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Sample records for math anxiety levels

  1. Do high school students with different styles have different level of math anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Shirvani, Hosin; Guerra, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This study included 240 mostly Hispanic students from one high school. The study used a learning style survey and a math anxiety survey to find students’ learning styles and level of math anxiety. The study examined whether students with three learning styles (auditory, visual, and kinesthetic) had a different level of math anxiety. The study found that children with kinesthetic learning style had higher math anxiety than the other two types. The study also examined whether there were differe...

  2. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  3. Attentional Bias in Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math. Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of math anxiety and 13 with low levels of math anxiety were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of 6 types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, were presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks. Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in math anxiety. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words. These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense math anxiety symptoms.

  4. Changes in Levels of Math Anxiety in Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Ruiz Hidalgo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various investigations study high levels of math anxiety of preservice teachers and possible strategies to reduce them. Assuming that the training methodology influences these levels, we analyzed the evolution of mathematics anxiety of undergraduates in Primary Education of the University of Granada, due to the use of manipulatives in the classroom math practices. We perform an exploratory and descriptive, by using a questionnaire that measures the level of anxiety of 227 students. Eight of them were selected and monitored by audio recordings and interviews. The mean level of anxiety puts undergraduates at an average level of math anxiety. The subjects expressed the perception that practical sessions allow a reduction of mathematics anxiety, suggesting that this reduction is due to the use of a different traditional methodology.Since we detect a favorable evolution in math anxiety manifested as subjects become more involved in cooperative working and with manipulatives, we conjecture that working with this type of active methodology has strengthened its security to their performance in mathematics.

  5. Math Anxiety--Contributing School and Individual Level Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radišic, Jelena; Videnovic, Marina; Baucal, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    PISA 2003 survey data indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety among students in Serbia. More than a half of Serbian students are concerned with whether they will have difficulties in a mathematics class or earn poor marks. At the same time, the achievement on the mathematical literacy scale is very poor. Building on control-value theory, the…

  6. Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A

    2007-04-01

    The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.

  7. The Effects of Guided Discussion on Math Anxiety Levels, Course Performance, and Retention in a College Algebra Internet Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Christa

    2009-01-01

    The study sought to test the hypotheses that effective, guided discussions that facilitate meaningful dialogue about math anxiety would reduce levels of math anxiety in college algebra students, and would enhance course performance and course retention at a large community college in South Texas. The study was quantitative with a qualitative…

  8. Taking Math Anxiety out of Math Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Darla J.

    2007-01-01

    To take math anxiety out of math instruction, teachers need to first know how to easily diagnose it in their students and second, how to analyze causes. Results of a recent study revealed that while students believed that their math anxiety was largely related to a lack of mathematical understanding, they often blamed their teachers for causing…

  9. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  10. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  11. Is math anxiety in the secondary classroom limiting physics mastery? A study of math anxiety and physics performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Gary J.

    This quantitative study examined the relationship between secondary students with math anxiety and physics performance in an inquiry-based constructivist classroom. The Revised Math Anxiety Rating Scale was used to evaluate math anxiety levels. The results were then compared to the performance on a physics standardized final examination. A simple correlation was performed, followed by a multivariate regression analysis to examine effects based on gender and prior math background. The correlation showed statistical significance between math anxiety and physics performance. The regression analysis showed statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and prior math background, but did not show statistical significance for math anxiety, physics performance, and gender.

  12. The influence of experiencing success in math on math anxiety, perceived math competence, and math performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Louwerse, J.; Straatemeier, M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Klinkenberg, S.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a

  13. The Influence of Experiencing Success in Math on Math Anxiety, Perceived Math Competence, and Math Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Louwerse, Jolien; Straatemeier, Marthe; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Klinkenberg, Sharon; Van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2013-01-01

    It was investigated whether children would experience less math anxiety and feel more competent when they, independent of ability level, experienced high success rates in math. Comparable success rates were achieved by adapting problem difficulty to individuals' ability levels with a computer-adaptive program. A total of 207 children (grades 3-6)…

  14. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Lyons

    Full Text Available Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs, math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula. Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  15. When Math Hurts: Math Anxiety Predicts Pain Network Activation in Anticipation of Doing Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2012-01-01

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs’ feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation – such as pain – about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one’s math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths. PMID:23118929

  16. When math hurts: math anxiety predicts pain network activation in anticipation of doing math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-01-01

    Math can be difficult, and for those with high levels of mathematics-anxiety (HMAs), math is associated with tension, apprehension, and fear. But what underlies the feelings of dread effected by math anxiety? Are HMAs' feelings about math merely psychological epiphenomena, or is their anxiety grounded in simulation of a concrete, visceral sensation - such as pain - about which they have every right to feel anxious? We show that, when anticipating an upcoming math-task, the higher one's math anxiety, the more one increases activity in regions associated with visceral threat detection, and often the experience of pain itself (bilateral dorso-posterior insula). Interestingly, this relation was not seen during math performance, suggesting that it is not that math itself hurts; rather, the anticipation of math is painful. Our data suggest that pain network activation underlies the intuition that simply anticipating a dreaded event can feel painful. These results may also provide a potential neural mechanism to explain why HMAs tend to avoid math and math-related situations, which in turn can bias HMAs away from taking math classes or even entire math-related career paths.

  17. "Math Anxiety" Explored in Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    Math problems make more than a few students--and even teachers--sweat, but new brain research is providing insights into the earliest causes of the anxiety so often associated with mathematics. Experts argue that "math anxiety" can bring about widespread, intergenerational discomfort with the subject, which could lead to anything from fewer…

  18. The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Wu, Sarah S; Menon, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction to situations involving mathematical problem solving. Math anxiety has a detrimental impact on an individual's long-term professional success, but its neurodevelopmental origins are unknown. In a functional MRI study on 7- to 9-year-old children, we showed that math anxiety was associated with hyperactivity in right amygdala regions that are important for processing negative emotions. In addition, we found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct multivoxel activity patterns, which were independent of overall activation levels in the right amygdala. Furthermore, effective connectivity between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions that regulate negative emotions was elevated in children with math anxiety. These effects were specific to math anxiety and unrelated to general anxiety, intelligence, working memory, or reading ability. Our study identified the neural correlates of math anxiety for the first time, and our findings have significant implications for its early identification and treatment.

