Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galy, J
2006-11-15
This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO{sub 2} and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO{sub 2} in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO{sub 2}. The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO{sub 2} low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO{sub 2}-phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO{sub 2} and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO{sub 2}-phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO{sub 2}. A parallel has
Chromium speciation in solid matrices and regulation: a review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Unceta, N. [University of the Basque Country, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Seby, F. [Ultra Traces Analyses Aquitaine (UT2A), Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Pau (France); Malherbe, J.; Donard, O.F.X. [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc Pau-Pyrenees, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, IPREM, UMR CNRS 5254, Pau (France)
2010-06-15
In recent years, the extensive use of chromium in industrial processes has led to the promotion of several directives and recommendations by the European Union, that try to limit and regulate the presence of Cr(VI) in the environment and to protect industrial workers using chromium and end-users of manufactured products. As a consequence, new standard methods and analytical procedures have been published at the EU level for Cr(VI) determination in soil, sludge, sediment, and similar waste materials, workplace atmospheres, cement, packaging materials, industrially produced samples, and corrosion-protection layers on some components of vehicles and electrical and electronic equipment. The objective of this article is to summarize the different directives and recommendations and to critically review the currently existing standard methods and the methods published in the literature for chromium speciation in the above mentioned solid matrices, putting the emphasis on the different extraction procedures which have been developed for each matrix. Particular attention has been paid to Cr(III) and Cr(VI) inter-conversions that can occur during extraction and efforts to minimize these unwanted reactions. Although the use of NaOH-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions with hot plate extraction seems to be the more widespread procedure, species transformation can still occur and several studies suggest that speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS) could be a suitable tool for correction of these interconversions. Besides, recent studies have proved the role of Cr(III) in chromium toxicology. As a consequence, the authors suggest an update of standard methods in the near future. (orig.)
Matrices Aléatoires Tri-diagonales et Par Blocs.
MEKKI, Slimane
2014-01-01
Dans ce mémoire l'étude porte sur la densité de matrice aléatoire, les densités des valeurs propres d'une matrice pour les trois ensembles G.O.E, G.U.E, G.S.E. Après nous avons explicité les formules des densités de valeurs propres des matrices tri-diagonales dans les cas HERMITE et LAGUERRE Des simulations sur les constantes de normalisations pour les densités des matrices aléatoires ou des valeurs propres sont présentées.
Subcritical-Water Extraction of Organics from Solid Matrices
Amashukeli, Xenia; Grunthaner, Frank; Patrick, Steven; Kirby, James; Bickler, Donald; Willis, Peter; Pelletier, Christine; Bryson, Charles
2009-01-01
An apparatus for extracting organic compounds from soils, sands, and other solid matrix materials utilizes water at subcritical temperature and pressure as a solvent. The apparatus, called subcritical water extractor (SCWE), is a prototype of subsystems of future instrumentation systems to be used in searching for organic compounds as signs of past or present life on Mars. An aqueous solution generated by an apparatus like this one can be analyzed by any of a variety of established chromatographic or spectroscopic means to detect the dissolved organic compound( s). The apparatus can be used on Earth: indeed, in proof-of-concept experiments, SCWE was used to extract amino acids from soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile), which was chosen because the dryness and other relevant soil conditions there approximate those on Mars. The design of the apparatus is based partly on the fact that the relative permittivity (also known as the dielectric constant) of liquid water varies with temperature and pressure. At a temperature of 30 C and a pressure of 0.1 MPa, the relative permittivity of water is 79.6, due to the strong dipole-dipole electrostatic interactions between individual molecular dipoles. As the temperature increases, increasing thermal energy causes increasing disorientation of molecular dipoles, with a consequent decrease in relative permittivity. For example, water at a temperature of 325 C and pressure of 20 MPa has a relative permittivity of 17.5, which is similar to the relative permittivities of such nonpolar organic solvents as 1-butanol (17.8). In the operation of this apparatus, the temperature and pressure of water are adjusted so that the water can be used in place of commonly used organic solvents to extract compounds that have dissimilar physical and chemical properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi
2010-01-01
Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g -1 , 141-237 ng g -1 and 413-755 ng g -1 , respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (< C8) in some individual cases, PFOA and PFOS were still the major pollution compounds in most cases and they constituted 2-34% and 1-9% of the total PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.
Li, Fei; Zhang, Chaojie; Qu, Yan; Chen, Jing; Chen, Ling; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qi
2010-01-01
Perfluorinated acids (PFAs) have been recognized as emerging environmental pollutants because of their widespread occurrences, persistence, and bioaccumulative and toxicological effects. PFAs have been detected in aquatic environment and biota in China, but the occurrences of these chemicals have not been reported in solid matrices in China. In the present study, short- and long-chain PFAs (C2-C14) have been quantitatively determined in solid matrices including sediments, soils and sludge collected in Shanghai, China. The results indicate that sludge contains more PFAs than sediments and soils, and the total PFAs concentrations in sediments, soil and sludge are 62.5-276 ng g(-1), 141-237 ng g(-1) and 413-755 ng g(-1), respectively. In most cases, trifluoroacetic acid was the major PFA and accounted for 22-90% of the total PFAs. Although the levels of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were not only lower than trifluoroacetic acid, but also lower than some short-chain PFCAs (PFAs, respectively. Meanwhile, unlike previous studies, PFOS levels were not always higher than PFOA in solids collected in Shanghai, China. Given that some short-chain PFAs such as trifluoroacetic acid are mildly phytotoxic and their higher levels in solid matrices were collected in Shanghai, China, these chemicals should be included in future environmental monitoring efforts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The influence of the physical structure of polyurethane matrix as a support in a solid state culture in tannase production and gallic acid accumulation by Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated. Three different polyurethane matrices were used as the support: continuous, semi-discontinuous and discontinuous. The highest tannase production at 2479.59 U/L during the first 12 h of culture was obtained using the discontinuous matrix. The gallic acid was accumulated at 7.64 g/L at the discontinuous matrix. The results show that the discontinuous matrix of polyurethane is better for tannase production and gallic acid accumulation in a solid state culture bioprocess than the continuous and semi-discontinuous matrices.
Li, Bin; Konecke, Stephanie; Wegiel, Lindsay A; Taylor, Lynne S; Edgar, Kevin J
2013-10-15
Amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) of curcumin (Cur) in cellulose derivative matrices, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), carboxymethylcellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB), and cellulose acetate adipate propionate (CAAdP) were prepared in order to investigate the structure-property relationship and identify polymer properties necessary to effectively increase Cur aqueous solution concentration. XRD results indicated that all investigated solid dispersions were amorphous, even at a 9:1 Cur:polymer ratio. Both stability against crystallization and Cur solution concentration from these ASDs were significantly higher than those from physical mixtures and crystalline Cur. Remarkably, curcumin was also stabilized against chemical degradation in solution. Chemical stabilization was polymer-dependent, with stabilization in CAAdP>CMCAB>HPMCAS>PVP, while matrices enhanced solution concentration as PVP>HPMCAS>CMCAB≈CAAdP. HPMCAS/Cur dispersions have useful combinations of pH-triggered release profile, chemical stabilization, and strong enhancement of Cur solution concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
2016-04-01
QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid - Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS
Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N
2017-03-04
Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.
Radiation-induced transformations of isolated organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, V.I.
1998-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The studies of radiation-chemical behaviour of isolated organic molecules in rigid inert media are of considerable interest for radiation chemistry and general structural chemistry. Previous efforts were limited to the ESR studies of radicals resulting from some small hydrocarbon molecules in frozen rare gas solutions. Recently, we developed an approach to the radiation chemistry of isolated organic molecules using classic matrix isolation procedure for sample preparation and a combination of ESR and IR spectroscopy for characterization of paramagnetic and diamagnetic species resulting form electron irradiation or organic molecules in solid rare gas matrices at 10-15 K. The results obtained reveal high efficiency of energy transfer from rare gas matrix to organic molecules. The total radiation-chemical yields of degradation of organic molecules in argon and xenon matrices were measured directly by IR spectroscopy. The studies of the effect of electron scavengers on the radiolysis of organic molecules in solid rare gases show that the main primary process is positive hole transfer from matrix to additive molecule. ESR spectra of a number of radical cations (alkanes, ethers, arenes) were first characterized in a low-disturbing environment. It was found that the electronic characteristics (IP, polarizability) of the matrix used had crucial effect on trapping and degradation of primary organic radical cations. Using matrices with various IP provides an unique possibility to examine the chemical meaning of excess energy resulting from exothermic positive hole transfer, that is, to follow the fate of excited cations in condensed phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Recherche sur l' Etat Condense, les Atomes et les Molecules, Lab. de Structure et Dynamique par Resonance Magnetique Lab. Claude Frejacques - CEA/CNRS URA 331, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)
2007-07-01
The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)
Development of a protocol to measure iron-55 in solid matrices in the environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augeray, Céline; Magalie, Mouton; Nathalie, Broustet; Marie-France, Perdereau; Chloé, Laconici; Jeanne, Loyen; Corinne, Fayolle; Jean-Louis, Picolo
2015-01-01
The development of metrology of iron-55 in low-level radioactivity in environmental solid matrices was realised for conducting radioecological studies. A protocol was developed based on the adaptation of existing methods for the purification of iron-55 with selective chromatographic resin, which was then measured with liquid scintillation. The loss attached treatment chemical steps were quantified with elemental iron by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The tests were used to define the iron retention capacity of selective chromatographic resin, a key element in chemical treatment, and test sample size needed to reach the detection limit of 30 Bq kg −1 dry. The solid samples were analysed with the developed protocol. The activities obtained from iron-55 were below the detection limit of 30 Bq kg −1 dry. - Highlights: • To obtain the desired detection limit in environmental solid matrices, the choice of method was realised. • A protocol was thus developed with our resources to obtain a 30 Bq kg-1 dry detection limit. • The optimisation of the operating conditions is described and the activities obtained are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaVerne, J.A.
1998-01-01
'This project uses fundamental radiation chemical techniques to elucidate the basic processes occurring in the heavy-ion radiolysis of solid hydrocarbon matrices such as polymers and organic resins that are associated with many of the transuranic waste deposits or the transportation of these radionuclides. The environmental management of mixed waste containing transuranic radionuclides is difficult because these nuclides are alpha particle emitters and the energy deposited by the alpha particles causes chemical transformations in the matrices accompanying the waste. Most radiolysis programs focus on conventional radiation such as gamma rays, but the chemical changes induced by alpha particles and other heavy ions are typically very different and product yields can vary by more than an order of magnitude. The objective of this research is to measure the production of gases, especially molecular hydrogen, produced in the proton, helium ion, and carbon ion radiolysis of selected solid organic matrices in order to obtain fundamental mechanistic information on the radiolytic decomposition of these materials. This knowledge can also be used to directly give reasonable estimates of explosive or flammability hazards in the storage or transport of transuranic wastes in order to enhance the safety of DOE sites. This report summarizes the work after eight months of a three-year project on determining the production of hazardous gases in transuranic waste. The first stage of the project was to design and build an assembly to irradiate solid organic matrices using accelerated ion beams. It is necessary to measure absolute radiolytic yields, and simulate some of the conditions found in the field. A window assembly was constructed allowing the beam to pass consecutively through a collimator, a vacuum exit window and into the solid sample. The beam is stopped in the sample and the entire end of the assembly is a Faraday cup. Integration of the collected current, in conjunction
Feichtmeier, Nadine S; Ruchter, Nadine; Zimmermann, Sonja; Sures, Bernd; Leopold, Kerstin
2016-01-01
Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are implemented in food contact materials due to their powerful antimicrobial properties and so may enter the human food chain. Hence, it is desirable to develop easy, sensitive and fast analytical screening methods for the determination of AgNPs in complex biological matrices. This study describes such a method using solid sampling high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). A recently reported novel evaluation strategy uses the atomization delay of the respective GFAAS signal as significant indicator for AgNPs and thereby allows discrimination of AgNPs from ionic silver (Ag(+)) in the samples without elaborate sample pre-treatment. This approach was further developed and applied to a variety of biological samples. Its suitability was approved by investigation of eight different food samples (parsley, apple, pepper, cheese, onion, pasta, maize meal and wheat flour) spiked with ionic silver or AgNPs. Furthermore, the migration of AgNPs from silver-impregnated polypropylene food storage boxes to fresh pepper was observed and a mussel sample obtained from a laboratory exposure study with silver was investigated. The differences in the atomization delays (Δt(ad)) between silver ions and 20-nm AgNPs vary in a range from -2.01 ± 1.38 s for maize meal to +2.06 ± 1.08 s for mussel tissue. However, the differences were significant in all investigated matrices and so indicative of the presence/absence of AgNPs. Moreover, investigation of model matrices (cellulose, gelatine and water) gives the first indication of matrix-dependent trends. Reproducibility and homogeneity tests confirm the applicability of the method.
Rogacheva, Svetlana M.; Shipovskaya, Anna B.; Volkova, Elena V.; Khurshudyan, Grachia N.; Suska-Malawska, Malgorzata; Gubina, Tamara I.
2018-04-01
The spectral-kinetic characteristics of luminescence of 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) sorbed from a "water-organic solvent" medium on cellulose diacetate (CDA) matrices were studied. A significant increase in the fluorescence signal on the CDA matrix was observed for 13 PAHs in comparison with aqueous solutions. The highest detection sensitivity was found for pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(k)fluoranthene. The fluorescence spectra of two PAH indicator pairs (anthracene-phenanthrene and pyrene-fluoranthene) used to control toxicant emission sources were studied with the simultaneous presence of isomers in the analyte, depending on the excitation wavelength. For both isomer pairs, it has been found that the spectra of their solid-state luminescence overlap insignificantly, the characteristic peaks do not coincide and do not overlap, the sensitivities of detection are close to each other, which makes it possible to consider this technique as promising to control PAH contamination sources.
Supercritical fluid extraction of positron-emitting radioisotopes from solid target matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlyer, D.
2000-01-01
Supercritical fluids are attractive as media for both chemical reactions, as well as process extraction, since their physical properties can be manipulated by small changes in pressure and temperature near the critical point of the fluid. Such changes can result in drastic effects on density-dependent properties such as solubility, refractive index, dielectric constant, viscosity and diffusivity of the fluid. This suggests that pressure tuning of a pure supercritical fluid may be a useful means to manipulate chemical reactions on the basis of a thermodynamic solvent effect. It also means that the solvation properties of the fluid can be precisely controlled to enable selective component extraction from a matrix. In recent years there has been a growing interest in applying supercritical fluid extraction to the selective removal of trace metals from solid samples. Much of the work has been done on simple systems comprised of inert matrices such as silica or cellulose. Recently, this process as been expanded to environmental samples as well. However, very little is understood about the exact mechanism of the extraction process. Of course, the widespread application of this technology is highly dependent on the ability of scientists to model and predict accurate phase equilibria in complex systems. In this project, we plan to explore the feasibility of utilizing supercritical fluids as solvents for reaction and extraction of radioisotopes produced from solid enriched targets. The reason for this work is that many of these enriched target materials used for radioisotope production are expensive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobzarenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.
2012-01-01
The effect of excess energy on the primary radical cations of bifunctional carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alkynes was simulated by matrix isolation method using rare gas matrices with various ionization potentials. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. It was shown that the radical cations of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 and CH 3 COCOCH 3 ) dissociated effectively yielding · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T≤16 K. In addition to isolated methyl radicals, the radical pairs consisting of two methyl radicals separated by two CO molecules were detected in the case of diacetyl. The probability of fragmentation decreases with the decreasing excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. In general, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to “hot” ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R--C≡CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R=–C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R=–CH 3 . The mechanisms of “hot” reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. - Highlights: ► Radiolysis of bifunctional organic compounds and alkynes. ► Dependence of “hot” fragmentation probability from molecular structure. ► Ions of bifunctional compounds are less stable than those of monofunctional ones. ► Alkynes are rather stable to “hot” fragmentation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lee Yook Heng
2017-11-01
Full Text Available New membrane materials based on cross-linked poly(n-butyl acrylate (nBA, have been used successfully as calcium ion-selective membranes. These membrane materials possess selfplasticising property and hence do not require plasticisers. The photocurability and good adhesion characteristics of these polymer matrices enable workable solid-state calcium ion sensors to be fabricated by simple photocure procedures employing the calcium ionophore ETH5234 and a lipophilic additive as ion sensing components. The calcium ion-selectivity of the sensors can be controlled by varying the chemical composition of the photocured membrane. An optimum amount of the cross-linker 2,2-hexanedioldiacrylate (HDDA and the incorporation of n-heptyl acrylate (nHA led to improvement in the calcium ion-selectivity. The best calcium ion-selectivity was obtained from a copolymer membrane with composition: nBA = 74 wt-%, nHA = 20 wt-% and HDDA = 0.1 wt-%. The selectivity coefficients of calcium over major cations were: LogKCaPot,Na= -4.4, LogKCaPot,K = -3.6, LogKCa,PotLi = -5.9, LogKCaPot,Mg= -4.4 with a Nernstian slope (29.1 ± 0.8 mV/decade under buffered conditions. This potentiometric performance is comparable to other solid-state calcium ion sensors with various plasticised polymer membranes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobrazenko, A.V.; Sukhov, F.F.; Orlov, A.Yu.; Kovalev, G.V.; Baranova, I.A.; Feldman, V.I.
2011-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Elucidation of high-energy reaction pathways in the condensed phase is an important issue for basic understanding of the radiation stability of complex organic molecules. As was shown previously, organic radical cations (RC) may undergo fragmentation or rearrangement in solid matrices due to excess energy. The probability of this process depends on both ionization potential (IP) of the molecule and molecular structure. In the present work we have studied the role of 'hot' ionic reaction channels for RC of some bifunctional compounds and alkynes. The effect of excess energy was simulated by matrix isolation method as described in detail earlier. The formation of fragmentation products was monitored by EPR and FTIR spectroscopy. In the present work it was shown that the RC of bifunctional compounds (CH 3 OCH 2 COCH 3 , CH 3 CO(CH 2 ) n COCH 3 , n 0/2) dissociated efficiently producing · CH 3 radicals upon irradiation in solid argon matrix at T ≤ 16 K. The probability of fragmentation decreases with decrease of excess energy by switching from Ar to Xe. It is worth noting that acetone RC does not show fragmentation under these conditions. Thus, bifunctional molecules were found to be less stable to 'hot' ionic fragmentation in low-temperature solids in comparison with simple prototype carbonyl compounds. In the case of alkynes of the R-C ≡ CH type, a noticeable yield of fragmentation products was observed when R = -C(CH 3 ) 3 , but it was negligible for R = -CH 3 . It means that the presence of triple bond stabilizes the molecular skeleton of linear alkynes toward 'hot' fragmentation, similarly as it was shown for alkenes. The mechanisms of 'hot' reactions and excess energy relaxation are discussed. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 09-03-00848a).
Aljewifi , Hana; Fiorio , Bruno; Gallias , Jean-Louis
2009-01-01
International audience; Les bétons textiles utilisent comme renfort des fils multifilamentaires dont l'imprégnation par la matrice cimentaire conditionne largement les propriétés mécaniques. Deux méthodes expérimentales qui permettent de quantifier le niveau d'imprégnation du fil sont présentées ici. Ces méthodes ont été testées sur trois types de fils multifilamentaires de verre, pour trois niveaux d'imprégnation. Les résultats des deux méthodes proposées sont mis en parallèle avec la caract...
An experimental device for measurement of gas permeation in solid matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Salve, M.; Mazzi, E.; Zucchetti, M.
1996-01-01
The inventory in and the permeation through fusion reactor structures of hydrogen and its isotopes play an important role in the machine operation, evolution of material properties, and safety. An experimental and research activity for the determination of permeability (and derived parameters) of gases in solid matrices is described. It uses a gas permeation method, that basically consists in the measure of the time evolution of the gas pressure in a chamber in which vacuum has been previously made (downstream volume). This chamber is separated from another one, full of the gas in exam (upstream volume), by means of a membrane of the material under study. The experimental installation is described. The first stage of the experimental activity has dealt with the set-up of the device, the volume calibration, and the definition of the parameters range for which the installation can give reliable measurements. The subsequent stage of the activity has consisted in the measurement of the permeability, and then of the diffusion coefficient, of nitrogen in some materials at room temperature. Concurrently with the experimental activity, a model has been set-up and implemented in a computer code: this code permits to evaluate the time evolution of the pressure in the downstream chamber. With this code, using the measured parameters, the time evolution of the pressure experimentally measured has been satisfactorily reproduced. (author)
Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Sgorbini, Barbara
2004-01-23
High concentration capacity headspace techniques (headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE)) are a bridge between static and dynamic headspace, since they give high concentration factors as does dynamic headspace (D-HS), and are as easy to apply and as reproducible as static headspace (S-HS). In 2000, Chromtech (Idstein, Germany) introduced an inside-needle technique for vapour and liquid sampling, solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE), also known as "the magic needle". In SPDE, analytes are concentrated on a 50 microm film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and activated carbon (10%) coated onto the inside wall of the stainless steel needle (5 cm) of a 2.5 ml gas tight syringe. When SPDE is used for headspace sampling (HS-SPDE), a fixed volume of the headspace of the sample under investigation is sucked up an appropriate number of times with the gas tight syringe and an analyte amount suitable for a reliable GC or GC-MS analysis accumulates in the polymer coating the needle wall. This article describes the preliminary results of both a study on the optimisation of sampling parameters conditioning HS-SPDE recovery, through the analysis of a standard mixture of highly volatile compounds (beta-pinene, isoamyl acetate and linalool) and of the HS-SPDE-GC-MS analyses of aromatic plants and food matrices. This study shows that HS-SPDE is a successful technique for HS-sampling with high concentration capability, good repeatability and intermediate precision, also when it is compared to HS-SPME.
Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers; Etude des polymeres solides par resonance magnetique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lenk, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-07-01
This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [French] Cette etude est une recherche bibliographique sur l'application de la resonance magnetique nucleaire (RMN) aux polymeres solides. Dans la premiere partie theorique on discute les elements de la theorie de RMN, necessaires pour l'etude des proprietes des polymeres solides: la methode des moments, la relaxation nucleaire et la distribution des temps de correlation. La deuxieme partie presente les resultats des experiences. (auteur)
Decontamination of solid matrices using supercritical CO2: study of contaminant-additives-CO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galy, J.
2006-11-01
This work deals with the decontamination of solid matrices by supercritical CO 2 and more particularly with the study of the interactions between the surfactants and the CO 2 in one part, and with the interactions between the contaminant and the surfactants in another part. The first part of this study has revealed the different interactions between the Pluronics molecules and the supercritical CO 2 . The diagrams graphs have shown that the pluronics (PE 6100, PE 8100 and PE 10100) present a solubility in the supercritical CO 2 low but sufficient (0.1% m/m at 25 MPa and 313 K) for the studied application: the treatment of weak quantities of cerium oxide (or plutonium). An empirical approach based on the evolutions of the slops value and of the origin ordinates of the PT diagrams has been carried out to simulate the phase diagrams PT of the Pluronics. A modeling based on the state equations 'SAFT' (Statistical Associating Fluid Theory) has been studied in order to confirm the experimental results of the disorder points and to understand the role of the different blocks 'PEO' and 'PPO' in the behaviour of Pluronics; this modeling confirms the evolution of the slopes value with the 'CO 2 -phily' of the system. The measure of the surface tension in terms of the Pluronics concentration (PE 6100, 81000 and 10100) has shown different behaviours. For the PE 6100, the surface tension decreases when the surfactant concentration increases (at constant pressure and temperature); on the other hand, for the PE 8100 a slop rupture appears and corresponds to the saturation of the interface water/CO 2 and allows then to determine the Interface Saturation Concentration (ISC). The ISC value (at constant pressure and temperature) increases with an increase of the 'CO 2 -phily'). The model hydrophilous medium being an approximation, it has been replaced by a solid polar phase of CeO 2 . A parallel has been established between the evolution of the surface tension between the water and
Report: future industrial solid waste management in pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ), Iran.
Mokhtarani, Babak; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Alavi; Mokhtarani, Nader; Khaledi, Hossein Jomeh
2006-06-01
The Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (PSEEZ) is located in the south of Iran, on the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf. This area was established in 1998 for the utilization of south Pars field oil and gas resources. This field is one of the largest gas resources in the world and contains about 6% of the total fossil fuels known. Petrochemical industries, gas refineries and downstream industries are being constructed in this area. At present there are three gas refineries in operation and five more gas refineries are under construction. In this study, different types of solid waste including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial wastes were investigated separately. The aim of the study was to focus on the management of the industrial wastes in order to minimize the environmental impact. In the first stage, the types and amounts of industrial waste in PSEEZ were evaluated by an inventory. The main types of industrial waste are oil products (fuel oil, light oil, lubricating oil), spent catalysts, adsorbents, resins, coke, wax and packaging materials. The waste management of PSEEZ is quite complex because of the different types of industry and the diversity of industrial residues. In some cases recycling/reuse of waste is the best option, but treatment and disposal are also necessary tools. Recently a design has been prepared for a disposal site in PSEEZ for the industrial waste that cannot be reused or recycled. The total surface area of this disposal site where the industrial waste should be tipped for the next 20 years was estimated to be about 42 000 m2.
Alam, Md Nazmul; Pawliszyn, Janusz
2018-02-20
The development of matrix compatible coatings for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has enabled direct extraction of analytes from complex sample matrices. The direct immersion (DI) mode of SPME when utilized in conjunction with such extraction phases facilitates extraction of a wide range of analytes from complex matrices without the incurrence of fouling or coating saturation. In this work, mathematical models and computational simulations were employed to investigate the effect of binding components present in complex samples on the recovery of small molecules varying in logP for extractions carried out using the direct immersion approach. The presented findings corroborate that the studied approach indeed enables the extraction of both polar and nonpolar analytes from complex matrices, provided a suitable sorbent is employed. Further results indicated that, in certain cases, the kinetics of extraction of a given analyte in its free form might be dependent on the desorption kinetics of their bound form from matrix components, which might lower total recoveries of analytes with high affinity for the matrix. However, the binding of analytes to matrix components also enables SPME to extract a balanced quantity of different logP analytes, facilitated by multiphase equilibria, with a single extraction device.
Chagvardieff, Pierre; Barré, Yves; Blin, Virginie; Faure, Sylvain; Fornier, Anne; Grange, Didier; Grandjean, Agnès; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Henner, Pascale; Siroux, Brice; Leybros, Antoine; Messalier, Marc; Paillard, Hervé; Prévost, Thierry; Rennesson, Malvina; Sarrobert, Catherine; Vavasseur, Alain; Véry, Anne-Aliénor
2017-09-01
As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA) proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor …) and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction) which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grandjean, A.
2006-07-01
The author gives an overview of his research activity during which she worked on three main subjects. The first one dealt with the investigation of transport mechanisms in metal alloys (experimental investigation of diffusion in amorphous alloys, oxidation mechanism of Zircaloy-4 under temperature and in water or in dry oxygen). The second one dealt with the synthesis and properties of specific confinement matrices (effect of chemical composition on sintering of a carbonate powder, effect of microstructure of high Mo and P content vitro-crystals on lixiviation properties, incorporation of fluorine compounds in the case of borosilicate systems). The third one dealt with the transport in borosilicate glasses and melts (ionic transport, properties, and electrical transport glass-RuO 2 particles composites)
Guernec, Anthony; Robichaud-Rincon, Philippe; Saucier, Linda
2012-10-01
Bacteria on meat are subjected to specific living conditions that differ drastically from typical laboratory procedures in synthetic media. This study was undertaken to determine the behavior of bacteria when transferred from a rich-liquid medium to solid matrices, as is the case during microbial process validation. Escherichia coli cultured in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) broth to different growth phases were inoculated in ground beef (GB) and stored at 5°C for 12 days or spread onto BHI agar and cooked meat medium (CMM), and incubated at 37°C for several hours. We monitored cell densities and the expression of σ factors and genes under their control over time. The initial growth phase of the inoculum influenced growth resumption after transfer onto BHI agar and CMM. Whatever the solid matrix, bacteria adapted to their new environment and did not perceive stress immediately after inoculation. During this period, the σ(E) and σ(H) regulons were not activated and rpoD mRNA levels adjusted quickly. The rpoS and gadA mRNA levels did not increase after inoculation on solid surfaces and displayed normal growth-dependent modifications. After transfer onto GB, dnaK and groEL gene expression was affected more by the low temperature than by the composition of a meat environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O' Hara, Matthew J.; Kellogg, Cyndi M.; Parker, Cyrena M.; Morrison, Samuel S.; Corbey, Jordan F.; Grate, Jay W.
2017-09-01
Ammonium bifluoride (ABF, NH4F·HF) is a well-known reagent for converting metal oxides to fluorides and for its applications in breaking down minerals and ores in order to extract useful components. It has been more recently applied to the decomposition of inorganic matrices prior to elemental analysis. Herein, a sample decomposition method that employs molten ABF sample treatment in the initial step is systematically evaluated across a range of inorganic sample types: glass, quartz, zircon, soil, and pitchblende ore. Method performance is evaluated across the two variables: duration of molten ABF treatment and ABF reagent mass to sample mass ratio. The degree of solubilization of these sample classes are compared to the fluoride stoichiometry that is theoretically necessary to enact complete fluorination of the sample types. Finally, the sample decomposition method is performed on several soil and pitchblende ore standard reference materials, after which elemental constituent analysis is performed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Elemental recoveries are compared to the certified values; results indicate good to excellent recoveries across a range of alkaline earth, rare earth, transition metal, and actinide elements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chagvardieff Pierre
2017-01-01
Full Text Available As part of the « post-accidental » management, the DEMETERRES project (RSNR PIA proposes to develop innovative and environmentally friendly methods for removal of cesium and strontium from soils and liquid matrices in order to rehabilitate them for an agricultural use while minimizing the volume of generated wastes in accordance with the nuclear waste existing processes. Complementary approaches are used: they are based on physico-chemical technologies (such as foams flotation, supercritical CO2 extraction, extractants in fluidized bed reactor … and biological ones (bioextractants, phytoextraction which concepts are described. These researches aim to design innovative and performing extractants in term of selectivity and to achieve the pilot reactor phase for each of them. These pilots will group in a network to provide a technological platform lasting the project, to which will be attached an available network of experts. The respective advances of these researches are presented, completed of tests initiated in Japan on contaminated soils through partnerships.
Analyse des solides déformables par la méthode des éléments finis
Bonnet, Marc
2006-01-01
Cet ouvrage propose une présentation structurée de la formulation et la mise en œuvre de la simulation numérique par éléments finis en mécanique des solides déformables. Il présente et développe les concepts et techniques permettant la transposition, en termes de codes de calcul de structures mécaniques industrielles, des notions fondamentales de mécanique des milieux continus solides, et ce dans le cadre d'analyses en régimes (a) statique linéaire, (b) quasistatique non-linéaire et (c) dynamique linéaire. L'exposé théorique est complété et illustré au moyen de programmes d'initiation écrits en Matlab (librement accessibles par Internet) mettant en œuvre les notions développées dans cet ouvrage et conçus comme support pratique à un enseignement. Le texte combine ainsi l'exposition des principes et des méthodes avec la présentation détaillée de ces programmes et d'exemples les mettant en œuvre. L'ouvrage est complété d'une annexe écrite par Andrei Constantinescu (directeur de...
Model for UV induced formation of gold nanoparticles in solid polymeric matrices
Sapogova, N.; Bityurin, N.
2009-09-01
UV irradiation of polymeric PMMA films containing HAuCl 4 followed by annealing at 60-80 °C forms gold nanoparticles directly within the bulk material. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation was traced by extinction spectra of nanocomposite film changes vs annealing time. We propose that UV irradiation causes HAuCl 4 dissociation and thus provides a polymeric matrix with atomic gold. The presence of an oversaturated solid solution of atomic gold in the polymeric matrix leads to Au nanoparticle formation during annealing. This process can be understood as a phase transition of the first order. In this paper we apply several common kinetic models of the phase transition for describing Au nanoparticle formation inside the solid polymer matrix. We compare predictions of these models with the experimental data and show that these models cannot describe the process. We propose that the stabilization effect of the matrix on the growing gold nanoparticles is important. The simplest model introducing some probability for the transition from growing nanoparticle to the non-growing, stabilized form is suggested. It is shown that this model satisfactorily describes the experimentally observed evolution of the extinction spectrum of Au nanoparticles forming in a polymer matrix.
Andres, Maria Jesus; Alvarez, Rodrigo; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda
2015-04-01
After their consumption, drug of abuse are excreted through urine or faeces, as parent compound or as secondary metabolites that arrive to wastewater treatment plants. Accordingly, the incomplete removal of these compounds in the treatment plants could release them into environmental compartments [1]. This scenario needs attention from an ecotoxicological perspective because their possible negative effects [2]. The aim of this study is to optimize and apply a solvent extraction and solid phase clean-up methodology to obtain a valid procedure for the extraction of these compounds in different solid matrices. Amphetamine, methamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, ecstasy, ethylone, bk-MMBDB and MBDB belong to phenylethylamine group; codeine and ketamine belong to opioid and phencyclidine group, respectively, and benzoylecgonine is the major excreted metabolite of the alkaloid cocaine. To optimize the method to determinate drugs of abuse in environmental solid matrices, two replicates and one blank were prepared for each sample of sediment. They were prepared by adding 1 g of sediment sample, 5 mL of buffer (methanol-Mc Ilvaine 50:50) and internal standard to obtain a final concentration in the extract of 25 ng/g. Also standards of drugs of abuse were added to the replicates to obtain a final concentration of 100 ng/g. Then all samples were shaken, sonicated and centrifuged and the supernatant was separated and placed in a 250 mL volumetric flask, which was filled the rest with distilled water. SPE was carried out with Strata-X cartridges and 250 mL of sample were passed through them. The extracts were eluted with 6 mL of methanol, evaporated to dryness and reconstituted in 1 mL of methanol-water 1:9. One of the replicates was filtrated through 0.22 μm pore size and the others were not. The samples were determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) using an electrospray ionization source (ESI) in positive ionization mode. The results
[Studies of chemical reactions in solid matrices]. Final report, December 1,, 1979-November 30, 1984
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willard, J.E.
1984-12-01
This program, which has been supported for 35 years by the Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, has produced significant advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of: (1) chemical activation by nuclear processes; (2) radiation chemistry; and (3) photochemistry. It has advanced knowledge of the reactions of electrons, hydrogen atoms and small free radicals, particularly in solids at cryogenic temperatures. It has applied radioisotopes as a tool in the solution of a number of chemical problems, has developed useful new techniques, and has contributed to the training of approximately 150 scientists at various levels. This final report includes a review of the evolution of areas of research emphasized, tabulations of the publications (chronologically and by research area) and Ph.D. theses resulting from the program, and tabulations of the research personnel (by academic category, by dates in the program and by subsequent employment)
Nutarelli, D.; Débarre, A.; Jaffiol, R.; Julien, C.; Richard, A.; Tchénio, P.; Chaput, F.; Boilot, J. P.
2004-11-01
La fluorescence de molécules de colorant dans des matrices sol-gel en film mince a été étudiée par détection de molécule unique. Outre les phénomènes de photo-blanchiment et de clignotement, un processus de photo-agrégation a été observé. Ce phénomène, dont la dynamique dépend de la présence d'oxygène, de l'intensité du laser d'excitation et de la température, montre l'existence de deux classes de molécules dans l'échantillon. Des molécules immobiles et d'autres qui diffusent. L'analyse de la dynamique d'agrégation permettra de dégager certaines caractéristiques du mécanisme de photo-agrégation et d'appréhender le rôle joué par la matrice sol-gel dans ce processus.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Landesman, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
Due to the unusually large zero point motion of helium three atoms in the solid, the overlap of the atomic wave functions is very important. As a consequence, there are exchange interactions, the theoretical calculation and the experimental measurement of which are discussed. Nuclear magnetic resonance is especially well suited for the latter.A detailed theory is given for both exchange narrowing and Zeeman-exchange cross relaxation, which phenomena are used to measure the exchange interaction as a function of molar volume. The alignment temperature is thus known; it goes down when the pressure goes up and is never higher than three milli degrees. An influence of helium four impurities on the exchange interactions between helium three atoms which are neighbours of the substitutional He is shown. (author) [French] Par suite de l'amplitude exceptionnelle des mouvements de point zero dans l'helium trois solide, le recouvrement des fonctions d'onde atomiques est tres important. Il en resulte des interactions d' echange dont on discute l'evaluation theorique et la mise en evidence experimentale. Cette derniere peut se faire par resonance magnetique; on etudie theoriquement les phenomenes de retrecissement par echange et de relaxation Zeeman-echange que l'on met a profit pour determiner les interactions d'echange en fonction du volume molaire. On en deduit que la temperature d'alignement nucleaire diminue quand on comprime le solide et est au plus de 3x10{sup -3} K. L'influence des impuretes d'helium quatre sur les interactions d'echange entre atomes {sup 3}He voisins de {sup 4}He est mise en evidence. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Berg, H.
1997-01-01
Detection of irradiated components in processed food with complex lipid matrices can be affected by two problems. First, the processed food may contain only a small amount of the irradiated component, and the radiation-induced hydrocarbons may be diluted throughout the lipid matrix of the whole food. Second, in complex lipid matrices, the detection of prior irradiation is often disturbed by fat-associated compounds. In these cases, common solid phase extraction (SPE) Florisil clean-up alone is inadequate in the detection of prior irradiation. Subsequent SPE argentation chromatography of the Florisil eluate allows the measurement of small amounts of irradiated lipid-containing ingredients in processed food as well as the detection of prior irradiation in complex lipid matrices such as paprika and chilli. SPE argetation chromatography is the first method available for the selective enrichment of radiation-specific hydrocarbons from even complex lipid matrices, thus enabling the detection of irradiation does as low as 0.025 kGy. Furthermore, by using radiation-induced hydrocarbons in the detection of prior irradiation of paprika and chilli powder, a second independent method, the first being measurement of thermoluminescence, is available for the analysis of these matrices. Such analysis could be achieved by using this highly sensitive, cheap and easy to perform combined SPE Florisil/argentation chromatography method, without the need for sophisticated techniques like SFE-GC/MS or LC-GC/MS, so that highly sensitive detection of prior irradiation colud be performed in almost every laboratory
Ceballos, Melisa Rodas; García-Tenorio, Rafael; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor; Ferrer, Laura
2017-12-01
Leached fractions of U and Th from different environmental solid matrices were evaluated by an automatic system enabling the on-line lixiviation and extraction/pre-concentration of these two elements previous ICP-MS detection. UTEVA resin was used as selective extraction material. Ten leached fraction, using artificial rainwater (pH 5.4) as leaching agent, and a residual fraction were analyzed for each sample, allowing the study of behavior of U and Th in dynamic lixiviation conditions. Multivariate techniques have been employed for the efficient optimization of the independent variables that affect the lixiviation process. The system reached LODs of 0.1 and 0.7ngkg -1 of U and Th, respectively. The method was satisfactorily validated for three solid matrices, by the analysis of a soil reference material (IAEA-375), a certified sediment reference material (BCR- 320R) and a phosphogypsum reference material (MatControl CSN-CIEMAT 2008). Besides, environmental samples were analyzed, showing a similar behavior, i.e. the content of radionuclides decreases with the successive extractions. In all cases, the accumulative leached fraction of U and Th for different solid matrices studied (soil, sediment and phosphogypsum) were extremely low, up to 0.05% and 0.005% of U and Th, respectively. However, a great variability was observed in terms of mass concentration released, e.g. between 44 and 13,967ngUkg -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salgueiro-González, N; Castiglioni, S; Zuccato, E; Turnes-Carou, I; López-Mahía, P; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S
2018-09-18
The problem of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment has become a worldwide concern in recent decades. Besides their toxicological effects at low concentrations and their widespread use in industrial and household applications, these pollutants pose a risk for non-target organisms and also for public safety. Analytical methods to determine these compounds at trace levels in different matrices are urgently needed. This review critically discusses trends in analytical methods for well-known EDCs like alkylphenols and bisphenol A in solid environmental matrices, including sediment and aquatic biological samples (from 2006 to 2018). Information about extraction, clean-up and determination is covered in detail, including analytical quality parameters (QA/QC). Conventional and novel analytical techniques are compared, with their advantages and drawbacks. Ultrasound assisted extraction followed by solid phase extraction clean-up is the most widely used procedure for sediment and aquatic biological samples, although softer extraction conditions have been employed for the latter. The use of liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry has greatly increased in the last five years. The majority of these methods have been employed for the analysis of river sediments and bivalve molluscs because of their usefulness in aquatic ecosystem (bio)monitoring programs. Green, simple, fast analytical methods are now needed to determine these compounds in complex matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Basilevsky, M. V.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.; Mitina, E. A.
