, engineering of R. eutropha enabled production of the fusel alcohol isopropanol at up to 216 mg/L, the highest bioelectrochemical fuel yield yet reported by >300%. This work demonstrates that catalysts of biotic and abiotic origin can be interfaced to achieve challenging chemical energy-to-fuels transformations.

  3. A Regularized Algorithm for the Proximal Split Feasibility Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangsong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The proximal split feasibility problem has been studied. A regularized method has been presented for solving the proximal split feasibility problem. Strong convergence theorem is given.

  4. Photoelectrochemical water splitting: optimizing interfaces and light absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis several photoelectrochemical water splitting devices based on semiconductor materials were investigated. The aim was the design, characterization, and fabrication of solar-to-fuel devices which can absorb solar light and split water to produce hydrogen.

  5. Biomechanics principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat

  6. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Paul; Heinonen, Teiko; Lahti, Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is usually taken to express a limitation of operational possibilities imposed by quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate that the full content of this principle also includes its positive role as a condition ensuring that mutually exclusive experimental options can be reconciled if an appropriate trade-off is accepted. The uncertainty principle is shown to appear in three manifestations, in the form of uncertainty relations: for the widths of the position and...

  7. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  8. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Khairi M.S. Fahelelbom; Moawia M. M. Al-Tabakha; Nermin A. M. Eissa; Jeevani Javadi

    2016-01-01

    Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dis...

  9. 顾客矩阵和生产者矩阵法在竞争情报中的应用%Application of the Customer Matrix and Producer Matrix Method in Competitive Intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红梅; 甘利人

    2001-01-01

    The paper outlines the principles of the customer matrix and the producer matrix applied in competitive intelligence. At the same time, it discusses how to establish the customer matrix and the producer matrix. The problems that should be paid attention to in the practice are also put forward.

  10. Database principles programming performance

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi

  11. Principles of private law

    OpenAIRE

    Andraško, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  12. Solitary waves of the splitted RLW equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, S. I.

    2001-07-01

    A combination of the splitting method and the cubic B-spline finite elements is used to solve the non-linear regularized long wave (RLW) equation. This approach involves a Bubnov-Galerkin method with cubic B-spline finite elements so that there is continuity of the dependent variable and its first derivative throughout the solution region. Time integration of the resulting systems is effected using a Crank-Nicholson approximation. In simulations of the migration of a single solitary wave this algorithm is shown to have higher accuracy and better conservation than a recent splitting difference scheme based on cubic spline interpolation functions, for different amplitudes ranging from a very small ( ⩾0.03) to a considerably high amplitudes ( ⩽0.3). The development of an undular bore is modeled.

  13. Meshed split skin graft for extensive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A 30 year old female presented with generalized stable vitiligo involving large areas of the body. Since large areas were to be treated it was decided to do meshed split skin graft. A phototoxic blister over recipient site was induced by applying 8 MOP solution followed by exposure to UVA. The split skin graft was harvested from donor area by Padgett dermatome which was meshed by an ampligreffe to increase the size of the graft by 4 times. Significant pigmentation of the depigmented skin was seen after 5 months. This procedure helps to cover large recipient areas, when pigmented donor skin is limited with minimal risk of scarring. Phototoxic blister enables easy separation of epidermis thus saving time required for dermabrasion from recipient site.

  14. Functional Analysis of Split Airport Business Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Roguljić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimisation of business processes represents the basis ofimproving the competitiveness of the Ailport as a service pro·vider. This directly implies not only the analysis and creation ofthe model of current organisation and technological processesbut also the necessity to measure these processes in order to reorganiseand improve them. Consequently, the Split AitportAuthority considers the functional analysis of its business processesas one of the major issues. Since in April2002 the analysisand modelling were completed in all the organisational unitsof handling setvice and cargo department organisational structures,both of the organisational structure of these services, aswell as of processes of aircraft, passenger, baggage and cargohandling, this paper will analyse the implementation of ARISComputer System at Split Airport Ground Handling Process.

  15. Artificial photosynthesis for solar water-splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Vayssieres, Lionel; Durrant, James R.

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen generated from solar-driven water-splitting has the potential to be a clean, sustainable and abundant energy source. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, artificial solar water-splitting devices are now being designed and tested. Recent developments based on molecular and/or nanostructure designs have led to advances in our understanding of light-induced charge separation and subsequent catalytic water oxidation and reduction reactions. Here we review some of the recent progress towards developing artificial photosynthetic devices, together with their analogies to biological photosynthesis, including technologies that focus on the development of visible-light active hetero-nanostructures and require an understanding of the underlying interfacial carrier dynamics. Finally, we propose a vision for a future sustainable hydrogen fuel community based on artificial photosynthesis.

  16. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders

    KAUST Repository

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency.

  17. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; Berkovits, Dan; Yamane, Isao

    2007-01-01

    A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw) proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line adioactive Ion Beam Facility) design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kWof proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fractionof the main H- beam, magnetic splitting of H- and H0, and stripping of H0 to H+. The method allowsslow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  18. Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C

    2001-01-01

    Embryo splitting may be used to increase the potential fertility of couples requiring IVF. Using cattle as a model, it is possible to increase pregnancy rates from 70% per transfer of good quality in-vivo-produced embryos, to 110% by transferring the two demi-embryos resulting from the bisection of one embryo. The 30-40% greater chance of conception would reduce costs for the government, health authorities and patients, and reduce stress, time and complications for women having IVF treatment. Embryo splitting may also provide donor embryos for infertile couples that cannot conceive naturally or with IVF. The shortage of children for adoption and donor embryos may be overcome by the production of demi-embryos.

  19. Bunch Splitting Simulations for the JLEIC Ion Collider Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, Todd J. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Gamage, Randika [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We describe the bunch splitting strategies for the proposed JLEIC ion collider ring at Jefferson Lab. This complex requires an unprecedented 9:6832 bunch splitting, performed in several stages. We outline the problem and current results, optimized with ESME including general parameterization of 1:2 bunch splitting for JLEIC parameters.

  20. 16 CFR 802.10 - Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 EXEMPTION RULES § 802.10 Stock dividends and splits; reorganizations. (a) The acquisition of voting securities pursuant to a stock split...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  2. Ispra Mark-10 water splitting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A thermochemical water splitting process, the Ispra Mark-10 chemical reaction cycle, was chosen for examining the possibility of using water to produce hydrogen on a large scale for fuel and major industrial chemical uses. The assumed energy source for the process is an HTGR (helium cooled). A process flow diagram, a material balance, and an energy balance were developed for the thermochemical reaction cycle. Principal reactions which constitute the cycle are included.

  3. Height in Splittings of Hyperbolic Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahan Mitra

    2004-02-01

    Suppose is a hyperbolic subgroup of a hyperbolic group . Assume there exists > 0 such that the intersection of essentially distinct conjugates of is always finite. Further assume splits over with hyperbolic vertex and edge groups and the two inclusions of are quasi-isometric embeddings. Then is quasiconvex in . This answers a question of Swarup and provides a partial converse to the main theorem of [23].

  4. Continuously tunable, split-cavity gyrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, G. F.; Gross, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a gyrotron cavity configuration which is split in halves longitudinally, to allow any frequency lying between the fixed cavity resonance to be assessed by mechanically changing the separation of the two halves. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate that the rate-of-change in resonant frequency with separation is greatest if the minor axis of the cavity cross section is the one undergoing change. Excellent agreement with theory is noted for these results.

  5. The B-meson mass splitting from non-perturbative quenched lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, A G; Marquard, P; Meyer, H B; Piclum, J H; Sommer, R; Steinhauser, M

    2007-01-01

    We perform the non-perturbative (quenched) renormalization of the chromo-magnetic operator in Heavy Quark Effective Theory and its three-loop matching to QCD. At order 1/m of the expansion, the operator is responsible for the mass splitting between the pseudoscalar and vector B-mesons. These new computed factors are affected by an uncertainty negligible in comparison to the known bare matrix element of the operator between B-states. Furthermore, they push the quenched determination of the spin splitting for the Bs-meson much closer to its experimental value than the previous perturbatively renormalized computations. The renormalization factor for three commonly used heavy quark actions and the Wilson gauge action and useful parametrizations of the matching coefficient are provided.

  6. Modified method of splitting with respect to physical processes for solving radiation gas dynamics equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseev, N. Ya.

    2017-02-01

    An approach based on a modified splitting method is proposed for solving the radiation gas dynamics equations in the multigroup kinetic approximation. The idea of the approach is that the original system of equations is split using the thermal radiation transfer equation rather than the energy equation. As a result, analytical methods can be used to solve integrodifferential equations and problems can be computed in the multigroup kinetic approximation without iteration with respect to the collision integral or matrix inversion. Moreover, the approach can naturally be extended to multidimensional problems. A high-order accurate difference scheme is constructed using an approximate Godunov solver for the Riemann problem in two-temperature gas dynamics.

  7. Local Analysis, Cardinality, and Split Trick of Quasi-biorthogonal Frame Wavelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Hua ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    The notion of quasi-biorthogonal frame wavelets is a generalization of the notion of orthogonal wavelets. A quasi-biorthogonal frame wavelet with the cardinality r consists of r pairs of functions.In this paper we first analyze the local property of the quasi-biorthogonal frame wavelet and show that its each pair of functions generates reconstruction formulas of the corresponding subspaces. Next we show that the lower bound of its cardinalities depends on a pair of dual frame multiresolution analyses deriving it. Finally, we present a split trick and show that any quasi-biorthogonal frame wavelet can be split into a new quasi-biorthogonal frame wavelet with an arbitrarily large cardinality. For generality,we work in the setting of matrix dilations.

  8. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  9. Splitting neutrino masses and showering into Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Fargion, D; Iacovelli, M; Lanciano, O; Oliva, P; De Lucentini, P G S; Grossi, M; De Santis, M

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino masses might be as light as a few time the atmospheric neutrino mass splitting. High Energy ZeV cosmic neutrinos (in Z-Showering model) might hit relic ones at each mass in different resonance energies in our nearby Universe. This non-degenerated density and energy must split UHE Z-boson secondaries (in Z-Burst model) leading to multi injection of UHECR nucleons within future extreme AUGER energy. Secondaries of Z-Burst as neutral gamma, below a few tens EeV are better surviving local GZK cut-off and they might explain recent Hires BL-Lac UHECR correlations at small angles. A different high energy resonance must lead to Glashow's anti-neutrino showers while hitting electrons in matter. In air, Glashow's anti-neutrino showers lead to collimated and directional air-showers offering a new Neutrino Astronomy. At greater energy around PeV, Tau escaping mountains and Earth and decaying in flight are effectively showering in air sky. These Horizontal showering is splitting by geomagnetic field in forked sha...

  10. P-wave Cooper pair splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Soller

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Splitting of Cooper pairs has recently been realized experimentally for s-wave Cooper pairs. A split Cooper pair represents an entangled two-electron pair state, which has possible application in on-chip quantum computation. Likewise the spin-activity of interfaces in nanoscale tunnel junctions has been investigated theoretically and experimentally in recent years. However, the possible implications of spin-active interfaces in Cooper pair splitters so far have not been investigated.Results: We analyze the current and the cross correlation of currents in a superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitter, including spin-active scattering. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we calculate the cumulant-generating function of charge transfer. As a first step, we discuss characteristics of the conductance for crossed Andreev reflection in superconductor–ferromagnet beam splitters with s-wave and p-wave superconductors and no spin-active scattering. In a second step, we consider spin-active scattering and show how to realize p-wave splitting using only an s-wave superconductor, through the process of spin-flipped crossed Andreev reflection. We present results for the conductance and cross correlations.Conclusion: Spin-activity of interfaces in Cooper pair splitters allows for new features in ordinary s-wave Cooper pair splitters, that can otherwise only be realized by using p-wave superconductors. In particular, it provides access to Bell states that are different from the typical spin singlet state.

  11. Dynamics of a split torque helicopter transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Majid; Krantz, Timothy

    A high reduction ratio split torque gear train has been proposed as an alternative to a planetary configuration for the final stage of a helicopter transmission. A split torque design allows a high ratio of power-to-weight for the transmission. The design studied in this work includes a pivoting beam that acts to balance thrust loads produced by the helical gear meshes in each of two parallel power paths. When the thrust loads are balanced, the torque is split evenly. A mathematical model was developed to study the dynamics of the system. The effects of time varying gear mesh stiffness, static transmission errors, and flexible bearing supports are included in the model. The model was demonstrated with a test case. Results show that although the gearbox has a symmetric configuration, the simulated dynamic behavior of the first and second compound gears are not the same. Also, results show that shaft location and mesh stiffness tuning are significant design parameters that influence the motions of the system.

  12. Transonymization as Revitalization: Old Toponyms of Split

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lozić Knezović

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with ancient toponyms of Split, a city in the centre of the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Along with numerous monuments of spiritual and material culture, toponyms are part of the two-thousand-year-old city’s historical heritage. Split in particular abounds with sources that provide valuable information concerning ancient toponyms. In terms of the study and preservation of toponymy, three basic sources are crucial: the living oral tradition, written records, and old charts — mostly cadastral plans. In addition to researching, recording, documenting, and publishing Split’s ancient place names through toponomastic, geographical, and town planning studies, toponymic heritage preservation is also implemented through the direct use of the names in everyday life. One of the ways of such revitalization of Split’s ancient place names is their transonymization into the category of chrematonyms, i.e. their secondary use as names of institutions, shops, restaurants, schools, sports associations and facilities, bars and coffee shops, cemeteries, and so on. The present paper provides a classification and etymological analysis of detoponymic chrematonyms of Split. The authors propose measures to raise public awareness of the historical information conveyed by the names and raise some issues for consideration regarding further study of transonymization as a means of revitalizing local toponymic tradition.