  19. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

  20. When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertus, Melissa E.

    2018-01-01

    Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments. PMID:29718939

  1. When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Emily J; Libertus, Melissa E

    2018-01-01

    Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS) have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments.

  2. When approximate number acuity predicts math performance: The moderating role of math anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J Braham

    Full Text Available Separate lines of research suggest that people who are better at estimating numerical quantities using the approximate number system (ANS have better math performance, and that people with high levels of math anxiety have worse math performance. Only a handful of studies have examined both ANS acuity and math anxiety in the same participants and those studies report contradictory results. To address these inconsistencies, in the current study 87 undergraduate students completed assessments of ANS acuity, math anxiety, and three different measures of math. We considered moderation models to examine the interplay of ANS acuity and math anxiety on different aspects of math performance. Math anxiety and ANS acuity were both unique significant predictors of the ability to automatically recall basic number facts. ANS acuity was also a unique significant predictor of the ability to solve applied math problems, and this relation was further qualified by a significant interaction with math anxiety: the positive association between ANS acuity and applied problem solving was only present in students with high math anxiety. Our findings suggest that ANS acuity and math anxiety are differentially related to various aspects of math and should be considered together when examining their respective influences on math ability. Our findings also raise the possibility that good ANS acuity serves as a protective factor for highly math-anxious students on certain types of math assessments.

  3. Motivation and Math Anxiety for Ability Grouped College Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Luralyn

    2013-01-01

    The author studied how math anxiety, motivation, and ability group interact to affect performance in college math courses. This clarified the effects of math anxiety and ability grouping on performance. It clarified the interrelationships between math anxiety, motivation, and ability grouping by considering them in a single analysis. It introduces…

  4. Female teachers' math anxiety affects girls' math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilock, Sian L; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Levine, Susan C

    2010-02-02

    People's fear and anxiety about doing math--over and above actual math ability--can be an impediment to their math achievement. We show that when the math-anxious individuals are female elementary school teachers, their math anxiety carries negative consequences for the math achievement of their female students. Early elementary school teachers in the United States are almost exclusively female (>90%), and we provide evidence that these female teachers' anxieties relate to girls' math achievement via girls' beliefs about who is good at math. First- and second-grade female teachers completed measures of math anxiety. The math achievement of the students in these teachers' classrooms was also assessed. There was no relation between a teacher's math anxiety and her students' math achievement at the beginning of the school year. By the school year's end, however, the more anxious teachers were about math, the more likely girls (but not boys) were to endorse the commonly held stereotype that "boys are good at math, and girls are good at reading" and the lower these girls' math achievement. Indeed, by the end of the school year, girls who endorsed this stereotype had significantly worse math achievement than girls who did not and than boys overall. In early elementary school, where the teachers are almost all female, teachers' math anxiety carries consequences for girls' math achievement by influencing girls' beliefs about who is good at math.

  5. Age-Related Differences of Individuals' Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  6. Age-Related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiwei; Li, Hongxia; Sun, Yan; Xu, Yanli; Sun, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. Fifty-seven fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1) High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs) and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2) The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age. PMID:27803685

  7. Age-related Differences of Individuals’ Arithmetic Strategy Utilization with Different Level of Math Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Si

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study used the choice/no-choice method to investigate the effect of math anxiety on the strategy used in computational estimation and mental arithmetic tasks and to examine age-related differences in this regard. 57 fourth graders, 56 sixth graders, and 60 adults were randomly selected to participate in the experiment. Results showed the following: (1 High-anxious individuals were more likely to use a rounding-down strategy in the computational estimation task under the best-choice condition. Additionally, sixth-grade students and adults performed faster than fourth-grade students on the strategy execution parameter. Math anxiety affected response times (RTs and the accuracy with which strategies were executed. (2 The execution of the partial-decomposition strategy was superior to that of the full-decomposition strategy on the mental arithmetic task. Low-math-anxious persons provided more accurate answers than did high-math-anxious participants under the no-choice condition. This difference was significant for sixth graders. With regard to the strategy selection parameter, the RTs for strategy selection varied with age.

  8. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported evaluation of mathematics, and math anxiety in 140 primary school children between the end of first grade and the middle of third grade. Structural equation modeling revealed a strong influence of calculation ability and math anxiety on the evaluation of mathematics but no effect of math anxiety on calculation ability or vice versa—contrasting with the frequent clinical reports of math anxiety even in very young MLD children. To summarize, our study is a first step toward a better understanding of the link between math anxiety and math performance in early primary school years performance during typical and atypical courses of development. PMID:20401159

  9. Strategies for Reducing Math Anxiety. Information Capsule. Volume 1102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 93 percent of Americans indicate that they experience some level of math anxiety. Math anxiety is defined as negative emotions that interfere with the solving of mathematical problems. Studies have found that some students who perform poorly on math assessments actually have a full understanding of the concepts being tested; however,…

  10. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  11. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  12. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  13. Math anxiety differentially affects WAIS-IV arithmetic performance in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Frakey, Laura L

    2013-06-01

    Previous research has shown that math anxiety can influence the math performance level; however, to date, it is unknown whether math anxiety influences performance on working memory tasks during neuropsychological evaluation. In the present study, 172 undergraduate students completed measures of math achievement (the Math Computation subtest from the Wide Range Achievement Test-IV), math anxiety (the Math Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised), general test anxiety (from the Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College version), and the three Working Memory Index tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV Edition (WAIS-IV; Digit Span [DS], Arithmetic, Letter-Number Sequencing [LNS]). Results indicated that math anxiety predicted performance on Arithmetic, but not DS or LNS, above and beyond the effects of gender, general test anxiety, and math performance level. Our findings suggest that math anxiety can negatively influence WAIS-IV working memory subtest scores. Implications for clinical practice include the utilization of LNS in individuals expressing high math anxiety.