2013-12-01
The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ξ0 = ℏω0/kBT where ω0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (ξ0 conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local modes immersed in the continuum harmonic medium is formulated for both classical and quantum regimes, and accounts explicitly for the mode/medium interaction. The kinetics of the energy exchange between the local ET subsystem and the surrounding environment essentially determine the total ET rate. The efficient computer code for rate computations is elaborated on. The computations are available for a wide range of system parameters, such as the temperature, external field, local mode frequency, and characteristics of mode/medium interaction. The relation of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roux, A; Richard, M; Eyraud, L; Stevanovic, M; Elston, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
It is not generally possible to measure the enthalpy change corresponding to solid phase reactions using the dynamic differential thermal analysis method because these reactions are usually too slow at the temperature of operation of present equipment. A ballistic differential thermal analysis apparatus has been developed which is based on an immersion-compensation method; it overcomes the difficulties previously encountered. This apparatus has been used after calibration for determining the enthalpies of formation of calcium and cadmium titanates. and also the Wigner energies of BeO, MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples irradiated at variable dose at a temperature of under 100 deg. C. (authors) [French] Il n'est generalement pas possible de mesurer la variation d'enthalpie correspondant aux reactions en phase solide par la methode d'analyse thermique differentielle dynamique. En effet, ces reactions sont le plus souvent trop lentes aux temperatures d'utilisation des dispositifs actuels. Un appareil d'analyse thermique differentielle balistique, base sur une methode de plongee avec compensation, a ete mis au point et permet de surmonter les difficultes precedentes. Apres etalonnages, cet appareil a ete utilise pour la determination des enthalpies de formation du titanate de calcium et du titanate de cadmium ainsi que pour celle des energies Wigner emmagasinees dans des echantillons de BeO, MgO et Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradies a une temperature inferieure a 100 deg. C et a differentes doses. (auteurs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carney, K.P.; Cummings, D.G.
1995-01-01
The design and characterization of an argon segmented-solid phase extraction system is described. A 200 ul volume micro-column has been constructed for the preconcentration of rare earth elements (REEs) from salt matrices containing uranium. An inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer has been utilized for simultaneous detection of Sr, Y and the REEs (namely Ce, Eu, La, Nd, Pr, Sm) at levels ranging from 5- to 2000 ppm in LiCl/KCl samples containing U. Preconcentration factors of 100 fold have been demonstrated. The precision, linear dynamic range and column performance of the system will be presented. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene
2018-01-01
encased in solid lipid matrices as a novel indicator of their stability upon in vitro release. Model proteins namely catalase and lysozyme were incorporated into lipid namely Precirol® AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58°C) at 30% w/w loading using melting and mixing and wet granulation...... aggregation for catalase which was increased using wet granulation. The biological activity of catalase was statistically different from that of control and was affected by the incorporation method and was found to be in alignment with ATR spectral changes and extent of aggregation. In conclusion, ATR...
Althoff, Marc André; Bertsch, Andreas; Metzulat, Manfred; Klapötke, Thomas M; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin L
2017-11-01
The successful application of headspace (HS) and direct immersion (DI) solid phase microextraction (SPME) for the unambiguous identification and characterization of a series of toxic thiophosphate esters, such as Amiton (I), from aqueous phases and complex matrices (e.g. grass and foliage) has been demonstrated. A Thermo Scientific gas chromatograph (GC) - tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) system with a TriPlus RSH® autosampler and a SPME tool was used to investigate the effect of different parameters that influence the extraction efficiency: e.g. pH of the sample matrix and extraction temperature. The developed methods were employed for the detection of several Amiton derivatives (Schedule II of the CWC) that are structurally closely related to each other; some of which are new and have not been reported in literature previously. In addition, a novel DI SPME method from complex matrices for the analysis of organophosphates related to the CWC was developed. The studies clearly show that DI SPME for complex matrices is superior to HS extraction and can potentially be applied to other related compounds controlled under the CWC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basilevsky, M. V.; Mitina, E. A.; Odinokov, A. V.; Titov, S. V.
2013-01-01
The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ξ 0 =ℏω 0 /k B T where ω 0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (ξ 0 0 ≫ 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T→ 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basilevsky, M. V.; Mitina, E. A. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); Odinokov, A. V. [Photochemistry Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, 7a, Novatorov ul., Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” 31, Kashirskoye shosse, Moscow (Russian Federation); Titov, S. V. [Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, 3-1/12, Building 6, Obuha pereulok, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2013-12-21
The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ξ{sub 0}=ℏω{sub 0}/k{sub B}T where ω{sub 0} is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (ξ{sub 0} < 1 − 3) and for low (ξ{sub 0}≫ 1) temperature ranges. For the first (quasi-classical) kinetic regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T→ 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the
Basilevsky, M V; Odinokov, A V; Titov, S V; Mitina, E A
2013-12-21
The algorithm for a theoretical calculation of transfer reaction rates for light quantum particles (i.e., the electron and H-atom transfers) in non-polar solid matrices is formulated and justified. The mechanism postulated involves a local mode (an either intra- or inter-molecular one) serving as a mediator which accomplishes the energy exchange between the reacting high-frequency quantum mode and the phonon modes belonging to the environment. This approach uses as a background the Fermi golden rule beyond the usually applied spin-boson approximation. The dynamical treatment rests on the one-dimensional version of the standard quantum relaxation equation for the reduced density matrix, which describes the frequency fluctuation spectrum for the local mode under consideration. The temperature dependence of a reaction rate is controlled by the dimensionless parameter ξ0 = ℏω0/k(B)T where ω0 is the frequency of the local mode and T is the temperature. The realization of the computational scheme is different for the high/intermediate (ξ0 regime, the Redfield approximation to the solution of the relaxation equation proved to be sufficient and efficient in practical applications. The study of the essentially quantum-mechanical low-temperature kinetic regime in its asymptotic limit requires the implementation of the exact relaxation equation. The coherent mechanism providing a non-vanishing reaction rate has been revealed when T → 0. An accurate computational methodology for the cross-over kinetic regime needs a further elaboration. The original model of the hopping mechanism for electronic conduction in photosensitive organic materials is considered, based on the above techniques. The electron transfer (ET) in active centers of such systems proceeds via local intra- and intermolecular modes. The active modes, as a rule, operate beyond the kinetic regimes, which are usually postulated in the existing theories of the ET. Our alternative dynamic ET model for local
Tang, Zhentao; Hou, Wenqian; Liu, Xiuming; Wang, Mingfeng; Duan, Yixiang
2016-08-26
Integral analysis plays an important role in study and quality control of substances with complex matrices in our daily life. As the preliminary construction of integral analysis of substances with complex matrices, developing a relatively comprehensive and sensitive methodology might offer more informative and reliable characteristic components. Flavoring mixtures belonging to the representatives of substances with complex matrices have now been widely used in various fields. To better study and control the quality of flavoring mixtures as additives in food industry, an in-house fabricated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared based on sol-gel technology in this work. The active organic component of the fiber coating was multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with hydroxyl-terminated polydimethyldiphenylsiloxane, which integrate the non-polar and polar chains of both materials. In this way, more sensitive extraction capability for a wider range of compounds can be obtained in comparison with commercial SPME fibers. Preliminarily integral analysis of three similar types of samples were realized by the optimized SPME-GC-MS method. With the obtained GC-MS data, a valid and well-fit model was established by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) for classification of these samples (R2X=0.661, R2Y=0.996, Q2=0.986). The validity of the model (R2=0.266, Q2=-0.465) has also approved the potential to predict the "belongingness" of new samples. With the PLS-DA and SPSS method, further screening out the markers among three similar batches of samples may be helpful for monitoring and controlling the quality of the flavoring mixtures as additives in food industry. Conversely, the reliability and effectiveness of the GC-MS data has verified the comprehensive and efficient extraction performance of the in-house fabricated fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liska, I.; Krupcik, J.; Leclercq, P.A.
1989-01-01
The main principles of solid-phase extraction techniques are reviewed in this paper. Various solid sorbents can be used as a suitable trap for direct accumulation of organic compounds from aqueous solutions. The trapped analytes can be desorbed by elution with suitably chosen liquid phases. These
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čížková, P.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šestáková, Ivana; Josypčuk, Bohdan
2007-01-01
Roč. 19, 2-3 (2007), s. 161-171 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42; GA ČR GA521/06/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : voltammetry * biological materials * solid amalgam electrode * atomic absorption spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.949, year: 2007
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogg, A.T.J.; Lang, R.; Meier-Boeke, P.; Scheel, W.; Reske, S.N.; Neumaier, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Ulm (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin
2004-07-01
Commonly used ''organic'' positron emitting radionuclides {sup 18}F, {sup 11}C, {sup 13}N, and {sup 15}O are simply obtained from gaseous or aqueous targets, which enable an automated handling of target, i.e. both, filling and radionuclide delivery to a hot cell containing a chemistry processing and/or labelling module. In the recent years other - mostly metallic - radionuclides for PET gained more and more interest, since they can be used as surrogates for therapeutic nuclides attached to biomolecules like peptides or antibodies. The implication for surrogate nuclides results from the circumstance that an optimum dosimetric regime in endo radiotherapy relies on quantitative pharmacokinetic data obtained only by non invasive in vivo PET scans. However, for production of these alternative positron emitters the vast majority of them affords solid targets in form of metal foils, oxide or salt pellets which can not be operated by an automated processing. Those solid target systems have to be mounted and dismounted after irradiation by man, leading to two major disadvantages. First, manual cyclotron intervention is practically unsuited for daily routine radionuclide production and second the operating staff receives high radiation doses from the activated target. An alternative could be the irradiation of aqueous salts of target isotopes, allowing automated target operation. The major requirements are firstly a thermal stability of the dissolved compound, secondly the avoidance of counter ions containing nuclides which produce long-lived radionuclides under irradiation and thirdly a high solubility of the salt in the aqueous matrix. Here we report the proof of principle of the new radionuclide production concept by irradiation of strontium nitrate dissolved in water in order to produce {sup 86}Y (cf.). (orig.)
Jin, Jing; Li, Yun; Zhang, Zhiping; Su, Fan; Qi, Peipei; Lu, Xianbo; Chen, Jiping
2011-12-23
A new method for the selective cleanup of complex matrices and simultaneous separation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was developed in this study. This method was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) using magnesium oxide microspheres as sorbents, and it eliminated interferences from various impurities, such as lipids, sulphur, pigments, halobenzenes, polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorodibenzofurans. Several parameters, including the volume of rinsing and eluting solvents, the type of loading solvents and SPE sorbents, were optimized systematically. The capability for impurity removal was verified by gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography. Compared to commercial sorbents (silica gel, florisil and alumina), MgO microspheres exhibited excellent performance in the selective isolation of BaP and removal of impurities. The proposed method was applied to detect BaP in complex samples (sediments, soils, fish, and porcine liver). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.04 ngL(-1), and the resulting regression coefficient (r(2)) was greater than 0.999 over a broad concentration range (9.5-7600 ngL(-1)). In contrast to traditional methods, the proposed method can give rise to higher recovery (85.1-100.8%) and better selectivity with simpler operation and less consumption of organic solvents (20-40 mL). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Köke, Niklas; Zahn, Daniel; Knepper, Thomas P; Frömel, Tobias
2018-03-01
Analysis of polar organic chemicals in the aquatic environment is exacerbated by the lack of suitable and widely applicable enrichment methods. In this work, we assessed the suitability of a novel combination of well-known solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials in one cartridge as well as an evaporation method and for the enrichment of 26 polar model substances (predominantly log D evaporation method were investigated for the recovery and matrix effects of the model substances and analyzed with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). In total, 65% of the model substances were amenable (> 10% recovery) to the mlSPE method with a mean recovery of 76% while 73% of the model substances were enriched with the evaporation method achieving a mean recovery of 78%. Target and non-target screening comparison of both methods with a frequently used reversed-phase SPE method utilizing "hydrophilic and lipophilic balanced" (HLB) material was performed. Target analysis showed that the mlSPE and evaporation method have pronounced advantages over the HLB method since the HLB material retained only 30% of the model substances. Non-target screening of a ground water sample with the investigated enrichment methods showed that the median retention time of all detected features on a HILIC system decreased in the order mlSPE (3641 features, median t R 9.7 min), evaporation (1391, 9.3 min), HLB (4414, 7.2 min), indicating a higher potential of the described methods to enrich polar analytes from water compared with HLB-SPE. Graphical abstract Schematic of the method evaluation (recovery and matrix effects) and method comparison (target and non-target analysis) of the two investigated enrichment methods for very polar chemicals in aqueousmatrices.
Krylov, Piotr
2017-01-01
This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...
Averaging operations on matrices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-07-03
Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...
Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene; Medlicott, Natalie J
2018-02-01
Protein drugs may encounter conformational perturbations during the formulation processing of lipid-based solid dosage forms. In aqueous protein solutions, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can investigate these conformational changes following the subtraction of spectral interference of solvent with protein amide I bands. However, in solid dosage forms, the possible spectral contribution of lipid carriers to protein amide I band may be an obstacle to determine conformational alterations. The objective of this study was to develop an ATR FT-IR spectroscopic method for the analysis of protein secondary structure embedded in solid lipid matrices. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a model protein, while Precirol AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58 ℃) was employed as the model lipid matrix. Bovine serum albumin was incorporated into lipid using physical mixing, melting and mixing, or wet granulation mixing methods. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were performed for the analysis of BSA secondary structure and its dissolution in aqueous media, respectively. The results showed significant interference of Precirol ATO5 with BSA amide I band which was subtracted up to 90% w/w lipid content to analyze BSA secondary structure. In addition, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy also detected thermally denatured BSA solid alone and in the presence of lipid matrix indicating its suitability for the detection of denatured protein solids in lipid matrices. Despite being in the solid state, conformational changes occurred to BSA upon incorporation into solid lipid matrices. However, the extent of these conformational alterations was found to be dependent on the mixing method employed as indicated by area overlap calculations. For instance, the melting and mixing method imparted negligible effect on BSA secondary structure, whereas the wet granulation mixing method promoted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terzopoulou, Zoi; Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kyzas, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A.
2016-01-01
In the present study, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber (MIP-SPME_f) was synthesized and applied for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug, abacavir (ABA). Morphology and structure characterization of fibers were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capability (Q_m_a_x) was determined by Langmuir- Freundlich model and was 149 mg/g for MIP-SPME_f. In the next step, SPME methodology followed by liquid desorption and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the target compound in environmental and biological matrices (surface waters, wastewaters and urine). Parameters that could influence SPME efficiency were investigated. Then, optimization of stirring speed, extraction time and salt content was carried out by using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model between dependent and independent variables was built. Under the optimum conditions (extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 650 rpm and salt content 0.3% NaCl w/v) the validated method presented a high sensitivity and selectivity with LODs and LOQs in the range of 10.1–13.6 and 33.3–43.9 ng/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ABA in real samples. The percentage extraction efficiency ranged from 88 to 99% revealing good accuracy and absence of matrix effects. - Highlights: • Preparation of a novel SPME MIP fiber with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective removal and extraction of abacavir from environmental & biological media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of synthesized MIPs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terzopoulou, Zoi [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Papageorgiou, Myrsini [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Kyzas, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lambropoulou, Dimitra A., E-mail: dlambro@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR–541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)
2016-03-24
In the present study, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber (MIP-SPME{sub f}) was synthesized and applied for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug, abacavir (ABA). Morphology and structure characterization of fibers were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capability (Q{sub max}) was determined by Langmuir- Freundlich model and was 149 mg/g for MIP-SPME{sub f}. In the next step, SPME methodology followed by liquid desorption and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the target compound in environmental and biological matrices (surface waters, wastewaters and urine). Parameters that could influence SPME efficiency were investigated. Then, optimization of stirring speed, extraction time and salt content was carried out by using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model between dependent and independent variables was built. Under the optimum conditions (extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 650 rpm and salt content 0.3% NaCl w/v) the validated method presented a high sensitivity and selectivity with LODs and LOQs in the range of 10.1–13.6 and 33.3–43.9 ng/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ABA in real samples. The percentage extraction efficiency ranged from 88 to 99% revealing good accuracy and absence of matrix effects. - Highlights: • Preparation of a novel SPME MIP fiber with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective removal and extraction of abacavir from environmental & biological media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of
Avgerinos, Theodoros; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Panagopoulou, Athanasia; Malamataris, Stavros; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Nikolakakis, Ioannis
2018-02-01
Objective/significance: To elucidate the role of plasticizers in different mini matrices and correlate mechanical properties with drug release. Cylindrical pellets were prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and mini tablets by hot (HC) and ambient compression (AC). Venlafaxine HCl was the model drug, Eudragit ® RSPO the matrix former and citric acid or Lutrol ® F127 the plasticizers. The matrices were characterized for morphology, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. The influence of plasticizer's type and content on the extrusion pressure (P e ) during HME and ejection during tableting was examined and the mechanical properties were correlated with drug release parameters. Resistance to extrusion and tablet ejection force were reduced by Lutrol ® F127 which also produced softer and weaker pellets with faster release, but harder and stronger HC tablets with slower release. HME pellets showed greater tensile strength (T) and 100 times slower release than tablets. P e correlated with T and resistance to deformation of the corresponding pellets (r 2 = 0.963 and 0.945). For both HME and HC matrices the decrease of drug release with T followed a single straight line (r 2 = 0.990) and for HME the diffusion coefficient (D e ) and retreat rate constant (k b ) decreased linearly with T (r 2 = 0.934 and 0.972). Lutrol ® F127 and citric acid are efficient plasticizers and Lutrol ® F127 is a thermal binder/lubricant in HC compression. The different bonding mechanisms of the matrices were reflected in the mechanical strength and drug release. Relationships established between T and drug release parameters for HME and HC matrices may be useful during formulation work.
Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices
Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime
2014-01-01
The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.
Zhang, Ruiqi; Wang, Siming; Yang, Ye; Deng, Yulan; Li, Di; Su, Ping; Yang, Yi
2018-06-01
In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes were coated on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles modified by polydopamine. The synthesized composite was characterized and applied to magnetic-μ-dispersive solid-phase extraction of oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenytoin (PHT), and carbamazepine (CBZ) from human plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid samples prior to analysis by a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector. The extraction parameters were investigated and the optimum condition was obtained when the variables were set to the following: sorbent type, Fe 3 O 4 @polyDA-MWCNTs (length Graphical abstract Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube core-shell composites were applied as magnetic-μ-dispersive solid-phase extraction adsorbents for determination of antiepileptic drugs in biological matrices.
Williams, Audrey M; Vu, Alexander K; Mayer, Brian P; Hok, Saphon; Valdez, Carlos A; Alcaraz, Armando
2018-08-15
Chemical attribution signatures indicative of O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioate (Russian VX) synthetic routes were investigated in spiked food samples. Attribution signatures were identified using a multifaceted approach: Russian VX was synthesized using six synthetic routes and the chemical attribution signatures identified by GC-MS and LC-MS. Three synthetic routes were then down selected and spiked into complex matrices: bottled water, baby food, milk, liquid eggs, and hot dogs. Sampling and extraction methodologies were developed for these materials and used to isolate the attribution signatures and Russian VX from each matrix. Recoveries greater than 60% were achieved for most signatures in all matrices; some signatures provided recoveries greater than 100%, indicating some degradation during sample preparation. A chemometric model was then developed and validated with the concatenated data from GC-MS and LC-MS analyses of the signatures; the classification results of the model were > 75% for all samples. This work is part three of a three-part series in this issue of the United States-Sweden collaborative efforts towards the understanding of the chemical attribution signatures of Russian VX in crude materials and in food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Métallisation de guide d'onde en matériau composite à matrice époxy par un procédé DLI-MOCVD
Addou, Fouzi
2017-01-01
La fabrication de guides d’ondes à partir d’un matériau composite CFRP isolant, nécessite de rendre la surface interne conductrice électriquement. Cela peut s’effectuer par métallisation, mais des verrous technologiques apparaissent en raison de la géométrie complexe associée à une surface inerte. Le CFRP est composé d’époxy dont la température de transition vitreuse est de 216 °C, ce qui limite le choix des techniques de métallisation. De plus, l’énergie de surface du polymère qui compose la...
Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-12-05
Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.
Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2013-01-01
Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.
Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Poole, Justen; Pawliszyn, Janusz
2017-07-05
The direct interface of microextraction technologies to mass spectrometry (MS) has unquestionably revolutionized the speed and efficacy at which complex matrices are analyzed. Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Transmission Mode (SPME-TM) is a technology conceived as an effective synergy between sample preparation and ambient ionization. Succinctly, the device consists of a mesh coated with polymeric particles that extracts analytes of interest present in a given sample matrix. This coated mesh acts as a transmission-mode substrate for Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART), allowing for rapid and efficient thermal desorption/ionization of analytes previously concentrated on the coating, and dramatically lowering the limits of detection attained by sole DART analysis. In this study, we present SPME-TM as a novel tool for the ultrafast enrichment of pesticides present in food and environmental matrices and their quantitative determination by MS via DART ionization. Limits of quantitation in the subnanogram per milliliter range can be attained, while total analysis time does not exceed 2 min per sample. In addition to target information obtained via tandem MS, retrospective studies of the same sample via high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) were accomplished by thermally desorbing a different segment of the microextraction device.
Luo, Juntao; Pardin, Christophe; Zhu, X X; Lubell, William D
2007-01-01
Spherical crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) beads with good mechanical stability were prepared by reverse-suspension polymerization, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a cosolvent in an aqueous phase. Poly(ethylene glycol)s with varying chain lengths were grafted onto the PVA beads by anionic polymerization of ethylene oxide. The thermal behavior, morphology, and swelling were evaluated for each of the new polymer matrices. High loading and good swelling in water and organic solvents were characteristic of the PEG-grafted PVA beads. The polymer beads also exhibited good mechanical and chemical stability and were unaffected by treatment with 6 N HCl and with 6 N NaOH. The hydroxyl groups of the PVA-PEG beads were converted into aldehyde, carboxylic acid, and isocyanate functions to provide scavenger resins and were extended by way of a benzyl alcohol in a Wang linker. The transglutaminase substrates dipeptides (Z-Gln-Gly) and heptapeptides (Pro-Asn-Pro-Gln-Leu-Pro-Phe) were synthesized on PVA-PEG_5, PVA-PEG_20, and the Wang linker-derivatized PVA-PEG resins. The cleavage of the peptides from the resins using MeOH/NH3 mixture at different temperatures (0 degrees C and room temp) and 50% TFA/DCM provided, respectively, peptide methyl esters, amides, and acids in good yields and purity as assessed by LC-MS analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baudry, G.
2003-11-15
In the field of the measurement of low masses of fissile material ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 241}Pu) in radioactive waste drums, the Active Neutron Interrogation is a non-destructive method achieving good results. It does however remain reliant upon uncertainties related to the matrix effects on interrogation and fission neutrons. The aim of this thesis is to develop a correction method able to take into account these matrix effects by quantifying the amount of absorbent materials (chlorine and hydrogen) in a 118- liter homogeneous matrix. The main idea is to use the gamma-ray spectrometry of gamma emitted by neutron captures to identify and quantify the composition of the matrix. An indicator from its chlorine content is then deduced in order to choose the calibration coefficient which best represents the real composition of the matrix. This document firstly presents the needs of control and characterization of radioactive objects, and the means used in the field of nuclear measurement. Emphases is put in particular on the Active Neutron Interrogation method. The matrices of interest are those made of light technological waste (density {<=} 0,4 g/cm{sup 3}) containing hydrogenated and chlorinated materials. The advantages of gamma-rays emitted by neutron captures for the determination of a chlorine content indicator of the matrices and the principles of the correction method are then explained. Measurements have been firstly realized with an existing Neutron Interrogation device (PROMETHEE 6). Such measurements have proven its inadequacy: no signal from the matrix hydrogen was detected, due to an intense signal from the polyethylene contained in some cell elements. Moreover, the matrix chlorine content appeared difficult to be measured. A new and specific device, named REGAIN and dedicated to active gamma-rays spectrometry, was defined with the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code. The experiments conducted with this new device made it possible to detect the
Matrices and linear transformations
Cullen, Charles G
1990-01-01
""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bregiroux, D
2005-11-15
In the framework of the French law of 1991 concerning the nuclear waste management, several studies are undertaken to develop specific crystalline conditioning matrices. Monazite, a rare earth (TR{sup 3+}) orthophosphate with a general formula TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4}, is a natural mineral containing significant amount of thorium and uranium. Monazite has been proposed as a host matrix for the minor actinides (Np, Am and Cm) specific conditioning, thanks to its high resistance to self irradiation and its low solubility. Its is now of prime importance to check the conservation of these properties on synthesized materials, which implies to master all the stages of the elaboration process, from the powder synthesis to the sintering of controlled microstructure pellets. This work can be divided into two main parts: The first part deals with the synthesis by high temperature solid state route of TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4} powders (with TR{sup 3+} = La{sup 3+} to Gd{sup 3+}, Pu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}). The chemical reactions occurring during the firing of starting reagents are described in the case of monazite with only one or several cations. From these results, a protocol of synthesis is described. The incorporation of tetravalent cations (Ce{sup 4+}, U{sup 4+}, Pu{sup 4+}) in the monazite structure was also studied. The second part of the present work deals with the elaboration of controlled density and microstructure monazite pellets and their related mechanical and thermal properties. The study of crushing and sintering is presented. For the first time, experimental results are confronted with theoretical models in order to deduce the densification and grain growth mechanisms. By the comprehension of the various physicochemical phenomena occurring during the various stages of the monazite pellets elaboration process (powder synthesis, crushing, sintering...), this work allowed the development of a protocol of elaboration of controlled microstructure monazite TR{sup 3+}PO{sub 4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Costa Antônio C. Spínola
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A procedure for separation and pre-concentration of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in brine samples has been proposed. It is based on the adsorption of metal ions onto dithizone co-crystallized with microcrystalline naphthalene, in the pH range 8.5-9.1. Nitric acid is used to back-extract the cations from the solid phase, which are measured by ICP-OES. Various parameters, such as the effect of pH, stirring time, and amounts of solid phase, have been studied in detail, to optimize the conditions for the determination of trace amounts of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn in synthetic brine samples. The limits of detection values expressed in mug L-1 are 44 (Zn, 11 (Ni, 30 (Cd, 47 (Pb and 11 (Cu. The precision of the procedure was determined by running 10 replicate samples, each one containing 250 mug L-1 of each element and the relative standard deviations were 2.71 % (Cd, 2.15 % (Cu, 1.53 % (Pb, 2.47 % (Ni, and 2.78 % (Zn. The accuracy of the procedure was confirmed by applying the analyte additions method and the results indicated that quantitative recoveries (superscript three 95 % were obtained.
Bochmann, Esther S; Neumann, Dirk; Gryczke, Andreas; Wagner, Karl G
2016-10-01
A new predictive micro-scale solubility and process model for amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) by hot-melt extrusion (HME) is presented. It is based on DSC measurements consisting of an annealing step and a subsequent analysis of the glass transition temperature (Tg). The application of a complex mathematical model (BCKV-equation) to describe the dependency of Tg on the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)/polymer ratio, enables the prediction of API solubility at ambient conditions (25°C). Furthermore, estimation of the minimal processing temperature for forming ASDs during HME trials could be defined and was additionally confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction data. The suitability of the DSC method was confirmed with melt rheological trials (small amplitude oscillatory system). As an example, ball milled physical mixtures of dipyridamole, indomethacin, itraconazole and nifedipine in poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinylacetate) (copovidone) and polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus®) were used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcaraz, A.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.
1995-01-01
A variety of methods have been established using advanced chromatographic techniques and new detection systems for the analysis of chemical signatures associated with nuclear and chemical weapon (CW) proliferation. Most of these analytical methods are used in the laboratory and seldom applied in the field. The Chemical Weapons Convention (an international treaty to ban chemical weapons) may require the rapid on-site analysis of environmental samples which contain CW agents, their precursors, and/or their degradation products. In addition to the fact that certain countries are involved in CW non-compliance, there is a current uncertainty regarding nuclear proliferation. This also creates new demands on sample work-up and analytical instrumentation use in the field. The isolation and identification of unique chemical signatures in complex samples such as soils, waste tanks, and decontamination solutions would determine non-compliance. However, a primary area of detection research continues to be sample preparation. Most of the established sample cleanup technologies involve liquid/liquid, Soxhlet, or most recently, solid phase extraction (SPE). Despite the success of these traditional sample preparation techniques, they are time consuming and require multi-step procedures (especially when preparing samples for gas chromatographic mass-spectrometric analysis). The goal of this work is to demonstrate the advantages of utilizing SPME and SPME in-situ derivatization techniques to eliminate time consuming steps necessary to prepare a sample for on-site GC-MS. The authors' approach was to compare two SPME fibers and to develop methods to facilitate the isolation of polar and moderately polar proliferation compounds from complex environmental samples. This work will help to evaluate current SPME technologies for use during on-site environmental monitoring analysis
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
harmonic analysis and complex analysis, in ... gebra describes not only the study of linear transforma- tions and .... special case of the Jordan canonical form of matrices. ..... Richard Bronson, Schaum's Outline Series Theory And Problems Of.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Assamoi AA.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Microbial aspects of endo-β-1,4-xylanase production in solid-state fermentation by Penicillia: the case of Penicillium canescens. Production of xylanases by Penicillium canescens 10-10c is the research object in Walloon Center of Industrial Biology. Previous works used submerged or liquid fermentation. The actual works are oriented more and more towards solid fermentation from agricultural or agro-alimentary residues. In addition to the valorization of these residues, solid-state fermentation reaches an increasingly significant interest in various other fields like the biological breakdown of the solid residues, the bioremediation of the organic pollutants in the grounds and the reduction of the air pollution by the biofiltration. Xylanase is an industrial enzyme used in general in extraction and clarification processes. P. canescens can produce an activity of it, particularly in its balanced forms of xylanases, beta-xylosidase and arabinosidase, and not contaminated by cellulolytic and amylolytic activities. It is a hyper producing strain of xylanase. The production rate is one of the highest in literature (535 U.ml-1 and 9,632 U.g-1 in Erlenmeyer flasks, in submerged and solid state fermentation, respectively. The biobleaching activity of the cellulose pulp by the purified enzyme is higher than a commercial preparation of xylanases from Trichoderma longibrachiatum used industrially. It has a complete hydrolysis degree of 40% (on glucuronoxylan and 35% (on arabinoxylan at 55°C and at pH of 5.9. These characteristics lead to many industrial applications of this enzyme. That is why the optimization of its production by the solid-state fermentation at the laboratory scale in order to define a policy for the industrial transposition later is carried out. This article presents a summary of the scientific literature on this subject.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouquerol, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-12-01
particulier dans le cas des solides mtcroporeux) pour la determination du volume de gaz adsorbe dans une couche monomoleculaire et que l'azote est sensible aux interactions chimiques ou electriques avec l'adsorbant: il convient de le remplacer par l'argon. Les methodes de calcul de la distribution de taille des pores sont analysees et discutees. Nos resultats experimentaux ont montre que l'epaisseur de la couche multimoleculaire doit etre calculee a partir du nombre de couches donne par Shull et d'une epaisseur de 3,6 angstrom par couche. Enfin, nous proposons une nouvelle methode d'analyse de la branche de desorption. Nous montrons que certains systemes lamellaires, non poreux, tels que Be(OH){sub 2}, donnent une hysteresis sur une isotherme d'adsorption du type I ou II. En nous basant sur les resultats numeriques fournis par notre methode ainsi que sur des observations obtenues par microscopie electronique, nous concluons que cette hysteresis est due au manque de rigidite du solide. Inversement, nous avons caracterise des solides poreux qui ne donnent pas lieu au phenomene d'hysteresis. C'est le cas des echantillons de glucine de texture microporeuse (r < 20 A). Les conclusions precedentes nous permettent de decrire l'evolution de texture subie par deux series d'echantillons (glucine et alumine) au cours de leur deshydratation progressive (traitement thermique allant de 150 a 1100 C). (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rouquerol, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-12-01
solides mtcroporeux) pour la determination du volume de gaz adsorbe dans une couche monomoleculaire et que l'azote est sensible aux interactions chimiques ou electriques avec l'adsorbant: il convient de le remplacer par l'argon. Les methodes de calcul de la distribution de taille des pores sont analysees et discutees. Nos resultats experimentaux ont montre que l'epaisseur de la couche multimoleculaire doit etre calculee a partir du nombre de couches donne par Shull et d'une epaisseur de 3,6 angstrom par couche. Enfin, nous proposons une nouvelle methode d'analyse de la branche de desorption. Nous montrons que certains systemes lamellaires, non poreux, tels que Be(OH){sub 2}, donnent une hysteresis sur une isotherme d'adsorption du type I ou II. En nous basant sur les resultats numeriques fournis par notre methode ainsi que sur des observations obtenues par microscopie electronique, nous concluons que cette hysteresis est due au manque de rigidite du solide. Inversement, nous avons caracterise des solides poreux qui ne donnent pas lieu au phenomene d'hysteresis. C'est le cas des echantillons de glucine de texture microporeuse (r < 20 A). Les conclusions precedentes nous permettent de decrire l'evolution de texture subie par deux series d'echantillons (glucine et alumine) au cours de leur deshydratation progressive (traitement thermique allant de 150 a 1100 C). (auteur)
Celano, Rita; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campone, Luca; Rastrelli, Luca
2014-08-15
Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are one of the most important classes of emerging contaminants. The potential of ecological and environmental impacts associated with PPCPs are of particular concern because they continually penetrate the aquatic environment. This work describes a novel ultra-preconcentration technique for the rapid and highly sensitive analysis of selected PPCPs in environmental water matrices at ppt levels. Selected PPCPs were rapidly extracted and concentrated from large volumes of aqueous solutions (500 and 250mL) by solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (SPE-DLLME) and then analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS. Experimental parameters were carefully investigated and optimized to achieve the best SPE-DLLME efficiency and higher enrichment factors. The best results were obtained using the ternary mixture acetonitrile/methanol/dichloromethane 3:3:4, v/v/v, both as SPE eluent and DLLME extractant/dispersive mixture. DLLME aqueous solution (5% NaCl, 10mgL(-1) TBAB) was also modified to improve the extraction efficiency of more hydrophilic PPCPs. Under the optimal conditions, an exhaustive extraction for most of the investigated analytes (recoveries >70%), with a precision (RSD drinking, sea, river and wastewater). Method detection and quantification limits were at very low ppt levels and below 1 and 3ngL(-1), respectively, for 15 of selected PPCPs. The proposed analytical procedure offers numerous advantages such as the simplicity of operation, rapidity, a high enrichment factor and sensitivity. So it is suitable for monitoring and studies of occurrence of PPCPs in different environmental compartments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chemiluminescence in cryogenic matrices
Lotnik, S. V.; Kazakov, Valeri P.
1989-04-01
The literature data on chemiluminescence (CL) in cryogenic matrices have been classified and correlated for the first time. The role of studies on phosphorescence and CL at low temperatures in the development of cryochemistry is shown. The features of low-temperature CL in matrices of nitrogen and inert gases (fine structure of spectra, matrix effects) and the data on the mobility and reactivity of atoms and radicals at very low temperatures are examined. The trends in the development of studies on CL in cryogenic matrices, such as the search for systems involving polyatomic molecules and extending the forms of CL reactions, are followed. The reactions of active nitrogen with hydrocarbons that are accompanied by light emission and CL in the oxidation of carbenes at T >= 77 K are examined. The bibliography includes 112 references.
Matrices in Engineering Problems
Tobias, Marvin
2011-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fauquignon, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1961-05-15
When a shock wave is induced in an explosive, it can initiate chemical reactions which lead more or less rapidly to a stable detonation state. In this study more particular attention was paid to the transition phase, in which has been evaluated the increases in the wave velocity, the pressure, and the electrical conductivity. The influence of the nature of the medium in front of the wave and in contact with the explosive has also been the subject of an experimental study designed to determine the extent to which its nature can be ignored and, subsequently, to characterise the initiation conditions using only the shock intensity induced in the explosive. Finally, the results were generalized for various explosive compositions and led to the development of a possible mechanism for shock initiation. (author) [French] Lorsqu'une onde de choc est induite dans un explosif, elle peut y amorcer des reactions chimiques qui conduisent plus ou moins rapidement a un regime de detonation stable. Dans cette etude, on s'est interesse plus particulierement a la phase transitoire dans laquelle on a evalue l'accroissement de la vitesse d'onde, de la pression et de la conductibilite electrique. L'influence du milieu amont, au contact de l'explosif, a egalement fait l'objet de recherches experimentales de facon a determiner dans quelle mesure on pouvait s'affranchir de sa nature et, par suite, caracteriser les conditions d'initiation par la seule intensite du choc induit dans l'explosif. Enfin, les resultats ont ete generalises a diverses compositions explosives et ont conduit a l'elaboration d'un schema possible du mecanisme de l'initiation par choc. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fauquignon, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1961-05-15
When a shock wave is induced in an explosive, it can initiate chemical reactions which lead more or less rapidly to a stable detonation state. In this study more particular attention was paid to the transition phase, in which has been evaluated the increases in the wave velocity, the pressure, and the electrical conductivity. The influence of the nature of the medium in front of the wave and in contact with the explosive has also been the subject of an experimental study designed to determine the extent to which its nature can be ignored and, subsequently, to characterise the initiation conditions using only the shock intensity induced in the explosive. Finally, the results were generalized for various explosive compositions and led to the development of a possible mechanism for shock initiation. (author) [French] Lorsqu'une onde de choc est induite dans un explosif, elle peut y amorcer des reactions chimiques qui conduisent plus ou moins rapidement a un regime de detonation stable. Dans cette etude, on s'est interesse plus particulierement a la phase transitoire dans laquelle on a evalue l'accroissement de la vitesse d'onde, de la pression et de la conductibilite electrique. L'influence du milieu amont, au contact de l'explosif, a egalement fait l'objet de recherches experimentales de facon a determiner dans quelle mesure on pouvait s'affranchir de sa nature et, par suite, caracteriser les conditions d'initiation par la seule intensite du choc induit dans l'explosif. Enfin, les resultats ont ete generalises a diverses compositions explosives et ont conduit a l'elaboration d'un schema possible du mecanisme de l'initiation par choc. (auteur)
Infinite matrices and sequence spaces
Cooke, Richard G
2014-01-01
This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi
2014-04-01
materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dulieu, P C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-01-01
In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayle, J
1996-11-05
Few studies have been carried out on the notion of gas-solid contact in ultra-rapid reactors. Both gas and solid move in the reactor and the contact can be directly estimated when using a chemical reaction such as cumene cracking. It`s a pure and light feedstock whose kinetics can be determined in a fixed bed. The study was carried out on a downflow ultra-rapid reactor (ID = 20 mm, length = 1 m) at the University of Western Ontario. It proved that the quench and the ultra-rapid separation of gas and solid must be carefully designed in the pilot plant. Cumene conversion dropped when reducing gas-solid contact, which led to push the temperature over 550 deg. C and increase the cat/oil ratio at 25 working at solid mass fluxes below 85 kg/m{sup 2}.s. Change of selectivity at very short residence time were also observed due to deactivation effects. Experiments made by Roques (1994) with phosphorescent pigments on the Residence Time Distribution of solids gave Hydrodynamic data on a cold flow copy of the pilot plant. Experiments made on packed bed gave kinetic data on the cracking of cumene. These data were combined to optimize a mono dimensional plug flow model for cumene cracking. (author)
Introduction to matrices and vectors
Schwartz, Jacob T
2001-01-01
In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.
Bapat, Ravindra B
2014-01-01
This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...
Hierarchical quark mass matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasin, A.
1998-02-01
I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brunelle, A.; Della Negra, S.; Deprun, C.; Depauw, J.; Jacquet, D.; Le Beyec, Y.; Pautrat, N. [Experimental Research Division, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Haakansson, P. [Division of Ion Physics, Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala Univ. Uppsala (Sweden)
1999-11-01
C{sub 60} molecules accelerated to MeV energies (20 MeV) have been used to induce the desorption-ionization of large bio-molecules from solid samples. In the case of the trypsin molecules, the secondary molecular ion emission yield is about two orders of magnitude larger than with MeV atomic ions. This is a consequence of the very high energy density deposited in solids by 20 MeV C{sub 60} projectiles that gives rise to a large amount of matter ejected after each impact. Although time-of-flight mass spectra can be recorded within a few seconds, it is more the mechanistic aspects in comparison with other particle induced desorption methods, which are the objective of these first results with energetic fullerenes. (authors) 1 fig.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latroche, M.; Joubert, J.M.; Cuevas, F.; Paul-Boncour, V.; Percheron-Guegan, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est (CMTR-ICMPE-UMR7182), 94 - Thiais (France)
2007-07-01
Hydrogen is considered as a future energy vector. To become a viable solution, the hydrogen storage processes must be safe, economic and adapted to the use possibilities. Today many storage modes offer interesting possibilities but need also more researches before realization of prototypes. These modes are described taking into account the physical (compression, liquefaction) and chemical (adsorption in porous solids and absorption in chemical hydrides) solutions. (A.L.B.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rambaud, P.
