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Sample records for matrix attachment region-binding

  1. Advances in Study on Scaffold/matrix Attachment Region Binding Protein 1%核基质结合区结合蛋白质1研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗金波; 乔炜

    2012-01-01

    Change of nuclear matrix associated protein is one of the major phenotypes of malignant tumor cells leading to alteration in chromatin folding, the change of fidelity of genome replication and gene expression. Aberrant expression of matrix attachment region (MAR) binding proteins (MARBPs) modulates the chromatin constitution and disruption of transcriptional network that leads to oncogenesis. Some of these proteins are expressed specifically in tumor tissue and could be served as promising diagnostic or prognostic markers. Scaffold/matrix attachment region binding protein 1 (SMAR1) expression is drastically down-regulated in breast cancer. This article reviewed the roles of SMAR1 in cell growth, apoptosis and tumorigenesis.%核基质相关蛋白改变是恶性肿瘤细胞的主要表现形式,可使染色质发生折叠、基因复制保真度和基因表达发生改变.核基质结合区(MAR)结合蛋白(MARBPs)表达异常可影响染色质构成、干扰转录调控程序,致肿瘤形成.某些MARBPs特异性表达于肿瘤组织,是肿瘤诊断和预后的指标.核基质结合区结合蛋白质1(SMAR1)在乳腺癌中的表达急剧下调.本文就SMAR1在细胞生长、凋亡和肿瘤形成中的作用作一综述.

  2. Improvement of foreign gene expression in transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) by matrix attachment regions (MARs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Matrix attachment regions or matrix associated regions (MARs) were special DNA sequences in chromatin of eukaryotic cells that tightly associated with the nuclear matrix or scaffold in vitro after a combination of nuclease digestion and extraction. They were also called scaffold attachment regions (SARs) .

  3. Improvement of foreign gene expression in transgenic rice ( Oryza sativa L. ) by matrix attachment regions (MARs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Matrix attachment regions or matrix associated regions (MARs) were special DNA sequences in chromatin of eukaryotic cells that tightly associated with the nuclear matrix or scaffold in vitro after a combination of nuclease digestion and extraction. They were also called scaffold attachment regions (SARs).

  4. Conjugation of extracellular matrix proteins to basal lamina analogs enhances keratinocyte attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Katie A; Downing, Brett R; Walsh, Sarah E; Pins, George D

    2007-02-01

    The dermal-epidermal junction of skin contains extracellular matrix proteins that are involved in initiating and controlling keratinocyte signaling events such as attachment, proliferation, and terminal differentiation. To characterize the relationship between extracellular matrix proteins and keratinocyte attachment, a biomimetic design approach was used to precisely tailor the surface of basal lamina analogs with biochemistries that emulate the native biochemical composition found at the dermal-epidermal junction. A high-throughput screening device was developed by our laboratory that allows for the simultaneous investigation of the conjugation of individual extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. collagen type I, collagen type IV, laminin, or fibronectin) as well as their effect on keratinocyte attachment, on the surface of an implantable collagen membrane. Fluorescence microscopy coupled with quantitative digital image analyses indicated that the extracellular matrix proteins adsorbed to the collagen-GAG membranes in a dose-dependent manner. To determine the relationship between extracellular matrix protein signaling cues and keratinocyte attachment, cells were seeded on protein-conjugated collagen-GAG membranes and a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay was used to quantify viable keratinocyte attachment. Our results indicate that keratinocyte attachment was significantly enhanced on the surfaces of collagen membranes that were conjugated with fibronectin and type IV collagen. These findings define a set of design parameters that will enhance keratinocyte binding efficiency on the surface of collagen membranes and ultimately improve the rate of epithelialization for dermal equivalents.

  5. Matrix attachment regions (MARs) enhance transformation frequencies and reduce variance of transgene expression in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K.; Leah, R.; Knudsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) are defined as genomic DNA sequences, located at the physical boundaries of chromatin loops. They are suggested to play a role in the cis unfolding and folding of the chromatin fibre associated with the regulation of gene transcription. Inclusion of MARs i...

  6. Attachment of IgG to dermal extracellular matrix in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneström, S; Bengtson, A; Lindström, F; Johan, K

    1990-01-01

    Deposits of IgG localized to collagen bundles/extracellular matrix components occurred in skin biopsies from patients with primary fibromyalgia (PF). None of these patients demonstrated a positive lupus band test. Control skin biopsies from healthy controls were negative but showed intense reactivity for IgG after collagenase treatment. PF-skin attached both homologous and heterologous serum IgG in indirect immunofluorescence, which may point to a qualitative alteration of dermal matrix components in PF. Skin from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis showed a lower dermal fluorescence intensity than in PF patients. The cause of the presence of IgG in dermal tissue from PF patients is unclear. It may be caused by a non-specific attachment of IgG to the extracellular matrix related, for example, to tissue hypoxia and/or increased capillary leakage due to an increased number of mast cells in the PF-skin.

  7. Effect of pH, salt and chemical rinses on bacterial attachment to extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfakar, Siti Shahara; White, Jason D; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Microbial contamination of carcass surfaces occurs during slaughter and post-slaughter processing steps, therefore interventions are needed to enhance meat safety and quality. Although many studies have been done at the macro-level, little is known about specific processes that influence bacterial attachment to carcass surfaces, particularly the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In the present study, the effect of pH and salt (NaCl, KCl and CaCl2) on attachment of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates to dominant ECM proteins: collagen I, fibronectin, collagen IV and laminin were assessed. Also, the effects of three chemical rinses commonly used in abattoirs (2% acetic acid, 2% lactic acid and 10% trisodium phosphate (TSP)) were tested. Within a pH range of 5-9, there was no significant effect on attachment to ECM proteins, whereas the effect of salt type and concentration varied depending on combination of strain and ECM protein. A concentration-dependant effect was observed with NaCl and KCl (0.1-0.85%) on attachment of E. coli M23Sr, but only to collagen I. One-tenth percent CaCl2 produced the highest level of attachment to ECM proteins for E. coli M23Sr and EC614. In contrast, higher concentrations of CaCl2 increased attachment of E. coli EC473 to collagen IV. Rinses containing TSP produced >95% reduction in attachment to all ECM proteins. These observations will assist in the design of targeted interventions to prevent or disrupt contamination of meat surfaces, thus improving meat safety and quality.

  8. Increase of Expression Levels of Reporter Gene in Transgenic Tobaccos by Matrix Attachment Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The matrix attachment region (MAR) located downstream of Plastocyanin gene was isolated from the genome of pea. To study the effect of MARs on foreign gene expression in transgenic plants, T-DNA vector was constructed in which MARs flanked bothβ-glucuronidase(GUS) gene and selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT-II) gene. The plant expression vectors were transferred into leaf discs via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The result of GUS measurement showed that pea MAR could increase transgene expression level. The mean expression levels of GUS gene expression in population containing MARs could be increased twofold when compared with that of population without MARs.

  9. MFSD2A is a novel lung tumor suppressor gene modulating cell cycle and matrix attachment

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    Shames David S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MFSD2A (major facilitator superfamily domain containing 2 gene maps on chromosome 1p34 within a linkage disequilibrium block containing genetic elements associated with progression of lung cancer. Results Here we show that MFSD2A expression is strongly downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines of different histotypes and in primary lung adenocarcinomas. Experimental modulation of MFSD2A in lung cancer cells is associated with alteration of mRNA levels of genes involved in cell cycle control and interaction with the extracellular matrix. Exogenous expression of MFSD2A in lung cancer cells induced a G1 block, impaired adhesion and migration in vitro, and significantly reduced tumor colony number in vitro (4- to 27-fold, P in vivo (~3-fold, P Conclusion Together these data suggest that MFSD2A is a novel lung cancer tumor suppressor gene that regulates cell cycle progression and matrix attachment.

  10. Predicting the function of eukaryotic scaffold/matrix attachment regions via DNA mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Ou-Yang, Zhong-can

    2005-08-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin undergoes a few steps of compaction to form a chromosome. Among the several levels of chromatin assembly, successive chromatin loops (5-100 kb) demarcated by the nuclear matrix are of primary importance since they behave as topologically independent domains for coordinate regulation of harboured genes. The bases of the loops are called SMARs (scaffold/matrix attachment regions). On one hand, this chromosome structure imposes stress on the DNA molecule since the double-stranded DNA is actually unwound and bent by histones and other proteins. On the other hand, the stressed DNA itself affects chromatin assembly inversely, e.g., the unwinding stress may promote SMAR binding to the matrix. The interplay between chromosome structure and unwinding stress contributes significantly to eukaryotic gene regulation. In this paper, we investigate two issues: how torsional stress may promote SMAR anchorage to the matrix; and how the formation of chromatin loops may affect basic biochemical processes. We employ the Benham model for these purposes. Our analysis gives theoretical evidence that at least some SMARs are unwound under torsional stress and at the same time could serve as topological barriers for retaining the torsional stress on the chromatin loop which may be necessary for gene transcription.

  11. Association of the Matrix Attachment Region Recognition Signature with coding regions in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Blaxter Mark

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix attachment regions (MAR are the sites on genomic DNA that interact with the nuclear matrix. There is increasing evidence for the involvement of MAR in regulation of gene expression. The unsuitability of experimental detection of MAR for genome-wide analyses has led to the development of computational methods of detecting MAR. The MAR recognition signature (MRS has been reported to be associated with a significant fraction of MAR in C. elegans and has also been found in MAR from a wide range of other eukaryotes. However the effectiveness of the MRS in specifically and sensitively identifying MAR remains unresolved. Results Using custom software, we have mapped the occurrence of MRS across the entire C. elegans genome. We find that MRS have a distinctive chromosomal distribution, in which they appear more frequently in the gene-rich chromosome centres than in arms. Comparison to distributions of MRS estimated from chromosomal sequences randomised using mono-, di- tri- and tetra-nucleotide frequency patterns showed that, while MRS are less common in real sequence than would be expected from nucleotide content alone, they are more frequent than would be predicted from short-range nucleotide structure. In comparison to the rest of the genome, MRS frequency was elevated in 5' and 3' UTRs, and striking peaks of average MRS frequency flanked C. elegans coding sequence (CDS. Genes associated with MRS were significantly enriched for receptor activity annotations, but not for expression level or other features. Conclusion Through a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of MRS in C. elegans we have shown that they have a distinctive distribution, particularly in relation to genes. Due to their association with untranslated regions, it is possible that MRS could have a post-transcriptional role in the control of gene expression. A role for MRS in nuclear scaffold attachment is not supported by these analyses.

  12. Small tumor virus genomes are integrated near nuclear matrix attachment regions in transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, K A; Shera, C A; McDougall, J K

    2001-12-01

    More than 15% of human cancers have a viral etiology. In benign lesions induced by the small DNA tumor viruses, viral genomes are typically maintained extrachromosomally. Malignant progression is often associated with viral integration into host cell chromatin. To study the role of viral integration in tumorigenesis, we analyzed the positions of integrated viral genomes in tumors and tumor cell lines induced by the small oncogenic viruses, including the high-risk human papillomaviruses, hepatitis B virus, simian virus 40, and human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. We show that viral integrations in tumor cells lie near cellular sequences identified as nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs), while integrations in nonneoplastic cells show no significant correlation with these regions. In mammalian cells, the nuclear matrix functions in gene expression and DNA replication. MARs play varied but poorly understood roles in eukaryotic gene expression. Our results suggest that integrated tumor virus genomes are subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional regulation, providing insight into mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis. Furthermore, the viral oncoproteins serve as invaluable tools for the study of mechanisms controlling cellular growth. Similarly, our demonstration that integrated viral genomes may be subject to MAR-mediated transcriptional effects should facilitate elucidation of fundamental mechanisms regulating eukaryotic gene expression.

  13. Comparison of Different MARs(Matrix Attachment Regions)Effect on Transgene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Jin; LIU Shu-jun; YANG Wei; HU Yuan-lei; LIN Zhong-ping

    2004-01-01

    Three MARs(matrix attachment regions)fragments were cloned from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)(MAR1),yeast(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (MAR3)and kidney bean(Phaseolus vulgaris) (MAR5)which ranged 984,822 and 782 bp,respectively.Sequence analysis showed that all the fragments had fairly high A/T content (73,62 and 75%,respectively),harbored different number and different type of some characteristic motifs of MARs,such as A-box and T-box,etc.The results of in vitro binding assay showed that the three MARs fragments derived from different organisms could bind specifically to the matrix extracted from the tobacco nuclei with different strength,which also demonstrated that these MARs fragments are functionally conserved during evolution.By using these MARs fragments to flank the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and bialaphos resistance(bar) selectable marker gene,and then introducing the resulting plant expression vectors containing MARs-uidA-barMARs into tobacco through Agrobacteriummediated procedures,the effects of MARs sequences on the expression of transgenes in tobacco were investigated and compared.The GUS activity in individual transformants showed that,comparing to the controls without additional MARs,the overall transgene expression level in transformants with MARs had been greatly increased while the variations in transgene expression among transformants were decreased in different degrees.In accordance with the results of sequence analysis and in vitro binding assay in which MAR1 fragment showed the strongest binding strength,this MARs fragment also showed the greatest effect in increasing transgene overall expression level.

  14. Isolation of pea matrix attachment region and study on its function in transgenic tobaccos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭刚; 朱祯; 徐军望; 吴茜; 徐鸿林

    2001-01-01

    A DNA fragment containing consensus sequence of matrix attachment region (MAR) has been isolated from pea genome. Compared with original DNA sequence, one 115 bp-long repeat sequence is deleted in the obtained DNA sequence. DNA fragments located upstream and down-stream of repeat DNA sequence respectively share 84% and 93% homology to the corresponding original sequence, and contain A-box or T-box and TATAA sequence, which is characteristics short sequence of MARs. To test the function of the DNA sequence, the plant expression vectors in which b-glucuronidase gene (GUS, uidA) was used as reporter gene were constructed and transferred into tobaccos via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. Quantitative GUS assay showed that the average level of uidA expression was increased twofold for the presence of MAR, and the highest level of GUS activity of transgenic plants could be increased six times. The results cited above suggest that the isolated DNA sequence contains consensus sequence of MARs and has capability to increase expression level of gene in transgenic plants.

  15. Matrix attachment region combinations increase transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Peng; Guo, Xiao; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Chang-Zheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Jun-He; Chen, Shao-Nan; Jia, Yan-Long; Wang, Tian-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are cis-acting DNA elements that can increase transgene expression levels in a CHO cell expression system. To investigate the effects of MAR combinations on transgene expression and the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we generated constructs in which the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene flanked by different combinations of human β-interferon and β-globin MAR (iMAR and gMAR, respectively), which was driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) or simian virus (SV) 40 promoter. These were transfected into CHO-K1 cells, which were screened with geneticin; eGFP expression was detected by flow cytometry. The presence of MAR elements increased transfection efficiency and transient and stably expression of eGFP expression under both promoters; the level was higher when the two MARs differed (i.e., iMAR and gMAR) under the CMV but not the SV40 promoter. For the latter, two gMARs showed the highest activity. We also found that MARs increased the ratio of stably transfected positive colonies. These results indicate that combining the CMV promoter with two different MAR elements or the SV40 promoter with two gMARs is effective for inducing high expression level and stability of transgenes. PMID:28216629

  16. Nuclear matrix attachment regions and transgene expression in plants%核基质结合区(MARs)与植物转基因的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓小燕; 张兴国

    2002-01-01

    @@ 基质结合区(matrix association regions or matrix attachment regions, MARs)亦称核骨架结合区(scaffold association regions or scaffold attachment regions, SARs),是真核基因组中能与核基质特异紧结合的DNA序列.

  17. Cell compatibility of an eposimal vector mediated by the characteristic motifs of matrix attachment regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Yun; Wang, Li; Yang, Yu-Xin; Zhao, Chun-Peng; Jia, Yan-Long; Li, Qin; Zhang, Jun-He; Peng, Yi-You; Wang, Miao; Xu, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Yin

    2016-12-02

    The characteristic sequence of β-interferon matrix attachment regions (MARs) can mediate transgene expression via episomal vectors in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, the host cells were from hamster ovaries, which are not suitable target cells for gene therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the suitability of 12 different human cell lines as target cells for gene therapy. We transfected the cells with episomal vectors and obtained colonies stably expressing the vector products after G418 screening. Therefore, the stably transfected cells were split into two and further cultured, either in the presence or the absence of G418. Flow cytometry was used to observe the positive rate of cell transfection and level of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Plasmid rescue assays, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to investigate the presence and gene copy numbers of plasmid in mammalian cells. The results showed that transfection efficiency and transgene expression levels in A375, Eca-109, and Chang-liver cells were high. In contrast, transgene silencing was observed in BJ, HSF, and A431 cells, and low expression of the transgene was observed in the other six cell lines. In addition, the plasmid was present in the episomal state in A375, Eca-109, and Chang-liver cells with relatively low copy numbers even under nonselective conditions. Thus, our results provide the first evidence showing transgene expression of an episomal vector mediated by the characteristic motifs of MARs for maintenance of the long-term stability of episomes in different types of cells.

  18. Effect of spatial distribution of porous matrix surface charge heterogeneity on nanoparticle attachment in a packed bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc H.; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effect of spatial distribution of the porous matrix surface heterogeneity on nanoparticle deposition is numerically explored using lattice Boltzmann simulation methods and tracking of individual particles with Lagrangian algorithms. Packed beds with four different patterns of surface charge heterogeneity, on which favorable surfaces for particle attachment are located at different locations, are generated. The heterogeneity is binary, so that the porous surface can either accommodate nanoparticle attachment or not. It is found that the heterogeneity pattern has a stronger effect when the rate constant for particle attachment is high, when the particle size is small, and/or when the fraction of the surface area that is favorable to attachment is about 0.5. At fixed conditions, the heterogeneity pattern with randomly and uniformly distributed active surface area is the most favorite for particle attachment, compared to those where the active surface areas are banded perpendicularly to the flow direction. There exists a critical ratio of the Damkohler number to the Peclet number, beyond which the heterogeneity pattern effect becomes more visible.

  19. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm®) for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chitra; Kumar, Baron Tarun; Mehta, Dhoom Singh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of inflammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm) were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifies that Alloderm® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts. PMID:26015676

  20. An acellular dermal matrix allograft (Alloderm ® for increasing keratinized attached gingiva: A case series

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    Chitra Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Adequate amount of keratinized gingiva is necessary to keep gingiva healthy and free of infl ammation. Autografts have been used for years with great success to increase the width of attached gingiva. Autografts, however, have the disadvantage of increasing postoperative morbidity and improper color match with the adjacent tissues. Alloderm ® allograft has been introduced as an alternative to autografts to overcome these disadvantages. Aim: In this study, the efficacy of alloderm ® in increasing the width of attached gingiva and the stability of gained attached gingiva was evaluated clinically. Materials and Methods: Five patients with sites showing inadequate width of attached gingiva (≤1 mm were enrolled for the study. The width of keratinized gingiva and other clinical parameters were recorded at baseline and 9th month postoperatively. Result: In all cases, there is the average increase of about 2.5 mm of attached gingiva and was maintained for 9-month. Percentage shrinkage of the graft is about 75% at the end of 3 rd month in all cases. Excellent colors match with adjacent tissue has been obtained. Conclusion: The study signifi es that Alloderm ® results in an adequate increase in the amount of attached gingiva and therefore can be used successfully in place of autografts.

  1. Scaffold/matrix-attached regions: structural properties creating transcriptionally active loci.

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    Bode, J; Schlake, T; Ríos-Ramírez, M; Mielke, C; Stengert, M; Kay, V; Klehr-Wirth, D

    1995-01-01

    The expression characteristics of the human interferon-beta gene, as part of a long stretch of genomic DNA, led to the discovery of the putative domain bordering elements. The chromatin structure of these elements and their surroundings was determined during the process of gene activation and correlated with their postulated functions. It is shown that these "scaffold-attached regions" (S/MAR elements) have some characteristics in common with and others distinct from enhancers with which they cooperate in various ways. Our model of S/MAR function will focus on their properties of mediating topological changes within the respective domain.

  2. Identification of scaffold/Matrix Attachment (S/MAR like DNA element from the gastrointestinal protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

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    Gautam Pennathur

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin in the nucleus of all eukaryotes is organized into a system of loops and domains. These loops remain fastened at their bases to the fundamental framework of the nucleus, the matrix or the scaffold. The DNA sequences which anchor the bases of the chromatin loops to the matrix are known as Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Regions or S/MARs. Though S/MARs have been studied in yeast and higher eukaryotes and they have been found to be associated with gene organization and regulation of gene expression, they have not been reported in protists like Giardia. Several tools have been discovered and formulated to predict S/MARs from a genome of a higher eukaryote which take into account a number of features. However, the lack of a definitive consensus sequence in S/MARs and the randomness of the protozoan genome in general, make it a challenge to predict and identify such sequences from protists. Results Here, we have analysed the Giardia genome for the probable S/MARs predicted by the available computational tools; and then shown these sequences to be physically associated with the nuclear matrix. Our study also reflects that while no single computational tool is competent to predict such complex elements from protist genomes, a combination of tools followed by experimental verification is the only way to confirm the presence of these elements from these organisms. Conclusion This is the first report of S/MAR elements from the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia. This initial work is expected to lay a framework for future studies relating to genome organization as well as gene regulatory elements in this parasite.

  3. Free vibration analysis of elastically supported Timoshenko columns with attached masses by transfer matrix and finite element methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Oktay Demirdaǧ

    2008-02-01

    This paper deals with the free vibration of Timoshenko columns with attached masses having rotary inertia. The support of the model is elastically restrained against rotation. The concept of fixity factor is used to define the stiffness of the elastic connection relative to that of the column. The governing equation of the column elements is solved by applying the separation of variables method in the transfer matrix method (TMM) algorithm. The same problems are solved, also, by finite element method (FEM) algorithm in which the matrices in equation of motion are obtained for Timoshenko column, and the results are compared with the ones of TMM. The comparison graphs are presented in numerical analysis to show the effectiveness of the considered methods, and it is resulted that FEM gives closer results to TMM.

  4. The use of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) for improvement of probing attachment level of the autotransplanted teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Yoshioki; Takahashi, Kouji; Sakurai, Hiromasa; Akiba, Katsumi; Izumi, Naoya; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Michiko; Saito, Chikara

    2005-12-01

    The enamel matrix derivative (EMD, Emdogain) was used for the purpose to obtain the periodontal regeneration on the denuded root-surfaces of the donor teeth in two cases of the immediate tooth-transplantation. The root-surfaces at the cervical portion of the teeth were denuded because of extrusion. The healthy periodontium of each tooth remained at the apical portion of the roots. The denuded root-surfaces were cleansed before extraction. Then, the donor teeth were gently extracted with forceps, administered EMD, and transplanted so that the denuded surfaces were covered by gingival flaps. After the transplantation, the mean probing attachment level (PAL) improved 3.2 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. The mean probing pocket depth was within normal level. The actual supporting areas of the roots of the transplanted teeth increased and the teeth worked as the abutments of prosthetic bridges.

  5. Effects of cell-attachment and extracellular matrix on bone formation in vivo in collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds.

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    Max M Villa

    Full Text Available Cell-based tissue engineering can be used to replace missing or damaged bone, but the optimal methods for delivering therapeutic cells to a bony defect have not yet been established. Using transgenic reporter cells as a donor source, two different collagen-hydroxyapatite (HA scaffolds, and a critical-size calvarial defect model, we investigated the effect of a cell-attachment period prior to implantation, with or without an extracellular matrix-based seeding suspension, on cell engraftment and osteogenesis. When quantitatively compared, the in-house scaffold implanted immediately had a higher mean radiopacity than in-house scaffolds incubated overnight. Both scaffold types implanted immediately had significantly higher area fractions of donor cells, while the in-house collagen-HA scaffolds implanted immediately had higher area fractions of the mineralization label compared with groups incubated overnight. When the cell loading was compared in vitro for each delivery method using the in-house scaffold, immediate loading led to higher numbers of delivered cells. Immediate loading may be preferable in order to ensure robust bone formation in vivo. The use of a secondary ECM carrier improved the distribution of donor cells only when a pre-attachment period was applied. These results have improved our understanding of cell delivery to bony defects in the context of in vivo outcomes.

  6. TM6, a novel nuclear matrix attachment region, enhances its flanking gene expression through influencing their chromatin structure.

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    Ji, Lusha; Xu, Rui; Lu, Longtao; Zhang, Jiedao; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Wu, Changai; Zheng, Chengchao

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) regulate the higher-order organization of chromatin and affect the expression of their flanking genes. In this study, a tobacco MAR, TM6, was isolated and demonstrated to remarkably increase the expression of four different promoters that drive gusA gene and adjacent nptII gene. In turn, this expression enhanced the transformation frequency of transgenic tobacco. Deletion analysis of topoisomerase II-binding site, AT-rich element, and MAR recognition signature (MRS) showed that MRS has the highest contribution (61.7%) to the TM6 sequence-mediated transcription activation. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) accessibility assay showed that 35S and NOS promoter regions with TM6 are more sensitive than those without TM6. The analysis also revealed that TM6 reduces promoter DNA methylation which can affect the gusA expression. In addition, two tobacco chromatin-associated proteins, NtMBP1 and NtHMGB, isolated using a yeast one-hybrid system, specifically bound to the TM6II-1 region (761 bp to 870 bp) and to the MRS element in the TM6II-2 (934 bp to 1,021 bp) region, respectively. We thus suggested that TM6 mediated its chromatin opening and chromatin accessibility of its flanking promoters with consequent enhancement of transcription.

  7. Mapping analysis of scaffold/matrix attachment regions (s/MARs) from two different mammalian cell lines

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    Pilus, Nur Shazwani Mohd; Johari, Norazfa; Ahmad, Azrin; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) are potential element that can be integrated into expression vector to increase expression of recombinant protein. Many studies on S/MAR have been done but none has revealed the distribution of S/MAR in a genome. In this study, we have isolated S/MAR sequences from HEK293 and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines (CHO DG44) using two different methods utilizing 2 M NaCl and lithium-3,5-diiodosalicylate (LIS). The isolated S/MARs were sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. Based on reference mapping analysis against human genome database, a total of 8,994,856 and 8,412,672 contigs of S/MAR sequences were retrieved from 2M NaCl and LIS extraction of HEK293 respectively. On the other hand, reference mapping analysis of S/MAR derived from CHO DG44 against our own CHO DG44 database have generated a total of 7,204,348 and 4,672,913 contigs from 2 M NaCl and LIS extraction method respectively.

  8. Human matrix attachment regions are necessary for the establishment but not the maintenance of transgene insulation in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Namciu, Stephanie J; Fournier, R E K

    2004-12-01

    Human matrix attachment regions (MARs) can insulate transgene expression from chromosomal position effects in Drosophila melanogaster. To gain insight into the mechanism(s) by which chromosomal insulation occurs, we studied the expression phenotypes of Drosophila transformants expressing mini-white transgenes in which MAR sequences from the human apoB gene were arranged in a variety of ways. In agreement with previous reports, we found that a single copy of the insulating element was not sufficient for position-independent transgene expression; rather, two copies were required. However, the arrangement of the two elements within the transgene was unimportant, since chromosomal insulation was equally apparent when both copies of the insulator were upstream of the mini-white reporter as when the transcription unit was flanked by insulator elements. Moreover, experiments in which apoB 3' MAR sequences were removed from integrated transgenes in vivo by site-specific recombination demonstrated that MAR sequences were required for the establishment but not for the maintenance of chromosomal insulation. These observations are not compatible with the chromosomal loop model in its simplest form. Alternate mechanisms for MAR function in this system are proposed.

  9. Mapping analysis of scaffold/matrix attachment regions (s/MARs) from two different mammalian cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilus, Nur Shazwani Mohd; Ahmad, Azrin; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Johari, Norazfa [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) are potential element that can be integrated into expression vector to increase expression of recombinant protein. Many studies on S/MAR have been done but none has revealed the distribution of S/MAR in a genome. In this study, we have isolated S/MAR sequences from HEK293 and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines (CHO DG44) using two different methods utilizing 2 M NaCl and lithium-3,5-diiodosalicylate (LIS). The isolated S/MARs were sequenced using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) platform. Based on reference mapping analysis against human genome database, a total of 8,994,856 and 8,412,672 contigs of S/MAR sequences were retrieved from 2M NaCl and LIS extraction of HEK293 respectively. On the other hand, reference mapping analysis of S/MAR derived from CHO DG44 against our own CHO DG44 database have generated a total of 7,204,348 and 4,672,913 contigs from 2 M NaCl and LIS extraction method respectively.

  10. Use of tritiated thymidine as a marker to compare the effects of matrix proteins on adult human vascular endothelial cell attachment: implications for seeding of vascular prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, J.E.; Wiebe, D.H.; Sharefkin, J.B.; D' Amore, P.A.; Abbott, W.M.

    1986-11-01

    We have developed a technique to measure attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to test surfaces with tritiated thymidine used as a marker. With this technique, we measured attachment of adult human vascular endothelial cells to a series of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), laminin-coated (10 micrograms/cm/sup 2/), and collagen-coated (1% gelatin) surfaces because of the role of these proteins in promoting cell attachment and growth. For a typical experiment, in the presence of serum, initial attachment (at 1 hour) was greatest on fibronectin-coated (63%) and gelatin-coated (60%) tissue culture plastic (polystyrene) and was least on laminin-coated (28%) or untreated polystyrene (18%). The data suggest that fibronectin, either alone, or with a more complex combination of extracellular components may need to be present on prosthetic surfaces to produce maximal cell attachment and subsequent growth to confluence in vivo. The described method of measuring attachment is independent of surface properties, ensures complete recovery of cells, and will allow systematic exploration of those properties that best support human endothelial cell attachment to vascular prosthetic surfaces.

  11. Pilot Testing of a Sampling Methodology for Assessing Seed Attachment Propensity and Transport Rate in a Soil Matrix Carried on Boot Soles and Bike Tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Nigel; Dietz, Kristina Charlotte; Bride, Ian; Passfield, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Land managers of natural areas are under pressure to balance demands for increased recreation access with protection of the natural resource. Unintended dispersal of seeds by visitors to natural areas has high potential for weedy plant invasions, with initial seed attachment an important step in the dispersal process. Although walking and mountain biking are popular nature-based recreation activities, there are few studies quantifying propensity for seed attachment and transport rate on boot soles and none for bike tires. Attachment and transport rate can potentially be affected by a wide range of factors for which field testing can be time-consuming and expensive. We pilot tested a sampling methodology for measuring seed attachment and transport rate in a soil matrix carried on boot soles and bike tires traversing a known quantity and density of a seed analog (beads) over different distances and soil conditions. We found % attachment rate on boot soles was much lower overall than previously reported, but that boot soles had a higher propensity for seed attachment than bike tires in almost all conditions. We believe our methodology offers a cost-effective option for researchers seeking to manipulate and test effects of different influencing factors on these two dispersal vectors.

  12. Stable high-level transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana using gene silencing mutants and matrix attachment regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaye, Katleen M J; Goderis, Inge J W M; Wouters, Piet F J; Pues, Jonathan M-T G; Delauré, Stijn L; Broekaert, Willem F; Depicker, Ann; Cammue, Bruno P A; De Bolle, Miguel F C

    2004-08-01

    Basic and applied research involving transgenic plants often requires consistent high-level expression of transgenes. However, high inter-transformant variability of transgene expression caused by various phenomena, including gene silencing, is frequently observed. Here, we show that stable, high-level transgene expression is obtained using Arabidopsis thaliana post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) sgs2 and sgs3 mutants. In populations of first generation (T1) A. thaliana plants transformed with a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (uidA) driven by the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (p35S), the incidence of highly expressing transformants shifted from 20% in wild type background to 100% in sgs2 and sgs3 backgrounds. Likewise, when sgs2 mutants were transformed with a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 6 gene under control of p35S, all transformants showed a clear phenotype typified by serrated leaves, whereas such phenotype was only observed in about one of five wild type transformants. p35S-driven uidA expression remained high and steady in T2 sgs2 and sgs3 transformants, in marked contrast to the variable expression patterns observed in wild type T2 populations. We further show that T-DNA constructs flanked by matrix attachment regions of the chicken lysozyme gene (chiMARs) cause a boost in GUS activity by fivefold in sgs2 and 12-fold in sgs3 plants, reaching up to 10% of the total soluble proteins, whereas no such boost is observed in the wild type background. MAR-based plant transformation vectors used in a PTGS mutant background might be of high value for efficient high-throughput screening of transgene-based phenotypes as well as for obtaining extremely high transgene expression in plants.

  13. The influence of matrix attachment regions on transgene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and gene silencing mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Miguel F C; Butaye, Katleen M J; Goderis, Inge J W M; Wouters, Piet F J; Jacobs, Anni; Delauré, Stijn L; Depicker, Ann; Cammue, Bruno P A

    2007-03-01

    Many studies in both animal and plant systems have shown that matrix attachment regions (MARs) can increase the expression of flanking transgenes. However, our previous studies revealed no effect of the chicken lysozyme MARs (chiMARs) on transgene expression in the first generation transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants transformed with a beta-glucuronidase gene (uidA) unless gene silencing mutants were used as genetic background for transformation. In the present study, we investigated why chiMARs do not influence transgene expression in transgenic wild-type Arabidopsis plants. We first studied the effect of chiMARs on transgene expression in the progeny of primary transformants harboring chiMAR-flanked T-DNAs. Our data indicate that chiMARs do not affect transgene expression in consecutive generations of wild-type A. thaliana plants. Next, we examined whether these observed results in A. thaliana transformants are influenced by the applied transformation method. The results from in vitro transformed A. thaliana plants are in accordance with those from in planta transformed A. thaliana plants and again reveal no influence of chiMARs on transgene expression in A. thaliana wild-type transformants. The effect of chi-MARs on transgene expression is also examined in in vitro transformed Nicotiana tabacum plants, but as for A. thaliana, the transgene expression in tobacco transformants is not altered by the presence of chi-MARs. Taken together, our results show that the applied method or the plant species used for transformation does not influence whether and how chiMARs have an effect on transgene expression. Finally, we studied the effect of MARs (tabMARs) of plant origin (tobacco) on the transgene expression in A. thaliana wild-type plants and suppressed gene silencing (sgs2) mutants. Our results clearly show that similar to chiMARs, the tobacco-derived MARs do not enhance transgene expression in a wild-type background but can be used to enhance transgene expression

  14. A map of nuclear matrix attachment regions within the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaposhnikov, Sergey A.; Akopov, Sergey B.; Chernov, Igor P.

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that the DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized into loop domains that represent basic structural and functional units of chromatin packaging. To explore the DNA domain organization of the breast cancer loss-of-heterozygosity region on human chromosome 16q22.1, we have...... identified a significant portion of the scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) within this region. Forty independent putative S/MAR elements were assigned within the 16q22.1 locus. More than 90% of these S/MARs are AT rich, with GC contents as low as 27% in 2 cases. Thirty-nine (98%) of the S...

  15. Isolation of a strong matrix attachment region (MAR) and identification of its function in vitro and in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Inclusion of MARs in transgene cassettes enhances their expression and reduces position-effect variations in the transgenic host. Four new MARs (TM2, TM3, AM1 and AM2) were isolated from tobacco and Arabidopsis by PCR method. The nuclei isolated from suspension- cultured cells of rice were used to prepare nuclear matrix. With a characterized MAR (TM1) as a positive control, the Matrix-MAR interactions were tested by an in vitro binding assay to identify the DNA sequences as MARs and their binding strength to nuclear matrix in vitro was compared. The results showed that TM2 and TM3 had stronger binding strength than TM1. To determine the functions of the four new MARs in vivo, binary vectors pBI121 carrying a uidA GUS reporter gene were modified with direct repeat MARs inserted on both sides of the reporter gene cassette and were transferred into tobaccos via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. Quantitative GUS assays of the transgenic tobaccos showed that when flanking a GUS reporter gene TM1, TM2, TM3 and AM1 increased uidA GUS gene expression level approximately 1.5-fold, 5-fold, 1.35-fold, 1.3-fold respectively and AM2 has no effect on gene expression. TM2 was found to be a strong MAR that could effectively increase gene expression level and could be used as an effective enhancing element to construct high efficient expression vectors. In this note the relations among the sequence features, binding strength in vitro and function in vivo of the five MARs were analyzed, and the potential significance of TM2 in plant genetic engineering was dis- cussed.