  14. Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Krystle; Fitzpatrick, Cheryll L; Hallett, Darcy

    2017-01-01

    Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through elementary school, junior high, and high school, while also assessing math anxiety, general anxiety, and test anxiety. Some reported experiences (e.g., support in high school, giving students plenty of examples) were significantly related to the level of math anxiety, even after controlling for general and test anxiety, but many other factors originally thought to be related to math anxiety did not demonstrate a relation in this study. Overall, this study addresses a gap in the literature and provides some suggestive specifics of the kinds of past experiences that are related to math anxiety and those that are not.

  15. Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystle O'Leary

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through elementary school, junior high, and high school, while also assessing math anxiety, general anxiety, and test anxiety. Some reported experiences (e.g., support in high school, giving students plenty of examples were significantly related to the level of math anxiety, even after controlling for general and test anxiety, but many other factors originally thought to be related to math anxiety did not demonstrate a relation in this study. Overall, this study addresses a gap in the literature and provides some suggestive specifics of the kinds of past experiences that are related to math anxiety and those that are not.

  16. Helping Students Get Past Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpello, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Math anxiety can begin as early as the fourth grade and peaks in middle school and high school. It can be caused by past classroom experiences, parental influences, and remembering poor past math performance. Math anxiety can cause students to avoid challenging math courses and may limit their career choices. It is important for teachers, parents…

  17. Decreasing Math Anxiety in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Andrew B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of mathematics anxiety in contemporary college and university students. Forms of math anxiety range from moderate test anxiety to extreme anxiety including physiological symptoms such as nausea. For each of several types of math anxiety, one or more case studies is analyzed. Selected strategies for coping with…

  18. Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Sarıcam; Üzeyir Ogurlu

    2015-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary S...

  19. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  20. The Effect of Cooperative Groups on Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batton, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that many students have difficulty with mathematics, which can be attributed to many factors including math anxiety. Students who experience math anxiety have poor attitudes towards mathematics and perform below grade level based on class and statewide assessments. The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative study was to…

  1. Metacognitive Awareness and Math Anxiety in Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saricam, Hakan; Ogurlu, Üzeyir

    2015-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students' metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted) volunteer secondary school students…

  2. Identifying Maths Anxiety in Student Nurses and Focusing Remedial Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Maths anxiety interferes with maths cognition and thereby increases the risk of maths errors. To initiate strategies for preventing anxiety-related errors progressing into nursing practice, this study explored the hypothesis that student nurses experience high maths anxiety in association with poor maths performance, and that high maths anxiety is…

  3. Math Anxiety and Math Ability in Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinzinger, Helga; Kaufmann, Liane; Willmes, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical learning disabilities (MLDs) are often associated with math anxiety, yet until now, very little is known about the causal relations between calculation ability and math anxiety during early primary school years. The main aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate the relationship between calculation ability, self-reported…

  4. Intergenerational Effects of Parents' Math Anxiety on Children's Math Achievement and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-09-01

    A large field study of children in first and second grade explored how parents' anxiety about math relates to their children's math achievement. The goal of the study was to better understand why some students perform worse in math than others. We tested whether parents' math anxiety predicts their children's math achievement across the school year. We found that when parents are more math anxious, their children learn significantly less math over the school year and have more math anxiety by the school year's end-but only if math-anxious parents report providing frequent help with math homework. Notably, when parents reported helping with math homework less often, children's math achievement and attitudes were not related to parents' math anxiety. Parents' math anxiety did not predict children's reading achievement, which suggests that the effects of parents' math anxiety are specific to children's math achievement. These findings provide evidence of a mechanism for intergenerational transmission of low math achievement and high math anxiety. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A; Sokolowski, H Moriah; Lyons, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals' self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one's self - self-math overlap - may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated.

  6. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This non-verbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap) was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r = -0.610). We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be ameliorated. PMID

  7. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Necka

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap to assess individuals’ self-math overlap. This nonverbal single-item measure showed that identifying oneself with math (having higher self-math overlap was strongly associated with lower math anxiety (r=-.610. We also expected that having higher self-math overlap would leave one especially susceptible to the threat of poor math performance to the self. We identified two competing hypotheses regarding how this plays out in terms of math anxiety. Those higher in self-math overlap might be more likely to worry about poor math performance, exacerbating the negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. Alternatively, those higher in self-math overlap might exhibit self-serving biases regarding their math ability, which would instead predict a decoupling of the relation between their perceived and actual math ability, and in turn the relation between their math ability and math anxiety. Results clearly favored the latter hypothesis: those higher in self-math overlap exhibited almost no relation between math anxiety and math ability, whereas those lower in self-math overlap showed a strong negative relation between math anxiety and math ability. This was partially explained by greater self-serving biases among those higher in self-math overlap. In sum, these results reveal that the degree to which one integrates math into one’s self – self-math overlap – may provide insight into how the pernicious negative relation between math anxiety and math ability may be

  8. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number–Space Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number–space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety. PMID:27683570

  9. How math anxiety relates to number-space associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Georges

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioural evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  10. How Math Anxiety Relates to Number-Space Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Carrie; Hoffmann, Danielle; Schiltz, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Given the considerable prevalence of math anxiety, it is important to identify the factors contributing to it in order to improve mathematical learning. Research on math anxiety typically focusses on the effects of more complex arithmetic skills. Recent evidence, however, suggests that deficits in basic numerical processing and spatial skills also constitute potential risk factors of math anxiety. Given these observations, we determined whether math anxiety also depends on the quality of spatial-numerical associations. Behavioral evidence for a tight link between numerical and spatial representations is given by the SNARC (spatial-numerical association of response codes) effect, characterized by faster left-/right-sided responses for small/large digits respectively in binary classification tasks. We compared the strength of the SNARC effect between high and low math anxious individuals using the classical parity judgment task in addition to evaluating their spatial skills, arithmetic performance, working memory and inhibitory control. Greater math anxiety was significantly associated with stronger spatio-numerical interactions. This finding adds to the recent evidence supporting a link between math anxiety and basic numerical abilities and strengthens the idea that certain characteristics of low-level number processing such as stronger number-space associations constitute a potential risk factor of math anxiety.