2001-11-01
The theme of this numerical thesis is on the behavior of solid particles embedded in a non-homogeneous and non-isotropic turbulent gas flow as the one tacking place in a plane channel. The turbulence is generated through the direct numerical simulation of Navier-Stokes equations discretized by formally second order in time and space finite difference operators. This Eulerian vision of the incompressible gas flow is completed by a Lagrangian formulation allowing to follow solid particles. In this formulation, the considered forces are the non-linear drag and the Saffman lift both corrected for wall effects. Furthermore, depending on the test cases studied, particle bouncing forces on the wall, gravity or electrostatic forces are taken into account. A three-dimensional Hermitian interpolation highlight the special care spend on the determination of the fluid velocity at the solid particle location. The first code application is dedicated to solid particles dispersion inside an horizontal channel, or in a channel operated in a weightlessness state. The huge amount of data from the Lagrangian tracking is reduced to the integral times of the turbulence seen by the solid particles on their trajectories. Those times are crucial in Lagrangian methods associated with a low numerical cost compared with the ones used in the present study. Among those methods, the one based on Langevin type equations have the best potential to handle industrial type problems. Nevertheless, this method needs to rebuild the fluid velocity fluctuations seen by the solid particles on their trajectories. This technic is able to reproduce the crossing trajectory effect, the inertial effect and the continuity effect, only if the integral times of the turbulence seen are known. Till now, those times were known thanks to a semi-empirical correlation from direct numerical simulation in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence (Wang and Stock 1993). However, although these conditions, this correlation was
M Wedderburn, J H
1934-01-01
It is the organization and presentation of the material, however, which make the peculiar appeal of the book. This is no mere compendium of results-the subject has been completely reworked and the proofs recast with the skill and elegance which come only from years of devotion. -Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society The very clear and simple presentation gives the reader easy access to the more difficult parts of the theory. -Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik In 1937, the theory of matrices was seventy-five years old. However, many results had only recently evolved from sp
Schneider, Hans
1989-01-01
Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t
Intermittency and random matrices
Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.
2015-08-01
A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.
Dimension from covariance matrices.
Carroll, T L; Byers, J M
2017-02-01
We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loche, F
2006-10-15
In the framework of radioactive waste drums control, difficulties arise in the nondestructive measurement of fissile mass ({sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu..) by Active Neutron Interrogation (ANI), when dealing with matrices containing materials (Cl, H...) influencing the neutron flux. The idea is to use the neutron capture reaction (n,{gamma}) to determine the matrix composition to adjust the ANI calibration coefficient value. This study, dealing with 118 litres, homogeneous drums of density less than 0,4 and composed of chlorinated and/or hydrogenated materials, leads to build abacus linking the {gamma} ray peak areas to the ANI calibration coefficient. Validation assays of these abacus show a very good agreement between the corrected and true fissile masses for hydrogenated matrices (max. relative standard deviation: 23 %) and quite good for chlorinated and hydrogenated matrices (58 %). The developed correction method improves the measured values. It may be extended to 0,45 density, heterogeneous drums. (author)
Solid NMR characterization of hydrogen solid storage matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pilette, M.A.; Charpentier, T.; Berthault, P.
2007-01-01
The aim of this work is to develop and validate characterization tools by NMR imagery and spectroscopy of the structure of materials for hydrogen storage, and of their evolution during load/unload cycles. The two main topics of this work are in one hand the analysis of the local structure of the materials and the understanding of their eventual modifications, and in another hand, the in-situ analysis of the distribution and diffusion of hydrogen inside the storage material. (O.M.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dulieu, P.C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-01-01
In the first part are studied the general relationships between the physical effects produced by neutrons in solids, and the total flux and neutron energy spectrum; some examples are given. The second part, describes the application to a silicon damage detector whose principle is to use the damage produced in a PIN Junction for measuring the neutron flux (intermediate and fast) received by the detector. Chapter I is devoted to the experimental determination of the energy given to the atoms by a primary in the silicon. The results and conclusions drawn from this determination make it possible to consider, in chapter II, the calculation of the detectors response characteristics.Chapter III deals with the measurement of the detectors response function and it is noted that good agreement is obtained between the calculation and experimental results. The whole of the second part constitutes a test of the methods presented in the first part. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie, nous etudions les relations generales qui lient les effets physiques engendres par les neutrons dans les solides au flux integre et au spectre des neutrons et nous donnons des exemples d'utilisation. La deuxieme partie est une application au detecteur de dommages en silicium, dont le principe est d'utiliser les dommages crees dans une jonction PIN pour mesurer les flux de neutrons (intermediaires et rapides) recus par le detecteur. Le chapitre I est consacre a la determination experimentale de l'energie cedee aux atomes par un primaire dans le silicium. Les resultats et les conclusions que l'on peut tirer de cette determination permettent d'aborder, au chapitre II, le calcul de la fonction de reponse du detecteur. Le chapitre III porte sur la mesure de la fonction de reponse du detecteur et on constate qu'il y a un bon accord entre le calcul et l'experience. L'ensemble de la deuxieme partie constitue un test des methodes exposees dans la premiere partie
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2002-04-01
This standard document describes the mode of operation of three different methods for the quantitative dosimetry of uranium in solutions, in UF{sub 6} and in solids: reduction by iron (II), oxidation by potassium bi-chromate and titration. (J.S.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mouton-Chazel, V
1994-10-05
In order to improve the safety of anti-gas filters users, the Cogema (Nuclear Materials General Company) has developed a gaseous pollutants saturation detection technology for respiratory protection masks. As a matter of fact, the problem consists in studying the surface properties of a solid. In this study the adsorption has been considered as a phenomenon which can be followed by a relatively simple electrical measure technology. A microscopic description of the adsorption phenomenon has been given at first and explained by the thermodynamics laws. Then a theoretical model has been elaborated. The developments which have been brought to this model in this work have allowed to give a satisfactory interpretation of the phenomena observed during the adsorption of a polar gas on a zeolite. (O.M.). 169 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodary, E
2003-01-01
The glide of an edge dislocation in solid solutions is studied by molecular dynamics, at fixed temperature and imposed external stress. We have optimized an EAM potential for Ni(1 a 8% A1): it well reproduces the lattice expansion, local atomic order, stacking fault energy as a function of composition, as well as the elastic properties of the {gamma}' phase with L1{sub 2} structure. On increasing the stress, the dislocation is first immobile, then glides with a velocity proportional to the stress and the velocity saturates on reaching the transverse sound velocity. However, only beyond a static threshold stress, {sigma}{sub s}, does the dislocation glide a distance large enough to allow macroscopic shear; the linear part of the velocity-stress curve extrapolates to zero at a dynamical threshold stress, {sigma}{sub d}, The friction coefficient, and the threshold stresses ({sigma}{sub s} and {sigma}{sub d}), increase with the A1 concentration and decrease with temperature (300 and 500 K). Close to the critical shear stress, {sigma}{sub s}, the dislocation glide is analysed with a 'stop and go' model. The latter yields the flight velocity between obstacles, the mean obstacle density and the distribution of the waiting time on each obstacle as a function of stress, composition and temperature. The obstacle to the glide is proposed to be the strong repulsion between Al atoms brought into nearest neighbour position by the glide process, and not the dislocation-solute interaction. The microscopic parameters so defined are introduced into a micro-mechanical model, which well reproduces the known behaviour of nickel base solid solutions. (author)
Complex Wedge-Shaped Matrices: A Generalization of Jacobi Matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hnětynková, Iveta; Plešinger, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 487, 15 December (2015), s. 203-219 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Keywords : eigenvalues * eigenvector * wedge-shaped matrices * generalized Jacobi matrices * band (or block) Krylov subspace methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hodges, Gethin W; Bang, Casper N; Wachtell, Kristian
2015-01-01
The fundamental role of inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has prompted interest in numerous biomarkers that detect subclinical levels of inflammation. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a novel biomarker that correlates significantly with cardiovascular events ...... comprehensive review of suPAR in CVD and explore its function and usefulness in predicting cardiovascular events....
Generalisations of Fisher Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alan Heavens
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2015-07-17
We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.
VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongyan Pan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ribeiro F.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Diagonalization of the mass matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhee, S.S.
1984-01-01
It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)
Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices
Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria
2012-01-01
With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…
Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis
Hackbusch, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...
Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices
Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane
2017-02-01
Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemonnier, St
2006-02-15
Minor actinides transmutation is studied at present in order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and the assessment of its technical feasibility requires specific designed materials. When considering americium, yttria stabilized zirconia (Am{sup III} YII Zriv)Or{sub x} is among the ceramic phases that one which presents the required physico-chemical properties. An innovative synthesis of this mixed oxide by sol-gel process is reported in this manuscript. The main aim of this work is to adjust the reactivity of the different metallic cations in aqueous media using complexing agent, in order to initiate a favourable interaction for a homogeneous elements repartition in the forming solid phase. The originality of the settled synthesis lies on an in-situ formation of a stable and monodisperse nano-particles dispersion in the presence of acetylacetone. The main reaction mechanisms have been identified: the sol stabilisation results from an original interaction between the three compounds (Zrly, trivalent cations and acetylacetone). The sol corresponds to a structured system at the nanometer scale for which zirconium and trivalent cations are homogeneously dispersed, preliminary to the sol-gel transition. Furthermore, preliminary studies were carried out with a view to developing materials. They have demonstrated that numerous innovative and potential applications can be developed by taking advantage of the direct and controlled formation of the sol and by adapting the sol-gel transition. The most illustrating result is the preparation of a sintered pellet with the composition Am0,13Zro,73Yo,0901,89 using this approach. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grosjean, A
2004-11-15
This work is dedicated to the devising of a low-cost fabrication process of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Technical requirements impose the shaping method: stripe casting as well as the materials used: Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), nickel and lanthanum manganite doped with strontium (LSM). In order to comply with environmental requirements the developed process uses an aqueous barbotine solvent. We get electrodes and the electrolyte separately, the use of an absorbent drying process has enabled us to join 3 layers to form an elementary cell with great interfacial homogeneity. The resistance of the cell to sintering has been improved through the symmetrization of the deformations of the cell. In order to interpret the low electrical properties of the cell and its quick damaging, transmission microscopy studies have been performed. These studies have shown 2 facts. First, 2 isolating phases appear at the cathode (at the LSM/YSZ interface) because of a too high sintering temperature and secondly, a quick clustering of nickel grains appears during cell operation that leads to a local loss of the nickel grid percolation. This problem has been solved by increasing the size of nickel oxide grains from 0.5 {mu}m to 3 {mu}m) to stabilize the microstructure. The issue of the reactivity at the LSM/YSZ interfaces was tackled in 2 different ways, we have tried to lower the sintering temperature by using a zirconia nano-powder first and then by replacing zirconia in the electrolyte by gadolinium-doped ceria. The use of zirconia nano-powder has failed to decrease sintering temperature while preserving the electrolyte density and the use of ceria has triggered instabilities that have not yet been solved. Despite all these drawbacks, this process allows the fabrication of an excellent anode/electrolyte interface. (A.C.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nardova, A.K.; Filippov, E.A. [All Research Institute of Chemical Technologies, Moscow (Russian Federation); Glagolenko, Y.B. [and others
1996-05-01
This report presents the results of investigations of plutonium immobilization from solutions on inorganic matrices with the purpose of producing a solid waste form. High-temperature sorption is described which entails the adsorption of radionuclides from solutions on porous, inorganic matrices, as for example silica gel. The solution is brought to a boil with additional thermal process (calcination) of the saturated granules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.
1996-06-01
A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hargreaves, F. P.; Merkle, D.
2013-01-01
We present FooPar, an extension for highly efficient Parallel Computing in the multi-paradigm programming language Scala. Scala offers concise and clean syntax and integrates functional programming features. Our framework FooPar combines these features with parallel computing techniques. Foo......, results based on a empirical analysis on two supercomputers are given. We achieve close-to-optimal performance wrt. theoretical peak performance. Based on this result we conclude that FooPar allows programmers to fully access Scalas design features without suffering from performance drops when compared...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Fabbro, L
2002-07-01
The devices of air cleaning against particles are widely spread in various branches of industry: nuclear, motor, food, electronic,...; among these devices, numerous are constituted by pleated porous media to increase the surface of filtration and thus to reduce the pressure drop, for given air flow. The objective of our work is to compensate a lack evident of knowledge on the evolution of the pressure drop of pleated filter during the clogging and to deduct a modelling from it, on the basis of experiments concerning industrial filters of nuclear and car types. The obtained model is a function of characteristics of the filtering medium and pleats, of the characteristics of solid particles deposited on the filter, of the mass of particles and of the aeraulic conditions of air flow. It also depends on data on the clogging of flat filters of equivalent medium. To elaborate this model of pressure drop, an initial stage was carried out in order to characterize, experimentally and numerically, the pressure drop and the distribution of air flow in clean pleated filters of nuclear (high efficiency particulate air filter, in fiberglasses) and car (mean efficiency filter, in fibers of cellulose) types. The numerical model allowed to understand the fundamental role played by the aeraulic resistance of the filtering medium. From an non-dimensional approach, we established a semi-empirical model of pressure drop for a clean pleated filter valid for both studied types of medium; this model is used of first base for the development of the final model of clogging. The study of the clogging of the filters showed the complexity of the phenomenon dependent mainly on a reduction of the surface of filtration. This observation brings us to propose a clogging of pleated filters in three phases. Both first phases are similar in those observed for flat filters, while last phase corresponds to a reduction of the surface of filtration and leads a strong increase of the filter pressure drop
Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices
Aldrovandi, R
2001-01-01
This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co
The invariant theory of matrices
Concini, Corrado De
2017-01-01
This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...
Quantum matrices in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.
1991-01-01
Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)
Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chervov, A; Falqui, G
2008-01-01
In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [M ij , M kl ] [M kj , M il ] (e.g. [M 11 , M 22 ] = [M 21 , M 12 ]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: det(∂ z -L gaudin (z)), det(1-e -∂z T Yangian (z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U crit (gl-hat n )) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system
On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Kurasov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.
2005-01-01
For a few years, the CERN Library has been receiving books from the University of Hanover sent via Avignon, at least that's what it says on the envelope. Such a detour would mean that parcels were travelling 720 km more than the distance separating Geneva and Hanover, which would be a very strange state of affairs. The explanation lies in a spelling mistake. The sender has been stamping parcels with a stamp that says "Par Avignon prioritaire" (first-class via Avignon) instead of "Par Avion prioritaire" (First Class Air Mail), a source of much amusement to the librarians!
Spectra of sparse random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuehn, Reimer
2008-01-01
We compute the spectral density for ensembles of sparse symmetric random matrices using replica. Our formulation of the replica-symmetric ansatz shares the symmetries of that suggested in a seminal paper by Rodgers and Bray (symmetry with respect to permutation of replica and rotation symmetry in the space of replica), but uses a different representation in terms of superpositions of Gaussians. It gives rise to a pair of integral equations which can be solved by a stochastic population-dynamics algorithm. Remarkably our representation allows us to identify pure-point contributions to the spectral density related to the existence of normalizable eigenstates. Our approach is not restricted to matrices defined on graphs with Poissonian degree distribution. Matrices defined on regular random graphs or on scale-free graphs, are easily handled. We also look at matrices with row constraints such as discrete graph Laplacians. Our approach naturally allows us to unfold the total density of states into contributions coming from vertices of different local coordinations and an example of such an unfolding is presented. Our results are well corroborated by numerical diagonalization studies of large finite random matrices
Free probability and random matrices
Mingo, James A
2017-01-01
This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.
Chequered surfaces and complex matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, T.R.; Southampton Univ.
1991-01-01
We investigate a large-N matrix model involving general complex matrices. It can be reinterpreted as a model of two hermitian matrices with specific couplings, and as a model of positive definite hermitian matrices. Large-N perturbation theory generates dynamical triangulations in which the triangles can be chequered (i.e. coloured so that neighbours are opposite colours). On a sphere there is a simple relation between such triangulations and those generated by the single hermitian matrix model. For the torus (and a quartic potential) we solve the counting problem for the number of triangulations that cannot be quechered. The critical physics of chequered triangulations is the same as that of the hermitian matrix model. We show this explicitly by solving non-perturbatively pure two-dimensional ''chequered'' gravity. The interpretative framework given here applies to a number of other generalisations of the hermitian matrix model. (orig.)
Loop diagrams without γ matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKeon, D.G.C.; Rebhan, A.
1993-01-01
By using a quantum-mechanical path integral to compute matrix elements of the form left-angle x|exp(-iHt)|y right-angle, radiative corrections in quantum-field theory can be evaluated without encountering loop-momentum integrals. In this paper we demonstrate how Dirac γ matrices that occur in the proper-time ''Hamiltonian'' H lead to the introduction of a quantum-mechanical path integral corresponding to a superparticle analogous to one proposed recently by Fradkin and Gitman. Direct evaluation of this path integral circumvents many of the usual algebraic manipulations of γ matrices in the computation of quantum-field-theoretical Green's functions involving fermions
Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purificação Coelho M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.
Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.
2015-01-01
Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.
On families of anticommuting matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hrubeš, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum-of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296
On families of anticommuting matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hrubeš, Pavel
2016-01-01
Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum -of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296
Korolkov, M V; Manz, J; Schild, A
2010-09-16
Six isotope effects (i)-(vi) are discovered for the reactions Cl + H(2)(ν) → HCl + H in solid para-H(2) ( 1 ) versus Cl + D(2)(ν) → DCl + D in ortho-D(2) ( 2 ), by means of quantum reaction dynamics simulations, within the frame of our simple model ( J. Phys. Chem. A 2009 , 113 , 7630 . ). Experimentally, the reactions may be initiated for ν = 0 and ν ≥ 1, by means of "UV only" photodissociation of the matrix-isolated precursor, Cl(2), or by "IR + UV" coirradiation ( Kettwich , S. C. , Raston , P. L. , and Anderson , D. T. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009 , 113 , 7621 . ), respectively. Specifically, (i) various shape and Feshbach reaction resonances correlate with vibrational thresholds of reactants and products, due to the near-thermoneutrality and low barrier of the system. The energetic density of resonances increases as the square root of mass, from M(X) = M(H) to M(D). (ii) The state selective reaction ( 1 ), ν = 1, is supported by a shape resonance, whereas this type of resonance is absent in ( 2 ), ν = 1. As a consequence, time-resolved measurements should monitor different three-step versus direct error-function type evolutions of the formation of the products. (iii) The effective barrier is lower for reaction 1 , ν = 0, enhancing the tunneling rate, as compared to that for reaction 2 , ν = 0. (iv) For reference, the reaction probabilities P versus total energy E(tot) in the gas exhibit sharp resonance peaks or zigzag behaviors of the reaction probability P versus total energy, near the levels of resonances ( Persky , A. and Baer , M. J. Chem. Phys . 1974 , 60 , 133 . ). These features tend to be washed out and broadened for reaction 1 , and even more so for reaction 2 . For comparison, they disappear for reactions in classical solids. (v) The slopes of P versus E(tot) below the potential barrier increase more steeply for reaction 1 , ν = 0, than for reaction 2 , ν = 0. This enhances the tunneling rate of the heavier isotopomer, reaction 2 , ν = 0
The modified Gauss diagonalization of polynomial matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saeed, K.
1982-10-01
The Gauss algorithm for diagonalization of constant matrices is modified for application to polynomial matrices. Due to this modification the diagonal elements become pure polynomials rather than rational functions. (author)
Double stochastic matrices in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louck, J.D.
1997-01-01
The general set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n corresponding to ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanical transition probability matrices is given. Lande's discussion of the nonquantal origin of such matrices is noted. Several concrete examples are presented for elementary and composite angular momentum systems with the focus on the unitary symmetry associated with such systems in the spirit of the recent work of Bohr and Ulfbeck. Birkhoff's theorem on doubly stochastic matrices of order n is reformulated in a geometrical language suitable for application to the subset of quantum mechanical doubly stochastic matrices. Specifically, it is shown that the set of points on the unit sphere in cartesian n'-space is subjective with the set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n. The question is raised, but not answered, as to what is the subset of points of this unit sphere that correspond to the quantum mechanical transition probability matrices, and what is the symmetry group of this subset of matrices
Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices
Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.
2003-08-01
Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices hat H with Gaussian independent random entries Higeqj is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with langle|Hii|2rangle ~ 1 and langle|Hi\
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wide, L.
1977-01-01
Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de
Hemmati, Maryam; Rajabi, Maryam; Asghari, Alireza
2017-11-17
In this research work, two consecutive dispersive solid/liquid phase microextractions based on efficient extraction media were developed for the influential and clean pre-concentration of clonazepam and lorazepam from complicated bio-samples. The magnetism nature of the proposed nanoadsorbent proceeded the clean-up step conveniently and swiftly (∼5min), pursued by a further enrichment via a highly effective and rapid emulsification microextraction process (∼4min) based on a deep eutectic solvent (DES). Finally, the instrumental analysis step was practicable via high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The solid phase used was an adequate magnetic nanocomposite termed as polythiophene-sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate/iron oxide (PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 ), easily and cost-effectively prepared by the impressive co-precipitation method followed by the efficient in situ sonochemical oxidative polymerization approach. The identification techniques viz. FESEM, XRD, and EDX certified the supreme physico-chemical properties of this effective nanosorbent. Also the powerful liquid extraction agent, DES, based on bio-degradable choline chloride, possessed a high efficiency, tolerable safety, low cost, and facile and mild synthesis route. The parameters involved in this versatile hyphenated procedure, efficiently evaluated via the central composite design (CCD), showed that the best extraction conditions consisted of an initial pH value of 7.2, 17mg of the PTh-DBSNa/Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite, 20 air-agitation cycles (first step), 245μL of methanol, 250μL of DES, 440μL of THF, and 8 air-agitation cycles (second step). Under the optimal conditions, the understudied drugs could be accurately determined in the wide linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) of 4.0-3000ngmL -1 and 2.0-2000ngmL -1 for clonazepam and lorazepam, respectively, with low limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.7 to 1.0ngmL -1 . The enrichment factor (EF) and percentage extraction recovery (%ER
Phenomenological mass matrices with a democratic warp
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleppe, A.
2018-01-01
Taking into account all available data on the mass sector, we obtain unitary rotation matrices that diagonalize the quark matrices by using a specific parametrization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. In this way, we find mass matrices for the up- and down-quark sectors of a specific, symmetric form, with traces of a democratic texture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bombardelli, Diego
2016-01-01
In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU (2), SU (3) chiral Gross–Neveu models. (topical review)
Synthesised standards in natural matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olsen, D.G.
1980-01-01
The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)
Carrizo, Daniel; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Isabel; Alfaro, Pilar; Nerín, Cristina
2015-01-01
A new screening and semi-quantitative approach has been developed for direct analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro and oxo derivatives in environmental and biological matrices using atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe (ASAP) quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). The instrumental parameters were optimized for the analysis of all these compounds, without previous sample treatment, in soil, motor oil, atmospheric particles (ashes) and biological samples such as urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Ion source parameters in the MS were found to be the key parameters, with little variation within PAHs families. The optimized corona current was 4 µA, sample cone voltage 80 V for PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxo-PAHs, while the desolvation temperatures varied from 300°C to 500°C. The analytical method performance was checked using a certified reference material. Two deuterated compounds were used as internal standards for semi-quantitative purposes together with the pure individual standard for each compound and the corresponding calibration plot. The compounds nitro PAH 9-nitroanthracene and oxo-PAH 1,4-naphthalenedione, were found in saliva and urine in a range below 1 µg/g while the range of PAHs in these samples was below 2 µg/g. Environmental samples provided higher concentration of all pollutants than urine and saliva. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-An; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-Qiong; Zheng, Chun-Hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-Hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-Wu
2016-03-11
In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J
2015-01-01
Investigation of biomarkers that can promptly predict unfavourable outcome of critically illness is an emerging necessity taking into consideration the need for early intervention, the shortage of available beds in intensive care units and the considerable cost of hospitalisation. The most...... promising biomarker is soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). Three studies in large populations of critically ill patients and patients admitted to the emergency department have shown that concentrations >12ng/mL can safely predict unfavourable outcome. This review presents...
RESOLUTION DU PROBLEME DE PREDICTION LINEAIRE PAR LA METHODE ULV. APPLICATION AU SIGNAL FID
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M KHELIF
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Dans le cadre de la spectroscopie RMN, notre objectif est de déterminer le spectre d'absorption du signal de précession libre FID par la méthode de prédiction linéaire (PL. Ceci revient à résoudre le problème de prédiction linéaire en exploitant la méthode de corrélation par l'utilisation de la décomposition en valeurs singulières SVD pour l'inversion de la matrice de corrélation. Or, cette technique est la source d'un certain nombre de problèmes lorsque le signal est noyé dans du bruit. Aussi sera-t-elle coûteuse en temps lorsque les dimensions de la matrice de corrélation sont importantes. Afin de résoudre ce problème, nous exploitons les propriétés d'une nouvelle technique dérivée de la SVD, la décomposition ULV pour minimiser le coût du traitement et assurer une inversion correcte de la matrice de corrélation. Dans ce but, nous déterminons le spectre d'absorption par la technique ULV et nous le comparons avec le spectre déterminé par la SVD et la FFT. Nous comparons par la suite la qualité des spectres obtenus par rapport au spectre d'absorption idéal déterminé par FFT.
Study of remobilization polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belkessam, L.; Vessigaud, S.; Laboudigue, A.; Vessigaud, S.; Perrin-Ganier, C.; Schiavon, M.; Denys, S.
2005-01-01
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate from many pyrolysis processes. They are widespread environmental pollutants because some of them present toxic and genotoxic properties. In coal pyrolysis sites such as former manufactured gas plants and coke production plants, coal tar is a major source of PAHs. The management of such sites requires better understanding of the mechanisms that control release of PAHs to the biosphere. Determining total PAH concentrations is not sufficient since it does not inform about the pollutants availability to environmental processes. The fate and transport of PAHs in soil are governed by sorption and microbial processes which are well documented. Globally, enhancing retention of the compounds by a solid matrix reduces the risk of pollutant dispersion, but decreases their accessibility to microbial microflora. Conversely, the remobilization of organics from contaminated solid matrices represents a potential hazard since these pollutants can reach groundwater resources. However the available data are often obtained from laboratory experiments in which many field parameters can not be taken into account (long term, temperature, co-pollution, ageing phenomenon, heterogenous distribution of pollution). The present work focuses on the influence assessment and understanding of some of these parameters on PAHs remobilization from heavily polluted matrices in near-field conditions (industrial contaminated matrices, high contact time, ..). Results concerning effects of temperature and physical state of pollution (dispersed among the soil or condensed in small clusters or in coal tar) are presented. (authors)
Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen
2012-01-01
Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).
Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta
2014-01-01
Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...
The Inverse of Banded Matrices
2013-01-01
indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower
Fusion algebra and fusing matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yihong; Li Miao; Yu Ming.
1989-09-01
We show that the Wilson line operators in topological field theories form a fusion algebra. In general, the fusion algebra is a relation among the fusing (F) matrices. In the case of the SU(2) WZW model, some special F matrix elements are found in this way, and the remaining F matrix elements are then determined up to a sign. In addition, the S(j) modular transformation of the one point blocks on the torus is worked out. Our results are found to agree with those obtained from the quantum group method. (author). 24 refs
Transfer matrices for multilayer structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baquero, R.
1988-08-01
We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs
Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices
Deift, Percy
2000-01-01
This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.
Selection of appropriate conditioning matrices for the safe disposal of radioactive waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vance, E.R.
2002-01-01
The selection of appropriate solid conditioning matrices or wasteforms for the safe disposal of radioactive waste is dictated by many factors. The overriding issue is that the matrix incorporating the radionuclides, together with a set of engineered barriers in a near-surface or deep geological repository, should prevent significant groundwater transport of radionuclides to the biosphere. For high-level waste (HLW) from nuclear fuel reprocessing, the favored matrices are glasses, ceramics and glass-ceramics. Borosilicate glasses are presently being used in some countries, but there are strong scientific arguments why ceramics based on assemblages of natural minerals are advantageous for HLW. Much research has been carried out in the last 40 years around the world, and different matrices are more suitable than others for a given waste composition. However a major stumbling block for HLW immobilisation is the mall number of approved geological repositories for such matrices. The most appropriate matrices for Intermediate and low-level wastes are contentious and the selection criteria are not very well defined. The candidate matrices for these latter wastes are cements, bitumen, geopolymers, glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics. After discussing the pros and cons of various candidate matrices for given kinds of radioactive wastes, the SYNROC research program at ANSTO will be briefly surveyed. Some of the potential applications of this work using a variety of SYNROC derivatives will be given. Finally the basic research program at ANSTO on radioactive waste immobilisation will be summarised. This comprises mainly work on solid state chemistry to understand ionic valences and co-ordinations for the chemical design of wasteforms, aqueous durability to study the pH and temperature dependence of solid-water reactions, radiation damage effects on structure and solid-water reactions. (Author)
Hypercyclic Abelian Semigroups of Matrices on Cn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayadi, Adlene; Marzougui, Habib
2010-07-01
We give a complete characterization of existence of dense orbit for any abelian semigroup of matrices on C n . For finitely generated semigroups, this characterization is explicit and is used to determine the minimal number of matrices in normal form over C which forms a hypercyclic abelian semigroup on C n . In particular, we show that no abelian semigroup generated by n matrices on C n can be hypercyclic. (author)
Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems
Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P
1966-01-01
Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late
Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Knight Rob
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad
Matrices for Sensors from Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Nanocomposites
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eugenia Pechkova
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Matrices and sensors resulting from inorganic, organic and biological nanocomposites are presented in this overview. The term nanocomposite designates a solid combination of a matrix and of nanodimensional phases differing in properties from the matrix due to dissimilarities in structure and chemistry. The nanoocomposites chosen for a wide variety of health and environment sensors consist of Anodic Porous Allumina and P450scc, Carbon nanotubes and Conductive Polymers, Langmuir Blodgett Films of Lipases, Laccases, Cytochromes and Rhodopsins, Three-dimensional Nanoporous Materials and Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays.
Quantum Hilbert matrices and orthogonal polynomials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Berg, Christian
2009-01-01
Using the notion of quantum integers associated with a complex number q≠0 , we define the quantum Hilbert matrix and various extensions. They are Hankel matrices corresponding to certain little q -Jacobi polynomials when |q|<1 , and for the special value they are closely related to Hankel matrice...
The construction of factorized S-matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.
1981-01-01
We study the relationships between factorized S-matrices given as representations of the Zamolodchikov algebra and exactly solvable models constructed using the Baxter method. Several new examples of symmetric and non-symmetric factorized S-matrices are proposed. (orig.)
Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs
Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.
2012-01-01
The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic
On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.
2014-01-01
Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014
Exact Inverse Matrices of Fermat and Mersenne Circulant Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanpeng Zheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The well known circulant matrices are applied to solve networked systems. In this paper, circulant and left circulant matrices with the Fermat and Mersenne numbers are considered. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed. Meanwhile, the exact determinants and inverse matrices of these special matrices are presented.
Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring
Parring, Inge
2003-01-01
Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid
Par Pond vegetation status 1996
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.
1996-12-01
The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995, and into the early spring and late summer of 1996. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities continue to become re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, watershield, and Pontederia are extensive and well developed. Measures of percent cover, width of beds, and estimates of area of coverage with satellite data indicate regrowth within two years of from 40 to 60% of levels prior to the draw down. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer of 1996, especially in the former warm arm of Par Pond, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the draw down still have not formed. Lotus has invaded and occupies many of the areas formerly dominated by cattail beds. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys through the summer and early fall of 1997, along with the evaluation of satellite data to map the extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned
Measuring and modelling of diffusivities in carbohydrate-rich matrices during thin film drying
Perdana, J.A.; Sman, van der R.G.M.; Fox, M.B.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.
2014-01-01
Knowledge about moisture diffusivity in solid matrices is a key for understanding drying behaviour of for example probiotic or enzymatic formulations. This paper presents an experimental procedure to determine moisture diffusivity on the basis of thin film drying and gravimetric analysis in a
Antimony measurements in environmental matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maher, William A.; Krikowa, Frank; Foster, Simon D.
2018-01-01
of the oxidation of Sb(iii) to Sb(v) and the formation of artefact Sb species. The analysis of solid samples using X-ray absorption spectroscopy should be considered as it has been shown to discriminate between Sb(iii) and Sb(v) as well as Sb minerals, oxides and adsorbed Sb species....
Community Detection for Correlation Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mel MacMahon
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with “hard” cores and “soft” peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect “soft stocks” that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.
Community Detection for Correlation Matrices
MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego
2015-04-01
A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with "hard" cores and "soft" peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect "soft stocks" that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.
ACHOUR, Nadia; CHATZIGEORGIOU, George; BONNAY, Kevin; MERAGHNI, Fodil
2017-01-01
Un nouveau modèle multi-échelles en régime viscoplastique endommageable est développé pour un composite à matrice polypropylène renforcé par des fibres de verre courtes. Basé sur l’approche en champs moyens de Mori Tanaka, il intègre une matrice viscoplastique modélisée par un modèle phénoménologique nommé par ses auteurs DSGZ et des fibres de verres modélisées par un comportement élastique linéaire. Le modèle multi-échelles permet d’intégrer la microstructure du composite préalablement carac...
Evaluation of the technical feasibility of new conditioning matrices for long-lived radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deschanels, X.
2004-01-01
Several matrices have been selected for the conditioning of long-lived radioactive wastes: a compound made of a iodo-apatite core coated with a densified matrice of vanadium-phosphorus-lead apatite for iodine; the hollandite ceramic for cesium; the britholite, zirconolite, thorium phosphate diphosphate, and the monazite-brabantite solid solution for minor actinides; and a Nb-based metal alloy and phosphate or titanate-type ceramics for technetium. This report presents the results of the researches carried out between 2002-2004 during the technical feasibility step. The main points described are: - the behaviour of matrices under irradiation. These studies were performed thanks to an approach combining the characterization of natural analogues, the doping of matrices with short-lived radionuclides and the use of external irradiations; - the behaviour of these matrices with respect to water alteration; - the sensibility of these structures with respect to the incorporation of chemical impurities; - a package-process approach including the optimization of the process and preliminary studies about the package concept retained. These studies show that important work remains to be done to develop conditioning matrices suitable for iodine and technetium, while for cesium and minor actinides, the first steps of the technical feasibility are made. However, it remains impossible today to determine the structure having the best global behaviour. (J.S.)
The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices
Pestana, J.
2014-01-01
Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Polynomial sequences generated by infinite Hessenberg matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Verde-Star Luis
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We show that an infinite lower Hessenberg matrix generates polynomial sequences that correspond to the rows of infinite lower triangular invertible matrices. Orthogonal polynomial sequences are obtained when the Hessenberg matrix is tridiagonal. We study properties of the polynomial sequences and their corresponding matrices which are related to recurrence relations, companion matrices, matrix similarity, construction algorithms, and generating functions. When the Hessenberg matrix is also Toeplitz the polynomial sequences turn out to be of interpolatory type and we obtain additional results. For example, we show that every nonderogative finite square matrix is similar to a unique Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrix.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rotureau, D.
2005-06-15
This work is the first of a new research theme of the laboratory in the field of solid oxide planar fuel cells. With his high experience in the sensor field, the objectives were to realize prototypes using a 'low cost' technology like screen-printing, using classical materials in the field of fuel cells, rather than researching new materials having optimum properties which may be damaged during the realisation of the complete fuel cell. These materials are yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ) for electrolyte, strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) for cathode and a nickel oxide-YSZ cermet (NiO-YSZ) for anode. The first part of the study consists in structural and electrical characterizations of chosen materials, both on dense pellets and on screen-printed layers of YSZ, LSM or NiO-YSZ. These characterizations showed a good adequation of our materials for a fuel cell application. The second part consists in testing realised prototypes on electrolyte support and on anode support with screen-printed electrodes and electrolyte. The weak obtained performances are mainly due to the low functional temperature (800 C), the thickness of the electrolyte support (about 1 mm) and the porosity of the YSZ screen-printed layers. Finally, we tested in the same time an original device in which both electrodes are exposed to a fuel and air mixture. This promising device inspired from the research on potentiometric sensors developed in the team by N. Guillet (2001), avoids the tightness problem encountered with two gaseous chambers. Moreover, the performances obtained are just twice below than those obtained with a conventional fuel cell with two gaseous chambers. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stefani, R; Desjardins, M; Brun, J C; Cornu, A; Bourguillot, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1965-07-01
Spark source mass spectrometer MS7 has been designed to determine traces of impurities in solids without standards. An atlas of 12 000 lines, assembled in the Grenoble laboratory, allows a quick investigation of mass spectra, notwithstanding their complexity due to multiply charged and polyatomic darkening. Photometric measurements increase accuracy calibration curve is known for each photo-plate. Further, reproducibility is better, if random fluctuations of matrix line darkening are corrected. So far, in a concentration range of 0,01 to 1 000 ppm (atomic), reproducibility is approximately 20 per cent, but absolute value of results depends on 'sensitivity coefficients'. (authors) [French] Le spectrometre de masse a etincelles, de type MS7, est destine a l'analyse chimique de traces dans les solides, sans echantillons etalons. L'emploi de catalogues de 12 000 raies, elabores au laboratoire, permet un depouillement rapide des spectres, malgre leur complexite due aux ionisations multiples et aux associations d'atomes. Le niveau d'apparition d'une impurete donne une estimation de sa teneur, mais la valeur du renseignement depend de la preparation des electrodes et de la connaissance plus ou moins approfondie des processus d'ionisation dans l'etincelle et de noircissement des emulsions photographiques. Les mesures photometriques augmentent la precision des resultats, si l'on determine systematiquement la courbe de noircissement de chaque plaque. De meme la reproductibilite est amelioree si l'on tient compte des fluctuations statistiques du noircissement de l'emulsion par les ions de la matrice. Actuellement, les concentrations mesurees dans le domaine de 0,01 a 1000 ppm atomiques sont reproductibles a 20 pour cent pres, mais leur valeur absolue n'est assuree qu'a un coefficient 3 pres. Des etudes sont en cours pour calibrer l'appareil en valeur absolue, par une determination des coefficients de sensibilite a partir d'echantillons etalons. (auteurs)
Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2016-01-15
In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.
Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2011-01-01
The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.
ESTIMATION OF FUNCTIONALS OF SPARSE COVARIANCE MATRICES.
Fan, Jianqing; Rigollet, Philippe; Wang, Weichen
High-dimensional statistical tests often ignore correlations to gain simplicity and stability leading to null distributions that depend on functionals of correlation matrices such as their Frobenius norm and other ℓ r norms. Motivated by the computation of critical values of such tests, we investigate the difficulty of estimation the functionals of sparse correlation matrices. Specifically, we show that simple plug-in procedures based on thresholded estimators of correlation matrices are sparsity-adaptive and minimax optimal over a large class of correlation matrices. Akin to previous results on functional estimation, the minimax rates exhibit an elbow phenomenon. Our results are further illustrated in simulated data as well as an empirical study of data arising in financial econometrics.
The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices
Pestana, J.; Wathen, A. J.
2014-01-01
Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle
Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases
Vinokur, Marcel
1990-01-01
Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.
Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sujatha, K.; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.
2007-01-01
Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)
Vote par sondage uniforme incorruptible
Blanchard , Nicolas
2016-01-01
International audience; Introduit en 2012 par David Chaum, le vote par sondage uniforme (random-sample voting) est un protocole de vote basé sur un choix d'une sous-population représentative , permettant de limiter les coûts tout en ayant de nombreux avantages, principalement lorsqu'il est couplé a d'autres techniques comme ThreeBallot. Nous analysons un problème de corruptibilité potentielle où les votants peuvent vendre leur vote au plus offrant et proposons une variation du protocole reméd...
Protein matrices for wound dressings =
Vasconcelos, Andreia Joana Costa
Fibrous proteins such as silk fibroin (SF), keratin (K) and elastin (EL) are able to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) that allows their recognition under physiological conditions. The impressive mechanical properties, the environmental stability, in combination with their biocompatibility and control of morphology, provide an important basis to use these proteins in biomedical applications like protein-based wound dressings. Along time the concept of wound dressings has changed from the traditional dressings such as honey or natural fibres, used just to protect the wound from external factors, to the interactive dressings of the present. Wounds can be classified in acute that heal in the expected time frame, and chronic, which fail to heal because the orderly sequence of events is disrupted at one or more stages of the healing process. Moreover, chronic wound exudates contain high levels of tissue destructive proteolytic enzymes such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) that need to be controlled for a proper healing. The aim of this work is to exploit the self-assemble properties of silk fibroin, keratin and elastin for the development of new protein materials to be used as wound dressings: i) evaluation of the blending effect on the physical and chemical properties of the materials; ii) development of materials with different morphologies; iii) assessment of the cytocompatibility of the protein matrices; iv) ultimately, study the ability of the developed protein matrices as wound dressings through the use of human chronic wound exudate; v) use of innovative short peptide sequences that allow to target the control of high levels of HNE found on chronic wounds. Chapter III reports the preparation of silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) blend films by solvent casting evaporation. Two solvent systems, aqueous and acidic, were used for the preparation of films from fibroin and keratin extracted from the respective silk and wool fibres. The effect of solvent system used was
MERSENNE AND HADAMARD MATRICES CALCULATION BY SCARPIS METHOD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. A. Balonin
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose. The paper deals with the problem of basic generalizations of Hadamard matrices associated with maximum determinant matrices or not optimal by determinant matrices with orthogonal columns (weighing matrices, Mersenne and Euler matrices, ets.; calculation methods for the quasi-orthogonal local maximum determinant Mersenne matrices are not studied enough sufficiently. The goal of this paper is to develop the theory of Mersenne and Hadamard matrices on the base of generalized Scarpis method research. Methods. Extreme solutions are found in general by minimization of maximum for absolute values of the elements of studied matrices followed by their subsequent classification according to the quantity of levels and their values depending on orders. Less universal but more effective methods are based on structural invariants of quasi-orthogonal matrices (Silvester, Paley, Scarpis methods, ets.. Results. Generalizations of Hadamard and Belevitch matrices as a family of quasi-orthogonal matrices of odd orders are observed; they include, in particular, two-level Mersenne matrices. Definitions of section and layer on the set of generalized matrices are proposed. Calculation algorithms for matrices of adjacent layers and sections by matrices of lower orders are described. Approximation examples of the Belevitch matrix structures up to 22-nd critical order by Mersenne matrix of the third order are given. New formulation of the modified Scarpis method to approximate Hadamard matrices of high orders by lower order Mersenne matrices is proposed. Williamson method is described by example of one modular level matrices approximation by matrices with a small number of levels. Practical relevance. The efficiency of developing direction for the band-pass filters creation is justified. Algorithms for Mersenne matrices design by Scarpis method are used in developing software of the research program complex. Mersenne filters are based on the suboptimal by
A Brief Historical Introduction to Matrices and Their Applications
Debnath, L.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the ancient origin of matrices, and the system of linear equations. Included are algebraic properties of matrices, determinants, linear transformations, and Cramer's Rule for solving the system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to some special matrices, including matrices in graph theory and electrical…
d'Hendecourt, L; Dartois, E
2001-03-15
Matrix isolation techniques have been developed in the early sixties as a tool for studying the spectroscopic properties of out of equilibrium species (atoms, radicals, ions, reactive molecules), embedded in rare gas inert matrices at low temperatures. Cold interstellar grains surfaces are able to condense out gas phase molecules, routinely observed by radioastronomy. These grain 'mantles' can be considered as 'interstellar matrices'. However, these matrices are not clean and unreactive. They are made principally of dirty ices whose composition must be determined carefully to assess the importance of the solid state chemistry that takes place in the Interstellar Medium. Infrared spectroscopy, both in astronomy and in the laboratory, is the unique tool to determine the chemical composition of these ices. Astronomical spectra can directly be compared with laboratory ones obtained using classical matrix isolation techniques. Furthermore, dedicated experiments may be undertaken to further improve the understanding of the basic physico-chemical processes that take place in cosmic ices.