  13. Streamlined expressed protein ligation using split inteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Perelló, Miquel; Liu, Zhihua; Shah, Neel H; Willis, John A; Idoyaga, Juliana; Muir, Tom W

    2013-01-09

    Chemically modified proteins are invaluable tools for studying the molecular details of biological processes, and they also hold great potential as new therapeutic agents. Several methods have been developed for the site-specific modification of proteins, one of the most widely used being expressed protein ligation (EPL) in which a recombinant α-thioester is ligated to an N-terminal Cys-containing peptide. Despite the widespread use of EPL, the generation and isolation of the required recombinant protein α-thioesters remain challenging. We describe here a new method for the preparation and purification of recombinant protein α-thioesters using engineered versions of naturally split DnaE inteins. This family of autoprocessing enzymes is closely related to the inteins currently used for protein α-thioester generation, but they feature faster kinetics and are split into two inactive polypeptides that need to associate to become active. Taking advantage of the strong affinity between the two split intein fragments, we devised a streamlined procedure for the purification and generation of protein α-thioesters from cell lysates and applied this strategy for the semisynthesis of a variety of proteins including an acetylated histone and a site-specifically modified monoclonal antibody.

  14. ZnIr2O4: An efficient photocatalyst with Rashba splitting

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor-based photocatalysts nowadays are of central interest for the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, the efficiency of the known materials is small for direct utilization of the solar energy. Using first-principles calculations, we show that ZnIr2O4 can overcome this shortage. Modified Becke-Johnson calculations give an indirect band of 2.25 eV, which can be reduced to the visible energy range by S doping. For 25% S doping we find a direct band gap of 1.25 eV and a Rashba spin splitting of 220 meV Å. The valence band edge potential is 2.89 V against the standard hydrogen electrode, which is sufficient for photocatalytic water oxidation and pollutant degradation. The optical absorption of S-doped ZnIr2O4 is strongly enhanced, making the material an efficient photocatalyst for visible light. © 2013 EPLA.

  15. Tuning magnetic splitting of zigzag graphene nanoribbons by edge functionalization with hydroxyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huizhen; Yang, Haifang; Li, Lin; Fu, Huixia; Ma, Wei; Niu, Chunyao; Sun, Jiatao, E-mail: jtsun@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Meng, Sheng; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: czgu@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-21

    The electronic properties and relative stability of zigzag graphene nanoribbons are studied by varying the percentage of hydroxyl radicals for edge saturation using first principle calculations. The passivated structures of zigzag graphene nanoribbon have spin-polarized ground state with antiferromagnetic exchange coupling across the edge and ferromagnetic coupling along the edges. When the edges are specially passivated by hydroxyl, the potentials of spin exchange interaction across the two edges shift accordingly, resulting into a spin-semiconductor. Varying the concentration of hydroxyl groups can alter the maximum magnetization splitting. When the percentage of asymmetrically adsorbed hydroxyl reaches 50%, the magnetization splitting can reach a value as high as 275 meV due to the asymmetrical potential across the nanoribbon edges. These results would favor spintronic device applications based on zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

  16. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  17. Principles of snow hydrology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeWalle, David R; Rango, Albert

    2008-01-01

    ... Hydrology describes the factors that control the accumulation, melting, and runoff of water from seasonal snowpacks over the surface of the earth. The book addresses not only the basic principles governing snow in the hydrologic cycle, but also the latest applications of remote sensing, and principles applicable to modelling streamflow from snowmelt across lar...

  18. Great Principles of Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Denning, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science. The website ...April 2008 (Rev. 8/31/08) The Great Principles of Computing is a framework for understanding computing as a field of science.

  19. Basic principle of superconductivity

    OpenAIRE

    De Cao, Tian

    2007-01-01

    The basic principle of superconductivity is suggested in this paper. There have been two vital wrong suggestions on the basic principle, one is the relation between superconductivity and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), and another is the relation between superconductivity and pseudogap.

  20. Dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar system e A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaiwen Xia; Wei Yao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic properties of rocks are important in a variety of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems. Due to the transient nature of the loading, dynamic tests of rock materials are very different from and much more challenging than their static counterparts. Dynamic tests are usually conducted using the split Hopkinson bar or Kolsky bar systems, which include both split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) and split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB) systems. Significant progress has been made on the quantification of various rock dynamic properties, owing to the advances in the experimental techniques of SHPB system. This review aims to fully describe and critically assess the detailed procedures and principles of tech-niques for dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson bars. The history and principles of SHPB are outlined, followed by the key loading techniques that are useful for dynamic rock tests with SHPB (i.e. pulse shaping, momentum-trap and multi-axial loading techniques). Various measurement techniques for rock tests in SHPB (i.e. X-ray micro computed tomography (CT), laser gap gauge (LGG), digital image corre-lation (DIC), Moiré method, caustics method, photoelastic coating method, dynamic infrared thermog-raphy) are then discussed. As the main objective of the review, various dynamic measurement techniques for rocks using SHPB are described, including dynamic rock strength measurements (i.e. dynamic compression, tension, bending and shear tests), dynamic fracture measurements (i.e. dynamic imitation and propagation fracture toughness, dynamic fracture energy and fracture velocity), and dy-namic techniques for studying the influences of temperature and pore water.

  1. Dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson (Kolsky bar system – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwen Xia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic properties of rocks are important in a variety of rock mechanics and rock engineering problems. Due to the transient nature of the loading, dynamic tests of rock materials are very different from and much more challenging than their static counterparts. Dynamic tests are usually conducted using the split Hopkinson bar or Kolsky bar systems, which include both split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB and split Hopkinson tension bar (SHTB systems. Significant progress has been made on the quantification of various rock dynamic properties, owing to the advances in the experimental techniques of SHPB system. This review aims to fully describe and critically assess the detailed procedures and principles of techniques for dynamic rock tests using split Hopkinson bars. The history and principles of SHPB are outlined, followed by the key loading techniques that are useful for dynamic rock tests with SHPB (i.e. pulse shaping, momentum-trap and multi-axial loading techniques. Various measurement techniques for rock tests in SHPB (i.e. X-ray micro computed tomography (CT, laser gap gauge (LGG, digital image correlation (DIC, Moiré method, caustics method, photoelastic coating method, dynamic infrared thermography are then discussed. As the main objective of the review, various dynamic measurement techniques for rocks using SHPB are described, including dynamic rock strength measurements (i.e. dynamic compression, tension, bending and shear tests, dynamic fracture measurements (i.e. dynamic imitation and propagation fracture toughness, dynamic fracture energy and fracture velocity, and dynamic techniques for studying the influences of temperature and pore water.

  2. Strongly enhanced Rashba splittings in an oxide heterostructure: A tantalate monolayer on BaHfO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Ihm, Jisoon; Chung, Suk Bum

    2016-09-01

    In the two-dimensional electron gas emerging at the transition metal oxide surface and interface, various exotic electronic ordering and topological phases can become experimentally more accessible with the stronger Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Here, we present a promising route to realize significant Rashba-type band splitting using a thin film heterostructure. Based on first-principles methods and analytic model analyses, a tantalate monolayer on BaHfO3 is shown to host two-dimensional bands originating from Ta t2 g states with strong Rashba spin splittings, nearly 10% of the bandwidth, at both the band minima and saddle points. An important factor in this enhanced splitting is the significant t2 g-eg interband coupling, which can generically arise when the inversion symmetry is maximally broken due to the strong confinement of the 2DEG on a transition metal oxide surface. Our results could be useful in realizing topological superconductivity at oxide surfaces.

  3. Dynamic sealing principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  4. Variational principles in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis

    2007-01-01

    Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...

  5. Equivalence principles exotica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S. UNNIKRISHNAN; George T. GILLIES

    2008-01-01

    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  6. Software citation principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfon M. Smith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Software is a critical part of modern research and yet there is little support across the scholarly ecosystem for its acknowledgement and citation. Inspired by the activities of the FORCE11 working group focused on data citation, this document summarizes the recommendations of the FORCE11 Software Citation Working Group and its activities between June 2015 and April 2016. Based on a review of existing community practices, the goal of the working group was to produce a consolidated set of citation principles that may encourage broad adoption of a consistent policy for software citation across disciplines and venues. Our work is presented here as a set of software citation principles, a discussion of the motivations for developing the principles, reviews of existing community practice, and a discussion of the requirements these principles would place upon different stakeholders. Working examples and possible technical solutions for how these principles can be implemented will be discussed in a separate paper.

  7. The structure of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Antonio J.; Sánchez, José M.

    2016-12-01

    We introduce the class of split regular BiHom-Lie algebras as the natural extension of the one of split Hom-Lie algebras and so of split Lie algebras. We show that an arbitrary split regular BiHom-Lie algebra L is of the form L = U +∑jIj with U a linear subspace of a fixed maximal abelian subalgebra H and any Ij a well described (split) ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik ] = 0 if j ≠ k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its simple ideals.

  8. Multiple beam splitting in elastic phononic crystal plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Oh, Joo Hwan; Kim, Yoon Young

    2015-02-01

    This work presents an experimental evidence for triple beam splitting in an elastic plate with an embedded elastic phononic crystal (PC) prism and elaborates on its working mechanism. While there were reports on negative refraction and double beam splitting with PCs, no experimental evidence on the splitting of triple or more ultrasonic elastic beams through PCs has been shown yet. After the experimental results are presented in case of triple beam splitting, further analysis is carried out to explain how triple or more beams can be split depending on elastic PC prism angles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of electron-electron interactions on Rashba-like and spin-split systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandradinata, A.; Hirsch, J. E.

    2010-11-01

    The role of electron-electron interactions is analyzed for Rashba-like and spin-split systems within a tight-binding single-band Hubbard model with on-site and all nearest-neighbor matrix elements of the Coulomb interaction. By Rashba-like systems we refer to the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit-coupled phases while spin-split systems have spin-up and spin-down Fermi surfaces shifted relative to each other. Both systems break parity but preserve time-reversal symmetry. They belong to a class of symmetry-breaking ground states that satisfy: (i) electron crystal momentum is a good quantum number, (ii) these states have no net magnetic moment, and (iii) their distribution of “polarized spin” in momentum space breaks the lattice symmetry. For all members of this class, the relevant Coulomb matrix elements are found to be nearest-neighbor exchange J , pair hopping J' , and nearest-neighbor repulsion V . These ground states lower their energy most effectively through J , hence we name them class J states. The competing effects of V-J' on the direct and exchange energies determine the relative stability of class J states. We show that the spin-split and Rashba-like phases are the most favored ground states within class J because they have the minimum anisotropy in polarized spin. We analyze these two states on a square lattice and find that the spin-split phase is always favored for near-empty bands; above a critical filling, we predict a transition from the paramagnetic to the Rashba-like phase at a critical J(Jc1) and a second transition from the Rashba-like to the spin-split state at Jc2>Jc1 . An energetic comparison with ferromagnetism highlights the importance of the role of V in the stability of class J states. We discuss the relevance of our results to (i) the α and β phases proposed by Wu and Zhang in the Fermi-liquid formalism and (ii) experimental observations of spin-orbit splitting in Au(111) surface states.

  10. On K2-group of a Formal Matrix Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Qiang FAN; Zhi Xiang YIN

    2012-01-01

    Let S be a formal matrix ring,T the subring consisting of all diagonal elements,I the set consisting of all off-diagonal elements.Then I is a split radical ideal under certain conditions.In this paper,we show that K2(S) (=) K2(T) ⊕ K2(S,I),and a presentation of K2(S,I) is given.

  11. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  12. Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C M

    2016-05-17

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  13. Dirac Cellular Automaton from Split-step Quantum Walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Arindam; Chandrashekar, C. M.

    2016-05-01

    Simulations of one quantum system by an other has an implication in realization of quantum machine that can imitate any quantum system and solve problems that are not accessible to classical computers. One of the approach to engineer quantum simulations is to discretize the space-time degree of freedom in quantum dynamics and define the quantum cellular automata (QCA), a local unitary update rule on a lattice. Different models of QCA are constructed using set of conditions which are not unique and are not always in implementable configuration on any other system. Dirac Cellular Automata (DCA) is one such model constructed for Dirac Hamiltonian (DH) in free quantum field theory. Here, starting from a split-step discrete-time quantum walk (QW) which is uniquely defined for experimental implementation, we recover the DCA along with all the fine oscillations in position space and bridge the missing connection between DH-DCA-QW. We will present the contribution of the parameters resulting in the fine oscillations on the Zitterbewegung frequency and entanglement. The tuneability of the evolution parameters demonstrated in experimental implementation of QW will establish it as an efficient tool to design quantum simulator and approach quantum field theory from principles of quantum information theory.