  11. A Study of Perceptions of Math Mindset, Math Anxiety, and View of Math by Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocker, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether instruction in growth math mindset led to change in perceptions of 18-22-year-old at-risk students in math mindset, math anxiety, and view of math. The experimental curriculum was created by the researcher with the guidance of experts in mathematics and education and focused on the impact of brain…

  12. Mathematics anxiety: separating the math from the anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-09-01

    Anxiety about math is tied to low math grades and standardized test scores, yet not all math-anxious individuals perform equally poorly in math. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to separate neural activity during the anticipation of doing math from activity during math performance itself. For higher (but not lower) math-anxious individuals, increased activity in frontoparietal regions when simply anticipating doing math mitigated math-specific performance deficits. This network included bilateral inferior frontal junction, a region involved in cognitive control and reappraisal of negative emotional responses. Furthermore, the relation between frontoparietal anticipatory activity and highly math-anxious individuals' math deficits was fully mediated (or accounted for) by activity in caudate, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus during math performance. These subcortical regions are important for coordinating task demands and motivational factors during skill execution. Individual differences in how math-anxious individuals recruit cognitive control resources prior to doing math and motivational resources during math performance predict the extent of their math deficits. This work suggests that educational interventions emphasizing control of negative emotional responses to math stimuli (rather than merely additional math training) will be most effective in revealing a population of mathematically competent individuals, who might otherwise go undiscovered.

  13. The Anti-Anxiety Curriculum: Combating Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward mathematics and what has come to be know as "math anxiety" are serious obstacles for children in all levels of schooling today. In this paper, the literature is reviewed and critically assessed in regards to the roots of math anxiety and its especially detrimental effect on children in "at-risk" populations such as low…

  14. Is Math Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning? The Role of Math Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L; Hart, Sara A; Lyons, Ian M; Thompson, Lee A; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. In the current studies, we aimed to address the lack of attention given to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math-learning literature by exploring the relations among math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. In two samples-young adolescent twins and adult college students-results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with high intrinsic math motivation and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in participants with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing participants' nonsymbolic and symbolic number-estimation ability. These findings may help advance the understanding of mathematics-learning processes and provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics-learning experiences and mathematical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Math Anxiety Is Related to Some, but Not All, Experiences with Math

    OpenAIRE

    Krystle O'Leary; Cheryll L. Fitzpatrick; Darcy Hallett

    2017-01-01

    Math anxiety has been defined as unpleasant feelings of tension and anxiety that hinder the ability to deal with numbers and math in a variety of situations. Although many studies have looked at situational and demographic factors associated with math anxiety, little research has looked at the self-reported experiences with math that are associated with math anxiety. The present study used a mixed-methods design and surveyed 131 undergraduate students about their experiences with math through...

  16. The role of self-math overlap in understanding math anxiety and the relation between math anxiety and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Necka, Elizabeth A.; Sokolowski, H. Moriah; Lyons, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that math anxiety is more than just the product of poor math skills. Psychosocial factors may play a key role in understanding what it means to be math anxious, and hence may aid in attempts to sever the link between math anxiety and poor math performance. One such factor may be the extent to which individuals integrate math into their sense of self. We adapted a well-established measure of this degree of integration (i.e., self-other overlap) to assess individual...

  17. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition preceded the untimed condition. We also found that children with higher levels of either math anxiety or perfectionism had a smaller performance discrepancy during timed versus untimed testing, relative to children with lower levels of math anxiety or perfectionism. There were no statistically significant gender differences in overall test performance, nor in levels of math anxiety or perfectionism; however, the difference between performance on timed and untimed math testing was statistically significant for girls, but not for boys. Implications for educators are discussed. PMID:20084180

  18. Metacognitive awareness and math anxiety in gifted students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Sarıcam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of this study has been to examine the relationships between metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety in gifted students. The second aim was to compare with gifted and non-gifted students’ metacognitive awareness and maths anxiety levels. The participants were 300 (150 gifted, 150 non-gifted volunteer secondary school students in Turkey. The mean age of the participants was 12.56 years ranging from 12 to 13 years. For gathering data, the Maths Anxiety Scale for Elementary School Students and The Metacognitive Awareness Inventory for Children were used. For analysing the data, Spearman correlation analysis, the Mann Whitney U test, and linear regression analysis were used. According to the findings: firstly, gifted students’ metacognitive awareness scores were higher than those of non-gifted students. On the other hand, non-gifted students’ maths anxiety levels were higher than those of gifted students. Secondly, there was negative correlation between metacognitive awareness and math anxiety. Finally, the findings of linear regression analysis indicated that metacognitive awareness is explained by 48% total variance of maths anxiety in gifted students.

  19. Math Anxiety, Working Memory, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Levine, Susan C.; Beilock, Sian L.

    2013-01-01

    Although math anxiety is associated with poor mathematical knowledge and low course grades (Ashcraft & Krause, 2007), research establishing a connection between math anxiety and math achievement has generally been conducted with young adults, ignoring the emergence of math anxiety in young children. In the current study, we explored whether…

  20. Math anxiety and exposure to statistics in messages about genetically modified foods: effects of numeracy, math self-efficacy, and form of presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Kami J; Parrott, Roxanne L

    2014-01-01

    Health risks are often communicated to the lay public in statistical formats even though low math skills, or innumeracy, have been found to be prevalent among lay individuals. Although numeracy has been a topic of much research investigation, the role of math self-efficacy and math anxiety on health and risk communication processing has received scant attention from health communication researchers. To advance theoretical and applied understanding regarding health message processing, the authors consider the role of math anxiety, including the effects of math self-efficacy, numeracy, and form of presenting statistics on math anxiety, and the potential effects for comprehension, yielding, and behavioral intentions. The authors also examine math anxiety in a health risk context through an evaluation of the effects of exposure to a message about genetically modified foods on levels of math anxiety. Participants (N = 323) were randomly assigned to read a message that varied the presentation of statistical evidence about potential risks associated with genetically modified foods. Findings reveal that exposure increased levels of math anxiety, with increases in math anxiety limiting yielding. Moreover, math anxiety impaired comprehension but was mediated by perceivers' math confidence and skills. Last, math anxiety facilitated behavioral intentions. Participants who received a text-based message with percentages were more likely to yield than participants who received either a bar graph with percentages or a combined form. Implications are discussed as they relate to math competence and its role in processing health and risk messages.