  16. Nuclear matrix attachment regions and transgene expression in plants%核基质结合区与转基因植物的基因表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峰; 许明; 赵伊英; 郑回勇; 郑金贵

    2003-01-01

    核基质结合区(matrix attachment regions, MARs)是真核细胞染色质中能与核基质结合的一段DNA序列.当MARs位于外源基因两侧时,能够使转基因植株高效、稳定表达,说明MARs是消除植物转基因沉默的一条可行途径.本文综述了MARs的研究进展,认为MARs的研究与利用对获得高效、稳定的转基因禾谷类作物具有重要的意义.

  17. Durability Evaluation of a Thin Film Sensor System With Enhanced Lead Wire Attachments on SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Kiser, J. Douglas; Singh, Mrityunjay; Cuy, Mike; Blaha, Charles A.; Androjna, Drago

    2000-01-01

    An advanced thin film sensor system instrumented on silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix ceramic matrix composites (SiC/SiC CMCs), was evaluated in a Mach 0.3 burner rig in order to determine its durability to monitor material/component surface temperature in harsh environments. The sensor system included thermocouples in a thin film form (5 microns thick), fine lead wires (75 microns diameter), and the bonds between these wires and the thin films. Other critical components of the overall system were the heavy, swaged lead wire cable (500 microns diameter) that contained the fine lead wires and was connected to the temperature readout, and ceramic attachments which were bonded onto the CMCs for the purpose of securing the lead wire cables, The newly developed ceramic attachment features a combination of hoops made of monolithic SiC or SiC/SiC CMC (which are joined to the test article) and high temperature ceramic cement. Two instrumented CMC panels were tested in a burner rig for a total of 40 cycles to 1150 C (2100 F). A cycle consisted of rapid heating to 1150 C (2100 F), a 5 minute hold at 1150 C (2100 F), and then cooling down to room temperature in 2 minutes. The thin film sensor systems provided repeatable temperature measurements for a maximum of 25 thermal cycles. Two of the monolithic SiC hoops debonded during the sensor fabrication process and two of the SiC/SiC CMC hoops failed during testing. The hoops filled with ceramic cement, however, showed no sign of detachment after 40 thermal cycle test. The primary failure mechanism of this sensor system was the loss of the fine lead wire-to-thin film connection, which either due to detachment of the fine lead wires from the thin film thermocouples or breakage of the fine wire.

  18. Stimuli-Responsive Polyelectrolyte Brushes As a Matrix for the Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles: The Effect of Brush Thickness on Particle Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Christau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brush thickness on the loading of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs within stimuli-responsive poly-(N,N-(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA polyelectrolyte brushes is reported. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was used to grow polymer brushes via a “grafting from” approach. The brush thickness was tuned by varying the polymerization time. Using a new type of sealed reactor, thick brushes were synthesized. A systematic study was performed by varying a single parameter (brush thickness, while keeping all other parameters constant. AuNPs of 13 nm in diameter were attached by incubation. X-ray reflectivity, electron scanning microscopy and ellipsometry were used to study the particle loading, particle distribution and interpenetration of the particles within the brush matrix. A model for the structure of the brush/particle hybrids was derived. The particle number densities of attached AuNPs depend on the brush thickness, as do the optical properties of the hybrids. An increasing particle number density was found for increasing brush thickness, due to an increased surface roughness.

  19. Temperature responsive functional polymeric thin films obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for cells attachment-detachment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusen, L.; Dinca, V.; Mitu, B.; Mustaciosu, C.; Dinescu, M.

    2014-05-01

    Multifunctional thin films used as thermoresponsive substrate for engineering cell sheets represent an important area in tissue engineering. As the morphology and the chemical characteristics of the thin films directly control their interaction with cells, it is important to correlate these characteristics with the biological answer. In this study, thermally sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), (pNIPAAm) thin films were prepared by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation and utilized in L929 cell adhesion and detachment studies. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to determine the pNIPAAm thin films chemical and morphological characteristics. The FTIR data demonstrated that the functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remained intact for fluences in the range of 200-600 mJ cm-2. Within this fluence range, the AFM topographical studies showed that the roughness of the coatings was dependent on laser fluence and the obtained surfaces were characterized by a granular aspect. L929 cell viability studies onto the pNIPAAm coatings showed little or no toxic effect for fluences below 600 mJ cm-2, while for higher fluences, viability was decreased with more than 50%. The adhesion and detachment of the cell was found to be mainly dependent on the film surface morphology.

  20. Matrix attachment regions included in a bicistronic vector enhances and stabilizes follistatin gene expressions in both transgenic cells and transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming HU,Jing GUO,Chunling BAI,Zhuying WEI,Li GAO,Tingmao HU,Shorgan BOU,Guangpeng LI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, follistatin (FST gene expression vectors with either a bicistronic gene transfer cassette alone, or a bicistron gene cassette carrying a matrix attachment region (MAR were constructed and transfected to bovine fetal fibroblasts. Evaluations of both the integration and expression of exogenous FST indicated that the pMAR-CAG-FST-IRES-AcGFP1-polyA-MAR (pMAR-FST vector had higher capacity to form monoclonal transgenic cells than the vector without MAR, though transient transfection and integration efficiency were similar with either construct. Remarkably, protein expression in transgenic cells with the pMAR-FST vector was significantly higher than that from the bicistronic vector. Exogenous FST was expressed in all of the pMAR-FST transgenic mice at F0, F1 and F2. Total muscle growth in F0 mice was significantly greater than in wild-type mice, with larger muscles in fore and hind limbs of transgenic mice. pMAR-FST transgenic mice were also found with more evenly distributed muscle bundles and thinner spaces between sarcolemma, which suggests a correlation between transgene expression-associated muscle development and the trend of muscle growth. In conclusion, a pMAR-FST vector, which excluded the resistant genes and frame structure, enhances and stabilizes FST gene expressions in both transfected cells and transgenic mice.

  1. Modulated Binding of SATB1, a Matrix Attachment Region Protein, to the AT-Rich Sequence Flanking the Major Breakpoint Region of BCL2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Meera; Liu, Wen-Man; DiCroce, Patricia A.; Posner, Aleza; Zheng, Jian; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi; Krontiris, Theodore G.

    2000-01-01

    The t(14,18) chromosomal translocation that occurs in human follicular lymphoma constitutively activates the BCL2 gene and disrupts control of apoptosis. Interestingly, 70% of the t(14,18) translocations are confined to three 15-bp clusters positioned within a 150-bp region (major breakpoint region or [MBR]) in the untranslated portion of terminal exon 3. We analyzed DNA-protein interactions in the MBR, as these may play some role in targeting the translocation to this region. An 87-bp segment (87MBR) immediately 3′ to breakpoint cluster 3 was essential for DNA-protein interaction monitored with mobility shift assays. We further delineated a core binding region within 87MBR: a 33-bp, very AT-rich sequence highly conserved between the human and mouse BCL2 gene (37MBR). We have purified and identified one of the core factors as the matrix attachment region (MAR) binding protein, SATB1, which is known to bind to AT-rich sequences with a high propensity to unwind. Additional factors in nuclear extracts, which we have not yet characterized further, increased SATB1 affinity for the 37MBR target four- to fivefold. Specific binding activity within 37MBR displayed cell cycle regulation in Jurkat T cells, while levels of SATB1 remained constant throughout the cell cycle. Finally, we demonstrated in vivo binding of SATB1 to the MBR, strongly suggesting the BCL2 major breakpoint region is a MAR. We discuss the potential consequences of our observations for both MBR fragility and regulatory function. PMID:10629043

  2. Product Attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugge, R.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of this doctoral research is the concept of product attachment for ordinary consumer durables. Product attachment is defined as the strength of the emotional bond a consumer experiences with a specific product. Specifically, the research investigated how this bond develops over time and th

  3. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts stimulated by nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste or enamel matrix derivative. An in vitro assessment of PDL attachment, migration, and proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasaj, A.; Willershausen, B.; Junker, R.; Stratul, S.I.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the effects of soluble or coated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste (nano-HA) and enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on proliferation, adhesion, and migration of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs). Cultured PDLs were stimulated with nano-HA paste or EMD in a soluble form or were

  4. 核基质结合区在转基因烟草中提高报导基因的表达水平%Matrix Attachment Regions(MARs) Can Increase Expression Levels of Reporter Gene in Transgenic Tobaccos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭刚; 朱祯; 徐军望; 徐鸿林; 肖桂芳

    2000-01-01

    从豌豆基因组中分离了位于质体蓝素(Plastocyanin)基因下游的核基质结合区(Matrix attachment region,MAR).为进一步研究此段MAR序列在转基因植物中对外源基因表达水平的影响,将MAR序列构建在报导基因β-葡糖醛酸酶(β-glucuronidase, GUS)基因和植物选择标记新霉素磷酸转移酶(Neomycin phosphotransferase, NPT-II)基因的两侧形成T-DNA结构.采用叶盘法,经农杆菌介导转化烟草.GUS定量检测表明,MAR的存在使GUS基因的平均表达水平提高了2倍.

  5. Upregulation of ATG3 contributes to autophagy induced by the detachment of intestinal epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix, but promotes autophagy-independent apoptosis of the attached cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Zagryazhskaya, Anna; Li, Yongling; Koomson, Ananda; Khan, Iman Aftab; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Rosen, Kirill V

    2015-01-01

    Detachment of nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix (ECM) triggers their growth arrest and, ultimately, apoptosis. In contrast, colorectal cancer cells can grow without attachment to the ECM. This ability is critical for their malignant potential. We found previously that detachment-induced growth arrest of nonmalignant intestinal epithelial cells is driven by their detachment-triggered autophagy, and that RAS, a major oncogene, promotes growth of detached cells by blocking such autophagy. In an effort to identify the mechanisms of detachment-induced autophagy and growth arrest of nonmalignant cells we found here that detachment of these cells causes upregulation of ATG3 and that ATG3 upregulation contributes to autophagy and growth arrest of detached cells. We also observed that when ATG3 expression is artificially increased in the attached cells, ATG3 promotes neither autophagy nor growth arrest but triggers their apoptosis. ATG3 upregulation likely promotes autophagy of the detached but not that of the attached cells because detachment-dependent autophagy requires other detachment-induced events, such as the upregulation of ATG7. We further observed that those few adherent cells that do not die by apoptosis induced by ATG3 become resistant to apoptosis caused by cell detachment, a property that is critical for the ability of normal epithelial cells to become malignant. We conclude that cell-ECM adhesion can switch ATG3 functions: when upregulated in detached cells in the context of other autophagy-promoting events, ATG3 contributes to autophagy. However, when overexpressed in the adherent cells, in the circumstances not favoring autophagy, ATG3 triggers apoptosis.

  6. MAR序列介导野苋菜凝集素基因在白菜中的表达%Expression of Amaranthus viridis L. Agglutinin Mediated by Matrix Attachment Region (MAR) Sequence in Transgenic Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓智年; 魏源文; 吕维莉; 李杨瑞

    2007-01-01

    以'丰顺'白菜带柄子叶为转化受体,用带有MAR(Matrix Attachment Region)和不带MAR的两种植物表达载体进行农杆菌介导转化野苋菜凝集素基因(Amaranthus viridis L. agglutinin,AVA)获得转基因的抗蚜小白菜.分析MAR序列介导对转基因表达的影响.表明利用MAR序列介导AVA基因表达,获得转基因植株的数量比对照提高29.63%;转AVA基因白菜对桃蚜(Myzus persicae)的群体发展有一定的抑制作用,平均抑制率为55.8%;MAR序列介导AVA基因表达的转基因植株中,该基因的表达水平比对照高,并且不同转基因单株间AVA基因表达差异比对照小.

  7. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  8. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  9. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  10. Depression and attachment problems.

    OpenAIRE

    Pettem, O; M. West; Mahoney, A; Keller, A.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the characteristics related to attachment of 42 depressed psychiatric patients and 42 non-depressed psychiatric controls. The depressed subjects demonstrated an anxious pattern of attachment, characterized by either intense care-seeking in relation to their attachment figure or angry withdrawal from their attachment figure when their desire for security was frustrated. The results are discussed in terms of Bowlby's attachment construct.

  11. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  12. Reactive Attachment Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reactive Attachment Disorder and Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder. Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) Children with RAD are less likely to interact with other people because of negative experiences with adults in their early years. They have difficulty calming ...

  13. Attachment Without Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David C

    2009-12-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, openness, and dependence interact with the caregiving elements of caring, empathy, and responsibility.

  14. Attachment Without Fear

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David C.

    2009-01-01

    John Bowlby hypothesized an attachment system that interacts with caregiving, exploration, and fear systems in the brain, with a particular emphasis on fear. Neurobiological research confirms many of his hypotheses and also raises some new questions. A psychological model based on this neurobiological research is presented here. The model extends conventional attachment theory by describing additional attachment processes independent of fear. In this model, the attachment elements of trust, o...

  15. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  16. Attachment over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Feiring, Candice; Rosenthal, Saul

    2000-01-01

    Examined continuity in attachment classification from infancy through adolescence and related it to autobiographical memories of childhood, divorce, and maladjustment in white middle-class children. Found no continuity in attachment classification from 1 to 18 years and no relation between infant attachment status and adolescent adjustment.…

  17. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  18. Attachment Security and Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Lahav, Yael; Defrin, Ruth;

    2015-01-01

    The present study assesses for the first time, the possible disruption effect of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) with regard to the protective role of attachment on pain, among ex-POWs. While secure attachment seems to serve as a buffer, decreasing the perception of pain, this function may...... be disrupted by PTSS. The study sample included 104 subjects who were combat veterans of the 1973 Yom Kippur War comprising of 60 male ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and 44 comparable male combat veterans. Both attachment and pain were investigated experimentally in the laboratory and via questionnaires. We...... found that ex-POWs showed higher levels of clinical pain and attachment insecurities compared to controls. Moreover, attachment avoidance and soothing effect of attachment (SEA) were both associated with lower levels of clinical pain. Most importantly, PTSS moderated the associations between attachment...

  19. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses attachment and spreading of breast cancer cells on 2D and 3D extracellular matrix components by altering focal adhesion-associated signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells from primary tumor to secondary sites is a multi-step process that depends heavily on the ability of cancer cells to respond to the microenvironmental cues, such as changes in composition of surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), by adapting their adhesion a...

  20. Blade attachment assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  1. Temperament and Attachment Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2004-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is research on children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) who exhibit specific patterns of socially aberrant behavior resulting from being maltreated or having limited opportunities to form selective attachments. There are no data explaining why 2 different patterns of the disorder, an emotionally withdrawn-inhibited…

  2. Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Written by a British parent, this case study tells the story of an adopted child who experienced many difficulties adjusting to life at home and school. It describes attachment disorder, possible causes of attachment difficulties, the bonding cycle, therapeutic parenting, and how schools can support the re-nurturing process. (Contains references.)…

  3. Attachment and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, N.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis was to further our understanding of current psychosocial models by introducing attachment as a relevant developmental framework. Firstly, attachment theory provides a psychosocial model for a developmental pathway to psychosis. Secondly, after expression of psychotic sym

  4. Attachment Theory and Mindfulness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rose; Shapiro, Shauna; Treleaven, David

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a dialog between two central areas in the field of psychology today: attachment theory/research and mindfulness studies. The impact of the early mother-infant relationship on child development has been well established in the literature, with attachment theorists having focused on the correlation between a mother's capacity for…

  5. De novo design of protein kinase inhibitors by in silico identification of hinge region-binding fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urich, Robert; Wishart, Grant; Kiczun, Michael; Richters, André; Tidten-Luksch, Naomi; Rauh, Daniel; Sherborne, Brad; Wyatt, Paul G; Brenk, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Protein kinases constitute an attractive family of enzyme targets with high relevance to cell and disease biology. Small molecule inhibitors are powerful tools to dissect and elucidate the function of kinases in chemical biology research and to serve as potential starting points for drug discovery. However, the discovery and development of novel inhibitors remains challenging. Here, we describe a structure-based de novo design approach that generates novel, hinge-binding fragments that are synthetically feasible and can be elaborated to small molecule libraries. Starting from commercially available compounds, core fragments were extracted, filtered for pharmacophoric properties compatible with hinge-region binding, and docked into a panel of protein kinases. Fragments with a high consensus score were subsequently short-listed for synthesis. Application of this strategy led to a number of core fragments with no previously reported activity against kinases. Small libraries around the core fragments were synthesized, and representative compounds were tested against a large panel of protein kinases and subjected to co-crystallization experiments. Each of the tested compounds was active against at least one kinase, but not all kinases in the panel were inhibited. A number of compounds showed high ligand efficiencies for therapeutically relevant kinases; among them were MAPKAP-K3, SRPK1, SGK1, TAK1, and GCK for which only few inhibitors are reported in the literature.

  6. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  7. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  8. Attachment-related psychodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Phillip R; Mikulincer, Mario

    2002-09-01

    Because there has been relatively little communication and cross-fertilization between the two major lines of research on adult attachment, one based on coded narrative assessments of defensive processes, the other on simple self-reports of 'attachment style' in close relationships, we here explain and review recent work based on a combination of self-report and other kinds of method, including behavioral observations and unconscious priming techniques. The review indicates that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation. The combination of self-report assessment of attachment style and experimental manipulation of other theoretically pertinent variables allows researchers to test causal hypotheses. We present a model of normative and individual-difference processes related to attachment and identify areas in which further research is needed and likely to be successful. One long-range goal is to create a more complete theory of personality built on attachment theory and other object relations theories.

  9. The neurobiology of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Young, L J

    2001-02-01

    It is difficult to think of any behavioural process that is more intrinsically important to us than attachment. Feeding, sleeping and locomotion are all necessary for survival, but humans are, as Baruch Spinoza famously noted, "a social animal" and it is our social attachments that we live for. Over the past decade, studies in a range of vertebrates, including humans, have begun to address the neural basis of attachment at a molecular, cellular and systems level. This review describes some of the important insights from this work.

  10. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  11. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  12. Attachment to land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rozin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a first study on attachment to national and sacred land and land as a protected value. A measure of attachment to the land of Israel is developed and administered to two groups, Jewish college students in Israel and the United States. Levels of land attachment are high and not significantly different in the two groups, with a great deal of variation. Land may become more important through being inhabited by a group over centuries. This is a positive contagion effect, and is opposed in some cases by negative contagion produced when the ``enemies'' live on the land for some period of time. We demonstrate a significant correlation of positive contagion sensitivity with attachment to the land of Israel. Unlike many other cases of the interaction of positive and negative contagion, negative contagion does not overwhelm positive contagion in the domain of land attachment. We also present evidence for linkages between political positions, religiosity, importance of Israel, Arab aversion, and vulnerability of Israel with attachment to land, but these do not fully account for the contagion effects. A number of significant differences between Israelis and Americans are described.

  13. Attachment and coercive sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, S W; Dadds, M R

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood attachment and coercive sexual behavior. One hundred sixty-two male undergraduate students completed self-report measures of childhood maternal attachment, childhood paternal attachment, adult attachment, antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. As predicted, insecure childhood attachment, especially insecure paternal attachment, was associated with antisociality, aggression, and coercive sexual behavior. Moreover, childhood attachment independently predicted coercive sexual behavior after antisociality and aggression were statistically controlled. The hypothesis that paternal avoidant attachment would predict coercive sexual behavior independently of its relationship with aggression and antisociality was also supported. Posthoc analysis indicated that maternal anxious attachment was associated with antisociality and that paternal avoidant attachment was associated with both antisociality and coercive sexual behavior. These results are consistent with criminological and psychological research linking adverse early family experiences with offending and lend support to an attachment-theoretical framework for understanding offending behavior in general and sexual offending behavior in particular.

  14. Finite Temperature Matrix Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Meana, M L; Peñalba, J P; Meana, Marco Laucelli; Peñalba, Jesús Puente

    1998-01-01

    We present the way the Lorentz invariant canonical partition function for Matrix Theory as a light-cone formulation of M-theory can be computed. We explicitly show how when the eleventh dimension is decompactified, the N=1 eleven dimensional SUGRA partition function appears. From this particular analysis we also clarify the question about the discernibility problem when making statistics with supergravitons (the N! problem) in Matrix black hole configurations. We also provide a high temperature expansion which captures some structure of the canonical partition function when interactions amongst D-particles are on. The connection with the semi-classical computations thermalizing the open superstrings attached to a D-particle is also clarified through a Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some ideas about how Matrix Theory would describe the complementary degrees of freedom of the massless content of eleven dimensional SUGRA are also discussed.

  15. Pain, Affect, and Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Eduard Scheidt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various psychodynamic processes may underlie the development of psychogenic pain disorder such as conversion, the displacement of affect, or narcissistic defenses. However, many of the processes suggested are related to a disorder of affect regulation. The term affect regulation in psychoanalytic literature refers to phenomena which are often described by the concept of alexithymia. Empirical observations suggest that alexithymia is correlated to insecure attachment, especially an insecure dismissing representation of attachment. Psychodynamic psychotherapy in psychogenic pain disorder should focus on the reintegration of split-off affects which may provoke intensive counter-transference and which in order to be used therapeutically must be linked to attachment experiences within and outside of the therapeutic relationship.

  16. Love attitudes and attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Brenlla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Love styles described by Lee are Eros (passionate love, Ludus (game-pla- ying love, Storge (friendship love, Mania (possessive, dependent love, Pragma (logical, “shopping list” love and Agape (all-giving, selfless love. Based on those types, Hendrick and Hendrick developed a 42-ítem rating questionnaire with 7 items measuring each love style (Love Attitudes Scale. Beside, inform about frequency in love relationships and attachment style. The purpose of this study was analyze the reliability and factor structure of the Love Attitudes Scale and to investigate the association between love attitudes and the attachment style. The results (N=280 participants indicate adequate internal consistency (alfa = 0,73. The items were intercorrelated and factored. The best solution extracted six factors using varimax rotation and all six factors accounted 41% of the total variance. Secure attachment was related positively to eros. 

  17. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Korstanje, Maximiliano

    2007-01-01

    The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to jou...

  18. Ladder attachment platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swygert,; Richard, W [Springfield, SC

    2012-08-28

    A ladder attachment platform is provided that includes a base for attachment to a ladder that has first and second side rails and a plurality of rungs that extend between in a lateral direction. Also included is a user platform for having a user stand thereon that is carried by the base. The user platform may be positioned with respect to the ladder so that it is not located between a first plane that extends through the first side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction and a second plane that extends through the second side rail and is perpendicular to the lateral direction.

  19. Attachment and Women's Faith Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Eun Sim

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between human attachment and God attachment, particularly in Christian women's experiences of faith. It is based on the attachment perspective as a conceptual framework. The main aim was to evolve an attachment-theoretical approach to women's faith development and to offer a complementary path to interpret…

  20. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  1. Day Care and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Fern C.; Simmons, Carolyn H.

    1978-01-01

    The attachment behavior of 35 white, middle-class 3 1/2- to 4-year-olds who had experienced different rearing histories was observed through a series of standardized episodes involving separations and reunions with the mother and a stranger. (Author/JMB)

  2. Attachment and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Preeti; Sharan, Pratap

    2007-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) arise from core psychopathology of interpersonal relationships and understanding of self and others. The distorted representations of self and others, as well as unhealthy relationships that characterize persons with various PDs, indicate the possibility that persons with PDs have insecure attachment. Insecure…

  3. God attachment, mother attachment, and father attachment in early and middle adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tick Ngee; Yow, Amanda Shixian

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interplay of attachment to God, attachment to mother, and attachment to father with respect to adjustment (hope, self-esteem, depression) for 130 early and 106 middle adolescents in Singapore. Results showed that the parental attachments were generally linked (in expected directions) to adjustment. God attachment, however, had unique results. At the bivariate level, God attachment was only linked to early adolescents' self-esteem. When considered together with parental attachments (including interactions), God attachment did not emerge as the key moderator in attachment interactions and yielded some unexpected results (e.g., being positively linked to depression). These results are discussed viz-a-viz the secure base and safe haven functions that God and parental attachments may play during adolescence.

  4. Matrix Model Approach to Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Chaney, A; Stern, A

    2015-01-01

    We perform a systematic search for rotationally invariant cosmological solutions to matrix models, or more specifically the bosonic sector of Lorentzian IKKT-type matrix models, in dimensions $d$ less than ten, specifically $d=3$ and $d=5$. After taking a continuum (or commutative) limit they yield $d-1$ dimensional space-time surfaces, with an attached Poisson structure, which can be associated with closed, open or static cosmologies. For $d=3$, we obtain recursion relations from which it is possible to generate rotationally invariant matrix solutions which yield open universes in the continuum limit. Specific examples of matrix solutions have also been found which are associated with closed and static two-dimensional space-times in the continuum limit. The solutions provide for a matrix resolution of cosmological singularities. The commutative limit reveals other desirable features, such as a solution describing a smooth transition from an initial inflation to a noninflationary era. Many of the $d=3$ soluti...

  5. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Marie; van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise D; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial

  6. Phenotypes of non-attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates resemble surface attached biofilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Alhede

    Full Text Available For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non

  7. Adopting Children with Attachment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel A.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that attachment behavior in infants is a facet of normal child development, and that children with attachment problems require special attention during and after the adoption process. Presents actions needed to increase the probability that such children can be successfully adopted, detailed attachment patterns, and parenting strategies and…

  8. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  9. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  10. Attachment: Theoretical Development and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Zeanah argues that ethological attachment theory, as outlined by John Bowlby, has provided one of the most important frameworks for understanding crucial risk and protective factors in social and emotional development. However, although attachment theory and the notion of attachment disorders have influenced such initiatives, many psychologists,…

  11. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event…

  12. Attachment Theory: Retrospect and Prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    1985-01-01

    Provides overview of attachment theory as parented by John Bowlby in "Attachment and Loss". Uses two major concepts from this work to interpret refinements and elaborations of attachment theory attibuted to Mary Ainsworth. Considers how recent insights into development of socioemotional understanding and development of event representation can be…

  13. Report of the APSAC task force on attachment therapy, reactive attachment disorder, and attachment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Hanson, Rochelle; Saunders, Benjamin E; Nichols, Todd; Barnett, Douglas; Zeanah, Charles; Berliner, Lucy; Egeland, Byron; Newman, Elana; Lyon, Tom; LeTourneau, Elizabeth; Miller-Perrin, Cindy

    2006-02-01

    Although the term attachment disorder is ambiguous, attachment therapies are increasingly used with children who are maltreated, particularly those in foster care or adoptive homes. Some children described as having attachment disorders show extreme disturbances. The needs of these children and their caretakers are real. How to meet their needs is less clear. A number of attachment-based treatment and parenting approaches purport to help children described as attachment disordered. Attachment therapy is a young and diverse field, and the benefits and risks of many treatments remain scientifically undetermined. Controversies have arisen about potentially harmful attachment therapy techniques used by a subset of attachment therapists. In this report, the Task Force reviews the controversy and makes recommendations for assessment, treatment, and practices. The report reflects American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children's (APSAC) position and also was endorsed by the American Psychological Association's Division 37 and the Division 37 Section on Child Maltreatment.

  14. Picturing Urban Green Attachments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Meilvang, Marie Leth

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore the cultural-political tensions and ambiguities of urban ecology, by way of following how activists move and translate between ‘familiar’ and ‘public’ engagements in the green city. Empirically, we locate our exploration in and around Nordhavnen (The North Harbor...... in the plural’ in the city. In particular, we stress the role assumed in such engagements by various image-making practices, as means for activists to express, share and render publicly visible a range of embodied urban attachments. Pragmatic sociology, we conclude, may contribute to a novel understanding...

  15. Matrix Factorization and Matrix Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Mackey, Lester

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the constrained factorization problems of sparse principal components analysis (PCA) for gene expression modeling, low-rank matrix completion for recommender systems, and robust matrix factorization for video surveillance, this dissertation explores the modeling, methodology, and theory of matrix factorization.We begin by exposing the theoretical and empirical shortcomings of standard deflation techniques for sparse PCA and developing alternative methodology more suitable for def...

  16. Attachment is a dynamic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Cugmas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the study of recent scientific literature about the development of attachment, the author answers the following questions: which are the postulates the theory of attachment has about the stability of the patterns of attachment, which level of stability in the patterns of attachment from infancy to adulthood these studies illuminate and which factors significantly influence the (instability of the patterns of attachment in time. The theory of attachment assumes that normal circumstances elicit stability. Changes, however, can be the result of important events influencing the sensitivity of the object of attachment. Agreement has not yet been reached regarding the percentage of stability in the patterns of attachment. There is more agreement regarding attachment in adulthood than that in childhood. The results depend on the size and characteristics of the subjects of the research, the measuring instruments, type of data analysis etc. The author concludes that attachment is a dynamic system influenced by significant changes in life (the cognitive development of the child, external care, parents' divorce, different stressful situations. As the influence of stressful events on the individual person' s quality of attachment is examined, it is necessary to consider also his/her temperamental characteristics, role of other people in their lives, etc.

  17. Attachment Theory in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Korstanje

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The following work is intended to a revision on attachment theory. The postulates of the theory of the sure base point that the system of exploration meets in narrow relation the system of conducts of attachment and the figure of the keepers. The conducts that characterize and symbolize the relation of the adult with the environment are carried back to the early age, in the moment in which the child develops the affective capacity. What difference does exist between someone who decides to journey to England and that one that one decides to travel to Mar del Plata? How it is possible to study this topic of on a manner trustworthy? These three questions were key to begin the investigation. Nevertheless, the matter began to find certain limitations linked to the methodology that had to be in use. It is possible to use careless they on the leisure scope, a theory which still demonstrates certain inconsistencies in its own clinical application?

  18. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  19. Nanotube attachment for prevention of interfacial delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Karumuri, Anil K.

    2010-09-01

    A new approach to suppressing interfacial delamination in composites has been investigated. It involves growing strongly attached nanotubes on the surface of the core phase prior to matrix infiltration. Unusually durable interfaces between epoxy and graphite have been demonstrated using this technique. Two types of graphitic core materials have been studied: complex cellular foams having open-interconnected porosity and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) providing a model flat interface. When untreated foam is infiltrated with epoxy, the resulting composite is brittle, and shatters before 10% compression. However, when carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are grown on the foam prior to epoxy infiltration, the specimen becomes pliable, and visibly flattens out rather than fracturing. Model studies on a flat graphite-epoxy interface were performed by joining two HOPG specimens with a thin layer of epoxy, and testing the flexural response of the 'seam' using the three-point bend test. The untreated HOPG sandwich fails easily, whereas nanotube-attached HOPG sandwich shows an over three times increase in flexural load-carrying capacity, close to that of seamless monolithic graphite having identical dimensions. Microscopic evaluations of fractured interfaces indicate that, in all geometries, CNT grafting prevents delamination at the graphite-epoxy interface, and forces any crack(s) to propagate through the graphitic phase. This added inter-laminar strength and toughness can be related to the hierarchical morphology of the interface created by CNT attachment, and unprecedented composite structures can be envisioned.

  20. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place...... attachment across participants in the region showed similar spatial intensity to aggregated values home range, but area-based assessment of place attachment and values home range are distorted by edge effects such as a coastline. To further develop the mapping of place attachment in PPGIS, we identify...

  1. Borderline disorder and attachment pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Keller, A; Links, P; Patrick, J

    1993-02-01

    In this paper, the authors investigate the theoretical and empirical association between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline personality disorder. Attachment theory focuses on the maintenance of a sense of safety and security through a close personal relationship with a particular person. Based on a biological behavioural system, functional attachment relationships in adulthood rely on experiences and expectations of security within the relationship. These issues are also important to the definition and dynamics of borderline personality disorder. The dimensions and patterns of reciprocal attachment were compared with other scales measuring components of psychopathology and interpersonal relationships. In a sample of 85 female outpatients, only four of the attachment scales--feared loss, secure base, compulsive care-seeking and angry withdrawal--identified patients with high scores on a measure of borderline disorder. Of these four scales, feared loss had the predominant effect. These empirical results support the hypothesized relationship between dysfunctions of the attachment system and borderline disorder.

  2. Attachment and Outcomes in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslim Guvendeger Doksat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term and ldquo;attachment and rdquo; is used to imply the bonding between mother and child or the relationship between parents and child. Establishment of secure attachment is the healthiest way for the mental and physical development of the child. Secure attachment system constitutes a protection mechanism from high levels of stress. Insecurely attached children are presented with mental and physical developmental delays and problems in identity formation and personality in the future. To avoid all these, all the requirements of the child by means of affection, nutrition, protection, shelter and health are required to be met in a consistent and healthy way by the caregiver. This review article discuss the term attachment; features associated with insecure attachment and its negative influences in adulthood. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 489-501

  3. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  4. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  5. Attachment disorganization in different clinical groups: What underpins unresolved attachment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juen Florian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes findings and clinical implications of research on attachment disorganization in diverse clinical groups. Disorganized/unresolved attachment is overrepresented in these groups compared to healthy control participants, but disorder specific characteristics of this attachment pattern are still poorly understood. The focus of this study was to explore defensive processes in participants whose narratives were classified as disorganized/unresolved using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Besides the predominance of disorganized attachment, clinical participants demonstrated more “segregated system material” especially in stories representing aloneness and more “Personal Experience material” compared to healthy individuals. Within the disorganized/ unresolved clinical individuals, BPD and PTSD patients showed the highest proportion of attachment disorganization and were less able to use other attachment-related defenses to maintain organized. Furthermore, PTSD patients were emotionally overwhelmed by the projective attachment scenes compared to the other clinical groups as indexed by an incapacity to complete sections of the AAP. BPD and addicted patients were characterized by a high degree of self-other boundary confusion. Depressive and schizophrenic patients showed a high overall defensive intensity to remain organized.

  6. From security to attachment : Mary Ainsworth's contribution to attachment theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosmalen, Lenette (Lenny) van

    2015-01-01

    Even though John Bowlby (1907-1990) is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, Mary Ainsworth’s (1913-1999) contribution is considerable and goes beyond the design of the Strange Situation Procedure and the introduction of maternal sensitivity as decisive for a secure attachment

  7. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery.

  8. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  9. Attachment, caring and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erez, Ayelet

    2007-01-01

    The thesis focuses on 5 studies examining the role of adult attachment in volunteering by defining volunteerism as a form of caregiving. By that we suggest an effect of one behavioral system, attachment, on another, caring or prosocial behaviors in individual or group settings. Studies 1 and 2 ex

  10. Matrix Thermalization

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Nguyen, Kévin

    2016-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  11. Attachment styles in alcoholic inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rick, Ann; Vanheule, Stijn

    2007-01-01

    Despite the fact that addiction has often been identified as an attachment disorder, empirical studies on this topic are rather scarce. In our study we explore attachment style (secure vs. insecure) in alcoholic inpatients and its relationship with perceived parenting and alcohol-related and psychiatric problems in a sample of 101 alcoholic inpatients (Belgium). Our results reveal that in comparison to the securely-attached group, insecurely-attached alcoholic inpatients perceived their mother as more controlling, reported more severe psychiatric problems in the European Addiction Severity Index, had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, showed more schizotypal and depressive personality traits and had more difficulties with communicating emotions (alexithymia). We argue that it makes sense to differentiate alcoholic inpatients on the basis of attachment style and that both groups (secure/insecure) need different treatment approaches.

  12. Everything You Want To Know about Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    This paper discusses infant attachment, which it defines as a long-lasting emotional bond revealed when a child under stress seeks out and tries to stay close to a specific figure. The paper addresses: (1) What is attachment? Who are the pioneers in attachment theory?; (2) How do we notice attachment in action?; (3) Is attachment the only…

  13. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  14. Attachment at work and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neustadt, Elizabeth A; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2011-09-01

    This paper examines the relations between self-reported attachment orientation at work and personality, self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence (aka emotional self-efficacy), and independently assessed career potential and job performance. Self-report data were collected from 211 managers in an international business in the hospitality industry; independent assessments of these managers' job performance and career potential were separately obtained from the organization. A self-report measure of romantic attachment was adapted for application in the work context; a two-factor solution was found for this measure. Secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work was positively related to self-esteem, trait emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and also to job performance. Not only was secure/autonomous attachment orientation at work statistically predictive of job performance, but the new measure also made a distinct contribution, beyond conscientiousness, to this prediction.