  14. M-Split: A Graphical User Interface to Analyze Multilayered Anisotropy from Shear Wave Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abgarmi, Bizhan; Ozacar, A. Arda

    2017-04-01

    Shear wave splitting analysis are commonly used to infer deep anisotropic structure. For simple cases, obtained delay times and fast-axis orientations are averaged from reliable results to define anisotropy beneath recording seismic stations. However, splitting parameters show systematic variations with back azimuth in the presence of complex anisotropy and cannot be represented by average time delay and fast axis orientation. Previous researchers had identified anisotropic complexities at different tectonic settings and applied various approaches to model them. Most commonly, such complexities are modeled by using multiple anisotropic layers with priori constraints from geologic data. In this study, a graphical user interface called M-Split is developed to easily process and model multilayered anisotropy with capabilities to properly address the inherited non-uniqueness. M-Split program runs user defined grid searches through the model parameter space for two-layer anisotropy using formulation of Silver and Savage (1994) and creates sensitivity contour plots to locate local maximas and analyze all possible models with parameter tradeoffs. In order to minimize model ambiguity and identify the robust model parameters, various misfit calculation procedures are also developed and embedded to M-Split which can be used depending on the quality of the observations and their back-azimuthal coverage. Case studies carried out to evaluate the reliability of the program using real noisy data and for this purpose stations from two different networks are utilized. First seismic network is the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake research institute (KOERI) which includes long term running permanent stations and second network comprises seismic stations deployed temporary as part of the "Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD-CAT)" project funded by NSF. It is also worth to note that M-Split is designed as open source program which can be modified by users for

  15. Analyzing and enhancing OSKI for sparse matrix-vector multiplication

    CERN Document Server

    Akbudak, Kadir; Aykanat, Cevdet

    2012-01-01

    Sparse matrix-vector multiplication (SpMxV) is a kernel operation widely used in iterative linear solvers. The same sparse matrix is multiplied by a dense vector repeatedly in these solvers. Matrices with irregular sparsity patterns make it difficult to utilize cache locality effectively in SpMxV computations. In this work, we investigate single- and multiple-SpMxV frameworks for exploiting cache locality in SpMxV computations. For the single-SpMxV framework, we propose two cache-size-aware top-down row/column-reordering methods based on 1D and 2D sparse matrix partitioning by utilizing the column-net and enhancing the row-column-net hypergraph models of sparse matrices. The multiple-SpMxV framework depends on splitting a given matrix into a sum of multiple nonzero-disjoint matrices so that the SpMxV operation is performed as a sequence of multiple input- and output-dependent SpMxV operations. For an effective matrix splitting required in this framework, we propose a cache-size-aware top-down approach based o...

  16. Transverse momentum dependent splitting functions at work: quark-to-gluon splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Hentschinski, M; Kutak, K

    2016-01-01

    Using the recently obtained Pgq splitting function we extend the low x evolution equation for gluons to account for contributions originating from quark-to-gluon splitting. In order to write down a consistent equation we resum virtual corrections coming from the gluon channel and demonstrate that this implies a suitable regularization of the Pgq singularity, corresponding to a soft emitted quark. We also note that the obtained equation is in a straightforward manner generalized to a nonlinear evolution equation which takes into account effects due to the presence of high gluon densities.

  17. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  18. Principles of dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics

  19. Biomedical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem

  20. Developing principles of growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma

    of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....

  1. Split ring resonator resonance assisted terahertz antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Galal, Hossam; Vitiello, Miriam S

    2016-01-01

    We report on the computational development of novel architectures of low impedance broadband antennas, for efficient detection of Terahertz (THz) frequency beams. The conceived Split Ring Resonator Resonance Assisted (SRR RA) antennas are based on both a capacitive and inductive scheme, exploiting a 200 Ohm and 400 Ohm impedance, respectively. Moreover, the impedance is tunable by varying the coupling parameters in the exploited geometry, allowing for better matching with the detector circuit for maximum power extraction. Our simulation results have been obtained by assuming a 1.5 THz operation frequency.

  2. Hyperfine splitting in hydrogen with form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Daza, F Garcia; Nowakowski, M

    2010-01-01

    Proton structure corrections to the hyperfine splittings in hydrogen are evaluated using the Breit potential with electromagnetic form factors. In contrast to other methods, several new features emerge: the Breit potential with $q^2$-dependent form factors is just an extension of the standard Breit equation which gives the hyperfine Hamiltonian. Order $\\alpha^5$ corrections are obtained from a one-photon exchange amplitude and time-independent perturbation theory. Structure corrections to $D_{21} = 8 E^{2S}_{hfs} - E^{1S}_{hfs}$ start at order $\\alpha^6$. QED corrections are comparable to structure corrections which must be evaluated ab initio.

  3. A splitting-free vorticity redistribution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhart, M.; Obi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a splitting-free variant of the vorticity redistribution method. Spatial consistency and stability when combined with a time-stepping scheme are proven. We propose a new strategy preventing excessive growth in the number of particles while retaining the order of consistency. The novel concept of small neighbourhoods significantly reduces the method's computational cost. In numerical experiments the method showed second order convergence, one order higher than predicted by the analysis. Compared to the fast multipole code used in the velocity computation, the method is about three times faster.

  4. Streamers in air splitting into three branches

    CERN Document Server

    Heijmans, L C J; van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the branching of positive streamers in air and present the first systematic investigation of splitting into more than two branches. We study discharges in 100 mbar artificial air that is exposed to voltage pulses of 10 kV applied to a needle electrode 160 mm above a grounded plate. By imaging the discharge with two cameras from three angles, we establish that about every 200th branching event is a branching into three. Branching into three occurs more frequently for the relatively thicker streamers. In fact, we find that the surface of the total streamer cross-sections before and after a branching event is roughly the same.

  5. Large Bandgap Semiconductors for Solar Water Splitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malizia, Mauro

    water splitting devices having tandem design. The increase of the photovoltage produced by GaP under illumination was the main goal of this work. GaP has a bandgap of 2.25 eV and could in theory produce a photovoltage of approximately 1.7 V. Instead, the photovoltage produced by the semiconductor...... density generated by GaP was increased by more than 60% by electrochemical etching of the surface. The etching process produces a rough microstructured surface that increases the optical path length of the incident photons and the collection of photogenerated electrons.Furthermore, the synthesis of BiVO4...

  6. Bateman's principle and immunity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jens Rolff

    2002-01-01

    .... This alternative is based on Bateman's principle, that males gain fitness by increasing their mating success whilst females increase fitness through longevity because their reproductive effort is much higher...

  7. The Symmetry Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Rosen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The symmetry principle is described in this paper. The full details are given in the book: J. Rosen, Symmetry in Science: An Introduction to the General Theory (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1995.

  8. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  9. Principles of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, Alberto P

    2017-01-01

    This is the first monograph on nanomagnetism. It emphasizes general principles and mechanisms relevant to the understanding of the intriguing properties of nanomagnetic objects including thin films, nanoparticles, nanowires, nanodisks and nanorings.

  10. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  11. Principles Scientifiques, Principes Philosophiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Gaston Granger

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A principle is a starting point of departure as well as a rule. In science principles are either alleged evident rules or generalizations of already accepted laws, or formal determinations for objects in a given domain. Thus two problems arise: first, does their nature have a conventional character? and sencond, what kind of truth is to be assigned to them. In philosophy principles are taken as a method of thinking as well as fundamental experiences. Even though they are points of departure, their true meaning is known only after a philosophical job is done. Thus, paradoxically enough, we can say that in both science and philosophy a principle is at the same time in the begining and in the end.

  12. Modification of Leather Split by In Situ Polymerization of Acrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leather split, the byproduct of leather manufacture, possesses low utility value because it has loose weave of collagen fibers and weak mechanical strengths. Herein, a practical and convenient method for increasing strengths of leather split was developed by one-step in situ polymerization. The structures and properties of polyacrylate/leather split composites were systematically investigated. The results suggested the monomers with an α-methyl and a proper straight-chain ester group, such as nBMA, can effectively modify the leather split. For leather split with a thickness of 1.6 mm, the rational processes for preparation of polyacrylate/leather split composite are that monomer and split were stirred in a drum for 4 hours for full permeation and then the split was heated in anaerobic condition at 45°C for 30 min. The tensile strength, tear strength, and elongation at break of the optimized PnBMA/split composite were 18.72 MPa, 62.73 N/mm, and 46.02%, respectively. With these mechanical properties, the split after modification can be well used as leather for making shoes, bags, gloves, and clothing.

  13. Heisenberg's observability principle

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, JE

    2014-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper ‘Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations’ marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be ‘founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable’. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpr...

  14. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  15. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  16. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天

    2003-01-01

    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  18. Microwave system engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Raff, Samuel J

    1977-01-01

    Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo

  19. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  20. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  1. Generalized uncertainty principles

    CERN Document Server

    Machluf, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon in the essence of classical uncertainty principles is well known since the thirties of the last century. We introduce a new phenomenon which is in the essence of a new notion that we introduce: "Generalized Uncertainty Principles". We show the relation between classical uncertainty principles and generalized uncertainty principles. We generalized "Landau-Pollak-Slepian" uncertainty principle. Our generalization relates the following two quantities and two scaling parameters: 1) The weighted time spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |f(x)|^2w_1(x)dx$, ($w_1(x)$ is a non-negative function). 2) The weighted frequency spreading $\\int_{-\\infty}^\\infty |\\hat{f}(\\omega)|^2w_2(\\omega)d\\omega$. 3) The time weight scale $a$, ${w_1}_a(x)=w_1(xa^{-1})$ and 4) The frequency weight scale $b$, ${w_2}_b(\\omega)=w_2(\\omega b^{-1})$. "Generalized Uncertainty Principle" is an inequality that summarizes the constraints on the relations between the two spreading quantities and two scaling parameters. For any two reason...

  2. Simulation of the strain rate sensitive flow behavior of SiC-particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    Tirtom, İsmail; Güden, Mustafa; Yıldız, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Strain rate dependent compression mechanical behavior of an SiC-particulate reinforced Al (2024-O) metal matrix composite (MMC) with different particle volume fractions was numerically investigated at various strain rates. Calculations were performed using axisymmetric finite element unit cell model, in which an elastic SiC particle was embedded inside a strain rate sensitive viscoplastic Al matrix. Stress–strain curves of Al matrix material were derived from Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar expe...

  3. Design of a Cocoa Pod Splitting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunde, I.A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the design of a very efficient, highly productive, cost- effective, ergonomic and environmentally friendly cocoa splitting machine that will be used by cocoa Farmers world - wide to increase and boost productivity and enhance the quality of coca products to the highest possible level devoid of any hazards, dangers or perils. This machine can be manufactured from locally available scraps and assembled and maintained at a relatively low cost. The knives which do the splitting are actuated by simple hydraulic mechanisms devoid any major stresses, forces or moments acting on them. These mechanisms are powered by simple low - powered lobe positive displacement or hydrostatic hydraulic pumps of power rating of 87.5 kW (65.625 Hp. The machine can be assembled and/or disassembled easily and quickly, and, therefore can be owned patronized by a group of cocoa farmers who can easily bear the low cost of maintenance of the already relative cheap machine.

  4. Mild-split SUSY with flavor

    CERN Document Server

    Eliaz, Latif; Gudnason, Sven Bjarke; Tsuk, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of a gauge mediated quiver-like model, the standard model flavor texture can be naturally generated. The model - like the MSSM - has furthermore a region in parameter space where the lightest Higgs mass is fed by heavy stop loops, which in turn sets the average squark mass scale near 10-20 TeV. We perform a careful flavor analysis to check whether this type of mild-split SUSY passes all flavor constraints as easily as envisioned in the original type of split SUSY. Interestingly, it turns out to be on the border of several constraints, in particular, the branching ratio of mu -> e gamma and, if order one complex phases are assumed, also epsilon_K neutron and electron EDM. Furthermore, we consider unification as well as dark matter candidates, especially the gravitino. Finally, we provide a closed-form formula for the soft masses of matter in arbitrary representations of any of the gauge groups in a generic quiver-like model with a general messenger sector.

  5. An Iterative Algorithm for the Split Equality and Multiple-Sets Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luoyi Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-sets split equality problem (MSSEP requires finding a point x∈∩i=1NCi, y∈∩j=1MQj such that Ax=By, where N and M are positive integers, {C1,C2,…,CN} and {Q1,Q2,…,QM} are closed convex subsets of Hilbert spaces H1, H2, respectively, and A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 are two bounded linear operators. When N=M=1, the MSSEP is called the split equality problem (SEP. If  B=I, then the MSSEP and SEP reduce to the well-known multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSSFP and split feasibility problem (SFP, respectively. One of the purposes of this paper is to introduce an iterative algorithm to solve the SEP and MSSEP in the framework of infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces under some more mild conditions for the iterative coefficient.

  6. Phosphine in various matrixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Matrix-bound phosphine was determined in the Jiaozhou Bay coastal sediment, in prawn-pond bottom soil, in the eutrophic lake Wulongtan, in the sewage sludge and in paddy soil as well. Results showed that matrix-bound phosphine levels in freshwater and coastal sediment, as well as in sewage sludge, are significantly higher than that in paddy soil. The correlation between matrix bound phosphine concentrations and organic phosphorus contents in sediment samples is discussed.

  7. Solar hydrogen production on some water splitting photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Tsuyoshi; Hisatomi, Takashi; Domen, Kazunari

    2016-09-01

    Photocatalytic overall water splitting into H2 and O2 is expected to be a promising method for the efficient utilization of solar energy. The design of optimal photocatalyst structures is a key to efficient overall water splitting, and the development of photocatalysts which can efficiently convert large portion of visible light spectrum has been required. Recently, a series of complex perovskite type transition metal oxynitrides, LaMgxT 1-xO1+3xN2-3x, was developed as photocatalysts for direct water splitting operable at wide wavelength of visible light. In addition two-step excitation water splitting via a novel photocatalytic device termed as photocatalyst sheet was developed. This consists of two types of semiconductors (hydrogen evolution photocatalyst and oxygen evolution photocatalyst) particles embedded in a conductive layer, and showed high efficiency for overall water splitting. These recent advances in photocatalytic water splitting were introduced.

  8. Split renal function measured by triphasic helical CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackstein, Nils [Radiologische Gemeinschaftspraxis am Evangelischen Krankenhaus, Paul-Zipp-Str. 171, 35398 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: nils.hackstein@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de; Buch, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikstr. 36, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: thomas.buch@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de; Rau, Wigbert S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Klinikstr. 36, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: wigbert.rau@uniklinikum-giessen.de; Weimer, Rolf [Department of Internal Medicine, Klinikstr. 36, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: Rolf.Weimer@innere.med.uni-giessen.de; Klett, Rigobert [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Friedrichstr. 25, Justus-Liebig University Giessen, 35385 Giessen (Germany)]. E-mail: rigobert.klett@radiol.med.uni-giessen.de

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To present a method for calculating split renal function solely from routine triphasic helical computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: We retrospectively included 26 adult patients who received renal scintigraphy and triphasic CT within 4 weeks in the years 2003 and 2004. All scans were performed using a standard abdominal protocol. Split renal function was calculated as relative single-kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using a simplified 'two-point Patlak plot' technique. As a reference method, split renal function was determined from renal scintigraphy using the standard technique. Results: Linear correlation between the two methods was r = 0.91, split renal function (CT) = 0.0266 + 0.9573 x split renal function (scintigraphy). Conclusion: Split renal function can be measured accurately by minimally extended triphasic CT.