  1. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that pr...

  2. The Role of Parental Math Anxiety and Math Attitude in Their Children's Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Akanksha; Kumari, Santha

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the antecedents and consequences of children's math anxiety and math attitude. A total of 595 students aged 10 to 15 years (5th to 10th grades) and 1 parent of each (mother or father) participated in the study. The study was conducted in India, with the study sample drawn from schools in South-West Punjab. Math…

  3. Math Performance as a Function of Math Anxiety and Arousal Performance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Donald M., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    While research continues to link increased math anxiety with reduced working memory, the exact nature of the relationship remains elusive. In addition, research regarding the extent of the impact math anxiety has on working memory is contradictory. This research clarifies the directional nature of math anxiety as it pertains to working memory, and…

  4. Math anxiety and math performance in children: The mediating roles of working memory and math self-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia-Galiano, M José; Martín-Puga, M Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2017-12-01

    Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible mediational mechanisms between math anxiety and math performance. Specifically, we sought to test the simultaneous mediating role of working memory and math self-concept. A total of 167 children aged 8-12 years participated in this study. Children completed a set of questionnaires used to assess math and trait anxiety, math self-concept as well as measures of math fluency and math problem-solving. Teachers were asked to rate each student's math achievement. As measures of working memory, two backward span tasks were administered to the children. A series of multiple mediation analyses were conducted. Results indicated that both mediators (working memory and math self-concept) contributed to explaining the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. Results suggest that working memory and self-concept could be worth considering when designing interventions aimed at helping students with math anxiety. Longitudinal designs could also be used to better understand the mediational mechanisms that may explain the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Choke or thrive? The relation between salivary cortisol and math performance depends on individual differences in working memory and math-anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarella-Micke, Andrew; Mateo, Jill; Kozak, Megan N; Foster, Katherine; Beilock, Sian L

    2011-08-01

    In the current study, we explored how a person's physiological arousal relates to their performance in a challenging math situation as a function of individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity and math-anxiety. Participants completed demanding math problems before and after which salivary cortisol, an index of arousal, was measured. The performance of lower WM individuals did not depend on cortisol concentration or math-anxiety. For higher WM individuals high in math-anxiety, the higher their concentration of salivary cortisol following the math task, the worse their performance. In contrast, for higher WM individuals lower in math-anxiety, the higher their salivary cortisol concentrations, the better their performance. For individuals who have the capacity to perform at a high-level (higher WMs), whether physiological arousal will lead an individual to choke or thrive depends on math-anxiety. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Is Mathematical Anxiety Always Bad for Math Learning: The Role of Math Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lukowski, Sarah L.; Hart, Sara Ann; Lyons, Ian M.; Thompson, Lee A.; Kovas, Yulia; Mazzocco, Michèle M.; Plomin, Robert; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The linear relations between math anxiety and math cognition have been frequently studied. However, the relations between anxiety and performance on complex cognitive tasks have been repeatedly demonstrated to follow a curvilinear fashion. Given the lack of attention to the possibility of such complex interplay between emotion and cognition in the math learning literature, the current study aimed to address this gap via exploring the relations between math anxiety, math motivation, and math cognition. The current study consisted of two samples. One sample included 262 pairs of young adolescent twins and the other included 237 adult college students. Participants self-reported their math anxiety and math motivation. Math cognition was assessed using a comprehensive battery of mathematics tasks. In both samples, results showed inverted-U relations between math anxiety and math performance in students with high intrinsic math motivation, and modest negative associations between math anxiety and math performance in students with low intrinsic math motivation. However, this pattern was not observed in tasks assessing student’s nonsymbolic and symbolic number estimation. These findings may help advance our understanding of mathematics learning processes and may provide important insights for treatment programs that target improving mathematics learning experiences and mathematical skills. PMID:26518438

  7. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Children?s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hy...

  8. A Latent Profile Analysis of Math Achievement, Numerosity, and Math Anxiety in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Thompson, Lee; Kovas, Yulia; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Underperformance in math is a problem with increasing prevalence, complex etiology, and severe repercussions. This study examined the etiological heterogeneity of math performance in a sample of 264 pairs of 12-year-old twins assessed on measures of math achievement, numerosity, and math anxiety. Latent profile analysis indicated 5 groupings of…

  9. Reciprocal Relations among Motivational Frameworks, Math Anxiety, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Park, Daeun; Maloney, Erin A.; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2018-01-01

    School-entry math achievement is a strong predictor of math achievement through high school. We asked whether reciprocal relations among math achievement, math anxiety, and entity motivational frameworks (believing that ability is fixed and a focus on performance) can help explain these persistent individual differences. We assessed 1st and 2nd…

  10. Using Brief Guided Imagery to Reduce Math Anxiety and Improve Math Performance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Klein, Brandi A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether brief guided imagery could provide a short-term reduction in math anxiety and improve math performance. Undergraduates (N = 581) were screened for math anxiety, and the highest and lowest quartiles were recruited to participate in a lab-based study. Participants were assigned to a brief guided…

  11. An Examination of Elementary Math Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillian, Kimberley Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to explore the level of suburban 5th grade students' mathematics self-efficacy, math anxiety, and academic achievement, to discover the possible interconnections between these parameters. The measures used to evaluate each included the Math Anxiety Rating Scale, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the North Carolina End of Grade…

  12. Teachers Awareness of Students’ Anxiety in Math Classroom: Teachers’ Treatment VS Students’ Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto

    2016-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that pr...