  15. [Early attachement relationships and epigenetic customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Giordana; Serio, Valentina; Carluccio, Giuseppe Mattia; Marini, Isabella; Meuti, Valentina; Zaccagni, Michela; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Aceti, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Recently, new findings in epigenetic science switched the focus from the observation of physiological intragenomic dynamics to the idea of an environmental co-construction of phenotypic expression. In psichodynamic field, objectual relations and attachement theoreticians emphasized the interpersonal dimension of individual development, focusing the attention on the relational matrix of self organization. The construction of stable affective-behavioral traits throughout different parenting styles has actually found a coincidence in ethological studies, which have explored the epigenetic processes underlying the relationship between caregiving and HPA stress responsiveness. An adequate parenting style seems to support affective regulation throughout psychobiological hidden moderators, which would tend to rebalance the physiological systems homeostasis; an unconfident attachment style would promote, on the other hand, the allostatic load rise. Sites of longlife epigenetic susceptibility have also been identified in humans; although associated with risk of maladaptive developing in adverse environmental conditions, they seem to confer protection under favorable conditions. This persisting possibility of reorganization of stable traits throughout lifetime, which seems to be activated by a relevant environmental input, grant to significant relationships, and to therapeutical one as well, an implicit reconditioning potential which could result into the configuration of new stable affective-behavioral styles.

  16. Electron attachment to Cl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Christophorou, L. G.

    1984-08-01

    The electron attachment rate constant for Cl 2 as a function of the mean electron energy (0.04-0.78 eV) and temperature (213-323 K) has been measured and is reported; it shows a maximum at near thermal energy and is attributed to dissociative electron attachment via the ground state 2Σ u+ of Cl 2- from the ground state 1Σ g+ of Cl 2.

  17. Attachment Narratives in Refugee Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.

    2013-01-01

    J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....

  18. Freezing osteoblast cells attached to hydroxyapatite discs and glass coverslips: Mechanisms of damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    McGRATH; John

    2007-01-01

    Damage mechanisms for osteoblast cells (OBs) attached to hydroxyapatite (HA) discs and glass coverslips were comprehensively investigated. Cell-cell, cell-matrix interaction altered the cryobiological properties of cells. Attached cells were sub- ject to more severe mechanical damage than isolated cells because attached cells had larger contacting area with ice and the three dimensional movements of iso- lated cells made them more flexible than attached cells that could only deform in one dimension. Results showed that the viability of attached OB cells decreased significantly compared with the viability of isolated OB cells under the same cryo- preservation procedure. Extracellular ice, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical stresses were the major damaging factors for OB cells attached to HA discs and glass coverslips.

  19. Freezing osteoblast cells attached to hydroxyapatite discs and glass coverslips: Mechanisms of damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BaoLin; McGRATH John

    2007-01-01

    Damage mechanisms for osteoblast cells (OBs) attached to hydroxyapatite (HA)discs and glass coverslips were comprehensively investigated. Cell-cell, cell-matrix interaction altered the cryobiological properties of cells. Attached cells were subject to more severe mechanical damage than isolated cells because attached cells had larger contacting area with ice and the three dimensional movements of isolated cells made them more flexible than attached cells that could only deform in one dimension. Results showed that the viability of attached OB cells decreased significantly compared with the viability of isolated OB cells under the same cryopreservation procedure. Extracellular ice, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical stresses were the major damaging factors for OB cells attached to HA discs and glass coverslips.

  20. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  1. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Zuev, Konstantin; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    Prediction and control of network dynamics are grand-challenge problems in network science. The lack of understanding of fundamental laws driving the dynamics of networks is among the reasons why many practical problems of great significance remain unsolved for decades. Here we study the dynamics of networks evolving according to preferential attachment, known to approximate well the large-scale growth dynamics of a variety of real networks. We show that this dynamics is Hamiltonian, thus casting the study of complex networks dynamics to the powerful canonical formalism, in which the time evolution of a dynamical system is described by Hamilton's equations. We derive the explicit form of the Hamiltonian that governs network growth in preferential attachment. This Hamiltonian turns out to be nearly identical to graph energy in the configuration model, which shows that the ensemble of random graphs generated by preferential attachment is nearly identical to the ensemble of random graphs with scale-free degree d...

  2. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience.

  3. Matrix pentagons

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multiparticle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unravelled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  4. Attachment Processes in Eating Disorder and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Detke, Holland; Kobak, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between attachment strategies and symptom reporting among college women (N=61). The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) was administered and interview transcripts were rated with the Attachment Interview Q-Sort. Findings support the hypothesis that secondary or defensive attachment strategies predispose individuals toward…

  5. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, Victor; Genin, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed. This book also: Provides the first comprehensive treatment of phys...

  6. Bar overdentures utilizing the Locator attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A L; Kurtzman, G M

    2001-01-01

    Implant-retained overdentures are a restorative option for both the fully and partially edentulous arches. A new attachment, the Locator, which features a reduced interarch requirement and the advantage of built-in guide planes providing precise insertion, is described. The Locator is an advancement in attachment technology, with an improved design combined from the best features of a ball attachment, an ERA attachment, and a cap attachment.

  7. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a

  8. WEAVING THE FABRIC OF ATTACHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Stewart

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is the Keynote Address given at the 5th International Integrative Psychotherapy Association Conference in Vichy, France, April 21, 2011. In the article author describes development of secure attachment with the help of the case study.

  9. Cranial and trunk neural crest cells use different mechanisms for attachment to extracellular matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Lallier, Thomas; Leblanc, Gabrielle; Artinger, Kristin B.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    We have used a quantitative cell attachment assay to compare the interactions of cranial and trunk neural crest cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules fibronectin, laminin and collagen types I and IV. Antibodies to the β_1 subunit of integrin inhibited attachment under all conditions tested, suggesting that integrins mediate neural crest cell interactions with these ECM molecules. The HNK-1 antibody against a surface carbohydrate epitope under certain conditions inhibited both cr...

  10. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  11. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse co...... media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial populations......., RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently...... of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes...

  12. Attachable rock bolters for roadheaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weibezahn, K. [Wirth Maschinen- und Bohrgeraete-Fabrik GmbH, Erkelenz (Germany); West, M. [Deilmann-Haniel Mining Systems GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Roadheaders are used in mining and tunnelling in medium hard rock formations. The excavated space is made safe either by NATM-technology or a steel support system. The application of a rock bolting system up to now was restricted to formations that can cope with at least some support lag. A new system was developed in close cooperation between WIRTH Maschinen- und Bohrgeraetefabrik GmbH and deilmann-haniel mining systems gmbh that allows to carry out rock bolting with two drill rigs whicht are attached to the cutting boom of the roadheader even in front of the cutter head directly after cutting. Alternatively a robot may be attached to above named system that enables remotely controlled shot-creting close to the face.

  13. Riemann Zeta Matrix Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kargın, Levent; Kurt, Veli

    2015-01-01

    In this study, obtaining the matrix analog of the Euler's reflection formula for the classical gamma function we expand the domain of the gamma matrix function and give a infinite product expansion of sinπxP.  Furthermore we define Riemann zeta matrix function and evaluate some other matrix integrals. We prove a functional equation for Riemann zeta matrix function.

  14. Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L; Gobin, Robyn L; Kaehler, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.

  15. Adult attachment processes: individual and couple perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, K

    1997-09-01

    This paper overviews a new approach to understanding the range of difficulties experienced in close attachment relationships in adulthood. Drawing on the work of Bowlby, four prototypic adult attachment patterns are defined in terms of the intersection of two underlying dimensions, the positivity of the person's self-image and the positivity of the person's image of others (Bartholomew, 1990; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The distinct interpersonal difficulties associated with each attachment pattern are described. Findings are presented indicating that individual differences in attachment have implications for the quality of adults' romantic relationships, and that attachment theory may be helpful in understanding violent spousal relationships. Five current issues in the study of adult attachment are addressed: the stability of attachment patterns, the associations between attachment and general personality factors, the relative merits of categorical and prototype assessments of attachment, the identification of multiple attachments in adulthood, and the specificity of adult attachment patterns. It is suggested that the four-category model of adult attachment is especially sensitive to the range and complexity of attachment-related difficulties experienced in adulthood.

  16. Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

  17. Attachment theory: progress and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, R M Pasco; Roisman, Glenn I

    2017-06-01

    Attachment is a key subfield in the area of parenting and parent-child relationships research. In this brief overview, we summarise what we consider to be the state-of-the-art of attachment research, focusing primarily on the nature and significance of attachment in infancy and early childhood. We review 4 major topics that are central issues in the scientific literature on attachment: (1) the role of the environment in the development of attachment, (2) the intergenerational transmission of patterns of attachment, (3) the stability of attachment patterns through early adulthood, and (4) the role of attachment in adjustment and maladjustment. We conclude by highlighting several critical unresolved issues and priorities for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  19. Adolescent attachment, family functioning and depressive symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent-parent attachment style, perceived support and family ... Participants included a maternal parent and an adolescent (65.5% female) from each family. ... (CBCL) were used to assess depression, parental support and attachment.

  20. C/SiC Component & Material Analysis, Attachment Verification, & Blisk Turbopump Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Genge, Gary; Gregg, Wayne; Jordan, William

    1999-01-01

    Ceramic composite blisk components constructed of carbon fibers & silicon carbide ceramic matrix have been fabricated and tested. Room and cryogenic torque testing have verified the attachment configuration. The polar and quasi-isotropic blisks have been proof spun, balanced, and tested in the Simplex turbopump. Foreign particle impact analysis was conducted for C/SiC. Data and manufacturing lessons learned are significantly benefiting the development of the Reusable Launch Vehicle's ceramic matrix composite integrally bladed disk.

  1. Cesarean Births and Attachment Behaviors of Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Apgar scores are 7 or greater at both 1 and 5...status, indications for cesarean delivery, anesthesis, and infant’s gestational age, birth weight, and apgar scores . Prior to meeting the father, the...delivery and attachment score ; highest school grade completed and attachment score ; and age and child care experience of the father and attachment score

  2. Secondary Attachments and Adolescent Self Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Price, Carolyn; Greene, A. L.

    1990-01-01

    In a study examining attachments to celebrity figures, 79 male and female fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders and college sophomores described themselves and their favorite celebrities. It was found that such attachments are equally important to males and females, and that gender and age affect the nature of the attachment. (DM)

  3. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recommendations for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susanna H.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, explores a unique counseling relationship. Examines how the quality of parent-child attachment and care of a child during the formative preschool years affects interpersonal relationship skills and school adjustment. Discusses reactive attachment disorders, the pervasiveness of attachment disorders, and recommendations for…

  4. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups sho

  5. Loneliness and Attachment Patterns in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Diana Taylor; Baum, Steven K.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between loneliness and patterns of attachment in 47 college students. Results revealed a moderate to strong relationship between feeling lonely and early disrupted attachment, consistent with the notion that underlying attachment disorders may affect psychological development and social behavior. (JAC)

  6. Attachment in rat pups, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Sigling, H.; Engeland, H. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    John Bowlby's attachment theory states that attachment behavior has been strengthened throughout evolution as a consequence of its adaptive value. We investigated the presence of attachment-like behavior in rat pups, by offering a choice between the home nest and a same aged other nest. Rat pups

  7. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  8. Easy Attachment Of Panels To A Truss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Mark; Gralewski, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Conceptual antenna dish, solar collector, or similar structure consists of hexagonal panels supported by truss erected in field. Truss built in increments to maintain access to panel-attachment nodes. Each panel brought toward truss at angle and attached to two nodes. Panel rotated into attachment at third node.

  9. Hot-Melt Adhesive Attachment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R. L.; Frizzell, A. W.; Little, B. D.; Progar, D. J.; Coultrip, R. H.; Couch, R. H.; Stein, B. A.; Buckley, J. D.; St. Clair, T. L.; Gleason, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesive system is as effective on Earth as in space. Fiberglass cloth mounted in head assembly. When adhesive reaches melt temperature head is attached to metals composites, ceramics, and other materials. Once attached, head cooled rapidly for quick stick. Used to tether tools or attach temporary scaffolding to walls, buildings, or beams.

  10. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  11. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  12. Reactive attachment disorder--a theoretical model beyond attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Marwick, Helen; Arthur, Julie; McLaughlin, Alexis

    2006-09-01

    Despite its importance in public health, reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is an under-researched and little used clinical category. Abnormalities of social relatedness have long been documented in children who have been abused, neglected or institutionalised, but there have been more recent efforts to define these behaviours within the psychiatric nosology. There has been an implicit assumption that the central deficit in RAD is in the attachment system, but this has caused controversy and may have blocked research. We propose that RAD is better construed within the framework of intersubjectivity, which has a central role in the development of core brain and social functions and may also have had an important role in the evolution of a key human characteristic-complex social functioning. This broader framework may potentially explain apparently diverse symptoms such as indiscriminate friendliness and negative or unpredictable reunion responses. Finally, we suggest that a change of name may be useful in progressing the field, but accept that this may be difficult until there is better agreement in the clinical and scientific communities about the core features and aetiology of this disorder.

  13. Effective Hamiltonian for a microwave billiard with attached waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckmann, H-J; Persson, E; Kim, Y-H; Barth, M; Kuhl, U; Rotter, I

    2002-06-01

    In a recent work the resonance widths in a microwave billiard with attached waveguide were studied in dependence on the coupling strength [E. Persson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2478 (2000)], and resonance trapping was experimentally found. In the present paper an effective Hamiltonian is derived that depends exclusively on billiard and waveguide geometry. Its eigenvalues give the poles of the scattering matrix provided that the system and environment are defined adequately. Further, we present the results of resonance trapping measurements where, in addition to our previous work, the position of the slit aperture within the waveguide was varied. Numerical simulations with the derived Hamiltonian qualitatively reproduce the experimental data.

  14. Starved epithelial cells uptake extracellular matrix for survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranen, Taru; Iwanicki, Marcin P.; Curry, Natasha L.; Hwang, Julie; DuBois, Cory D.; Coloff, Jonathan L.; Hitchcock, Daniel S.; Clish, Clary B.; Brugge, Joan S.; Kalaany, Nada Y.

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular matrix adhesion is required for normal epithelial cell survival, nutrient uptake and metabolism. This requirement can be overcome by oncogene activation. Interestingly, inhibition of PI3K/mTOR leads to apoptosis of matrix-detached, but not matrix-attached cancer cells, suggesting that matrix-attached cells use alternate mechanisms to maintain nutrient supplies. Here we demonstrate that under conditions of dietary restriction or growth factor starvation, where PI3K/mTOR signalling is decreased, matrix-attached human mammary epithelial cells upregulate and internalize β4-integrin along with its matrix substrate, laminin. Endocytosed laminin localizes to lysosomes, results in increased intracellular levels of essential amino acids and enhanced mTORC1 signalling, preventing cell death. Moreover, we show that starved human fibroblasts secrete matrix proteins that maintain the growth of starved mammary epithelial cells contingent upon epithelial cell β4-integrin expression. Our study identifies a crosstalk between stromal fibroblasts and epithelial cells under starvation that could be exploited therapeutically to target tumours resistant to PI3K/mTOR inhibition. PMID:28071763

  15. Brushite cement additives inhibit attachment to cell culture beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Parastoo; Bridson, Rachel H; Wright, Adrian J; Grover, Liam M

    2013-05-01

    Brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements are of great interest as bone replacement materials because they are resorbable in physiological conditions. Cell-attached culture beads formed from this material could be of great use for cell therapy. Despite a significant amount of work on optimizing the physicochemical properties of these materials, there are very few studies that have evaluated the capacity of the materials to facilitate cell adhesion. In this study, we have formed resorbable calcium phosphate (brushite) culture beads and for the first time we showed that cell attachment to the surface of the brushite cement (BC) could be inhibited by the presence of an intermediate dicalcium phosphate-citrate complex, formed in the cement as a result of using citric acid, a retardant and viscosity modifier used in many cement formulations. The BC beads formed from the mixture of β-TCP/orthophosphoric acid using citric acid did not allow cell attachment without further treatment. Ageing of BC beads in serum-free Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) solution at 37°C for 1 week greatly enhanced the cell adhesion capacity of the material. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confocal Raman microspectrometry indicated the increased capacity for cell adhesion was due to the changes in phase composition of BC. XRD patterns collected before and after ageing in aqueous solution and a high initial mass loss, suggest the formation of a dicalcium phosphate-citrate complex within the matrix. Since compacts formed from brushite powder supported cell attachment, it was hypothesized that the dicalcium phosphate-citrate complex prevented attachment to the cement surface.

  16. Electron attachment to F2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkle, D. L.; Christophorou, L. G.; Christodoulides, A. A.; Pichiarella, L.

    1986-08-01

    The rate constant ka for electron attachment to F2 has been measured at ambient (298 K) temperature T in the buffer gas Ar over the mean electron energy range 0.40-2.95 eV; similar measurements were made at T=233, 298, and 373 K in the buffer gas N2 over the range 0.04-0.75 eV. The ka() function attains a maximum value of 1.7×10-8 cm3 s-1 (T=298 K) at ˜0.04 eV and decreases monotonically with increasing above thermal energy; the magnitude of ka increases only slightly with increasing T. The ka() data at 298 K were unfolded and the resultant cross section σa(ɛ) shows a main maximum at ˜0.0 eV, a shoulder at ˜0.5 eV, and a weak maximum at ˜1.1 eV. Possible electron attachment processes are discussed to account for the energy dependence of σa(ɛ). Also discussed, in the light of the present measurements, are published experimental and theoretical results on ka() and σa(ɛ).

  17. Complex Behaviour for the Origin and Destination Matrix Estimation Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hui-Jun; WU Jian-Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ The origin and destination (O-D) matrix estimation is an important problem in traffic networks. We apply the gravitation model to express the preference attachment and to analyse the statistical characteristics of the traffic flow in each O-D pair in theory. It is found that the distribution of the future O-D matrix decays as a power law.Additionally, different exponents are obtained for both the constant and variable link cost.

  18. Nanometer thickness laser ablation for spatial control of cell attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, H.; Hayes, J. P.; Kingshott, P.; Johnson, G.; Harvey, E. C.; Griesser, H. J.

    2002-10-01

    We demonstrate here a new method to control the location of cells on surfaces in two dimensions, which can be applied to a number of biomedical applications including diagnostic tests and tissue engineered medical devices. Two-dimensional control over cell attachment is achieved by generation of a spatially controlled surface chemistry that allows control over protein adsorption, a process which mediates cell attachment. Here, we describe the deposition of thin allylamine plasma polymer coatings on silicon wafer and perfluorinated poly(ethylene-co-propylene) substrates, followed by grafting of a protein resistant layer of poly(ethylene oxide). Spatially controlled patterning of the surface chemistry was achieved in a fast, one-step procedure by nanometer thickness controlled laser ablation using a 248 nm excimer laser. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to confirm the production of surface chemistry patterns with a resolution of approximately 1 µm, which is significantly below the dimensions of a single mammalian cell. Subsequent adsorption of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen I and fibronectin followed by cell culture experiments using bovine corneal epithelial cells confirmed that cell attachment is controlled by the surface chemistry pattern. The method is an effective tool for use in a number of in vitro and in vivo applications.

  19. Origins of replication and the nuclear matrix: the DHFR domain as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkwel, P A; Hamlin, J L

    1995-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome appears to be organized in a loopwise fashion by periodic attachment to the nuclear matrix. The proposal that a chromatin loop corresponds to a functional domain has stirred interest in the properties of the DNA sequences at the bases of these loops, the matrix-attached regions (MARs). Evidence has been presented suggesting that certain MARs act as boundary elements isolating domains from their chromosomal context. MARs have also been found in the vicinity of promoters and enhancers and they could act by displacing these cis-regulatory elements into the proper nuclear subcompartment. Attachment to the matrix might also play a role in DNA replication. A large body of evidence indicates that replication occurs on the nuclear matrix. This implies that any DNA sequence will be attached to the matrix at a certain time during the cell cycle. This transient mode of attachment contrasts with the proposed permanent attachment of origins of DNA replication with the nuclear matrix. While some data exist that support this suggestion, the current lack of understanding of the mammalian replication origin precludes definitive conclusions regarding the role of MARs in the initiation process.

  20. Attachment theory: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of attachment is numerous and versatile. They differ according to problems addressed, methodology applied (longitudinal studies, studies with horizontal designs, different instruments used, different methods of data analysis, and characteristics of samples involved (concerning age socio/economic status, family ecology. The research is commonly relied on the core assumptions of the theory itself, and the shared characteristic is orientation to explore complex phenomena of human experience and functioning. From the vast variety of research only those who most directly test the basic assumptions of the attachment theory are focused and addressed in the paper: representation of patterns of attachment in the childhood and adulthood, stability and change of attachment security from infancy to early adulthood, transgenerational transmission of attachment characteristics, the place and the role of attachment behavioral system in the personality development. The aim of the paper is to highlight the basic research and theory issues and directions, and illustrate them with concrete research date.

  1. Wear simulation effects on overdenture stud attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Mizutani, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate wear effects on overdenture resilient attachments. Six commercially available attachments were investigated: ERA orange and white (EO and EW), Locator pink, white and blue (LRP, LRW and LRB) and OP anchor (OP). Five specimens were used for wear simulation while other two specimens served as controls. Fifteen thousands insertion-removal cycles were simulated. Dimensional changes and surface characteristics were evaluated using light microscopy and SEM, respectively. Sudden decrease of retentive force was characteristic for EO and EW attachments. Retentive force of Locator attachments fluctuated throughout the wear simulation period. Dimensional changes and surface wear was more expressed on plastic cores than on plastic rings of attachment males. Based on SEM analysis, some of the specimens obtained smoother surface after wear simulation. Mechanism of retention loss of resilient overdenture attachments can be only partially explained by dimensional changes and surface alterations.

  2. Testing the retention of attachments for implant overdentures - validation of an original force measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromentin, O; Lassauzay, C; Abi Nader, S; Feine, J; de Albuquerque Junior, R F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an original portable device to measure attachment retention of implant overdentures both in the lab and in clinical settings. The device was built with a digital force measurement gauge (Imada) secured to a vertical wheel stand associated with a customized support to hold and position the denture in adjustable angulations. Sixteen matrix and patrix cylindrical stud attachments (Locator) were randomly assigned as in vitro test specimens. Attachment abutments were secured in an implant analogue hung to the digital force gauge or to the load cell of a traction machine used as the gold standard (Instron Universal Testing Machine). Matrices were secured in a denture duplicate attached to the customized support, permitting reproducibility of their position on both pulling devices. Attachment retention in the axial direction was evaluated by measuring maximum dislodging force or peak load during five consecutive linear dislodgments of each attachment on both devices. After a wear simulation, retention was measured again at several time periods. The peak load measurements with the customized Imada device were similar to those obtained with the gold standard Instron machine. These findings suggest that the proposed portable device can provide accurate information on the retentive properties of attachment systems for removable dental prostheses.

  3. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric; Janko Medjedovic

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic persona...

  4. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  5. Association Between Insecure Attachment and ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebo, Ole Jakob; Darling Rasmussen, Pernille; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    styles than reported in the general population. Conclusion: There seems to be a clear association between ADHD and insecure attachment. It is likely that early intervention in the form of parent training and pharmacological treatment may prevent development of attachment problems. But such studies have......INFO, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included in the review. Overall, the studies showed that parental attachment problems and environmental mediating factors were significantly associated with childhood ADHD. Adults with ADHD had a much higher incidence of insecure attachment...

  6. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  7. Attachment theory: Old and new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to present holistically the key concepts of attachment theory rediscovered for its potentials. The presented concepts include: narrow definition of attachment, behavioral control system of attachment, attachment working model and patterns of attachment. The concepts are presented in the context of child attachment theory and adult attachment theory, in addition to description of the development of attachment. Concepts, as well as developmental processes are presented from the stand point of pioneers in this field (John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth as well as from the standpoint of their successors (Everett Waters and Malcolm West. Compacted ness of the theory, possibilities for operationalization of its key concepts and its application to empirical studies of complex psychological issues that have never been scientifically explored, makes it a very prospective theory in view of possible integration of existing research findings and initiating new research and new practices in psychotherapy, social work and work in schools. The goal of this integral presentation of attachment theory is to highlight its benefits and possibilities for understanding and research complex field of human's psychosocial functioning.

  8. Temperament and attachment: one construct or two?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorf, S C; Frosch, C A

    1999-01-01

    In this chapter we described the constructs of temperament and attachment and have discussed similarities and differences between the two. We addressed the issue of whether temperament contributes to overall attachment security or to the specific type of attachment that children display. We conclude that although temperament may influence the type of secure and insecure attachment relationship children form with their parent, temperament alone will not determine if a child is classified as securely or insecurely attached. We presented evidence suggesting that certain dimensions of temperament, specifically negative emotionality, may be associated with infants' behavior during the Strange Situation, such as proneness-to-distress during separations. However, we noted that these temperament dimensions do not predict overall security of attachment. It is likely that although no single temperament characteristic, such as proneness-to-distress, in and of itself determines overall attachment security, it is possible that a constellation of temperament characteristics may be more strongly related to attachment security. The examination of constellations of temperament characteristics may be particularly useful for furthering our understanding of individual differences within attachment classifications. Such an approach may elucidate the reasons why infants are classified into one subgroup of secure, insecure-avoidant, or insecure-resistant attachment versus another subgroup. Furthermore, we suggest that the collection of findings regarding temperament and attachment not only underscores the importance of a transactional approach to early social-emotional development, but emphasizes that temperament and attachment can make unique and interactive contributions to children's social-emotional functioning. That is, the goodness-of-fit between infant and parent characteristics may best predict security of attachment. Although child characteristics clearly contribute to the

  9. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  10. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neerja; Thakkur, Rahul K

    2013-10-01

    Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40° of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  11. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  12. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  13. Biliprotein maturation: the chromophore attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H; Zhao, K-H

    2008-04-01

    Biliproteins are a widespread group of brilliantly coloured photoreceptors characterized by linear tetrapyrrolic chromophores, bilins, which are covalently bound to the apoproteins via relatively stable thioether bonds. Covalent binding stabilizes the chromoproteins and is mandatory for phycobilisome assembly; and, it is also important in biliprotein applications such as fluorescence labelling. Covalent binding has, on the other hand, also considerably hindered biliprotein research because autocatalytic chromophore additions are rare, and information on enzymatic addition by lyases was limited to a single example, an EF-type lyase attaching phycocyanobilin to cysteine-alpha84 of C-phycocyanin. The discovery of new activities for the latter lyases, and of new types of lyases, have reinvigorated research activities in the subject. So far, work has mainly concentrated on cyanobacterial phycobiliproteins. Methodological advances in the process, however, as well as the finding of often large numbers of homologues, opens new possibilities for research on the subsequent assembly/disassembly of the phycobilisome in cyanobacteria and red algae, on the assembly and organization of the cryptophyte light-harvesting system, on applications in basic research such as protein folding, and on the use of phycobiliproteins for labelling.

  14. Coexistence in preferential attachment networks

    CERN Document Server

    Antunović, Tonći; Racz, Miklos Z

    2013-01-01

    Competition in markets is ubiquitous: cell-phone providers, computer manufacturers, and sport gear brands all vie for customers. Though several coexisting competitors are often observed in empirical data, many current theoretical models of competition on small-world networks predict a single winner taking over the majority of the network. We introduce a new model of product adoption that focuses on word-of-mouth recommendations to provide an explanation for this coexistence of competitors. The key property of our model is that customer choices evolve simultaneously with the network of customers. When a new node joins the network, it chooses neighbors according to preferential attachment, and then chooses its type based on the number of initial neighbors of each type. This can model a new cell-phone user choosing a cell-phone provider, a new student choosing a laptop, or a new athletic team member choosing a gear provider. We provide a detailed analysis of the new model; in particular, we determine the possibl...

  15. Measuring Patients’ Attachment Avoidance in Psychotherapy: Development of the Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale (AATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new scale measuring patient-therapist attachment avoidance was developed. Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale is a new measure based on the Bartholomew model of adult attachment (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991 and the Experience in Close Relationships Scale (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 to measure patients’ attachment avoidance towards therapists. With 112 patient-therapist dyads participating in the study, validation of a preliminary scale – measuring both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance in therapy – took place using therapists’ evaluations of patients’ relational behavior and patients’ self-reports about their attitude toward psychotherapy. Analysis of the data revealed six underlying scales. Results showed all six scales to be reliable. Validation of scales measuring attachment anxiety failed. The importance of Attachment Avoidance in Therapy Scale and its subscales is discussed.

  16. Manipulation of biological cells using a microelectromagnet matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Purdon, A. M.; Westervelt, R. M.

    2004-08-01

    Noninvasive manipulation of biological cells inside a microfluidic channel was demonstrated using a microelectromagnet matrix. The matrix consists of two layers of straight Au wires, aligned perpendicular to each other, that are covered by insulating layers. By adjusting the current in each independent wire, the microelectromagnet matrix can create versatile magnetic field patterns to control the motion of individual cells in fluid. Single or multiple yeast cells attached to magnetic beads were trapped, continuously moved and rotated, and a viable cell was separated from nonviable cells for cell sorting.

  17. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  18. Attachment, emotion regulation and adult crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Laan, A.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment serves to facilitate the contact with and proximity to the primary caregiver, in that way contributing to a safe exploration of the environment. However, due to inconsistencies in the reaction of the caregiver or her/his absence, insecure attachment styles may develop. This chapter summar

  19. Attachment Disorder, Basic Trust and Educational Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael G.; Newnham, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The label Attachment Disorder (AD) is used as either a description of a child's presentation, or as a diagnostic category. It is unclear whether this label is intended to be identical with the DSM-IV Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) diagnostic category, or if it is a separate diagnosis based on Randolph's Questionnaire and the premises…

  20. Separation-individuation theory and attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2004-01-01

    Separation-individuation and attachment theories are compared and assessed in the context of psychoanalytic developmental theory and their application to clinical work. As introduced by Margaret Mahler and John Bowlby, respectively, both theories were initially regarded as diverging from traditional views. Separation-individuation theory, though it has had to be corrected in important respects, and attachment theory, despite certain limitations, have nonetheless enriched psychoanalytic thought. Without attachment an infant would die, and with severely insecure attachment is at greater risk for serious disorders. Development depends on continued attachment to a responsive and responsible caregiver. Continued attachment to the primary object was regarded by Mahler as as intrinsic to the process of separation-individuation. Attachment theory does not account for the essential development of separateness, and separation-individuation is important for the promotion of autonomy, independence, and identity. Salient historical and theoretical issues are addressed, including the renewed interest in attachment theory and the related decline of interest in separation-individuation theory.

  1. Forgiveness and health: The role of attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawler-Row, K.A.; Hyatt-Edwards, L.; Wünsch, K.L.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attachment was examined for its association to forgiveness and health. Young adults were interviewed about a time of conflict with a parent; during rest and interview periods, readings of blood pressure and heart rate were taken. Participants completed surveys of forgiveness, attachment, relationshi

  2. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  3. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  4. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Pasco; Shmueli-Goetz, Yael; Viding, Essi; Fonagy, Peter; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Twin studies consistently point to limited genetic influence on attachment security in the infancy period, but no study has examined whether this remains the case in later development. This study presents the findings from a twin study examining the relative importance of genetic and environmental influences on attachment in…

  5. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  6. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...

  7. Anxiety, cortisol, and attachment predict plasma oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Van Peer, Jacobien M.; Korf, Jakob; Wijers, Albertus A.; Tucker, Don M.

    2007-01-01

    Oxytocin and attachment seem to interact in suppressing subjective anxiety and physiological stress responses. In this study we investigated the relationships between individual differences in trait attachment scores, state and trait anxiety, plasma cortisol, and plasma oxytocin levels in healthy pr

  8. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted…

  9. Romantic adult attachment and basic personality structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Zeleskov Djoric

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was localization of attachment dimensions in the space described by basic personality traits. Study purported to examine relations between attachment and basic personality structure, in a sample of 203 respondents. Romantic adult attachment was measured by the Experience in Close Relationship Scale, basic personality structure was assessed by the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, and Disintegration, which represents operationalization of Schizotypy as a basic personality trait, was estimated by the Delta 10 test. The results of Principal component analysis showed that attachment dimensions are not separate constructs in relation to basic personality traits. Furthermore, results indicate that attachment dimensions represent emotional dysregulation in close interpersonal relationships, because positive correlations are found between dimensions of Attachment and Mania (.35, Anxiety (.51 and Depression (.55. Negative correlations have been obtained between Attachment and Positive emotions (-.34 and Feelings (-.31. These results suggest that Attachment dimensions should be considered as an expression of basic personality traits in romantic adult's relationships.

  10. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  11. An Attachment Perspective on Anger among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Chiaki; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Extending John Bowlby's hypothesis that dysfunctional anger is a predictable outcome of insecure attachments to parents, this study investigated the relationship between current parent-adolescent attachment and both the experience and expression of anger. Participants included 776 students (379 boys and 397 girls) in grades 8-12. As predicted by…

  12. An Attachment Model of University Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steffen; Gore, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Students with high levels of connectedness to the university have been found to be more likely to complete their college degree than are students with low levels of university connectedness. This study examined the role of parental and peer attachment as distal predictors of school connectedness. As predicted, it was found that attachment style to…

  13. Electron attachment to the interhalogens ClF, ICl, and IBr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T. M.; Wiens, J. P.; Sawyer, J. C.; Shuman, N. S.; Viggiano, A. A.; Khamesian, M.; Kokoouline, V.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    2016-05-01

    Electron attachment rate coefficients have been measured for the interhalogens ClF, ICl, and IBr over the range 300-900 K using a flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatus. The ClF case was also studied theoretically. ClF was found to attach electrons somewhat inefficiently with a rate coefficient of 7.5x 10-9 cm3/s at 300 K, doubling by 700 K. Even so, attachment to ClF is more efficient than seen earlier for F2 and Cl2, which brings up the interesting distinction that attachment to F2 and Cl2 is known to have p-wave threshold behavior, while in ClF the inversion symmetry is broken, allowing an s-wave component. The increase in the rate coefficient for attachment to ClF with temperature was found to be less pronounced than with F2 and Cl2. Ab initio potential energy curves were calculated for ClF and ClF-, and R-matrix theory was used to obtain the resonance widths and energies for the ground state curve crossing, which takes place near the equilibrium internuclear separation in ClF. A local complex potential model was used to calculate attachment cross sections and thermal rate coefficients. There is reasonable agreement between theory and experiment within the estimated 25% uncertainties in the data. Cl- is the only product ion from thermal electron attachment to ClF. Attachment to ICl is even less efficient by almost an order of magnitude than to ClF, namely, 9.5x 10-10 cm3/s at 300 K. Attachment to IBr is small enough that we place an upper limit of < 10-10 cm3/s at 300 K. Supported by AFOSR, DOE, and NSF.

  14. Adult Attachment as a Risk Factor for Intimate Partner Violence : The "Mispairing" of Partners' Attachment Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.; Pearson, Christine L.; Elgin, Jenna E.; McKinley, Lisa L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between intimate partner violence and adult attachment in a sample of 70 couples. The attachment style of each partner and the interaction of the partners' attachment styles were examined as predictors of intimate partner violence. Additional analyses were conducted to examine violence reciprocity and to…

  15. Adult Attachment, Culturally Adjusted Attachment, and Interpersonal Difficulties of Taiwanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Chih DC; Scalise, Dominick A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the applicability of Western adult attachment perspectives to interpersonal difficulties experienced by individuals with indigenous Chinese cultural backgrounds. A total of 275 Taiwanese university students completed self-report surveys of adult attachment, ideal attachment, and interpersonal problems. Culturally adjusted…

  16. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  17. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups.

  18. Security of attachment and preschool friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K A; Waters, E

    1989-10-01

    Attachment theory proposes that the quality of the mother-child tie predicts the quality of a child's other close relationships. The purpose of this study was to test whether security of attachment to mother is related to the quality of a preschooler's best friendships. 33 4-year-old and their best friends participated (mean age = 46 months). Attachment Q-set data were collected to score security of mother-child attachment. Security data were used to classify the friend pairs as secure-secure or secure-insecure. Best friend dyads were observed for a 1-hour free-play session. Each pair's behavior was described with the Dyadic Relationships Q-set, a measure designed to describe the behavior of a pair of children. Secure-secure pairs were more harmonious, less controlling, more responsive, and happier than secure-insecure pairs. The results are related to previous work on attachment and social competence.