Modelling the Long Term Leaching Behaviour of 137CS from Different Stabilized Waste Matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Kamash, A.M.
2013-01-01
Leaching characteristics of ''1''3''7Cs from immobilized waste matrices in different cement-based grouts have been assessed to investigate the influence of the additives on the leaching behavior of the solid waste matrices. The International Atomic Energy's Agency (IAEA) standard leach method has been employed to study the leach pattern of 137 Cs radionuclide from the immobilized waste form. The examination of the leaching data revealed that clay additives reduces the leach rate for the studied radionuclide. The controlling leaching mechanism has been studied and the transport parameters were calculated for all studied waste matrices. Simplified analytical models have been derived to predict the Cumulative Leach Fraction (CLF) of radionuclides over the studied experimental period. These simplified research models could be used as a screening tool to assess the performance of the waste matrix under repository conditions. (author)
Environmental assessment of waste matrices contaminated with arsenic.
Sanchez, F; Garrabrants, A C; Vandecasteele, C; Moszkowicz, P; Kosson, D S
2003-01-31
The use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests has been proposed to provide an integrated assessment of leaching processes from solid wastes. The objectives of the research presented here are to (i) validate this assessment approach for contaminated soils and cement-based matrices, (ii) evaluate the use of diffusion and coupled dissolution-diffusion models for estimating constituent release, and (iii) evaluate model parameterization using results from batch equilibrium leaching tests and physical characterization. The test matrices consisted of (i) a soil contaminated with arsenic from a pesticide production facility, (ii) the same soil subsequently treated by a Portland cement stabilization/solidification (S/S) process, and (iii) a synthetic cement-based matrix spiked with arsenic(III) oxide. Results indicated that a good assessment of contaminant release from contaminated soils and cement-based S/S treated wastes can be obtained by the integrated use of equilibrium-based and mass transfer-based leaching tests in conjunction with the appropriate release model. During the time scale of laboratory testing, the release of arsenic from the contaminated soil matrix was governed by diffusion and the solubility of arsenic in the pore solution while the release of arsenic from the cement-based matrices was mainly controlled by solubilization at the interface between the matrix and the bulk leaching solution. In addition, results indicated that (i) estimation of the activity coefficient within the matrix pore water is necessary for accurate prediction of constituent release rates and (ii) inaccurate representation of the factors controlling release during laboratory testing can result in significant errors in release estimates.
Bayesian Nonparametric Clustering for Positive Definite Matrices.
Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
2016-05-01
Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices emerge as data descriptors in several applications of computer vision such as object tracking, texture recognition, and diffusion tensor imaging. Clustering these data matrices forms an integral part of these applications, for which soft-clustering algorithms (K-Means, expectation maximization, etc.) are generally used. As is well-known, these algorithms need the number of clusters to be specified, which is difficult when the dataset scales. To address this issue, we resort to the classical nonparametric Bayesian framework by modeling the data as a mixture model using the Dirichlet process (DP) prior. Since these matrices do not conform to the Euclidean geometry, rather belongs to a curved Riemannian manifold,existing DP models cannot be directly applied. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel DP mixture model framework for SPD matrices. Using the log-determinant divergence as the underlying dissimilarity measure to compare these matrices, and further using the connection between this measure and the Wishart distribution, we derive a novel DPM model based on the Wishart-Inverse-Wishart conjugate pair. We apply this model to several applications in computer vision. Our experiments demonstrate that our model is scalable to the dataset size and at the same time achieves superior accuracy compared to several state-of-the-art parametric and nonparametric clustering algorithms.
Diclofenac sodium sustained release hot melt extruded lipid matrices.
Vithani, K; Cuppok, Y; Mostafa, S; Slipper, I J; Snowden, M J; Douroumis, D
2014-08-01
Sustained release diclofenac sodium (Df-Na) solid lipid matrices with Compritol® 888 ATO were developed in this study. The drug/lipid powders were processed via cold and hot melt extrusion at various drug loadings. The influence of the processing temperatures, drug loading and the addition of excipients on the obtained dissolution rates was investigated. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded batches showed the existence of crystalline drug in the extrudates with a small amount being solubilized in the lipid matrix. The drug content and uniformity on the tablet surface were also investigated by using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The dissolution rates were found to depend on the actual Df-Na loading and the nature of the added excipients, while the effect of the processing temperatures was negligible. The dissolution mechanism of all extruded formulations followed Peppas-Korsemeyer law, based on the estimated determination coefficients and the dissolution constant rates, indicating drug diffusion from the lipid matrices.
Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paller, M.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Wike, L.D.
1996-06-01
The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond.
Par Pond Fish, Water, and Sediment Chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.
1996-06-01
The objectives of this report are to describe the Par Pond fish community and the impact of the drawdown and refill on the community, describe contaminant levels in Par Pond fish, sediments, and water and indicate how contaminant concentrations and distributions were affected by the drawdown and refill, and predict possible effects of future water level fluctuations in Par Pond
Random matrices and random difference equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uppuluri, V.R.R.
1975-01-01
Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models
Quantum Entanglement and Reduced Density Matrices
Purwanto, Agus; Sukamto, Heru; Yuwana, Lila
2018-05-01
We investigate entanglement and separability criteria of multipartite (n-partite) state by examining ranks of its reduced density matrices. Firstly, we construct the general formula to determine the criterion. A rank of origin density matrix always equals one, meanwhile ranks of reduced matrices have various ranks. Next, separability and entanglement criterion of multipartite is determined by calculating ranks of reduced density matrices. In this article we diversify multipartite state criteria into completely entangled state, completely separable state, and compound state, i.e. sub-entangled state and sub-entangledseparable state. Furthermore, we also shorten the calculation proposed by the previous research to determine separability of multipartite state and expand the methods to be able to differ multipartite state based on criteria above.
Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri
This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows for flexi......This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...
Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
1996-12-31
The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.
Jakimovska, Svetlana
2017-01-01
La matrice de traductibilité en tant que modèle d’analyse du texte-source et ensuite d’analyse de la traduction est introduite en Macédoine par le professeur et traducteur Dragi Muhajlovski. La matrice représente un outil pour le traductologue, mais aussi pour l’étudiant qui étudie la traduction car elle aiguise son attention à la recherche des « déviations » et développe l’esprit quant aux possibilités des solutions offertes. La matrice présuppose une analyse à plusieurs niveaux: phonol...
Wishart and anti-Wishart random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janik, Romuald A; Nowak, Maciej A
2003-01-01
We provide a compact exact representation for the distribution of the matrix elements of the Wishart-type random matrices A † A, for any finite number of rows and columns of A, without any large N approximations. In particular, we treat the case when the Wishart-type random matrix contains redundant, non-random information, which is a new result. This representation is of interest for a procedure for reconstructing the redundant information hidden in Wishart matrices, with potential applications to numerous models based on biological, social and artificial intelligence networks
Topological expansion of the chain of matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eynard, B.; Ferrer, A. Prats
2009-01-01
We solve the loop equations to all orders in 1/N 2 , for the Chain of Matrices matrix model (with possibly an external field coupled to the last matrix of the chain). We show that the topological expansion of the free energy, is, like for the 1 and 2-matrix model, given by the symplectic invariants of [19]. As a consequence, we find the double scaling limit explicitly, and we discuss modular properties, large N asymptotics. We also briefly discuss the limit of an infinite chain of matrices (matrix quantum mechanics).
Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolda, T.G.
1998-05-01
The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying
2015-01-01
We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.
Theoretical origin of quark mass matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapatra, R.N.
1987-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical origin of specific quark mass matrices in the grand unified theories. The author discusses the first natural derivation of the Stech-type mass matrix in unified gauge theories. A solution to the strong CP-problem is provided
Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KyoungSoo Han
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)
2011-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and
Malware analysis using visualized image matrices.
Han, KyoungSoo; Kang, BooJoong; Im, Eul Gyu
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API) calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.
Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test
Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a
Inversion of General Cyclic Heptadiagonal Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Karawia
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We describe a reliable symbolic computational algorithm for inverting general cyclic heptadiagonal matrices by using parallel computing along with recursion. The computational cost of it is operations. The algorithm is implementable to the Computer Algebra System (CAS such as MAPLE, MATLAB, and MATHEMATICA. Two examples are presented for the sake of illustration.
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-11-30
We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Birgitte Raagaard; Yesiltas, Betül; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke
2016-01-01
The aim of this study was to compare three different collection methods; purge and trap, solid phase micro extraction and automated dynamic headspace/thermal desorption, all followed by GC–MS analysis used for the measurements of concentrations of volatile oxidation products in three different food...... of the calibration curves depending on the collection method. However, some challenges were observed for solid phase micro extraction and automated dynamic headspace/thermal desorption, namely, competition problems and overestimation of concentration by calibration curves, respectively. Based on the results, we...... suggest mainly to apply solid phase micro extraction on simple matrices and to be cautious with more complex matrices such as enriched milk and highly oxidized oils. Thereby, the study confirmed some challenges observed by other authors regarding competition problems on the fiber when using solid phase...
Directed and persistent movement arises from mechanochemistry of the ParA/ParB system.
Hu, Longhua; Vecchiarelli, Anthony G; Mizuuchi, Kiyoshi; Neuman, Keir C; Liu, Jian
2015-12-22
The segregation of DNA before cell division is essential for faithful genetic inheritance. In many bacteria, segregation of low-copy number plasmids involves an active partition system composed of a nonspecific DNA-binding ATPase, ParA, and its stimulator protein ParB. The ParA/ParB system drives directed and persistent movement of DNA cargo both in vivo and in vitro. Filament-based models akin to actin/microtubule-driven motility were proposed for plasmid segregation mediated by ParA. Recent experiments challenge this view and suggest that ParA/ParB system motility is driven by a diffusion ratchet mechanism in which ParB-coated plasmid both creates and follows a ParA gradient on the nucleoid surface. However, the detailed mechanism of ParA/ParB-mediated directed and persistent movement remains unknown. Here, we develop a theoretical model describing ParA/ParB-mediated motility. We show that the ParA/ParB system can work as a Brownian ratchet, which effectively couples the ATPase-dependent cycling of ParA-nucleoid affinity to the motion of the ParB-bound cargo. Paradoxically, this resulting processive motion relies on quenching diffusive plasmid motion through a large number of transient ParA/ParB-mediated tethers to the nucleoid surface. Our work thus sheds light on an emergent phenomenon in which nonmotor proteins work collectively via mechanochemical coupling to propel cargos-an ingenious solution shaped by evolution to cope with the lack of processive motor proteins in bacteria.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vinkovic, I.
2005-07-15
In order to study atmospheric pollution and the dispersion of industrial stack emissions, a large eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky-Germano sub-grid-scale model is coupled with Lagrangian tracking of fluid particles containing scalar, solid particles and droplets. The movement of fluid particles at a sub-grid level is given by a three-dimensional Langevin model. The stochastic model is written in terms of sub-grid-scale statistics at a mesh level. By introducing a diffusion model, the coupling between the large-eddy simulation and the modified three-dimensional Langevin model is applied to passive scalar dispersion. The results are validated by comparison with the wind-tunnel experiments of Fackrell and Robins (1982). The equation of motion of a small rigid sphere in a turbulent flow is introduced. Solid particles and droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian way. The velocity of solid particles and droplets is considered to have a large scale component (directly computed by the large-eddy simulation) and a sub-grid scale part. Because of inertia and gravity effects, solid particles and droplets, deviate from the trajectories of the surrounding fluid particles. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian correlation timescale is introduced into the Langevin model previously developed for the sub-grid velocity of fluid particles. Two-way coupling and collisions are taken into account. The results of the large-eddy simulation with solid particles are compared with the wind-tunnel experiments of Nalpanis et al. (1993) and of Taniere et al. (1997) on sand particles in saltation and in modified saltation, respectively. A model for droplet coalescence and breakup is implemented which allows to predict droplet interactions under turbulent flow conditions in the frame of the Euler/Lagrange approach. Coalescence and breakup are considered as a stochastic process with simple scaling symmetry assumption for the droplet radius, initially proposed by Kolmogorov (1941). At high
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Baoyu; Gandhi, Sonu; Yuan, Cai
2015-01-01
The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR or CD87) is a glycolipid-anchored membrane protein often expressed in the microenvironment of invasive solid cancers and high levels are generally associated with poor patient prognosis (Kriegbaum et al., 2011 [1]). uPAR is organized as a dy...... of these mAbs by X-ray crystallography alone and in complex with uPAR [deposited in the PDB database as 4QTH and 4QTI, respectively]....
Recherche documentaire par titrage automatique
Lopez , Cédric; Prince , Violaine; Roche , Mathieu
2011-01-01
Nous proposons dans cet article un système facilitant la recherche d'information dans un ensemble de documents textuels, basé sur le titrage (et sous-titrage) automatique. Ce dernier peut se révéler crucial, par exemple, dans le cadre de la problématique de l'accessibilité des pages web (norme W3C). Notre processus de titrage automatique consiste à extraire des syntagmes nominaux pertinents dans les textes, pouvant constituer des titres ou sous-titres candidats. Une approche originale combina...
Uranium and thorium phosphate based matrices; syntheses, characterizations and lixiviation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dacheux, N.
1995-03-01
In the framework of the search for a ceramic material usable in the radioactive waste storage, uranium and thorium phosphates have been investigated. Their experimental synthesis conditions have been entirely reviewed, they lead to the preparation of four new compounds: U(UO 2 )(PO 4 ) 2 , U 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 , UC1PO 4 ,H 2 O, and Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 , U 2 O 3 P 2 O 7 and Th 3 (PO 4 ) 4 . Characterization by several techniques (X-rays and neutron powder diffractions, UV-Visible and Infra-red spectroscopies, XPS,...) were performed. The ab initio structure determination of U(UO 2 )(PO 4 ) 2 has been achieved by X-rays and refined by neutron diffractions. Through its physico-chemical analysis, we found that this compound was a new mixed valence uranium phosphate in which U 4+ and UO 2 2+ ions are ordered in pairs along parallel chains according to a new type of arrangement. Reaction mechanism, starting from UC1PO 4 , 4H 2 O and based on redox processes of uranium in solid state was set up. From two main matrices U(UO 2 )(PO 4 ) 2 and Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 , solid solutions were studied. They consist of replacement of U(IV) by Th(IV) and reversely. The leaching tests on pure, loaded and doped matrices were performed in terms of storage time, pH of solutions, and determined by the use of solids labelled with 230 U or by the measurement of uranyl concentration by Laser-Induced Time-Resolved Spectrofluorometry. Average concentration of uranium in the liquid phase is around 10 -4 M to 10 -6 M. Taking into account the very low solubilities of the studied phosphate ceramics, we estimated their chemical performances promising as an answer to the important nuclear waste problem, if we compare them to the glasses used at the present time. (author). 47 figs., 23 tabs., 6 appendixes
On Skew Circulant Type Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaolin Jiang
2014-01-01
inverse matrices of them by constructing the transformation matrices. Furthermore, the maximum column sum matrix norm, the spectral norm, the Euclidean (or Frobenius norm, and the maximum row sum matrix norm and bounds for the spread of these matrices are given, respectively.
Waller, Niels G
2016-01-01
For a fixed set of standardized regression coefficients and a fixed coefficient of determination (R-squared), an infinite number of predictor correlation matrices will satisfy the implied quadratic form. I call such matrices fungible correlation matrices. In this article, I describe an algorithm for generating positive definite (PD), positive semidefinite (PSD), or indefinite (ID) fungible correlation matrices that have a random or fixed smallest eigenvalue. The underlying equations of this algorithm are reviewed from both algebraic and geometric perspectives. Two simulation studies illustrate that fungible correlation matrices can be profitably used in Monte Carlo research. The first study uses PD fungible correlation matrices to compare penalized regression algorithms. The second study uses ID fungible correlation matrices to compare matrix-smoothing algorithms. R code for generating fungible correlation matrices is presented in the supplemental materials.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Xu
Full Text Available The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR plays a role in tumor progression and has been proposed as a target for the treatment of cancer. We recently described the development of a novel humanized monoclonal antibody that targets uPAR and has anti-tumor activity in multiple xenograft animal tumor models. This antibody, ATN-658, does not inhibit ligand binding (i.e. uPA and vitronectin to uPAR and its mechanism of action remains unclear. As a first step in understanding the anti-tumor activity of ATN-658, we set out to identify the epitope on uPAR to which ATN-658 binds. Guided by comparisons between primate and human uPAR, epitope mapping studies were performed using several orthogonal techniques. Systematic site directed and alanine scanning mutagenesis identified the region of aa 268-275 of uPAR as the epitope for ATN-658. No known function has previously been attributed to this epitope Structural insights into epitope recognition were obtained from structural studies of the Fab fragment of ATN-658 bound to uPAR. The structure shows that the ATN-658 binds to the DIII domain of uPAR, close to the C-terminus of the receptor, corroborating the epitope mapping results. Intriguingly, when bound to uPAR, the complementarity determining region (CDR regions of ATN-658 closely mimic the binding regions of the integrin CD11b (αM, a previously identified uPAR ligand thought to be involved in leukocyte rolling, migration and complement fixation with no known role in tumor progression of solid tumors. These studies reveal a new functional epitope on uPAR involved in tumor progression and demonstrate a previously unrecognized strategy for the therapeutic targeting of uPAR.
Evolutionary Games with Randomly Changing Payoff Matrices
Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun
2015-06-01
Evolutionary games are used in various fields stretching from economics to biology. In most of these games a constant payoff matrix is assumed, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we assume a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Potentially such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A finite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable at the large population limit. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation formalism.
An algorithmic characterization of P-matricity
Ben Gharbia , Ibtihel; Gilbert , Jean Charles
2013-01-01
International audience; It is shown that a matrix M is a P-matrix if and only if, whatever is the vector q, the Newton-min algorithm does not cycle between two points when it is used to solve the linear complementarity problem 0 ≤ x ⊥ (Mx+q) ≥ 0.; Nous montrons dans cet article qu'une matrice M est une P-matrice si, et seulement si, quel que soit le vecteur q, l'algorithme de Newton-min ne fait pas de cycle de deux points lorsqu'il est utilisé pour résoudre le problème de compl\\émentarité lin...
Introduction to random matrices theory and practice
Livan, Giacomo; Vivo, Pierpaolo
2018-01-01
Modern developments of Random Matrix Theory as well as pedagogical approaches to the standard core of the discipline are surprisingly hard to find in a well-organized, readable and user-friendly fashion. This slim and agile book, written in a pedagogical and hands-on style, without sacrificing formal rigor fills this gap. It brings Ph.D. students in Physics, as well as more senior practitioners, through the standard tools and results on random matrices, with an eye on most recent developments that are not usually covered in introductory texts. The focus is mainly on random matrices with real spectrum. The main guiding threads throughout the book are the Gaussian Ensembles. In particular, Wigner’s semicircle law is derived multiple times to illustrate several techniques (e.g., Coulomb gas approach, replica theory). Most chapters are accompanied by Matlab codes (stored in an online repository) to guide readers through the numerical check of most analytical results.
Teaching Fourier optics through ray matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, I; Sanchez-Lopez, M M; Ferreira, C; Davis, J A; Mateos, F
2005-01-01
In this work we examine the use of ray-transfer matrices for teaching and for deriving some topics in a Fourier optics course, exploiting the mathematical simplicity of ray matrices compared to diffraction integrals. A simple analysis of the physical meaning of the elements of the ray matrix provides a fast derivation of the conditions to obtain the optical Fourier transform. We extend this derivation to fractional Fourier transform optical systems, and derive the order of the transform from the ray matrix. Some examples are provided to stress this point of view, both with classical and with graded index lenses. This formulation cannot replace the complete explanation of Fourier optics provided by the wave theory, but it is a complementary tool useful to simplify many aspects of Fourier optics and to relate them to geometrical optics
The recurrence sequences via Sylvester matrices
Karaduman, Erdal; Deveci, Ömür
2017-07-01
In this work, we define the Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by using the Slyvester matrices which are obtained from the characteristic polynomials of the Pell and Jacobsthal sequences and then, we study the sequences defined modulo m. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups from the generating matrices of these sequences when read modulo m and then, we derive the relationships among the orders of the cyclic groups and the periods of the sequences. Furthermore, we redefine Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by means of the elements of the groups and then, we examine them in the finite groups.
Joint Matrices Decompositions and Blind Source Separation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.
2014-01-01
Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf
Tensor Permutation Matrices in Finite Dimensions
Christian, Rakotonirina
2005-01-01
We have generalised the properties with the tensor product, of one 4x4 matrix which is a permutation matrix, and we call a tensor commutation matrix. Tensor commutation matrices can be constructed with or without calculus. A formula allows us to construct a tensor permutation matrix, which is a generalisation of tensor commutation matrix, has been established. The expression of an element of a tensor commutation matrix has been generalised in the case of any element of a tensor permutation ma...
Fast Approximate Joint Diagonalization Incorporating Weight Matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.
2009-01-01
Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 878-891 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : autoregressive processes * blind source separation * nonstationary random processes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-fast approximate joint diagonalization incorporating weight matrices.pdf
Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.
2006-12-01
We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)
Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej
2017-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016
Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML
Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.
2013-01-01
The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-07
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander
2015-01-05
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.
PHAGOCYTOSIS AND REMODELING OF COLLAGEN MATRICES
Abraham, Leah C.; Dice, J Fred.; Lee, Kyongbum; Kaplan, David L.
2007-01-01
The biodegradation of collagen and the deposition of new collagen-based extracellular matrices are of central importance in tissue remodeling and function. Similarly, for collagen-based biomaterials used in tissue engineering, the degradation of collagen scaffolds with accompanying cellular infiltration and generation of new extracellular matrix is critical for integration of in vitro grown tissues in vivo. In earlier studies we observed significant impact of collagen structure on primary lun...
Preconditioners for regularized saddle point matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Axelsson, Owe
2011-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 91-112 ISSN 1570-2820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : saddle point matrices * preconditioning * regularization * eigenvalue clustering Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2011 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2011.19.issue-2/jnum.2011.005/jnum.2011.005. xml
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design
Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices
Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.
SECHAGE DE PRODUITS GRANULAIRES PAR DESHYDRATATION PAR DETENTES SUCCESSIVES (DDS)
Abdulla , Galal; Mellouk , Hamid; Belghit , Abdelhamid; Allaf , Karim
2009-01-01
International audience; Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les performances d'un nouveau procédé de séchage dans le cas du liège en granulés. Ce procédé (La déshydratation par détentes successives : DDS) consiste à soumettre le matériau liège dans une chambre hermétique aux variations cycliques de la pression. Chaque cycle est composé d'une compression et d'une décompression. La phase de compression est réalisée en injectant de l'air comprimé à température ambiante provenant d'un compresseur...
Group inverses of M-matrices and their applications
Kirkland, Stephen J
2013-01-01
Group inverses for singular M-matrices are useful tools not only in matrix analysis, but also in the analysis of stochastic processes, graph theory, electrical networks, and demographic models. Group Inverses of M-Matrices and Their Applications highlights the importance and utility of the group inverses of M-matrices in several application areas. After introducing sample problems associated with Leslie matrices and stochastic matrices, the authors develop the basic algebraic and spectral properties of the group inverse of a general matrix. They then derive formulas for derivatives of matrix f
Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices
Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan; Gross, Sam; Hills, Gage; Hornstein, Michael; Lakkam, Milinda; Lee, Jason; Li, Jian; Liu, Linxi; Sing-Long, Carlos; Marx, Mike; Mittal, Akshay; Monajemi, Hatef; No, Albert; Omrani, Reza; Pekelis, Leonid; Qin, Junjie; Raines, Kevin; Ryu, Ernest; Saxe, Andrew; Shi, Dai; Siilats, Keith; Strauss, David; Tang, Gary; Wang, Chaojun; Zhou, Zoey; Zhu, Zhen
2013-01-01
In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the same phase transition location—holds for a wide range of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles. We report extensive experiments showing that the Gaussian phase transition also describes numerous deterministic matrices, including Spikes and Sines, Spikes and Noiselets, Paley Frames, Delsarte-Goethals Frames, Chirp Sensing Matrices, and Grassmannian Frames. Namely, for each of these deterministic matrices in turn, for a typical k-sparse object, we observe that convex optimization is successful over a region of the phase diagram that coincides with the region known for Gaussian random matrices. Our experiments considered coefficients constrained to for four different sets , and the results establish our finding for each of the four associated phase transitions. PMID:23277588
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaume, R
2002-11-15
This work deals with ytterbium based crystals for high-power laser applications. In particular, we focus our interest in reducing crystal heating and its consequences during laser operation following two different ways. First, we review the specific properties of ytterbium doped solid-state lasers in order to define a figure-of-merit which gives the evaluation of laser performances, thermo-mechanical and thermo-optical properties. Bearing in mind this analysis, we propose a set of theoretical tools, based on the crystallographic structure of the crystal and its chemical composition, to predict thermo-mechanical and optical potentials. This approach, used for the seek of new Yb{sup 3+}-doped materials for high-power laser applications, shows that simple oxides containing rare-earths are favorable. Therefore, the spectroscopic properties of six new materials Yb{sup 3+}:GdVO{sub 4}, Yb{sup 3+}:GdAlO{sub 3}, Yb{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sup 3+}:Sc{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}, Yb{sup 3+}:CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yb{sup 3+}:SrSc{sub 2}O{sub 4} are described. The second aspect developed in this work deals with thermal properties enhancement of already well characterized laser materials. Two different ways are explored: a) elaboration by diffusion bonding of end-caps lasers with undoped crystals (composite crystals). Thus, different composites were obtained and a fairly lowering of thermal lensing effect was observed during laser operation. b) strengthening of crystalline structures by ionic substitution of one of its constituents. We demonstrate how crystal growth ability can be improved by a cationic substitution in the case of Yb{sup 3+}:BOYS, a largely-tunable laser material which is of great interest for femtosecond pulses generation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaume, R
2002-11-15
This work deals with ytterbium based crystals for high-power laser applications. In particular, we focus our interest in reducing crystal heating and its consequences during laser operation following two different ways. First, we review the specific properties of ytterbium doped solid-state lasers in order to define a figure-of-merit which gives the evaluation of laser performances, thermo-mechanical and thermo-optical properties. Bearing in mind this analysis, we propose a set of theoretical tools, based on the crystallographic structure of the crystal and its chemical composition, to predict thermo-mechanical and optical potentials. This approach, used for the seek of new Yb{sup 3+}-doped materials for high-power laser applications, shows that simple oxides containing rare-earths are favorable. Therefore, the spectroscopic properties of six new materials Yb{sup 3+}:GdVO{sub 4}, Yb{sup 3+}:GdAlO{sub 3}, Yb{sup 3+}:Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Yb{sup 3+}:Sc{sub 2}SiO{sub 5}, Yb{sup 3+}:CaSc{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Yb{sup 3+}:SrSc{sub 2}O{sub 4} are described. The second aspect developed in this work deals with thermal properties enhancement of already well characterized laser materials. Two different ways are explored: a) elaboration by diffusion bonding of end-caps lasers with undoped crystals (composite crystals). Thus, different composites were obtained and a fairly lowering of thermal lensing effect was observed during laser operation. b) strengthening of crystalline structures by ionic substitution of one of its constituents. We demonstrate how crystal growth ability can be improved by a cationic substitution in the case of Yb{sup 3+}:BOYS, a largely-tunable laser material which is of great interest for femtosecond pulses generation. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemonnier, St
2006-02-15
Minor actinides transmutation is studied at present in order to reduce the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and the assessment of its technical feasibility requires specific designed materials. When considering americium, yttria stabilized zirconia (Am{sup III} YII Zriv)Or{sub x} is among the ceramic phases that one which presents the required physico-chemical properties. An innovative synthesis of this mixed oxide by sol-gel process is reported in this manuscript. The main aim of this work is to adjust the reactivity of the different metallic cations in aqueous media using complexing agent, in order to initiate a favourable interaction for a homogeneous elements repartition in the forming solid phase. The originality of the settled synthesis lies on an in-situ formation of a stable and monodisperse nano-particles dispersion in the presence of acetylacetone. The main reaction mechanisms have been identified: the sol stabilisation results from an original interaction between the three compounds (Zrly, trivalent cations and acetylacetone). The sol corresponds to a structured system at the nanometer scale for which zirconium and trivalent cations are homogeneously dispersed, preliminary to the sol-gel transition. Furthermore, preliminary studies were carried out with a view to developing materials. They have demonstrated that numerous innovative and potential applications can be developed by taking advantage of the direct and controlled formation of the sol and by adapting the sol-gel transition. The most illustrating result is the preparation of a sintered pellet with the composition Am0,13Zro,73Yo,0901,89 using this approach. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hélène Verdier
2012-04-01
Full Text Available S’il en était besoin, la question des usages et de la finalité des résultats de l’inventaire général pourrait être abordée par le nombre : nombre d’œuvres répertoriées, de communes inventoriées, de clichés photographiques réalisés, de dossiers, de consultations des notices dans les bases de données… Les additions aujourd’hui sont éloquentes, mais elles laissent dans l’ombre le rôle de l’inventaire qui, en mettant en œuvre une démarche systématique de connaissance, participe à l’ identificatio...
Place, Benjamin J; Kleber, Markus; Field, Jennifer A
2013-03-01
Fullerenes possess unique chemical properties that make the isolation of these compounds from heterogeneous environmental matrices difficult. For example, previous reports indicate that toluene-based extraction techniques vary in their ability to extract C60, especially from highly carbonaceous solid matrices. Here, we examined the effects of (i) solvent type (toluene alone versus an 80:20 v/v mixture of toluene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and (ii) analyte concentration on the extraction efficiency of an isotopically labeled surrogate compound, (13)C60. The toluene/1-methylnaphthalene mixture increased fullerene extraction efficiency from carbon lampblack by a factor of five, but was not significantly different from 100% toluene when applied to wood stove soot or montmorillonite. Recovery of the (13)C60 surrogate declined with decreasing analyte concentration. The usefulness of isotopically labeled surrogate is demonstrated and the study provides a quantitative assessment regarding the dependence of fullerene extraction efficiencies on the geochemical characteristics of solid matrices. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Par Pond vegetation status Summer 1995 -- Summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.
1996-01-01
The water level of Par Pond was lowered approximately 20 feet in mid-1991 in order to protect downstream residents from possible dam failure suggested by subsidence on the downstream slope of the dam and to repair the dam. This lowering exposed both emergent and nonemergent macrophyte beds to drying conditions resulting in extensive losses. A survey of the newly emergent, shoreline aquatic plant communities of Par Pond began in June 1995, three months after the refilling of Par Pond to approximately 200 feet above mean sea level. These surveys continued in July, September, and late October, 1995. Communities similar to the pre-drawdown, Par Pond aquatic plant communities are becoming re-established. Emergent beds of maidencane, lotus, waterlily, and watershield are extensive and well developed. Cattail occurrence continued to increase during the summer, but large beds common to Par Pond prior to the drawdown have not formed. Estimates from SPOT HRV, remote sensing satellite data indicated that as much as 120 hectares of emergent wetlands vegetation may have been present along the Par Pond shoreline by early October, 1995. To track the continued development of macrophytes in Par Pond, future surveys throughout 1996 and 1997, along with the continued evaluation of satellite data to map the areal extent of the macrophyte beds of Par Pond, are planned
Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Dinh Tri.
1990-10-01
A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs
Algebraic Graph Theory Morphisms, Monoids and Matrices
Knauer, Ulrich
2011-01-01
This is a highly self-contained book about algebraic graph theory which iswritten with a view to keep the lively and unconventional atmosphere of a spoken text to communicate the enthusiasm the author feels about this subject. The focus is on homomorphisms and endomorphisms, matrices and eigenvalues. Graph models are extremely useful for almost all applications and applicators as they play an important role as structuring tools. They allow to model net structures -like roads, computers, telephones -instances of abstract data structures -likelists, stacks, trees -and functional or object orient
Coherence and extensions of stochastic matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Gilio
1995-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper a review of some general results on coherence of conditional probability assessments is given. Then, a necessary and sufficient condition on coherence of two finite families of discrete conditianal probability distributions, represented by two stochastic matrices P and Q, is obtained. Moreover, the possible extensions of the assessment (P,Q to the marginal distributions are examined and explicit formulas for them are given in some special case. Finally, a general algorithm to check coherence of (P,Q and to derive its extensions is proposed.
2D gravity and random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, J.
1990-01-01
Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, C.
1996-12-31
In 1992, Wittum introduced the frequency filtering decompositions (FFD), which yield a fast method for the iterative solution of large systems of linear equations. Based on this method, the tangential frequency filtering decompositions (TFFD) have been developed. The TFFD allow the robust and efficient treatment of matrices with strongly varying coefficients. The existence and the convergence of the TFFD can be shown for symmetric and positive definite matrices. For a large class of matrices, it is possible to prove that the convergence rate of the TFFD and of the FFD is independent of the number of unknowns. For both methods, schemes for the construction of frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices have been developed. Since, in contrast to Wittums`s FFD, the TFFD needs only one test vector, an adaptive test vector can be used. The TFFD with respect to the adaptive test vector can be combined with other iterative methods, e.g. multi-grid methods, in order to improve the robustness of these methods. The frequency filtering decompositions have been successfully applied to the problem of the decontamination of a heterogeneous porous medium by flushing.
Critical statistics for non-Hermitian matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Garcia, A.M.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.; Nishigaki, S.M.
2002-01-01
We introduce a generalized ensemble of non-Hermitian matrices interpolating between the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, the Ginibre ensemble, and the Poisson ensemble. The joint eigenvalue distribution of this model is obtained by means of an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber formula to general complex matrices. Its correlation functions are studied both in the case of weak non-Hermiticity and in the case of strong non-Hermiticity. In the weak non-Hermiticity limit we show that the spectral correlations in the bulk of the spectrum display critical statistics: the asymptotic linear behavior of the number variance is already approached for energy differences of the order of the eigenvalue spacing. To lowest order, its slope does not depend on the degree of non-Hermiticity. Close the edge, the spectral correlations are similar to the Hermitian case. In the strong non-Hermiticity limit the crossover behavior from the Ginibre ensemble to the Poisson ensemble first appears close to the surface of the spectrum. Our model may be relevant for the description of the spectral correlations of an open disordered system close to an Anderson transition
Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.
Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos
2015-11-01
Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.
Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E
2003-01-01
Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices H-circumflex with Gaussian independent random entries H i≥j is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with (vertical bar H ii vertical bar 2 ) ∼ 1 and (vertical bar H i≠j vertical bar 2 ) bF(vertical bar i - j vertical bar) parallel 1. We perform a regular expansion of the spectral form-factor K(τ) = 1 + bK 1 (τ) + b 2 K 2 (τ) + c in powers of b parallel 1 with the coefficients K m (τ) that take into account interaction of (m + 1) energy levels. To calculate K m (τ), we develop a diagrammatic technique which is based on the Trotter formula and on the combinatorial problem of graph edges colouring with (m + 1) colours. Expressions for K 1 (τ) and K 2 (τ) in terms of infinite series are found for a generic function F(vertical bar i - j vertical bar ) in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) and in the crossover between them (the almost unitary Gaussian ensemble). The Rosenzweig-Porter and power-law banded matrix ensembles are considered as examples
Generalized Eigenvalues for pairs on heritian matrices
Rublein, George
1988-01-01
A study was made of certain special cases of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Let A and B be nxn matrics. One may construct a certain polynomial, P(A,B, lambda) which specializes to the characteristic polynomial of B when A equals I. In particular, when B is hermitian, that characteristic polynomial, P(I,B, lambda) has real roots, and one can ask: are the roots of P(A,B, lambda) real when B is hermitian. We consider the case where A is positive definite and show that when N equals 3, the roots are indeed real. The basic tools needed in the proof are Shur's theorem on majorization for eigenvalues of hermitian matrices and the interlacing theorem for the eigenvalues of a positive definite hermitian matrix and one of its principal (n-1)x(n-1) minors. The method of proof first reduces the general problem to one where the diagonal of B has a certain structure: either diag (B) = diag (1,1,1) or diag (1,1,-1), or else the 2 x 2 principal minors of B are all 1. According as B has one of these three structures, we use an appropriate method to replace A by a positive diagonal matrix. Since it can be easily verified that P(D,B, lambda) has real roots, the result follows. For other configurations of B, a scaling and a continuity argument are used to prove the result in general.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beatriz Caballero
2003-01-01
Full Text Available El día no le alcanzaba para caminarlo. Conocía cada puente, cada calle,plaza, museo, rincón, iglesia, café, y la mesa con el mejor ángulo para mirar siempre una iglesia, ojalá Saint-Germain-des-Pres, o Notre-Dame. Siempre contaba la impresión que le había causado a Bolívar ver allí cuando el papa coronó a Napoleón. Él se iba para la oficina todos los días, Luis a un taller a pintar, Antonio a estudiar ciencias políticas, yo al colegio y mamá hacía las cosas prácticas. Aprendíamos francés todos al tiempo y por la noche nos contábamos lo nuevo que cada uno había aprendido. Mamá después, cuando ya se quería volver, decía que París nos había maleado a todos. Estaba en pleno furor el cine francés de la "nueva ola", pero ella sólo me llevaba a ver películas de vaqueros pues no se fiaba de la clasificación de los periódicos.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
De Soete G. G.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available On présente dans cet article, en utilisant la méthode du ruban chauffé, une étude de la compétition entre (1 la dévolatilisation et l'oxydation consécutive des produits de pyrolyse et (2 l'ignition de la matrice solide et sa combustion rapide. La comparaison entre le moment de l'ignition et le début de la pyrolyse permet de déterminer en fonction de la température, de la taille des particules et de la concentration en oxygène, le domaine dans lequel l'ignition d'un combustible solide pyrolysable est du type whole coal ignition (c'est-à-dire lorsque l'ignition intervient avant que la pyrolyse devienne mesurable. Les résultats suggèrent que ce type d'ignition doit s'effectuer en règle générale dans les conditions de mise en oeuvre des combustibles solides pulvérisés dans les flammes industrielles. Dans le cas de l'ignition whole coal , la vitesse de combustion de la matrice solide est inhibée dans la période qui suit l'ignition. Cette inhibition est due d'une part à la difficulté pour l'oxygène de diffuser dans les pores pendant la sortie des produits de pyrolyse, et d'autre part à la consommation préférentielle de l'oxygène dans l'oxydation des produits de pyrolyse, principalement dans le cas où cette oxydation se développe sous forme de flamme. Ce n'est que lorsque la pyrolyse s'achève que la vitesse de combustion hétérogène peut atteindre sa valeur stationnaire normale, qui est alors pratiquement identique à celle du coke. Aux températures situées entre la température d'ignition du combustible solide et la température d'extinction du coke résiduel, la combustion est incomplète, une extinction intervenant à un degré de dévolatilisation d'autant plus grande que la température est élevée. Ce phénomène s'explique qualitativement par la théorie classique d'ignition thermique lorsqu'on l'applique au cas particulier des combustibles solides pyrolysables. Les températures d'ignition ainsi que les d
Meet and Join Matrices in the Poset of Exponential Divisors
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... exponential divisor ( G C E D ) and the least common exponential multiple ( L C E M ) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the G C E D and L C E M matrices, analogues of G C D and L C M matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices.
The 'golden' matrices and a new kind of cryptography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stakhov, A.P.