  9. Hybrid flux splitting schemes for numerical resolution of two-phase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaatten, Tore

    2003-07-01

    This thesis deals with the construction of numerical schemes for approximating. solutions to a hyperbolic two-phase flow model. Numerical schemes for hyperbolic models are commonly divided in two main classes: Flux Vector Splitting (FVS) schemes which are based on scalar computations and Flux Difference Splitting (FDS) schemes which are based on matrix computations. FVS schemes are more efficient than FDS schemes, but FDS schemes are more accurate. The canonical FDS schemes are the approximate Riemann solvers which are based on a local decomposition of the system into its full wave structure. In this thesis the mathematical structure of the model is exploited to construct a class of hybrid FVS/FDS schemes, denoted as Mixture Flux (MF) schemes. This approach is based on a splitting of the system in two components associated with the pressure and volume fraction variables respectively, and builds upon hybrid FVS/FDS schemes previously developed for one-phase flow models. Through analysis and numerical experiments it is demonstrated that the MF approach provides several desirable features, including (1) Improved efficiency compared to standard approximate Riemann solvers, (2) Robustness under stiff conditions, (3) Accuracy on linear and nonlinear phenomena. In particular it is demonstrated that the framework allows for an efficient weakly implicit implementation, focusing on an accurate resolution of slow transients relevant for the petroleum industry. (author)

  10. Real-Time Compressive Sensing MRI Reconstruction Using GPU Computing and Split Bregman Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS has been shown to enable dramatic acceleration of MRI acquisition in some applications. Being an iterative reconstruction technique, CS MRI reconstructions can be more time-consuming than traditional inverse Fourier reconstruction. We have accelerated our CS MRI reconstruction by factors of up to 27 by using a split Bregman solver combined with a graphics processing unit (GPU computing platform. The increases in speed we find are similar to those we measure for matrix multiplication on this platform, suggesting that the split Bregman methods parallelize efficiently. We demonstrate that the combination of the rapid convergence of the split Bregman algorithm and the massively parallel strategy of GPU computing can enable real-time CS reconstruction of even acquisition data matrices of dimension 40962 or more, depending on available GPU VRAM. Reconstruction of two-dimensional data matrices of dimension 10242 and smaller took ~0.3 s or less, showing that this platform also provides very fast iterative reconstruction for small-to-moderate size images.

  11. Measurement of the hyperfine splitting of {sup 133}Cs atoms in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, K., E-mail: kimamura@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Department of Physics (Japan); Yang, X. F. [Peking University, School of Physics (China); Mitsuya, Y. [Meiji University, Department of Physics (Japan); Fujita, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayasaka, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Department of Physics (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Physics (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center (Japan); Odashima, H. [Meiji University, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuo, Y. [Hosei University, Department of Advanced Sciences (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    We have been developing a new nuclear laser spectroscopy method named “OROCHI” (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion-catcher). OROCHI utilizes superfluid helium (He II) not only as an efficient stopping medium of highly energetic ions but also as a host matrix of in-situ atomic laser spectroscopy. Using these characteristic of He II, we produce atomic spin polarization and measure Zeeman and hyperfine structure (HFS) splitting using laser-RF (radio frequency) / MW (microwave) double resonance method. From the measured energy splittings, we can deduce nuclear spins and moments. So far, we have conducted a series of experiments using both stable ({sup 85,87}Rb, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 197}Au, {sup 107,109}Ag) and unstable isotopes ({sup 84,86}Rb) to confirm the feasibility of OROCHI method, especially observing Zeeman resonance and determining nuclear spins. The measurement of HFS splitting of atoms introduced into He II is indispensable to clarify the nuclear properties by deducing nuclear moments as well as the study of nuclear spins. For this purpose, we perform a precision measurement of HFS of {sup 133}Cs atoms immersed in He II using laser ablation technique. In this paper, we describe the result of the experiment.

  12. Three Principles of Water Flow in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Lin, H.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of water flow in soils is crucial to understanding terrestrial hydrological cycle, surface energy balance, biogeochemical dynamics, ecosystem services, contaminant transport, and many other Critical Zone processes. However, due to the complex and dynamic nature of non-uniform flow, reconstruction and prediction of water flow in natural soils remain challenging. This study synthesizes three principles of water flow in soils that can improve modeling water flow in soils of various complexity. The first principle, known as the Darcy's law, came to light in the 19th century and suggested a linear relationship between water flux density and hydraulic gradient, which was modified by Buckingham for unsaturated soils. Combining mass balance and the Buckingham-Darcy's law, L.A. Richards quantitatively described soil water change with space and time, i.e., Richards equation. The second principle was proposed by L.A. Richards in the 20th century, which described the minimum pressure potential needed to overcome surface tension of fluid and initiate water flow through soil-air interface. This study extends this principle to encompass soil hydrologic phenomena related to varied interfaces and microscopic features and provides a more cohesive explanation of hysteresis, hydrophobicity, and threshold behavior when water moves through layered soils. The third principle is emerging in the 21st century, which highlights the complex and evolving flow networks embedded in heterogeneous soils. This principle is summarized as: Water moves non-uniformly in natural soils with a dual-flow regime, i.e., it follows the least-resistant or preferred paths when "pushed" (e.g., by storms) or "attracted" (e.g., by plants) or "restricted" (e.g., by bedrock), but moves diffusively into the matrix when "relaxed" (e.g., at rest) or "touched" (e.g., adsorption). The first principle is a macroscopic view of steady-state water flow, the second principle is a microscopic view of interface

  13. Discovering lead-free perovskite solar materials with a split-anion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi-Yang; Shi, Jian; Lian, Jie; Gao, Weiwei; Agiorgousis, Michael L; Zhang, Peihong; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-03-28

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar materials, being low-cost and high-performance, are promising for large-scale deployment of the photovoltaic technology. A key challenge that remains to be addressed is the toxicity of these materials since the high-efficiency solar cells are made of lead-containing materials, in particular, CH3NH3PbI3. Here, based on first-principles calculation, we search for lead-free perovskite materials based on the split-anion approach, where we replace Pb with non-toxic elements while introducing dual anions (i.e., splitting the anion sites) that preserve the charge neutrality. We show that CH3NH3BiSeI2 and CH3NH3BiSI2 exhibit improved band gaps and optical absorption over CH3NH3PbI3. The split-anion approach could also be applied to pure inorganic perovskites, significantly enlarging the pool of candidate materials in the design of low-cost, high-performance and environmentally-friendly perovskite solar materials.

  14. Effect of Tooth Profile Modification on Vibration of Power Split Gear Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Lin

    2016-01-01

    Based on Newton's second law, the bend⁃torsion⁃shaft coupling nonlinear dynamic model and equations of power split gear transmission system are established. According to the principle of tooth profile modification, the tooth profile modification is considered as time⁃varying gear backlash function acting along the line of action. Then the dynamic functions are solved by using Runge⁃Kutta numerical method. After analyzing the effect of tooth profile modification quantity( TPMQ) and relative tooth profile modification length( TPML) to the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of power split gear transmission, the following conclusions are drawn:①The TPMQ of a certain stage transmission affects the vibration of its own stage more significantly than the other stage, and the coupling effect between two stages can be ignored usually in the modification design;②If the first stage TPMLs are less than 0.3, the influence of the first stage TPMLs to the first stage transmission vibration is much more greatly than the influence of the second stage TPMLs to the first stage transmission vibration, or else both the first and second stage TPMLs affect the first stage transmission vibration largely. The same is true for the second stage TPMLs, and the cutoff value is 0. 2; ③The TPMQ affects the vibration of power split gear transmission system more principally than the TPML, and should be top⁃priority in the modification design.

  15. Viable and testable SUSY GUTs with Yukawa unification the case of split trilinears

    CERN Document Server

    Guadagnoli, Diego; Straub, David M

    2009-01-01

    We explore general SUSY GUT models with exact third-generation Yukawa unification, but where the requirement of universal soft terms at the GUT scale is relaxed. We consider the scenario in which the breaking of universality inherits from the Yukawa couplings, i.e. is of minimal flavor violating (MFV) type. In particular, the MFV principle allows for a splitting between the up-type and the down-type soft trilinear couplings. We explore the viability of this trilinear splitting scenario by means of a fitting procedure to electroweak observables, quark masses as well as flavor-changing neutral current processes. Phenomenological viability singles out one main scenario. This scenario is characterized by a sizable splitting between the trilinear soft terms and a large mu term. Remarkably, this scenario does not invoke a partial decoupling of the sparticle spectrum, as in the case of universal soft terms, but instead it requires part of the spectrum, notably the lightest stop, the gluino and the lightest charginos...

  16. Predictive-model-based dynamic coordination control strategy for power-split hybrid electric bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohua; Yang, Nannan; Wang, Junnian; Song, Dafeng; Zhang, Nong; Shang, Mingli; Liu, Jianxin

    2015-08-01

    Parameter-matching methods and optimal control strategies of the top-selling hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), namely, power-split HEV, are widely studied. In particular, extant research on control strategy focuses on the steady-state energy management strategy to obtain better fuel economy. However, given that multi-power sources are highly coupled in power-split HEVs and influence one another during mode shifting, conducting research on dynamic coordination control strategy (DCCS) to achieve riding comfort is also important. This paper proposes a predictive-model-based DCCS. First, the dynamic model of the objective power-split HEV is built and the mode shifting process is analyzed based on the developed model to determine the reason for the system shock generated. Engine torque estimation algorithm is then designed according to the principle of the nonlinear observer, and the prediction model of the degree of shock is established based on the theory of model predictive control. Finally, the DCCS with adaptation for a complex driving cycle is realized by combining the feedback control and the predictive model. The presented DCCS is validated on the co-simulation platform of AMESim and Simulink. Results show that the shock during mode shifting is well controlled, thereby improving riding comfort.

  17. The Practice of Splitting Tablets: Cost and Therapeutic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    John Bachynsky; Cheryl Wiens; Krystal Melnychuk

    2002-01-01

    Background: Tablet splitting is used in pharmacy practice to adjust the dose to be administered. It is also being advocated as a method of reducing prescription drug costs. Methods: The potential for using this practice as a cost-saving method was examined. The top 200 prescription products in Canada were evaluated for their potential for tablet splitting to reduce costs. The assessment was based on the dosage form (only tablets could be split), availability of dosages in multiples, whether t...

  18. Photon splitting in a strongly magnetized, charge-asymmetric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chistyakov M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of the photon splitting, γ → γγ, is investigated in the presence of strongly magnetized charge-asymmetric cold plasma. The dispersion properties of photons and the new polarization selection rules are obtained in such plasma. The absorption rate of the leading photon splitting channel are calculated with taking account of the photon dispersion and wave function renormalization. In addition, a comparison of the photon splitting and the Compton scattering processes is performed.

  19. Double-peak Splitting in High-order Harmonics Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yingsong; LIU Yaqing; YANG Xiaodong; XU Zhizhan

    2000-01-01

    When the intensity of the driving pulse is much higher than the saturation intensity of the media involved, the double-peak splitting in frequency domain emerges in the generated high-order harmonic spectra. The possible origins of this splitting are carefully investigated. The ionization of the gas media and the propagation effect of harmonic field are the main reason for the double-peak splitting observed.

  20. Split Treatment: A Measurement of Coordination Between Psychiatrists

    OpenAIRE

    LoPiccolo, Charles J.; Eldon Taylor, C.; Clemence, Cheryl; Eisdorfer, Carl

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the adherence rates of psychiatrists with APA standards for coordination of care in split treatment. Coordination of care in split treatment is monitored from claims paid data in an academic MBHO as an ongoing quality improvement activity. For an 18-month period, 93 psychiatrists were identified with 559 patients in split treatment and were mailed a survey. Surveys were controlled for change of providers. Self-report survey results were obtained from...

  1. Conditional beam splitting attack on quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Calsamiglia, John; Barnett, Stephen M.; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel attack on quantum key distribution based on the idea of adaptive absorption [calsam01]. The conditional beam splitting attack is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional beam spitting attack, achieving a performance similar to the, powerful but currently unfeasible, photon number splitting attack. The implementation of the conditional beam splitting attack, based solely on linear optical elements, is well within reach of current technology.

  2. Splitting methods in communication, imaging, science, and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Osher, Stanley; Yin, Wotao

    2016-01-01

    This book is about computational methods based on operator splitting. It consists of twenty-three chapters written by recognized splitting method contributors and practitioners, and covers a vast spectrum of topics and application areas, including computational mechanics, computational physics, image processing, wireless communication, nonlinear optics, and finance. Therefore, the book presents very versatile aspects of splitting methods and their applications, motivating the cross-fertilization of ideas. .

  3. Optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peitao Zhao(赵培涛); Guohua Li(李国华)

    2004-01-01

    A large lateral shearing distance of parallel beam-splitting prism is often needed in laser modulation and polarization interference. In this letter, we present an optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism and list some different cases in detail. The optimized design widens the use range of parallel beam-splitting prism. At the wavelength of 632.8 nm, the law that the enlargement ratio changes with the refractive index and the apex angle is verified.