  13. Universals and Specifics of Math Self-Concept, Math Self-Efficacy, and Math Anxiety across 41 PISA 2003 Participating Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    The overarching goal of the present study is to investigate the factorial structure of three closely related constructs: math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety. The factorial structure consisting of three factors, each representing math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, is supported in all 41 countries employed…

  14. The role of expressive writing in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeun; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L

    2014-06-01

    Math anxiety is a negative affective reaction to situations involving math. Previous work demonstrates that math anxiety can negatively impact math problem solving by creating performance-related worries that disrupt the working memory needed for the task at hand. By leveraging knowledge about the mechanism underlying the math anxiety-performance relationship, we tested the effectiveness of a short expressive writing intervention that has been shown to reduce intrusive thoughts and improve working memory availability. Students (N = 80) varying in math anxiety were asked to sit quietly (control group) prior to completing difficulty-matched math and word problems or to write about their thoughts and feelings regarding the exam they were about to take (expressive writing group). For the control group, high math-anxious individuals (HMAs) performed significantly worse on the math problems than low math-anxious students (LMAs). In the expressive writing group, however, this difference in math performance across HMAs and LMAs was significantly reduced. Among HMAs, the use of words related to anxiety, cause, and insight in their writing was positively related to math performance. Expressive writing boosts the performance of anxious students in math-testing situations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Neural correlates of math anxiety – an overview and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet. PMID:26388824

  16. Neural correlates of math anxiety - an overview and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemenko, Christina; Daroczy, Gabriella; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i) math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii) that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii) that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms, and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  17. Neural correlates of math anxiety – An overview and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. Overall, the neurocognitive literature suggests that (i math anxiety elicits emotion- and pain-related activation during and before math activities, (ii that the negative emotional response to math anxiety impairs processing efficiency, and (iii that math deficits triggered by math anxiety may be compensated for by modulating the cognitive control or emotional regulation network. However, activation differs strongly between studies, depending on tasks, paradigms and samples. We conclude that neural correlates can help to understand and explore the processes underlying math anxiety, but the data are not very consistent yet.

  18. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  19. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  20. The Effect of Instructional Strategies on Math Anxiety and Achievement: A Mixed Methods Study of Preservice Elementary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janelle K.

    2017-01-01

    This study addressed how different instructional strategies affected preservice elementary teachers' levels of math anxiety and their achievement in a math content course while considering descriptions of their experiences in the course in relation to their math anxiety and achievement. The instructional strategies used were traditional teaching…

  1. Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daches Cohen, Lital; Rubinsten, Orly

    2017-01-01

    Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a) mother’s math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors); (b) children’s arithmetic skills (cognitive factors); and (c) intrinsic math motivation (personal factor). A rigorous assessment of children’s math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers’ attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children’s skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed. PMID:29180973

  2. Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daches Cohen, Lital; Rubinsten, Orly

    2017-01-01

    Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a) mother's math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors); (b) children's arithmetic skills (cognitive factors); and (c) intrinsic math motivation (personal factor). A rigorous assessment of children's math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers' attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children's skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed.

  3. Mothers, Intrinsic Math Motivation, Arithmetic Skills, and Math Anxiety in Elementary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lital Daches Cohen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is influenced by environmental, cognitive, and personal factors. Yet, the concurrent relationships between these factors have not been examined. To this end, the current study investigated how the math anxiety of 30 sixth graders is affected by: (a mother’s math anxiety and maternal behaviors (environmental factors; (b children’s arithmetic skills (cognitive factors; and (c intrinsic math motivation (personal factor. A rigorous assessment of children’s math anxiety was made by using both explicit and implicit measures. The results indicated that accessible self-representations of math anxiety, as reflected by the explicit self-report questionnaire, were strongly affected by arithmetic skills. However, unconscious cognitive constructs of math anxiety, as reflected by the numerical dot-probe task, were strongly affected by environmental factors, such as maternal behaviors and mothers’ attitudes toward math. Furthermore, the present study provided preliminary evidence of intergenerational transmission of math anxiety. The conclusions are that in order to better understand the etiology of math anxiety, multiple facets of parenting and children’s skills should be taken into consideration. Implications for researchers, parents, and educators are discussed.

  4. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and usefulness: insights from the Polish adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof eCipora

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations.We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857 was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety.The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  5. Math Anxiety Assessment with the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Applicability and Usefulness: Insights from the Polish Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipora, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Monika; Willmes, Klaus; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has an important impact on mathematical development and performance. However, although math anxiety is supposed to be a transcultural trait, assessment instruments are scarce and are validated mainly for Western cultures so far. Therefore, we aimed at examining the transcultural generality of math anxiety by a thorough investigation of the validity of math anxiety assessment in Eastern Europe. We investigated the validity and reliability of a Polish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), known to have very good psychometric characteristics in its original, American-English version as well as in its Italian and Iranian adaptations. We also observed high reliability, both for internal consistency and test-retest stability of the AMAS in the Polish sample. The results also show very good construct, convergent and discriminant validity: The factorial structure in Polish adult participants (n = 857) was very similar to the one previously found in other samples; AMAS scores correlated moderately in expected directions with state and trait anxiety, self-assessed math achievement and skill as well temperamental traits of emotional reactivity, briskness, endurance, and perseverance. Average scores obtained by participants as well as gender differences and correlations with external measures were also similar across cultures. Beyond the cultural comparison, we used path model analyses to show that math anxiety relates to math grades and self-competence when controlling for trait anxiety. The current study shows transcultural validity of math anxiety assessment with the AMAS.

  6. A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Math Anxiety among Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Tina Rye

    2010-01-01

    This project investigated the effects of a standards-based mathematics methods course on the mathematics anxiety levels of preservice teachers. The qualitative portion of the study examined aspects of a math methods course that affected mathematics anxiety levels and the antecedents of mathematics anxiety. Findings revealed a significant…

  7. Students as Math Level Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Ottar; Hanghøj, Thorkild; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    The short paper presents preliminary findings from a pilot study on how students become motivated through design of learning games in math. The research is carried out in a Danish public school with two classes of 5th graders (N = 42 students). Over the course of two weeks, the students work...... with a design template for a runner game in the Unity 3D game design engine. The students are introduced to the concept of “flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991) as a game design principle and are asked to design levels for a math runner game, which are both engaging as well as a meaningful way of learning math....... In this way, the students are positioned as “math level designers”, which means that they both have to redesign the difficulty of the runner game as well as the difficulty of the mathematical questions and possible answers....