2007-01-01
We consider a new class of square matrices called the 'golden' matrices. They are a generalization of the classical Fibonacci Q-matrix for continuous domain. The 'golden' matrices can be used for creation of a new kind of cryptography called the 'golden' cryptography. The method is very fast and simple for technical realization and can be used for cryptographic protection of digital signals (telecommunication and measurement systems)
Generalized Perron--Frobenius Theorem for Nonsquare Matrices
Avin, Chen; Borokhovich, Michael; Haddad, Yoram; Kantor, Erez; Lotker, Zvi; Parter, Merav; Peleg, David
2013-01-01
The celebrated Perron--Frobenius (PF) theorem is stated for irreducible nonnegative square matrices, and provides a simple characterization of their eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The importance of this theorem stems from the fact that eigenvalue problems on such matrices arise in many fields of science and engineering, including dynamical systems theory, economics, statistics and optimization. However, many real-life scenarios give rise to nonsquare matrices. A natural question is whether the...
Replica Fourier Tansforms on Ultrametric Trees, and Block-Diagonalizing Multi-Replica Matrices
de Dominicis, C.; Carlucci, D. M.; Temesvári, T.
1997-01-01
The analysis of objects living on ultrametric trees, in particular the block-diagonalization of 4-replica matrices M^{α β;γ^δ}, is shown to be dramatically simplified through the introduction of properly chosen operations on those objects. These are the Replica Fourier Transforms on ultrametric trees. Those transformations are defined and used in the present work. On montre que l'analyse d'objets vivant sur un arbre ultramétrique, en particulier, la diagonalisation par blocs d'une matrice M^{α β;γ^δ} dépendant de 4-répliques, se simplifie de façon dramatique si l'on introduit les opérations appropriées sur ces objets. Ce sont les Transformées de Fourier de Répliques sur un arbre ultramétrique. Ces transformations sont définies et utilisées dans le présent travail.
Intrinsic Density Matrices of the Nuclear Shell Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deveikis, A.; Kamuntavichius, G.
1996-01-01
A new method for calculation of shell model intrinsic density matrices, defined as two-particle density matrices integrated over the centre-of-mass position vector of two last particles and complemented with isospin variables, has been developed. The intrinsic density matrices obtained are completely antisymmetric, translation-invariant, and do not employ a group-theoretical classification of antisymmetric states. They are used for exact realistic density matrix expansion within the framework of the reduced Hamiltonian method. The procedures based on precise arithmetic for calculation of the intrinsic density matrices that involve no numerical diagonalization or orthogonalization have been developed and implemented in the computer code. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs
Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization II
Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre
2003-03-01
Recent studies inspired by results from random matrix theory (Galluccio et al.: Physica A 259 (1998) 449; Laloux et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1467; Risk 12 (3) (1999) 69; Plerou et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1471) found that covariance matrices determined from empirical financial time series appear to contain such a high amount of noise that their structure can essentially be regarded as random. This seems, however, to be in contradiction with the fundamental role played by covariance matrices in finance, which constitute the pillars of modern investment theory and have also gained industry-wide applications in risk management. Our paper is an attempt to resolve this embarrassing paradox. The key observation is that the effect of noise strongly depends on the ratio r= n/ T, where n is the size of the portfolio and T the length of the available time series. On the basis of numerical experiments and analytic results for some toy portfolio models we show that for relatively large values of r (e.g. 0.6) noise does, indeed, have the pronounced effect suggested by Galluccio et al. (1998), Laloux et al. (1999) and Plerou et al. (1999) and illustrated later by Laloux et al. (Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 3 (2000) 391), Plerou et al. (Phys. Rev. E, e-print cond-mat/0108023) and Rosenow et al. (Europhys. Lett., e-print cond-mat/0111537) in a portfolio optimization context, while for smaller r (around 0.2 or below), the error due to noise drops to acceptable levels. Since the length of available time series is for obvious reasons limited in any practical application, any bound imposed on the noise-induced error translates into a bound on the size of the portfolio. In a related set of experiments we find that the effect of noise depends also on whether the problem arises in asset allocation or in a risk measurement context: if covariance matrices are used simply for measuring the risk of portfolios with a fixed composition rather than as inputs to optimization, the
Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyeneche, Dardo; Turek, Ondřej
2017-01-01
We demonstrate that a complex equiangular tight frame composed of N vectors in dimension d , denoted ETF ( d , N ), exists if and only if a certain bistochastic matrix, univocally determined by N and d , belongs to a special class of unistochastic matrices. This connection allows us to find new complex ETFs in infinitely many dimensions and to derive a method to introduce non-trivial free parameters in ETFs. We present an explicit six-parametric family of complex ETF(6,16), which defines a family of symmetric POVMs. Minimal and maximal possible average entanglement of the vectors within this qubit–qutrit family are described. Furthermore, we propose an efficient numerical procedure to compute the unitary matrix underlying a unistochastic matrix, which we apply to find all existing classes of complex ETFs containing up to 20 vectors. (paper)
Colonization of bone matrices by cellular components
Shchelkunova, E. I.; Voropaeva, A. A.; Korel, A. V.; Mayer, D. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.
2017-09-01
Practical surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, and oncology require bioengineered constructs suitable for replacement of large-area bone defects. Only rigid/elastic matrix containing recipient's bone cells capable of mitosis, differentiation, and synthesizing extracellular matrix that supports cell viability can comply with these requirements. Therefore, the development of the techniques to produce structural and functional substitutes, whose three-dimensional structure corresponds to the recipient's damaged tissues, is the main objective of tissue engineering. This is achieved by developing tissue-engineering constructs represented by cells placed on the matrices. Low effectiveness of carrier matrix colonization with cells and their uneven distribution is one of the major problems in cell culture on various matrixes. In vitro studies of the interactions between cells and material, as well as the development of new techniques for scaffold colonization by cellular components are required to solve this problem.
Computing with linear equations and matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Churchhouse, R.F.
1983-01-01
Systems of linear equations and matrices arise in many disciplines. The equations may accurately represent conditions satisfied by a system or, more likely, provide an approximation to a more complex system of non-linear or differential equations. The system may involve a few or many thousand unknowns and each individual equation may involve few or many of them. Over the past 50 years a vast literature on methods for solving systems of linear equations and the associated problems of finding the inverse or eigenvalues of a matrix has been produced. These lectures cover those methods which have been found to be most useful for dealing with such types of problem. References are given where appropriate and attention is drawn to the possibility of improved methods for use on vector and parallel processors. (orig.)
Matrices over runtime systems at exascale
Agullo, Emmanuel
2012-11-01
The goal of Matrices Over Runtime Systems at Exascale (MORSE) project is to design dense and sparse linear algebra methods that achieve the fastest possible time to an accurate solution on large-scale multicore systems with GPU accelerators, using all the processing power that future high end systems can make available. In this poster, we propose a framework for describing linear algebra algorithms at a high level of abstraction and delegating the actual execution to a runtime system in order to design software whose performance is portable accross architectures. We illustrate our methodology on three classes of problems: dense linear algebra, sparse direct methods and fast multipole methods. The resulting codes have been incorporated into Magma, Pastix and ScalFMM solvers, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.
Sparse random matrices: The eigenvalue spectrum revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.
2003-08-01
We revisit the derivation of the density of states of sparse random matrices. We derive a recursion relation that allows one to compute the spectrum of the matrix of incidence for finite trees that determines completely the low concentration limit. Using the iterative scheme introduced by Biroli and Monasson [J. Phys. A 32, L255 (1999)] we find an approximate expression for the density of states expected to hold exactly in the opposite limit of large but finite concentration. The combination of the two methods yields a very simple geometric interpretation of the tails of the spectrum. We test the analytic results with numerical simulations and we suggest an indirect numerical method to explore the tails of the spectrum. (author)
From Pauli Matrices to Quantum Ito Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pautrat, Yan
2005-01-01
This paper answers important questions raised by the recent description, by Attal, of a robust and explicit method to approximate basic objects of quantum stochastic calculus on bosonic Fock space by analogues on the state space of quantum spin chains. The existence of that method justifies a detailed investigation of discrete-time quantum stochastic calculus. Here we fully define and study that theory and obtain in particular a discrete-time quantum Ito formula, which one can see as summarizing the commutation relations of Pauli matrices.An apparent flaw in that approximation method is the difference in the quantum Ito formulas, discrete and continuous, which suggests that the discrete quantum stochastic calculus differs fundamentally from the continuous one and is therefore not a suitable object to approximate subtle phenomena. We show that flaw is only apparent by proving that the continuous-time quantum Ito formula is actually a consequence of its discrete-time counterpart
Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)
2012-10-06
A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.
Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriela Kovácsová
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new
Analysis of TPH and Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons Fractions in Environmental Interest Matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pindado, O.; Perez, R. M.; Garcia, S.
2014-01-01
Analytical methods to analyze TPH and several aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in soil and groundwater samples contaminated by hydrocarbons are showed. As a part of BIOXISOIL project, analyzing these parameters is fundamental and indispensable to know the initial contamination level, design an adequate method to decontaminate it and eventually assess decontamination accomplished. Analysis of both matrices involve different extraction stages such as microwave radiation, clean up steps based on solid phase extraction and finally a chromatograph analysis with flame ion detector. Analytical procedures have showed satisfactory analytical quality parameters and have been validated against several certified reference materials. (Author)
C9.A/14 steelwork joints de poutres par plaque frontale : assemblages par gousset
2015-01-01
Les Tables de résistances ultimes des assemblages boulonnés par plaque frontale et par gousset, complétées par une description des modèles de calcul et des exemples d’application, ont pour but de faciliter la tâche de l'ingénieur et du constructeur. Cette première partie C9.A/14 contient les chapitres suivants: - Joints de poutres par plaque frontale en acier S235 et S355 - Assemblages par gousset en acier S235 et S355 Les Tables contiennent des données relatives à la géométrie ainsi que les valeurs de calcul correspondantes des résistances ultimes des assemblages ; elles remplacent le chapitre « Assemblages par plaques frontales et boulons HR » des anciennes Tables C9.1 de 1983 / 2002. Le calcul de ces assemblages par plaque frontale est basé sur les hypothèses du modèle de la méthode des composants décrite dans la norme SN EN 1993-1-8. Les vérifications sont effectuées selon la norme SIA 263:2013. Les assemblages par gousset remplacent les assemblages par double cornière, (telle...
Geometrical setting of solid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiala, Zdenek
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Solid mechanics within the Riemannian symmetric manifold GL (3, R)/O (3, R). → Generalized logarithmic strain. → Consistent linearization. → Incremental principle of virtual power. → Time-discrete approximation. - Abstract: The starting point in the geometrical setting of solid mechanics is to represent deformation process of a solid body as a trajectory in a convenient space with Riemannian geometry, and then to use the corresponding tools for its analysis. Based on virtual power of internal stresses, we show that such a configuration space is the (globally) symmetric space of symmetric positive-definite real matrices. From this unifying point of view, we shall analyse the logarithmic strain, the stress rate, as well as linearization and intrinsic integration of corresponding evolution equation.
Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices
Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan
2012-01-01
In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the ...
The influence of inorganic matrices on the decomposition of Eucalyptus litter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skene, T.M.; Oades, J.M.; Clarke, P.J.; Skjemstad, J.O.; Oades, J.M.; Skjemstad, J.O.
1997-01-01
The decomposition of Eucalyptus litter (EL) in the presence and absence of inorganic matrices [sad (S), sand+kaolin (S+K), loamy sand (LS)] with and without added N (urea) was followed over 48 weeks using chemical and spectroscopic means. At the end of the incubation, the residual organic matter in different density and particle size fractions was examined. Urea addition inhibited the mineralisation of C from the litter in all treatments except EL+S+N, whereas the inorganic matrices had little influence on mineralisation. Solid state 13 C CP/MAS NMR spectra of the whole samples suggested there were no differences in the treatments, despite significant differences in the amount of C mineralized. The NMR spectra of the whole samples suggest that a reaction between aromatic-C and urea occurred during thr first week of the incubation which may have rendered the N unavailable to microorganisms. The results were quite different from a similar study on the decomposition of straw. these differences suggest that, for high quality substrates, physical protection by inorganic matrices is the limiting factor to decomposition, whereas for low quality substrates, chemical protection is the limiting factor. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs
Binary Positive Semidefinite Matrices and Associated Integer Polytopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Letchford, Adam N.; Sørensen, Michael Malmros
2012-01-01
We consider the positive semidefinite (psd) matrices with binary entries, along with the corresponding integer polytopes. We begin by establishing some basic properties of these matrices and polytopes. Then, we show that several families of integer polytopes in the literature-the cut, boolean qua...
CONVERGENCE OF POWERS OF CONTROLLABLE INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY MATRICES
Riyaz Ahmad Padder; P. Murugadas
2016-01-01
Convergences of powers of controllable intuitionistic fuzzy matrices have been stud¬ied. It is shown that they oscillate with period equal to 2, in general. Some equalities and sequences of inequalities about powers of controllable intuitionistic fuzzy matrices have been obtained.
Propositional matrices as alternative representation of truth values ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper considered the subject of representation of truth values in symbolic logic. An alternative representation was given based on the rows and columns properties of matrices, with the operations involving the logical connectives subjected to the laws of algebra of propositions. Matrices of various propositions detailing ...
The Modern Origin of Matrices and Their Applications
Debnath, L.
2014-01-01
This paper deals with the modern development of matrices, linear transformations, quadratic forms and their applications to geometry and mechanics, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and characteristic equations with applications. Included are the representations of real and complex numbers, and quaternions by matrices, and isomorphism in order to show…
Abel-grassmann's groupoids of modulo matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javaid, Q.; Awan, M.D.; Naqvi, S.H.A.
2016-01-01
The binary operation of usual addition is associative in all matrices over R. However, a binary operation of addition in matrices over Z/sub n/ of a nonassociative structures of AG-groupoids and AG-groups are defined and investigated here. It is shown that both these structures exist for every integer n >≥ 3. Various properties of these structures are explored like: (i) Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ is transitively commutative AG-groupoid and is a cancellative AG-groupoid if n is prime. (ii) Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ of Type-II is a T/sup 3/-AG-groupoid. (iii) An AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ ; G /sub nAG/(t,u), is an AG-band, if t+u=1(mod n). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazemi, Elahe; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Abbasi, Amir; Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza; Behjat, Abbas
2016-01-01
This study aims at developing a novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of fluoxetine before its spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on combination of magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction and dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene as a sorbent. The magnetic graphene was synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The retained analyte was eluted using a 100 μL mixture of methanol/acetic acid (9:1) and converted into fluoxetine-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The analyte was then quantified by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry as well as mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). The factors affecting the separation, preconcentration and determination of fluoxetine were investigated and optimized. With a 50 mL sample and under optimized conditions using the spectrophotometry technique, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.4–60.0 μg L"−"1, a detection limit of 0.21 μg L"−"1, an enrichment factor of 167, and a relative standard deviation of 2.1% and 3.8% (n = 6) at 60 μg L"−"1 level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. However, with thermal lens spectrometry and a sample volume of 10 mL, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.05–300 μg L"−"1, a detection limit of 0.016 μg L"−"1 and a relative standard deviation of 3.8% and 5.6% (n = 6) at 60 μg L"−"1 level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulation, human urine and environmental water samples. - Graphical abstract: A novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient mixed hemimicelles dispersive micro solid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kazemi, Elahe; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadfarnia, Shayessteh, E-mail: sdadfarnia@yazd.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasi, Amir [Department of Physics, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidian Vaziri, Mohammad Reza [Laser and Optics Research School, 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Behjat, Abbas [Department of Physics, Yazd University, Safaieh, 89195-741, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-01-28
This study aims at developing a novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of fluoxetine before its spectrophotometric determination. The method is based on combination of magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid phase extraction and dispersive micro solid phase extraction using 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide coated magnetic graphene as a sorbent. The magnetic graphene was synthesized by a simple coprecipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The retained analyte was eluted using a 100 μL mixture of methanol/acetic acid (9:1) and converted into fluoxetine-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The analyte was then quantified by fiber optic linear array spectrophotometry as well as mode-mismatched thermal lens spectroscopy (TLS). The factors affecting the separation, preconcentration and determination of fluoxetine were investigated and optimized. With a 50 mL sample and under optimized conditions using the spectrophotometry technique, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.4–60.0 μg L{sup −1}, a detection limit of 0.21 μg L{sup −1}, an enrichment factor of 167, and a relative standard deviation of 2.1% and 3.8% (n = 6) at 60 μg L{sup −1} level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. However, with thermal lens spectrometry and a sample volume of 10 mL, the method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.05–300 μg L{sup −1}, a detection limit of 0.016 μg L{sup −1} and a relative standard deviation of 3.8% and 5.6% (n = 6) at 60 μg L{sup −1} level of fluoxetine for intra- and inter-day analyses, respectively. The method was successfully applied to determine fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulation, human urine and environmental water samples. - Graphical abstract: A novel, sensitive, fast, simple and convenient mixed hemimicelles
Roberto Gerardo Pellerano; Cesar Hamilton Romero; Hugo Arnoldo Acevedo; Francisco Antonio Vazquez
2007-01-01
A method for determining copper by solid phase spectrophotometry (SPS) was optimized using the Doehlert design. Copper(II) was sorbed on a styrene-divinylbenzene anion-exchange resin as a Cu(II)-1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) complex, at pH 7.0. Resin phase absorbances at 560 and 800 nm were measured directly. The detection limit was found to be 2.5 µg L-1. The relative standard deviation on ten replicate determinations of 10 µg Cu(II) in 1000 mL samples was 1.1%. The linear range of the d...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Samoylovich, M.I.; Rinkevich, A.B.; Bovtun, Viktor; Belyanin, A.F.; Kempa, Martin; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry; Tsvetkov, M.Ju.; Klescheva, S.M.
2012-01-01
Roč. 56, 1-2 (2012), s. 11-25 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nanocomposite * opal matrices * effective dielectric properties * multiferroics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2 is required for PAR-1 signalling in pulmonary fibrosis
Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Daalhuisen, Joost; ten Brink, Marieke; Crestani, Bruno; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, C. Arnold
2015-01-01
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most devastating diffuse fibrosing lung disease of unknown aetiology. Compelling evidence suggests that both protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 and PAR-2 participate in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that bleomycin-induced
1994-02-01
consolidation des materiaux composites sont disponibles pour la fabrication de composants structuraux. A l’eure actuelle, certains pays diveloppent des...mat~itmru te si -Le6prouveite rayonimee perniet d’approcher ces caract~nstiqtues en uldisant des plaques disponibles stir 22-4 I ll/ol1N a12/ollN a22...Compe’: tesi Septernher I193. 23-2 are unlikely to behave as homogeneous components in service other factors become materials. The combination of elastic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubouin, G; Laverlochere, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-07-01
The separation techniques based on ion-exchange resins have been used, in this study, for carrying out activation analyses on about thirty impurities. A separation process has been developed so as to standardise these analyses and to render them execution a matter of routine. The reparation yields obtained are excellent and make it possible to carry out analyses on samples having a large activation cross-section ween working inside a reinforced fume-cupboard. This technique has been applied to the analysis of impurities in tantalum, iron, gallium, germanium, terphenyl, and tungsten. The extension of this process to other impurities and to other matrices is now being studied. (authors) [French] Les techniques de separations sur resines echangeusee d'ions ont ete utilisees, dans cette etude, pour effectuer des analyses par activation sur une trentaine d'impuretes. Un schema de separation a ete mis au point de maniere a normaliser ces analyses et a pouvoir les faire en routine. Les rendements de separation obtenus sont excellents et permettent de proceder a des analyses d'echantillons a grande section efficace d'activation en travaillant dans une sorbonne blindee. Des applications de cette technique ont ete faites pour des analyses d'impuretes dans le tantale, le fer, le gallium, le germanium, le terphenyle, le tungstene. L'extension de ce schema a d'autres impuretes et a d'autres matrices est en cours d'etude. (auteurs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aubouin, G.; Laverlochere, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-07-01
The separation techniques based on ion-exchange resins have been used, in this study, for carrying out activation analyses on about thirty impurities. A separation process has been developed so as to standardise these analyses and to render them execution a matter of routine. The reparation yields obtained are excellent and make it possible to carry out analyses on samples having a large activation cross-section ween working inside a reinforced fume-cupboard. This technique has been applied to the analysis of impurities in tantalum, iron, gallium, germanium, terphenyl, and tungsten. The extension of this process to other impurities and to other matrices is now being studied. (authors) [French] Les techniques de separations sur resines echangeusee d'ions ont ete utilisees, dans cette etude, pour effectuer des analyses par activation sur une trentaine d'impuretes. Un schema de separation a ete mis au point de maniere a normaliser ces analyses et a pouvoir les faire en routine. Les rendements de separation obtenus sont excellents et permettent de proceder a des analyses d'echantillons a grande section efficace d'activation en travaillant dans une sorbonne blindee. Des applications de cette technique ont ete faites pour des analyses d'impuretes dans le tantale, le fer, le gallium, le germanium, le terphenyle, le tungstene. L'extension de ce schema a d'autres impuretes et a d'autres matrices est en cours d'etude. (auteurs)
Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moghadam, S H; Wang, H W; El-Leithy, E Saddar; Chebli, C; Cartilier, L
2007-01-01
High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process
LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.
Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A
2013-04-15
In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neutrino mass matrices with vanishing determinant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco
2006-01-01
We investigate the prospects for neutrinoless double beta decay, texture zeros. and equalities between neutrino mass matrix elements in scenarios with vanishing determinant mass matrices for vanishing and finite θ 13 mixing angles in normal and inverse mass hierarchies. For normal hierarchy and both zero and finite θ 13 it is found that neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be observed by any of the present or next generation experiments, while for inverse hierarchy it is, on the contrary, accessible to experiments. Regarding texture zeros and equalities between mass matrix elements, we find that in both normal and inverse hierarchies with θ 13 =0 no texture zeros nor any such equalities can exist apart from the obvious ones. For θ 13 ≠0 some texture zeros become possible. In normal hierarchy two texture zeros occur if 8.1x10 -2 ≤sinθ 13 ≤9.1x10 -2 while in inverse hierarchy three are possible, one with sinθ 13 ≥7x10 -3 and two others with sinθ 13 ≥0.18. All equalities between mass matrix elements are impossible with θ 13 ≠0
Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwierzycki, M.; Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J.; Xia, K.; Turek, I.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2008-01-01
The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Probing the Topology of Density Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles-Edouard Bardyn
2018-02-01
Full Text Available The mixedness of a quantum state is usually seen as an adversary to topological quantization of observables. For example, exact quantization of the charge transported in a so-called Thouless adiabatic pump is lifted at any finite temperature in symmetry-protected topological insulators. Here, we show that certain directly observable many-body correlators preserve the integrity of topological invariants for mixed Gaussian quantum states in one dimension. Our approach relies on the expectation value of the many-body momentum-translation operator and leads to a physical observable—the “ensemble geometric phase” (EGP—which represents a bona fide geometric phase for mixed quantum states, in the thermodynamic limit. In cyclic protocols, the EGP provides a topologically quantized observable that detects encircled spectral singularities (“purity-gap” closing points of density matrices. While we identify the many-body nature of the EGP as a key ingredient, we propose a conceptually simple, interferometric setup to directly measure the latter in experiments with mesoscopic ensembles of ultracold atoms.
Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices
Haas, J. C.
2016-12-01
When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011
Decellularized matrices for cardiovascular tissue engineering.
Moroni, Francesco; Mirabella, Teodelinda
2014-01-01
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The replacement of damaged vessels and valves has been practiced since the 1950's. Synthetic grafts, usually made of bio-inert materials, are long-lasting and mechanically relevant, but fail when it comes to "biointegration". Decellularized matrices, instead, can be considered biological grafts capable of stimulating in vivo migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), recruitment and differentiation of mural cells, finally, culminating in the formation of a biointegrated tissue. Decellularization protocols employ osmotic shock, ionic and non-ionic detergents, proteolitic digestions and DNase/RNase treatments; most of them effectively eliminate the cellular component, but show limitations in preserving the native structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we examine the current state of the art relative to decellularization techniques and biological performance of decellularized heart, valves and big vessels. Furthermore, we focus on the relevance of ECM components, native and resulting from decellularization, in mediating in vivo host response and determining repair and regeneration, as opposed to graft corruption.
On some Toeplitz matrices and their inversions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Dutta
2014-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, using the difference operator B(a[m], we introduce a lower triangular Toeplitz matrix T which includes several difference matrices such as Δ(1,Δ(m,B(r,s,B(r,s,t, and B(r̃,s̃,t̃,ũ in different special cases. For any x ∈ w and m∈N0={0,1,2,…}, the difference operator B(a[m] is defined by (B(a[m]xk=ak(0xk+ak-1(1xk-1+ak-2(2xk-2+⋯+ak-m(mxk-m,(k∈N0 where a[m] = {a(0, a(1, …, a(m} and a(i = (ak(i for 0 ⩽ i ⩽ m are convergent sequences of real numbers. We use the convention that any term with negative subscript is equal to zero. The main results of this article relate to the determination and applications of the inverse of the Toeplitz matrix T.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michalik, J.; Kevan, L.
1978-01-01
The electron spin-lattice relaxation of trapped silver atoms in polycrystalline ice matrices and in methanol, ethanol, propylene carbonate, and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran organic glasses has been directly studied as a function of temperature by the saturation-recovery method. Below 40 K the dominant electron spin-lattice relaxation mechanism involves modulation of the electron nuclear dipolar interaction with nuclei in the radical's environment by tunneling of those nuclei between two nearly equal energy configurations. This relaxation mechanism occurs with high efficiency, has a characteristic linear temperature dependence, and is typically found in highly disordered matrices. The efficiency of this relaxation mechanism seems to decrease with decreasing polarity of the matrix. Deuteration experiments show that the tunneling nuclei are protons and in methanol it is shown that the methyl protons have more tunneling modes available than the hydroxyl protons. In polycrystalline ice matrices silver atoms can be stabilized with two different orientations of surrounding water molecules; the efficiency of the tunneling relaxation reflects this difference. From these and previous results on tunneling relaxation of trapped electrons in glassy matrices it appears that tunneling relaxation may be used to distinguish models with different geometrical configurations and to determine the relative rigidity of such configurations around trapped radicals in disordered solids. (author)
Maple procedures for the coupling of angular momenta. IX. Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices
Pagaran, J.; Fritzsche, S.; Gaigalas, G.
2006-04-01
summation and integration rules are implemented to facilitate the algebraic simplification of expressions from the theories of angular momentum and the spherical tensor operators. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: The definition as well as the properties of the rotation matrices, as used in our implementation, are based mainly on the book of Varshalovich et al. [D.A. Varshalovich, A.N. Moskalev, V.K. Khersonskii, Quantum Theory of Angular Momentum, World Scientific, Singapore, 1988], Chapter 4. From this monograph, most of the relations involving the Wigner D-functions and rotation matrices are taken into account although, in practice, only a rather selected set was needed to be implemented explicitly owing to the symmetries of these functions. In the integration over the rotation matrices, products of up to three Wigner D-functions or reduced matrices (with the same angular arguments) are recognized and simplified properly; for the integration over a solid angle, however, the domain of integration must be specified for the Euler angles α and γ. This restriction arose because MAPLE does not generate a constant of integration when the limits in the integral are omitted. For any integration over the angle β the range of the integration, if omitted, is always taken from 0 to π. Unusual features of the program: The RACAH program is designed for interactive use that allows a quick and algebraic evaluation of (complex) expression from Racah's algebra. It is based on a number of well-defined data structures that are now extended to incorporate the Wigner rotation matrices. For these matrices, the transformation properties, sum rules, recursion relations, as well as a variety of special function expansions have been added to the previous functionality of the RACAH program. Moreover, the knowledge about the orthogonality as well as the completeness of the Wigner D-functions is also implemented. Typical running time:All the examples presented in Section 4 take only
Information geometry of density matrices and state estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C
2011-01-01
Given a pure state vector |x) and a density matrix ρ-hat, the function p(x|ρ-hat)= defines a probability density on the space of pure states parameterised by density matrices. The associated Fisher-Rao information measure is used to define a unitary invariant Riemannian metric on the space of density matrices. An alternative derivation of the metric, based on square-root density matrices and trace norms, is provided. This is applied to the problem of quantum-state estimation. In the simplest case of unitary parameter estimation, new higher-order corrections to the uncertainty relations, applicable to general mixed states, are derived. (fast track communication)
Chain of matrices, loop equations and topological recursion
Orantin, Nicolas
2009-01-01
Random matrices are used in fields as different as the study of multi-orthogonal polynomials or the enumeration of discrete surfaces. Both of them are based on the study of a matrix integral. However, this term can be confusing since the definition of a matrix integral in these two applications is not the same. These two definitions, perturbative and non-perturbative, are discussed in this chapter as well as their relation. The so-called loop equations satisfied by integrals over random matrices coupled in chain is discussed as well as their recursive solution in the perturbative case when the matrices are Hermitean.
Modular Extracellular Matrices: Solutions for the Puzzle
Serban, Monica A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.
2008-01-01
The common technique of growing cells in two-dimensions (2-D) is gradually being replaced by culturing cells on matrices with more appropriate composition and stiffness, or by encapsulation of cells in three-dimensions (3-D). The universal acceptance of the new 3-D paradigm has been constrained by the absence of a commercially available, biocompatible material that offers ease of use, experimental flexibility, and a seamless transition from in vitro to in vivo applications. The challenge – the puzzle that needs a solution – is to replicate the complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment with the minimum number of components necessary to allow cells to rebuild and replicate a given tissue. For use in drug discovery, toxicology, cell banking, and ultimately in reparative medicine, the ideal matrix would therefore need to be highly reproducible, manufacturable, approvable, and affordable. Herein we describe the development of a set of modular components that can be assembled into biomimetic materials that meet these requirements. These semi-synthetic ECMs, or sECMs, are based on hyaluronan derivatives that form covalently crosslinked, biodegradable hydrogels suitable for 3-D culture of primary and stem cells in vitro, and for tissue formation in vivo. The sECMs can be engineered to provide appropriate biological cues needed to recapitulate the complexity of a given ECM environment. Specific applications for different sECM compositions include stem cell expansion with control of differentiation, scar-free wound healing, growth factor delivery, cell delivery for osteochondral defect and liver repair, and development of vascularized tumor xenografts for personalized chemotherapy. PMID:18442709
Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.
Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N
2014-09-15
We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.
MATXTST, Basic Operations for Covariance Matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geraldo, Luiz P.; Smith, Donald
1989-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: MATXTST and MATXTST1 perform the following operations for a covariance matrix: - test for singularity; - test for positive definiteness; - compute the inverse if the matrix is non-singular; - compute the determinant; - determine the number of positive, negative, and zero eigenvalues; - examine all possible 3 X 3 cross correlations within a sub-matrix corresponding to a leading principal minor which is non-positive definite. While the two programs utilize the same input, the calculational procedures employed are somewhat different and their functions are complementary. The available input options include: i) the full covariance matrix, ii) the basic variables plus the relative covariance matrix, or iii) uncertainties in the basic variables plus the correlation matrix. 2 - Method of solution: MATXTST employs LINPACK subroutines SPOFA and SPODI to test for positive definiteness and to perform further optional calculations. Subroutine SPOFA factors a symmetric matrix M using the Cholesky algorithm to determine the elements of a matrix R which satisfies the relation M=R'R, where R' is the transposed matrix of R. Each leading principal minor of M is tested until the first one is found which is not positive definite. MATXTST1 uses LINPACK subroutines SSICO, SSIFA, and SSIDI to estimate whether the matrix is near to singularity or not (SSICO), and to perform the matrix diagonalization process (SSIFA). The algorithm used in SSIFA is generalization of the Method of Lagrange Reduction. SSIDI is used to compute the determinant and inertia of the matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrices of sizes up to 50 X 50 elements can be treated by present versions of the programs
Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta
2016-01-01
In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800
Joint Estimation of Multiple Precision Matrices with Common Structures.
Lee, Wonyul; Liu, Yufeng
Estimation of inverse covariance matrices, known as precision matrices, is important in various areas of statistical analysis. In this article, we consider estimation of multiple precision matrices sharing some common structures. In this setting, estimating each precision matrix separately can be suboptimal as it ignores potential common structures. This article proposes a new approach to parameterize each precision matrix as a sum of common and unique components and estimate multiple precision matrices in a constrained l 1 minimization framework. We establish both estimation and selection consistency of the proposed estimator in the high dimensional setting. The proposed estimator achieves a faster convergence rate for the common structure in certain cases. Our numerical examples demonstrate that our new estimator can perform better than several existing methods in terms of the entropy loss and Frobenius loss. An application to a glioblastoma cancer data set reveals some interesting gene networks across multiple cancer subtypes.
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
Finiteness properties of congruence classes of infinite matrices
Eggermont, R.H.
2014-01-01
We look at spaces of infinite-by-infinite matrices, and consider closed subsets that are stable under simultaneous row and column operations. We prove that up to symmetry, any of these closed subsets is defined by finitely many equations.
Flexible Bayesian Dynamic Modeling of Covariance and Correlation Matrices
Lan, Shiwei; Holbrook, Andrew; Fortin, Norbert J.; Ombao, Hernando; Shahbaba, Babak
2017-01-01
Modeling covariance (and correlation) matrices is a challenging problem due to the large dimensionality and positive-definiteness constraint. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian framework based on decomposing the covariance matrix
Contamination potentielle des aliments par des ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SARA Computers
la notion de la pollution et de l'exposition aux PCBs, lorsque 77% n'ont pas conscience de cette situation de risque ... 2018). Quoique la contamination par les. PCBs soit de faible niveau, elle est ...... Université Paris-Est, Paris, France ; 183.
Halasinski, Thomas M.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.; Mead, Susan (Technical Monitor)
1999-01-01
The absorption spectra of pentacene (C22H14) and its radical cation (C22H14(+)) and anion (C22H14(-)) isolated in inert-gas matrices of Ne, Ar, and Kr are reported from the ultraviolet to the near-infrared. The associated vibronic band systems and their spectroscopic assignments are discussed together with the physical and chemical conditions governing ion (and counterion) production in the solid matrix. In particular, the formation of isolated pentacene anions is found to be optimized in matrices doped with alkali metal (Na and K).
Procrustes Problems for General, Triangular, and Symmetric Toeplitz Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The Toeplitz Procrustes problems are the least squares problems for the matrix equation AX=B over some Toeplitz matrix sets. In this paper the necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained about the existence and uniqueness for the solutions of the Toeplitz Procrustes problems when the unknown matrices are constrained to the general, the triangular, and the symmetric Toeplitz matrices, respectively. The algorithms are designed and the numerical examples show that these algorithms are feasible.
An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices
Turnbull, H W
2004-01-01
Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.
Dynamical correlations for circular ensembles of random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagao, Taro; Forrester, Peter
2003-01-01
Circular Brownian motion models of random matrices were introduced by Dyson and describe the parametric eigenparameter correlations of unitary random matrices. For symmetric unitary, self-dual quaternion unitary and an analogue of antisymmetric Hermitian matrix initial conditions, Brownian dynamics toward the unitary symmetry is analyzed. The dynamical correlation functions of arbitrary number of Brownian particles at arbitrary number of times are shown to be written in the forms of quaternion determinants, similarly as in the case of Hermitian random matrix models
Complementary Set Matrices Satisfying a Column Correlation Constraint
Wu, Di; Spasojevic, Predrag
2006-01-01
Motivated by the problem of reducing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of transmitted signals, we consider a design of complementary set matrices whose column sequences satisfy a correlation constraint. The design algorithm recursively builds a collection of $2^{t+1}$ mutually orthogonal (MO) complementary set matrices starting from a companion pair of sequences. We relate correlation properties of column sequences to that of the companion pair and illustrate how to select an appropriate...
Open vessel microwave digestion of food matrices (T6)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, L.; LeBlanc, G.
2002-01-01
Full text: Advancements in the field of open vessel microwave digestion continue to provide solutions for industries requiring acid digestion of large sample sizes. Those interesting in digesting food matrices are particularly interested in working with large amounts of sample and then diluting small final volumes. This paper will show the advantages of instantaneous regent addition and post-digestion evaporation when performing an open vessel digestion and evaporation methods for various food matrices will be presented along with analyte recovery data. (author)
Quantum Algorithms for Weighing Matrices and Quadratic Residues
van Dam, Wim
2000-01-01
In this article we investigate how we can employ the structure of combinatorial objects like Hadamard matrices and weighing matrices to device new quantum algorithms. We show how the properties of a weighing matrix can be used to construct a problem for which the quantum query complexity is ignificantly lower than the classical one. It is pointed out that this scheme captures both Bernstein & Vazirani's inner-product protocol, as well as Grover's search algorithm. In the second part of the ar...
Asymptotic Distribution of Eigenvalues of Weakly Dilute Wishart Matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khorunzhy, A. [Institute for Low Temperature Physics (Ukraine)], E-mail: khorunjy@ilt.kharkov.ua; Rodgers, G. J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.j.rodgers@brunel.ac.uk
2000-03-15
We study the eigenvalue distribution of large random matrices that are randomly diluted. We consider two random matrix ensembles that in the pure (nondilute) case have a limiting eigenvalue distribution with a singular component at the origin. These include the Wishart random matrix ensemble and Gaussian random matrices with correlated entries. Our results show that the singularity in the eigenvalue distribution is rather unstable under dilution and that even weak dilution destroys it.
CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)
2016-01-15
Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.
CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.
Inference for High-dimensional Differential Correlation Matrices.
Cai, T Tony; Zhang, Anru
2016-01-01
Motivated by differential co-expression analysis in genomics, we consider in this paper estimation and testing of high-dimensional differential correlation matrices. An adaptive thresholding procedure is introduced and theoretical guarantees are given. Minimax rate of convergence is established and the proposed estimator is shown to be adaptively rate-optimal over collections of paired correlation matrices with approximately sparse differences. Simulation results show that the procedure significantly outperforms two other natural methods that are based on separate estimation of the individual correlation matrices. The procedure is also illustrated through an analysis of a breast cancer dataset, which provides evidence at the gene co-expression level that several genes, of which a subset has been previously verified, are associated with the breast cancer. Hypothesis testing on the differential correlation matrices is also considered. A test, which is particularly well suited for testing against sparse alternatives, is introduced. In addition, other related problems, including estimation of a single sparse correlation matrix, estimation of the differential covariance matrices, and estimation of the differential cross-correlation matrices, are also discussed.
Estimated correlation matrices and portfolio optimization
Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre
2004-11-01
Correlations of returns on various assets play a central role in financial theory and also in many practical applications. From a theoretical point of view, the main interest lies in the proper description of the structure and dynamics of correlations, whereas for the practitioner the emphasis is on the ability of the models to provide adequate inputs for the numerous portfolio and risk management procedures used in the financial industry. The theory of portfolios, initiated by Markowitz, has suffered from the “curse of dimensions” from the very outset. Over the past decades a large number of different techniques have been developed to tackle this problem and reduce the effective dimension of large bank portfolios, but the efficiency and reliability of these procedures are extremely hard to assess or compare. In this paper, we propose a model (simulation)-based approach which can be used for the systematical testing of all these dimensional reduction techniques. To illustrate the usefulness of our framework, we develop several toy models that display some of the main characteristic features of empirical correlations and generate artificial time series from them. Then, we regard these time series as empirical data and reconstruct the corresponding correlation matrices which will inevitably contain a certain amount of noise, due to the finiteness of the time series. Next, we apply several correlation matrix estimators and dimension reduction techniques introduced in the literature and/or applied in practice. As in our artificial world the only source of error is the finite length of the time series and, in addition, the “true” model, hence also the “true” correlation matrix, are precisely known, therefore in sharp contrast with empirical studies, we can precisely compare the performance of the various noise reduction techniques. One of our recurrent observations is that the recently introduced filtering technique based on random matrix theory performs
SAFARI 2000 PAR Measurements, Kalahari Transect, Botswana, Wet Season 2000
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gleiter, H.
1991-01-01
Nanocrystalline solids are polycrystals, the crystal size of which is a few (typically 1 to 10) nanometres so that 50% or more of the solid consists of incoherent interfaces between crystals of different orientations. Solids consisting primarily of internal interfaces represent a separate class of atomic structures because the atomic arrangement formed in the core of an interface is known to be an arrangement of minimum energy in the potential field of the two adjacent crystal lattices with different crystallographic orientations on either side of the boundary core. These boundary conditions result in atomic structures in the interfacial cores which cannot be formed elsewhere (e.g. in glasses or perfect crystals). Nanocrystalline solids are of interest for the following four reasons: (1) Nanocrystalline solids exhibit an atomic structure which differs from that of the two known solid states: the crystalline (with long-range order) and the glassy (with short-range order). (2) The properties of nanocrystalline solids differ (in some cases by several orders of magnitude) from those of glasses and/or crystals with the same chemical composition, which suggests that they may be utilized technologically in the future. (3) Nanocrystalline solids seem to permit the alloying of conventionally immiscible components. (4) If small (1 to 10 nm diameter) solid droplets with a glassy structure are consolidated (instead of small crystals), a new type of glass, called nanoglass, is obtained. Such glasses seem to differ structurally from conventional glasses. (orig.)
Angelo, Joseph A
2011-01-01
Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S
Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a stable inflammatory biomarker. In patients, suPAR is a marker of disease presence, severity and prognosis. In the general population, suPAR is predictive of disease development, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease a...
Copenhagen uPAR prostate cancer (CuPCa) database
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lippert, Solvej; Berg, Kasper D; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla
2016-01-01
AIM: Urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) plays a central role during cancer invasion by facilitating pericellular proteolysis. We initiated the prospective 'Copenhagen uPAR Prostate Cancer' study to investigate the significance of uPAR levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. METHODS...