  4. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  5. Splitting Neutrino masses and Showering into Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargion, D.; D'Armiento, D.; Lanciano, O.; Oliva, P.; Iacobelli, M.; de Sanctis Lucentini, P. G.; Grossi, M.; de Santis, M.

    2007-06-01

    Neutrino masses might be as light as a few time the atmospheric neutrino mass splitting. The relic cosmic neutrinos may cluster in wide Dark Hot Local Group Halo. High Energy ZeV cosmic neutrinos (in Z-Showering model) might hit relic ones at each mass in different resonance energies in our nearby Universe. This non-degenerated density and energy must split UHE Z-boson secondaries (in Z-Burst model) leading to multi injection of UHECR nucleons within future extreme AUGER energy. Secondaries of Z-Burst as neutral gamma, below a few tens EeV are better surviving local GZK cut-off and they might explain recent Hires BL-Lac UHECR correlations at small angles. A different high energy resonance must lead to Glashow's anti-neutrino showers while hitting electrons in matter. In water and ice it leads to isotropic light explosions. In air, Glashow's anti-neutrino showers lead to collimated and directional air-showers offering a new Neutrino Astronomy. Because of neutrino flavor mixing, astrophysical energetic tau neutrino above tens GeV must arise over atmospheric background. At TeV range is difficult to disentangle tau neutrinos from other atmospheric flavors. At greater energy around PeV, Tau escaping mountains and Earth and decaying in flight are effectively showering in air sky. These Horizontal showering is splitting by geomagnetic field in forked shapes. Such air-showers secondaries release amplified and beamed gamma bursts (like observed TGF), made also by muon and electron pair bundles, with their accompanying rich Cherenkov flashes. Also planet's largest (Saturn, Jupiter) atmosphere limbs offer an ideal screen for UHE GZK and Z-burst tau neutrino, because their largest sizes. Titan thick atmosphere and small radius are optimal for discovering up-going resonant Glashow resonant anti-neutrino electron showers. Detection from Earth of Tau, anti-Tau, anti-electron neutrino induced Air-showers by twin Magic Telescopes on top mountains, or space based detection on

  6. Shear wave splitting and subcontinental mantle deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Paul G.; Chan, W. Winston

    1991-09-01

    We have made measurements of shear wave splitting in the phases SKS and SKKS at 21 broadband stations in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Measurements are made using a retrieval scheme that yields the azimuth of the fast polarization direction ϕ and delay time δt of the split shear wave plus uncertainties. Detectable anisotropy was found at most stations, suggesting that it is a general feature of the subcontinental mantle. Delay times range from 0.65 s to 1.70 s and average about 1 s. Somewhat surprisingly, the largest delay time is found in the 2.7 b.y.-old Western Superior Province of the Canadian Shield. The splitting observations are interpreted in terms of the strain-induced lattice preferred orientation of mantle minerals, especially olivine. We consider three hypotheses concerning the origin of the continental anisotropy: (1) strain associated with absolute plate motion, as in the oceanic upper mantle, (2) crustal stress, and (3) the past and present internal deformation of the subcontinental upper mantle by tectonic episodes. It is found that the last hypothesis is the most successful, namely that the most recent significant episode of internal deformation appears to be the best predictor of ϕ. For stable continental regions, this is interpreted as "fossil" anisotropy, whereas for presently active regions, such as Alaska, the anisotropy reflects present-day tectonic activity. In the stable portion of North America there is a good correlation between delay time and lithospheric thickness; this is consistent with the anisotropy being localized in the subcontinental lithosphere and suggests that intrinsic anisotropy is approximately constant. The acceptance of this hypothesis has several implications for subcontinental mantle deformation. First, it argues for coherent deformation of the continental lithosphere (crust and mantle) during orogenies. This implies that the anisotropic portion of the lithosphere was present since the

  7. On Integrable Roots in Split Lie Triple Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.J.CALDER(O)N MART(I)N

    2009-01-01

    We focus on the notion of an integrable root in the framework of split Lie triple systems T with a coherent 0-root space. As a main result, it is shown that if T has all its nonzero roots integrable, then its standard embedding is a split Lie algebra having all its nonzero roots integrable. As a consequence, a local finiteness theorem for split Lie triple systems, saying that whenever all nonzero roots of T are integrable then T is locally finite, is stated. Finally, a classification theorem for split simple Lie triple systems having all its nonzero roots integrable is given.

  8. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  9. A Principle of Intentionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  10. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  11. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  12. Transfer function matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  13. A Frequency Splitting Method For CFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    of narrow band pulses as in conventional CFM imaging. By appropriate filtration, the returned signals are divided into a number of narrow band signals which are approximately disjoint. After clutter filtering the velocities are found from each frequency band using a conventional autocorrelation estimator......The performance of conventional CFM imaging will often be degraded due to the relatively low number of pulses (4-10) used for each velocity estimate. To circumvent this problem we propose a new method using frequency splitting (FS). The FS method uses broad band chirps as excitation pulses instead...... estimator. In the simulation, the relative mean standard deviation of the velocity estimates over the vessel was 2.43% when using the FD method and the relative mean absolute bias was 1.84%. For the reference 8 oscillation pulse, the relative mean standard deviation over the vessel was 4...

  14. [Splitting of tablets: small pieces a risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picksak, Gesine; Stichtenoth, Dirk O

    2007-09-01

    For economic reasons physicians prescribe more and more multiunit tablets. Splitting of multiunit tablets depends on the physical-chemical properties of the agents, the galenic of the dosage form, the size and contour of the tablet and the shape of the score. Tablets with one or more scores are prepared to be divided for a single/multiple dose. How easily and exact a tablet can be divided depends heavily on the physical shape, its size and the outfit of the score. The fragments have to fulfil the requirements according to the European Pharmacopoeia: Uniformity of multiunit tablets. Since exact dosing is guaranteed only if tablets are divided properly, information and guidance of the patients by the physician and pharmacist is of critical importance.

  15. Gauge Unification from Split Supersymmetric String Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kokorelis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the unification of gauge coupling constants in non-supersymmetric open string vacua that possess the properties of Split Supersymmetry, namely the Standard Model with Higgsinos at low energies and where the Standard model spectrum is always accompanied by right handed neutrinos. These vacua achieve partial unification of two out of three (namely SU(3)$_c$, SU(2), U(1)) running gauge couplings, possess massive gauginos and light Higgsinos at low energies and also satisfy $sin^2\\theta_w (M_s) = 3/8$. These vacua are based on four dimensional orbifold $Z_3 \\times Z_3$ compactifications of string IIA orientifolds with D6-branes intersecting at angles, where the (four dimensional) chiral fermions of the Standard Model appear as opens strings streching between the intersections of seven dimensional objects the so called D6-branes.

  16. AP stars with resolved Zeeman split lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, G.

    1990-06-01

    High-resolution, high SNR observations of a sample of sharp-lined A stars and of Ap stars showing resolved Zeeman split lines are presented. The Fe II lines 6147.7 A and 6149.2 A unexpectedly appear to be asymmetric in all stars where they are resolved. The blue component of the 6149.2 line, which is a Zeeman doublet, is deeper and narrower than its red component. For line 6147.7, whose Zeeman pattern does not differ much from a quadruplet, the red components are deeper than the blue ones. It is shown that a partial Paschen-Back effect can account for these properties. The potential implications of this finding for studies of magnetic Ap stars are discussed.

  17. Non-Uniformity and Generalised Sacks Splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    COOPER S.Barry; LI Ang Sheng

    2002-01-01

    We show that there do not exist computable functions f1(e, i), f2 (e, i), g1(e, i), g2(e, i) such that for all e, i ∈ω,(1) (Wf1(e,i) - Wf2(e,i)) ≤T (We - Wi);(2) (Wg1(e,i) - Wg2(e,i))≤T (We - Wi);(3) (We - Wi) ≤T (Wf1(e,i) - Wf2(e,i)) (Wg1(e,i) - Wg2(e,i));(4) (We - Wi) T (Wf1(e,i) - Wf2(e,i)) unless (We - Wi) ≤T ; and (5) (We - Wi) T (Wg1(e,i) - Wg2(e,i)) unless (We - Wi) ≤T .It follows that the splitting theorems of Sacks and Cooper cannot be combined uniformly.

  18. Miniaturized Planar Split-Ring Resonator Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized planar antenna based on a broadside-coupled split ring resonator excited by an arc-shaped dipole is presented. The excitation dipole acts as a small tuning capacitor in series with a parallel RLC circuit represented by the SRR. The antenna resonance frequency and dimensions...... a essentially determined by the SRR, while by varying the dipole arm length the input resistance is changed in a wide range, thus matching the antenna to a feed line and compensating for simulation and manufacturing inaccuracies. No additional matching network is required. Theoretically, there is no limit...... on how small this antenna can be. In practice, the lower bound is set by losses in utilized materials and manufacturing inaccuracies. As an example, an antenna of ka=0.09 was designed, fabricated and tested. Although the initially fabricated antenna prototype had the input impedance of 43 ohms...

  19. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  20. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  1. On Figures of speech, Cooperative Principle and Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永丽; 朱丽萍

    2008-01-01

    To accomplish the communication efficiently and successfully, the people usually follow some certain principle in conversation. Grice named this principle as the cooperative principle. The politeness principle that Leech has developed can explain some phenomenon from a different perspective that the cooperative principle cannot. Nowadays, the use of the figures of speech is becoming more and more often. What we should pay attention to is the fact that the use of the figures of speech violates the cooperative principle, while following the politeness principle to a certain extent. And this paper aims to discuss the relationship among them, to provide some information for the readers.

  2. Mathematical principle and characteristics of polarization transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The precise definition of polarization transform is proposed from the viewpoint of polarization domain transform for the first time. The mathematical principle,char-acteristics and physical meanings of polarization transform are analyzed. Two typical kinds of polarization transforms which are called unitary matrix polarization transform (UMPT) and diagonal matrix polarization transform (DMPT) are put for-ward. The gain property and the change property of polarization state distance are presented in detail. Thereby,the concept of serial polarization transform is pro-posed. A general polarization transform can be realized by two steps: changing the location of polarization states in polarization domain by UMPT; and expanding or compressing the density of polarization states by DMPT. The result is meaningful to many applications including polarization filtering,detection,enhancement,anti-jamming,discrimination and so on.

  3. Mechanical engineering principles

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha

  4. Itch Management: General Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misery, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental.

  5. Electrical principles 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, J O

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients

  6. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  7. Principles of engineering geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attewell, P.B.; Farmer, I.W.

    1976-01-01

    This book discusses basic principles as well as the practical applications of geological survey and analysis. Topics covered include the mechanical and physical response of rocks, rock masses and soils to changes in environmental conditions, and the principles of groundwater flow. The core of the book deals with the collection of geological and technical data, its subsequent analysis, and application to design. The combination of rigorous and detailed discussion of theory and well-illustrated examples made the book an indispensable reference source and ideal course book for both geologists and civil engineers.

  8. Principles of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bulmer, M G

    1979-01-01

    There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo

  9. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; Pbad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split.

  10. Bad split during bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandible with separators: a retrospective study of 427 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensink, Gertjan; Verweij, Jop P; Frank, Michael D; Eelco Bergsma, J; Richard van Merkesteyn, J P

    2013-09-01

    An unfavourable fracture, known as a bad split, is a common operative complication in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). The reported incidence ranges from 0.5 to 5.5%/site. Since 1994 we have used sagittal splitters and separators instead of chisels for BSSO in our clinic in an attempt to prevent postoperative hypoaesthesia. Theoretically an increased percentage of bad splits could be expected with this technique. In this retrospective study we aimed to find out the incidence of bad splits associated with BSSO done with splitters and separators. We also assessed the risk factors for bad splits. The study group comprised 427 consecutive patients among whom the incidence of bad splits was 2.0%/site, which is well within the reported range. The only predictive factor for a bad split was the removal of third molars at the same time as BSSO. There was no significant association between bad splits and age, sex, class of occlusion, or the experience of the surgeon. We think that doing a BSSO with splitters and separators instead of chisels does not increase the risk of a bad split, and is therefore safe with predictable results.

  11. Circular permutation prediction reveals a viable backbone disconnection for split proteins: an approach in identifying a new functional split intein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Tzai Lee

    Full Text Available Split-protein systems have emerged as a powerful tool for detecting biomolecular interactions and reporting biological reactions. However, reliable methods for identifying viable split sites are still unavailable. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility that valid circular permutation (CP sites in proteins have the potential to act as split sites and that CP prediction can be used to search for internal permissive sites for creating new split proteins. Using a protein ligase, intein, as a model, CP predictor facilitated the creation of circular permutants in which backbone opening imposes the least detrimental effects on intein folding. We screened a series of predicted intein CPs and identified stable and native-fold CPs. When the valid CP sites were introduced as split sites, there was a reduction in folding enthalpy caused by the new backbone opening; however, the coincident loss in entropy was sufficient to be compensated, yielding a favorable free energy for self-association. Since split intein is exploited in protein semi-synthesis, we tested the related protein trans-splicing (PTS activities of the corresponding split inteins. Notably, a novel functional split intein composed of the N-terminal 36 residues combined with the remaining C-terminal fragment was identified. Its PTS activity was shown to be better than current reported two-piece intein with a short N-terminal segment. Thus, the incorporation of in silico CP prediction facilitated the design of split intein as well as circular permutants.