  8. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (= negative math priming effect ).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  9. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kucian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect.We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls. All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  10. Relation Between Mathematical Performance, Math Anxiety, and Affective Priming in Children With and Without Developmental Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucian, Karin; Zuber, Isabelle; Kohn, Juliane; Poltz, Nadine; Wyschkon, Anne; Esser, Günter; von Aster, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Many children show negative emotions related to mathematics and some even develop mathematics anxiety. The present study focused on the relation between negative emotions and arithmetical performance in children with and without developmental dyscalculia (DD) using an affective priming task. Previous findings suggested that arithmetic performance is influenced if an affective prime precedes the presentation of an arithmetic problem. In children with DD specifically, responses to arithmetic operations are supposed to be facilitated by both negative and mathematics-related primes (=negative math priming effect).We investigated mathematical performance, math anxiety, and the domain-general abilities of 172 primary school children (76 with DD and 96 controls). All participants also underwent an affective priming task which consisted of the decision whether a simple arithmetic operation (addition or subtraction) that was preceded by a prime (positive/negative/neutral or mathematics-related) was true or false. Our findings did not reveal a negative math priming effect in children with DD. Furthermore, when considering accuracy levels, gender, or math anxiety, the negative math priming effect could not be replicated. However, children with DD showed more math anxiety when explicitly assessed by a specific math anxiety interview and showed lower mathematical performance compared to controls. Moreover, math anxiety was equally present in boys and girls, even in the earliest stages of schooling, and interfered negatively with performance. In conclusion, mathematics is often associated with negative emotions that can be manifested in specific math anxiety, particularly in children with DD. Importantly, present findings suggest that in the assessed age group, it is more reliable to judge math anxiety and investigate its effects on mathematical performance explicitly by adequate questionnaires than by an affective math priming task.

  11. Effects of Math Anxiety on Student Success in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Pena, M. I.; Suarez-Pellicioni, M.; Bono, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether math anxiety and negative attitudes toward mathematics have an effect on university students' academic achievement in a methodological course forming part of their degree. A total of 193 students were presented with a math anxiety test and some questions about their enjoyment, self-confidence and motivation regarding…

  12. Math Anxiety and the "Math Gap": How Attitudes toward Mathematics Disadvantages Students as Early as Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the attitudes of Head Start teachers toward mathematics and how it may influence how and what they teach in the classroom. In general, the findings of this study can be summarized as this: 1) Math anxiety affects how teachers assess their ability at mathematics. The more math anxiety they report, the lower they…

  13. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Children's anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (M age = 10.34 years; SD age = 0.63) filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex, and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

  14. Insecure attachment is associated with math anxiety in middle childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eBosmans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s anxiety for situations requiring mathematical problem solving, a concept referred to as math anxiety, has a unique and detrimental impact on concurrent and long-term mathematics achievement and life success. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the emergence of math anxiety. The current study builds on the hypothesis that math anxiety might reflect a maladaptive affect-regulation mechanism that is characteristic for insecure attachment relationships. To test this hypothesis, 87 children primary school children (Mage = 10.34 years; SDage = 0.63 filled out questionnaires measuring insecure attachment and math anxiety. They all completed a timed and untimed standardized test of mathematics achievement. Our data revealed that individual differences in math anxiety were significantly related to insecure attachment, independent of age, sex and IQ. Both tests of mathematics achievement were associated with insecure attachment and this effect was mediated by math anxiety. This study is the first to indicate that math anxiety might develop in the context of insecure parent-child attachment relationships.

  15. On the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in early elementary school: The role of problem solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gerardo; Chang, Hyesang; Maloney, Erin A; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2016-01-01

    Even at young ages, children self-report experiencing math anxiety, which negatively relates to their math achievement. Leveraging a large dataset of first and second grade students' math achievement scores, math problem solving strategies, and math attitudes, we explored the possibility that children's math anxiety (i.e., a fear or apprehension about math) negatively relates to their use of more advanced problem solving strategies, which in turn relates to their math achievement. Our results confirm our hypothesis and, moreover, demonstrate that the relation between math anxiety and math problem solving strategies is strongest in children with the highest working memory capacity. Ironically, children who have the highest cognitive capacity avoid using advanced problem solving strategies when they are high in math anxiety and, as a result, underperform in math compared with their lower working memory peers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test, achievement motivation test, and the math experience questionnaire. A significant positive correlation was found between math self-concept and math achievement in all four math domains (measurement, rela...

  17. Teachers Awareness of Students’ Anxiety in Math Classroom: Teachers’ Treatment VS Students’ Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a common phenomenon which can have a negative impact on numerical and arithmetic performance. However, so far little is known about the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. This mini review provides an overview of studies investigating the neural correlates of math anxiety which provide several hints regarding its influence on math performance: while behavioral studies mostly observe an influence of math anxiety on difficult math tasks, neurophysiological studies show that processing efficiency is already affected in basic number processing. The purpose of this study is to provide some treatments to overcome students’ anxiety in math classroom at The University of Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Indonesia especially in Math Department, but before it has attempted to investigate the factors that students’ anxiety can possibly stem from, both within the classroom environment and out of classroom in the wilder social context.

  18. The Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale: An Alternative Way of Measuring Mathematical Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Peña, M. Isabel; Guilera, Georgina; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether the Single-Item Math Anxiety Scale (SIMA), based on the item suggested by Ashcraft, provided valid and reliable scores of mathematical anxiety. A large sample of university students (n = 279) was administered the SIMA and the 25-item Shortened Math Anxiety Rating Scale (sMARS) to evaluate the relation between the scores…

  19. Math Anxiety and How It Affects High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, Kathleen A.

    2001-01-01

    Studies the role that math anxiety played in the poor performance of students, what promoted such feelings, and what teachers can do to lessen this anxiety. Students and adults sense the urgency to understand the mathematical material, and that urgency often leads to anxiety when they cannot arrive at a solution. (ASK)

  20. Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindskog, Marcus; Winman, Anders; Poom, Leo

    2017-02-01

    Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Math anxiety: A review of its cognitive consequences, psychophysiological correlates, and brain bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2016-02-01

    A decade has passed since the last published review of math anxiety, which was carried out by Ashcraft and Ridley (2005). Given the considerable interest aroused by this topic in recent years and the growing number of publications related to it, the present article aims to provide a full and updated review of the field, ranging from the initial studies of the impact of math anxiety on numerical cognition, to the latest research exploring its electrophysiological correlates and brain bases from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, this review describes the factors and mechanisms that have been claimed to play a role in the origins and/or maintenance of math anxiety, and it examines in detail the main explanations proposed to account for the negative effects of math anxiety on performance: competition for working memory resources, a deficit in a low-level numerical representation, and inhibition/attentional control deficit.