  19. The Antimicrobial Activity of Porphyrin Attached Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lesley

    2008-03-01

    We are interested in testing the antimicrobial activity of a porphyrin that is attached to a polymer. The porphyrin (5-(4-carboxyphenyl)-10,15,20-tris-(4-pryridyl)) was synthesized from methyl 4-formyl benzoate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and pyrrole and attached to a copolymer of polystyrene/poly(vinyl benzyl chloride), which was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The antimicrobial activity of the polymer-attached porphyrin was then determined for gram-negative E. Coli grown to 0.80 OD. In this procedure, glass slides were coated with polymer-attached porphyrin via dip-coating, and the E. Coli bacteria were plated in Luria Broth media. The plates were subsequently exposed to light overnight before they were incubated as porphyrins act as photo-sensitizers when irradiated with light. The polymer-attached porphyrin did exhibit antimicrobial activity and parameters that affect its efficiency will be discussed.

  20. Attachment Theory and Concepts of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane F. Reinert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We replicated and extended Buri and Mueller’s study, which tested whether one’s God concept is primarily self- or parent-referenced. Following their findings, we predicted that God concepts would primarily be self-referenced. However, we also predicted, in line with attachment theory, that God concepts would be influenced to some degree by attachment to mother. We found our predicted result in a sample of university students (N = 223. However, when we examined the question by gender, we found significantly different patterns. Concepts of God as Loving, Controlling, and Distant were self-referenced in women but were not so in men. In men, Loving God was predicted primarily by attachment to mother, Controlling God was referenced to attachment to both parents, and Distant God was related to a combination of viewing self as distant and experiencing parental attachment difficulties, primarily with father.

  1. Job Cognition and Justice Influencing Organizational Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sahu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational attachment echoes the psychological bond between employee and employer relations, differing from affective component of commitment in terms of employees’ psychological and behavioral involvement. This study examines the extent to which employee perception about procedural, distributive justice and job cognition contributes toward organizational attachment in India. The effect of justice and job cognition variables relates differently to previous studies from western part of the globe. First, in past studies, procedural justice predicted commitment, whereas, for Indian employees, distributive justice contributed to organizational attachment. Second, the contribution of extrinsic job cognition in organizational attachment was evident in the model developed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM; AMOS. Organizations must take cognizance of the outcomes exhibited by the behavior of managers while following the laid down policies and processes. Cognition of fairness at workplace and attachment can play key role in limiting retention. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  2. Attachment, borderline personality, and romantic relationship dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. Study 2 consisted of a psychiatric sample (N = 138) aged 21-60. Results from both Study 1 and Study 2 demonstrated that (1) attachment was specifically related to BPD symptoms and romantic dysfunction, (2) BPD symptoms were specifically associated with romantic dysfunction, and (3) the association between attachment and romantic dysfunction was statistically mediated by BPD symptoms. The findings support specific associations among attachment, BPD symptoms, and romantic dysfunction.

  3. The fine structure of muscle attachments in a spider (Latrodectus mactans, Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D S; Järlfors, U; Russell, F E

    1969-01-01

    The fine structure of a spider myo-apodeme junction is described, and discussed in terms of other arthropod muscle attachments. This is contrasted with the situation in the venom gland, equipped with muscle fibers that control expulsion of the secreted material. The latter involves a cell-free collagenous matrix, lying between the muscle cells and the sheath of the gland. As in other arthropods, skeletal fibers are attached to the apodeme cuticle via specialized epidermal cells, containing oriented microtubules. Interdigitations between these cells and muscle, basally, and cuticle, apically, are described. Extracellular tonofibrillae described elsewhere are inconspicuous in the apodeme cuticle.

  4. Permutation Centralizer Algebras and Multi-Matrix Invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Mattioli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multi-matrix gauge invariant observables. One family of such non-commutative algebras is parametrised by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of 2-matrix models. The structure of the algebra, notably its dimension, its centre and its maximally commuting sub-algebra, is related to Littlewood-Richardson numbers for composing Young diagrams. It gives a precise characterization of the minimal set of charges needed to distinguish arbitrary matrix gauge invariants, which are related to enhanced symmetries in gauge theory. The algebra also gives a star product for matrix invariants. The centre of the algebra allows efficient computation of a sector of multi-matrix correlator...

  5. Longitudinal association between adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzo, Katherine; Cyr, Chantal; Moss, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Attachment security towards parents and peers in adolescence, and romantic attachment styles and emotion regulation strategies in young adulthood, were evaluated using an eight-year longitudinal design. Fifty-six young adults completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) at age 14, and then, at age 22, the Experience in Close Relationships (ECR) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), an emotion regulation questionnaire concerning coping strategies, including task-oriented versus emotion-oriented foci. Results indicated that greater insecurity to parents and peers in adolescence predicted a more anxious romantic attachment style and greater use of emotion-oriented strategies in adulthood. Concurrently, anxious adult attachment style was related to more emotion-oriented strategies, whereas an avoidant attachment style was related to less support-seeking. Analyses also identified emotion-oriented coping strategies as a partial mediator of the link between adolescent attachment insecurity to parents and adult anxious attachment, and a complete mediator of the association between adolescent attachment insecurity to peers and adult anxious attachment. These findings support the core assumption of continuity in attachment theory, where relationships to parents influence close romantic relationships in adulthood.

  6. The attachment system in fledgling relationships: an activating role for attachment anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2008-09-01

    Is it sensible to study attachment dynamics between potential romantic partners before they share a full-fledged attachment bond? The present data indicate that such an approach may reveal novel insights about initial attraction processes. Four studies suggest that the state-like experience of attachment anxiety has functional implications within fledgling (i.e., desired or undeveloped) romantic relationships, well before the formation of an attachment bond. Studies 1 and 3 reveal that attachment anxiety directed toward a particular romantic interest is elevated before (in comparison with after) participants report being in an established relationship. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that such partner-specific attachment anxiety predicts attachment-relevant outcomes in fledgling relationships, including proximity seeking, safe haven, secure base, passionate love, and other approach behaviors. These associations were reliable above and beyond (and were typically as strong as or stronger than) the effect of sexual desire. Finally, Study 4 presents evidence that partner-specific attachment anxiety may cause several of these attachment-relevant outcomes. Attachment anxiety seems to be a normative experience and may signal the activation of the attachment system during the earliest stages of romantic relationships.

  7. Environmental and genetic influences on early attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervai Judit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attachment theory predicts and subsequent empirical research has amply demonstrated that individual variations in patterns of early attachment behaviour are primarily influenced by differences in sensitive responsiveness of caregivers. However, meta-analyses have shown that parenting behaviour accounts for about one third of the variance in attachment security or disorganisation. The exclusively environmental explanation has been challenged by results demonstrating some, albeit inconclusive, evidence of the effect of infant temperament. In this paper, after reviewing briefly the well-demonstrated familial and wider environmental influences, the evidence is reviewed for genetic and gene-environment interaction effects on developing early attachment relationships. Studies investigating the interaction of genes of monoamine neurotransmission with parenting environment in the course of early relationship development suggest that children's differential susceptibility to the rearing environment depends partly on genetic differences. In addition to the overview of environmental and genetic contributions to infant attachment, and especially to disorganised attachment relevant to mental health issues, the few existing studies of gene-attachment interaction effects on development of childhood behavioural problems are also reviewed. A short account of the most important methodological problems to be overcome in molecular genetic studies of psychological and psychiatric phenotypes is also given. Finally, animal research focusing on brain-structural aspects related to early care and the new, conceptually important direction of studying environmental programming of early development through epigenetic modification of gene functioning is examined in brief.

  8. An attachment research perspective on ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissgen, Ruediger; Franke, Sebastian

    2016-06-01

    Since the beginning of clinical attachment research in the mid-1980s the number of research projects in this area has been continuously increasing. The research questions so far can be allocated to numerous medical disciplines such as psychosomatic medicine, adult psychiatry or child and adolescent psychiatry. Recently, children with ADHD and their families have also become subjects of this branch of research. Their specific behavioral characteristics from early childhood on constitute unique challenges on the parent-child interaction. If these interactions develop in a suboptimal way, children may develop an insecure or even a disorganized attachment quality. The latter represents a risk factor for a clinically significant psychopathological development.This article initially presents basic principles of attachment theory and discusses the relevance of the cardinal symptoms of ADHD for clinical attachment research. Subsequently, it outlines and discusses the main results of existing research regarding attachment and ADHD. It concludes with a perspective on research questions that need to be addressed in the future with regard to a transgenerational model that highlights the importance of parental attachment representations to the development of children's attachment quality.

  9. Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C S

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review existing behavioral and neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Both love and social attachments function to facilitate reproduction, provide a sense of safety, and reduce anxiety or stress. Because social attachment is an essential component of love, understanding attachment formation is an important step toward identifying the neurobiological substrates of love. Studies of pair bonding in monogamous rodents, such as prairie voles, and maternal attachment in precocial ungulates offer the most accessible animal models for the study of mechanisms underlying selective social attachments and the propensity to develop social bonds. Parental behavior and sexual behavior, even in the absence of selective social behaviors, are associated with the concept of love; the analysis of reproductive behaviors, which is far more extensive than our understanding of social attachment, also suggests neuroendocrine substrates for love. A review of these literatures reveals a recurrent association between high levels of activity in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and the subsequent expression of social behaviors and attachments. Positive social behaviors, including social bonds, may reduce HPA axis activity, while in some cases negative social interactions can have the opposite effect. Central neuropeptides, and especially oxytocin and vasopressin have been implicated both in social bonding and in the central control of the HPA axis. In prairie voles, which show clear evidence of pair bonds, oxytocin is capable of increasing positive social behaviors and both oxytocin and social interactions reduce activity in the HPA axis. Social interactions and attachment involve endocrine systems capable of decreasing HPA reactivity and modulating the autonomic nervous system, perhaps accounting for health benefits that are attributed to loving relationships.

  10. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Märk, T. D.

    1996-10-01

    Highly monochromatized electrons (with 30 meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters \\(O2\\)n at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2 eV. At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction \\(O2\\)n+e-->O-2 rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with s-wave electron capture to \\(O2\\)n. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations.

  11. Combined Prosthesis with Extracoronal Castable Precision Attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfactory restoration in a patient with a partially edentulous situation can be challenging especially when unilateral or bilateral posterior segment of teeth is missing. Successful restoration can be done with various conventional and contemporary treatment options. One such treatment modality is attachment-retained cast partial dentures. This paper describes a case report of a patient with maxillary bilateral distal extension edentulous span restored with a cast partial denture having an extracoronal castable precision attachment (RHEIN 83 OT CAP attachments system.

  12. On the attached length of orifices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komkin, A. I.; Mironov, M. A.; Yudin, S. I.

    2012-11-01

    The attached length of orifices in reactive mufflers has been estimated based on numerical calculations by the finite-element method. The numerical results for a diaphragm in a duct are compared with the theoretical data obtained by Rayleigh, Fock, Karal, and Ingard. The dependence of the attached length on the diaphragm thickness is given. The results obtained are generalized for the case in which the orifice is a Helmholtz resonator neck. The effect of the resonator length on the attached length of the neck is analyzed.

  13. Give Them Roots, Then Let Them Fly: Understanding Attachment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Carole A., Ed.

    This book describes attachment theory, presents the attachment therapy program in place at the Evergreen Attachment Center at Evergreen, Colorado, and examines the implications of attachment therapy. The chapters are: (1) "An Overview" (Carole A. McKelvey, John Alston); (2) "Attachment Theory and Assessment" (Michael Orlans, Terry Levy); (3)…

  14. 30 CFR 77.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 77.1436 Section 77.1436... Hoisting Wire Ropes § 77.1436 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached... anchor bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist...

  15. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  16. Phosphine in various matrixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Matrix-bound phosphine was determined in the Jiaozhou Bay coastal sediment, in prawn-pond bottom soil, in the eutrophic lake Wulongtan, in the sewage sludge and in paddy soil as well. Results showed that matrix-bound phosphine levels in freshwater and coastal sediment, as well as in sewage sludge, are significantly higher than that in paddy soil. The correlation between matrix bound phosphine concentrations and organic phosphorus contents in sediment samples is discussed.

  17. Magnetically Attached Multifunction Maintenance Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Joffe, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    A versatile mobile telerobot, denoted the magnetically attached multifunction maintenance rover (MAGMER), has been proposed for use in the inspection and maintenance of the surfaces of ships, tanks containing petrochemicals, and other large ferromagnetic structures. As its name suggests, this robot would utilize magnetic attraction to adhere to a structure. As it moved along the surface of the structure, the MAGMER would perform tasks that could include close-up visual inspection by use of video cameras, various sensors, and/or removal of paint by water-jet blasting, laser heating, or induction heating. The water-jet nozzles would be mounted coaxially within compressed-air-powered venturi nozzles that would collect the paint debris dislodged by the jets. The MAGMER would be deployed, powered, and controlled from a truck, to which it would be connected by hoses for water, compressed air, and collection of debris and by cables for electric power and communication (see Figure 1). The operation of the MAGMER on a typical large structure would necessitate the use of long cables and hoses, which can be heavy. To reduce the load of the hoses and cables on the MAGMER and thereby ensure its ability to adhere to vertical and overhanging surfaces, the hoses and cables would be paid out through telescopic booms that would be parts of a MAGMER support system. The MAGMER would move by use of four motorized, steerable wheels, each of which would be mounted in an assembly that would include permanent magnets and four pole pieces (see Figure 2). The wheels would protrude from between the pole pieces by only about 3 mm, so that the gap between the pole pieces and the ferromagnetic surface would be just large enough to permit motion along the surface but not so large as to reduce the magnetic attraction excessively. In addition to the wheel assemblies, the MAGMER would include magnetic adherence enhancement fixtures, which would comprise arrays of permanent magnets and pole pieces

  18. Clinical evaluation of mandibular implant overdentures via Locator implant attachment and Locator bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong-Ho; Bae, Eun-Bin; Kim, Jung-Woo; Lee, So-Hyoun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Jeon, Young-Chan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical findings and patient satisfaction on implant overdenture designed with Locator implant attachment or Locator bar attachment in mandibular edentulous patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Implant survival rate, marginal bone loss, probing depth, peri-implant inflammation, bleeding, plaque, calculus, complications, and satisfaction were evaluated on sixteen patients who were treated with mandibular overdenture and have used it for at least 1 year (Locator implant attachment: n=8, Locator bar attachment: n=8). RESULTS Marginal bone loss, probing depth, plaque index of the Locator bar attachment group were significantly lower than the Locator implant attachment group (P.05). The replacement of the attachment components was the most common complication in both groups. Although there was no correlation between marginal bone loss and plaque index, a significant correlation was found between marginal bone loss and probing depth. CONCLUSION The Locator bar attachment group indicates lesser marginal bone loss and need for maintenance, as compared with the Locator implant attachment group. This may be due to the splinting effect among implants rather than the types of Locator attachment. PMID:27555901

  19. Are anxiously attached women better mindreaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This research was aimed at providing first evidence concerning the relationship between adults' self-reported attachment style and their performance on a standard 'theory of mind' task. Based on adult attachment theory, we hypothesized that the two dimensions of self-reported adult attachment, anxiety and avoidance, are differently related to 'theory of mind,' and that this relationship is moderated by variables concerning the 'theory of mind' stimuli. The 'Experiences in Close Relationships' questionnaire and the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test were administered to 132 young women. In line with our expectations, women's attachment-related anxiety was associated with better mind reading concerning stimuli that were emotionally neutral or difficult to recognize.

  20. Imre Hermann's Freudian theory of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyskens, Tomas

    2003-12-01

    In this paper the author addresses some problems concerning the relation between attachment theory and psychoanalysis and sketches the outline of a Freudian theory of attachment, based on the ideas of the Hungarian psychoanalyst Imre Hermann. First, he elucidates the fundamental divergence behind the insults and misunderstandings that have dominated the debate between attachment theory and Freudian psychoanalysis: they differ radically in their conceptions of temporality and of the relation between psychopathology and human nature. Second, the author presents Hermann's work on 'Clinging--Going-in-search' (1976) as a theoretical model in which the findings of attachment theory can be integrated in a theory of psychopathology that is radically dimensional and that preserves the methodology of Freudian psychoanalysis. In the third part of the paper, the author discusses the question of whether Hermann's 'clinging instinct' is a primary instinct in the Freudian sense, and whether it is an interesting alternative for Freud's 'death instinct', as Hermann claims.

  1. INSECURE ATTACHMENTS AND THEIR INTERMINGLING TRANSFERENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Doris K

    2017-06-01

    There are least two different but interrelated motivational systems in human beings both of which begin in infancy: the attachment system and the separate, but interacting, psychodynamic system. Each of these systems is the basis of transference. A major focus of the paper is the affect-regulating feature of the attachment system. Infants' emotional states can be well-regulated or dysregulated as they emerge in interactions with their primary caregiver. Aberrant interactions of dysregulation typically lead to the development of insecure or disorganized attachments. Rudimentary transference fantasies initially emerge as the child makes sense or meaning about such maladaptive interactions. Our complex minds comprise multi-determined, personally organized fantasies which include those derived from both the attachment system and the psychodynamic one. I present a clinical description of how these two transference fantasies intersect in the mental life of a patient. A clinical case is offered whose focus is on enactments, transferences, and countertransference.

  2. Personality disorders, attachment and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lissa; Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; Siever, Larry

    2014-01-01

    While attachment has been a fruitful and critical concept in understanding enduring individual templates for interpersonal relationships, it does not have a well-understood relationship to personality disorders, where impairment of interpersonal functioning is paramount. Despite the recognition that attachment disturbances do not simply reflect nonoptimal caretaking environments, the relationship of underlying temperamental factors to these environmental insults has not been fully explored. In this paper we provide an alternate model for the role of neurobiological temperamental factors, including brain circuitry and neuropeptide modulation, in mediating social cognition and the internalization and maintenance of attachment patterns. The implications of these altered attachment patterns on personality disorders and their neurobiological and environmental roots for psychoanalytically based treatment models designed to ameliorate difficulties in interpersonal functioning through the medium of increased access to mature forms of mentalization is discussed.

  3. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment

  4. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  5. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  6. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences...... and competitive mentality towards others within SNSs. We further construct a theoretical model of members’ communal attachments within SNSs that is then empirically validated via an online survey of 787 active members of SNSs. Empirical findings suggest that members’ communal attachments play an instrumental role...

  7. ATTACHMENT, BORDERLINE PERSONALITY, AND ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP DYSFUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Wan, Ming Wai; Hope, Holly; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Steele, Miriam; Steele, Howard; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated attachment and disturbances in romantic relationships as important indicators for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current research extends our current knowledge by examining the specific associations among attachment, romantic relationship dysfunction, and BPD, above and beyond the contribution of emotional distress and nonromantic interpersonal functioning in two distinct samples. Study 1 comprised a community sample of women (N = 58) aged 25-36. S...

  8. Attachment of 3T3 and MDBK cells onto poly(EGDMA/HEMA) based microbeads and their biologically modified forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, H; Gürhan, I; Pişkin, E

    2000-03-01

    Poly(EGDMA/HEMA) based microbeads were prepared by suspension polymerization. A comonomer, i.e., 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) was included in the recipe in order to have functional hydroxyl groups on the microbead surfaces. Toluene was used in the polymerization formulations to introduce porosity into the matrix. Hydroxyl groups were first oxidized with NaIO4, and then two biological molecules, namely collagen and fibronectin were immobilized by using glutaraldehyde. A spacer-arm, i.e., hexamethylene diamine, was also used in some cases. More protein molecules were immobilized onto more swellable microbeads using spacer-arm. Higher amounts of collagen were immobilized, more than fibronectin immobilization. Attachment of two cell lines (i.e., 3T3 and MDBK cell lines) on these microbeads with a wide variety of surface properties was studied in vitro culture media. Attachments of both cells even onto the plain microbeads were significant. More cells did attach to more swellable microbeads. Introducing both fibronectin and collagen onto the microbeads caused significant increase in the cell attachment. More cells attached to the microbeads carrying fibronectin covalently attached onto the microbeads through the spacer-arm molecules. Fibronectine was better than collagen for high attachment values. The mathematical model proposed successfully simulated attachment kinetics.

  9. The relationship between attachment and cognitive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional and cognitive development of personality have mostly been explored independently in the history of psychology. However, in the last decades, there have been more and more frequent arguments in favour of the idea that the emotional relationship between the mother and the child in early childhood, through forming a secure or insecure attachment style, is to a certain extent linked to the cognitive development. For example, securely attached children, compared to the insecurely attached, have more frequent and longer episodes of symbolic play and are more advanced in the domain of language in early childhood. Securely attached children are also more efficient and persistent in solving problems. Before starting school, securely attached children understand better the feelings and beliefs of others, as well as the fact that these determine people’s behaviour, thus having an opportunity to understand and predict this behaviour better. In this paper, we will attempt to point out some of the mechanisms that are assumed to be mediators between the emotional and cognitive development. Namely, since it enables a more independent exploration of the surroundings, more quality social relations among children, higher self-esteem, better focus and more developed communicative skills, secure attachment might potentially be linked to the cognitive development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  10. Attachment Theory and the Social Work Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Page

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment theory, as developed by Bowlby and Ainsworth, represented a major departure from the current theories of human development of the time, particularly in its rejection of the major tenets of psychoanalytic theory and its integration of core ideas from evolution theory and cybernetics (Ainsworth & Bowlby, 1991. Attachment theory posits that a foundational human instinct, the desire to achieve safety and protection through proximity to a protective figure, is responsible for the formation of a special class of life-long affectional bonds, referred to as “attachments.” Emotional security is derived to a great extent, according to the theory, from experience with caregivers who are consistently responsive to the developing infant’s expression of attachment behavior toward them. Forty years of empirical research has shown that attachment is a universal characteristic that predicts children’s development of cognitive and social competence, emotional regulation, and positive self-image (Weinfield, Sroufe, Egeland, & Carlson, 1999. Social work educators are currently challenged to better integrate the findings of attachment research into their curricula to reflect more the current state of developmental science.

  11. Personality and Attachment in Transsexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, Vittorio; Giovanardi, Guido; Fortunato, Alexandro; Nassisi, Valentina; Speranza, Anna Maria

    2017-02-16

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations between personality features and attachment patterns in transsexual adults. We explored mental representations of attachment, assessed personality traits, and possible personality disorders. Forty-four individuals diagnosed with gender identity disorder (now gender dysphoria), 28 male-to-female and 16 female-to-male, were evaluated using the Shedler-Westen assessment procedure-200 (SWAP-200) to assess personality traits and disorders; the adult attachment interview was used to evaluate their attachment state-of-mind. With respect to attachment, our sample differed both from normative samples because of the high percentage of disorganized states of mind (50% of the sample), and from clinical samples for the conspicuous percentage of secure states of mind (37%). Furthermore, we found that only 16% of our sample presented a personality disorder, while 50% showed a high level of functioning according to the SWAP-200 scales. In order to find latent subgroups that shared personality characteristics, we performed a Q-factor analysis. Three personality clusters then emerged: Healthy Functioning (54% of the sample); Depressive/Introverted (32%) and Histrionic/Extroverted (14%). These data indicate that in terms of personality and attachment, GD individuals are a heterogeneous sample and show articulate and diverse types with regard to these constructs.

  12. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  13. Attachment to the Romantic Partner and Sibling: Attachment Hierarchies of Twins and Non-Twin Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Schwarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that romantic partners and siblings are important attachment figures. This study compares the attachment to the romantic partner with the attachment to the sibling as a function of the participant’s sibling type among monozygotic (MZ twins, dizygotic (DZ twins, and non-twin (NT siblings. The results show that MZ twins prefer their sibling to their romantic partner whereas DZ twins are equally attached to their sibling and romantic partner. In contrast, NT siblings are more attached to their romantic partner compared to their sibling. These results indicate that genetic relatedness has profound impact on a person’s attachment hierarchy and the relative rank of the romantic partner and the sibling.

  14. Low-energy electron attachment to the dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupner, K; Haughey, S A; Field, T A; Mayhew, C A; Hoffmann, T H; May, O; Fedor, J; Allan, M; Fabrikant, I I; Illenberger, E; Braun, M; Ruf, M-W; Hotop, H

    2010-01-28

    Results from a joint experimental study of electron attachment to dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl(2)F(2)) molecules in the gas phase are reported. In a high resolution electron beam experiment involving two versions of the laser photoelectron attachment method, the relative cross section for formation of the dominant anion Cl(-) was measured over the energy range 0.001-1.8 eV at the gas temperature T(G) = 300 K. It exhibits cusp structure at thresholds for vibrational excitation of the nu(3)(a(1)) mode due to interaction with the attachment channels. With reference to the thermal attachment rate coefficient k(T = 300 K) = 2.2(8) x 10(-9) cm(3) s(-1) (fitted average from several data), a new highly resolved absolute attachment cross section for T(G) = 300 K was determined. Partial cross sections for formation of the anions Cl(-), Cl(2)(-), F(-), ClF(-), and CCl(2)F(-) were measured over the range 0-12 eV, using three different electron beam experiments of medium energy resolution. The dependence of the attachment rate coefficient k(T(e);T(G) = 300 K) on electron temperature T(e) was calculated over the range 50-15 000 K, based on a newly constructed total cross section for anion formation at T(G) = 300 K. R-matrix calculations for Cl(-) production have been carried out for comparison with the experimental data. The R-matrix results are in line with the main experimental observations and predict the dependence of the DEA cross section on the initial vibrational level nu(3)() and on the vibrational temperature. Furthermore, the cross section for vibrational excitation of the nu(3) mode has been computed.

  15. Enhanced proliferation, attachment and osteopontin expression by porcine periodontal cells exposed to Emdogain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincon, J C; Xiao, Y; Young, W G; Bartold, P M

    2005-12-01

    Emdogain (EMD) is an enamel matrix derivative extracted from developing porcine teeth with demonstrated periodontal regenerative potential. EMD has been shown to influence a number of properties of periodontal ligament cells including proliferation, cell attachment and matrix synthesis. To date, the effect of EMD on the epithelial cell rests of Malassez (ERM) is unknown. In this study, periodontal ligament fibroblasts, ERM, alveolar bone cells and gingival fibroblasts were obtained from porcine periodontal ligament, alveolar bone and gingiva. This study investigated, in vitro, the effect of EMD at three concentrations on proliferation, cell attachment and expression of mRNA for two mineralised tissue-related proteins (osteopontin and bone sialoprotein). As for other periodontal cells, the ERM proliferative response was enhanced by EMD. Attachment assays revealed a highly significant increase for ERM and gingival fibroblasts after EMD treatment at all concentrations. This study has also shown that EMD stimulated expression of osteopontin mRNA by ERM and alveolar bone cells. The results from this study provide evidence that EMD enhanced cellular events related with proliferation, attachment and osteopontin mRNA expression by porcine periodontal cells, in a manner consistent with its role in periodontal regenerative therapy.

  16. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: the influence of attachment primes on the content of state attachment representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David P.; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  17. An experimental evaluation of the State Adult Attachment Measure: The Influence of Attachment Primes on the Content of State Attachment Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Bowles, David; Dewitte, Marieke; Winter, Simon; Braet, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theory predicts cross-contextual stability of attachment representations, but research findings are rather mixed. Recently, it has been suggested that these mixed findings reflect the existence of both state and trait attachment components. The development of the State Adult Attachment Measure (SAAM) has enabled an investigation of this hypothesis. The current study aimed to evaluate the extent to which the SAAM is a useful instrument for studying such state attachment hypotheses. ...

  18. [SPREADING OF TISSUE SPHEROIDS FROM PRIMARY HUMAN FIBROBLASTS ON THE SURFACE OF MICROFIBROUS ELECTROSPUN POLYURETHANE MATRIX (A scanning electron microscopic study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudan, Ye V; Pereira, F D A S; Parfenov, V A; Kasyanov, V A; Khesuani, Yu D; Bulanova, Ye A; Mironov, V A

    2015-01-01

    Tissue spheroids biofabricated from primary human fibroblasts using non-adhesive agarose forms, were placed by 3D bioprinter on the surface of microfibrous electrospun matrix. It was demonstrated that tissue spheroids attached to the surface of matrix during several hours and then gradually spread for several days which indicates high level of biocompatibiity of electrospun microfibrous polyurethane matrix. During this activity, human fibroblasts used processes of leading cell borders for initial step of attachment to matrix filaments. Tissue constructions formed during spreading of tissue spheroids on the surface of electrospun microfibrous polyurethane matrix seem to be a perspective technology platform for development of new methods of biofabrication and 3D bioprinting.

  19. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.;

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  20. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  1. Transfer function matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Given a multivariable system, it is proved that the numerator matrix N(s) of the transfer function evaluated at any system pole either has unity rank or is a null matrix. It is also shown that N(s) evaluated at any transmission zero of the system has rank deficiency. Examples are given for illustration.

  2. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  3. Assembly and development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Ma

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all cells living in multicellular structures such as tissues and organs are encased in an extracellular matrix. One of the most important features of a biofilm is the extracellular polymeric substance that functions as a matrix, holding bacterial cells together. Yet very little is known about how the matrix forms or how matrix components encase bacteria during biofilm development. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms environmentally and clinically relevant biofilms and is a paradigm organism for the study of biofilms. The extracellular polymeric substance of P. aeruginosa biofilms is an ill-defined mix of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Here, we directly visualize the product of the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl exopolysaccharide at different stages of biofilm development. During attachment, Psl is anchored on the cell surface in a helical pattern. This promotes cell-cell interactions and assembly of a matrix, which holds bacteria in the biofilm and on the surface. Chemical dissociation of Psl from the bacterial surface disrupted the Psl matrix as well as the biofilm structure. During biofilm maturation, Psl accumulates on the periphery of 3-D-structured microcolonies, resulting in a Psl matrix-free cavity in the microcolony center. At the dispersion stage, swimming cells appear in this matrix cavity. Dead cells and extracellular DNA (eDNA are also concentrated in the Psl matrix-free area. Deletion of genes that control cell death and autolysis affects the formation of the matrix cavity and microcolony dispersion. These data provide a mechanism for how P. aeruginosa builds a matrix and subsequently a cavity to free a portion of cells for seeding dispersal. Direct visualization reveals that Psl is a key scaffolding matrix component and opens up avenues for therapeutics of biofilm-related complications.

  4. The nuclear matrix and the regulation of chromatin organization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, J R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear DNA is organized into loop domains, with the base of the loop being bound to the nuclear matrix. Loops with transcriptionally active and/or potentially active genes have a DNase I-sensitive chromatin structure, while repressed chromatin loops have a condensed configuration that is essentially invisible to the transcription machinery. Core histone acetylation and torsional stress appear to be responsible for the generation and/or maintenance of the open potentially active chromatin loops. The transcriptionally active region of the loop makes several dynamic attachments with the nuclear matrix and is associated with core histones that are dynamically acetylated. Histone acetyltransferase and deacetylase, which catalyze this rapid acetylation and deacetylation, are bound to the nuclear matrix. Several transcription factors are components of the nuclear matrix. Histone acetyltransferase, deacetylase, and transcription factors may contribute to the dynamic attachment of the active chromatin domains with the nuclear matrix at sites of ongoing transcription.

  5. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  6. Mother-infant attachment in adoptive families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, L M; Brodzinsky, D M; Ramsay, D; Steir, M; Waters, E

    1985-12-01

    Data from 2 separate samples using the Strange Situation paradigm were combined to assess the quality of attachment relationships in adoptive and nonadoptive mother-infant pairs. Infants were between 13 and 18 months at the time of observation. Results indicated no differences in mother-infant attachment between nonadopted and intraracial adopted subjects or between intraracial and interracial adopted subjects. Interracial adoptive mother-infant pairs did show a higher incidence of insecure attachment in comparison to nonadoptive pairs. Mothers of interracial adopted infants also were less comfortable having others care for their babies and perceived less emotional support from extended family and friends for their decision to adopt a child prior to the actual adoption than did other mothers. No relation was found, however, between quality of mother-infant attachment and either perceived social support, infant developmental quotient, infant temperament, number of foster homes experienced by the infant, or infant's age at the time of adoption placement. It was suggested that the higher incidence of psychological problems found among adoptees in middle childhood and adolescence cannot be explained in terms of insecure attachment relationships during the infancy years.

  7. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  8. Improved Matrix Uncertainty Selector

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbaum, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    We consider the regression model with observation error in the design: y=X\\theta* + e, Z=X+N. Here the random vector y in R^n and the random n*p matrix Z are observed, the n*p matrix X is unknown, N is an n*p random noise matrix, e in R^n is a random noise vector, and \\theta* is a vector of unknown parameters to be estimated. We consider the setting where the dimension p can be much larger than the sample size n and \\theta* is sparse. Because of the presence of the noise matrix N, the commonly used Lasso and Dantzig selector are unstable. An alternative procedure called the Matrix Uncertainty (MU) selector has been proposed in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) in order to account for the noise. The properties of the MU selector have been studied in Rosenbaum and Tsybakov (2010) for sparse \\theta* under the assumption that the noise matrix N is deterministic and its values are small. In this paper, we propose a modification of the MU selector when N is a random matrix with zero-mean entries having the variances th...

  9. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  10. Rheocasting Al matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girot, F.A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J.M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    A development status account is given for the rheocasting method of Al-alloy matrix/SiC-whisker composites, which involves the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of 8-15 vol pct of whiskers through the stirring of the semisolid matrix melt while retaining sufficient fluidity for casting. Both 1-, 3-, and 6-mm fibers of Nicalon SiC and and SiC whisker reinforcements have been experimentally investigated, with attention to the characterization of the resulting microstructures and the effects of fiber-matrix interactions. A thin silica layer is found at the whisker surface. 7 references.

  11. Mueller matrix differential decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Arce-Diego, José Luis

    2011-05-15

    We present a Mueller matrix decomposition based on the differential formulation of the Mueller calculus. The differential Mueller matrix is obtained from the macroscopic matrix through an eigenanalysis. It is subsequently resolved into the complete set of 16 differential matrices that correspond to the basic types of optical behavior for depolarizing anisotropic media. The method is successfully applied to the polarimetric analysis of several samples. The differential parameters enable one to perform an exhaustive characterization of anisotropy and depolarization. This decomposition is particularly appropriate for studying media in which several polarization effects take place simultaneously. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  13. The Secure-Base Hypothesis: Global Attachment, Attachment to Counselor, and Session Exploration in Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vera; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Janzen, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This study explored J. Bowlby's (1988) secure-base hypothesis, which predicts that a client's secure attachment to the therapist, as well as the client's and the therapist's global attachment security, will facilitate in-session exploration. Volunteer clients (N = 59) and trainee counselors (N = 59) in short-term therapy completed the Experiences…

  14. Parent Attachment, Childrearing Behavior, and Child Attachment: Mediated Effects Predicting Preschoolers' Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Stievenart, Marie

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory provides an interesting background for thinking about externalizing behavior (EB) in early childhood and for understanding how parenting influences the child's outcomes. The study examined how attachment and parenting could be combined to explain preschoolers' EB. Data were collected from 117 preschoolers aged from 4 to 6…

  15. Vibrationally Resolved Electron Attachment to Oxygen Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matejcik, S.; Kiendler, A.; Stampfli, P.; Stamatovic, A.; Maerk, T.D. [Intitut fuer Ionenphysik, Leopold Franzens Universitaet, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-10-01

    Highly monochromiatized electrons (with 30meV FWHM) are used in a crossed beam experiment to investigate electron attachment to oxygen clusters (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}} at electron energies from approximately 0 to 2eV.At energies close to zero, the attachment cross section for the reaction (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}}+{ital e}{r_arrow}O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} rises strongly with decreasing electron energy compatible with {ital s}-wave electron capture to (O{sub 2}){sub {ital n}}. Peaks in the attachment cross section present at higher energies can be ascribed to vibrational levels of the oxygen anion. The vibrational spacings observed can be quantitatively accounted for by model calculations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. [ADHD and attachment processes: are they related?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, N; Maury, M; Purper-Ouakil, D

    2009-06-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined on the basis of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor activity and impulsivity that emerges early in development and causes impairment in social and academic functioning. ADHD is described as a multifactorial disease, with a well studied genetic vulnerability, and early environmental factors also playing an important role in the development and course of the disorder. Current aetiological models emphasize interaction between genes and environment. The concept of attachment, as proposed by John Bowlby, reflects quality of early interactions, and should therefore be considered as an early developmental factor. First, clinical findings emphasize similitude between both disorders; emotional dysregulation is an important feature in reactive attachment disorder as well as in ADHD. Emotion regulation is highly related to attachment security in young children and could play a part in the development of early attention processes. Moreover, difficult temperament is associated with higher risk for ADHD on the one hand, and can disturb the process of attachment on the other. Parental caregiving - including maternal sensitivity, positive parenting practices - is a main factor involved in the development of attachment, and has shown to be associated with better outcomes in ADHD children, especially with less oppositional/conduct disorders. Second, the aim of our review is to present clinical studies that have looked for a link between ADHD and attachment: the type of attachment could play a part in the course of the disorder: insecure and disorganised attachment types tend to be associated with a higher risk of externalised behaviors in children. For ADHD, this effect seems to be weaker than for other externalised disorders, and has been shown only in populations of at-risk children. Clinical studies also raise the question of possible links between reactive attachment disorder and ADHD. In children suffering

  17. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  18. Attachment relationships as determinants of physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G; Hunter, Jonathan J

    2008-01-01

    Childhood adversity alters the relational world of the child and inhibits the development of secure attachment bonds. The purpose of this article is to survey recent evidence that attachment insecurity has the potential to impair physical health throughout the lifespan. It is proposed that attachment insecurity contributes to disease risk through a range of mechanisms which include (1) disturbances in arousal and recovery within physiological systems that respond to stress; (2) physiological links between the mediators of social relationships, stress, and immunity; (3) links between relationship style and various health behaviors; and (4) disease risk factors that serve as external regulators of dysphoric affect, such as nicotine and alcohol. The evidence for these mechanisms, particularly the evidence that has accumulated since the model was first proposed in 2000, is presented and discussed.