  12. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He

    2016-12-01

    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  13. The physical principles of the quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Werner

    1949-01-01

    The contributions of few contemporary scientists have been as far reaching in their effects as those of Nobel Laureate Werner Heisenberg. His matrix theory is one of the bases of modern quantum mechanics, while his ""uncertainty principle"" has altered our whole philosophy of science.In this classic, based on lectures delivered at the University of Chicago, Heisenberg presents a complete physical picture of quantum theory. He covers not only his own contributions, but also those of Bohr, Dirac, Bose, de Broglie, Fermi, Einstein, Pauli, Schrodinger, Somerfield, Rupp, ·Wilson, Germer, and others

  14. Robertson-Schrödinger-type formulation of Ozawa's noise-disturbance uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Catarina; Bernardini, Alex E.; Bertolami, Orfeu; Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, João Nuno

    2014-04-01

    In this work we derive a matrix formulation of a noise-disturbance uncertainty relation, which is akin to the Robertson-Schrödinger uncertainty principle. Our inequality is stronger than Ozawa's uncertainty principle and takes noise-disturbance correlations into account. Moreover, we show that for certain types of measurement interactions it is covariant with respect to linear symplectic transformations of the noise and disturbance operators. Finally, we also study the tightness of our matrix inequality.

  15. Strong Convergence Theorems for Variational Inequalities and Split Equality Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jing Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Let H1, H2, and H3 be real Hilbert spaces, let C⊆H1, Q⊆H2 be two nonempty closed convex sets, and let A:H1→H3, B:H2→H3 be two bounded linear operators. The split equality problem (SEP is to find x∈C, y∈Q such that Ax=By. Let H=H1×H2; consider f:H→H a contraction with coefficient 00, and M:H→H is a β-inverse strongly monotone mapping. Let 0<γ<γ̅/α, S=C×Q and G:H→H3 be defined by restricting to H1 is A and restricting to H2 is -B, that is, G has the matrix form G=[A,-B]. It is proved that the sequence {wn}={(xn,yn}⊆H generated by the iterative method wn+1=PS[αnγf(wn+(I-αnTPS(I-γnG*GPS(wn-λnMwn] converges strongly to w̃ which solves the SEP and the following variational inequality: 〈(T-λfw̃,w-w̃〉≥0 and 〈Mw̃,w-w̃〉≥0 for all w∈S. Moreover, if we take M=G*G:H→H,  γn=0, then M is a β-inverse strongly monotone mapping, and the sequence {wn} generated by the iterative method wn+1=αnγf(wn+(I-αnTPS(wn-λnG*Gwn converges strongly to w̃ which solves the SEP and the following variational inequality: 〈(T-λfw̃,w-w̃〉≥0 for all w∈S.

  16. Improved Matrix Uncertainty Selector

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    We consider the regression model with observation error in the design: y=X\\theta* + e, Z=X+N. Here the random vector y in R^n and the random n*p matrix Z are observed, the n*p matrix X is unknown, N is an n*p random noise matrix, e in R^n is a random noise vector, and \\theta* is a vector of unknown parameters to be estimated. We consider the setting where the dimension p can be much larger than the sample size n and \\theta* is sparse. Because of the presence of the noise matrix N, the commonly used Lasso and Dantzig selector are unstable. An alternative procedure called the Matrix Uncertainty (MU) selector has been proposed in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) in order to account for the noise. The properties of the MU selector have been studied in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) for sparse \\theta* under the assumption that the noise matrix N is deterministic and its values are small. In this paper, we propose a modification of the MU selector when N is a random matrix with zero-mean entries having the variances th...

  17. Polarimetric Principles and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    axis the governing transformation matrix for . is ŕ 0l 0 0 R (v) - 1 0 l 0 cosv -sinv 0 sinv cosvj Similarly for transformations by T and i about...Lisinj kisinT COST 0O0 And for the sake of completeness iv - cosv a0 + isinv oa e 0 3 This extension of the exponential notation from ordinary complex

  18. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  19. Principles of Proper Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Kim; Geladi, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Validation in chemometrics is presented using the exemplar context of multivariate calibration/prediction. A phenomenological analysis of common validation practices in data analysis and chemometrics leads to formulation of a set of generic Principles of Proper Validation (PPV), which is based...

  20. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  1. The traveltime holographic principle

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Y.

    2014-11-06

    Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.

  2. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  3. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  4. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Geoethics and its principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó Štefan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining and mineral processing belong to the activities with a mostly negative impact on the environment. GAIA hypothesis should help us to understand the basic mechanisms of planetary homeostasis, influenced by human activities. Principles of the geoethics should help to respect the limits of disturbances and loading capacity of ecosystems, which have the essential importance for our survival.

  6. Principles of economics textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2012-01-01

    Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...

  7. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  8. Rheocasting Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girot, F.A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J.M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    A development status account is given for the rheocasting method of Al-alloy matrix/SiC-whisker composites, which involves the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of 8-15 vol pct of whiskers through the stirring of the semisolid matrix melt while retaining sufficient fluidity for casting. Both 1-, 3-, and 6-mm fibers of Nicalon SiC and and SiC whisker reinforcements have been experimentally investigated, with attention to the characterization of the resulting microstructures and the effects of fiber-matrix interactions. A thin silica layer is found at the whisker surface. 7 references.

  9. Mueller matrix differential decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-05-15

    We present a Mueller matrix decomposition based on the differential formulation of the Mueller calculus. The differential Mueller matrix is obtained from the macroscopic matrix through an eigenanalysis. It is subsequently resolved into the complete set of 16 differential matrices that correspond to the basic types of optical behavior for depolarizing anisotropic media. The method is successfully applied to the polarimetric analysis of several samples. The differential parameters enable one to perform an exhaustive characterization of anisotropy and depolarization. This decomposition is particularly appropriate for studying media in which several polarization effects take place simultaneously. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K

    2011-01-01

    We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.

  11. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    to a singularity in the transverse plane. Instead, the pulse spreads out along the direction of negative dispersion and splits up into small-scale cells, which may undergo further splitting events. The analytical results are supported by direct numerical solutions of the three dimensional cubic Schrodinger...

  12. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  13. 26 CFR 1.482-6 - Profit split method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) of this section. (B) Comparability. The first step of the residual profit split relies on market... market returns for the routine contributions. The second step of the residual profit split, however, may... reduced to the extent that the allocation of profits in the second step does not rely on market benchmarks...

  14. Towards Highly Efficient Bias-Free Solar Water Splitting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, F.F.

    2013-01-01

    Solar water splitting has attracted significant attention due to its potential of converting solar to chemical energy. It uses semiconductor to convert sunlight into electron-hole pairs, which then split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can be used as a renewable fuel, or it can serve as

  15. The Almost Split Sequences for Trivial Extensions of Hereditary Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yu-lin; Yao Hai-lou

    2014-01-01

    Let A be a basic hereditary artin algebra and R=AnQ be the trivial extension of A by its minimal injective cogenerator Q. We construct some right (left) almost split morphisms and irreducible morphisms in modR through the correspond-ing morphisms in modA. Furthermore, we can determine its almost split sequences in modR.

  16. Time bucket length and lot-splitting approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riezebos, J

    2004-01-01

    The effect of time bucket length on the choice of a lot-splitting approach is studied. Due to the continuing pressure to reduce throughput times and increase efficiency, managers apply various measures, such as lot splitting and cycle time reduction programmes, that change the length of the time buc

  17. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility. Full

  18. Photocatalytic Water-Splitting Reaction from Catalytic and Kinetic Perspectives

    KAUST Repository

    Hisatomi, Takashi

    2014-10-16

    Abstract: Some particulate semiconductors loaded with nanoparticulate catalysts exhibit photocatalytic activity for the water-splitting reaction. The photocatalysis is distinct from the thermal catalysis because photocatalysis involves photophysical processes in particulate semiconductors. This review article presents a brief introduction to photocatalysis, followed by kinetic aspects of the photocatalytic water-splitting reaction.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Recent advances in semiconductors for photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Takashi; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-11-21

    Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting under irradiation by sunlight has received much attention for production of renewable hydrogen from water on a large scale. Many challenges still remain in improving energy conversion efficiency, such as utilizing longer-wavelength photons for hydrogen production, enhancing the reaction efficiency at any given wavelength, and increasing the lifetime of the semiconductor materials. This introductory review covers the fundamental aspects of photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Controlling the semiconducting properties of photocatalysts and photoelectrode materials is the primary concern in developing materials for solar water splitting, because they determine how much photoexcitation occurs in a semiconductor under solar illumination and how many photoexcited carriers reach the surface where water splitting takes place. Given a specific semiconductor material, surface modifications are important not only to activate the semiconductor for water splitting but also to facilitate charge separation and to upgrade the stability of the material under photoexcitation. In addition, reducing resistance loss and forming p-n junction have a significant impact on the efficiency of photoelectrochemical water splitting. Correct evaluation of the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical activity for water splitting is becoming more important in enabling an accurate comparison of a number of studies based on different systems. In the latter part, recent advances in the water splitting reaction under visible light will be presented with a focus on non-oxide semiconductor materials to give an overview of the various problems and solutions.

  20. Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairi M. S. Fahelelbom

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves. The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used.

  1. A Matrix Element for Chaotic Tunnelling Rates and Scarring Intensities

    CERN Document Server

    Creagh, S C; Creagh, Stephen C.; Whelan, Niall D.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that tunnelling splittings in ergodic double wells and resonant widths in ergodic metastable wells can be approximated as easily-calculated matrix elements involving the wavefunction in the neighbourhood of a certain real orbit. This orbit is a continuation of the complex orbit which crosses the barrier with minimum imaginary action. The matrix element is computed by integrating across the orbit in a surface of section representation, and uses only the wavefunction in the allowed region and the stability properties of the orbit. When the real orbit is periodic, the matrix element is a natural measure of the degree of scarring of the wavefunction. This scarring measure is canonically invariant and independent of the choice of surface of section, within semiclassical error. The result can alternatively be interpretated as the autocorrelation function of the state with respect to a transfer operator which quantises a certain complex surface of section mapping. The formula provides an efficient numeri...

  2. Degenerated-Inverse-Matrix-Based Channel Estimation for OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yoshida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses time-domain channel estimation for pilot-symbol-aided orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. By using a cyclic sinc-function matrix uniquely determined by Nc transmitted subcarriers, the performance of our proposed scheme approaches perfect channel state information (CSI, within a maximum of 0.4 dB degradation, regardless of the delay spread of the channel, Doppler frequency, and subcarrier modulation. Furthermore, reducing the matrix size by splitting the dispersive channel impulse response into clusters means that the degenerated inverse matrix estimator (DIME is feasible for broadband, high-quality OFDM transmission systems. In addition to theoretical analysis on normalized mean squared error (NMSE performance of DIME, computer simulations over realistic nonsample spaced channels also showed that the DIME is robust for intersymbol interference (ISI channels and fast time-invariant channels where a minimum mean squared error (MMSE estimator does not work well.

  3. Politeness Principle and Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宇岚

    2007-01-01

    There are many potential problems in intercultural communications. Politeness principle is very important in helping improving intercultural communications. But different cultures have various standard of politeness principle. This essay discusses the very different points of view on politeness principle between Chinese people and westerners, and studies how the context and settings affect the practice of politeness principle. At the ending of the essay, the guiding significance of politeness principle is p...

  4. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  5. Efficient numerical simulation of ocean hydrodynamics by a splitting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Berntsen

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available A splitting algorithm for fast and slow modes of ocean hydrodynamics is presented. The purpose of the splitting is to reduce the large amount of computational work needed for simulating long real-time periods. The essential point of the splitting is that the external gravity wave terms are extracted from the fully three-dimensional equations of horizontal motion, allowing the reduced equations to be integrated with a larger time step than the original model. The fast external gravity waves are traced by a depth integrated system which is weakly coupled to the reduced three-dimensional momentum equations. The split model shows a radical decrease in computational time and the accuracy is of the same order as in the non-split case.

  6. A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.

    2016-11-01

    The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.

  7. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  8. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  9. APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principles cannot be applied to bankruptcy procedures (accounting principle on accrual basis, principle of business continuity, independence principle, intangibility principle and the principle of substance over form, some are available only in certain situations (method consistency principle and the prudence principle and others do not apply to bankruptcy (the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; noncompensation principle and the principle of threshold significance.

  10. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  11. Matrix theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A new classical theory of gravitation within the framework of general relativity is presented. It is based on a matrix formulation of four-dimensional Riemann-spaces and uses no artificial fields or adjustable parameters. The geometrical stress-energy tensor is derived from a matrix-trace Lagrangian, which is not equivalent to the curvature scalar R. To enable a direct comparison with the Einstein-theory a tetrad formalism is utilized, which shows similarities to teleparallel gravitation theories, but uses complex tetrads. Matrix theory might solve a 27-year-old, fundamental problem of those theories (sec. 4.1). For the standard test cases (PPN scheme, Schwarzschild-solution) no differences to the Einstein-theory are found. However, the matrix theory exhibits novel, interesting vacuum solutions.

  12. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical...

  13. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  14. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  15. Matrix fractional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

  16. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  18. General formalism for partial spatial coherence in reflection Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Hingerl, Kurt

    2016-09-01

    Starting from the first principles, we derive the expressions governing partially coherent Mueller matrix reflection polarimetry on spatially inhomogeneous samples. These are reported both in their general form and in the practically important specific form for two juxtaposed media.

  19. Analysis and control of novel split-winding doubly salient permanent magnet motor for adjustable speed drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a novel split-winding doubly salient permanentmagnet (DSPM) motor is proposed and the theoretical and experimental studies on the magnetic field, static characteristics and control strategy of this motor are carried out. The steady-state and dynamic models are presented and the output power equation is derived. The feasibility of extending the operation range of the DSPM motor by using split-windings is proved. The finite element method is used to analyze the magnetic field, in which the leakage flux outside the stator circumference is taken into account. Based on the operation principle and the static characteristics of the motor, the control strategy and scheme are developed and implemented in a microcomputer-based controller. According to the features of the 4-phase 8/6-pole DSPM motor, a half-bridge power converter without neutral is adopted to reduce the number of power devices and to eliminate the problem of voltage unbalance in the split capacitors. The experimental results on the prototype machine not only verify the theoretical analysis, but also show that the proposed DSPM motor drive possesses good steady-state and dynamic performances, offering high efficiency over wide power range, and that the split-winding topology can effectively extend the operation range of the DSPM motor.