The inflammatory marker suPAR after cardiac arrest
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rundgren, Malin; Lyngbaek, Stig; Fisker, Helle
2015-01-01
. This pilot study aimed at investigating suPAR levels in relation to outcome after CA and mild induced hypothermia. METHODS: suPAR levels were measured at 6, 36, and 72 hours in patients treated with hypothermia after CA. suPAR levels were analyzed in relation to survival after 6 months. Receiver operating...
On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices
Pestana, Jennifer
2014-01-01
Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.
1980-01-01
We consider semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices. We show that this new class of matrices, called s-matrices, defines Hamiltonian structures for isospectral deformation equations. Concrete examples of factorized s-matrices are constructed and they are used to define Hamiltonian structure for general two-dimensional isospectral deformation systems. (orig.)
Agricultural matrices affect ground ant assemblage composition inside forest fragments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diego Santana Assis
Full Text Available The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates; sugarcane (3; and pasture (3. At each site we installed pitfall traps along a 500 m transect from the interior of the matrix to the interior of the fragment (20 pitfall traps ~25 m apart. Each transect was partitioned into four categories: interior of the matrix; edge of the matrix; edge of the fragment; and interior of the fragment. For each sample site, we measured ant species richness and ant community composition within each transect category. Ant richness and composition differed between fragments and matrices. Each sample location had a specific composition of ants, probably because of the influence of the nature and management of the agricultural matrices. Species composition in the coffee matrix had the highest similarity to its corresponding fragment. The variability in species composition within forest fragments surrounded by pasture was greatest when compared with forest fragments surrounded by sugarcane or, to a lesser extent, coffee. Functional guild composition differed between locations, but the most representative guild was 'generalist' both in the agricultural matrices and forest fragments. Our results are important for understanding how agricultural matrices act on ant communities, and also, how these isolated forest fragments could act as an island of biodiversity in an 'ocean of crops'.
Agricultural matrices affect ground ant assemblage composition inside forest fragments.
Assis, Diego Santana; Dos Santos, Iracenir Andrade; Ramos, Flavio Nunes; Barrios-Rojas, Katty Elena; Majer, Jonathan David; Vilela, Evaldo Ferreira
2018-01-01
The establishment of agricultural matrices generally involves deforestation, which leads to fragmentation of the remaining forest. This fragmentation can affect forest dynamics both positively and negatively. Since most animal species are affected, certain groups can be used to measure the impact of such fragmentation. This study aimed to measure the impacts of agricultural crops (matrices) on ant communities of adjacent lower montane Atlantic rainforest fragments. We sampled nine forest fragments at locations surrounded by different agricultural matrices, namely: coffee (3 replicates); sugarcane (3); and pasture (3). At each site we installed pitfall traps along a 500 m transect from the interior of the matrix to the interior of the fragment (20 pitfall traps ~25 m apart). Each transect was partitioned into four categories: interior of the matrix; edge of the matrix; edge of the fragment; and interior of the fragment. For each sample site, we measured ant species richness and ant community composition within each transect category. Ant richness and composition differed between fragments and matrices. Each sample location had a specific composition of ants, probably because of the influence of the nature and management of the agricultural matrices. Species composition in the coffee matrix had the highest similarity to its corresponding fragment. The variability in species composition within forest fragments surrounded by pasture was greatest when compared with forest fragments surrounded by sugarcane or, to a lesser extent, coffee. Functional guild composition differed between locations, but the most representative guild was 'generalist' both in the agricultural matrices and forest fragments. Our results are important for understanding how agricultural matrices act on ant communities, and also, how these isolated forest fragments could act as an island of biodiversity in an 'ocean of crops'.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized
Baronian, Grégory; Ginda, Katarzyna; Berry, Laurence; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta; Jakimowicz, Dagmara; Molle, Virginie
2015-01-01
Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grégory Baronian
Full Text Available Here, we present for the first time that Mycobacterium tuberculosis ParB is phosphorylated by several mycobacterial Ser/Thr protein kinases in vitro. ParB and ParA are the key components of bacterial chromosome segregation apparatus. ParB is a cytosolic conserved protein that binds specifically to centromere-like DNA parS sequences and interacts with ParA, a weak ATPase required for its proper localization. Mass spectrometry identified the presence of ten phosphate groups, thus indicating that ParB is phosphorylated on eight threonines, Thr32, Thr41, Thr53, Thr110, Thr195, and Thr254, Thr300, Thr303 as well as on two serines, Ser5 and Ser239. The phosphorylation sites were further substituted either by alanine to prevent phosphorylation or aspartate to mimic constitutive phosphorylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed a drastic inhibition of DNA-binding by ParB phosphomimetic mutant compared to wild type. In addition, bacterial two-hybrid experiments showed a loss of ParA-ParB interaction with the phosphomimetic mutant, indicating that phosphorylation is regulating the recruitment of the partitioning complex. Moreover, fluorescence microscopy experiments performed in the surrogate Mycobacterium smegmatis ΔparB strain revealed that in contrast to wild type Mtb ParB, which formed subpolar foci similar to M. smegmatis ParB, phoshomimetic Mtb ParB was delocalized. Thus, our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of the different isoforms of ParB representing a molecular switch in localization and functioning of partitioning protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
EPR of free radicals in solids I trends in methods and applications
Lund, Anders; Lund, Anders
2012-01-01
In its updated 2nd edition, this book surveys methods and applications of EPR in the study of free radical processes in solids. The focus is on trends in methods for extracting structural and dynamical properties of radicals and spin probes in solid matrices.
[Ambroise Paré in French literature].
Dumaitre, P
1995-01-01
The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.
Par Pond refill water quality sampling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.
1996-08-01
This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column
Theoretical Properties for Neural Networks with Weight Matrices of Low Displacement Rank
Zhao, Liang; Liao, Siyu; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Zhe; Tang, Jian; Pan, Victor; Yuan, Bo
2017-01-01
Recently low displacement rank (LDR) matrices, or so-called structured matrices, have been proposed to compress large-scale neural networks. Empirical results have shown that neural networks with weight matrices of LDR matrices, referred as LDR neural networks, can achieve significant reduction in space and computational complexity while retaining high accuracy. We formally study LDR matrices in deep learning. First, we prove the universal approximation property of LDR neural networks with a ...
Hierarchical Matrices Method and Its Application in Electromagnetic Integral Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Guo
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Hierarchical (H- matrices method is a general mathematical framework providing a highly compact representation and efficient numerical arithmetic. When applied in integral-equation- (IE- based computational electromagnetics, H-matrices can be regarded as a fast algorithm; therefore, both the CPU time and memory requirement are reduced significantly. Its kernel independent feature also makes it suitable for any kind of integral equation. To solve H-matrices system, Krylov iteration methods can be employed with appropriate preconditioners, and direct solvers based on the hierarchical structure of H-matrices are also available along with high efficiency and accuracy, which is a unique advantage compared to other fast algorithms. In this paper, a novel sparse approximate inverse (SAI preconditioner in multilevel fashion is proposed to accelerate the convergence rate of Krylov iterations for solving H-matrices system in electromagnetic applications, and a group of parallel fast direct solvers are developed for dealing with multiple right-hand-side cases. Finally, numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed multilevel preconditioner compared to conventional “single level” preconditioners and the practicability of the fast direct solvers for arbitrary complex structures.
MALDI matrices for low molecular weight compounds: an endless story?
Calvano, Cosima Damiana; Monopoli, Antonio; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Palmisano, Francesco
2018-04-23
Since its introduction in the 1980s, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has gained a prominent role in the analysis of high molecular weight biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides, and polysaccharides. Its application to low molecular weight compounds has remained for long time challenging due to the spectral interferences produced by conventional organic matrices in the low m/z window. To overcome this problem, specific sample preparation such as analyte/matrix derivatization, addition of dopants, or sophisticated deposition technique especially useful for imaging experiments, have been proposed. Alternative approaches based on second generation (rationally designed) organic matrices, ionic liquids, and inorganic matrices, including metallic nanoparticles, have been the object of intense and continuous research efforts. Definite evidences are now provided that MALDI MS represents a powerful and invaluable analytical tool also for small molecules, including their quantification, thus opening new, exciting applications in metabolomics and imaging mass spectrometry. This review is intended to offer a concise critical overview of the most recent achievements about MALDI matrices capable of specifically address the challenging issue of small molecules analysis. Graphical abstract An ideal Book of matrices for MALDI MS of small molecules.
Hypersymmetric functions and Pochhammers of 2×2 nonautonomous matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. F. Antippa
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce the hypersymmetric functions of 2×2 nonautonomous matrices and show that they are related, by simple expressions, to the Pochhammers (factorial polynomials of these matrices. The hypersymmetric functions are generalizations of the associated elementary symmetric functions, and for a specific class of 2×2 matrices, having a high degree of symmetry, they reduce to these latter functions. This class of matrices includes rotations, Lorentz boosts, and discrete time generators for the harmonic oscillators. The hypersymmetric functions are defined over four sets of independent indeterminates using a triplet of interrelated binary partitions. We work out the algebra of this triplet of partitions and then make use of the results in order to simplify the expressions for the hypersymmetric functions for a special class of matrices. In addition to their obvious applications in matrix theory, in coupled difference equations, and in the theory of symmetric functions, the results obtained here also have useful applications in problems involving successive rotations, successive Lorentz transformations, discrete harmonic oscillators, and linear two-state systems.
Centromere pairing by a plasmid-encoded type I ParB protein
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ringgaard, Simon; Löwe, Jan; Gerdes, Kenn
2007-01-01
The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes two trans-acting proteins, ParA and ParB, and two cis-acting sites, parC1 and parC2, to which ParB binds cooperatively. ParA is related to MinD and oscillates in helical structures and thereby positions ParB/parC-carrying plasmids regularly......, hence identifying the N terminus of ParB as a requirement for ParB-mediated centromere pairing. These observations suggest that centromere pairing is an important intermediate step in plasmid partitioning mediated by the common type I loci....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ceccaldi, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1964-07-01
After, a description of the technique used, a qualitative examination is made of the influence of the temperature on the {nu}{sub OH}(3,400 cm{sup -1}) and {nu}{sub OD} (2,500 cm{sup -1}) valence bands of HDO in the liquid state and then during the passage to the solid state. Quantitative examination with two cells of different thickness makes it possible to define the influence of temperature on the residual absorption of the pure liquid (D{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O and on the valency bands ({nu}{sub OH} and {nu}{sub OD} respectively). It is found that a similar change occurs in the two bands but that the changes in the background are very different. During the passage from the liquid to the solid state the shape of the bands varies considerably but little change occurs in the total intensity. It has been possible to express these results in a simple form which is directly applicable to analytical problems. (authors) [French] Apres un rappel de la technique utilisee, on examine qualitativement l'influence de la temperature sur les bandes de valence {nu}{sub OH} (3400 cm{sup -1}) et {nu}{sub OD} (2500 cm{sup -1}) de HDO a l'etat liquide puis le passage a l'etat solide. L'examen quantitatif, avec deux cuves d'epaisseurs differentes, permet de preciser l'influence de la temperature sur l'absorption residuelle du liquide pur (D{sub 2}O ou H{sub 2}O) et sur les bandes de valence ( {nu}{sub OH} et {nu}{sub OD} respectivement). On constate une evolution parallele de ces bandes mais un comportement tres different du fond continu. Lors du passage de l'etat liquide a l'etat solide, la forme des bandes varie considerablement mais non l'intensite totale. On a pu formuler ces resultats sous une forme simple applicable directement aux problemes analytiques. (auteurs)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakshi, Paromita; Sadhukhan, Sayantan; Maiti, Sabyasachi, E-mail: sabya245@rediffmail.com
2015-09-01
In this work, Soluplus{sup ®} was used as a hydrophilic carrier for the preparation of solid dispersion (SD) of a model BCS class II drug, glibenclamide by applying hot melting process and microwave irradiation in combination. Increasing the concentration of carrier relative to drug significantly increased the drug solubility, which corresponded to a maximum 75 fold increase at a drug:carrier ratio of 1:7. Scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed complete amorphization of the drug in SD. In animal study, about two fold reductions in hyperglycemic level were achieved by SD compared to pure drug. SD-loaded O-carboxymethyl xanthan mini-matrices controlled the release of drug into gastro-luminal fluid over longer duration. The drug release corroborated with pH-dependent swelling behavior of the matrices and approximated anomalous diffusion mechanism. This study proved the potential of Soluplus{sup ®}-based dispersion in improving the clinical performance of the drug, especially when embedded in modified xanthan mini-matrices. - Highlights: • Microwave-induced solid dispersion of glibenclamide was prepared using Soluplus®. • Solubility of drug corresponded to 75 fold increase at a drug:Soluplus® ratio of 1:7. • Thermal and x-ray analyses suggested amorphization of drug in solid dispersion. • About two fold reductions in hyperglycemic level were achieved by solid dispersion. • Modified xanthan gum showed potential in controlling anomalous transport of drug.
VALORIZATION AGRICULTURAL OF A SOLID DIGESTATE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
1 sept. 2015 ... La valorisation des déchets agricoles pour la production de biogaz (par ... développée tout d'abord à partir de l'utilisation de fumier de ferme liquide. ... la Matière Organique (MO) reste une priorité dans la gestion des déchets. ... (selon sa teneur en solides) à travers le digesteur contenant les briques de 12.
Polymer tensiometers with ceramic cones: direct observations of matric pressures in drying soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. van der Ploeg
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Measuring soil water potentials is crucial to characterize vadose zone processes. Conventional tensiometers only measure until approximately −0.09 MPa, and indirect methods may suffer from the non-uniqueness in the relationship between matric potential and measured properties. Recently developed polymer tensiometers (POTs are able to directly measure soil matric potentials until the theoretical wilting point (−1.6 MPa. By minimizing the volume of polymer solution inside the POT while maximizing the ceramic area in contact with that polymer solution, response times drop to acceptable ranges for laboratory and field conditions. Contact with the soil is drastically improved with the use of cone-shaped solid ceramics instead of flat ceramics. The comparison between measured potentials by polymer tensiometers and indirectly obtained potentials with time domain reflectometry highlights the risk of using the latter method at low water contents. By combining POT and time domain reflectometry readings in situ moisture retention curves can be measured over the range permitted by the measurement range of both POT and time domain reflectometry.
Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices
Chamis, Christos C.
2009-01-01
Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.
Square matrices of order 2 theory, applications, and problems
Pop, Vasile
2017-01-01
This unique and innovative book presents an exciting and complete detail of all the important topics related to the theory of square matrices of order 2. The readers exploring every detailed aspect of matrix theory are gently led toward understanding advanced topics. They will follow every notion of matrix theory with ease, accumulating a thorough understanding of algebraic and geometric aspects of matrices of order 2. The prime jewel of this book is its offering of an unusual collection of problems, theoretically motivated, most of which are new, original, and seeing the light of publication for the first time in the literature. Nearly all of the exercises are presented with detailed solutions and vary in difficulty from easy to more advanced. Many problems are particularly challenging. These, and not only these, invite the reader to unleash their creativity and research capabilities and to discover their own methods of attacking a problem. Matrices have a vast practical importance to mathematics, science, a...
Two-mode Gaussian density matrices and squeezing of photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tucci, R.R.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors generalize to 2-mode states the 1-mode state results obtained in a previous paper. The authors study 2-mode Gaussian density matrices. The authors find a linear transformation which maps the two annihilation operators, one for each mode, into two new annihilation operators that are uncorrelated and unsqueezed. This allows the authors to express the density matrix as a product of two 1-mode density matrices. The authors find general conditions under which 2-mode Gaussian density matrices become pure states. Possible pure states include the 2-mode squeezed pure states commonly mentioned in the literature, plus other pure states never mentioned before. The authors discuss the entropy and thermodynamic laws (Second Law, Fundamental Equation, and Gibbs-Duhem Equation) for the 2-mode states being considered
A Workshop on Algebraic Design Theory and Hadamard Matrices
2015-01-01
This volume develops the depth and breadth of the mathematics underlying the construction and analysis of Hadamard matrices and their use in the construction of combinatorial designs. At the same time, it pursues current research in their numerous applications in security and cryptography, quantum information, and communications. Bridges among diverse mathematical threads and extensive applications make this an invaluable source for understanding both the current state of the art and future directions. The existence of Hadamard matrices remains one of the most challenging open questions in combinatorics. Substantial progress on their existence has resulted from advances in algebraic design theory using deep connections with linear algebra, abstract algebra, finite geometry, number theory, and combinatorics. Hadamard matrices arise in a very diverse set of applications. Starting with applications in experimental design theory and the theory of error-correcting codes, they have found unexpected and important ap...
Asymmetric correlation matrices: an analysis of financial data
Livan, G.; Rebecchi, L.
2012-06-01
We analyse the spectral properties of correlation matrices between distinct statistical systems. Such matrices are intrinsically non-symmetric, and lend themselves to extend the spectral analyses usually performed on standard Pearson correlation matrices to the realm of complex eigenvalues. We employ some recent random matrix theory results on the average eigenvalue density of this type of matrix to distinguish between noise and non-trivial correlation structures, and we focus on financial data as a case study. Namely, we employ daily prices of stocks belonging to the American and British stock exchanges, and look for the emergence of correlations between two such markets in the eigenvalue spectrum of their non-symmetric correlation matrix. We find several non trivial results when considering time-lagged correlations over short lags, and we corroborate our findings by additionally studying the asymmetric correlation matrix of the principal components of our datasets.
Asymptotics of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Toeplitz matrices
Böttcher, A.; Bogoya, J. M.; Grudsky, S. M.; Maximenko, E. A.
2017-11-01
Analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of the spectral characteristics of Toeplitz matrices as the dimension of the matrix tends to infinity has a history of over 100 years. For instance, quite a number of versions of Szegő's theorem on the asymptotic behaviour of eigenvalues and of the so-called strong Szegő theorem on the asymptotic behaviour of the determinants of Toeplitz matrices are known. Starting in the 1950s, the asymptotics of the maximum and minimum eigenvalues were actively investigated. However, investigation of the individual asymptotics of all the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Toeplitz matrices started only quite recently: the first papers on this subject were published in 2009-2010. A survey of this new field is presented here. Bibliography: 55 titles.
Physical properties of the Schur complement of local covariance matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haruna, L F; Oliveira, M C de
2007-01-01
General properties of global covariance matrices representing bipartite Gaussian states can be decomposed into properties of local covariance matrices and their Schur complements. We demonstrate that given a bipartite Gaussian state ρ 12 described by a 4 x 4 covariance matrix V, the Schur complement of a local covariance submatrix V 1 of it can be interpreted as a new covariance matrix representing a Gaussian operator of party 1 conditioned to local parity measurements on party 2. The connection with a partial parity measurement over a bipartite quantum state and the determination of the reduced Wigner function is given and an operational process of parity measurement is developed. Generalization of this procedure to an n-partite Gaussian state is given, and it is demonstrated that the n - 1 system state conditioned to a partial parity projection is given by a covariance matrix such that its 2 x 2 block elements are Schur complements of special local matrices
Characteristics of scandate-impregnated cathodes with sub-micron scandia-doped matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Haiqing; Gu Xin; Pan Kexin; Wang Yiman; Liu Wei; Zhang Ke; Wang Jinshu; Zhou Meiling; Li Ji
2005-01-01
We describe in this paper scandate-impregnated cathodes with sub-micron scandia-doped tungsten matrices having an improved uniformity of the Sc distribution. The scandia-doped tungsten powders were made by both liquid-solid doping and liquid-liquid doping methods on the basis of previous research. By improving pressing, sintering and impregnating procedures, we have obtained scandate-impregnated cathodes with a good uniformity of the Sc 2 O 3 - distribution. The porosity of the sub-micron structure matrix and content of impregnants inside the matrix are similar to those of conventionally impregnated cathodes. Space charge limited current densities of more than 30 A/cm 2 at 850 deg. C b have been obtained in a reproducible way. The current density continuously increases during the first 2000 h life test at 950 deg. C b with a dc load of 2 A/cm 2 and are stable for at least 3000 h
Separation and determination of radiostrontium in calcium carbonate matrices of biological origin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, S.B.
1994-01-01
Radiostrontium is concentrated in the shells of mollusks and other animals due to the isomorphic substitution of strontium for calcium in the calcium carbonate shell matrix. Radiochemical separation of strontium from such matrices is difficult because of the chemical similarity between strontium and calcium. This paper describes a technique using a commercially-available, solid-phase extractant to separate Sr-89 and Sr-90 from high concentrations of Ca 2+ . The extractant removes Sr(NO 3 ) 2 from acidic nitrate media, and strontium activities are determined via conventional β-counting techniques. This method has been used to process mollusk shells collected from contaminated reactor cooling ponds at the Savannah River Site and Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pindado, O.; Perez, R. M.; Garcia, S.
2014-02-01
Analytical methods to analyze TPH and several aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in soil and groundwater samples contaminated by hydrocarbons are showed. As a part of BIOXISOIL project, analyzing these parameters is fundamental and indispensable to know the initial contamination level, design an adequate method to decontaminate it and eventually assess decontamination accomplished. Analysis of both matrices involve different extraction stages such as microwave radiation, clean up steps based on solid phase extraction and finally a chromatograph analysis with flame ion detector. Analytical procedures have showed satisfactory analytical quality parameters and have been validated against several certified reference materials. (Author)
Random Matrices for Information Processing – A Democratic Vision
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cakmak, Burak
The thesis studies three important applications of random matrices to information processing. Our main contribution is that we consider probabilistic systems involving more general random matrix ensembles than the classical ensembles with iid entries, i.e. models that account for statistical...... dependence between the entries. Specifically, the involved matrices are invariant or fulfill a certain asymptotic freeness condition as their dimensions grow to infinity. Informally speaking, all latent variables contribute to the system model in a democratic fashion – there are no preferred latent variables...
An algebraic model for quark mass matrices with heavy top
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolikowski, W.; Warsaw Univ.
1991-01-01
In terms of an intergeneration U(3) algebra, a numerical model is constructed for quark mass matrices, predicting the top-quark mass around 170 GeV and the CP-violating phase around 75 deg. The CKM matrix is nonsymmetric in moduli with |V ub | being very small. All moduli are consistent with their experimental limits. The model is motivated by the author's previous work on three replicas of the Dirac particle, presumably resulting into three generations of leptons and quarks. The paper may be also viewed as an introduction to a new method of intrinsic dynamical description of lepton and quark mass matrices. (author)
ON MATRICES ARISING IN RETARDED DELAY DIFFERENTIAL SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S DJEZZAR
2002-12-01
Full Text Available Dans cet article, on considère une classe de système différentiels retardés et à laquelle on associe une matrice système sur R[s,z], l'anneau des polynômes à deux indéterminés s et z. Ensuite, en utilisant la notion de la matrice forme de Smith sur R[s,z], on étend un résultat de caractérisation obtenu précédemment [5] sur les formes canoniques, à un cas plus général.
Soft landing of size selected clusters in rare gas matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lau, J.T; Wurth, W.; Ehrke, H-U.; Achleitner, A.
2003-01-01
Soft landing of mass selected clusters in rare gas matrices is a technique used to preserve mass selection in cluster deposition. To prevent fragmentation upon deposition, the substrate is covered with rare gas matrices to dissipate the cluster kinetic energy upon impact. Theoretical and experimental studies demonstrate the power of this technique. Besides STM, optical absorption, excitation, and fluorescence experiments, x-ray absorption at core levels can be used as a tool to study soft landing conditions, as will be shown here. X-ray absorption spectroscopy is also well suited to follow diffusion and agglomeration of clusters on surfaces via energy shifts in core level absorption
Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver
2013-01-01
An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....
On the Wigner law in dilute random matrices
Khorunzhy, A.; Rodgers, G. J.
1998-12-01
We consider ensembles of N × N symmetric matrices whose entries are weakly dependent random variables. We show that random dilution can change the limiting eigenvalue distribution of such matrices. We prove that under general and natural conditions the normalised eigenvalue counting function coincides with the semicircle (Wigner) distribution in the limit N → ∞. This can be explained by the observation that dilution (or more generally, random modulation) eliminates the weak dependence (or correlations) between random matrix entries. It also supports our earlier conjecture that the Wigner distribution is stable to random dilution and modulation.
THE ALGORITHM AND PROGRAM OF M-MATRICES SEARCH AND STUDY
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Y. N. Balonin
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The algorithm and software for search and study of orthogonal bases matrices – minimax matrices (M-matrix are considered. The algorithm scheme is shown, comments on calculation blocks are given, and interface of the MMatrix software system developed with participation of the authors is explained. The results of the universal algorithm work are presented as Hadamard matrices, Belevitch matrices (C-matrices, conference matrices and matrices of even and odd orders complementary and closely related to those ones by their properties, in particular, the matrix of the 22-th order for which there is no C-matrix. Examples of portraits for alternative matrices of the 255-th and the 257-th orders are given corresponding to the sequences of Mersenne and Fermat numbers. A new way to get Hadamard matrices is explained, different from the previously known procedures based on iterative processes and calculations of Lagrange symbols, with theoretical and practical meaning.
Lee, Ken Voon
2013-04-01
The purpose of this action research was to increase the mastery level of Form Five Social Science students in Tawau II National Secondary School in the operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices in Mathematics. A total of 30 students were involved. Preliminary findings through the analysis of pre-test results and questionnaire had identified the main problem faced in which the students felt confused with the application of principles of the operations of matrices when performing these operations. Therefore, an action research was conducted using an intervention programme called "G.P.S Matrices" to overcome the problem. This programme was divided into three phases. 'Gift of Matrices' phase aimed at forming matrix teaching aids. The second and third phases were 'Positioning the Elements of Matrices' and 'Strenghtening the Concept of Matrices'. These two phases were aimed at increasing the level of understanding and memory of the students towards the principles of matrix operations. Besides, this third phase was also aimed at creating an interesting learning environment. A comparison between the results of pre-test and post-test had shown a remarkable improvement in students' performances after implementing the programme. In addition, the analysis of interview findings also indicated a positive feedback on the changes in students' attitude, particularly in the aspect of students' understanding level. Moreover, the level of students' memory also increased following the use of the concrete matrix teaching aids created in phase one. Besides, teachers felt encouraging when conducive learning environment was created through students' presentation activity held in third phase. Furthermore, students were voluntarily involved in these student-centred activities. In conclusion, this research findings showed an increase in the mastery level of students in these three matrix operations and thus the objective of the research had been achieved.
Childhood Pars Planitis; Clinical Features and Outcomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Homayoon Nikkhah
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the demographic and clinical features of childhood pars planitis, and to determine the therapeutic and visual outcomes of the disease. Methods: Medical records of pediatric patients (less than 16 years of age at diagnosis with pars planitis and at least 6 months of follow-up who were referred to Labbafinejad Medical Center, Tehran, Iran over a 22 year period were reviewed. Results: Overall, 117 eyes of 61 patients including 51 (83.6% male subjects were included. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 7.83.2 (range, 3-16 years. Mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.880.76 logMAR at presentation which improved to 0.390.51 logMAR at final visit (P<0.001. Endotheliitis was present in 23 (19.6% eyes and was significantly more prevalent in subjects younger than 9 years (P=0.025. Cataract formation (41.9% and cystoid macular edema (19.7% were the most prevalent complications. Univariate regression analysis showed that better baseline visual acuity (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.21-0.70, P=0.002, age older than 5 years at disease onset (OR=0.36, 95%CI 0.14-0.9, P=0.029, absence of endotheliitis (OR=0.39, 95%CI 0.15-0.99, P=0.047 and female gender (OR=3.77, 95%CI 1.03-13.93, P=0.046 were significantly associated with final BCVA of 20/40 or better. Conclusion: Childhood pars planitis was much more common among male subjects. Endotheliitis may be a sign of inflammation spillover and is more prevalent in younger patients. Visual prognosis is favorable in most patients with appropriate treatment.
Embedding of solid high-level wastes into metal and non-metal matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geel, J. van; Eschrich, H.; Dobbels, F.; Favre, P.; Sterner, H.
1980-03-01
The primary objective of embedding solidification high-level waste forms of high specific activity into a matrix material is to obtain final waste composites with moderate inner temperatures, even at large waste loadings per meter cylinder length. Secondary objectives are to produce a non-porous, crack-free composite product with a durability superior to that of the embedded waste form itself. The temperature distribution in composite material composed of vitreous beads embedded into a metal matrix (vitromets) are compared with that in a vitreous block, of equal heat generation per meter height, during short- and long-term storage. It was found that for storage under water, inner temperatures below 100 0 C are assured in vitromets, produced from short-cooled high-level wastes, and containing high waste loadings per metercanister height. The chemical and mechanical stability, as well as the thermal conductivity have been examined for vitromets containing various matrix materials whereby emphasis is imparted to lead- and aluminum alloys. The corrosion of lead- and aluminum alloys in distilled water, brine solution and dry salt has been examined at temperatures up to 230 0 C and pressures up to 3.5 MPa. Some lead alloys were found to exhibit superior corrosion resistance in these chemical environments than certain reference borosilicate glasses. The deformation behavior of vitromets under axial compression has been investigated at different temperatures and varying height diameter ratios. The maturity of the vitromet production is finally demonstrated by presenting process data from hot-laboratory scale and cold semi-industrial scale production units. (author)
Solid-phase DNA isolation from food matrices using hydrophilic magnetic microspheres
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Trachtová, Š.; Španová, A.; Tóth, J.; Prettl, Z.; Horák, Daniel; Gyenis, J.; Rittich, B.
2015-01-01
Roč. 94, April (2015), s. 375-381 ISSN 0960-3085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/0381 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : DNA compaction * magnetic microspheres * DNA isolation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.687, year: 2015
Increased production and use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) over the past decade has increased the potential for the transport and release of these materials into the environment. Here we present results of two separate studies designed to simulate the effects of weathering o...
Schur complements of matrices with acyclic bipartite graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Britz, Thomas Johann; Olesky, D.D.; van den Driessche, P.
2005-01-01
Bipartite graphs are used to describe the generalized Schur complements of real matrices having nos quare submatrix with two or more nonzero diagonals. For any matrix A with this property, including any nearly reducible matrix, the sign pattern of each generalized Schur complement is shown to be ...
Flexible Bayesian Dynamic Modeling of Covariance and Correlation Matrices
Lan, Shiwei
2017-11-08
Modeling covariance (and correlation) matrices is a challenging problem due to the large dimensionality and positive-definiteness constraint. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian framework based on decomposing the covariance matrix into variance and correlation matrices. The highlight is that the correlations are represented as products of vectors on unit spheres. We propose a variety of distributions on spheres (e.g. the squared-Dirichlet distribution) to induce flexible prior distributions for covariance matrices that go beyond the commonly used inverse-Wishart prior. To handle the intractability of the resulting posterior, we introduce the adaptive $\\\\Delta$-Spherical Hamiltonian Monte Carlo. We also extend our structured framework to dynamic cases and introduce unit-vector Gaussian process priors for modeling the evolution of correlation among multiple time series. Using an example of Normal-Inverse-Wishart problem, a simulated periodic process, and an analysis of local field potential data (collected from the hippocampus of rats performing a complex sequence memory task), we demonstrated the validity and effectiveness of our proposed framework for (dynamic) modeling covariance and correlation matrices.
Modeling and Forecasting Large Realized Covariance Matrices and Portfolio Choice
Callot, Laurent A.F.; Kock, Anders B.; Medeiros, Marcelo C.
2017-01-01
We consider modeling and forecasting large realized covariance matrices by penalized vector autoregressive models. We consider Lasso-type estimators to reduce the dimensionality and provide strong theoretical guarantees on the forecast capability of our procedure. We show that we can forecast
BMP-silk composite matrices heal critically sized femoral defects
Kirker-Head, C.; Karageorgiou, V.; Hofmann, S.; Fajardo, R.; Betz, O.; Merkle, H.P.; Hilbe, M.; Rechenberg, von B.; McCool, J.; Abrahamsen, L.; Nazarian, A.; Cory, E.; Curtis, M.; Kaplan, D.L.; Meinel, L.
2007-01-01
Clinical drawbacks of bone grafting prompt the search for alternative bone augmentation technologies such as use of growth and differentiation factors, gene therapy, and cell therapy. Osteopromotive matrices are frequently employed for the local delivery and controlled release of these augmentation
Which matrices are immune against the transportation paradox
Deineko, Vladimir G.; Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard
2003-01-01
We characterize the m×n cost matrices of the transportation problem for which there exist supplies and demands such that the transportation paradox arises. Our characterization is fairly simple and can be verified within O(mn) computational steps. Moreover, we discuss the corresponding question for
A definition of column reduced proper rational matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ruiz-León, J. J.; Castellanos, A.; Ramos-Velasco, Luis Enrique
2002-01-01
Roč. 75, č. 3 (2002), s. 195-203 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1019101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : linear systems * columm reduced polynomial matrices * decoupling Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.861, year: 2002
Construction of MDS self-dual codes from orthogonal matrices
Shi, Minjia; Sok, Lin; Solé, Patrick
2016-01-01
In this paper, we give algorithms and methods of construction of self-dual codes over finite fields using orthogonal matrices. Randomization in the orthogonal group, and code extension are the main tools. Some optimal, almost MDS, and MDS self-dual codes over both small and large prime fields are constructed.
Designer matrices for intestinal stem cell and organoid culture
Gjorevski, Nikolce; Sachs, Norman; Manfrin, Andrea; Giger, Sonja; Bragina, Maiia E.; Ordóñez-Morán, Paloma; Clevers, Hans; Lutolf, Matthias P.
2016-01-01
Epithelial organoids recapitulate multiple aspects of real organs, making them promising models of organ development, function and disease. However, the full potential of organoids in research and therapy has remained unrealized, owing to the poorly defined animal-derived matrices in which they are
Study on vulnerability matrices of masonry buildings of mainland China
Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Guixin
2018-04-01
The degree and distribution of damage to buildings subjected to earthquakes is a concern of the Chinese Government and the public. Seismic damage data indicates that seismic capacities of different types of building structures in various regions throughout mainland China are different. Furthermore, the seismic capacities of the same type of structure in different regions may vary. The contributions of this research are summarized as follows: 1) Vulnerability matrices and earthquake damage matrices of masonry structures in mainland China were chosen as research samples. The aim was to analyze the differences in seismic capacities of sample matrices and to present general rules for categorizing seismic resistance. 2) Curves relating the percentage of damaged masonry structures with different seismic resistances subjected to seismic demand in different regions of seismic intensity (VI to X) have been developed. 3) A method has been proposed to build vulnerability matrices of masonry structures. The damage ratio for masonry structures under high-intensity events such as the Ms 6.1 Panzhihua earthquake in Sichuan province on 30 August 2008, was calculated to verify the applicability of this method. This research offers a significant theoretical basis for predicting seismic damage and direct loss assessment of groups of buildings, as well as for earthquake disaster insurance.
More about unphysical zeroes in quark mass matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Emmanuel-Costa, David, E-mail: david.costa@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Departamento de Física and Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); González Felipe, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardo.felipe@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Departamento de Física and Centro de Física Teórica de Partículas - CFTP, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); ISEL - Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, Rua Conselheiro Emídio Navarro, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)
2017-01-10
We look for all weak bases that lead to texture zeroes in the quark mass matrices and contain a minimal number of parameters in the framework of the standard model. Since there are ten physical observables, namely, six nonvanishing quark masses, three mixing angles and one CP phase, the maximum number of texture zeroes in both quark sectors is altogether nine. The nine zero entries can only be distributed between the up- and down-quark sectors in matrix pairs with six and three texture zeroes or five and four texture zeroes. In the weak basis where a quark mass matrix is nonsingular and has six zeroes in one sector, we find that there are 54 matrices with three zeroes in the other sector, obtainable through right-handed weak basis transformations. It is also found that all pairs composed of a nonsingular matrix with five zeroes and a nonsingular and nondecoupled matrix with four zeroes simply correspond to a weak basis choice. Without any further assumptions, none of these pairs of up- and down-quark mass matrices has physical content. It is shown that all non-weak-basis pairs of quark mass matrices that contain nine zeroes are not compatible with current experimental data. The particular case of the so-called nearest-neighbour-interaction pattern is also discussed.
Eudragit E100 and Polysaccharide Polymer Blends as Matrices for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To compare the effects of two states of polymer/polymer blending (dry and aqueous/lyophilized) on the physicomechanical properties of tablets, containing blends of locust bean gum (LB) with Eudragit® E100 (E100) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) as matrices. Methods: LB, SCMC and E100 were ...
On the nonnegative inverse eigenvalue problem of traditional matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alimohammad Nazari
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, at first for a given set of real or complex numbers $\\sigma$ with nonnegativesummation, we introduce some special conditions that with them there is no nonnegativetridiagonal matrix in which $\\sigma$ is its spectrum. In continue we present some conditions forexistence such nonnegative tridiagonal matrices.
Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young S. Kim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.
REFLECTIONS The Matrices of Race, Class and Gender: how they ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
REFLECTIONS The Matrices of Race, Class and Gender: how they. Nova Smith. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23950 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
A Role for M-Matrices in Modelling Population Growth
James, Glyn; Rumchev, Ventsi
2006-01-01
Adopting a discrete-time cohort-type model to represent the dynamics of a population, the problem of achieving a desired total size of the population under a balanced growth (contraction) and the problem of maintaining the desired size, once achieved, are studied. Properties of positive-time systems and M-matrices are used to develop the results,…
Quantitative mass spectrometry of unconventional human biological matrices
Dutkiewicz, Ewelina P.; Urban, Pawel L.
2016-10-01
The development of sensitive and versatile mass spectrometric methodology has fuelled interest in the analysis of metabolites and drugs in unconventional biological specimens. Here, we discuss the analysis of eight human matrices-hair, nail, breath, saliva, tears, meibum, nasal mucus and skin excretions (including sweat)-by mass spectrometry (MS). The use of such specimens brings a number of advantages, the most important being non-invasive sampling, the limited risk of adulteration and the ability to obtain information that complements blood and urine tests. The most often studied matrices are hair, breath and saliva. This review primarily focuses on endogenous (e.g. potential biomarkers, hormones) and exogenous (e.g. drugs, environmental contaminants) small molecules. The majority of analytical methods used chromatographic separation prior to MS; however, such a hyphenated methodology greatly limits analytical throughput. On the other hand, the mass spectrometric methods that exclude chromatographic separation are fast but suffer from matrix interferences. To enable development of quantitative assays for unconventional matrices, it is desirable to standardize the protocols for the analysis of each specimen and create appropriate certified reference materials. Overcoming these challenges will make analysis of unconventional human biological matrices more common in a clinical setting. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.
Variation in Raven's Progressive Matrices Scores across Time and Place
Brouwers, Symen A.; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Van Hemert, Dianne A.
2009-01-01
The paper describes a cross-cultural and historical meta-analysis of Raven's Progressive Matrices. Data were analyzed of 798 samples from 45 countries (N = 244,316), which were published between 1944 and 2003. Country-level indicators of educational permeation (which involves a broad set of interrelated educational input and output factors that…
Eudragit E100 and Polysaccharide Polymer Blends as Matrices for ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Methods: LB, SCMC and E100 were blended in their dry (as purchased) state or modified by aqueous blending and subsequent lyophilization, prior to use as matrices in tablets. ... pullulan from Aureobasidium pullulans, 3-(3,4- .... the frozen polymer before sublimation and drying). Subsequently, milling generated a more.
Higher dimensional unitary braid matrices: Construction, associated structures and entanglements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdesselam, B.; Chakrabarti, A.; Dobrev, V.K.; Mihov, S.G.
2007-03-01
We construct (2n) 2 x (2n) 2 unitary braid matrices R-circumflex for n ≥ 2 generalizing the class known for n = 1. A set of (2n) x (2n) matrices (I, J,K,L) are defined. R-circumflex is expressed in terms of their tensor products (such as K x J), leading to a canonical formulation for all n. Complex projectors P ± provide a basis for our real, unitary R-circumflex. Baxterization is obtained. Diagonalizations and block- diagonalizations are presented. The loss of braid property when R-circumflex (n > 1) is block-diagonalized in terms of R-circumflex (n = 1) is pointed out and explained. For odd dimension (2n + 1) 2 x (2n + 1) 2 , a previously constructed braid matrix is complexified to obtain unitarity. R-circumflexLL- and R-circumflexTT- algebras, chain Hamiltonians, potentials for factorizable S-matrices, complex non-commutative spaces are all studied briefly in the context of our unitary braid matrices. Turaev construction of link invariants is formulated for our case. We conclude with comments concerning entanglements. (author)
The algebraic structure of lax equations for infinite matrices
Helminck, G.F.
2002-01-01
In this paper we discuss the algebraic structure of the tower of differential difference equations that one can associate with any commutative subalgebra of $M_k(\\mathbb{C})$. These equations can be formulated conveniently in so-called Lax equations for infinite upper- resp. lowertriangular matrices
Resistant lower rank approximation of matrices by iterative majorization
Verboon, Peter; Heiser, Willem
2011-01-01
It is commonly known that many techniques for data analysis based on the least squares criterion are very sensitive to outliers in the data. Gabriel and Odoroff (1984) suggested a resistant approach for lower rank approximation of matrices. In this approach, weights are used to diminish the
Systematics of quark mass matrices in the standard electroweak model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frampton, P.H.; Jarlskog, C.; Stockholm Univ.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the quark mass matrices in the standard electroweak model satisfy the empirical relation M = M' + O(lambda 2 ), where M(M') refers to the mass matrix of the charge 2/3 (-1/3) quarks normalized to the largest eigenvalue, msub(t) (msub(b)), and lambda = Vsub(us) approx.= 0.22. (orig.)