  19. Attachment theory: a biological basis for psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J

    1993-10-01

    John Bowlby bemoaned the separation between the biological and psychological approaches in psychiatry, and hoped that attachment theory, which brings together psychoanalysis and the science of ethology, would help bridge the rift between them. Recent findings in developmental psychology have delineated features of parent-infant interaction, especially responsiveness, attunement, and modulation of affect, which lead to either secure or insecure attachment. Similar principles can be applied to the relationship between psychotherapist and patient--the provision of a secure base, the emergence of a shared narrative ('autobiographical competence'), the processing of affect, coping with loss--these are common to most effective psychotherapies and provide the basis for a new interpersonal paradigm within psychotherapy. Attachment theory suggests they rest on a sound ethological and hence biological foundation.

  20. Attachment at (not to) work: applying attachment theory to explain individual behavior in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David A; Schat, Aaron C H

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of 2 studies that were conducted to investigate whether adult attachment theory explains employee behavior at work. In the first study, we examined the structure of a measure of adult attachment and its relations with measures of trait affectivity and the Big Five. In the second study, we examined the relations between dimensions of attachment and emotion regulation behaviors, turnover intentions, and supervisory reports of counterproductive work behavior and organizational citizenship behavior. Results showed that anxiety and avoidance represent 2 higher order dimensions of attachment that predicted these criteria (except for counterproductive work behavior) after controlling for individual difference variables and organizational commitment. The implications of these results for the study of attachment at work are discussed.

  1. Personality disorders and romantic adult attachment: a comparison of secure and insecure attached child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Stefan; Vanheule, Stijn; Desmet, Mattias

    2006-04-01

    This study analyzed personality disorders in a group of 33 securely and 51 insecurely attached child molesters. A total of 51 child molesters were selected from a community based educational training program, and the other group was selected from a Belgian prison (n = 33). Research shows that adult attachment styles and personality disorders share a common underlying structure. It is remarkable that very little is known about differences between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. In this study, the authors found that the schizoid personality disorder differed between securely and insecurely attached child molesters. These findings have implications for the aetiology and treatment of child molesters. Future research is necessary to determine patterns of attachment in relationship to personality disorders.

  2. Family systems theory, attachment theory, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbaum, Fred; Rosen, Karen; Ujiie, Tatsuo; Uchida, Nobuko

    2002-01-01

    Family systems theory and attachment theory have important similarities and complementarities. Here we consider two areas in which the theories converge: (a) in family system theorists' description of an overly close, or "enmeshed," mother-child dyad, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of children's ambivalent attachment and mothers' preoccupied attachment; (b) in family system theorists' description of the "pursuer-distance cycle" of marital conflict, which attachment theorists conceptualize as the interaction of preoccupied and dismissive partners. We briefly review family systems theory evidence, and more extensively review attachment theory evidence, pertaining to these points of convergence. We also review cross-cultural research, which leads us to conclude that the dynamics described in both theories reflect, in part, Western ways of thinking and Western patterns of relatedness. Evidence from Japan suggests that extremely close ties between mother and child are perceived as adaptive, and are more common, and that children experience less adverse effects from such relationships than do children in the West. Moreover, in Japan there is less emphasis on the importance of the exclusive spousal relationship, and less need for the mother and father to find time alone to rekindle romantic, intimate feelings and to resolve conflicts by openly communicating their differences. Thus, the "maladaptive" pattern frequently cited by Western theorists of an extremely close mother-child relationship, an unromantic, conflictual marriage characterized by little verbal communication and a peripheral, distant father, may function very differently in other cultures. While we believe that both theories will be greatly enriched by their integration, we caution against the application of either theory outside the cultures in which they were developed.

  3. Extracellular matrix stiffness and architecture govern intracellular rheology in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erin L; Bonnecaze, Roger T; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2009-08-19

    Little is known about the complex interplay between the extracellular mechanical environment and the mechanical properties that characterize the dynamic intracellular environment. To elucidate this relationship in cancer, we probe the intracellular environment using particle-tracking microrheology. In three-dimensional (3D) matrices, intracellular effective creep compliance of prostate cancer cells is shown to increase with increasing extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, whereas modulating ECM stiffness does not significantly affect the intracellular mechanical state when cells are attached to two-dimensional (2D) matrices. Switching from 2D to 3D matrices induces an order-of-magnitude shift in intracellular effective creep compliance and apparent elastic modulus. However, for a given matrix stiffness, partial blocking of beta1 integrins mitigates the shift in intracellular mechanical state that is invoked by switching from a 2D to 3D matrix architecture. This finding suggests that the increased cell-matrix engagement inherent to a 3D matrix architecture may contribute to differences observed in viscoelastic properties between cells attached to 2D matrices and cells embedded within 3D matrices. In total, our observations show that ECM stiffness and architecture can strongly influence the intracellular mechanical state of cancer cells.

  4. Attachment of human primary osteoblast cells to modified polyethylene surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsson, Alexandra H C; Mitchell, Stephen A; Davidson, Marcus R; Johnstone, Alan J; Emmison, Neil; Bradley, Robert H

    2009-04-09

    readily on the UV/ozone-treated UHMWPE surfaces than on untreated UHMWPE and TCPS surfaces. Contact guidance of the cells was observed on the UHMWPE surfaces by both SEM and AFM. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the cells were confluent on the modified UHMWPE surfaces by day 10, which led to visible layering of the cells by day 21, an indicator of nodule formation. In vitro mineralization of the extracellular matrix expressed by the HOB cells on the modified UHMWPE surfaces was confirmed by SEM and EDX analysis; spherulite structures were observed near cell protrusions by day 21. EDX analysis confirmed the spherulites to contain calcium and phosphorus, the major constituents in calcium phosphate apatite, the mineral phase of bone. Overall cell attachment, functionality, and mineralization were found to be enhanced on the UV/ozone-modified UHMWPE surfaces, demonstrating the importance of optimizing the surface chemistry for primary HOB cells.

  5. Space Station Freedom attached payloads and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furio, N.; Pyfer, B.; Smith, R. B., Jr.; Hunt, S. R.; Suddeth, D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Space Station Freedom (SSF) attaches external payloads to its main truss structure via Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE); this equipment also provides access to such SSF resources as electrical power, command/control, and data handling. In orbit, APAE payloads are installed and maintained by a teleoperated robot or by an astronaut in EVA. Commercialization of EPAE will be accomplished by private companies concerned with the development of materials processing, earth resources and ocean resources monitoring, telecommunications, and industrial services. Attention is given to APAE user-integration activity.

  6. Attachment of Salmonella spp. to pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine; Riber, Leise; Löfström, Charlotta;

    2011-01-01

    Five strains of Salmonella, one wildtype and four knock-out mutants (the prg, flhDC, yhjH and fliC genes) were investigated based on their probability to attach and subsequently detach from a surface of pork fillet. The attachment followed by detachment was measured and modelled for two different...... contact times using cells coming from either a planktonic or an immobilized state of growth. The results showed that the probability of detachment generally decreased when the contact time increased and that the highest difference between contact times was achieved when the cells were grown planktonic....

  7. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term “Child Attachment Interview” in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  8. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Separated 72 5.6 Divorced 76 5.9 Widowed 3 0.2 ADULT ATTACHMENT STYLE, HARDINESS, AND MOOD 131 D ow nl oa de d by [ Pa ul T . B ar to ne ] at 1 2: 35...Kobak, R. R., & Sceery, A. (1988). Attachment in late adolescence : Work- ing models, affect regulation, and representations of self and others. Child...Reassessing the dimensions of tem- peramental individuality across the lifespan: The revised dimensions of temperament survey (DOTS-R). Journal of Adolescent

  9. The milled surface as a precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvik, James S; Shor, Alexander

    2004-07-01

    The creation of paralleled, milled surfaces in natural or restored abutment teeth, coupled with removable partial denture castings that have optimal contact with these preparations, results in a path of insertion and removal that is controlled in a manner similar to one using conventional precision attachments. Because the milled surfaces are primarily extracoronal, little if any, additional tooth reduction is required for adequate mouth preparation. Avoiding additional tooth reduction minimizes later abutment fracture. The great increase in stability and resistance to rotational movements, when combined with conventional posterior clasping, provides a reasonable alternative to the precision attachment in providing maximal esthetics for the partially edentulous patients.

  10. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a lightning connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one lightning strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a lightning rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of lightning attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by lightning protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of lightning flashes connecting lightning rods that

  11. The Child Attachment Interview: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privizzini, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Attachment theory promoted an impressive body of research on the psychic developmental processes, resulting in studies on both typical and atypical development. Much of the diffusion of the attachment theory in the clinical field was related to the design of reliable instruments to evaluate the organization of attachment in infancy as well as in adulthood. Until recently, the lack of a suitable instrument to assess attachment in middle childhood as well as in adolescence hindered the expansion of research in these developmental phases during which the parent-child relationship takes on a different, albeit still crucial, role. The Child Attachment Interview (CAI), a measure that was recently designed to assess attachment at a representational level in middle childhood and adolescence, filled the measurement gap. The aim of the current review was to summarize previous empirical investigations concerning CAI in order to (a) provide an overview of the state of current research, (b) identify unanswered questions, and (c) propose future research directions. A narrative review was conducted to map the current research findings by searching for the term "Child Attachment Interview" in the Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases, followed by a search in Mendeley. Limits were set to exclude dissertations, chapters in books, and qualitative or theoretical papers, while empirical studies were included if they used the CAI and were published in English language, peer-reviewed journals by July, 2016. The review, which ultimately included 39 studies meeting the criteria, showed that the CAI is a reliable instrument to assess attachment organization in clinical and non-clinical samples, thus providing a worthwhile contribution to the investigation of the influence of the parent-child relationship beyond infancy and early childhood. Nevertheless, the review pointed out a number of relevant open issues, the most critical of which concerned the CAI coding and

  12. Attachments to the common-place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2015-01-01

    change. To understand the dynamic interplay of architecture and community-building in this case, the article stages a theoretical debate on the politics of shared attachments between three proponents of French pragmatic sociology: Bruno Latour, Antoine Hennion, and Laurent Thévenot. Drawing in particular...... on Thévenot's notion of ‘commonality in the plural’, the article shows how a range of personal affinities to the architectural form of the kyō-machiya, positioned as an urban ‘common-place’, serves to coordinate across otherwise divergent interests. By taking seriously the role of attachments to common...

  13. Assortativity in generalized preferential attachment models

    CERN Document Server

    Krot, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze assortativity of preferential attachment models. We deal with a wide class of preferential attachment models (PA-class). It was previously shown that the degree distribution in all models of the PA-class follows a power law. Also, the global and the average local clustering coefficients were analyzed. We expand these results by analyzing the assortativity property of the PA-class of models. Namely, we analyze the behavior of $d_{nn}(d)$ which is the average degree of a neighbor of a vertex of degree $d$.

  14. Effects of Emotion Regulation Training on Attachment Style of Primiparous Pregnant Women with Insecure Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Reyhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women with insecure attachment style are at high risk of psychiatric disorders. Since emotions are the first coordinators of attachment behavior, emotion regulation training can alter maternal attachment style. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of emotion regulation training on the attachment styles of primiparous pregnant women with insecure attachment style. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of training programs on the headache of patients after spinal anesthesia. Method: This randomized, clinical trial on 40 primiparous pregnant women with age range of 30-34 years, who were referred to healthcare centers of Mashhad, Iran, during 2014. The data collection instrument was Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS. The participants were assigned to intervention and control groups. A training program was implemented on emotion regulation based on dialectical behavior therapy (DBT for the intervention group. After delivery, RAAS was completed by the mothers again. The control group only received the routine care. To analyze the data, Chi-square and independent t-test were run using SPSS, version 15. Results: Mean ages of the mothers in the intervention and control groups were 26.9±4.04 and 27.5±3.5 years, respectively. According to the results of independent t-test, the difference between the groups was non-significant (P=0.77. The groups were analogous in terms of attachment style pre-intervention. After the intervention, independent t-test did not reflect any significant differences between the groups regarding avoidant (P=0.37 and anxious (P=0.11 attachment styles. However, mean score for secure attachment style was significantly enhanced (P=0.01. Implications for Practice: Our findings revealed that implementation of emotion regulation training increased secure attachment scores. Thus, implementing emotion regulation training program is recommended as part of a program for pre-natal care in healthcare

  15. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  16. Matrix theory of gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    A new classical theory of gravitation within the framework of general relativity is presented. It is based on a matrix formulation of four-dimensional Riemann-spaces and uses no artificial fields or adjustable parameters. The geometrical stress-energy tensor is derived from a matrix-trace Lagrangian, which is not equivalent to the curvature scalar R. To enable a direct comparison with the Einstein-theory a tetrad formalism is utilized, which shows similarities to teleparallel gravitation theories, but uses complex tetrads. Matrix theory might solve a 27-year-old, fundamental problem of those theories (sec. 4.1). For the standard test cases (PPN scheme, Schwarzschild-solution) no differences to the Einstein-theory are found. However, the matrix theory exhibits novel, interesting vacuum solutions.

  17. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... important. Alternatively, or as a supplement, Procrustes analysis compares the actual ordination results without investigating the underlying proximity measures, by matching two configurations of the same objects in a multidimensional space. An advantage of the Procrustes analysis though, is the graphical...

  18. Attachment and the Processing of Social Information in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2007-01-01

    A key proposition of attachment theory is that experience-based cognitive representations of attachment, often referred to as internal working models of attachment, influence the manner in which individuals process attachment-relevant social information (Bowlby, 1969/1982, 1973, 1980; Bretherton & Munholland, 1999; Main, Kaplan, & Cassidy, 1985).…

  19. Role of Attachment in Response to Pet Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Nigel P.; Orsini, Lisa; Gavish, Roni; Packman, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the impact of attachment on grief severity following the death of a pet. Seventy-one participants who had lost a dog or cat within the past year completed a set of measures that included an attachment measure assessing individual differences in attachment anxiety and avoidance, strength of the past attachment to the pet, the…

  20. 30 CFR 56.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 56.19026 Section 56.19026... Ropes § 56.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  1. 30 CFR 75.1436 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 75.1436 Section 75.1436... attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1) Securely by clips after making one... that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum. Design feature means either the...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19026 - Drum end attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drum end attachment. 57.19026 Section 57.19026... Wire Ropes § 57.19026 Drum end attachment. (a) For drum end attachment, wire rope shall be attached— (1... bolts, clamps, or wedges, provided that the attachment is a design feature of the hoist drum....

  3. Attachment Disorder: An Emerging Concern for School Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kandis Cooke; Forrest, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Explains attachment theory and posits that, if proper bonding and subsequent attachment, usually between mother and child, does not occur, the child develops mistrust and deep-seated rage. Presents evidence of the problem of attachment disorders, lists symptoms of unattached children, examines treatment of attachment disorders, and discusses…

  4. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  5. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  6. Matrix fractional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper addresses the matrix representation of dynamical systems in the perspective of fractional calculus. Fractional elements and fractional systems are interpreted under the light of the classical Cole-Cole, Davidson-Cole, and Havriliak-Negami heuristic models. Numerical simulations for an electrical circuit enlighten the results for matrix based models and high fractional orders. The conclusions clarify the distinction between fractional elements and fractional systems.

  7. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  9. Adult attachment and incidental memory for emotional words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanxin Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A dual task of attachment priming and memory recognition was proposed to explore the effect of adult attachment styles on the incidental memory for emotional words. Subjects completed an attachment priming task which intends to activate internal working model of attachment by describing attachment-related scenes, and then an incidental memory recognition test of words which differ in emotional meaning and relevance of attachment styles. Signal detection theory was used to compare the discriminability index and decision criterion of emotional words in subjects of different attachment style. Results showed that subjects with secure attachment styles performed better than insecure-attached subjects in the memory recognition test, in terms of higher hit rate, lower false alarm rate, and higher discriminability index. We extended the influence of attachment styles on cognition to lower level of incidental memory, not just on higher cognitive level with emotional arousal as suggested by previous research.

  10. [Attachment behavior with respect to mothers and fathers and attachment representations in five and seven-year-old children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Lilith; Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Zweyer, Karen

    2007-01-01

    During preschool and early school age attachment quality can be assessed by different means: at the behavioral level by the Strange Situation (SS), at the representational level by semiprojective methods using story stems or pictures. Both methods gain access to different levels of a theoretically assumed inner working model of attachment, in which attachment at the behavioral level is supposed to be person specific, attachment at the representational level generalized. This study aimed at analyzing whether attachment behavior to mother and father is associated, and how it is linked to the generalized attachment representation. It was also examined whether in the case of no association between mother and father attachment behavior towards the major attachment figure is linked to the attachment representation. In the Duesseldorf study 67 children aged 5 years were observed in the SS with mother, 31 of them also in the SS with father. At the age of 6.5 years an attachment story completion task was conducted. When person specific attachment to mother and father was congruent (SS secure n=6, or insecure n=8) the attachment representation was consistent as well, when father and mother attachment were discrepant no association with attachment representation could be found. The findings did not confirm a stronger influence of the major attachment figure on the formation of the attachment representation.

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Association between Reactive Attachment Disorder and Attachment Narratives in Early School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Green, Jonathan; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Liew, Ashley; Glaser, D.; Taylor, E.; Follan, M.; Young, D.; Barnes, J.; Gillberg, C.; Pelosi, A.; Arthur, J.; Burston, A.; Connolly, B.; Sadiq, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore attachment narratives in children diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: We compared attachment narratives, as measured by the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task, in a group of 33 children with a diagnosis of RAD and 37 comparison children. Results: The relative risk (RR) for children with RAD having…

  12. Bowlby's attachment theory: implications for health visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partis, M

    2000-10-01

    This article reviews the current state of research in attachment theory. It also examines the relations between attachment, child care and development, and the significance of attachment to adult functioning and well-being. It seems likely that humans need close emotional relationships or bonds with others. This need applies particularly to infants, who look to parents or other care givers for love and security. The best-known psychological explanation of this need is attachment theory, which has been influential in increasing our understanding of the early mother-infant relationship, and in the formulation of guidelines for child care (Melhuish, 1998). Good-quality parental care may be difficult to define, and questions remain regarding the nature of child care and the consequences that it can have for later development. This article concludes with a discussion of the possible implications for health-visitor intervention within families, which are intended to improve the quality of the relationship between parents or care givers and the infant.

  13. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  14. Reactive Attachment Disorder in Maltreated Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Scheeringa, Michael; Boris, Neil W.; Heller, Sherryl S.; Smyke, Anna T.; Trapani, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) can be reliably identified in maltreated toddlers in foster care, if the two types of RAD are independent, and to estimate the prevalence of RAD in these maltreated toddlers. Methods: Clinicians treating 94 maltreated toddlers in foster care were interviewed regarding signs of…

  15. Hidden Regulators in Attachment, Separation, and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Myron A.

    1994-01-01

    This essay discusses the similarities between animal behavior and human attachment behavior demonstrated by infants and their mothers. The provision of warmth, the tactile and olfactory stimulation of the mother's physical interactions, and the oral sensory and absorptive consequences of nursing are found to provide specific and independent…

  16. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  17. No Strings Attached: Open Source Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Imagine downloading a new software application and not having to worry about licensing, finding dollars in the budget, or incurring additional maintenance costs. Imagine finding a Web design tool in the public domain--free for use. Imagine major universities that provide online courses with no strings attached. Imagine online textbooks without a…

  18. Reactive attachment disorder as an evolutionary adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbernie, Robin

    2010-05-01

    This paper suggests that the behaviours associated with the formal diagnosis of the "disinhibited" form of reactive attachment disorder (RAD) might be seen as a functional adaptation rather than a mental health problem, a facultative response enhancing the probability of survival that is triggered by certain conditions. Although disinhibited RAD is most commonly observed in institutionalised children, similar behaviours may also be a part of the emotional difficulties displayed by some fostered and adopted children (the latter includes those once institutionalised), and these may demonstrate not so much a discrete attachment disorder as either the need to fend for oneself following loss of dedicated caregiving or a lack of opportunity to build specific intimate relationships with dedicated caregivers. In many cases this may be inextricably mixed with the neurobiological and psychological seqelae of maltreatment. Indiscriminate attachment behaviour, from this proposed evolutionary perspective, is less a syndrome of mental ill-health than an astute survival manoeuvre following being orphaned, abandoned or fecklessly reared. Such a response, allied to the innate facility to access caregiving from different adults, could be expected to be initiated by specific events as are the other attachment configurations. Classing disinhibited RAD as an adaptation has implications for helping children brought up under extreme duress when their caregiving environment has changed for the better.

  19. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  20. What is preferential to preferential attachment?

    CERN Document Server

    Small, Michael; Stemler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Preferential attachment --- where new nodes are added and attached to existing nodes with probability proportional to the existing nodes' degree --- has become the standard growth model for scale-free networks, where the asymptotic probability of a node having degree $k$ is proportional to $k^{-\\gamma}$. However, the motivation for this model is entirely {\\em ad hoc}. We use exact likelihood arguments and show that the optimal way to build a scale-free network is to preferentially attach to low degree nodes. Asymptotically, the optimal strategy is to attach the new node to one of the nodes of degree $k$ (in a network with $N$ nodes) with probability proportional to $\\frac{1}{N+\\zeta(\\gamma)(k+1)^\\gamma}$. The algorithm we propose to do this can be employed to generate optimally scale-free networks (maximum likelihood realisations) as well as a random sampling of the space of all scale-free networks with a given degree exponent $\\gamma$. While we focus on scale free networks, these methods can be applied to a ...

  1. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  2. Should Charity Donations Have Strings Attached?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commonly held belief among most people is that acts of charity are carried out with no thought of getting something in return, or of attaching conditions to those who receive donations. It’s perhaps for this rea- son that events surrounding the Henan Charity Federation’s recent decision to add an agenda to students’ financial aid caused such a public outcry.

  3. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  4. Sexuality examined through the lens of attachment theory: attachment, caregiving, and sexual satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, Katherine; Brassard, Audrey; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Shaver, Phillip R

    2014-01-01

    Attachment researchers have proposed that the attachment, caregiving, and sexual behavioral systems are interrelated in adult love relationships (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007 ). This study examined whether aspects of partners' caregiving (proximity, sensitivity, control, compulsive caregiving) mediated the association between their attachment insecurities (anxiety and avoidance) and each other's sexual satisfaction in two samples of committed couples (Study 1: 126 cohabiting or married couples from the general community; Study 2: 55 clinically distressed couples). Partners completed the Experiences in Close Relationships measure (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998 ), the Caregiving Questionnaire (Kunce & Shaver, 1994 ), and the Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1998 ). Path analyses based on the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) revealed that caregiving proximity mediated the association between low attachment avoidance and partners' sexual satisfaction in distressed and nondistressed couples. Sensitivity mediated this association in nondistressed couples only. Control mediated the association between men's insecurities (attachment-related avoidance and anxiety) and their partners' low sexual satisfaction in nondistressed couples. Attachment anxiety predicted compulsive caregiving, but this caregiving dimension was not a significant mediator. These results are discussed in light of attachment theory and their implications for treating distressed couples.

  5. Measuring infant attachment security in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): adaptation of the attachment Q-set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, James J; Kondo-Ikemura, Kiyomi; Waters, Everett

    2011-02-01

    John Bowlby defined offspring-parent attachment as a relationship in which an infant or child uses one or a few preferred adults as a secure base from which to explore and as a haven of safety. He defined attachment security in terms of confidence in the adult's availability and responsiveness and the smooth organization of exploration and proximity seeking. Developmental psychologists have found this perspective productive in both observational and laboratory research. At the same time, they emphasize that such a construct cannot be operationalized in terms of one or a few behaviors. Instead, naturalistic observations of human infant attachment typically employ the Q-sort method to develop the Attachment q-set (AQS), 90 behaviorally descriptive items sorted in terms of how characteristic each item is of the infant's typical behavior. Meta-analyses of research using the AQS attest to its reliability and validity. This article reports an adaptation of the AQS to the task of assessing infant attachment security in nonhuman primates and illustrates its use. The availability of comparable measures of attachment security will contribute to an expanded understanding of patterns of attachment behavior in nonhuman primate societies and will facilitate interaction between comparative and developmental psychologists.

  6. Infant attachment, adult attachment, and maternal sensitivity: revisiting the intergenerational transmission gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Kazuko Y; Haltigan, John D; Bahm, Naomi I Gribneau

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the intergenerational transmission of attachment, utilizing the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP), and the Maternal Behavioral Q-Set (MBQS). We revisited fundamental questions in attachment theory and research by examining: (1) the level of intergenerational agreement between maternal attachment representations and infant attachment security, and (2) whether maternal sensitivity serves as an intergenerational mediator between adult and infant attachment security. Significant categorical matches between the AAI and the SSP as well as mean differences for MBQS scores between adult attachment secure-insecure groups were found. Consistent with earlier intergenerational research, maternal sensitivity only partially mediated the AAI-SSP link, indicating the transmission gap remains. Consistent with recent mediation studies, using more contemporary analytical techniques, it was confirmed that maternal sensitivity did mediate the direct pathway between AAI security and SSP security. Thus, the transmission gap appears somewhat different depending on the statistical method used to measure mediation. Post hoc analyses considered mothers' childhood experiences of separation/divorce and this helped make sense of intergenerational mismatches.

  7. Effect of Attachment-Based Therapy on Behavioral Disorders in Girls with Attachment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral disorders requires assessment and usage of modern treatments. The present study investigated the effects of attachment-based therapy on behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant in girl students of primary school who had attachment problems. Materials and Methods: This study is an empirical plan with pretest-posttest and control group. The target samples were 34 individuals of 388 second and fourth grade students of primary school that had highest scores on attachment problems and behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Evaluation implemented using Randolph attachment disorder questionnaire (RADQ and Ontario mental health test. Mothers were presented in 10 group sessions of attachment-based intervention and its effects investigated in their girl`s behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant. Results: Reduction rate of behavioral disorders general scores (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant of experimental group compared with control group showed significant decreases in posttest and three months follow up. Conclusion: The attachment based therapy offered for mothers of the girls with attachment problems was effective to reduction of behavioral disorders (depression, over anxiety and oppositional defiant symptoms in their children and the mother`s continues attention to interventional methods showed more improvement in follow up evaluation.

  8. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a new installation technique utilizing convoluted wire thermocouples (TC's) was developed and proven to produce very good adhesion on CMC's, even in a burner rig environment. Because of their unique convoluted design, such TC's of various types and sizes adhere to flat or curved CMC specimens with no sign of delamination, open circuits, or interactions-even after testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig to 1200 C (2200 F) for several thermal cycles and at several hours at high temperatures. Large differences in thermal expansion between metal thermocouples and low-expansion materials, such as CMC's, normally generate large stresses in the wires. These stresses cause straight wires to detach, but convoluted wires that are bonded with strips of coating allow bending in the unbonded portion to relieve these expansion stresses.

  9. PROGRESS IN STUDYING MATRIX ATTACHMENT REGIONS%MAR序列研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健美; 张可伟; 叶文静; 郑成超

    2002-01-01

    MAR是与核基质结合的一段染色体DNA序列,将其连到目的基因两侧并转到生物体中,发现它能增加转基因表达水平,并能在一定程度上降低转化体之间转基因表达的差异.MAR序列已成为近几年来植物基因工程研究领域颇受关注的热点之一,许多MAR序列片段以及与之相结合的核基质蛋白已相继从不同生物中分离和鉴定.本文主要综述MAR序列的特征、作用机制、应用现状及前景.

  10. THERMOPHILE ENDOSPORES HAVE RESPONSIVE EXOSPORIUM FOR ATTACHMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PANESSA-WARREN,B.; TORTORA,G.T.; WARREN,J.; SABATINI,R.

    1999-08-01

    Recently studies examining the colonization of Clostridial pathogens on agar and human tissue culture cells, demonstrated that (C. sporogenes ATCC 3584, C. difficile ATCC 43594 [patient isolate], C. difficile ATCC 9689 [non-clinical], C. clostridioforme [patient isolate]) bacterial spores (endospores) of the genus Clostridia have an outer membrane that becomes responsive at activation and exhibits extensions of the exosporial membrane that facilitate and maintain spore attachment to a nutritive substrate during germination and initial outgrowth of the newly developed bacterial cell. Therefore this attachment phenomenon plays an important role in insuring bacterial colonization of a surface and the initial stages of the infective process. To see if other non-clinical members of this genus also have this ability to attach to a substrate or food-source during spore germination, and how this attachment process in environmental thermophiles compares to the clinical paradigm (in relation to time sequence, exosporial membrane structure, type of attachment structures, composition of the membrane etc...), sediment samples were collected in sterile transport containers at 4 geothermal sites at Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Because spore forming bacteria will produce spores when conditions are unfavorable for growth, the samples were sealed and stored at 4 C. After 8 months the samples were screened for the presence of spores by light microscope examination using malachite green/safranin, and traditional endospores were identified in significant quantities from the Terrace Spring site (a 46 C lake with bacterial mats and a rapidly moving run-off channel leading to a traditional hot spring). The highest spore population was found in the top sediment and benthic water of the run-off channel, pH 8.1.

  11. Electron attachment rate constant measurement by photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Desheng; Niu, Wenqi; Liu, Sheng; Shen, Chengyin; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongmei; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan

    2012-12-01

    Photoemission electron attachment ion mobility spectrometry (PE-EA-IMS), with a source of photoelectrons induced by vacuum ultraviolet radiation on a metal surface, has been developed to study electron attachment reaction at atmospheric pressure using nitrogen as the buffer gas. Based on the negative ion mobility spectra, the rate constants for electron attachment to tetrachloromethane and chloroform were measured at ambient temperature as a function of the average electron energy in the range from 0.29 to 0.96 eV. The experimental results are in good agreement with the data reported in the literature.

  12. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  13. Nucleus pulposus cell-matrix interactions with laminins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, C L; Francisco, A T; Plopper, G E; Chen, J; Setton, L A

    2011-06-20

    The cells of the nucleus pulposus (NP) region of the intervertebral disc play a critical role in this tissue's generation and maintenance, and alterations in NP cell viability, metabolism, and phenotype with aging may be key contributors to progressive disc degeneration. Relatively little is understood about the phenotype of NP cells, including their cell-matrix interactions which may modulate phenotype and survival. Our previous work has identified strong and region-specific expression of laminins and laminin cell-surface receptors in immature NP tissues, suggesting laminin cell-matrix interactions are uniquely important to the biology of NP cells. Whether these observed tissue-level laminin expression patterns reflect functional adhesion behaviors for these cells is not known. In this study, we examined NP cell-matrix interactions with specific matrix ligands, including various laminin isoforms, using quantitative assays of cell attachment, spreading, and adhesion strength. NP cells were found to attach in higher numbers and exhibited rapid cell spreading and higher resistance to detachment force on two laminin isoforms (LM-511,LM-332) identified to be uniquely expressed in the NP region, as compared to another laminin isoform (LM-111) and several other matrix ligands (collagen, fibronectin). Additionally, NP cells were found to attach in higher numbers to laminins as compared to cells isolated from the disc's annulus fibrosus region. These findings confirm that laminin and laminin receptor expression documented in NP tissues translates into unique functional NP cell adhesion behaviors that may be useful tools for in vitro cell culture and biomaterials that support NP cells.

  14. Nucleus pulposus cell-matrix interactions with laminins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Gilchrist

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cells of the nucleus pulposus (NP region of the intervertebral disc play a critical role in this tissue’s generation and maintenance, and alterations in NP cell viability, metabolism, and phenotype with aging may be key contributors to progressive disc degeneration. Relatively little is understood about the phenotype of NP cells, including their cell-matrix interactions which may modulate phenotype and survival. Our previous work has identified strong and region-specific expression of laminins and laminin cell-surface receptors in immature NP tissues, suggesting laminin cell-matrix interactions are uniquely important to the biology of NP cells. Whether these observed tissue-level laminin expression patterns reflect functional adhesion behaviors for these cells is not known. In this study, we examined NP cell-matrix interactions with specific matrix ligands, including various laminin isoforms, using quantitative assays of cell attachment, spreading, and adhesion strength. NP cells were found to attach in higher numbers and exhibited rapid cell spreading and higher resistance to detachment force on two laminin isoforms (LM-511,LM-332 identified to be uniquely expressed in the NP region, as compared to another laminin isoform (LM-111 and several other matrix ligands (collagen, fibronectin. Additionally, NP cells were found to attach in higher numbers to laminins as compared to cells isolated from the disc’s annulus fibrosus region. These findings confirm that laminin and laminin receptor expression documented in NP tissues translates into unique functional NP cell adhesion behaviors that may be useful tools for in vitro cell culture and biomaterials that support NP cells.

  15. Ceramic Matrix Composites .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mukerji

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available The present state of the knowledge of ceramic-matrix composites have been reviewed. The fracture toughness of present structural ceramics are not enough to permit design of high performance machines with ceramic parts. They also fail by catastrophic brittle fracture. It is generally believed that further improvement of fracture toughness is only possible by making composites of ceramics with ceramic fibre, particulate or platelets. Only ceramic-matrix composites capable of working above 1000 degree centigrade has been dealt with keeping reinforced plastics and metal-reinforced ceramics outside the purview. The author has discussed the basic mechanisms of toughening and fabrication of composites and the difficulties involved. Properties of available fibres and whiskers have been given. The best results obtained so far have been indicated. The limitations of improvement in properties of ceramic-matrix composites have been discussed.

  16. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  17. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented.

  18. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  19. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  20. Dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation of CF{sub 3}Cl: Effect of two vibrational modes revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarana, Michal [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Houfek, Karel; Horacek, Jiri [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holesovickach 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Fabrikant, Ilya I. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We present a study of dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation processes in electron collisions with the CF{sub 3}Cl molecule. The calculations are based on the two-dimensional nuclear dynamics including the C-Cl symmetric stretch coordinate and the CF{sub 3} symmetric deformation (umbrella) coordinate. The complex potential energy surfaces are calculated using the ab initio R-matrix method. The results for dissociative attachment and vibrational excitation of the umbrella mode agree quite well with experiment whereas the cross section for excitation of the C-Cl symmetric stretch vibrations is about a factor-of-three too low in comparison with experimental data.

  1. Mentalization and attachment representations: a theoretical contribution to the understanding of reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikic, Natalie; Terradas, Miguel M

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes an understanding of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) through psychoanalytic thought and mentalization theory. RAD is presented followed by a discussion on attachment and the need for a better understanding of this disorder. Theories from British psychoanalytic thinkers are used to describe what might be transpiring in the early relationship between mother and child. Particular attention is given to how children's internal objects are influenced by a compromised early mother-child relationship.