  20. Descent Assisted Split Habitat Lunar Lander Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cornelius, David M.

    2008-01-01

    The Descent Assisted Split Habitat (DASH) lunar lander concept utilizes a disposable braking stage for descent and a minimally sized pressurized volume for crew transport to and from the lunar surface. The lander can also be configured to perform autonomous cargo missions. Although a braking-stage approach represents a significantly different operational concept compared with a traditional two-stage lander, the DASH lander offers many important benefits. These benefits include improved crew egress/ingress and large-cargo unloading; excellent surface visibility during landing; elimination of the need for deep-throttling descent engines; potentially reduced plume-surface interactions and lower vertical touchdown velocity; and reduced lander gross mass through efficient mass staging and volume segmentation. This paper documents the conceptual study on various aspects of the design, including development of sortie and outpost lander configurations and a mission concept of operations; the initial descent trajectory design; the initial spacecraft sizing estimates and subsystem design; and the identification of technology needs

  1. Markov branching in the vertex splitting model

    CERN Document Server

    Stefansson, Sigurdur Orn

    2011-01-01

    We study a special case of the vertex splitting model which is a recent model of randomly growing trees. For any finite maximum vertex degree $D$, we find a one parameter model, with parameter $\\alpha \\in [0,1]$ which has a so--called Markov branching property. When $D=\\infty$ we find a two parameter model with an additional parameter $\\gamma \\in [0,1]$ which also has this feature. In the case $D = 3$, the model bears resemblance to Ford's $\\alpha$--model of phylogenetic trees and when $D=\\infty$ it is similar to its generalization, the $\\alpha\\gamma$--model. For $\\alpha = 0$, the model reduces to the well known model of preferential attachment. In the case $\\alpha > 0$, we prove convergence of the finite volume probability measures, generated by the growth rules, to a measure on infinite trees which is concentrated on the set of trees with a single spine. We show that the annealed Hausdorff dimension with respect to the infinite volume measure is $1/\\alpha$. When $\\gamma = 0$ the model reduces to a model of ...

  2. Field-Split Preconditioned Inexact Newton Algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lulu

    2015-06-02

    The multiplicative Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (MSPIN) algorithm is presented as a complement to additive Schwarz preconditioned inexact Newton (ASPIN). At an algebraic level, ASPIN and MSPIN are variants of the same strategy to improve the convergence of systems with unbalanced nonlinearities; however, they have natural complementarity in practice. MSPIN is naturally based on partitioning of degrees of freedom in a nonlinear PDE system by field type rather than by subdomain, where a modest factor of concurrency can be sacrificed for physically motivated convergence robustness. ASPIN, originally introduced for decompositions into subdomains, is natural for high concurrency and reduction of global synchronization. We consider both types of inexact Newton algorithms in the field-split context, and we augment the classical convergence theory of ASPIN for the multiplicative case. Numerical experiments show that MSPIN can be significantly more robust than Newton methods based on global linearizations, and that MSPIN can be more robust than ASPIN and maintain fast convergence even for challenging problems, such as high Reynolds number Navier--Stokes equations.

  3. Image Segmentation Using Two Step Splitting Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kumar Jha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Image processing and computer vision is widely using Level Set Method (LSM. In conventional level set formulation, irregularities are developed during evolution of level set function, which cause numerical errors and eventually destroy the stability of the evolution. Therefore a numerical remedy called re-initialization is typically applied periodically to replace the degraded level set function. However re –initialization raises serious problem that is when and how it should be performed and also affects numerical accuracy in an undesirable way. To overcome this drawback of re-initialization process, a new variation level set formulation called Distance regularization level set evolution (DRLSE is introduced in which the regularity of the level set function is internally maintained during the level set evolution. DRLSE allows more general and effective initialization of the level set function. But DRLSE uses relatively large number of steps to ensure efficient numerical accuracy. Here in this thesis we are implementing faster and equally efficient computation technique called two step splitting method (TSSM. TSSM is physio-chemical reaction diffusion equation in which firstly LSE equation get iterated and then regularize the level set function from the first step to ensure the stability and hence re-initialization is completely eliminated from LSE which also satisfy DRLSE.

  4. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  5. Touching Syllable Segmentation using Split Profile Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Pratap Reddy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The most challenging task of a character recognition system is associated with segmentation of individual components of the script with maximum efficiency. This process is relatively easy with regard to stroke based and standard scripts. Cursive scripts are more complex possessing a large number of overlapping and touching objects, where in the statistical behavior of the topological properties are to be studied extensively for achieving highest accuracy. Certain amount of similarity exists between unconstrained hand written text as well as South Indian scripts in terms of topology, component combinations, overlapping and merging characteristics. The concept of syllables and their formulations is an additive complexity with regard to Indian scripts. In this paper the statistical behavior of the cursive script, Telugu, is presented. The topological properties in terms of zones, component combinations, behavioural aspects of syllables are studied and adopted in the segmentation process. The statistical behaviour of cursive components are evaluated. Split Profile Algorithm is proposed while handling touching components. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on different fonts and sizes. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with two approaches methods viz aspect ratio and syllable width approaches.

  6. Magnetic Splitting of Molecular Lines in Sunspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Frutiger, C.; Solanki, S. K.

    A study of molecular lines in sunspots is of particular interest because of their high temperature and pressure sensitivity. Many of them are also magnetically sensitive, but this was not yet widely investigated. With high-resolution, high signal-to-noise Fourier spectroscopy in four Stokes parameters now available, the use of molecular lines for studying the structure of sunspots brings real gains. One is the extension of spot models, including magnetic field, up to layers, where atomic lines suffer from NLTE effects but molecules can still be treated in the LTE approximation. Equally important is the fact that since molecular lines are extremely temperature sensitive they can be used to probe the thermal and magnetic structure of the coolest parts of sunspots. We present calculations of splitting and the Stokes parameters for a number of molecular lines in the visible and near-infrared regions. Our first selections are the green system of MgH A2Π-X2σ and the TiO triplet α, γ' and γ systems as the most studied band systems in the sunspot spectrum. The calculations involve different regimes of the molecular Zeeman effect, up to the complete Paschen-Back effect for individual lines. We look for molecular lines which can be used along with atomic lines to derive magnetic, thermal and dynamic properties of the umbra.

  7. Total Variation Deconvolution using Split Bregman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Getreuer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Deblurring is the inverse problem of restoring an image that has been blurred and possibly corrupted with noise. Deconvolution refers to the case where the blur to be removed is linear and shift-invariant so it may be expressed as a convolution of the image with a point spread function. Convolution corresponds in the Fourier domain to multiplication, and deconvolution is essentially Fourier division. The challenge is that since the multipliers are often small for high frequencies, direct division is unstable and plagued by noise present in the input image. Effective deconvolution requires a balance between frequency recovery and noise suppression. Total variation (TV regularization is a successful technique for achieving this balance in deblurring problems. It was originally developed for image denoising by Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi and then applied to deconvolution by Rudin and Osher. In this article, we discuss TV-regularized deconvolution with Gaussian noise and its efficient solution using the split Bregman algorithm of Goldstein and Osher. We show a straightforward extension for Laplace or Poisson noise and develop empirical estimates for the optimal value of the regularization parameter λ.

  8. Principles of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.

  9. Principles of geodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidegger, Adrian E

    1982-01-01

    Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad­ ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...

  10. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  11. Principles of systems science

    CERN Document Server

    Mobus, George E

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...

  12. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  13. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  14. Principles of Mobile Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2012-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...

  15. Principles of mobile communication

    CERN Document Server

    Stüber, Gordon L

    2017-01-01

    This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...

  16. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  17. Principles of mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Dym, Clive

    2004-01-01

    Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...

  18. Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, F; Lopetegi, T; Laso, M A G; Baena, J D; Bonache, J; Beruete, M; Marqués, R; Martín, F; Sorolla, M

    2004-11-05

    The electromagnetic theory of diffraction and the Babinet principle are applied to the design of artificial metasurfaces and metamaterials. A new particle, the complementary split rings resonator, is proposed for the design of metasurfaces with high frequency selectivity and planar metamaterials with a negative dielectric permittivity. Applications in the fields of frequency selective surfaces and polarizers, as well as in microwave antennas and filter design, can be envisaged. The tunability of all these devices by an applied dc voltage is also achievable if these particles are etched on the appropriate substrate.

  19. Computational principles of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Rishidev; Fiete, Ila

    2016-03-01

    The ability to store and later use information is essential for a variety of adaptive behaviors, including integration, learning, generalization, prediction and inference. In this Review, we survey theoretical principles that can allow the brain to construct persistent states for memory. We identify requirements that a memory system must satisfy and analyze existing models and hypothesized biological substrates in light of these requirements. We also highlight open questions, theoretical puzzles and problems shared with computer science and information theory.

  20. Principles of artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J

    1980-01-01

    A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th

  1. A correspondence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  2. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  3. The Principle of Proportionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2005-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....

  4. Principles of electrical safety

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, Peter E

    2015-01-01

    Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. .  Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers

  5. On Rayleigh's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kurt Munk

    1997-01-01

    Rayleigh's principle expresses that the smallest eigenvalue of a regular Sturm-Liouville problem with regular boundary conditions is the minimum value of a certain functional, the so called Rayleigh's quotient, and that this value is attained at the corresponding eigenfunctions only. This can...... be proved by means of more advanced methods. However, it turns out that there is an elementary proof, which is presented in the report....

  6. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    journalists justify themselves and their work. This article introduces an analytical framework for understanding legitimacy in a journalistic context. A framework based on a review of material ranging from historical accounts to research articles, and book-length studies. The framework comprises three...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  7. PRINCIPLES OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard IONESCU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Change management process needs to define certain principles and apply them effectively in order to achieve the best possible results. Understanding how certain members of the organization react to change will greatly influence how they will cope with the implementation of change, how their work will be productive during and after the implementation of change and that will be the result the end of the process.

  8. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  9. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2016-04-04

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  10. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  11. Construction of Multivariate Tight Framelet Packets Associated with Dilation Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Firdous A Shah; Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for constructing multivariate tight framelet packets associated with an arbitrary dilation matrix using unitary extension principles.We also prove how to construct various tight frames for L2(Rd) by replac-ing some mother framelets.

  12. Enhanced Valley Splitting for Quantum Electronics in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Andre

    2014-03-01

    Silicon is a placid environment for quantum degrees of freedom with long spin and valley coherence times. A natural drawback is that the same features that protect the quantum state from its environment also hamper its control with external fields. Indeed, engineered nanostructures typically lead to sub-meV splittings between valley states, hindering the implementation of both spin and valley based quantum devices. We will discuss the microscopic theory of valley splitting, presenting three schemes to control valleys on a scale higher than 1 meV: a) in a quantum well, the adoption of a barrier constituted of a layered heterostructure might lead to constructive reflection if the layer thicknesses match the electron wavelength, in analogy with a Bragg mirror; b) the disparity between the high valley splitting in a impurity donor potential and the low splitting in a Si/Insulator interface may be harnessed controlling the tunneling between these two states, so that the valley splitting may be controlled digitally; c) intrinsic Tamm/Shockley interface states might strongly hybridize with conduction states, leading to a much enhanced valley splitting, and its contribution to the 2DEG ground state may be experimentally identified. We argue that this effect is responsible for the enhanced splitting in Si/BOX interfaces.

  13. GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 1: ASSESSING SOIL SPLITTING PROTOCOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five soil sample splitting methods (riffle splitting, paper cone riffle splitting, fractional shoveling, coning and quartering, and grab sampling) were evaluated with synthetic samples to verify Pierre Gy sampling theory expectations. Individually prepared samples consisting of l...

  14. To Split or Not to Split, That Is the Question in Some Shallow Water Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the use of time splitting techniques for solving shallow water equation. We discuss some properties that these schemes should satisfy so that interactions between the source term and the shock waves are controlled. This paper shows that these schemes must be well balanced in the meaning expressed by Greenberg and Leroux [5]. More speci?cally, we analyze in what cases it is enough to verify an Approximate C-property and in which cases it is required to verify an Exact C-property (see [1], [2]). We also include some numerical tests in order to justify our reasoning.

  15. Derivation of Spin Vectors and Operators From First Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Mweene, H V

    1999-01-01

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics due to Lande' is applied to the connection between wave mechanics and matrix mechanics. The connection between the differential and the matrix eigenvalue equation for an operator is elucidated. In particular, we show that the elements of a matrix vector state are probability amplitudes rather than just constants. We obtain the most general forms of the probability amplitudes for the description of spin-1/2 measurements. As a result, we derive spin-1/2 operators and vectors from first principles. The procedure used is analogous to that by which orbital angular momentum wave functions and operators are transformed to matrix mechanic vectors and matrices. The most generalized forms of the spin operators and their eigenvectors for spin 1/2 are derived and shown to reduce to the Pauli matrices and vectors in an appropriate limit.

  16. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  17. Nano-architecture and material designs for water splitting photoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao Ming; Chen, Chih Kai; Liu, Ru-Shi; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jiujun; Wilkinson, David P

    2012-09-07

    This review concerns the efficient conversion of sunlight into chemical fuels through the photoelectrochemical splitting of water, which has the potential to generate sustainable hydrogen fuel. In this review, we discuss various photoelectrode materials and relative design strategies with their associated fabrication for solar water splitting. Factors affecting photoelectrochemical performance of these materials and designs are also described. The most recent progress in the research and development of new materials as well as their corresponding photoelectrodes is also summarized in this review. Finally, the research strategies and future directions for water splitting are discussed with recommendations to facilitate the further exploration of new photoelectrode materials and their associated technologies.