Model-independent analysis with BPM correlation matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irwin, J.; Wang, C.X.; Yan, Y.T.; Bane, K.; Cai, Y.; Decker, F.; Minty, M.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.
1998-06-01
The authors discuss techniques for Model-Independent Analysis (MIA) of a beamline using correlation matrices of physical variables and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a beamline BPM matrix. The beamline matrix is formed from BPM readings for a large number of pulses. The method has been applied to the Linear Accelerator of the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC)
Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed
1993-06-15
This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).
Déchets solides encombrants les plages d'Annaba Rabah Chaouch ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Les rejets des déchets solides sur nos plages constituent une véritable plaie qui dégrade la beauté des paysages. ... Mots clés : environnement; déchets solides; gestion; littoral; santé. Abstract ..... déchets soldes et liquides apportés par les ...
Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nickmilder Marc
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.
Polymer Percolation Threshold in Multi-Component HPMC Matrices Tablets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Maghsoodi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The percolation theory studies the critical points or percolation thresholds of the system, where onecomponent of the system undergoes a geometrical phase transition, starting to connect the whole system. The application of this theory to study the release rate of hydrophilic matrices allows toexplain the changes in release kinetics of swellable matrix type system and results in a clear improvement of the design of controlled release dosage forms. Methods: In this study, the percolation theory has been applied to multi-component hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC hydrophilic matrices. Matrix tablets have been prepared using phenobarbital as drug,magnesium stearate as a lubricant employing different amount of lactose and HPMC K4M as a fillerandmatrix forming material, respectively. Ethylcelullose (EC as a polymeric excipient was also examined. Dissolution studies were carried out using the paddle method. In order to estimate the percolation threshold, the behaviour of the kinetic parameters with respect to the volumetric fraction of HPMC at time zero, was studied. Results: In both HPMC/lactose and HPMC/EC/lactose matrices, from the point of view of the percolation theory, the optimum concentration for HPMC, to obtain a hydrophilic matrix system for the controlled release of phenobarbital is higher than 18.1% (v/v HPMC. Above 18.1% (v/v HPMC, an infinite cluster of HPMC would be formed maintaining integrity of the system and controlling the drug release from the matrices. According to results, EC had no significant influence on the HPMC percolation threshold. Conclusion: This may be related to broad functionality of the swelling hydrophilic matrices.
Accouchement par forceps: indications et pronostic materno-foetal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
L'accouchement par voie basse, peut être parfois compromis par des facteurs maternels, foetaux ou materno-foetaux nécessitant des moyens thérapeutiques comme le forceps pour achever l'accouchement par voie naturelle. Le forceps, une méthode qui n'est pas sans risque pour la mère et le nouveau-né. Nous avons ...
Flach, J.; van der Waal, M.B.; van den Nieuwboer, M.; Claassen, H.J.H.M.; Larsen, O.F.A.
2017-01-01
Full Article Figures & data References Supplemental Citations Metrics Reprints & Permissions PDF ABSTRACT Probiotic microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into food matrices in order to confer proposed health benefits on the consumer. It is important that the health benefits,
Efficient linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices stored in packed form.
Ahlrichs, Reinhart; Tsereteli, Kakha
2002-01-30
Quantum chemistry methods require various linear algebra routines for symmetric matrices, for example, diagonalization or Cholesky decomposition for positive matrices. We present a small set of these basic routines that are efficient and minimize memory requirements.
Pieper, J.S.; Oosterhof, A.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Veerkamp, J.H.; van Kuppevelt, T.H.
1999-01-01
Porous collagen matrices with defined physical, chemical and biological characteristics are interesting materials for tissue engineering. Attachment of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) may add to these characteristics and valorize collagen. In this study, porous type I collagen matrices were crosslinked
PAR1 activation affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells.
Pompili, Elena; Fabrizi, Cinzia; Somma, Francesca; Correani, Virginia; Maras, Bruno; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Ciraci, Viviana; Artico, Marco; Fornai, Francesco; Fumagalli, Lorenzo
2017-03-01
Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cells are the principal population of glial cells of the peripheral nervous system which myelinate axons playing an important role during axonal regeneration and remyelination. The present study was undertaken in order to determine if the activation of PAR1 affects the neurotrophic properties of Schwann cells. Our results suggest that the stimulation of PAR1 could potentiate the Schwann cell ability to favour nerve regeneration. In fact, the conditioned medium obtained from Schwann cell cultures challenged with a specific PAR1 activating peptide (PAR1 AP) displays increased neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties with respect to the culture medium from untreated Schwann cells. The proteomic analysis of secreted proteins in untreated and PAR1 AP-treated Schwann cells allowed the identification of factors differentially expressed in the two samples. Some of them (such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2, decorin, syndecan 4, complement C1r subcomponent, angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1) appear to be transcriptionally regulated after PAR1 AP treatment as shown by RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taare Zameen Par and dyslexic savants.
Chakravarty, Ambar
2009-04-01
The film Taare Zameen Par (Stars upon the Ground) portrays the tormented life at school and at home of a child with dyslexia and his eventual success after his artistic talents are discovered by his art teacher at the boarding school. The film hints at a curious neurocognitive phenomenon of creativity in the midst of language disability, as exemplified in the lives of people like Leonardo da Vinci and Albert Einstein, both of whom demonstrated extraordinary creativity even though they were probably affected with developmental learning disorders. It has been hypothesized that a developmental delay in the dominant hemisphere most likely 'disinhibits' the nondominant parietal lobe, unmasking talents-artistic or otherwise-in some such individuals. It has been suggested that, in remedial training, children with learning disorders be encouraged to develop such hidden talents to full capacity, rather than be subjected to the usual overemphasis on the correction of the disturbed coded symbol operations.
Soudage de bois feuillus par friction rotationnelle
Belleville, Benoît
2012-01-01
Les différentes colles utilisées actuellement par l’industrie du meuble au Canada nécessitent des temps de polymérisation constituant un goulot dans la production des meubles et limitant l’atteinte de la production unitaire. Ces adhésifs synthétiques généralement issus de la pétrochimie nécessitent énormément d’énergie lors de leur confection. L’utilisation de connecteurs métalliques ou plastiques, quant à elle, limite les phases de découpage et sablage subséquentes. La présence d’adhésifs et...
On the norms of r-circulant matrices with generalized Fibonacci numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amara Chandoul
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain a generalization of [6, 8]. Firstly, we consider the so-called r-circulant matrices with generalized Fibonacci numbers and then found lower and upper bounds for the Euclidean and spectral norms of these matrices. Afterwards, we present some bounds for the spectral norms of Hadamard and Kronecker product of these matrices.
Stabilization and solidification of Pb in cement matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gollmann, Maria A.C.; Silva, Marcia M. da; Santos, Joao H. Z. dos; Masuero, Angela B.
2010-01-01
Pb was incorporated to a series of cement matrices, which were submitted to different cure time and pH. Pb content leached to aqueous solution was monitored by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The block resistance was evaluated by unconfined compressive strength at 7 and 28 ages. Data are discussed in terms of metal mobility along the cement block monitored by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. The Pb incorporated matrices have shown that a long cure time is more suitable for avoiding metal leaching. For a longer cure period the action of the metal is higher and there is a decreasing in the compressive strength. The XRF analyses show that there is a lower Ca concentration in the matrix in which Pb was added. (author)
Multigroup P8 - elastic scattering matrices of main reactor elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garg, S.B.; Shukla, V.K.
1979-01-01
To study the effect of anisotropic scattering phenomenon on shielding and neutronics of nuclear reactors multigroup P8-elastic scattering matrices have been generated for H, D, He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 10 B, C, N, O, Na, Cr, Fe, Ni, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu and 242 Pu using their angular distribution, Legendre coefficient and elastic scattering cross-section data from the basic ENDF/B library. Two computer codes HSCAT and TRANS have been developed to complete this task for BESM-6 and CDC-3600 computers. These scattering matrices can be directly used as input to the transport theory codes ANISN and DOT. (auth.)
Properties of Zero-Free Transfer Function Matrices
D. O. Anderson, Brian; Deistler, Manfred
Transfer functions of linear, time-invariant finite-dimensional systems with more outputs than inputs, as arise in factor analysis (for example in econometrics), have, for state-variable descriptions with generic entries in the relevant matrices, no finite zeros. This paper gives a number of characterizations of such systems (and indeed square discrete-time systems with no zeros), using state-variable, impulse response, and matrix-fraction descriptions. Key properties include the ability to recover the input values at any time from a bounded interval of output values, without any knowledge of an initial state, and an ability to verify the no-zero property in terms of a property of the impulse response coefficient matrices. Results are particularized to cases where the transfer function matrix in question may or may not have a zero at infinity or a zero at zero.
Determination of chromium in biological matrices by neutron activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClendon, L.T.
1978-01-01
Chromium is recognized to be an essential trace element in several biological systems. It exists in many biological materials in a variety of chemical forms and very low concentration levels which cause problems for many analytical techniques. Both instrumental and destructive neutron activation analysis were used to determine the chromium concentration in Orchard Leaves, SRM 1571, Brewers Yeast, SRM 1569, and Bovine Liver, SRM 1577. Some of the problems inherent with determining chromium in certain biological matrices and the data obtained here at the National Bureau of Standards using this technique are discussed. The results obtained from dissolution of brewers yeast in a closed system as described in the DNAA procedure are in good agreement with the INAA results. The same phenomenon existed in the determination of chromium in bovine liver. The radiochemical procedure described for chromium (DNAA) provides the analyst with a simple, rapid and selective technique for chromium determination in a variety of matrices. (T.G.)
NDMA formation kinetics from three pharmaceuticals in four water matrices.
Shen, Ruqiao; Andrews, Susan A
2011-11-01
N, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is an emerging disinfection by-product (DBP) that has been widely detected in many drinking water systems and commonly associated with the chloramine disinfection process. Some amine-based pharmaceuticals have been demonstrated to form NDMA during chloramination, but studies regarding the reaction kinetics are largely lacking. This study investigates the NDMA formation kinetics from ranitidine, chlorphenamine, and doxylamine under practical chloramine disinfection conditions. The formation profile was monitored in both lab-grade water and real water matrices, and a statistical model is proposed to describe and predict the NDMA formation from selected pharmaceuticals in various water matrices. The results indicate the significant impact of water matrix components and reaction time on the NDMA formation from selected pharmaceuticals, and provide fresh insights on the estimation of ultimate NDMA formation potential from pharmaceutical precursors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quark mass matrices in left-right symmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Konetschny, W.
1981-01-01
The most general left-right symmetry for SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1) gauge theories with any number of flavours and with at most two scalar multiplets transforming as anti qq bilinears is analyzed. In order to get additional constraints on the structure of quark mass matrices all possible horizontal groups (continuous or discrete) are investigated. A complete classification of physically inequivalent quark mass matrices is given for four and six flavours. It is argued that the methods and results are also applicable in the case of dynamical symmetry breaking. Parity invariance and horizontal symmetry are shown to imply CP conservation on the Lagrangian level. For all non-trivial three-generation models there is spontaneous CP violation which in most cases turns out to be naturally small. (Auth.)
Generalised Wigner surmise for (2 X 2) random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chau Huu-Tai, P.; Van Isacker, P.; Smirnova, N.A.
2001-01-01
We present new analytical results concerning the spectral distributions for (2 x 2) random real symmetric matrices which generalize the Wigner surmise. The study of the statistical properties of spectra of realistic many-body Hamiltonians requires consideration of a random matrix ensemble whose elements are not independent or whose distribution is not invariant under orthogonal transformation of a chosen basis. In this letter we have concentrated on the properties of (2 x 2) real symmetric matrices whose elements are independent Gaussian variables with zero means but do not belong to the GOE. We have derived the distribution of eigenvalues for such a matrix, the nearest-neighbour spacing distribution which generalizes the Wigner surmise and we have calculated some important moments. (authors)
Likelihood Approximation With Hierarchical Matrices For Large Spatial Datasets
Litvinenko, Alexander
2017-09-03
We use available measurements to estimate the unknown parameters (variance, smoothness parameter, and covariance length) of a covariance function by maximizing the joint Gaussian log-likelihood function. To overcome cubic complexity in the linear algebra, we approximate the discretized covariance function in the hierarchical (H-) matrix format. The H-matrix format has a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where the rank k is a small integer and n is the number of locations. The H-matrix technique allows us to work with general covariance matrices in an efficient way, since H-matrices can approximate inhomogeneous covariance functions, with a fairly general mesh that is not necessarily axes-parallel, and neither the covariance matrix itself nor its inverse have to be sparse. We demonstrate our method with Monte Carlo simulations and an application to soil moisture data. The C, C++ codes and data are freely available.
TMS suppression of right pars triangularis, but not pars opercularis, improves naming in aphasia
Naeser, Margaret A.; Martin, Paula I.; Theoret, Hugo; Kobayashi, Masahito; Fregni, Felipe; Nicholas, Marjorie; Tormos, Jose M.; Steven, Megan S.; Baker, Errol H.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
2011-01-01
This study sought to discover if an optimum 1 cm2 area in the non-damaged right hemisphere (RH) was present, which could temporarily improve naming in chronic, nonfluent aphasia patients when suppressed with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Ten minutes of slow, 1 Hz rTMS was applied to suppress different RH ROIs in eight aphasia cases. Picture naming and response time (RT) were examined before, and immediately after rTMS. In aphasia patients, suppression of right pars triangularis (PTr) led to significant increase in pictures named, and significant decrease in RT. Suppression of right pars opercularis (POp), however, led to significant increase in RT, but no change in number of pictures named. Eight normals named all pictures correctly; similar to aphasia patients, RT significantly decreased following rTMS to suppress right PTr, versus right POp. Differential effects following suppression of right PTr versus right POp suggest different functional roles for these regions. PMID:21864891
ParABS system in chromosome partitioning in the bacterium Myxococcus xanthus.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio A Iniesta
Full Text Available Chromosome segregation is an essential cellular function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. The ParABS system is a fundamental player for a mitosis-like process in chromosome partitioning in many bacterial species. This work shows that the social bacterium Myxococcus xanthus also uses the ParABS system for chromosome segregation. Its large prokaryotic genome of 9.1 Mb contains 22 parS sequences near the origin of replication, and it is shown here that M. xanthus ParB binds preferentially to a consensus parS sequence in vitro. ParB and ParA are essential for cell viability in M. xanthus as in Caulobacter crescentus, but unlike in many other bacteria. Absence of ParB results in anucleate cells, chromosome segregation defects and loss of viability. Analysis of ParA subcellular localization shows that it clusters at the poles in all cells, and in some, in the DNA-free cell division plane between two chromosomal DNA masses. This ParA localization pattern depends on ParB but not on FtsZ. ParB inhibits the nonspecific interaction of ParA with DNA, and ParA colocalizes with chromosomal DNA only when ParB is depleted. The subcellular localization of ParB suggests a single ParB-parS complex localized at the edge of the nucleoid, next to a polar ParA cluster, with a second ParB-parS complex migrating after the replication of parS takes place to the opposite nucleoid edge, next to the other polar ParA cluster.
Concerning the dynamic instability of actin homolog ParM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popp, David; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Iwasa, Mitsusada; Narita, Akihiro; Maeda, Kayo; Maeda, Yuichiro
2007-01-01
Using in vitro TIRF- and electron-microscopy, we reinvestigated the dynamics of native ParM, a prokaryotic DNA segregation protein and actin homolog. In contrast to a previous study, which used a cysteine ParM mutant, we find that the polymerization process of wild type ATP-ParM filaments consists of a polymerization phase and a subsequent steady state phase, which is dynamically unstable, like that of microtubules. We find that the apparent bidirectional polymerization of ParM, is not due to the intrinsic nature of this filament, but results from ParM forming randomly oriented bundles in the presence of crowding agents. Our results imply, that in the bacterium, ParM filaments spontaneously form bipolar bundles. Due to their intrinsic dynamic instability, ParM bundles can efficiently 'search' the cytoplasmic lumen for DNA, bind it equally well at the bipolar ends and segregate it approximately symmetrically, by the insertion of ParM subunits at either end
The protein kinase SIK downregulates the polarity protein Par3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vanlandewijck, Michael; Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi; Lomnytska, Marta
2018-01-01
on Par3. Functionally, this mechanism impacts on tight junction downregulation. Furthermore, SIK contributes to the loss of epithelial polarity and examination of advanced and invasive human cancers of diverse origin displayed high levels of SIK expression and a corresponding low expression of Par3...
Sports drug testing using complementary matrices: Advantages and limitations.
Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Tretzel, Laura; Schänzer, Wilhelm
2016-10-25
Today, routine doping controls largely rely on testing whole blood, serum, and urine samples. These matrices allow comprehensively covering inorganic as well as low and high molecular mass organic analytes relevant to doping controls and are collecting and transferring from sampling sites to accredited anti-doping laboratories under standardized conditions. Various aspects including time and cost-effectiveness as well as intrusiveness and invasiveness of the sampling procedure but also analyte stability and breadth of the contained information have been motivation to consider and assess values potentially provided and added to modern sports drug testing programs by alternative matrices. Such alternatives could be dried blood spots (DBS), dried plasma spots (DPS), oral fluid (OF), exhaled breath (EB), and hair. In this review, recent developments and test methods concerning these alternative matrices and expected or proven contributions as well as limitations of these specimens in the context of the international anti-doping fight are presented and discussed, guided by current regulations for prohibited substances and methods of doping as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Focusing on literature published between 2011 and 2015, examples for doping control analytical assays concerning non-approved substances, anabolic agents, peptide hormones/growth factors/related substances and mimetics, β 2 -agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, diuretics and masking agents, stimulants, narcotics, cannabinoids, glucocorticoids, and beta-blockers were selected to outline the advantages and limitations of the aforementioned alternative matrices as compared to conventional doping control samples (i.e. urine and blood/serum). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Contributions to Large Covariance and Inverse Covariance Matrices Estimation
Kang, Xiaoning
2016-01-01
Estimation of covariance matrix and its inverse is of great importance in multivariate statistics with broad applications such as dimension reduction, portfolio optimization, linear discriminant analysis and gene expression analysis. However, accurate estimation of covariance or inverse covariance matrices is challenging due to the positive definiteness constraint and large number of parameters, especially in the high-dimensional cases. In this thesis, I develop several approaches for estimat...
Limit sets for the discrete spectrum of complex Jacobi matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golinskii, L B; Egorova, I E
2005-01-01
The discrete spectrum of complex Jacobi matrices that are compact perturbations of the discrete Laplacian is studied. The precise stabilization rate (in the sense of order) of the matrix elements ensuring the finiteness of the discrete spectrum is found. An example of a Jacobi matrix with discrete spectrum having a unique limit point is constructed. These results are discrete analogues of Pavlov's well-known results on Schroedinger operators with complex potential on a half-axis.
Electrospun Phospholipid Fibers as Micro-Encapsulation and Antioxidant Matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shekarforoush, Elhamalsadat; Mendes, Ana Carina Loureiro; Baj, Vanessa
2017-01-01
Electrospun phospholipid (asolectin) microfibers were investigated as antioxidants and encapsulation matrices for curcumin and vanillin. These phospholipid microfibers exhibited antioxidant properties which increased after the encapsulation of both curcumin and vanillin. The total antioxidant...... capacity (TAC) and the total phenolic content (TPC) of curcumin/phospholipid and vanillin/phospholipid microfibers remained stable over time at different temperatures (refrigerated, ambient) and pressures (vacuum, ambient). ¹H-NMR confirmed the chemical stability of both encapsulated curcumin and vanillin...
Parallel decompositions of Mueller matrices and polarimetric subtraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gil J.J.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available From a general formulation of the physically realizable parallel decompositions of the Mueller matrix M of a given depolarizing system, a procedure for determining the set of pure Mueller matrices susceptible to be subtracted from M is presented. This procedure provides a way to check if a given pure Mueller matrix N can be subtracted from M or not. If this check is positive, the value of the relative cross section of the subtracted component is also determined.
Von Willebrand protein binds to extracellular matrices independently of collagen.
Wagner, D D; Urban-Pickering, M; Marder, V J
1984-01-01
Von Willebrand protein is present in the extracellular matrix of endothelial cells where it codistributes with fibronectin and types IV and V collagen. Bacterial collagenase digestion of endothelial cells removed fibrillar collagen, but the pattern of fibronectin and of von Willebrand protein remained undisturbed. Exogenous von Willebrand protein bound to matrices of different cells, whether rich or poor in collagen. von Willebrand protein also decorated the matrix of cells grown in the prese...
Procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knab, D.
1978-02-01
A radioanalytical procedure for the analysis of americium in complex matrices has been developed. Clean separations of americium can be obtained from up to 100 g of sample ash, regardless of the starting material. The ability to analyze large masses of material provides the increased sensitivity necessary to detect americium in many environmental samples. The procedure adequately decontaminates from rare earth elements and natural radioactive nuclides that interfere with the alpha spectrometric measurements
Computation of the q -th roots of circulant matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pakizeh Mohammadi Khanghah
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the reduced form of circulant matrices and we show that the problem of computing the $q$-th roots of a nonsingular circulant matrix $A$ can be reduced to that of computing the $q$-th roots of two half size matrices $B-C$ and $B+C$.
Factoring symmetric indefinite matrices on high-performance architectures
Jones, Mark T.; Patrick, Merrell L.
1990-01-01
The Bunch-Kaufman algorithm is the method of choice for factoring symmetric indefinite matrices in many applications. However, the Bunch-Kaufman algorithm does not take advantage of high-performance architectures such as the Cray Y-MP. Three new algorithms, based on Bunch-Kaufman factorization, that take advantage of such architectures are described. Results from an implementation of the third algorithm are presented.
A Robust Incomplete Factorization Preconditioner for Positive Definite Matrices
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Benzi, M.; Tůma, Miroslav
2003-01-01
Roč. 10, - (2003), s. 385-400 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2030801; GA AV ČR IAA1030103 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : sparse linear systems * positive definite matrices * preconditioned conjugate gradient s * incomplete factorization * A-orthogonalization * SAINV Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.042, year: 2003
Interactions between Food Additive Silica Nanoparticles and Food Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mi-Ran Go
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials. There have been a number of studies carried out to investigate possible adverse effects of NPs on the gastrointestinal tract. The interactions between NPs and surrounding food matrices should be also taken into account since the interactions can affect their bioavailability, efficacy, and toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the interactions between food additive silica NPs and food matrices, such as saccharides, proteins, lipids, and minerals. Quantitative analysis was performed to determine food component-NP corona using HPLC, fluorescence quenching, GC-MS, and ICP-AES. The results demonstrate that zeta potential and hydrodynamic radius of silica NPs changed in the presence of all food matrices, but their solubility was not affected. However, quantitative analysis on the interactions revealed that a small portion of food matrices interacted with silica NPs and the interactions were highly dependent on the type of food component. Moreover, minor nutrients could also affect the interactions, as evidenced by higher NP interaction with honey rather than with a simple sugar mixture containing an equivalent amount of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose. These findings provide fundamental information to extend our understanding about the interactions between silica NPs and food components and to predict the interaction effect on the safety aspects of food
Discrete ergodic Jacobi matrices: Spectral properties and Quantum dynamical bounds
Han, Rui
2017-01-01
In this thesis we study discrete quasiperiodic Jacobi operators as well as ergodic operators driven by more general zero topological entropy dynamics. Such operators are deeply connected to physics (quantum Hall effect and graphene) and have enjoyed great attention from mathematics (e.g. several of Simon’s problems). The thesis has two main themes. First, to study spectral properties of quasiperiodic Jacobi matrices, in particular when off-diagonal sampling function has non-zero winding numbe...
Non-dense domain operator matrices and Cauchy problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lalaoui Rhali, S.
2002-12-01
In this work, we study Cauchy problems with non-dense domain operator matrices. By assuming that the entries of an unbounded operator matrix are Hille-Yosida operators, we give a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring that the part of this operator matrix generates a semigroup in the closure of its domain. This allows us to prove the well-posedness of the corresponding Cauchy problem. Our results are applied to delay and neutral differential equations. (author)
Updating Stiffness and Hysteretic Damping Matrices Using Measured Modal Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiashang Jiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A new direct method for the finite element (FE matrix updating problem in a hysteretic (or material damping model based on measured incomplete vibration modal data is presented. With this method, the optimally approximated stiffness and hysteretic damping matrices can be easily constructed. The physical connectivity of the original model is preserved and the measured modal data are embedded in the updated model. The numerical results show that the proposed method works well.
Updating Stiffness and Hysteretic Damping Matrices Using Measured Modal Data
Jiashang Jiang; Yongxin Yuan
2018-01-01
A new direct method for the finite element (FE) matrix updating problem in a hysteretic (or material) damping model based on measured incomplete vibration modal data is presented. With this method, the optimally approximated stiffness and hysteretic damping matrices can be easily constructed. The physical connectivity of the original model is preserved and the measured modal data are embedded in the updated model. The numerical results show that the proposed method works well.
Wound care matrices for chronic leg ulcers: role in therapy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sano H
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Hitomi Sano,1 Sachio Kouraba,2 Rei Ogawa11Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sapporo Wound Care and Anti-Aging Laboratory, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: Chronic leg ulcers are a significant health care concern. Although deep wounds are usually treated by flap transfers, the operation is invasive and associates with serious complications. Skin grafts may be a less invasive means of covering wounds. However, skin grafts cannot survive on deep defects unless high-quality granulation tissue can first be generated in the defects. Technologies that generate high-quality granulation tissue are needed. One possibility is to use wound care matrices, which are bioengineered skin and soft tissue substitutes. Because they all support the healing process by providing a premade extracellular matrix material, these matrices can be termed “extracellular matrix replacement therapies”. The matrix promotes wound healing by acting as a scaffold for regeneration, attracting host cytokines to the wound, stimulating wound epithelialization and angiogenesis, and providing the wound bed with bioactive components. This therapy has lasting benefits as it not only helps large skin defects to be closed with thin skin grafts or patch grafts but also restores cosmetic appearance and proper function. In particular, since it acts as a layer that slides over the subcutaneous fascia, it provides skin elasticity, tear resistance, and texture. Several therapies and products employing wound care matrices for wound management have been developed recently. Some of these can be applied in combination with negative pressure wound therapy or beneficial materials that promote wound healing and can be incorporated into the matrix. To date, the clinical studies on these approaches suggest that wound care matrices promote spontaneous wound healing or can be used to facilitate skin grafting, thereby avoiding the need to use
Estimating correlation and covariance matrices by weighting of market similarity
Michael C. M\\"unnix; Rudi Sch\\"afer; Oliver Grothe
2010-01-01
We discuss a weighted estimation of correlation and covariance matrices from historical financial data. To this end, we introduce a weighting scheme that accounts for similarity of previous market conditions to the present one. The resulting estimators are less biased and show lower variance than either unweighted or exponentially weighted estimators. The weighting scheme is based on a similarity measure which compares the current correlation structure of the market to the structures at past ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O Arfi
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Une étude numérique du transfert de chaleur instationnaire dans un mur tricouches est présentée. Le modèle physique est basé sur l’équation de conduction thermique unidirectionnelle en tenant compte des équations de couplages au niveau des interfaces et des conditions convectives de surfaces. Les équations de transfert sont données en représentation enthalpique pour le matériau à changement de phase (MCP, et en formulation générale pour les régions solides. La formulation adimensionnelle a permis de dégager les principaux paramètres affectant le transfert : nombre de Biot (Bi, nombre de Stephan (Ste et le degré de surchauffe (qm. La discrétisation des équations est réalisée en utilisant la méthode des volumes finis selon un schéma explicite. La solution numérique est obtenue par une méthode itérative basée sur la notion d’enthalpie critique. L’étude de l’influence de la condition convective chaude, gouvernée par Bi¥,cet θ¥,c , a montré que la présence des couches solides affecte la cinétique de la solidification, les limites de la solidification et le transfert de chaleur par un effet de stockage et de déstockage d’énergie sensible. L’influence de la température θ¥,c sur le processus de changement de phase est fortement dépendante du nombre de Biot Bi¥,c.
Estimation of Fuzzy Measures Using Covariance Matrices in Gaussian Mixtures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nishchal K. Verma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel computational approach for estimating fuzzy measures directly from Gaussian mixtures model (GMM. The mixture components of GMM provide the membership functions for the input-output fuzzy sets. By treating consequent part as a function of fuzzy measures, we derived its coefficients from the covariance matrices found directly from GMM and the defuzzified output constructed from both the premise and consequent parts of the nonadditive fuzzy rules that takes the form of Choquet integral. The computational burden involved with the solution of λ-measure is minimized using Q-measure. The fuzzy model whose fuzzy measures were computed using covariance matrices found in GMM has been successfully applied on two benchmark problems and one real-time electric load data of Indian utility. The performance of the resulting model for many experimental studies including the above-mentioned application is found to be better and comparable to recent available fuzzy models. The main contribution of this paper is the estimation of fuzzy measures efficiently and directly from covariance matrices found in GMM, avoiding the computational burden greatly while learning them iteratively and solving polynomial equations of order of the number of input-output variables.
Unified triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Xiaogang; Li Shiwen; Ma Boqiang
2009-01-01
We present a detailed study on triminimal parametrizations of quark and lepton mixing matrices with different basis matrices. We start with a general discussion on the triminimal expansion of the mixing matrix and on possible unified quark and lepton parametrization using quark-lepton complementarity. We then consider several interesting basis matrices and compare the triminimal parametrizations with the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations. The usual Wolfenstein parametrization for quark mixing is a triminimal expansion around the unit matrix as the basis. The corresponding quark-lepton complementarity lepton mixing matrix is a triminimal expansion around the bimaximal basis. Current neutrino oscillation data show that the lepton mixing matrix is very well represented by the tribimaximal mixing. It is natural to take it as an expanding basis. The corresponding zeroth order basis for quark mixing in this case makes the triminimal expansion converge much faster than the usual Wolfenstein parametrization. The triminimal expansion based on tribimaximal mixing can be converted to the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations discussed in the literature. We thus have a unified description between different kinds of parametrizations for quark and lepton sectors: the standard parametrizations, the Wolfenstein-like parametrizations, and the triminimal parametrizations.
Fabrication of chemically cross-linked porous gelatin matrices.
Bozzini, Sabrina; Petrini, Paola; Altomare, Lina; Tanzi, Maria Cristina
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to chemically cross-link gelatin, by reacting its free amino groups with an aliphatic diisocyanate. To produce hydrogels with controllable properties, the number of reacting amino groups was carefully determined. Porosity was introduced into the gelatin-based hydrogels through the lyophilization process. Porous and non-porous matrices were characterized with respect to their chemical structure, morphology, water uptake and mechanical properties. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the porous matrices are related to the extent of their cross-linking, showing that they can be controlled by varying the reaction parameters. Water uptake values (24 hours) vary between 160% and 200% as the degree of cross-linking increases. The flexibility of the samples also decreases by changing the extent of cross-linking. Young's modulus shows values between 0.188 KPa, for the highest degree, and 0.142 KPa for the lowest degree. The matrices are potential candidates for use as tissue-engineering scaffolds by modulating their physical chemical properties according to the specific application.
Likelihood Approximation With Parallel Hierarchical Matrices For Large Spatial Datasets
Litvinenko, Alexander
2017-11-01
The main goal of this article is to introduce the parallel hierarchical matrix library HLIBpro to the statistical community. We describe the HLIBCov package, which is an extension of the HLIBpro library for approximating large covariance matrices and maximizing likelihood functions. We show that an approximate Cholesky factorization of a dense matrix of size $2M\\\\times 2M$ can be computed on a modern multi-core desktop in few minutes. Further, HLIBCov is used for estimating the unknown parameters such as the covariance length, variance and smoothness parameter of a Matérn covariance function by maximizing the joint Gaussian log-likelihood function. The computational bottleneck here is expensive linear algebra arithmetics due to large and dense covariance matrices. Therefore covariance matrices are approximated in the hierarchical ($\\\\H$-) matrix format with computational cost $\\\\mathcal{O}(k^2n \\\\log^2 n/p)$ and storage $\\\\mathcal{O}(kn \\\\log n)$, where the rank $k$ is a small integer (typically $k<25$), $p$ the number of cores and $n$ the number of locations on a fairly general mesh. We demonstrate a synthetic example, where the true values of known parameters are known. For reproducibility we provide the C++ code, the documentation, and the synthetic data.
Linear algebra and matrices topics for a second course
Shapiro, Helene
2015-01-01
Linear algebra and matrix theory are fundamental tools for almost every area of mathematics, both pure and applied. This book combines coverage of core topics with an introduction to some areas in which linear algebra plays a key role, for example, block designs, directed graphs, error correcting codes, and linear dynamical systems. Notable features include a discussion of the Weyr characteristic and Weyr canonical forms, and their relationship to the better-known Jordan canonical form; the use of block cyclic matrices and directed graphs to prove Frobenius's theorem on the structure of the eigenvalues of a nonnegative, irreducible matrix; and the inclusion of such combinatorial topics as BIBDs, Hadamard matrices, and strongly regular graphs. Also included are McCoy's theorem about matrices with property P, the Bruck-Ryser-Chowla theorem on the existence of block designs, and an introduction to Markov chains. This book is intended for those who are familiar with the linear algebra covered in a typical first c...
Likelihood Approximation With Parallel Hierarchical Matrices For Large Spatial Datasets
Litvinenko, Alexander; Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.; Keyes, David E.
2017-01-01
The main goal of this article is to introduce the parallel hierarchical matrix library HLIBpro to the statistical community. We describe the HLIBCov package, which is an extension of the HLIBpro library for approximating large covariance matrices and maximizing likelihood functions. We show that an approximate Cholesky factorization of a dense matrix of size $2M\\times 2M$ can be computed on a modern multi-core desktop in few minutes. Further, HLIBCov is used for estimating the unknown parameters such as the covariance length, variance and smoothness parameter of a Matérn covariance function by maximizing the joint Gaussian log-likelihood function. The computational bottleneck here is expensive linear algebra arithmetics due to large and dense covariance matrices. Therefore covariance matrices are approximated in the hierarchical ($\\H$-) matrix format with computational cost $\\mathcal{O}(k^2n \\log^2 n/p)$ and storage $\\mathcal{O}(kn \\log n)$, where the rank $k$ is a small integer (typically $k<25$), $p$ the number of cores and $n$ the number of locations on a fairly general mesh. We demonstrate a synthetic example, where the true values of known parameters are known. For reproducibility we provide the C++ code, the documentation, and the synthetic data.
Raven's matrices and working memory: a dual-task approach.
Rao, K Venkata; Baddeley, Alan
2013-01-01
Raven's Matrices Test was developed as a "pure" measure of Spearman's concept of general intelligence, g. Subsequent research has attempted to specify the processes underpinning performance, some relating it to the concept of working memory and proposing a crucial role for the central executive, with the nature of other components currently unclear. Up to this point, virtually all work has been based on correlational analysis of number of correct solutions, sometimes related to possible strategies. We explore the application to this problem of the concurrent task methodology used widely in developing the concept of multicomponent working memory. Participants attempted to solve problems from the matrices under baseline conditions, or accompanied by backward counting or verbal repetition tasks, assumed to disrupt the central executive and phonological loop components of working memory, respectively. As in other uses of this method, number of items correct showed little effect, while solution time measures gave very clear evidence of an important role for the central executive, but no evidence for phonological loop involvement. We conclude that this and related concurrent task techniques hold considerable promise for the analysis of Raven's matrices and potentially for other established psychometric tests.
Consolidity analysis for fully fuzzy functions, matrices, probability and statistics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walaa Ibrahim Gabr
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive review of the know-how for developing the systems consolidity theory for modeling, analysis, optimization and design in fully fuzzy environment. The solving of systems consolidity theory included its development for handling new functions of different dimensionalities, fuzzy analytic geometry, fuzzy vector analysis, functions of fuzzy complex variables, ordinary differentiation of fuzzy functions and partial fraction of fuzzy polynomials. On the other hand, the handling of fuzzy matrices covered determinants of fuzzy matrices, the eigenvalues of fuzzy matrices, and solving least-squares fuzzy linear equations. The approach demonstrated to be also applicable in a systematic way in handling new fuzzy probabilistic and statistical problems. This included extending the conventional probabilistic and statistical analysis for handling fuzzy random data. Application also covered the consolidity of fuzzy optimization problems. Various numerical examples solved have demonstrated that the new consolidity concept is highly effective in solving in a compact form the propagation of fuzziness in linear, nonlinear, multivariable and dynamic problems with different types of complexities. Finally, it is demonstrated that the implementation of the suggested fuzzy mathematics can be easily embedded within normal mathematics through building special fuzzy functions library inside the computational Matlab Toolbox or using other similar software languages.
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N; Bohigas, Oriol
2007-01-01
We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X T X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value (λ) = N/c decreases for large N as ∼exp[-β/2 N 2 Φ - (2√c + 1: c)], where β = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M ≤ 1 and Φ - (x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vivo, Pierpaolo [School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom) ; Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2007-04-20
We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X{sup T}X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value ({lambda}) = N/c decreases for large N as {approx}exp[-{beta}/2 N{sup 2}{phi}{sub -} (2{radical}c + 1: c)], where {beta} = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M {<=} 1 and {phi}{sub -}(x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.
Geometry and arithmetic of factorized S-matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, P.G.O.
1995-01-01
In realistic four-dimensional quantum field theories integrability is elusive. Relativity, when combined with quantum theory does not permit an infinity of local conservation laws except for free fields, for which the S-matrix is trivial S = 1. In two space-time dimensions, where forward and backward scattering are the only possibilities, nontrivial S-matrices are possible even in integrable theories. Such S-matrices are known to factorize [1]. This means that there is no particle production, so that the 4-point amplitudes determine all higher n-point amplitudes. In our recent work [2, 3, 4, 5, 6] we found that in such integrable two-dimensional theories, even the input 4-point amplitudes are determined by a simple principle. Roughly speaking these amplitudes describe the S-wave scattering which one associates with free motion on certain quantum-symmetric spaces. The trivial S-matrix of free field theory describes the absence of scattering which one associates with free motion on a euclidean space, itself a symmetric space. As is well known [7, 8, 9], for curved symmetric spaces the S-matrices for S-wave scattering are no longer trivial, but rather they are determined by the Harish-Chandra c-functions of these spaces [10]. The quantum deformation of this situation is what appears when one considers excitation scattering in two-dimensional integrable models. (orig.)
Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices
Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.
2018-03-01
Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.
PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Beletsky
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.