  2. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.

    2004-11-01

    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  3. IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Tada, T; Tsuchiya, A

    1999-01-01

    We review our proposal for a constructive definition of superstring, type IIB matrix model. The IIB matrix model is a manifestly covariant model for space-time and matter which possesses N=2 supersymmetry in ten dimensions. We refine our arguments to reproduce string perturbation theory based on the loop equations. We emphasize that the space-time is dynamically determined from the eigenvalue distributions of the matrices. We also explain how matter, gauge fields and gravitation appear as fluctuations around dynamically determined space-time.

  4. Little IIB Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Y; Saito, O; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa; Mizoguchi, Shun'ya; Saito, Osamu

    2006-01-01

    We study the zero-dimensional reduced model of D=6 pure super Yang-Mills theory and argue that the large N limit describes the (2,0) Little String Theory. The one-loop effective action shows that the force exerted between two diagonal blocks of matrices behaves as 1/r^4, implying a six-dimensional spacetime. We also observe that it is due to non-gravitational interactions. We construct wave functions and vertex operators which realize the D=6, (2,0) tensor representation. We also comment on other "little" analogues of the IIB matrix model and Matrix Theory with less supercharges.

  5. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  6. Rheocasting Al Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girot, F. A.; Albingre, L.; Quenisset, J. M.; Naslain, R.

    1987-11-01

    Aluminum alloy matrix composites reinforced by SiC short fibers (or whiskers) can be prepared by rheocasting, a process which consists of the incorporation and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement by stirring within a semi-solid alloy. Using this technique, composites containing fiber volume fractions in the range of 8-15%, have been obtained for various fibers lengths (i.e., 1 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm for SiC fibers). This paper attempts to delineate the best compocasting conditions for aluminum matrix composites reinforced by short SiC (e.g Nicalon) or SiC whiskers (e.g., Tokamax) and characterize the resulting microstructures.

  7. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  8. Density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Challacombe, Matt

    2004-05-14

    An orbital-free quantum perturbation theory is proposed. It gives the response of the density matrix upon variation of the Hamiltonian by quadratically convergent recursions based on perturbed projections. The technique allows treatment of embedded quantum subsystems with a computational cost scaling linearly with the size of the perturbed region, O(N(pert.)), and as O(1) with the total system size. The method allows efficient high order perturbation expansions, as demonstrated with an example involving a 10th order expansion. Density matrix analogs of Wigner's 2n+1 rule are also presented.

  9. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  10. Childhood attachment and abuse: long-term effects on adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, T; Janoff-Bulman, R

    1997-10-01

    The primary aim was to determine the relative contributions of early attachment and abuse history to adult attachment, depression, and conflict resolution behaviors. Differences between abused and nonabused respondents were also assessed. A multi-scale questionnaire was completed by 879 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to answer the primary research question, and analyses also compared the 26.4% of respondents who reported childhood abuse with those who did not. Respondents who indicated they had been abused as children reported less secure childhood and adult relationships than their nonabused counterparts. They were also more depressed and more likely to use destructive behaviors in conflict situations. Although both adult romantic attachment and respondents' depression scores were best accounted for by childhood attachment to mother and father rather than abuse history, the opposite pattern of results emerged for conflict resolution behaviors. In this case, abuse history was the stronger predictor, and parental attachment did not account for any significant additional variance. Results suggest that the long-term impact of childhood abuse may be mediated by early attachment experiences, whereas the long-term impact of abuse on conflict resolution behaviors may be considerably more direct.

  11. Assessing Attachment Representations in Adolescents: Discriminant Validation of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Manuela; George, Carol; Pokorny, Dan; Buchheim, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The contribution of attachment to human development and clinical risk is well established for children and adults, yet there is relatively limited knowledge about attachment in adolescence due to the poor availability of construct valid measures. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) is a reliable and valid instrument to assess adult attachment status. This study examines for the first time the discriminant validity of the AAP in adolescents. In our sample of 79 teenagers between 15 and 18 years, 42 % were classified as secure, 34 % as insecure-dismissing, 13 % as insecure-preoccupied and 11 % as unresolved. The results demonstrated discriminant validity for using the AAP in that age group, with no associations between attachment classifications and verbal intelligence, social desirability, story length or sociodemographic variables. These results poise the AAP to be used in clinical intervention and large-scale research investigating normative and atypical developmental correlates and sequelae of attachment, including psychopathology in adolescence.

  12. Assessing Attachment in Psychotherapy: Validation of the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talia, Alessandro; Miller-Bottome, Madeleine; Daniel, Sarah I F

    2017-01-01

    The authors present and validate the Patient Attachment Coding System (PACS), a transcript-based instrument that assesses clients' in-session attachment based on any session of psychotherapy, in multiple treatment modalities. One-hundred and sixty clients in different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioural, cognitive-behavioural-enhanced, psychodynamic, relational, supportive) and from three different countries were administered the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) prior to treatment, and one session for each client was rated with the PACS by independent coders. Results indicate strong inter-rater reliability, and high convergent validity of the PACS scales and classifications with the AAI. These results present the PACS as a practical alternative to the AAI in psychotherapy research and suggest that clinicians using the PACS can assess clients' attachment status on an ongoing basis by monitoring clients' verbal activity. These results also provide information regarding the ways in which differences in attachment status play out in therapy sessions and further the study of attachment in psychotherapy from a pre-treatment client factor to a process variable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Locator or ball attachment: a guide for clinical decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttel, Adrian E; Bühler, Nico M; Marinello, Carlo P

    2009-01-01

    Various attachments are available to retain overdentures on natural roots or implants. Technical aspects, the clinical handling, the capability to adapt or repair and the costs are parameters to be considered when choosing the appropriate attachment. Ball attachments and bars are clinically established and well documented. Ball attachments as prefabricated, unsplinted units are easily replaceable and show hygienic advantages, while bars show favorable stability. The Locator is a newer, popular clinical alternative to these established attachments. The ball attachment and the Locator are compared from a technical and clinical point of view.

  14. The Multimodal Assessment of Adult Attachment Security: Developing the Biometric Attachment Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Federico; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Persiaux, Gwenaelle; Morales, Michelle; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-04-06

    Attachment theory has been proven essential for mental health, including psychopathology, development, and interpersonal relationships. Validated psychometric instruments to measure attachment abound but suffer from shortcomings common to traditional psychometrics. Recent developments in multimodal fusion and machine learning pave the way for new automated and objective psychometric instruments for adult attachment that combine psychophysiological, linguistic, and behavioral analyses in the assessment of the construct. The aim of this study was to present a new exposure-based, automatic, and objective adult-attachment assessment, the Biometric Attachment Test (BAT), which exposes participants to a short standardized set of visual and music stimuli, whereas their immediate reactions and verbal responses, captured by several computer sense modalities, are automatically analyzed for scoring and classification. We also aimed to empirically validate two of its assumptions: its capacity to measure attachment security and the viability of using themes as placeholders for rotating stimuli. A total of 59 French participants from the general population were assessed using the Adult Attachment Questionnaire (AAQ), the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), and the Attachment Multiple Model Interview (AMMI) as ground truth for attachment security. They were then exposed to three different BAT stimuli sets, whereas their faces, voices, heart rate (HR), and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded. Psychophysiological features, such as skin-conductance response (SCR) and Bayevsky stress index; behavioral features, such as gaze and facial expressions; as well as linguistic and paralinguistic features, were automatically extracted. An exploratory analysis was conducted using correlation matrices to uncover the features that are most associated with attachment security. A confirmatory analysis was conducted by creating a single composite effects index and by testing it

  15. Conflict in close relationships: an attachment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Rholes, W S; Phillips, D

    1996-11-01

    This study investigated how perceptions of current dating partners and relationships change after people with different attachment orientations attempt to resolve a problem in their relationship. Dating couples were videotaped while they tried to resolve either a major or a minor problem. Confirming predictions from attachment theory, men and women who had a more ambivalent orientation perceived their partner and relationship in relatively less positive terms after discussing a major problem. Observer ratings revealed that more ambivalent women who tried to resolve a major problem displayed particularly strong stress and anxiety and engaged in more negative behaviors. Conversely, men with a more avoidant orientation were rated as less warm and supportive, especially if they discussed a major problem. These results are discussed in terms of how highly ambivalent and highly avoidant people differentially perceive and respond to distressing events.

  16. Attachment theory and John Bowlby: some reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson-Hinde, Joan

    2007-12-01

    The 100th anniversary of Edward John Mostyn Bowlby's birth (February 26th, 1907) was celebrated at the Tavistock Clinic in London by his family and colleagues, with presentations of ongoing research as well as reflections on both the person and his theory. My own reflections include the influence of ethological thinking on the development of attachment theory, Bowlby's focus on observations followed by explanation, his appreciation of emotional communication as well as behavior, and his recognition of the role of the family as well as the child/caregiver dyad. While always remaining open to new avenues of research, John Bowlby was firmly insistent on the precise use of attachment terminology, and quite rightly too!

  17. Expandable pallet for space station interface attachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A foldable expandable pallet having a basic square configuration is disclosed. Each pallet is comprised of a plurality of struts, joined together by node point fittings to make a rigid structure. Some of the struts have hinge fittings and are spring loaded to permit collapse of the module for stowage and transport to a space station. Dimensions of the pallet are selected to provide convenient, closely spaced attachment points between the relatively widely spaced trusses of a space station platform. A pallet is attached to a truss at four points; one close fitting hole; two oversize holes; and a slot; to allow for thermal expansion/contraction and for manufacturing tolerances. Applications of the pallet include its use in rotary or angular joints; servicing of splints; with gridded plates; as an instrument mounting bases; and as a roadbed for a Mobile Service Center (MSC).

  18. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  19. Smartphone Magnification Attachment: Microscope or Magnifying Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergemöller, Timo; Laumann, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Today smartphones and tablets do not merely pervade our daily life, but also play a major role in STEM education in general, and in experimental investigations in particular. Enabling teachers and students to make use of these new techniques in physics lessons requires supplying capable and affordable applications. Our article presents the improvement of a low-cost technique turning smartphones into powerful magnifying glasses or microscopes. Adding only a 3D-printed clip attached to the smartphone's camera and inserting a small glass bead in this clip enables smartphones to take pictures with up to 780x magnification (see Fig. 1). In addition, the construction of the smartphone attachments helps to explain and examine the differences between magnifying glasses and microscopes, and shows that the widespread term "smartphone microscope" for this technique is inaccurate from a physics educational perspective.

  20. Attachment of Thiobacillus thiooxidans to sulfur crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHAEFFER, W I; HOLBERT, P E; UMBREIT, W W

    1963-01-01

    Schaeffer, W. I. (Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, N.J.), P. E. Holbert, and W. W. Umbreit. Attachment of Thiobacillus thiooxidans to sulfur crystals. J. Bacteriol. 85:137-140. 1963.-Electron micrographs of replicas of sulfur crystals before and after attack by Thiobacillus thiooxidans show that the microorganisms erode the crystal in the area immediately adjacent to the cell. When there are many cells, the entire crystal surface appears eroded.

  1. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  2. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  3. Child trauma, attachment and biofeedback mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, N; Zorcec, T

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the quality of attachment in early infancy and the effects of child trauma, as well as to introduce some innovative therapeutic approaches. For this reason, a group of 10 children manifesting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), diagnosed by ICD-10, was selected. The mean age of the patients was 9 +/- 3.05 years, from both sexes (girls 3, boys 7). Mothers and children were examined by a battery of psychometric instruments Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and State Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition to the classical psychotherapeutic methods (supportive, behaviour and play therapy), the multimodal computerised biofeedback technique was introduced for both assessment and therapy. The results for the children showed a high level of anxiety and stress, somatisation and behavioural problems (aggressivity, impulsivity, non-obedience, and nightmares), complemented by hypersensitive and depressive mothers and miss-attachment in the early period of infancy. Consequently, the explanation of the early predisposition to PTSD was related to be the non-developed Right Orbitofrontal Cortex-ROFC. The latter resulted from insecure attachment confirmed in all the children examined. The therapeutic results obtained with biofeedback techniques are very encouraging.

  4. Discriminant validity of the adult attachment interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, J A; Waters, E; Treboux, D; O'Connor, E O; Colon-Downs, C; Feider, O; Golby, B; Posada

    1996-10-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview is a semi-structured interview developed to investigate adults' attachment representations. Subjects are asked to describe their parents as caregivers, explain these descriptions, describe how their parents typically responded to distress, and discuss their current relationships with their parents. They are also asked to describe any significant losses and/or instances of abuse during childhood. Scoring focuses on the accessibility of early experiences to memory and the coherence and plausibility of the subject's narrative. Discriminant validity is always an important issue with such measures because IQ and other cognitively loaded variables offer plausible alternative interpretations or represent important correlates that should be treated as covariates when the measure is used. In addition, complex, multifaceted interviews always pose the risk of assessing general social adjustment rather than a more narrowly defined construct. This study examines the discriminant validity of the AAI vis(-)à-vis intelligence, social desirability, discourse style, and general social adjustment in a sample of 53 native-English-speaking, married women with preschool children. They were assessed with the AAI, a written IQ test, the Social Adjustment Scale, the Employment Experience Interview (discourse style), and a measure of social desirability. There were modest but significant correlations with IQ scores and social adjustment. There was no relation between AAI classifications and discourse style or social desirability. These results substantially strengthen the case for interpreting the AAI as an attachment-related measure.

  5. Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Láng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Machiavellianism is a well-studied topic in several branches of psychology. Still, it has received little attention from a developmental perspective. Previous retrospective studies linked Machiavellianism to poor parental care, but actual reports of adolescents who live in their family of origin have been ignored so far. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and parental attachment in adolescence and possible sex differences based on life history theory. An adolescent sample (N = 376; 17.27 ± .77 years of age completed the Mach-IV and the maternal and paternal versions of revised Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA-R. According to our results, significant sex differences emerged in the relationship between Machiavellianism and attachment to parents. For girls, maternal alienation proved to be the only significant predictor of Machiavellianism, whereas for boys, low intensity and quality of verbal communication with father predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism. Results are discussed from an evolutionary perspective of socialization and from the perspective of emotion regulation.

  6. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.C. Ng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  7. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entri...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions.......We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...

  8. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  9. Matrix Embedded Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakolanu, U. G.; Freund, F. T.

    2016-05-01

    In the matrix of minerals such as olivine, a redox reaction of the low-z elements occurs. Oxygen is oxidized to the peroxy state while the low-Z-elements become chemically reduced. We assign them a formula [CxHyOzNiSj]n- and call them proto-organics.

  10. Phorbol esters enhance attachment of NIH/3T3 cells to laminin and type IV collagen substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shigemi; Ben, T.L.; De Luca, L.M. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The effect of phorbol esters on the adhesive properties of NIH/3T3 mouse fibroblasts was investigated using plastic substrates precoated with the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) enhanced NIH/3T3 cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates but had little or no effect on attachment to fibronectin and type I collagen substrates. The effect of PMA in enhancing cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates was dose dependent between 10{sup {minus}9} and 10{sup {minus}7} M. PMA was effective as early as 30 min; the effect reached a maximum at 2 h and decreased gradually. Phorbol 12, 13-dibenzoate and phorbol 12, 13-diacetate were effective but to a lesser extent and phorbol 12-myristate and phorbol 13-acetate showed little or no effect. These results suggest that PMA may enhance NIH/3T3 cell adhesion through effects on laminin and type IV collagen receptors. Retinoic acid, which itself requires at least 6 h to show an effect on attachment, did not have any effect on cell attachment in 2 h and, if anything, slightly inhibited PMA-enhanced cell attachment to laminin and type IV collagen substrates.

  11. Priming the Surface of Orthopedic Implants for Osteoblast Attachment in Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kiat Hwa; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Ni, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The development of better orthopedic implants is incessant. While current implants can function reliably in the human body for a long period of time, there are still a significant number of cases for which the implants can fail prematurely due to poor osseointegration of the implant with native bone. Increasingly, it is recognized that it is extremely important to facilitate the attachment of osteoblasts on the implant so that a proper foundation of extracellular matrix (ECM) can be laid down for the growth of new bone tissue. In order to facilitate the osseointegration of the implant, both the physical nanotopography and chemical functionalization of the implant surface have to be optimized. In this short review, however, we explore how simple chemistry procedures can be used to functionalize the surfaces of three major classes of orthopedic implants, i.e. ceramics, metals, and polymers, so that the attachment of osteoblasts on implants can be facilitated in order to promote implant osseointegration.

  12. On the validity of the Arrhenius equation for electron attachment rate coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrikant, Ilya I; Hotop, Hartmut

    2008-03-28

    The validity of the Arrhenius equation for dissociative electron attachment rate coefficients is investigated. A general analysis allows us to obtain estimates of the upper temperature bound for the range of validity of the Arrhenius equation in the endothermic case and both lower and upper bounds in the exothermic case with a reaction barrier. The results of the general discussion are illustrated by numerical examples whereby the rate coefficient, as a function of temperature for dissociative electron attachment, is calculated using the resonance R-matrix theory. In the endothermic case, the activation energy in the Arrhenius equation is close to the threshold energy, whereas in the case of exothermic reactions with an intermediate barrier, the activation energy is found to be substantially lower than the barrier height.

  13. Spectroscopy of PTCDA attached to rare gas samples: clusters vs. bulk matrices. I. Absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, M; Knoblauch, T; Bünermann, O; Rydlo, A; Minniberger, S; Harbich, W; Stienkemeier, F

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between PTCDA (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride) and rare gas or para-hydrogen samples is studied by means of laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The comparison between spectra of PTCDA embedded in a neon matrix and spectra attached to large neon clusters shows that these large organic molecules reside on the surface of the clusters when doped by the pick-up technique. PTCDA molecules can adopt different conformations when attached to argon, neon and para-hydrogen clusters which implies that the surface of such clusters has a well-defined structure and has not liquid or fluxional properties. Moreover, a precise analysis of the doping process of these clusters reveals that the mobility of large molecules on the cluster surface is quenched, preventing agglomeration and complex formation.

  14. Parental Attachment and Eating Behaviors in Late Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber-Leigh Rush

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Females demonstrating unhealthy eating behaviors in early adolescence may continue to exhibit them in later years, yet there is little empirical research including late adolescents. Attachment theories suggest that adolescents with eating disorders demonstrate insecure attachments to parents. This non-experimental descriptive study in 249 late adolescent females examined the relationship between eating behaviors and parental attachment, and explored the relationship between selected demographic variables and parental attachment. Participants responded to an electronically collected survey of demographic variables, self-reported eating behaviors, and completed the Parent Attachment Questionnaire. Participants reporting healthy eating behaviors had higher scores on two of the three maternal scales, indicating a greater level of attachment. Significantly higher scores were found for two maternal and two paternal attachment scales for selected sociodemographic variables. Quantifying parental attachment in late adolescent females enhances understanding of eating disorders in this population and may help to identify issues important to address in therapy.

  15. Attachment and autonomy problems in adults with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koemans, R.G.; van Vroenhoven, S.; Karreman, A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Attachment security and autonomy were examined in adults with ADHD. Insecure attachment and autonomy problems were expected to be negatively associated with general psychological functioning. Method: Questionnaires were administered (Relationship Questionnaire, Autonomy-Connectedness Scal

  16. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010). Hazan a Shaver (1987) applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Fe...

  17. Disrupted caring attachments: implications for long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Raymond B

    2002-01-01

    Caring attachments or social supports are the positive psychological and physical contacts and relationships between people. These attachments have been associated with improved health, well-being, and longevity. It is also true that disrupted caring attachments are associated with impaired health and well-being. This paper reviews the general medical and elder medical findings of disrupted caring attachments and negative health outcomes. The implications of these findings for dementia sufferers, caregivers, and long-term care staff are examined.

  18. Attachment, Neurobiology, and Mentalizing along the Psychosis Continuum.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Debbané; George Salaminios; Patrick Luyten; Deborah Badoud; Marco Armando; Alessandra Solida Tozzi; Peter Fonagy; Benjamin Brent

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we outline the evidence linking attachment adversity to the psychosis, from the premorbid stages of the disorder to its clinical forms. To better understand the neurobiological mechanisms through which insecure attachment may contribute to psychosis, we identify at least five neurobiological pathways linking attachment to risk for developing psychosis. Besides its well documented influence on the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis, insecure attachment may also con...

  19. Adult attachment and emotional awareness impairment: a multimethod assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Fantini-Hauwel, C.; Boudoukha, A.H.; Arciszewski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the relationships between adult attachment and various aspects of emotional awareness, including alexithymia and level of emotional awareness. Participants were 112 university students who completed the Attachment Style Questionnaire, the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire (BVAQ), and the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found that alexithymia was positively related to the avoidant attachment style and negatively with the anxious attachment style. Anxio...

  20. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    OpenAIRE

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Based on Bowlby’s attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity.Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew’s attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the re...

  1. Neurobiology of secure infant attachment and attachment despite adversity: a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T L; Raineki, C; Salstein, L; Perry, R; Sullivan-Wilson, T A; Sloan, A; Lalji, B; Hammock, E; Wilson, D A; Levitt, P; Okutani, F; Kaba, H; Sullivan, R M

    2013-10-01

    Attachment to an abusive caregiver has wide phylogenetic representation, suggesting that animal models are useful in understanding the neural basis underlying this phenomenon and subsequent behavioral outcomes. We previously developed a rat model, in which we use classical conditioning to parallel learning processes evoked during secure attachment (odor-stroke, with stroke mimicking tactile stimulation from the caregiver) or attachment despite adversity (odor-shock, with shock mimicking maltreatment). Here we extend this model to mice. We conditioned infant mice (postnatal day (PN) 7-9 or 13-14) with presentations of peppermint odor and either stroking or shock. We used (14) C 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) to assess olfactory bulb and amygdala metabolic changes following learning. PN7-9 mice learned to prefer an odor following either odor-stroke or shock conditioning, whereas odor-shock conditioning at PN13-14 resulted in aversion/fear learning. 2-DG data indicated enhanced bulbar activity in PN7-9 preference learning, whereas significant amygdala activity was present following aversion learning at PN13-14. Overall, the mouse results parallel behavioral and neural results in the rat model of attachment, and provide the foundation for the use of transgenic and knockout models to assess the impact of both genetic (biological vulnerabilities) and environmental factors (abusive) on attachment-related behaviors and behavioral development.

  2. From secure dependency to attachment: Mary Ainsworth's integration of Blatz's security theory into Bowlby's attachment theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosmalen, Lenny; van der Horst, Frank C P; van der Veer, René

    2016-02-01

    John Bowlby is generally regarded as the founder of attachment theory, with the help of Mary Ainsworth. Through her Uganda and Baltimore studies Ainsworth provided empirical evidence for attachment theory, and she contributed the notion of the secure base and exploratory behavior, the Strange Situation Procedure and its classification system, and the notion of maternal sensitivity. On closer scrutiny, many of these contributions appear to be heavily influenced by William Blatz and his security theory. Even though Blatz's influence on Ainsworth has been generally acknowledged, this article, partly based on understudied correspondence from several personal archives, is the first to show which specific parts of attachment theory can be traced back directly to Blatz and his security theory. When Ainsworth started working with Bowlby in the 1950s, around the time he turned to evolutionary theory for an explanation of his findings, she integrated much of Blatzian security theory into Bowlby's theory in the making and used her theoretical and practical experience to enrich attachment theory. Even though Blatz is hardly mentioned nowadays, several of his ideas live on in attachment theory. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Attachment icebergs: Maternal and child health nurses' evaluation of infant-caregiver attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Edith; Ridgway, Lael; Lucas, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    Secure attachment of infants to their caregiver is important when promoting the emotional wellbeing and mental health of infants. Maternal and child health (MCH) nurses are well positioned to observe the quality of interactions between infants and caregivers and to assess and intervene. However, as yet there are no approved methods to assess the emotional and mental health of infants in community settings. A qualitative descriptive study of 12 MCH nurses in Victoria, Australia, using semi-structured interviews, was thematically analysed. The data revealed that nurses used many skills to identify and manage attachment difficulties. Key among these were observations of interactions, collaboration with caregivers and reflective practice. Assessments and interventions are also influenced by nurses' emotions, attitudes and workplace factors. An unexpected finding was that attachment markers can be likened to an 'iceberg': warning indicators at the tip can be easily observed by the nurse, while the less obvious underlying factors need to be explored in order to support attachment and improve infant mental health outcomes. Education for nurses should include concepts of attachment and link behaviours with emotional wellbeing.

  4. Mental representations of attachment in eating disorders: a pilot study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Guiducci, Valentina

    2009-07-01

    Mental representations of attachment in a sample of adults with Eating Disorders (ED) were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Sixty subjects participated in the study: 30 non-clinical and 30 clinical. The results obtained showed a specific distribution of attachment patterns in the clinical sample: 10% Free/Autonomous (F), 47% Insecure-Dismissing (Ds), 17% Insecure-Entangled/Preoccupied (E) and about 26% disorganized (CC/U). The two samples differed in their attachment pattern distribution and were significantly different on some coding system scales. Further information was obtained by analyzing differences between the three ED subtypes considered (i.e. Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder) and by investigating the differential role of the two parental figures in the definition of attachment representations. Results showed potential benefits in using the AAI coding system scales in addition to the main classifications in order to understand better the developmental issues involved in these disorders. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  5. Is Imprinting an Appropriate Model for Human Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Leiderman, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of animal imprinting studies were generalized to attempt prediction of development of attachment in 28 polymatrically reared Kenyan Gusii infants, ages 6 to 30 months. While results provide evidence against a sensitive phase for attachment, an association was found between age of attachment and developmental level/caregiving history.…

  6. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia

    1999-01-01

    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  7. The Development of an Assessment Protocol for Reactive Attachment Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheperis, Carl J.; Doggett, R. Anthony; Hoda, Nicholas E.; Blanchard, Tracy; Renfro-Michel, Edina L.; Holdiness, Sacky H.; Schlagheck, Robyn

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a battery of semi-structured interviews, global assessment scales, attachment-specific scales, and behavioral observations to help mental health counselors identify Reactive Attachment Disorder, a syndrome associated with extreme attachment problems. (Contains 25 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  8. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; De Yoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2010-04-20

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  9. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  10. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  11. Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, William J.; Sherry, Alissa

    2001-01-01

    Using K. Bartholomew's (1990) 4-dimensional model of adult attachment as an organizational framework, 10 developmental personality styles are differentiated regarding their unique attachment experiences, working models of self and other, and feedforward beliefs. Implications of an attachment theory framework for counseling clients with problematic…

  12. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  13. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  14. Predictive Implications of Secure Mother-Infant Attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Judith Lynn

    The general proposition of attachment theory is that attachment is grounded in an independent, biologically based system. The quality of primary attachment relationships strongly influences a child's early personality organization, particularly the concept of self and others. The theory emphasizes the primary status and biological function of…

  15. Attachment Representations and Characteristics of Friendship Relations during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that experiences with the primary caregivers are an important basis for the development of close social relationships outside the parent-child relationship. This study examined the association between representations of attachment, as assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), representations of friendship and…

  16. Fathers in Attachment Theory and Research: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of attachment research on fathers as a backdrop against which the other contributions to this volume can be viewed. Empirical research on child-father attachment progressed in four phases and began before Bowlby in 1969 published the first volume of his attachment trilogy. During each phase a different set of…

  17. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  18. Associations between Attachment Security and Social Competence in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Manuela; Santos, António J.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Attachment theorists suggest that attachment security with parents supports the quality of social adaptation in peer groups during early childhood, and numerous studies supporting this conjecture have been published. Most of these studies used enacted representations rather than mental representations of attachment security, and most studies…

  19. Photoswitchable method for the ordered attachment of proteins to surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; DeYoreo, James J.; Kwon, Youngeun

    2011-07-05

    Described herein is a method for the attachment of proteins to any solid support with control over the orientation of the attachment. The method is extremely efficient, not requiring the previous purification of the protein to be attached, and can be activated by UV-light. Spatially addressable arrays of multiple protein components can be generated by using standard photolithographic techniques.

  20. Anxious attachment may be a vulnerability factor for developing embitterment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, D.; Middendorp, H. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    By predisposing to ego-defensive strategies in social situations, a negative attachment history may promote embitterment. The present study identified attachment anxiety - more than attachment avoidance - as a possible vulnerability factor for the development and maintenance of embitterment. This fa

  1. Predictors of Child Molestation: Adult Attachment, Cognitive Distortions, and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric; Riggs, Shelley

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual model derived from attachment theory was tested by examining adult attachment style, cognitive distortions, and both general and victim empathy in a sample of 61 paroled child molesters and 51 community controls. Results of logistic multiple regression showed that attachment anxiety, cognitive distortions, high general empathy but low…

  2. Separation-Individuation, Adult Attachment Style, and College Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; Edgerton, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationship between separation- individuation, adult attachment styles, and college adjustment. Results reveal that college adjustment was positively associated with secure adult attachment and counterindicated by fearful and preoccupied attachments. Implications for counseling practice and directions for future research are…

  3. Early Attachment Relationships and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Alejandra; Herreros, Francisca

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between attachment theory and the early childhood curriculum. During the first years of life children develop early attachment relationships with their primary caregivers. These attachment relationships, either secure or insecure, will shape children's socio-emotional development. In the USA, the predominant…

  4. 49 CFR 583.9 - Attachment and maintenance of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attachment and maintenance of label. 583.9 Section 583.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC... Attachment and maintenance of label. (a) Attachment of the label. (1) Except as provided in (a)(2),...

  5. Parental Attachment, Interparental Conflict, and Young Adults' Emotional Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer; Fuertes, Jairo

    2010-01-01

    This study extends Engels et al.'s model of emotional adjustment to young adults and includes the constructs of interparental conflict and conflict resolution. Results indicate that parental attachment is better conceived as a two-factor construct of mother and father attachment and that although attachment to both mothers and fathers directly…

  6. 12 CFR 1511.8 - Notice of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of attachment. 1511.8 Section 1511.8....8 Notice of attachment. The interest of a debtor in a Security Entitlement may be reached by a... or other notice of attachment in any particular case or class of cases....

  7. Attachment Styles among Bullies, Victims and Uninvolved Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiv, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a frame for understanding the role of attachment styles in the development of bullying behaviour in adolescence. The present study examined attachment styles (secure, avoidant and anxious/ambivalent) that differentiated bullies, victims, bully/victims and uninvolved adolescents. A total of 1,921 students (1,006 girls and…

  8. Agoraphobia and anxious-ambivalent attachment: an integrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Attachment theory proposes that internal working models of attachment, that is, mental representations of attachment relationships, are shaped in childhood experiences with primary caregivers. It is hypothesized that an anxious-ambivalent internal working model of attechment is a risk factor for the

  9. Role of a bacillus Calmette-Guérin fibronectin attachment protein in BCG-induced antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W; Schorey, J S; Bong-Mastek, M; Ritchey, J; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L

    2000-04-01

    Intravesical Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Gu*erin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder cancer. Previous studies showed that attachment of BCG to fibronectin within the bladder was necessary for mediation of the antitumor response. Further studies identified a bacterial receptor, fibronectin attachment protein (FAP), as an important mediator of BCG attachment to fibronectin. In vitro studies showed that a stable BCG/fibronectin interaction was dependent on FAP binding to fibronectin; however, no role for FAP in the attachment of BCG in vivo has been characterized. We now report the cloning of the M. bovis BCG FAP (FAP-B) and demonstrate an important role for FAP in the in vivo attachment of BCG to the bladder wall and in the induction of BCG-mediated antitumor activity. The predicted amino acid sequence for FAP-B shows 61% and 71% homology, respectively, with Mycobacterium avium FAP (FAP-A) and Mycobacterium leprae FAP (FAP-L). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Mycobacterium vaccae FAP (FAP-V) reacted with all 3 recombinant FAP proteins on Western blots. Functional studies show FAP-B to bind fibronectin via the highly conserved attachment regions previously identified for FAP-A and FAP-L and also to competitively inhibit attachment of BCG to matrix fibronectin. In vivo studies show FAP to be a necessary protein for the stable attachment of BCG to the bladder wall. Moreover, stable binding of BCG via FAP was shown to be necessary for the expression of BCG-induced antitumor activity. Our results demonstrate a biological role for FAP in the mediation of BCG-induced antitumor activity.

  10. Integrin-mediated interactions with extracellular matrix proteins for nucleus pulposus cells of the human intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgen, D T; Gilchrist, C L; Richardson, W J; Isaacs, R E; Brown, C R; Yang, K L; Chen, J; Setton, L A

    2013-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the human intervertebral disc is rich in molecules that interact with cells through integrin-mediated attachments. Porcine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells have been shown to interact with laminin (LM) isoforms LM-111 and LM-511 through select integrins that regulate biosynthesis and cell attachment. Since human NP cells lose many phenotypic characteristics with age, attachment and interaction with the ECM may be altered. Expression of LM-binding integrins was quantified for human NP cells using flow cytometry. The cell-ECM attachment mechanism was determined by quantifying cell attachment to LM-111, LM-511, or type II collagen after functionally blocking specific integrin subunits. Human NP cells express integrins β1, α3, and α5, with over 70% of cells positive for each subunit. Blocking subunit β1 inhibited NP cell attachment to all substrates. Blocking subunits α1, α2, α3, and α5 simultaneously, but not individually, inhibits NP cell attachment to laminins. While integrin α6β1 mediated porcine NP cell attachment to LM-111, we found integrins α3, α5, and β1 instead contributed to human NP cell attachment. These findings identify integrin subunits that may mediate interactions with the ECM for human NP cells and could be used to promote cell attachment, survival, and biosynthesis in cell-based therapeutics.

  11. Processes involved in client-nominated relationship building incidents: Client attachment, attachment to therapist, and session impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn; Drapeau, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Thirty volunteer clients of trainee therapists nominated an incident that was critical in the development of their therapeutic relationship. Clients completed the Client Attachment to Therapist Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECRS), and the Session Impacts Scale (SIS). Clients reported an increase in attachment security with their therapists, along with perceptions of support and relief and increasing exploration following the relationship building incident. While clients' avoidant attachment was unrelated to attachment to the therapist prior to the incidents, in subsequent sessions avoidance was related to a change in secure attachment to therapist. Finally, client attachment to therapist but not general attachment was significantly related to in-session exploration. Findings are discussed in light of attachment theory and convergence with findings from the field of social psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Matrix string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman

    1997-02-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix mode] of M-theory proposed by Banks et a]. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N = 8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  13. Matrix string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Mathematics; Verlinde, E. [TH-Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universtity of Utrecht, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Verlinde, H. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-09-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al. suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states. (orig.).

  14. Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Verlinde, Herman L

    1997-01-01

    Via compactification on a circle, the matrix model of M-theory proposed by Banks et al suggests a concrete identification between the large N limit of two-dimensional N=8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIA string theory. In this paper we collect evidence that supports this identification. We explicitly identify the perturbative string states and their interactions, and describe the appearance of D-particle and D-membrane states.

  15. Holomorphic matrix integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Felder, Giovanni; Riser, Roman

    2004-01-01

    We study a class of holomorphic matrix models. The integrals are taken over middle dimensional cycles in the space of complex square matrices. As the size of the matrices tends to infinity, the distribution of eigenvalues is given by a measure with support on a collection of arcs in the complex planes. We show that the arcs are level sets of the imaginary part of a hyperelliptic integral connecting branch points.

  16. Evaluation of the release characteristics of covalently attached or electrostatically bound biocidal polymers utilizing SERS and UV-Vis absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Mathioudakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biocidal polymers with antimicrobial quaternized ammonium groups introduced in the polymer biocidal chains either through covalent attachment or electrostatic interaction have been separately incorporated in a poly (methyl methacrylate polymer matrix. The objective of present study was to highlight the release characteristics of biocidal polymers, primarily in saline but also in water ethanol solutions, utilizing UV-Vis absorption and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS. It is shown that through the combination of UV-Vis and SERS techniques, upon the release process, it is possible the discrimination of the polymeric backbone and the electrostatically bound biocidal species. Moreover, it is found that electrostatically bound and covalently attached biocidal species show different SERS patterns. The long term aim is the development of antimicrobial polymeric materials containing both ionically bound and covalently attached quaternary ammonium thus achieving a dual functionality in a single component polymeric design.