  18. Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics and Plasticity of the Split Cylinder Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, John Forbes; Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    demonstrates the influence of varying geometry or constitutive properties. For a split cylinder test in load control it is shown how the ultimate load is either plasticity dominated or fracture mechanics dominated. The transition between the two modes is related to changes in geometry or constitutive......The split cylinder testis subjected to an analysis combining nonlinear fracture mechanics and plasticity. The fictitious crack model is applied for the analysis of splitting tensile fracture, and the Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is adopted for modelling the compressive crushing/sliding failure. Two...

  19. Information Theoretic Authentication and Secrecy Codes in the Splitting Model

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the splitting model, information theoretic authentication codes allow non-deterministic encoding, that is, several messages can be used to communicate a particular plaintext. Certain applications require that the aspect of secrecy should hold simultaneously. Ogata-Kurosawa-Stinson-Saido (2004) have constructed optimal splitting authentication codes achieving perfect secrecy for the special case when the number of keys equals the number of messages. In this paper, we establish a construction method for optimal splitting authentication codes with perfect secrecy in the more general case when the number of keys may differ from the number of messages. To the best knowledge, this is the first result of this type.

  20. Degeneracy and Split of Defect States in Photonic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓琴; 崔一平

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional photonic crystals with two or more structural defects are studied. We observed an interesting characteristic of transmission band structure of photonic crystals with defects using the transmission-matrixmethod simulation. The transmission states in the wide photonic band gap caused by defects revealdegeneracy and split in certain conditions. Every split state is contributed by coupling of all defects in a photonic crystal.Using the tight-binding method, we obtain an approximate analytic expression for the split frequency of photonic crystals with two structural defects.

  1. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... and sub-plot by whole-plot interactions from the rest. Further we show how to construct split-plot designs of projectivity P≥3. We also introduce a new class of split-plot designs with mirror image pairs constructed from non-geometric Plackett–Burman designs. The design properties of such designs are very...

  2. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    Body diode of SiC MOSFETs has a relatively high forward voltage drop and still experiences reverse recovery phenomenon. Half bridge with split output aims to decouple both the body diode and junction capacitance of SiC MOSFETs, therefore achieving a reduced switching loss in a bridge configuration....... This paper makes the current commutation mechanism and efficiency analysis of half bridge with split output based on SiC MOSFETs. Current commutation process analysis is illustrated together with LTspice simulation and afterwards, verified by the experimental results of a double pulse test circuit with split...

  3. Thermoelectric-induced unitary Cooper pair splitting efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518005 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-23

    Thermoelectric effect is exploited to optimize the Cooper pair splitting efficiency in a Y-shaped junction, which consists of two normal leads coupled to an s-wave superconductor via double noninteracting quantum dots. Here, utilizing temperature difference rather than bias voltage between the two normal leads, and tuning the two dot levels such that the transmittance of elastic cotunneling process is particle-hole symmetric, we find current flowing through the normal leads are totally contributed from the splitting of Cooper pairs emitted from the superconductor. Such a unitary splitting efficiency is significantly better than the efficiencies obtained in experiments so far.

  4. Hollow core anti-resonant fibres with split cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaosheng; Qi, Wenliang; Ho, Daryl; Luan, Feng; Yong, Ken-Tye; Yoo, Seongwoo

    2016-03-01

    A split cladding fibers (SCF) is proposed as an additional design to the anti-resonant type fiber. The introduced split cladding helps to reduce the fabrication distortion. We use numerical simulations to compare the Kagome fibers (KFs) and the proposed split cladding fibers (SCFs) over two normalized transmission bands. It reveals that SCFs are able to maintain the desired round shape of silica cladding walls, hence improving the confinement loss (CL) compared to the KF. Fabrication of the SCF is demonstrated by the stack-and-draw technique. The near filed mode patterns are measured to prove the feasibility of this fiber design.

  5. Eigenmode Splitting in all Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Nitride Coupled Microcavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-Gao; HUANG Xin-Fan; CHEN Kun-Ji; QIAN Bo; CHEN San; DING Hong-Lin; LIU Sui; WANG Xiang; XU Jun; LI Wei

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride based coupled optical microcavity is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical calculation of the transmittance spectra of optical microcavity with one cavity and coupled microcavity with two-cavity is performed.The optical eigenmode splitting for coupled microcavity is found due to the interaction between the neighbouring localized cavities.Experimentally,the coupled cavity samples are prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition and characterized by photoluminescence measurements.It is found that the photoluminescence peak wavelength agrees well with the cavity mode in the calculated transmittance spectra.This eigenmode splitting is analogous to the electron state energy splitting in diatom molecules.

  6. Analysis of oxygen shell splitting in hydrothermally grown single crystal ThO{sub 2}(200)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, T.D.; Petrosky, J.C.; McClory, J.W. [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2950 Hobson Way, WPAFB, OH 45433 (United States); Mann, J.M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Kolis, J.W. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0973 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Single crystals of ThO{sub 2} have been synthesized using hydrothermal growth and studied using the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been extracted from the XAFS and analyzed using a novel, computational Latin hypercube sampling method. The methodology not only confirms the expected space group and crystal structure, it also identifies the origin of a previously reported split O shell. Since EXAFS is a local order analysis technique, the O shell splitting is identified as an O atom occupying an interstitial site. This result is significant for examining O{sup 2-} transport in a ThO{sub 2} matrix and corroborating research indicating partial Th 5f occupancy that is similar to hyper-stoichiometric UO{sub 2+x} compounds. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Enhanced infrared magneto-optical response of the nonmagnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkó, L; Schober, G A H; Kocsis, V; Bahramy, M S; Murakawa, H; Lee, J S; Kézsmárki, I; Arita, R; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y

    2012-10-19

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of the polar semiconductor BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being nonmagnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (up to 3 T). Our first-principles calculations show that the enhanced MO response of BiTeI comes mainly from the intraband transitions between the Rashba-split bulk conduction bands. These transitions connecting electronic states with opposite spin directions become active due to the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction and give rise to distinct features in the MO spectra with a systematic doping dependence. We predict an even more pronounced enhancement in the low-energy MO response and dc Hall effect near the crossing (Dirac) point of the conduction bands.

  8. Enhanced infrared magneto-optical response of the nonmagnetic semiconductor BiTeI driven by bulk Rashba splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demko, L.; Tokura, Y. [Multiferroics Project, ERATO, JST, c/o Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Schober, G.A.H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Kocsis, V.; Kezsmarki, I. [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Hungary); Bahramy, M.S.; Murakawa, H. [CMRG and CERG, RIKEN ASI (Japan); Lee, J.S.; Arita, R.; Nagaosa, N. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We study the magneto-optical (MO) response of the polar semiconducting BiTeI with giant bulk Rashba spin splitting at various carrier densities. Despite being nonmagnetic, the material is found to yield a huge MO activity in the infrared region under moderate magnetic fields (up to 3 T). Our first-principles calculations show that the enhanced MO response of BiTeI comes mainly from the intraband transitions between the Rashba-split bulk conduction bands. These transitions connecting electronic states with opposite spin directions become active due to the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction and give rise to distinct features in the MO spectra with a systematic doping dependence. We predict an even more pronounced enhancement in the low-energy MO response and dc Hall effect near the crossing (Dirac) point of the conduction bands.

  9. Rashba-type spin splitting and spin interference of the Cu(1 1 1) surface state at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dil, J. Hugo, E-mail: hugo.dil@epfl.ch [Institut de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Meier, Fabian [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Osterwalder, Jürg [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    We report on the measurement of the Rashba-type spin splitting of the Shockley surface state on Cu(1 1 1) by spin- and angle-resolved photoemission at room temperature. Along the spatial direction expected for a Rashba-type effect the measured spin splitting corresponds to what has previously been reported by first principle calculations which were verified by high resolution ARPES using low temperatures and perfect crystals. Furthermore it is found that structural defects cause a spin-interference in the photoemission process and as a result the main measured spin signal is in the plane orthogonal to the typical Rashba orientation. Although the determination of the exact origin of this signal requires further investigations, the main results can be used as a benchmark for future spin-resolved photoemission set-ups.

  10. An inversion scheme to model subsurface fracture systems using shear wave splitting polarization and delay time observations simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Elkibbi, Maya; Rial, José A.

    2005-03-01

    Shear wave splitting polarization (p) and delay time (Δt) observations are used to invert for fracture orientation and intensity of fracturing, simultaneously. By addressing the different levels of uncertainty involved in measurements of these two parameters, as well as their dissimilar relationships to fracture configuration, we have developed an inversion algorithm which reduces the primary double-response inversion to two connected single-response ones. We show that its inherent non-linearity complicates this problem, which therefore requires a more sophisticated attack than conventional inversion schemes. It will be shown that the construction of residue function contours in the model plane and the generation of surrogate data by simulation process are essential to this approach. We illustrate the capabilities of this technique by inverting shear wave splitting data from The Geysers geothermal reservoir in California. In principle the method should be useful for characterizing fractured reservoirs, whether geothermal or hydrocarbon.

  11. Leech's Politeness Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李日

    2011-01-01

    Leech thinks that people sometimes disobey Grice's Cooperative Principle in order to express themselves politely in interaction.Therefore he postulates the Politeness Principle and believes that it should be obeyed in communication.This paper analyzes his

  12. Ceramic Matrix Composites .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mukerji

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The present state of the knowledge of ceramic-matrix composites have been reviewed. The fracture toughness of present structural ceramics are not enough to permit design of high performance machines with ceramic parts. They also fail by catastrophic brittle fracture. It is generally believed that further improvement of fracture toughness is only possible by making composites of ceramics with ceramic fibre, particulate or platelets. Only ceramic-matrix composites capable of working above 1000 degree centigrade has been dealt with keeping reinforced plastics and metal-reinforced ceramics outside the purview. The author has discussed the basic mechanisms of toughening and fabrication of composites and the difficulties involved. Properties of available fibres and whiskers have been given. The best results obtained so far have been indicated. The limitations of improvement in properties of ceramic-matrix composites have been discussed.

  13. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  14. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  15. Finite Temperature Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1998-01-01

    We present the way the Lorentz invariant canonical partition function for Matrix Theory as a light-cone formulation of M-theory can be computed. We explicitly show how when the eleventh dimension is decompactified, the N=1 eleven dimensional SUGRA partition function appears. From this particular analysis we also clarify the question about the discernibility problem when making statistics with supergravitons (the N! problem) in Matrix black hole configurations. We also provide a high temperature expansion which captures some structure of the canonical partition function when interactions amongst D-particles are on. The connection with the semi-classical computations thermalizing the open superstrings attached to a D-particle is also clarified through a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some ideas about how Matrix Theory would describe the complementary degrees of freedom of the massless content of eleven dimensional SUGRA are also discussed.

  16. Principles of tendon transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, B

    2016-04-01

    Tendon transfers are carried out to restore functional deficits by rerouting the remaining intact muscles. Transfers are highly attractive in the context of hand surgery because of the possibility of restoring the patient's ability to grip. In palsy cases, tendon transfers are only used when a neurological procedure is contraindicated or has failed. The strategy used to restore function follows a common set of principles, no matter the nature of the deficit. The first step is to clearly distinguish between deficient muscles and muscles that could be transferred. Next, the type of palsy will dictate the scope of the program and the complexity of the gripping movements that can be restored. Based on this reasoning, a surgical strategy that matches the means (transferable muscles) with the objectives (functions to restore) will be established and clearly explained to the patient. Every paralyzed hand can be described using three parameters. 1) Deficient segments: wrist, thumb and long fingers; 2) mechanical performance of muscles groups being revived: high energy-wrist extension and finger flexion that require strong transfers with long excursion; low energy-wrist flexion and finger extension movements that are less demanding mechanically, because they can be accomplished through gravity alone in some cases; 3) condition of the two primary motors in the hand: extrinsics (flexors and extensors) and intrinsics (facilitator). No matter the type of palsy, the transfer surgery follows the same technical principles: exposure, release, fixation, tensioning and rehabilitation. By performing an in-depth analysis of each case and by following strict technical principles, tendon transfer surgery leads to reproducible results; this allows the surgeon to establish clear objectives for the patient preoperatively.

  17. Habitat split as a cause of local population declines of amphibians with aquatic larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C Guilherme; Fonseca, Carlos R; Haddad, Célio F B; Prado, Paulo I

    2010-02-01

    Most amphibian species have biphasic life histories and undergo an ontogenetic shift from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. In deforested landscapes, streams and forest fragments are frequently disjunct, jeopardizing the life cycle of forest-associated amphibians with aquatic larvae. We tested the impact of habitat split--defined as human-induced disconnection between habitats used by different life-history stages of a species--on four forest-associated amphibian species in a severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We surveyed amphibians in forest fragments with and without streams (referred to as wet and dry fragments, respectively), including the adjacent grass-field matrix. Our comparison of capture rates in dry fragments and nearby streams in the matrix allowed us to evaluate the number of individuals that engaged in high-risk migrations through nonforested habitats. Adult amphibians moved from dry fragments to matrix streams at the beginning of the rainy season, reproduced, and returned at the end of the breeding period. Juveniles of the year moved to dry fragments along with adults. These risky reproductive migrations through nonforested habitats that expose individuals to dehydration, predation, and other hazards may cause population declines in dry fragments. Indeed, capture rates were significantly lower in dry fragments compared with wet fragments. Declining amphibians would strongly benefit from investments in the conservation and restoration of riparian vegetation and corridors linking breeding and nonbreeding areas.

  18. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  19. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…

  20. Quark Physics without Quarks: A Review of Recent Developments in S-Matrix Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the developments in S-matrix theory over the past five years which have made it possible to derive results characteristic of quark models without any need to postulate the existence of physical quarks. In the new approach, the quark patterns emerge as a consequence of combining the general S-matrix principles with the concept of order.…