Threshold partitioning of sparse matrices and applications to Markov chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Hwajeong; Szyld, D.B. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
1996-12-31
It is well known that the order of the variables and equations of a large, sparse linear system influences the performance of classical iterative methods. In particular if, after a symmetric permutation, the blocks in the diagonal have more nonzeros, classical block methods have a faster asymptotic rate of convergence. In this paper, different ordering and partitioning algorithms for sparse matrices are presented. They are modifications of PABLO. In the new algorithms, in addition to the location of the nonzeros, the values of the entries are taken into account. The matrix resulting after the symmetric permutation has dense blocks along the diagonal, and small entries in the off-diagonal blocks. Parameters can be easily adjusted to obtain, for example, denser blocks, or blocks with elements of larger magnitude. In particular, when the matrices represent Markov chains, the permuted matrices are well suited for block iterative methods that find the corresponding probability distribution. Applications to three types of methods are explored: (1) Classical block methods, such as Block Gauss Seidel. (2) Preconditioned GMRES, where a block diagonal preconditioner is used. (3) Iterative aggregation method (also called aggregation/disaggregation) where the partition obtained from the ordering algorithm with certain parameters is used as an aggregation scheme. In all three cases, experiments are presented which illustrate the performance of the methods with the new orderings. The complexity of the new algorithms is linear in the number of nonzeros and the order of the matrix, and thus adding little computational effort to the overall solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luchini, Luiz Carlos
1995-01-01
This work studies the use of gamma radiation from cobalt-60 to induce parathion degradation in different matrices, as well as, quantified GC-NPD and identified by GC-MS, the radiolysis resulting products. Results show that the insecticide was completely degraded in aqueous solution after treatment with 1.0 kGy dosis in a dosis rate of 3.12 kGy h -1 . In methanol, parathion was completely degraded only with 30 kGy at 3.12 kGy h -1 . The metabolites detected after radiolysis were the same formed by biological degradation, i.e, p-nitrophenol, p-aminophenol, paraoxon and aminoparathion. The gamma radiation also degraded paraoxon which is the most toxic metabolite of parathion. It was verified that, not only the total radiation, but also the dosis rate supplied to the aqueous solution had a significant effect on the insecticide degradation, and the formation of metabolites occurred in a selective way respecting the dosis and dosis rate. Otherwise, the gamma radiation did almost not degraded the parathion adsorbed in solid matrices as rice, moist and dry soil, even using dosis of 5,30 and 50 kGy, respectively. The parathion yield and the dosis of gamma radiation needed for 50% reduction of the insecticide initial concentration in aqueous solution were also calculated and presented. Thus, it was verified that irradiation of parathion besides to be an important instrument for environmental decontamination of this pesticide in aqueous matrix, it allows the production of parathion metabolites for ecotoxicological studies. (author)
Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang
2015-09-03
A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Design of cationic nanostructured heterolipid matrices for ocular delivery of methazolamide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youshia J
2012-05-01
Full Text Available John Youshia, Amany O Kamel, Abdelhameed El Shamy, Samar MansourPharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs formulated from one type of lipid (homolipid suffer from low drug encapsulation and drug bursting due to crystallization of the lipid into the more ordered β modification, which leads to decreased drug entrapment and faster drug release. This study assessed the feasibility of using nanostructured lipid matrices (NLMs for ocular delivery of methazolamide-(MZA adopting heterolipids composed of novel mixtures of Compritol® and cetostearyl alcohol (CSA, and stabilized by Tween 80®. The systems were prepared using the modified high shear homogenization followed by ultrasonication method, which avoids the use of organic solvents. A 32 full factorial design was constructed to study the influence of two independent variables, namely the ratio of CSA:Compritol and the concentration of Tween 80, each in three levels. The dependent variables were the entrapment efficiency percentages (EE%, mean particle size (PS, polydispersity index (PDI, and zeta potential (ZP. In vivo intraocular pressure (IOP lowering activity for the selected formulae was compared to that of MZA solution. The results showed that increasing the ratio of CSA to Compritol increased the EE% and PS, while increasing the concentration of Tween 80, decreased PS with no significant effect on EE%. The ZP values of all formulae were positive, and greater than 30 mV. The best formula, composed of 4% CSA, 2% Compritol, 0.15% stearylamine, and 2% Tween 80, with EE% of 25.62%, PS of 207.1 nm, PDI of 0.243, and ZP of 41.50 mV, showed in vitro sustained release properties for 8 hours and lowered the intraocular pressure by 8.3 mmHg within 3 hours, with this drop in pressure lasting for 12 hours.Keywords: nanostructured lipid matrices, heterolipids, factorial design, cetostearyl alcohol
Schiavon, Marco; Martini, Luca Matteo; Corrà, Cesare; Scapinello, Marco; Coller, Graziano; Tosi, Paolo; Ragazzi, Marco
2017-12-01
The complaints arising from the problem of odorants released by composting plants may impede the construction of new composting facilities, preclude the proper activity of existing facilities or even lead to their closure, with negative implications for waste management and local economy. Improving the knowledge on VOC emissions from composting processes is of particular importance since different VOCs imply different odour impacts. To this purpose, three different organic matrices were studied in this work: dewatered sewage sludge (M1), digested organic fraction of municipal solid waste (M2) and untreated food waste (M3). The three matrices were aerobically biodegraded in a bench-scale bioreactor simulating composting conditions. A homemade device sampled the process air from each treatment at defined time intervals. The samples were analysed for VOC detection. The information on the concentrations of the detected VOCs was combined with the VOC-specific odour thresholds to estimate the relative weight of each biodegraded matrix in terms of odour impact. When the odour formation was at its maximum, the waste gas from the composting of M3 showed a total odour concentration about 60 and 15,000 times higher than those resulting from the composting of M1 and M2, respectively. Ethyl isovalerate showed the highest contribution to the total odour concentration (>99%). Terpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, p-cymene and limonene) were abundantly present in M2 and M3, while sulphides (dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide) were the dominant components of M1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recombination in the human Pseudoautosomal region PAR1.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anjali G Hinch
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The pseudoautosomal region (PAR is a short region of homology between the mammalian X and Y chromosomes, which has undergone rapid evolution. A crossover in the PAR is essential for the proper disjunction of X and Y chromosomes in male meiosis, and PAR deletion results in male sterility. This leads the human PAR with the obligatory crossover, PAR1, to having an exceptionally high male crossover rate, which is 17-fold higher than the genome-wide average. However, the mechanism by which this obligatory crossover occurs remains unknown, as does the fine-scale positioning of crossovers across this region. Recent research in mice has suggested that crossovers in PAR may be mediated independently of the protein PRDM9, which localises virtually all crossovers in the autosomes. To investigate recombination in this region, we construct the most fine-scale genetic map containing directly observed crossovers to date using African-American pedigrees. We leverage recombination rates inferred from the breakdown of linkage disequilibrium in human populations and investigate the signatures of DNA evolution due to recombination. Further, we identify direct PRDM9 binding sites using ChIP-seq in human cells. Using these independent lines of evidence, we show that, in contrast with mouse, PRDM9 does localise peaks of recombination in the human PAR1. We find that recombination is a far more rapid and intense driver of sequence evolution in PAR1 than it is on the autosomes. We also show that PAR1 hotspot activities differ significantly among human populations. Finally, we find evidence that PAR1 hotspot positions have changed between human and chimpanzee, with no evidence of sharing among the hottest hotspots. We anticipate that the genetic maps built and validated in this work will aid research on this vital and fascinating region of the genome.
Some thoughts on positive definiteness in the consideration of nuclear data covariance matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geraldo, L.P.; Smith, D.L.
1988-01-01
Some basic mathematical features of covariance matrices are reviewed, particularly as they relate to the property of positive difiniteness. Physical implications of positive definiteness are also discussed. Consideration is given to an examination of the origins of non-positive definite matrices, to procedures which encourage the generation of positive definite matrices and to the testing of covariance matrices for positive definiteness. Attention is also given to certain problems associated with the construction of covariance matrices using information which is obtained from evaluated data files recorded in the ENDF format. Examples are provided to illustrate key points pertaining to each of the topic areas covered.
Classification en référence à une matrice stochastique
Verdun , Stéphane; Cariou , Véronique; Qannari , El Mostafa
2009-01-01
International audience; Etant donné un tableau de données X portant sur un ensemble de n objets, et une matrice stochastique S qui peut être assimilée à une matrice de transition d'une chaîne de Markov, nous proposons une méthode de partitionnement consistant à appliquer la matrice S sur X de manière itérative jusqu'à convergence. Les classes formant la partition sont déterminées à partir des états stationnaires de la matrice stochastique. Cette matrice stochastique peut être issue d'une matr...
Some thoughts on positive definiteness in the consideration of nuclear data covariance matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geraldo, L.P.; Smith, D.L.
1988-01-01
Some basic mathematical features of covariance matrices are reviewed, particularly as they relate to the property of positive difiniteness. Physical implications of positive definiteness are also discussed. Consideration is given to an examination of the origins of non-positive definite matrices, to procedures which encourage the generation of positive definite matrices and to the testing of covariance matrices for positive definiteness. Attention is also given to certain problems associated with the construction of covariance matrices using information which is obtained from evaluated data files recorded in the ENDF format. Examples are provided to illustrate key points pertaining to each of the topic areas covered
Recent advances in solid polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Qingqing Zhang; Kai Liu; Fei Ding; Xingjiang Liu
2017-01-01
Solid polymer electrolytes are light-weight,flexible,and non-flammable and provide a feasible solution to the safety issues facing lithium-ion batteries through the replacement of organic liquid electrolytes.Substantial research efforts have been devoted to achieving the next generation of solid-state polymer lithium batteries.Herein,we provide a review of the development of solid polymer electrolytes and provide comprehensive insights into emerging developments.In particular,we discuss the different molecular structures of the solid polymer matrices,including polyether,polyester,polyacrylonitrile,and polysiloxane,and their interfacial compatibility with lithium,as well as the factors that govern the properties of the polymer electrolytes.The discussion aims to give perspective to allow the strategic design of state-of-the-art solid polymer electrolytes,and we hope it will provide clear guidance for the exploration of high-performance lithium batteries.
ESR of the triplet molecules CCO and CNN in rare-gas matrices; isotope and matrix effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.R.; Weltner, W. Jr.
1975-01-01
CCO and CNN, with isotopic substitution of 13 C, 18 O, and 15 N, were prepared by the reaction of C atoms with CO or N 2 and trapped in various matrices at 4 degreeK. ESR spectra of both 3 Σ molecules yielded hyperfine splittings, g values, and zero-field splittings. In solid neon, these parameters for C/sub alpha/C/sub beta/O, assuming g/sub parallel/=g/sube/, were g/sub perpendicular/=2.0029(4), D=0.7392(4) cm -1 , vertical-barA/sub perpendicular/(C/sub alpha/) vertical-bar = 57(3) MHz, vertical-barA/sub parallel/(C/sub alpha/) vertical-bar = 17(3) MHz, vertical-barA/sub perpendicular/(C/sub beta/) vertical-bar = 26(3) MHz, vertical-barA/sub parallel/(C/sub beta/) vertical-bar = 32(3) MHz. Similar but less extensive data were obtained for CN/sub alpha/N/sub beta/ where in solid neon, assuming g/sub parallel/ =g/sub perpendicular/=g/sube/, D = 1.1590(5) cm -1 , vertical-barA/sub perpendicular/( 14 N/sub alpha/) vertical-bar = 35(5), vertical-barA/sub perpendicular/( 14 N/sub beta/) vertical-bar = 19(5), and vertical-barA/sub perpendicular/( 13 C) vertical-bar = 50(5) MHz. D values for isotopic molecules 12 C 12 C 16 O, 13 C 12 C 18 O, etc., varied by small but significant amounts (up to about 0.001 cm -1 ) in Ne and in Ar matrices. These variations could be approximately accounted for by assuming torsional oscillation in the solid. This was supported by a temperature variation study. The observed decrease of D/sub gas/ = 0.772 cm -1 for C 2 O in matrices, particularly large in Kr and Xe, is attributed partially to motional averaging and partially to matrix perturbations of molecular electronic properties. Theory was applied to qualitatively account for the changes in spin--spin, D/sub SS/, and spin--orbit, D/sub SO/, contributions to the zfs of the molecule in the solids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boutin, H. [Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Safford, G. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)
1965-06-15
be attributed to a weaker degree of association, which is expected from the decreasing electronegativity of the anion. The systematic study of these spectra in the various phases and at variais temperatures allows a distinction to be made between the low frequency motions characteristic of the lattice or of an hydrogen-bonded chain and those low frequency motions which involve nearest-neighbour interactions or short-range forces. The results of these measurements are in agreement with previous infrared data and indicate that hydrogen bonding is an influential factor in explaining the spectra of the solid phases of both HCl and HBr. These data are not in agreement, however, with theories that account for the solid phases of these compounds only in terms of simple dipole arrays or in terms of long-range interactions involving the dipole moment of one single unit interacting with an average electric field. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les phases liquide et solide de HF, HCl et HBr entre les raies d'absorption 30 et 1200 cm{sup -1} employant la methode de la diffusion inelastique des neutrons froids (0, 005 eV). Ils ont procede a ces mesures pour examiner systematiquement l'influence qu'un accroissement du degre d'electronegativite et la dimension des anions exercent sur les mouvements moleculaires de basse frequence dans la phase solide et la phase liquide. L'etude a d'abord porte sur HF du fait que les donnees obtenues par diffraction des rayons X avaient montre que dans ce compose a l'etat solide apparaissaient de longues chaines en zigzag liees par l'hydrogene. Les spectres des neutrons inelastiquement diffuses par les phases liquide et solide de HF font ressortir le haut degre d'association qui existe dans toute la phase liquide en raison de la liaison hydrogenee. Aux fins d'interpretation, les auteurs comparent les donnees relatives a HF a des donnees analogues relatives aux ions HF{sub 2}{sup -} et H{sub 2}F{sub 3}{sup -} dont les structures sont
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatemeh Sadeghi
2003-07-01
Full Text Available The characteristics of ethylcellulose matrices prepared from solid dispersion systems were compared with those prepared from physical mixture of drug and polymer. Sodium diclofenac was used as a model drug and the effect of the drug:polymer ratio and the method of matrix production on tablet crushing strength, friability, drug release profile and drug release mechanism were evaluated. The results showed that increasing the polymer content in matrices increased the crushing strengths of tablets. However the friability of tablets was independent of polymer content. Drug release rate was greatly affected by the amount of polymer in the matrices and considerable decrease in release rate was observed by increasing the polymer content. It was also found that the type of mixture used for matrix production had great influence on the tablet crushing strength and drug release rate. Matrices prepared from physical mixtures of drug and polymer was harder than those prepared from solid dispersion systems, but their release rates were considerably faster. This phenomenon was attributed to the encapsulation of drug particles by polymer in matrices prepared from solid dispersion system which caused a great delay in diffusion of the drug through polymer and made diffusion as a rate retarding process in drug release mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, J. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)
1963-11-15
et l'aptitude a retenir les produits de fission sont les deux caracteristiques les plus importantes de l'integrite du combustible. La compatibilite des elements constitutifs des combustibles les uns avec les autres et avec le refroidisseur exerce une influence sur la stabilite dimensionnelle, mais les combustibles sous forme d'oxydes presentent beaucoup d'avantages a cet egard. Les variations de dimension sous irradiation ont trois composantes: les dommages causes a la matrice par les neutrons et les produits de fission, les dommages causes par les rayonnements a la phase produit fissile/produit fertile, les effets d'une accumulation de produits de fission gazeux. Les contraintes thermiques peuvent egalement etre a l'origine de modifications de forme. Cependant, les renseignements dont on dispose sur les mecanismes de la relaxation des contraintes sont trop limites pour qu'il soit possible de formuler des appreciations theoriques sur le comportement du materiau. Les etudes sur le degagement des produits de fission provenant d'un melange d'oxydes fissiles et fertiles sous faible irradiation ou pour un taux de combustion eleve, ont porte principalement sur les produits gazeux, notamment le xenon. Les donnees sur le degagement d'autres produits de fission sont tres limitees comme le sont d'ailleurs celles qui ont trait aux mouvements des produits de fission en general a travers les materiaux que l'on peut utiliser pour les matrices. Des etudes relatives a l'etancheite des oxydes purs frittes indiquent qu'il faut atteindre des densites egales a 95% au moins et peut-etre meme a 98% de la densite theorique pour supprimer la porosite ouverte dans de telles matrices. On peut recourir a diverses methodes pour preparer des particules de produits fissiles et fertiles, pour les revetir et pour les incorporer dans des matrices de densite elevee. Les travaux sur les procedes de transformation a l'echelle du laboratoire sont assez avances. (author) [Spanish] El autor examina la
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldman, V.I.
1997-01-01
Use of IR spectroscopy (as a supplement to EPR) may provide new insight into the problem of analysis of structure and properties of organic radical cations. In this work, the results of combined EPR/IR studies of the formation, structure and properties of hydrocarbon radical cations in halocarbon and solid rare gas matrices are discussed. Both IR and EPR studies were carried out with matrix deposited samples irradiated with fast electrons at 15 or 77 K. IR spectroscopic data were found to be helpful in three aspects: (i) characterization of the conformation and association and molecule-matrix interactions of the parent molecules; (ii) identification of diamagnetic products of the reactions of radical cations in ground and excited states; (iii) determining the characteristics of vibrational spectra of the radical cations, which are of primary interest for analysis of chemical bonding and reactivity of the radical cations. The applications of the combined approach are illustrated with examples of studies of several alkenes in Freon matrices and alkanes in solid rare gas matrices. The matrix effects on trapping and degradation of radical cations were interpreted as the result of variations in matrix electronic characteristics (IP, polarizability) and molecule-matrix interactions. (au) 48 refs
PARs for combustible gas control in advanced light water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosler, J.; Sliter, G.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the progress being made in the United States to introduce passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) technology as a cost-effective alternative to electric recombiners for controlling combustible gas produced in postulated accidents in both future Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) and certain U. S. operating nuclear plants. PARs catalytically recombine hydrogen and oxygen, gradually producing heat and water vapor. They have no moving parts and are self-starting and self-feeding, even under relatively cold and wet containment conditions. Buoyancy of the hot gases they create sets up natural convective flow that promotes mixing of combustible gases in a containment. In a non-inerted ALWR containment, two approaches each employing a combination of PARs and igniters are being considered to control hydrogen in design basis and severe accidents. In pre-inerted ALWRs, PARs alone control radiolytic oxygen produced in either accident type. The paper also discusses regulatory feedback regarding these combustible gas control approaches and describes a test program being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Electricite de France (EdF) to supplement the existing PAR test database with performance data under conditions of interest to U.S. plants. Preliminary findings from the EPRI/EdF PAR model test program are included. Successful completion of this test program and confirmatory tests being sponsored by the U. S. NRC are expected to pave the way for use of PARs in ALWRs and operating plants. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anaís Frangeline Acuña Sosa
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this work we dealt with matrix completion problem. This problem arises in different fields, for example, systems and control theory, image processing and collaborative filtering. Given a probabilistic matrix factorization model, we present an approach based on Bayesian statistics and a stochastic expectation maximization algorithm to retrieve an array of data from a sample of its inputs. The proposed method does not require regularization parameters and estimates the rank of the matrix, in contrast to the BPMF method. Our results show that the proposed method outperforms to an augmented lagrangian algorithm and the BPMF method in its ability to find the rank of the matrix and in efficiency respectively. // RESUMEN En este trabajo estudiamos el problema de completación de matrices. Este problema se presenta en diversas áreas como la teoría de sistemas y control, procesamiento de imágenes y filtrado colaborativo. Considerando un modelo de factorización probabilística de matrices, establecemos una propuesta basada en estadística Bayesiana y un algoritmo EM estocástico para recubrir una matriz de datos a partir de una muestras de sus entradas. El método propuesto no requiere de parámetros de regularización y da un estimado del rango de la matriz, en contraste con el método BPMF. Los resultados muestran que el algoritmo propuesto da mejores estimados del rango de la matriz en comparación con un algoritmo basado en lagrangeanos aumentados y es más eficiente que el método BPMF.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Ida K; Illemann, Martin; Thurison, Tine
2011-01-01
, and a potential diagnostic and predictive impact of the different uPAR forms has been reported. Hence, pericellular proteolysis seems to be a suitable target for anti-cancer therapy and numerous approaches have been pursued. Targeting of this process may be achieved by preventing the binding of uPA to u...... using mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against mouse uPA or uPAR. These reagents will target uPA and uPAR in both stromal cells and cancer cells, and their therapeutic potential can now be assessed in syngenic mouse cancer models....
Limnological database for Par Pond: 1959 to 1980
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tilly, L.J.
1981-03-01
A limnological database for Par Pond, a cooling reservoir for hot reactor effluent water at the Savannah River Plant, is described. The data are derived from a combination of research and monitoring efforts on Par Pond since 1959. The approximately 24,000-byte database provides water quality, primary productivity, and flow data from a number of different stations, depths, and times during the 22-year history of the Par Pond impoundment. The data have been organized to permit an interpretation of the effects of twenty years of cooling system operations on the structure and function of an aquatic ecosystem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisa G van den Hengel
Full Text Available AIMS: In collateral development (i.e. arteriogenesis, mononuclear cells are important and exist as a heterogeneous population consisting of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory/repair-associated cells. Protease-activated receptor (PAR1 and PAR2 are G-protein-coupled receptors that are both expressed by mononuclear cells and are involved in pro-inflammatory reactions, while PAR2 also plays a role in repair-associated responses. Here, we investigated the physiological role of PAR1 and PAR2 in arteriogenesis in a murine hind limb ischemia model. METHODS AND RESULTS: PAR1-deficient (PAR1-/-, PAR2-deficient (PAR2-/- and wild-type (WT mice underwent femoral artery ligation. Laser Doppler measurements revealed reduced post-ischemic blood flow recovery in PAR2-/- hind limbs when compared to WT, while PAR1-/- mice were not affected. Upon ischemia, reduced numbers of smooth muscle actin (SMA-positive collaterals and CD31-positive capillaries were found in PAR2-/- mice when compared to WT mice, whereas these parameters in PAR1-/- mice did not differ from WT mice. The pool of circulating repair-associated (Ly6C-low monocytes and the number of repair-associated (CD206-positive macrophages surrounding collaterals in the hind limbs were increased in WT and PAR1-/- mice, but unaffected in PAR2-/- mice. The number of repair-associated macrophages in PAR2-/- hind limbs correlated with CD11b- and CD115-expression on the circulating monocytes in these animals, suggesting that monocyte extravasation and M-CSF-dependent differentiation into repair-associated cells are hampered. CONCLUSION: PAR2, but not PAR1, is involved in arteriogenesis and promotes the repair-associated response in ischemic tissues. Therefore, PAR2 potentially forms a new pro-arteriogenic target in coronary artery disease (CAD patients.
Cunningham, Margaret R; McIntosh, Kathryn A; Pediani, John D; Robben, Joris; Cooke, Alexandra E; Nilsson, Mary; Gould, Gwyn W; Mundell, Stuart; Milligan, Graeme; Plevin, Robin
2012-05-11
Proteinase-activated receptors 4 (PAR(4)) is a class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) recognized through the ability of serine proteases such as thrombin and trypsin to mediate receptor activation. Due to the irreversible nature of activation, a fresh supply of receptor is required to be mobilized to the cell surface for responsiveness to agonist to be sustained. Unlike other PAR subtypes, the mechanisms regulating receptor trafficking of PAR(4) remain unknown. Here, we report novel features of the intracellular trafficking of PAR(4) to the plasma membrane. PAR(4) was poorly expressed at the plasma membrane and largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a complex with the COPI protein subunit β-COP1. Analysis of the PAR(4) protein sequence identified an arginine-based (RXR) ER retention sequence located within intracellular loop-2 (R(183)AR → A(183)AA), mutation of which allowed efficient membrane delivery of PAR(4). Interestingly, co-expression with PAR(2) facilitated plasma membrane delivery of PAR(4), an effect produced through disruption of β-COP1 binding and facilitation of interaction with the chaperone protein 14-3-3ζ. Intermolecular FRET studies confirmed heterodimerization between PAR(2) and PAR(4). PAR(2) also enhanced glycosylation of PAR(4) and activation of PAR(4) signaling. Our results identify a novel regulatory role for PAR(2) in the anterograde traffic of PAR(4). PAR(2) was shown to both facilitate and abrogate protein interactions with PAR(4), impacting upon receptor localization and cell signal transduction. This work is likely to impact markedly upon the understanding of the receptor pharmacology of PAR(4) in normal physiology and disease.
Invertibility and Explicit Inverses of Circulant-Type Matrices with k-Fibonacci and k-Lucas Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaolin Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Circulant matrices have important applications in solving ordinary differential equations. In this paper, we consider circulant-type matrices with the k-Fibonacci and k-Lucas numbers. We discuss the invertibility of these circulant matrices and present the explicit determinant and inverse matrix by constructing the transformation matrices, which generalizes the results in Shen et al. (2011.
Texture of fermion mass matrices in partially unified theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, B.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX; Nandi, S.; Texas Univ., Austin, TX
1996-01-01
We investigate the texture of fermion mass matrices in theories with partial unification (for example, SU(2) L x SU(2) R x SU(4) c ) at a scale of ∼ 10 12 GeV. Starting with the low energy values of the masses and the mixing angles, we find only two viable textures with at most four texture zeros. One of these corresponds to a somewhat modified Fritzsch textures. A theoretical derivation of these textures leads to new interesting relations among the masses and the mixing angles. 13 refs
Combustion synthesis of ceramic matrices for immobilization of 14C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosc-Rouessac, F.; Marin-Ayral, R.M.; Haidoux, A.; Massoni, N.; Bart, F.
2008-01-01
In this study, the use of combustion synthesis for immobilization of 14 C was considered. Ceramic matrices have been prepared by this method using two different devices: one non-conventional with preheating of the samples and the other conventional device where ignition was produced thanks to tungsten filament. These two devices gave rise to different mechanisms of reactions involving different amounts of unreacted carbon graphite inside the matrix. The SHS samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD)
Thermal Expansion Behavior of Hot-Pressed Engineered Matrices
Raj, S. V.
2016-01-01
Advanced engineered matrix composites (EMCs) require that the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the engineered matrix (EM) matches those of the fiber reinforcements as closely as possible in order to reduce thermal compatibility strains during heating and cooling of the composites. The present paper proposes a general concept for designing suitable matrices for long fiber reinforced composites using a rule of mixtures (ROM) approach to minimize the global differences in the thermal expansion mismatches between the fibers and the engineered matrix. Proof-of-concept studies were conducted to demonstrate the validity of the concept.
On spectral distribution of high dimensional covariation matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heinrich, Claudio; Podolskij, Mark
In this paper we present the asymptotic theory for spectral distributions of high dimensional covariation matrices of Brownian diffusions. More specifically, we consider N-dimensional Itô integrals with time varying matrix-valued integrands. We observe n equidistant high frequency data points...... of the underlying Brownian diffusion and we assume that N/n -> c in (0,oo). We show that under a certain mixed spectral moment condition the spectral distribution of the empirical covariation matrix converges in distribution almost surely. Our proof relies on method of moments and applications of graph theory....
Off-shell T-matrices from inverse scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Geramb, H.V.; Amos, K.A.
1989-01-01
Inverse scattering theory is used to determine local, energy independent, coordinate space nucleon-nucleon potentials. Inversions are made of phase shifts obtained by analyzes of data and from meson exchange theory, in particular the Paris and the Bonn parametrizations. Half off-shell T-matrices are generated to compare the exact meson theoretical results with those of inversion and it is found that phase equivalent interactions have essentially the same off-shell behaviour for any physically significant range of momenta. 8 refs., 8 figs
Recommendations on the use and design of risk matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Duijm, Nijs Jan
2015-01-01
of the risk matrix. The objective of this paper is to explore these weaknesses, and provide recommendations for the use and design of risk matrices. The paper reviews the few relevant publications and adds some observations of its own in order to emphasize existing recommendations and add some suggestions...... of its own. The recommendations cover a range of issues, among them: the relation between coloring the risk matrix and the definition of risk and major hazard aversion; the qualitative, subjective assessment of likelihood and consequence; the scaling of the discrete likelihood and consequence categories...
Analytical stiffness matrices with Green-Lagrange strain measure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli
2005-01-01
Separating the dependence on material and stress/strain state from the dependence on initial geometry, we obtain analytical secant and tangent stiffness matrices. For the case of a linear displacement triangle with uniform thickness and uniform constitutive behaviour closed-form results are listed...... a solution based on Green-Lagrange strain measure. The approach is especially useful in design optimization, because analytical sensitivity analysis then can be performed. The case of a three node triangular ring element for axisymmetric analysis involves small modifications and extension to four node...
3D Weight Matrices in Modeling Real Estate Prices
Mimis, A.
2016-10-01
Central role in spatial econometric models of real estate data has the definition of the weight matrix by which we capture the spatial dependence between the observations. The weight matrices presented in literature so far, treats space in a two dimensional manner leaving out the effect of the third dimension or in our case the difference in height where the property resides. To overcome this, we propose a new definition of the weight matrix including the third dimensional effect by using the Hadamard product. The results illustrated that the level effect can be absorbed into the new weight matrix.
Level density of random matrices for decaying systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haake, F.; Izrailev, F.; Saher, D.; Sommers, H.-J.
1991-01-01
Analytical and numerical results for the level density of a certain class of random non-Hermitian matrices H=H+iΓ are presented. The conservative part H belongs to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble while the damping piece Γ is quadratic in Gaussian random numbers and may describe the decay of resonances through various channels. In the limit of a large matrix dimension the level density assumes a surprisingly simple dependence on the relative strength of the damping and the number of channels. 18 refs.; 4 figs
Covariance matrices and applications to the field of nuclear data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.L.
1981-11-01
A student's introduction to covariance error analysis and least-squares evaluation of data is provided. It is shown that the basic formulas used in error propagation can be derived from a consideration of the geometry of curvilinear coordinates. Procedures for deriving covariances for scaler and vector functions of several variables are presented. Proper methods for reporting experimental errors and for deriving covariance matrices from these errors are indicated. The generalized least-squares method for evaluating experimental data is described. Finally, the use of least-squares techniques in data fitting applications is discussed. Specific examples of the various procedures are presented to clarify the concepts
Elemental Analysis in Biological Matrices Using ICP-MS.
Hansen, Matthew N; Clogston, Jeffrey D
2018-01-01
The increasing exploration of metallic nanoparticles for use as cancer therapeutic agents necessitates a sensitive technique to track the clearance and distribution of the material once introduced into a living system. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) provides a sensitive and selective tool for tracking the distribution of metal components from these nanotherapeutics. This chapter presents a standardized method for processing biological matrices, ensuring complete homogenization of tissues, and outlines the preparation of appropriate standards and controls. The method described herein utilized gold nanoparticle-treated samples; however, the method can easily be applied to the analysis of other metals.
Interaction Matrices as a Tool for Prioritizing Radioecology Research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mora, J.C.; Robles, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Bradshaw, Clare; Stark, Karolina [Stockholm University (Sweden); Sweeck, Liev; Vives i Batlle, Jordi [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Beresford, Nick [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology - CEH (United Kingdom); Thoerring, Havard; Dowdall, Mark [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Outola, Iisa; Turtiainen, Tuukka; Vetikko, Virve [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Fevrier, Laureline; Hurtevent, Pierre; Boyer, Patrick [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)
2014-07-01
Interaction Matrices as a Tool for Prioritizing Radioecology Research J.C. Mora CIEMAT In 2010 the Strategy for Allied Radioecology (STAR) was launched with several objectives aimed towards integrating the radioecology research efforts of nine institutions in Europe. One of these objectives was the creation of European Radioecology Observatories. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ) and the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB), a coal mining area in Poland, have been chosen after a selection process. A second objective was to develop a system for improving and validating the capabilities of predicting the behaviour of the main radionuclides existing at these observatories. Interaction Matrices (IM) have been used since the 1990's as a tool for developing ecological conceptual models and have also been used within radioecology. The Interaction Matrix system relies on expert judgement for structuring knowledge of a given ecosystem at the conceptual level and was selected for use in the STAR project. A group of experts, selected from each institution of STAR, designed two matrices with the main compartments for each ecosystem (a forest in CEZ and a lake in USCB). All the features, events and processes (FEPs) which could affect the behaviour of the considered radionuclides, focusing on radiocaesium in the Chernobyl forest and radium in the Rontok-Wielki lake, were also included in each IM. Two new sets of experts were appointed to review, improve and prioritize the processes included in each IM. A first processing of the various candidate interaction matrices produced a single interaction matrix for each ecosystem which incorporated all experts combined knowledge. During the prioritization of processes in the IMs, directed towards developing a whole predictive model of radionuclides behaviour in those ecosystems, raised interesting issues related to the processes and parameters involved, regarding the existing knowledge in them. This exercise revealed several processes
Bimaximal fermion mixing from the quark and leptonic mixing matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohlsson, Tommy
2005-01-01
In this Letter, we show how the mixing angles of the standard parameterization add when multiplying the quark and leptonic mixing matrices, i.e., we derive explicit sum rules for the quark and leptonic mixing angles. In this connection, we also discuss other recently proposed sum rules for the mixing angles assuming bimaximal fermion mixing. In addition, we find that the present experimental and phenomenological data of the mixing angles naturally fulfill our sum rules, and thus, give rise to bilarge or bimaximal fermion mixing
NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.
2007-01-01
119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown
Accelerating Matrix-Vector Multiplication on Hierarchical Matrices Using Graphical Processing Units
Boukaram, W.
2015-03-25
Large dense matrices arise from the discretization of many physical phenomena in computational sciences. In statistics very large dense covariance matrices are used for describing random fields and processes. One can, for instance, describe distribution of dust particles in the atmosphere, concentration of mineral resources in the earth\\'s crust or uncertain permeability coefficient in reservoir modeling. When the problem size grows, storing and computing with the full dense matrix becomes prohibitively expensive both in terms of computational complexity and physical memory requirements. Fortunately, these matrices can often be approximated by a class of data sparse matrices called hierarchical matrices (H-matrices) where various sub-blocks of the matrix are approximated by low rank matrices. These matrices can be stored in memory that grows linearly with the problem size. In addition, arithmetic operations on these H-matrices, such as matrix-vector multiplication, can be completed in almost linear time. Originally the H-matrix technique was developed for the approximation of stiffness matrices coming from partial differential and integral equations. Parallelizing these arithmetic operations on the GPU has been the focus of this work and we will present work done on the matrix vector operation on the GPU using the KSPARSE library.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.kanis@unisul.br [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)
2014-11-01
The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shiao-Wen Tsai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we utilized a mandrel rotating collector consisting of two parallel, electrically conductive pieces of tape to fabricate aligned electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin (PG and carbon nanotube/polycaprolactone/gelatin (PGC nanofibrous matrices. Furthermore, we examined the biological performance of the PGC nanofibrous and film matrices using an in vitro culture of RT4-D6P2T rat Schwann cells. Using cell adhesion tests, we found that carbon nanotube inhibited Schwann cell attachment on PGC nanofibrous and film matrices. However, the proliferation rates of Schwann cells were higher when they were immobilized on PGC nanofibrous matrices compared to PGC film matrices. Using western blot analysis, we found that NRG1 and P0 protein expression levels were higher for cells immobilized on PGC nanofibrous matrices compared to PG nanofibrous matrices. However, the carbon nanotube inhibited NRG1 and P0 protein expression in cells immobilized on PGC film matrices. Moreover, the NRG1 and P0 protein expression levels were higher for cells immobilized on PGC nanofibrous matrices compared to PGC film matrices. We found that the matrix topography and composition influenced Schwann cell behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.
1995-01-01
A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs
Linkage of biomolecules to solid phases for immunoassay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, R.S.
1998-01-01
Topics covered by this lecture include a brief review of the principal methods of linkage of biomolecules to solid phase matrices. Copies of the key self explanatory slides are presented as figures together with reprints of two publications by the author dealing with a preferred chemistry for the covalent linkage of antibodies to hydroxyl and amino functional groups and the effects of changes in solid phase matrix and antibody coupling chemistry on the performance of a typical excess reagent immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone
La théorie sémiotique littéraire de Michael Riffaterre : matrice, intertexte et interprétant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Hopkins
2005-04-01
Full Text Available Cette communication présentée lors d’un séminaire du CNA, présente une vision de la théorie littéraire de Michael Riffaterre et propose d’en compléter la portée par un apport théorique nouveau. La dernière partie examine les rapports de la théorie riffaterrienne avec le roman. Sémiotique, poésie, matrice, structure bimatricielle, Riffaterre, Baudelaire. Puisque je parle aux confins du Centre de Narratologie Appliquée, où l’on s’intéresse principalement aux questions de la structure et de...
Influence des conditions initiales sur l'évolution d'une onde de choc induite par impulsion laser
Cottet , F.; Romain , J.P.
1983-01-01
L'évolution d'un choc de forte amplitude induit par une impulsion laser dans une cible solide est décrite à l'aide d'un modèle hydrodynamique, précisant un modèle antérieur par la prise en compte du déplacement de la surface avant de la cible sous l'effet de la pression d'ablation. Ce modèle est également utilisé pour étudier l'influence du profil initial de pression sur l'amortissement de l'onde de choc au cours de sa propagation.
Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) power supply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fathizadeh, M.
1995-01-01
The Positron Accumulator Ring (PAR) consists of 8 dipole magnets connected in series. These magnets are energized via one 12-pulse dc power supply. The power supply consists of four phase controlled half-wave wye group converters. Each of the two half-wave converters are connected through an interphase transformer to obtain a full-wave converter with 120 degrees conduction. The input voltage for these two half-wave converters are 180 degrees apart. The two full-wave converters are connected in parallel through a third interphase transformer. This type of connection of the converters not only provides the required output current, it also improves the input power factor of the power supply. The output of the wye group converters is filtered through a passive L-R-C filter to reduce the ripple content of the output current. At low current values of the power supply the current ripple is high, thus a large filter is needed, which adds to the cost of the power supply, however at high output current levels, the current ripple is less severe. The large size of the filter can be reduced by adding an anti-parallel rectifier diode(D1) to the output of the power supply. A freewheeling diode(D2) is connected before the choke to circulate the current once the power supply is turned off. In order to measure the current in the magnet a high precision, low drift, zero flux current transductor is used. This transductor senses the magnet current which provides a feedback signal to control the gating of the converter's thyristors. A true 14 bit Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) is programmed by the control computer for the required current value, providing a reference for the current regulator. Fast correction of the line transients is provided by a relatively fast voltage loop controlled by a high gain slow response current loop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Persson, Morten; Skovgaard, Dorthe; Brandt-Larsen, Malene
2015-01-01
A first-in-human clinical trial with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in patients with breast, prostate and bladder cancer, is described. uPAR is expressed in many types of human cancers and the expression is predictive...... for targeted molecular imaging with PET. The safety, pharmacokinetic, biodistribution profile and radiation dosimetry after a single intravenous dose of (64)Cu-DOTA-AE105 were assessed by serial PET and computed tomography (CT) in 4 prostate, 3 breast and 3 bladder cancer patients. Safety assessment...... of invasion, metastasis and indicates poor prognosis. uPAR PET imaging therefore holds promise to be a new and innovative method for improved cancer diagnosis, staging and individual risk stratification. The uPAR specific peptide AE105 was conjugated to the macrocyclic chelator DOTA and labeled with (64)Cu...
Peptide-Based Optical uPAR Imaging for Surgery
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juhl, Karina; Christensen, Anders; Persson, Morten
2016-01-01
Near infrared intra-operative optical imaging is an emerging technique with clear implications for improved cancer surgery by enabling a more distinct delineation of the tumor margins during resection. This modality has the potential to increase the number of patients having a curative radical...... tumor resection. In the present study, a new uPAR-targeted fluorescent probe was developed and the in vivo applicability was evaluated in a human xenograft mouse model. Most human carcinomas express high level of uPAR in the tumor-stromal interface of invasive lesions and uPAR is therefore considered...... an ideal target for intra-operative imaging. Conjugation of the flourophor indocyanine green (ICG) to the uPAR agonist (AE105) provides an optical imaging ligand with sufficiently high receptor affinity to allow for a specific receptor targeting in vivo. For in vivo testing, human glioblastoma xenograft...
Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Contribution de la tomographie par coherence optique au diagnostic de la neuropathie optique toxique. C.O.A. Abouki, S Alamou, C.R.A. Assavedo, L Odoulami-Yehouessi, I Sounouvou, S Hounnou-Tchabi ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flavien Pillet
Full Text Available Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.
Pillet, Flavien; Passot, Fanny Marie; Pasta, Franck; Anton Leberre, Véronique; Bouet, Jean-Yves
2017-01-01
Bacterial centromeres-also called parS, are cis-acting DNA sequences which, together with the proteins ParA and ParB, are involved in the segregation of chromosomes and plasmids. The specific binding of ParB to parS nucleates the assembly of a large ParB/DNA complex from which ParA-the motor protein, segregates the sister replicons. Closely related families of partition systems, called Bsr, were identified on the chromosomes and large plasmids of the multi-chromosomal bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia and other species from the order Burkholeriales. The centromeres of the Bsr partition families are 16 bp palindromes, displaying similar base compositions, notably a central CG dinucleotide. Despite centromeres bind the cognate ParB with a narrow specificity, weak ParB-parS non cognate interactions were nevertheless detected between few Bsr partition systems of replicons not belonging to the same genome. These observations suggested that Bsr partition systems could have a common ancestry but that evolution mostly erased the possibilities of cross-reactions between them, in particular to prevent replicon incompatibility. To detect novel similarities between Bsr partition systems, we have analyzed the binding of six Bsr parS sequences and a wide collection of modified derivatives, to their cognate ParB. The study was carried out by Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) mulitplex analysis enabling a systematic survey of each nucleotide position within the centromere. We found that in each parS some positions could be changed while maintaining binding to ParB. Each centromere displays its own pattern of changes, but some positions are shared more or less widely. In addition from these changes we could speculate evolutionary links between these centromeres.
Prise en charge des intoxications par envenimation chez les enfants ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Les signes cliniques étaient dominés par les douleurs (98%) suivies des hémorragies (73,80%) pour les morsures de serpent, la douleur pour les piqures de scorpion (100%) et les oedèmes pour les piqures d'abeilles (100%). Les cas de morsure de serpent ont été traités par le sérum antivenimeux polyvalent. Conclusion: ...
Intoxication par la paraphényléne-diamine
African Journals Online (AJOL)
raoul
9 mars 2011 ... remède contre la douleur par Averbukh [8], ou contre la constipation par Schemesh [9], mais l´utilisation à des fins autolytique reste toujours prédominante. Le tableau clinique de l´intoxication à ... une anurie ayant nécessité le recours à l´hémodialyse. Ce taux de survenue d´IRA anurique est relativement ...
Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques
Belanger, Simon
La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis
Permuting sparse rectangular matrices into block-diagonal form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aykanat, Cevdet; Pinar, Ali; Catalyurek, Umit V.
2002-12-09
This work investigates the problem of permuting a sparse rectangular matrix into block diagonal form. Block diagonal form of a matrix grants an inherent parallelism for the solution of the deriving problem, as recently investigated in the context of mathematical programming, LU factorization and QR factorization. We propose graph and hypergraph models to represent the nonzero structure of a matrix, which reduce the permutation problem to those of graph partitioning by vertex separator and hypergraph partitioning, respectively. Besides proposing the models to represent sparse matrices and investigating related combinatorial problems, we provide a detailed survey of relevant literature to bridge the gap between different societies, investigate existing techniques for partitioning and propose new ones, and finally present a thorough empirical study of these techniques. Our experiments on a wide range of matrices, using state-of-the-art graph and hypergraph partitioning tools MeTiS and PaT oH, revealed that the proposed methods yield very effective solutions both in terms of solution quality and run time.