  17. Stability analysis of liquid filled spacecraft system with flexible attachment by using the energy–Casimir method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Yan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The stability of partly liquid filled spacecraft with flexible attachment was investigated in this paper. Liquid sloshing dynamics was simplified as the spring–mass model, and flexible attachment was modeled as the linear shearing beam. The dynamic equations and Hamiltonian of the coupled spacecraft system were given by analyzing the rigid body, liquid fuel, and flexible appendage. Nonlinear stability conditions of the coupled spacecraft system were derived by computing the variation of Casimir function which was added to the Hamiltonian. The stable region of the parameter space was given and validated by numerical computation. Related results suggest that the change of inertia matrix, the length of flexible attachment, spacecraft spinning rate, and filled ratio of liquid fuel tank have strong influence on the stability of the spacecraft system.

  18. Stability analysis of liquid filled spacecraft system with flexible attachment by using the energy-Casimir method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulong Yan; Baozeng Yue∗

    2016-01-01

    The stability of partly liquid filled spacecraft with flexible attachment was investigated in this paper. Liquid sloshing dynamics was simplified as the spring–mass model, and flexible attachment was modeled as the linear shearing beam. The dynamic equations and Hamiltonian of the coupled spacecraft system were given by analyzing the rigid body, liquid fuel, and flexible appendage. Nonlinear stability conditions of the coupled spacecraft system were derived by computing the variation of Casimir function which was added to the Hamiltonian. The stable region of the parameter space was given and validated by numerical computation. Related results suggest that the change of inertia matrix, the length of flexible attachment, spacecraft spinning rate, and filled ratio of liquid fuel tank have strong influence on the stability of the spacecraft system.

  19. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  20. Metal matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K. Rohatgi

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the world wide upsurge in metal matrix composite research and development activities with particular emphasis on cast metal-matrix particulate composites. Extensive applications of cast aluminium alloy MMCs in day-to-day use in transportation as well as durable good industries are expected to advance rapidly in the next decade. The potential for extensive application of cast composites is very large in India, especially in the areas of transportation, energy and electromechanical machinery; the extensive use of composites can lead to large savings in materials and energy, and in several instances, reduce environmental pollution. It is important that engineering education and short-term courses be organized to bring MMCs to the attention of students and engineering industry leaders. India already has excellent infrastructure for development of composites, and has a long track record of world class research in cast metal matrix particulate composites. It is now necessary to catalyze prototype and regular production of selected composite components, and get them used in different sectors, especially railways, cars, trucks, buses, scooters and other electromechanical machinery. This will require suitable policies backed up by funding to bring together the first rate talent in cast composites which already exists in India, to form viable development groups followed by setting up of production plants involving the process engineering capability already available within the country. On the longer term, cast composites should be developed for use in energy generation equipment, electronic packaging aerospace systems, and smart structures.

  1. Attachment and continuing bonds in bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Simonič

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the attachment in a relationship being one of the factors which co-form the grieving process after conjugal loss. In this integrative study about the grieving process after the loss of a partner due to sudden or expected death one or two years after the loss, the author determined that the relationship between partners represents an important indicator of the grieving process. Due to the sensitive nature of the process, the method used was a case study (seven participants were interviewed and a circular research process. The functioning of grieving persons in different areas of life was assessed with a semi-structured interview, specifically designed for this research, and with an adapted version of the Attachment Test, a part of Picture Test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc and Žvelc, 2000. It was ascertained that particular contents in the grieving process are specifically connected with the type of relationship prior to death (ambivalent and closely connected/dependent relationship and the experiencing of the present position in relation to the deceased partner. Due to the fact that knowledge about possible maintenance/continuance of the bond between the partners has only recently become the locus of empirical research, the present study could not yet fully evaluate what kind of experience of current relationship position towards the partner contributes to healthy separation and individuation processes, i.e. grieving. Although the findings are limited to the specific context of each individual participant, the case study ascertained certain patterns in the relation between the grieving process and the attachment between partners, which indicates that there is a possibility of these in the wider population.

  2. Adult attachment status and psychological disorder: the predictive validity of adult attachment in violent, personality-disordered patients

    OpenAIRE

    McGauley, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of attachment in a group of violent, personality-disordered patients in a high secure hospital. The research examines the mental representation of attachment and the perception of parenting, as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and the Parental Bonding Instrument, in this patient group and examines whether these differ from those of non-violent psychiatric patients. A prospective study examines whether the attachment measures predict change across a rang...

  3. The Relation of Insecure Attachment States of Mind and Romantic Attachment Styles to Adolescent Aggression in Romantic Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Miga, Erin M.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell

    2010-01-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners’ romantic attachment anxiety was li...

  4. Reaching kids with reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Linda

    2008-01-01

    These kids are real. The behavior is real. The work is long and hard, but with patience and perseverance, changes are made. Reactive attachment disorder is a terrible thing. We must never give up on these kids. Every now and then, a success story comes along. The child goes home and in the wake of his or her leaving are letters addressed in uneven script to staff: Deer mister C. I am doing good. School is good. Thank you for helpin me. I luv you.

  5. From detached to attached buildup complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, B.; Elvebakk, G.; Andreassen, K.

    2008-01-01

    warm- and cool-water carbonate buildups from the Finnmark Platform is controlled by faults and the sea floor morphology at the time of their growth. A fluctuating sea level affected the growth of the carbonate buildups, but they also influenced their own environment by forming lagoons, atoll...... deposition and buildup growth bridged the detached platform with the attached platform. In the Bjarmeland Group (Lower Permian) 0.35-4.8 km wide, 1.5-27 km long and 60-420 m thick cool-water bryozoan-dominated straight, sinuous and continuous carbonate ridges or atoll-like ridges are located on top...

  6. Separation Anxiety: Detachment from the Extracellular Matrix Induces Metabolic Changes that Can Stimulate Tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdalena A. Cichon; Derek C. Radisky

    2010-01-01

    @@ One of the earliest stages of tumor progression involves the ability of cells to survive and proliferate when not attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM). New research using a physiologically relevant breast cancer model reveals how separation from the ECM stimulates metabolic changes characteristic of developing tumors.

  7. Drosophila SAF-B links the nuclear matrix, chromosomes, and transcriptional activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Alfonso-Parra

    Full Text Available Induction of gene expression is correlated with alterations in nuclear organization, including proximity to other active genes, to the nuclear cortex, and to cytologically distinct domains of the nucleus. Chromosomes are tethered to the insoluble nuclear scaffold/matrix through interaction with Scaffold/Matrix Attachment Region (SAR/MAR binding proteins. Identification and characterization of proteins involved in establishing or maintaining chromosome-scaffold interactions is necessary to understand how the nucleus is organized and how dynamic changes in attachment are correlated with alterations in gene expression. We identified and characterized one such scaffold attachment factor, a Drosophila homolog of mammalian SAF-B. The large nuclei and chromosomes of Drosophila have allowed us to show that SAF-B inhabits distinct subnuclear compartments, forms weblike continua in nuclei of salivary glands, and interacts with discrete chromosomal loci in interphase nuclei. These interactions appear mediated either by DNA-protein interactions, or through RNA-protein interactions that can be altered during changes in gene expression programs. Extraction of soluble nuclear proteins and DNA leaves SAF-B intact, showing that this scaffold/matrix-attachment protein is a durable component of the nuclear matrix. Together, we have shown that SAF-B links the nuclear scaffold, chromosomes, and transcriptional activity.

  8. Nuclear matrix - structure, function and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasąg, Piotr; Lenartowski, Robert

    2016-12-20

    The nuclear matrix (NM), or nuclear skeleton, is the non-chromatin, ribonucleoproteinaceous framework that is resistant to high ionic strength buffers, nonionic detergents, and nucleolytic enzymes. The NM fulfills a structural role in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for maintaining the shape of the nucleus and the spatial organization of chromatin. Moreover, the NM participates in several cellular processes, such as DNA replication/repair, gene expression, RNA transport, cell signaling and differentiation, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and carcinogenesis. Short nucleotide sequences called scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MAR) anchor the chromatin loops to the NM proteins (NMP). The NMP composition is dynamic and depends on the cell type and differentiation stage or metabolic activity. Alterations in the NMP composition affect anchoring of the S/MARs and thus alter gene expression. This review aims to systematize information about the skeletal structure of the nucleus, with particular emphasis on the organization of the NM and its role in selected cellular processes. We also discuss several diseases that are caused by aberrant NM structure or dysfunction of individual NM elements.

  9. A new candidate substrate for cell-matrix adhesion study: the acellular human amniotic matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qianchen; Lu, Xuya; Xue, Yuan; Zheng, Hong; Zhao, Xiaotao; Zhao, Huajian

    2012-01-01

    In vivo adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix play a crucial role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration as well as tissue remodeling. Natural three-dimensional (3D) matrices, such as self-assembling matrices and Matrigel, have limitations in terms of their biomechanical properties. Here, we present a simple method to produce an acellular human amniotic matrix (AHAM) with preserved biomechanical properties and a favorable adhesion potential. On the stromal side of the AHAM, human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) attached and extended with bipolar spindle-shaped morphology proliferated to multilayer networks, invaded into the AHAM, and migrated in a straight line. Moreover, αV integrin, paxillin, and fibronectin were observed to colocalize after 24 h of HFF culture on the stromal side of the AHAM. Our results indicate that the AHAM may be an ideal candidate as a cell-matrix adhesion substrate to study cell adhesion and invasion as well as other functions in vitro under a tensile force that mimics the in vivo environment.

  10. A New Candidate Substrate for Cell-Matrix Adhesion Study: The Acellular Human Amniotic Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianchen Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vivo adhesions between cells and the extracellular matrix play a crucial role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration as well as tissue remodeling. Natural three-dimensional (3D matrices, such as self-assembling matrices and Matrigel, have limitations in terms of their biomechanical properties. Here, we present a simple method to produce an acellular human amniotic matrix (AHAM with preserved biomechanical properties and a favorable adhesion potential. On the stromal side of the AHAM, human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs attached and extended with bipolar spindle-shaped morphology proliferated to multilayer networks, invaded into the AHAM, and migrated in a straight line. Moreover, αV integrin, paxillin, and fibronectin were observed to colocalize after 24 h of HFF culture on the stromal side of the AHAM. Our results indicate that the AHAM may be an ideal candidate as a cell-matrix adhesion substrate to study cell adhesion and invasion as well as other functions in vitro under a tensile force that mimics the in vivo environment.

  11. Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, L. K.

    1978-01-01

    A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)

  12. Attachment anxiety and reciprocity as moderators of interpersonal attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, M B; Borgaro, S

    1995-02-01

    In integrating the interpersonal domains of attraction, perceived reciprocity, and attachment security, the prediction was made that positive interpersonal feedback (reciprocity) would lead to a greater increase in attraction ratings for anxiously versus securely attached individuals and, correspondingly, negative interpersonal feedback would cause a greater diminution in attraction ratings for anxiously versus securely attached individuals, with neutral feedback having no differential effect. For a sample of 154 college students, these predictions as well as an unanticipated gender finding were supported. The findings and clinical implications concerning the susceptibility of anxiously attached individuals to positive interpersonal cues are discussed in terms of a compromised sense of the availability and responsiveness of attachment figures.

  13. Attachment and prejudice: The mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Elle M; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, we examined the novel hypothesis that empathy is a mechanism through which the relationship between attachment patterns and prejudice can be explained. Study 1 examined primed attachment security (vs. neutral prime), empathy, and prejudice towards immigrants. Study 2 examined primed attachment patterns (secure, avoidant, anxious), empathy subscales (perspective taking, empathic concern, personal distress), and prejudice towards Muslims. Across both studies, empathy mediated the relationship between primed attachment security and low prejudice levels. The findings suggest that enhancing felt security and empathic skills in individuals high in attachment-avoidance may lead to reduced prejudice.

  14. Matrix Completions and Chordal Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenneth John HARRISON

    2003-01-01

    In a matrix-completion problem the aim is to specifiy the missing entries of a matrix inorder to produce a matrix with particular properties. In this paper we survey results concerning matrix-completion problems where we look for completions of various types for partial matrices supported ona given pattern. We see that thc existence of completions of the required type often depends on thechordal properties of graphs associated with the pattern.

  15. The association between state attachment security and state Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Pepping

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that attachment and mindfulness are related, though the nature of this association is unclear. Here we present two studies examining whether there is a causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness. Study 1 investigated the effects of experimentally increasing state mindfulness on state attachment security. State mindfulness was successfully enhanced, but this led to no change in state attachment security. Study 2 investigated the effects of experimentally enhancing state attachment security on state mindfulness. State attachment security was successfully enhanced, but this did not lead to any change in state mindfulness. These findings suggest that there is not a direct, immediate causal relationship between state attachment and state mindfulness as a result of brief experimental manipulations. Future research should examine these associations in longer term interventions.

  16. Cutting Gordian Knots: Reducing Prejudice Through Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muniba; Prot, Sara; Cikara, Mina; Lam, Ben C P; Anderson, Craig A; Jelic, Margareta

    2015-11-01

    The positive role of secure attachment in reducing intergroup biases has been suggested in prior studies. We extend this work by testing the effects of secure attachment primes on negative emotions and aggressive behaviors toward outgroup members across four experiments. Results from Studies 1A and 1B reveal that secure attachment prime, relative to neutral, can reduce negative outgroup emotions. In addition, Studies 1B and 3 results rule out positive mood increase as an alternative explanation for the observed effects. Results from Studies 2 and 3 reveal that secure attachment primes can reduce aggressive behavior toward an outgroup member. The effect of secure attachment primes on outgroup harm was found to be fully mediated by negative emotions in Studies 2 and 3. An interaction between secure attachment primes and ingroup identification in Study 2 indicated that the positive effects of secure attachment in reducing outgroup harm may be especially beneficial for highly identified ingroup members.

  17. Attachment and Emotion Regulation Strategies in Predicting Adult Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pascuzzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested a 10-year longitudinal model examining the role of adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies on adult symptoms of psychopathology. Fifty individuals completed a measure of attachment security to parents and peers at age 14, measures of romantic attachment and emotion regulation at age 22, and a measure of psychopathology at age 24. Results revealed that attachment insecurity to parents in adolescence was associated with greater symptoms of psychopathology in adulthood, and emotion-focused strategies partially mediated this association. Anxious romantic attachment was also related to psychopathology, an association that was fully mediated by emotion-focused strategies. The long-term mechanism involved in the association between earlier attachment and future adaptation will be discussed.

  18. Relationships between attachment and marital satisfaction in married couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gallerová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment strongly influences exploring of close relationships in childhood and in adulthood as well. According Bowlby attachment is "lasting relationship bond characterized by need of seeking and maintaining proximity with a person in stressful situations especially (Bowbly, 2010. Hazan a Shaver (1987 applied theory of early attachment in romantic relationships of adults. Behavior of adult human in relationships is more or less predictable by style of attachment in childhood (Feeney, 1999. Brennan, Clark a Shaver (1998 created four-dimensional model of attachment which was based on Ainsworth´s theory as well. The model was formed of two dimensions - anxiety and avoidance. The authors identified four types of attachment: secure, fearful, dismissive and preoccupied style of attachment (Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998. Satisfaction in romantic relationship can be explained as a degree in which is relationship for a human enojyable. Attachment influences satisfaction in relationship in terms of meeting need of proximity and safety (Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan, & Cowan, 2002. Several researches show that safe attachment is associated with higher satisfaction in marriage and on the other hand people with insecure style of attachment show lower degree of satisfaction in relationship (Alexandrov, Cowan, & Cowan, 2005; Treboux, Crowell, & Waters, 2004. At the same time style of attachment of the partner also influences individual a lot, satisfaction does not depend only on his own style of attachment but also on attachment of his partner (Farinelli, & McEwan, 2009. The study examined relations between the relationship attachment and marital satisfaction. The goal was to explain the relationship between the adult attachment and marital satisfaction of the individual and her/his husband/wife. The research examined relationship between adult attachment and marital satisfaction as well. Quantitative questionnaire survey: The battery consisted of

  19. Anxious attachment and psychological distress in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M; Sarah Rose, M; Brewis, C S

    1995-06-01

    This study investigated the relevance of anxious attachment to the differentiation of psychologically distressed and non-psychologically distressed cardiac patients. Attachment is a biologically based behavioral system in which proximity to a special other is sought or maintained to achieve a sense of safety and security. Anxious attachment, as the name denotes, fails to achieve the function of attachment in the sense of individuals having little or no confidence in the availability of their attachment figures. Empirically, three scales (feared loss of the attachment figure, proximity seeking and separation protest) capture the features of anxious attachment as elaborated by Bowlby. These scales were administered to 178 cardiac rehabilitation patients drawn from the cardiac rehabilitation program of the Calgary General Hospital. The results indicate that feared loss and proximity seeking differentiated psychologically distressed from non-psychologically distressed patients. The implications of this finding for the understanding of psychologically distressed cardiac patients are discussed.

  20. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema: Effects on Emotion Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panoraia Andriopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of secure schema activation on selective attention towards attachment-related and emotional information. Seventy two participants were randomly allocated into two conditions–subliminal priming of mental representations of supportive attachment figures (a Picasso sketch of a mother holding a baby and looking into his eyes and a no priming condition followed by an administration of a dot probe task that included positive and negative attachment-related and emotion words. The results showed that the activation of the secure prime in conjunction with chronic attachment orientations affected the processing of positive and negative attachment-unrelated emotional information. Results highlight relationships between higher-order processes of the attachment system (attachment schema activation with early stage information processing (selective attention as assessed by the dot probe task. Methodological issues are discussed with reference to the priming method used and the traditional version of the dot-probe task.

  1. Analysis strategies for longitudinal attachment loss data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J D; Elter, J R

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this invited review is to describe and discuss methods currently in use to quantify the progression of attachment loss in epidemiological studies of periodontal disease, and to make recommendations for specific analytic methods based upon the particular design of the study and structure of the data. The review concentrates on the definition of incident attachment loss (ALOSS) and its component parts; measurement issues including thresholds and regression to the mean; methods of accounting for longitudinal change, including changes in means, changes in proportions of affected sites, incidence density, the effect of tooth loss and reversals, and repeated events; statistical models of longitudinal change, including the incorporation of the time element, use of linear, logistic or Poisson regression or survival analysis, and statistical tests; site vs person level of analysis, including statistical adjustment for correlated data; the strengths and limitations of ALOSS data. Examples from the Piedmont 65+ Dental Study are used to illustrate specific concepts. We conclude that incidence density is the preferred methodology to use for periodontal studies with more than one period of follow-up and that the use of studies not employing methods for dealing with complex samples, correlated data, and repeated measures does not take advantage of our current understanding of the site- and person-level variables important in periodontal disease and may generate biased results.

  2. Points d’attache : Derrida, Cixous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hughes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Les manuscrits échangés entre Hélène Cixous et Jacques Derrida portent les traces de leur amitié, dont le dialogue traverse des décennies d’écriture littéraire et philosophique. Sur les manuscrits du Prénom de Dieu, de Voiles, et de « Circonfession » – qui ont circulé entre les deux auteurs – on peut lire les marginalia, la ponctuation élargie, et la mise en page reconstituée comme des points d’attache entre manuscrit, écrivain, et lecteur. Nous sommes amenés à considérer la surface de l’objet manuscrit comme un lieu de rencontres perpétuelles qui réactivent l’écriture en archive et au-delà – sujet qui regagne en urgence quant aux nouvelles technologies comme les logiciels de traitement de texte et les disques durs. Ces objets textuels servent aussi bien à lier les deux écrivains à la scène de l’écriture, le lecteur étant pris à témoin, qu’à renouer les attaches entre Cixous et Derrida, les solidifiant à travers l’écriture – même de manière posthume.

  3. Complex cooperative networks from evolutionary preferential attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Poncela

    Full Text Available In spite of its relevance to the origin of complex networks, the interplay between form and function and its role during network formation remains largely unexplored. While recent studies introduce dynamics by considering rewiring processes of a pre-existent network, we study network growth and formation by proposing an evolutionary preferential attachment model, its main feature being that the capacity of a node to attract new links depends on a dynamical variable governed in turn by the node interactions. As a specific example, we focus on the problem of the emergence of cooperation by analyzing the formation of a social network with interactions given by the Prisoner's Dilemma. The resulting networks show many features of real systems, such as scale-free degree distributions, cooperative behavior and hierarchical clustering. Interestingly, results such as the cooperators being located mostly on nodes of intermediate degree are very different from the observations of cooperative behavior on static networks. The evolutionary preferential attachment mechanism points to an evolutionary origin of scale-free networks and may help understand similar feedback problems in the dynamics of complex networks by appropriately choosing the game describing the interaction of nodes.

  4. Predicting Envelope Leakage in Attached Dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faakye, O.; Arena, L.; Griffiths, D.

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for measuring air leakage is to use a single blower door to pressurize and/or depressurize the test unit. In detached housing, the test unit is the entire home and the single blower door measures air leakage to the outside. In attached housing, this 'single unit', 'total', or 'solo' test method measures both the air leakage between adjacent units through common surfaces as well air leakage to the outside. Measuring and minimizing this total leakage is recommended to avoid indoor air quality issues between units, reduce energy losses to the outside, reduce pressure differentials between units, and control stack effect. However, two significant limitations of the total leakage measurement in attached housing are: for retrofit work, if total leakage is assumed to be all to the outside, the energy benefits of air sealing can be significantly over predicted; for new construction, the total leakage values may result in failing to meet an energy-based house tightness program criterion. The scope of this research is to investigate an approach for developing a viable simplified algorithm that can be used by contractors to assess energy efficiency program qualification and/or compliance based upon solo test results.

  5. Mussel byssus attachment weakened by ocean acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Michael J.; George, Matthew N.; Carrington, Emily

    2013-06-01

    Biomaterials connect organisms to their environments. Their function depends on biological, chemical and environmental factors, both at the time of creation and throughout the life of the material. Shifts in the chemistry of the oceans driven by anthropogenic CO2 (termed ocean acidification) have profound implications for the function of critical materials formed under these altered conditions. Most ocean acidification studies have focused on one biomaterial (secreted calcium carbonate), frequently using a single assay (net rate of calcification) to quantify whether reductions in environmental pH alter how organisms create biomaterials. Here, we examine biological structures critical for the success of ecologically and economically important bivalve molluscs. One non-calcified material, the proteinaceous byssal threads that anchor mytilid mussels to hard substrates, exhibited reduced mechanical performance when secreted under elevated pCO2 conditions, whereas shell and tissue growth were unaffected. Threads made under high pCO2 (>1,200μatm) were weaker and less extensible owing to compromised attachment to the substratum. According to a mathematical model, this reduced byssal fibre performance, decreasing individual tenacity by 40%. In the face of ocean acidification, weakened attachment presents a potential challenge for suspension-culture mussel farms and for intertidal communities anchored by mussel beds.

  6. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  7. THE GENERALIZED POLARIZATION SCATTERING MATRIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    the Least Square Best Estimate of the Generalized Polarization matrix from a set of measurements is then developed. It is shown that the Faraday...matrix data. It is then shown that the Least Square Best Estimate of the orientation angle of a symmetric target is also determinable from Faraday rotation contaminated short pulse monostatic polarization matrix data.

  8. Adhesion, growth, and matrix production by fibroblasts on laminin substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Höök, M; Rees, D A;

    1983-01-01

    Human embryonic skin fibroblasts have been shown to attach and spread on laminin substrates in the absence of protein synthesis and presence of fibronectin-depleted serum and anti-fibronectin antibodies. Rates of attachment and the type of spreading are virtually identical on fibronectin and lami......Human embryonic skin fibroblasts have been shown to attach and spread on laminin substrates in the absence of protein synthesis and presence of fibronectin-depleted serum and anti-fibronectin antibodies. Rates of attachment and the type of spreading are virtually identical on fibronectin...... and laminin-coated substrates with the development of microfilament bundles and focal adhesions. Antibodies to laminin, but not fibronectin, will prevent or reverse fibroblast adhesion to laminin, whereas antibodies to fibronectin but not laminin will give similar results on fibronectin-coated substrates....... These and other results indicate that fibroblasts possess distinct receptors for laminin and fibronectin which on contact with suitable substrates promote adhesion through interaction with common intermediates. This type of adhesion is compatible with subsequent growth and extracellular matrix production....

  9. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senija Tahirovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992. Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998. The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD describe their attachment style to the primary caregivers from their memories from childhood. This study was conducted in Germany in an inpatient psychiatric clinic. Fifteen participants represented a convenience sample, of patients already diagnosed with BPD. For this study Adult Attachment Interview (AAI was used. The AAI is a semi-structured interview focusing on the early attachment experiences and their effects based on Attachment Theory.The results indicated that people diagnosed with BPD showed both preoccupied and dismissing child-parent attachment style,however it was the dismissing attachment style that dominated in our sample. The findings supported the hypothesis that participants who showed dismissing attachment style also used positive adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver, and those with the preoccupied attachment style used negative adjectives to describe the relationship  with their primary caregiver. Even though, study was conducted with small number of participants, the study did provide evidence that there is a relationship between BPD and attachment styles in childhood. Threfore, the study offered contribution to the already existing knowledge and research findings regarding the influence of attachment style on BPD development. Keywords: Attachment, Personality disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, child, childhood

  10. The relation of insecure attachment states of mind and romantic attachment styles to adolescent aggression in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Erin M; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P; Manning, Nell

    2010-09-01

    The relation of attachment states of mind and self reported attachment relationship styles to romantic partner aggression was examined in a community sample of 93 adolescents. Higher levels of insecure-preoccupied and insecure-dismissing states of mind, as assessed by the Adolescent Attachment Interview at age 14, were predictive, respectively, of perpetration and victimization of psychological aggression in romantic relationships four years later. Partners' romantic attachment anxiety was linked to both psychological and physical aggression perpetration in romantic relationships. Results are interpreted as suggesting the value of assessing aggression in adolescent romantic relationships in the context of broader patterns of regulation of affect and behavior via the attachment system.

  11. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  12. Childhood attachment and schizophrenia: the "attachment-developmental-cognitive" (ADC) hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2014-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric syndrome whose exact causes remain unclear. However, current scientific consensus has highlighted the importance of neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive processes in the development of schizophrenic symptoms. Research over the past three decades, motivated by the findings of the World Health Organization's large-scale studies, has highlighted the importance of psychosocial adversities - including childhood abuse and neglect - in this disorder. In this paper, I propose a hypothesis based on John Bowlby's framework of attachment theory, which I have termed the attachment-developmental-cognitive (ADC) hypothesis. The ADC hypothesis integrates recent developments related to (1) existing models of schizophrenia, (2) studies examining the effect of attachment on brain biology and cognitive development, and (3) various known facts about the course and outcome of this disorder. In doing so, it explains how disturbed childhood attachment leads to core psychological and neurochemical abnormalities which are implicated in the genesis of schizophrenia and also affect its outcome. The ADC hypothesis compasses and expands on earlier formulations, such as the "social defeat" and "traumagenic" models, and has important implications regarding the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia. Ways of testing and refining this hypothesis are outlined as avenues for future research. Though provisional, the ADC hypothesis is entirely consistent with both biological and psychosocial research into the origins of schizophrenia.

  13. Technical Scientific Attaches and domotics. A special issue; Technisch Wetenschappelijk Attaches en domotica. Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinenberg, R.A. [Ministerie van Economische Zaken, The Hague (Netherlands); Uythof, B.H. [Invenit, Domotica Platform Nederland, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedetti, D [Ufficio Tecnico-Scientifico, Ambasciata del Regno dei Paesi Bassi, Rome (Italy); Van Wijngaarden, W.L. [Buero fuer Wissenschaft und Technologie, Kgl. Niederlaendische Botschaft, Bonn (Germany); Leniger, H.D.F. [Bureau du Conseiller Scientifique et Technique, Ambassade des Pays-Bas, Paris (France); Kieboom, J.P. [Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Singapore (Singapore); Van Kooij, E.H. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Tokyo (Japan); Schuurmans, H.J.A. [Netherlands Office for Science and Technology, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    In this Dutch magazine Dutch businesses and institutes are informed about technological developments in industrialized countries (USA, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Germany, France and Italy). In this special issue attaches in the different countries present information on developments and trends with respect to domotics, building automation, home networks, etc.

  14. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  15. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  16. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2009-01-01

    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  17. Supported Molecular Matrix Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Mucins are difficult to separate using conventional gel electrophoresis methods such as SDS-PAGE and agarose gel electrophoresis, owing to their large size and heterogeneity. On the other hand, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis can separate these molecules, but is not compatible with glycan analysis. Here, we describe a novel membrane electrophoresis technique, termed "supported molecular matrix electrophoresis" (SMME), in which a porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane filter is used to achieve separation. This description includes the separation, visualization, and glycan analysis of mucins with the SMME technique.

  18. Possible evidence of amide bond formation between sinapinic acid and lysine-containing bacterial proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, HdeB and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALD...

  19. Change in attachment to the therapy group generalizes to change in individual attachment among women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Leah; Tasca, Giorgio A; Gick, Mary; Ritchie, Kerri; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2014-03-01

    Attachment to groups is analogous to attachment to individuals, and may play an important role in group functioning and in group psychotherapy outcomes. This study examined whether attachment to the therapy group can change during treatment, and whether such change predicts improvements in treatment outcomes, including individual attachment, up to 1 year posttreatment. Eighty-seven women with binge eating disorder (BED) attended Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP). Participants were assigned to one of two conditions in which groups were homogeneously composed of women with either higher or lower individual attachment anxiety. Outcomes were assessed pre, post, 6 months, and 1 year posttreatment. Attachment to the group was assessed at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16 of GPIP. Group attachment insecurity decreased significantly during treatment. Reductions in group attachment avoidance predicted decreases in individual attachment insecurity at 1 year posttreatment. Study condition did not moderate these associations. These results indicate that women with BED who receive GPIP are able to generalize improvements in group attachment security to their individual attachment relationships outside of therapy up to 1 year post group treatment.

  20. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  1. Attachment mental states and inferred pathways of development in borderline personality disorder: a study using the Adult Attachment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Lavinia; Fossati, Andrea; Guiducci, Valentina

    2011-09-01

    We report the outcome of an investigation on how specific attachment states of mind and corresponding risk factors related to different DSM Axis I comorbidities in subjects with BPD. Mental representations of attachment in four BPD sub-groups (BPD and Anxiety/Mood Disorders, BPD and Substance Use and Abuse Disorders, BPD and Alcohol Use and Abuse Disorders, and BPD and Eating Disorders) were assessed in 140 BPD subjects using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). In addition to the global attachment picture in which Insecure organized (Dismissing 51% and Enmeshed 35%) and Insecure disorganized categories (40%) were overrepresented, significant differences in attachment category were found between the four BPD sub-groups. Axis I comorbidities corresponded with attachment features on the internalizing/externalizing functioning dimension of the disorder. Furthermore, specific constellations of inferred developmental antecedents and attachment states of mind corresponded differentially with the BPD sub-groups. Implications for developmental research and clinical nosology are discussed.

  2. Extracellular Matrix Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Christian Carrijo-Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipocalin family members have been implicated in development, regeneration, and pathological processes, but their roles are unclear. Interestingly, these proteins are found abundant in the venom of the Lonomia obliqua caterpillar. Lipocalins are β-barrel proteins, which have three conserved motifs in their amino acid sequence. One of these motifs was shown to be a sequence signature involved in cell modulation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a synthetic peptide comprising the lipocalin sequence motif in fibroblasts. This peptide suppressed caspase 3 activity and upregulated Bcl-2 and Ki-67, but did not interfere with GPCR calcium mobilization. Fibroblast responses also involved increased expression of proinflammatory mediators. Increase of extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, fibronectin, and tenascin, was observed. Increase in collagen content was also observed in vivo. Results indicate that modulation effects displayed by lipocalins through this sequence motif involve cell survival, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cytokine signaling. Such effects can be related to the lipocalin roles in disease, development, and tissue repair.

  3. Quantifying the attachment strength of climbing plants: a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrecher, Tina; Danninger, Elisabeth; Harder, Deane; Speck, Thomas; Kraft, Oliver; Schwaiger, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    In order to grow vertically, it is essential for climbing plants to firmly attach to their supporting structures. In climbing plants, different strategies for permanent attachment can be distinguished. Besides twining stems and tendrils, many plants use attachment pads or attachment roots for this purpose. Using a novel custom-built tensile testing setup, the mechanical properties of different permanent attachment structures of self-clinging plant species were investigated, namely the attachment pads of Boston ivy (Parthenocissus tricuspidata), the attachment roots of ivy (Hedera helix) and the clustered attachment roots of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans). Force-displacement measurements of individual attachment pads as well as of complete structures consisting of several pads or roots were conducted for both natural and laboratory growth conditions. The shapes of the curves and the maximum forces determined indicate clear differences in the detachment process for the different plants and structures tested. Based on these findings, it is argued that the attachment structures are displacement-optimized rather than force-optimized.

  4. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  5. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  6. The Neurobiology of Attachment to Nurturing and Abusive Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    Decades of research have shown that childhood experiences interact with our genetics to change the structure and function of the brain. Within the range of normal experiences, this system enables the brain to be modified during development to adapt to various environments and cultures. Experiences with and attachment to the caregiver appear particularly important, and recent research suggests this may be due, in part, to the attachment circuitry within the brain. Children have brain circuitry to ensure attachment to their caregivers. Attachment depends on the offspring learning about the caregiver in a process that begins prenatally and continues through most of early life. This attachment serves two basic functions. First, attachment ensures the infant remain in the proximity of the caregiver to procure resources for survival and protection. Second, attachment "quality programs" the brain. This programming impacts immediate behaviors, as well as behaviors that emerge later in development. Animal research has uncovered segments of the attachment circuitry within the brain and has highlighted rapid, robust learning to support this attachment. A child attaches to the caregiver regardless of the quality of care received, even if the caregiver is abusive and neglectful. While a neural system that ensures attachment regardless of the quality of care has immediate benefits, this attachment comes with a high cost. Traumatic experiences interact with genetics to change the structure and function of the brain, compromising emotional and cognitive development and initiating a pathway to pathology. Neurobiological research on animals suggests that trauma during attachment is processed differently by the brain, with maternal presence dramatically attenuating the fear center of the brain (amygdala). Thus, the immaturity of the brain combined with the unique processing of trauma may underlie the enduring effects of abuse, which remain largely hidden in early life but emerge as

  7. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; Boyda, David; Elklit, Ask; Murphy, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS) while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC). A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing attachment styles. This may

  8. Growth fluctuation in preferential attachment dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    In the Yule-Simon process, creation and selection of words follows the preferential attachment mechanism, resulting in a power-law growth in the cumulative number of individual word occurrences as well as the power-law population distribution of the vocabulary. This is derived using mean-field approximation, assuming a continuum limit of both the time and number of word occurrences. However, time and word occurrences are inherently discrete in the process, and it is natural to assume that the cumulative number of word occurrences has a certain fluctuation around the average behavior predicted by the mean-field approximation. We derive the exact and approximate forms of the probability distribution of such fluctuation analytically, and confirm that those probability distributions are well supported by the numerical experiments.

  9. My Story has No Strings Attached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    cards can even be “gardening” tools. Sowing is the name used in Chile’s retail industry to call the data management strategy that consists of extending the credit limit of low income customers depending on their payment behavior. Data on previous transactions and behavior replaces collateral. Credit......In the retail industry, consumer credit is sometimes seen as a dangerous parasite that can become bigger than its host. Credit cards are marketing devices that aim at easing the attachment between consumers and goods. Credit cards are also value meters that trace every single transaction. Credit...... cards are not only used by the persons whose names are on the cards; People borrow and loan their cards, or, more precisely, their cards’ credit limits. Credit cards do not trace behavior but hidden networks. Can social relations act as parasites on credit – uninvited guests whose host is already...

  10. Handcrafting Attachment: A User-Centered Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Lowry

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Management, above all, is the controlling element responsible for coordinating the three basic business functions; production, marketing, and finance.  Mechanisms exist to facilitate the finance function with influence coming from outside regulatory bodies such as the AICPA, IIA, SEC, and other regulators.  Integrating the finance function into organizations, then, becomes somewhat generic (although some would argue this point.  Coordinating the functions of marketing and production is a much more difficult endeavor because it lacks the standardization seen in finance.  This paper suggests employing a more user-focused approach as a means to improving the overall quality of products, and eventually, the success of the organization.  Specifically, this paper explores the role of the human brain in the calculus of choice, discusses the role of consumer involvement as it leads to product attachment, and offers suggestions for employing contextual research to improve product design and quality.

  11. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  12. Dissociative electron attachment studies on acetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S., E-mail: vaibhav@tifr.res.in; Tadsare, Vishvesh; Ghosh, Sanat; Gope, Krishnendu; Davis, Daly; Krishnakumar, E. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-10-28

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to acetone is studied in terms of the absolute cross section for various fragment channels in the electron energy range of 0–20 eV. H{sup −} is found to be the most dominant fragment followed by O{sup −} and OH{sup −} with only one resonance peak between 8 and 9 eV. The DEA dynamics is studied by measuring the angular distribution and kinetic energy distribution of fragment anions using Velocity Slice Imaging technique. The kinetic energy and angular distribution of H{sup −} and O{sup −} fragments suggest a many body break-up for the lone resonance observed. The ab initio calculations show that electron is captured in the multi-centered anti-bonding molecular orbital which would lead to a many body break-up of the resonance.

  13. Attachment and ingestion of gonococci human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, J A; Hendley, J O; Mandell, G L

    1975-03-01

    Previous studies have indirectly shown that type 1 gonococci are more resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils (PMN) than type 3 gonococci. Using phase contrast, fluorescent, and light microscopy, we directly quantitated PMN-gonococcal interaction, with emphasis on separating ingestion from attachment. PMN monolayers were incubated on slides with type 1 or type 3 gonococcal fluorescent antibody (FA). After methanol fixation, the FA-stained gonococci associated with PMN were cointed. Since the live PMN excludes FA, the FA-stained gonococci represent only extracellular gonococci. Methylene blue was then added to the smae slide to stain both ingested and surface attached gonococci. Using these methods, intracellular and extracellular cell-associated gonococci were quantitated under varying conditions. The numbers of methylene blue-stained cell-associated gonococci that were ingested were: with normal serum, 3.7 plus or minus 4.1 per cent for type 1 and 56.2 plus or minus 3.7 percent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with heat-inactivated serum, 1.0 plus or minus 3.0 per cent for type 1 and 52.6 plus or minus 3.7 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001); with higher-titer anti-gonococcal antibody serum, 4.8 plus or minus 4.3 percent for type 1 and 64.0 plus or minus 1.6 per cent for type 3 (P smaller than 0.001). Thus, most type 3 organisms were ingested, but most type 1 gonococci were bound on the PMN surface.

  14. Electron attachment to indole and related molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modelli, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.modelli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician”, Universitá di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca in Scienze Ambientali (CIRSA), Universitá di Bologna, via S. Alberto 163, 48123 Ravenna (Italy); Jones, Derek, E-mail: d.jones@isof.cnr.it [ISOF, Istituto per la Sintesi Organica e la Fotoreattività, C.N.R., via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A., E-mail: sapsh@anrb.ru [Institute of Molecule and Crystal Physics, Ufa Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Oktyabrya 151, 450075 Ufa (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-14

    Gas-phase formation of temporary negative ion states via resonance attachment of low-energy (0–6 eV) electrons into vacant molecular orbitals of indoline (I), indene (II), indole (III), 2-methylen-1,3,3-trimethylindoline (IV), and 2,3,3-trimethyl-indolenine (V) was investigated for the first time by electron transmission spectroscopy (ETS). The description of their empty-level structures was supported by density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations, using empirically calibrated linear equations to scale the calculated virtual orbital energies. Dissociative electron attachment spectroscopy (DEAS) was used to measure the fragment anion yields generated through dissociative decay channels of the parent molecular anions of compounds I-V, detected with a mass filter as a function of the incident electron energy in the 0–14 eV energy range. The vertical and adiabatic electron affinities were evaluated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level as the anion/neutral total energy difference. The same theoretical method is also used for evaluation of the thermodynamic energy thresholds for production of the negative fragments observed in the DEA spectra. The loss of a hydrogen atom from the parent molecular anion ([M-H]{sup −}) provides the most intense signal in compounds I-IV. The gas-phase DEAS data can provide support for biochemical reaction mechanisms in vivo involving initial hydrogen abstraction from the nitrogen atom of the indole moiety, present in a variety of biologically important molecules.

  15. Experimental results for improving the matrix condition using a hybrid optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Mendlovic, David

    2012-03-01

    We present preliminary experimental results for implementing the "blurred trajectories" method on three parallel optics (PO) systems. The "main" system and "auxiliary" optics were simple laboratory graded lenses attached to an iris diaphragm. When applying the blurred trajectories method we first show an improvement in the matrix condition, as the matrix condition number decreased in a range of factors of 3 to 418 relative to the main system. Following that, image restoration by weak regularization was performed so that the system matrix condition dominated the restoration process. It was shown that the restoration results of the PO are better than those of the main system and the auxiliary optics separately. In addition, the quality of the restoration follows the system's matrix condition. The improvement in the matrix condition achieved by the PO system improved the immunity to detection noise. Finally, a comparison to Wiener filtering restoration shows that it is also generally inferior to the proposed method.

  16. MARs Wars: heterogeneity and clustering of DNA-binding domains in the nuclear matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioudinkova E. S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. CO326 is a chicken nuclear scaffold/matrix attachment region (MAR associated with the nuclear matrix in several types of chicken cells. It contains a binding site for a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein, F326. We have studied its interaction with the nuclear matrix. Methods. We have used an in vitro MAR assay with isolated matrices from chicken HD3 cells. Results. We have found that an oligonucleotide binding site for the F326 inhibits binding of the CO326 to the nuclear matrix. At the same time, the binding of heterologous MARs is enhanced. Conclusions. Taken together, these data suggest that there exist several classes of MARs and MAR-binding domains and that the MAR-binding proteins may be clustered in the nuclear matrix.

  17. 49 CFR Attachment 4 - State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 Attachment 4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL..., Attach. 4 Attachment 4—State and Local Agency Review of Impact Statements 1. OBM Revised Circular No. A... have been requested, as specified in Attachment 1....

  18. Long-term clinical observation of treatment of infrabony defects with enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain): surgical reentry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasperini, Giulio; Silvestri, Maurizio; Ricci, Giano

    2005-04-01

    A surgical protocol for the placement of Emdogain during new attachment procedures was published in this journal in 1999. Three cases with infrabony defects were treated, and significant periodontal attachment level gain, probing depth reduction, and bone fill were evident upon clinical probing and reentry procedures after 1 year. The patients were enrolled in a maintenance protocol with 3-month recall visits. After 7 years, the clinical parameters were stable, as was the radiographic evaluation. Surgical reentry after 7 years in two cases and 5 years in one case demonstrated the stability of the previous findings. These data show the long-term efficacy of enamel matrix derivative in new attachment procedures.

  19. The 5‘—flanking cis—acting elements of the human ε—globin gene associates with the nuclear matrix and binds to the nuclear matrix proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANZHIJIANG; RUOLANQIAN

    1998-01-01

    The nuclear matrix attachment regions(MARs) and the binding nuclear matrix proteins in the 5'-flanking cisacting elements of the human ε-globin gene have been examined.Using in vitro DNA-matrix binding assay,it has been shown that the positive stage-specific regulatory element (ε-PREII,-446bp- -419bp) upstream of this gene could specifically associate with the nuclear matrix from K562 cells,indicating that ε-PREII may be an erythroidspecific facultative MAR.In gel mobility shift assay and Southwestern blotting assay,an erythroid-specific nuclear matrix protein (ε-NMPk) in K562 cells has been revealed to bind to this positive regulatory element (ε-PREII).Furthermore,we demonstrated that the silencer (-392bp- -177bp) upstream of the human ε-globin gene could associate with the nuclear matrices from K562,HEL and Raji cells.In addition,the nuclear matrix proteins prepared from these three cell lines could also bind to this silencer,suggesting that this silencer element might be a constitutive nuclear matrix attachment region(constitutive MAR).Our results demonstrated that the nuclear matrix and nuclear matrix proteins might play an important role in the regulation of the human ε-globin gene expression.

  20. Attachment and Aggressive Manifestations in Younger Adulthood - "Preliminary Findings"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lorincová

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the contribution was comparison between retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and aggressive manifestations (physical aggressivness, verbal aggressivness, anger and hostility among younger adulthood. Bowlby's theory of attachment was that once a core attachment style develops in an infant, it will influence and shape the nature of all intimate relations for the individual moving forward throughout the infant's life cycle. Authors Mikulincer and Shaver (2011 explain how these primary attachment experiences would affect future emotional, cognitive and behavioral processes. Secure adolescents, in comparison to insecure ones are perceived as being less aggressive. Research has pointed out that secure parental attachment promotes adaptive psychological functioning. The direct relationship between attachment security and aggressive/delinquent behaviour is in line with prior evidence that secure adolescents rate higher in terms of emotional and social adjustment, enjoy more positive relationships with their family and peers, and are less likely to engage in externalizing problems, such as antisocial and aggressive behaviours. On the other hand, insecure attachment is connected with aggressive and externalizing behaviour. Hypotheses were formulated on the base of theoretical background and our assumption was, that younger adults with emocional warmth attachment will have lower level of aggressive manifestations (physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger and hostility than younger adults with rejectional attachment. We used two standardized questionnaires for data collection, s.E.M.B.U. Questionnaire, which measured retrospective attachment (emocional warmth and rejection and Questionnaire of Aggressivness, which measured aggressive manifestations. We used statistical analysis and we found statistically significant differencies, which are preliminary findings from broader research, between emocional warmth

  1. Association of attachment disorganization, attachment-related emotion regulation, and cortisol response after standardized psychosocial stress procedure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attachment representations are related to maintaining biological homeostasis, including physiological stress and emotional regulation. Therefore, recent research has focused on attachment stress regulation and hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA axis reactivity. However, the attachment disorganization underlying emotion regulation associated with the HPA axis response has not yet been investigated. In our study, the attachment representation and the HPA-axis reactivity by cortisol level before and after the Trier Social Stress Test were assessed in a sample of 98 healthy non-clinical subjects. As expected, approximately 30% of this sample showed a disorganized attachment representation. The subjects’ unresolved attachment (breakdown of emotional regulation showed a prolonged cortisol recovery. No differences were found between the attachment patterns in the increase and the delta of the cortisol response. However, the cortisol reactivity differed significantly for the occurrence of emotional regulation. The subjects with a high occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation showed a higher cortisol response than the subjects with an unresolved attachment and the ones with a low occurrence of attachment-related emotion regulation. Regulating the negative emotions of stressful situations may require more attention as it might lead to an increased activation of the physiological system.

  2. Density matrix theory for reductive electron transfer in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinekathoefer, Ulrich [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)]. E-mail: kleinekathoefer@physik.tu-chemnitz.de; Li Guangqi [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Schreiber, Michael [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Reductive electron transfer in DNA is investigated using the reduced density matrix formalism. For reductive electron transfer in DNA an electron donor is attached to the DNA. The photo-excitation of this donor by ultrashort laser pulses is described explicitly in the current investigation, as well as the transfer of the electron from the donor to the acceptor. In addition, the effect of an additional bridge molecule is studied. All these studies are performed using three different quantum master equations: a Markovian one and two non-Markovian ones derived from either a time-local or a time-nonlocal formalism. The deviations caused by these three different approaches are discussed.

  3. Attachment styles and clinical communication performance in trainee doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Ian; McCallum, Rachel; Peters, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between trainee doctors' attachment style and their performance in qualifying clinical and communication skills assessments. Participants were 190 undergraduate medical students whose performance was assessed by examiners across two areas (communication and clinical skills) during their qualifying Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Simulated patients also rated communication skills. Participants' attachment style was rated across two dimensions, avoidance and anxiety, using the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ). Lower levels of attachment avoidance and anxiety significantly predicted higher performance in both communication and clinical skills. Trainee doctors' attachment styles are associated with patient communication and clinical performance. Further research is needed to investigate the impact of attachment on consultations between doctors and patients within clinical settings. Attachment theory can inform our understanding why, for some student doctors, interacting with patients may be particularly challenging and require additional support by medical educators. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Attachment and Reflective Functioning in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoud, Deborah; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Germond, Charlotte; Luyten, Patrick; Perroud, Nader; Debbané, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Insecure attachment and impairments in reflective functioning (RF) are thought to play a critical role in borderline personality disorder (BPD). In particular, the mentalization-based model argues that insecure attachment indirectly accounts for increased BPD features, notably via disruption of RF capacities. Although the mediation relationship between attachment, RF, and BPD is supported by previous evidence, it remains to be directly tested in adults with BPD. In the current study, a sample of 55 female adult BPD patients and 105 female healthy controls completed a battery of self-report measures to investigate the interplay between attachment, RF capacities, and BPD clinical status. Overall, the results showed that BPD patients predominantly reported insecure attachment, characterized by negative internal working models of the self as unlovable and unimportant to others, and decreased RF abilities. Our findings further indicated that actual RF capacities mediated the relationships between adult insecure attachment and BPD clinical status.

  5. Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions to Promote Secure Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barry; Edginton, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Various interventions are used in clinical practice to address insecure or disorganized attachment patterns and attachment disorders. The most common of these are parenting interventions, but not all have a robust empirical evidence base. We undertook a systematic review of randomized trials comparing a parenting intervention with a control, where these used a validated attachment instrument, in order to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of interventions aiming to improve attachment in children with severe attachment problems (mean age <13 years). This article aims to inform clinicians about the parenting interventions included in our systematic review that were clinically effective in promoting secure attachment. For completeness, we also briefly discuss other interventions without randomized controlled trial evidence, identified in Patient Public Involvement workshops and expert groups at the point our review was completed as being used or recommended. We outline the key implications of our findings for clinical practice and future research. PMID:27583298

  6. Electron Attachment to DNA and RNA Nucleobases: An EOMCC Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Chintya Kumar; Vaval, Nayana; Pal, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    We report a benchmark theoretical investigation of both adiabatic and vertical electron affinities of five DNA and RNA nucleobases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil using state-of-the-art equation of motion coupled cluster (EOMCC) method. We have calculated the vertical electron affinity values of first five electron attached states of the DNA and RNA nucleobases and only the first electron attached state is found to be energetically accessible in gas phase. An analysis of the natural orbitals shows that the first electron attached states of uracil and thymine are valence-bound type and undergo significant structural changes on attachment of excess electron, which is reflected in the deviation of the adiabatic electron affinity from the vertical one. On the other hand, the first electron attached state of cytosine, adenine and guanine are dipole-bound type and their structure remain unaffected on attachment of an extra electron, which results in small deviation of adiabatic electron affinity fro...

  7. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Parental divorce and adult children's attachment representations and marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Judith A; Treboux, Dominique; Brockmeyer, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adult attachment as a means of understanding the intergenerational transmission of divorce, that is, the propensity for the children of divorce to end their own marriages. Participants included 157 couples assessed 3 months prior to their weddings and 6 years later. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Interview and questionnaires about their relationships, and were videotaped with their partners in a couple interaction task. Results indicated that, in this sample, adult children of divorce were not more likely to divorce within the first 6 years of marriage. However, parental divorce increased the likelihood of having an insecure adult attachment status. For women, age at the time of their parents' divorce was related to adult attachment status, and the influence on attachment representations may be more enduring. Among adult children of divorce, those who were classified as secure in their attachment representations were less likely to divorce in the early years of marriage than insecure participants.

  9. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema Affects the Emotional Face Processing Bias in Attachment Anxiety: An fMRI Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qingting; Chen, Xu; Hu, Jia; Liu, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Our study explored how priming with a secure base schema affects the processing of emotional facial stimuli in individuals with attachment anxiety. We enrolled 42 undergraduate students between 18 and 27 years of age, and divided them into two groups: attachment anxiety and attachment secure. All participants were primed under two conditions, the secure priming using references to the partner, and neutral priming using neutral references. We performed repeated attachment security priming combined with a dual-task paradigm and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' reaction times in terms of responding to the facial stimuli were also measured. Attachment security priming can facilitate an individual's processing of positive emotional faces; for instance, the presentation of the partner's name was associated with stronger activities in a wide range of brain regions and faster reaction times for positive facial expressions in the subjects. The current finding of higher activity in the left-hemisphere regions for secure priming rather than neutral priming is consistent with the prediction that attachment security priming triggers the spread of the activation of a positive emotional state. However, the difference in brain activity during processing of both, positive and negative emotional facial stimuli between the two priming conditions appeared in the attachment anxiety group alone. This study indicates that the effect of attachment secure priming on the processing of emotional facial stimuli could be mediated by chronic attachment anxiety. In addition, it highlights the association between higher-order processes of the attachment system (secure attachment schema priming) and early-stage information processing system (attention), given the increased attention toward the effects of secure base schema on the processing of emotion- and attachment-related information among the insecure population. Thus, the following study has applications in providing

  10. Hubungan Attachment Terhadap Ayah Dengan Kecerdasan Emosi Pada Remaja Laki-Laki

    OpenAIRE

    Asyava, Tengku Shella

    2011-01-01

    Ainsworth (1969) Attachment is the emotional bond that formed an individual with specific other people, they tied Dalan eternal attachment all the time. . Attachments will survive long enough in human life span that begins with the attachment of children to the mother or substitute mother figure (the father) This study aims to determine the relationship attachment (secure attachment, anxious attachment and avoidant attachment) with father male adolescent emotional intelligence male. Sampling ...

  11. Matrix Quantization of Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Floratos, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Based on our recent work on Quantum Nambu Mechanics $\\cite{af2}$, we provide an explicit quantization of the Lorenz chaotic attractor through the introduction of Non-commutative phase space coordinates as Hermitian $ N \\times N $ matrices in $ R^{3}$. For the volume preserving part, they satisfy the commutation relations induced by one of the two Nambu Hamiltonians, the second one generating a unique time evolution. Dissipation is incorporated quantum mechanically in a self-consistent way having the correct classical limit without the introduction of external degrees of freedom. Due to its volume phase space contraction it violates the quantum commutation relations. We demonstrate that the Heisenberg-Nambu evolution equations for the Matrix Lorenz system develop fast decoherence to N independent Lorenz attractors. On the other hand there is a weak dissipation regime, where the quantum mechanical properties of the volume preserving non-dissipative sector survive for long times.

  12. Matrix Graph Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Velasco, Pedro Pablo Perez

    2008-01-01

    This book objective is to develop an algebraization of graph grammars. Equivalently, we study graph dynamics. From the point of view of a computer scientist, graph grammars are a natural generalization of Chomsky grammars for which a purely algebraic approach does not exist up to now. A Chomsky (or string) grammar is, roughly speaking, a precise description of a formal language (which in essence is a set of strings). On a more discrete mathematical style, it can be said that graph grammars -- Matrix Graph Grammars in particular -- study dynamics of graphs. Ideally, this algebraization would enforce our understanding of grammars in general, providing new analysis techniques and generalizations of concepts, problems and results known so far.

  13. Matrix anticirculant calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiev, Stancho; Stoev, Peter; Stoilova, Stanislava

    2013-12-01

    The notion of anticirculant is ordinary of interest for specialists of general algebra (to see for instance [1]). In this paper we develop some aspects of anticirculants in real function theory. Denoting by X≔x0+jx1+⋯+jmxm, xk∈R, m+1 = 2n, and jk is the k-th degree of the matrix j = (0100...00010...00001...0..................-1000...0), we study the functional anticirculants f(X)≔f0(x0,x1,...,xm)+jf1(x0,x1,...,xm)+⋯+jm-1fm-1(x0,x1,...,xm)+jmfm(x0,x1,...,xm), where fk(x0,x1,...,xm) are smooth functions of 2n real variables. A continuation for complex function theory will appear.

  14. Light cone matrix product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  15. Matrix membranes and integrability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fairlie, D. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Curtright, T. [University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  16. The role of brand attachment strength in higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Charles; Papagiannidis, Savvas; Alamanos, Eleftherios; Bourlakis, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust and brand equity in the context of Higher Education Institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n=605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is strong...

  17. The Role of Brand Attachment Strength in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of brand attachment and its antecedents on commitment, satisfaction, trust, and brand equity in the context of higher education institutions. The findings from an online survey with students and recent graduates (n = 605) in the United States indicate that brand meaning is the main antecedent of brand attachment strength that affects satisfaction, trust, and commitment as well as brand equity. The effect of the brand attachment antecedents on satisfaction is str...

  18. Child-Parent Attachment Styles and Borderline Personality Disorder Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Senija Tahirovic; Adela Bajric

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on the attachment styles and their impact on human functioning and relationships (Bretherton, 1992). Some attachment styles have been associated with pathological way of human overall functioning, and it has already been observed that insecure attachment style in childhood may be associated with personality dysfunction (Brennan & Shaver, 1998). The purpose of this study is to investigate how people diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) describe th...

  19. Attachment of cells to basement membrane collagen type IV

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Of ten different cell lines examined, three showed distinct attachment and spreading on collagen IV substrates, and neither attachment nor spreading was enhanced by adding soluble laminin or fibronectin. This reaction was not inhibited by cycloheximide or antibodies to laminin, indicating a direct attachment to collagen IV without the need of mediator proteins. Cell-binding sites were localized to the major triple-helical domain of collagen IV and required an intact triple helical conformatio...

  20. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical practice and future researches.

  1. Hypnosis, attachment, and oxytocin:an integrative perspective (1.).

    OpenAIRE

    Zelinka, Vladimir; Cojan, Yann; Desseilles, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers links between clinical hypnosis, attachment theory, and oxytocin. First, it proposes that commonalities between clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may improve our understanding of the hypnotherapeutic process. Then, it suggests that an integrative model unifying clinical hypnosis and attachment theory may constitute a link between clinical hypnosis and a neurobiological factor such as oxytocin. Finally, it discusses the implications of these hypotheses for clinical...

  2. 10 Inventions on keyboard attachments-A TRIZ based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Umakant

    2013-01-01

    Although the primary objective of the keyboard to input data into the computer, the advanced keyboards keep various other things in mind, such as, how to use the same keyboard for various other purposes, or how to use the same keyboard efficiently by using various other attachments to the keyboard. This objective led to various inventions on keyboard attachments, some of which are illustrated below in this article. This article illustrates 10 inventions on various keyboard attachments from US...

  3. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Lachlan A; Paul DJ Murphy; S Jeffrey Bailey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dim...

  4. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for murine bladder tumors: initiation of the response by fibronectin-mediated attachment of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, T L; Palmer, J O; McGarr, J A; Brown, E J

    1987-04-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for superficial bladder cancer. Although the mechanisms by which BCG inhibits tumor growth are not known, previous studies have shown that systemic immunization to BCG and the local expression of the immune response in the bladder are associated with a favorable response to BCG therapy. We have investigated the conditions required for the initiation of an immunological response after the intravesical instillation of BCG. Initial histological studies showed that BCG attached to the bladder wall only in areas where the urothelium was damaged by electrocautery and suggested that attachment was associated with the fibrin clot. Quantitative studies verified the histological observations. Minimal BCG attachment (mean less than 10(2) colony forming units) was observed in normal bladders in contrast with a mean of 1.42 X 10(4) colony forming units/bladder in bladders damaged by electrocautery (10 separate experiments). BCG attachment to the bladder wall was durable since organisms were observed in bladders 48 h after instillation. To investigate the proteins to which BCG attached, we tested the binding of BCG to extracellular matrix and inflammatory proteins which comprise a significant portion of the fibrin clot. BCG bound in vitro to coverslips coated in vivo with extracellular matrix proteins but did not bind to control albumin-coated coverslips. BCG also bound to coverslips coated with purified plasma fibronectin but not to coverslips coated with other purified extracellular matrix proteins including laminin, fibrinogen, and type IV collagen. BCG attachment to coverslips coated with either extracellular matrix proteins or purified fibronectin was inhibited by antibodies specific for fibronectin. Moreover, BCG attachment to cauterized bladders in vivo was inhibited by antifibronectin antibodies. These results demonstrate that fibronectin mediates the attachment of BCG

  5. Flagellar generated flow mediates attachment of Giardia Lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Theodore; Polackwich, Jamie; Burrola Gabilondo, Beatriz; McAllister, Ryan; Powers, Tom; Elmendorf, Heidi; Urbach, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a protozoan parasite responsible for widespread diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. Attachment to the host intestinal mucosa and resistance to peristalsis is necessary for establishing infection, but the physical basis for this attachment is poorly understood. We report results from confocal fluorescence microscopy that demonstrate that the regular beating of the posterior flagella generate a flow through the ventral disk, a suction-cup shaped structure that is against the substrate during attachment. Finite element simulations show that the negative pressure generated by the flow is consistent with the measured force of attachement between the parasite and its substrate.

  6. Associations between Adult Attachment Dimensions And Attitudes Toward Pain Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan A McWilliams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the important role positive reinforcement of pain behaviour is believed to play in chronic pain, there is a paucity of research regarding factors that influence the provision of such reinforcement. Attachment theory suggests that individuals high in attachment avoidance view the pain behaviour of others in a negative manner and would, therefore, provide little reinforcement of pain behaviour. As an initial step in evaluating this model, relationships between attachment dimensions and attitudes toward pain behaviour were examined. Attachment avoidance was hypothesized to be negatively associated with accepting attitudes toward pain behaviour.

  7. Tooth Supported Overdenture Retained with Custom Attachments: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Siddharth; Aras, Meena A; Chitre, Vidya

    2014-12-01

    Overdenture is a favored treatment modality for elderly patients with few remaining teeth. Roots maintained under the denture base preserve the alveolar ridge, provide sensory feedback and improve the stability of the dentures. Furthermore, the use of copings and precision attachments on the remaining teeth enhances the retention of the denture. This clinical report describes a novel method of fabricating a tooth supported overdenture retained with custom made ball attachments using orthodontic separators as a female component. Customized ball attachments with orthodontic separators are a simple and cost effective alternative treatment to the use of prefabricated attachments for enhancing the retention of tooth supported overdentures.

  8. Attachment of epithelial cells and fibroblasts to ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederauer, G G; McGee, T D; Keller, J C; Zaharias, R S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined in vitro gingival epithelial and fibroblast cell attachment to ceramic materials made of tricalcium phosphate and/or magnesium aluminate spinel. The composite made of tricalcium phosphate and spinel is called 'osteoceramic'. These ceramics had various compositions and surface structures, which were initially characterized. Cell attachment assays were performed using both cell types to compare cellular response to the ceramic materials. Specimens were also prepared for scanning electron microscopy to investigate cellular morphology. The highest levels of cell attachment for gingival epithelial cells were observed on the rough osteoceramic surface, whereas gingival fibroblasts attached least to the rough osteoceramic surface.

  9. Adult attachment security and college student substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassel, Jon D; Wardle, Margaret; Roberts, John E

    2007-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated strong links between quality of adult attachment styles and various forms of psychological distress. A burgeoning literature further points to a relationship between insecure attachment and drug use, particularly alcohol consumption. In the present study, we expanded upon the existing literature by examining the relationship between adult attachment style and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana in a sample of 212 college students. Moreover, based on our previous work [Hankin, B.L., Kassel, J.D., and Abela, J.R.Z. (2005). Adult attachment dimensions and specificity of emotional distress symptoms: prospective investigations of cognitive risk and interpersonal stress generation as mediating mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 136-151.], we proposed a conceptual model positing that adult attachment style influences both frequency of drug use and stress-motivated drug use through its impact on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Initial correlational analyses indicated significant (positive) associations between anxious attachment (tapping neediness and fear of abandonment) and both drug use frequency and stress-motivated drug use. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that, for drug use frequency, the influence of anxious attachment operated primarily through its effect on dysfunctional attitudes and self-esteem. Regarding drug use attributable to negative affect reduction, anxious attachment demonstrated direct, independent effects on both cigarette smoking and alcohol use. These findings highlight the potential importance of adult attachment styles as a risk factor for drug use among college students.

  10. The freedom to choose secure attachment relationships in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Einat; Mayseless, Ofra

    2013-01-01

    This study was based on the attachment-security hypothesis (H. Latty-Mann & K. E. Davis, 1996) that predicts that all individuals, regardless of attachment style, should demonstrate a preference for secure partners who are most likely to offer attachment security. It was therefore expected that with the transfer of attachment functions from parents, who are mostly not freely chosen as attachment figures, to other figures outside of the family of origin, individuals will try to establish secure relationships with these new figures and to assign them a high position in the attachment hierarchy. Participants were 149 Israelis (97 women and 52 men 20-72 years of age) and they completed questionnaires related to their attachment relationships and network. As expected, with age the attachment hierarchy included a higher proportion of chosen figures (r = .38, p figures were characterized by higher security and lower insecurity compared to relationships with nonchosen figures with moderate to high effect sizes. In addition, the higher the figure's level of importance and centrality in the hierarchy, the greater the level of security with that figure (low to moderate effect sizes). Results were discussed in light of attachment-security hypothesis and correction versus replication processes.

  11. Improved Attachment in a Hybrid Inflatable Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Patterson, Ross; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    The vessel is a hybrid that comprises an inflatable shell attached to a rigid structure. The inflatable shell is, itself, a hybrid that comprises (1) a pressure bladder restrained against expansion by (2) a restraint layer that comprises a web of straps made from high-strength polymeric fabrics. The present improvements are intended to overcome deficiencies in those aspects of the original design that pertain to attachment of the inflatable shell to the rigid structure. In a typical intended application, such attachment(s) would be made at one or more window or hatch frames to incorporate the windows or hatches as integral parts of the overall vessel.

  12. Attachment to Mother and Father at Transition to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Folco, Simona; Messina, Serena; Zavattini, Giulio Cesare; Psouni, Elia

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated concordance between representations of attachment to mother and attachment to father, and convergence between two narrative-based methods addressing these representations in middle childhood: the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) and the Secure Base Script Test (SBST). One hundred and twenty 6-year-old children were assessed by separate administrations of the MCAST for mother and father, respectively, and results showed concordance of representations of attachment to mother and attachment to father at age 6.5 years. 75 children were additionally tested about 12 months later, with the SBST, which assesses scripted knowledge of secure base (and safe haven), not differentiating between mother and father attachment relationships. Concerning attachment to father, dichotomous classifications (MCAST) and a continuous dimension capturing scripted secure base knowledge (MCAST) converged with secure base scriptedness (SBST), yet we could not show the same pattern of convergence concerning attachment to mother. Results suggest some convergence between the two narrative methods of assessment of secure base script but also highlight complications when using the MCAST for measuring attachment to father in middle childhood.

  13. Substratum interfacial energetic effects on the attachment of marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ista, Linnea Kathryn

    Biofilms represent an ancient, ubiquitous and influential form of life on earth. Biofilm formation is initiated by attachment of bacterial cells from an aqueous suspension onto a suitable attachment substratum. While in certain, well studied cases initial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is mediated by specific ligand-receptor pairs on the bacteria and attachment substratum, in the open environment, including the ocean, it is assumed to be non-specific and mediated by processes similar to those that drive adsorption of colloids at the water-solid interface. Colloidal principles are studied to determine the molecular and physicochemical interactions involved in the attachment of the model marine bacterium, Cobetia marina to model self-assembled monolayer surfaces. In the simplest application of colloidal principles the wettability of attachment substrata, as measured by the advancing contact angle of water (theta AW) on the surface, is frequently used as an approximation for the surface tension. We demonstrate the applicability of this approach for attachment of C. marina and algal zoospores and extend it to the development of a means to control attachment and release of microorganisms by altering and tuning surface thetaAW. In many cases, however, thetaAW does not capture all the information necessary to model attachment of bacteria to attachment substrata; SAMs with similar thetaAW attach different number of bacteria. More advanced colloidal models of initial bacterial attachment have evolved over the last several decades, with the emergence of the model proposed by van Oss, Chaudhury and Good (VCG) as preeminent. The VCG model enables calculation of interfacial tensions by dividing these into two major interactions thought to be important at biointerfaces: apolar, Lifshitz-van der Waals and polar, Lewis acid-base (including hydrogen bonding) interactions. These interfacial tensions are combined to yield DeltaGadh, the free energy associated with

  14. Spherical membranes in Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, D; Kabat, Daniel; Taylor, Washington

    1998-01-01

    We consider membranes of spherical topology in uncompactified Matrix theory. In general for large membranes Matrix theory reproduces the classical membrane dynamics up to 1/N corrections; for certain simple membrane configurations, the equations of motion agree exactly at finite N. We derive a general formula for the one-loop Matrix potential between two finite-sized objects at large separations. Applied to a graviton interacting with a round spherical membrane, we show that the Matrix potential agrees with the naive supergravity potential for large N, but differs at subleading orders in N. The result is quite general: we prove a pair of theorems showing that for large N, after removing the effects of gravitational radiation, the one-loop potential between classical Matrix configurations agrees with the long-distance potential expected from supergravity. As a spherical membrane shrinks, it eventually becomes a black hole. This provides a natural framework to study Schwarzschild black holes in Matrix theory.

  15. Attachment in cultural context: Differences in attachment between Eastern and Western Europeans

    OpenAIRE

    Polek, Elzbieta

    2008-01-01

    Political changes after 1989 and resulting from the European Union enlargement increased emigration from Eastern to Western Europe. In the introductory Chapter 1 the data about migration from the Eastern to Western Europe are presented, as well as the data about cultural, social and economic differences between Russia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Poland. In this chapter we also introduce A theoretical basis of acculturation and attachment theory. In Chapter 2 we focused on the replicability ...

  16. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Alhede; Kasper Nørskov Kragh; Klaus Qvortrup; Marie Allesen-Holm; Maria van Gennip; Louise D Christensen; Peter Østrup Jensen; Nielsen, Anne K.; Matt Parsek; Dan Wozniak; Søren Molin; Tim Tolker-Nielsen; Niels Høiby; Michael Givskov; Thomas Bjarnsholt

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chron...

  17. Cell attachment on ion implanted titanium surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Sreejith

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Of outmost importance for the successful use of an implant is a good adhesion of the surrounding tissue to the biomaterial. In addition to the surface composition of the implant, the surface topography also influences the properties of the adherent cells. In the present investigation, ion implanted and untreated surfaces were compared for cell adhesion and spreading.Design/methodology/approach: The surface topography of the surfaces were analyzed using AFM and the cell studies with SEM.Findings: The results of our present investigation is indicative of the fact that ion implanted titanium surface offer better cell binding affinity compared to untreated/polished surface.Practical implications: Success of non-biodegradable implants will first and foremost depend on biocompatibility, followed by the capacity of the surface topography of the implants to evince desired cell matrix, surface cell matrix interactions. In the present study, the cell growth on ion implanted Ti material is analyzed and discussed.Originality/value: In this paper, we have utilized ion implantation technique, which will produce nano-texturing of the surface without producing any detrimental effects to both the dimensions and properties of the implants.

  18. Non-perturbative Thermodynamics in Matrix String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Peñalba, J P

    1999-01-01

    A study of the thermodynamics in IIA Matrix String Theory is presented. The free string limit is calculated and seen to exactly reproduce the usual result. When energies are enough to excite non-perturbative objects like D-particles and specially membranes, the situation changes because they add a large number of degrees of freedom that do not appear at low energies. There seems to be a negative specific heat (even in the Microcanonical Ensemble) that moves the asymptotic temperature to zero. Besides, the mechanism of interaction and attachment of open strings to D-particles and D-membranes is analyzed. A first approach to type IIB Matrix String is carried out: its spectrum is found in the (2+1)-SYM and used to calculate an SL(2,Z) invariant partition function.

  19. Linearized supergravity from Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, D; Kabat, Daniel; Taylor, Washington

    1998-01-01

    We show that the linearized supergravity potential between two objects arising from the exchange of quanta with zero longitudinal momentum is reproduced to all orders in 1/r by terms in the one-loop Matrix theory potential. The essential ingredient in the proof is the identification of the Matrix theory quantities corresponding to moments of the stress tensor and membrane current. We also point out that finite-N Matrix theory violates the Equivalence Principle.

  20. Lectures on Matrix Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydri, Badis

    The subject of matrix field theory involves matrix models, noncommutative geometry, fuzzy physics and noncommutative field theory and their interplay. In these lectures, a lot of emphasis is placed on the matrix formulation of noncommutative and fuzzy spaces, and on the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. In particular, the phase structure of noncommutative $\\phi^4$ theory is treated in great detail, and an introduction to noncommutative gauge theory is given.