  2. Math Anxiety and Math Performance in Children: The Mediating Roles of Working Memory and Math Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia-Galiano, M. José; Martín-Puga, M. Eva; Linares, Rocío; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies, most of them involving adolescents and adults, have evidenced a moderate negative relationship between math anxiety and math performance. There are, however, a limited number of studies that have addressed the mechanisms underlying this relation. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the role of two possible…

  3. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  4. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  5. Math anxiety and its relationship to inhibitory abilities and perceived emotional intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-José Justicia-Galiano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety has been found to be an emotional problem that has a negative effect on students' academic performance across different levels of education. This type of anxiety could be related to certain cognitive and emotional processes. A first objective was to examine the relationship between math anxiety and certain inhibitory abilities responsible of eliminating intrusive thoughts or preventing them access to consciousness. A second aim was to determine the extent in which math anxiety and students' self-perceptions of their own emotional abilities are related. To this end, 187 first-year undergraduate psychology students were administered different measures to assess math anxiety, statistics anxiety, inhibitory abilities, and perceived emotional intelligence. The results showed that students with high math anxiety were more likely to experience intrusive thoughts, were less effective at suppressing these thoughts, and reported lower scores in understanding and regulating their emotions. These cognitive mechanisms and emotional abilities are of relevance to better understand the nature of this type of anxiety.

  6. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eWu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA, a new measure for assessing math anxiety in 2nd and 3rd graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II. Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were significantly correlated with scores on the Math Reasoning subtest, which involves more complex verbal problem solving, but not with the Numerical Operations subtest which assesses basic computation skills. Our results suggest that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. Our results further suggest that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement in young children.

  7. Math Anxiety in Second and Third Graders and Its Relation to Mathematics Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Sarah S.; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure f...

  8. Detecting Math Anxiety with a Mixture Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ölmez, Ibrahim Burak; Cohen, Allan S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a new methodology for detection of differences in middle grades students' math anxiety. A mixture partial credit model analysis revealed two distinct latent classes based on homogeneities in response patterns within each latent class. Students in Class 1 had less anxiety about apprehension of math…

  9. Math anxiety in second and third graders and its relation to mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S; Barth, Maria; Amin, Hitha; Malcarne, Vanessa; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Although the detrimental effects of math anxiety in adults are well understood, few studies have examined how it affects younger children who are beginning to learn math in a formal academic setting. Here, we examine the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement in second and third graders. In response to the need for a grade-appropriate measure of assessing math anxiety in this group we first describe the development of Scale for Early Mathematics Anxiety (SEMA), a new measure for assessing math anxiety in second and third graders that is based on the Math Anxiety Rating Scale. We demonstrate the construct validity and reliability of the SEMA and use it to characterize the effect of math anxiety on standardized measures of math abilities, as assessed using the Mathematical Reasoning and Numerical Operations subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT-II). Math achievement, as measured by the WIAT-II Math Composite score, was significantly and negatively correlated with SEMA but not with trait anxiety scores. Additional analyses showed that SEMA scores were strongly correlated with Mathematical Reasoning scores, which involves more complex verbal problem solving. SEMA scores were weakly correlated with Numerical Operations which assesses basic computation skills, suggesting that math anxiety has a pronounced effect on more demanding calculations. We also found that math anxiety has an equally detrimental impact on math achievement regardless of whether children have an anxiety related to numbers or to the situational and social experience of doing math. Critically, these effects were unrelated to trait anxiety, providing the first evidence that the specific effects of math anxiety can be detected in the earliest stages of formal math learning in school. Our findings provide new insights into the developmental origins of math anxiety, and further underscore the need to remediate math anxiety and its deleterious effects on math achievement

  10. The Sum of All Fears: The Effects of Math Anxiety on Math Achievement in Fifth Grade Students and the Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Sarah E.; Boes, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Low math achievement is a recurring weakness in many students. Math anxiety is a persistent and significant theme to math avoidance and low achievement. Causes for math anxiety include social, cognitive, and academic factors. Interventions to reduce math anxiety are limited as they exclude the expert skills of professional school counselors to…

  11. Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; Van der Werf, Greetje

    The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a

  12. Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…

  13. Cognitive and Emotional Math Problems Largely Dissociate: Prevalence of Developmental Dyscalculia and Mathematics Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, A; Hill, F; Carey, E; Szucs, Denes

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 APA, all rights reserved). A negative correlation between math anxiety and mathematics performance is frequently reported. Thus, some may assume that high levels of mathematics anxiety are associated with poor mathematical understanding. However, no previous research has clearly measured the association between mathematics anxiety and mathematical learning disability. To fill this gap, here we investigated the comorbidity of developmental dyscalculia (a selective, serious deficit in ma...

  14. The relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation and math achievement in 12 to 14-year-old typically developing adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.L.; Toll, S.W.M.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2017-01-01

    :This study examines the relation between math self-concept, test and math anxiety, achievement motivation, and math achievement in typically developing 12 to 14-year-old adolescents (N = 108) from a school for secondary education in the Netherlands. Data was obtained using a math speed test,

  15. Contextual Factors Related to Math Anxiety in Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.

    2014-01-01

    As the United States falls farther behind other countries in standardized math assessments, the author seeks to understand why U.S. students perform so poorly. One of the possible explanations to U.S. students' poor math performance may be math anxiety. However, math anxiety in elementary school children is a neglected area in the research. The…

  16. Math anxiety and its relationship with basic arithmetic skills among primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Sorvo, Riikka; Koponen, Tuire; Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Räikkönen, Eija; Peura, Pilvi; Dowker, Ann; Aro, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Background Children have been found to report and demonstrate math anxiety as early as the first grade. However, previous results concerning the relationship between math anxiety and performance are contradictory, with some studies establishing a correlation between them while others do not. These contradictory results might be related to varying operationalizations of math anxiety. Aims In this study, we aimed to examine the prevalence of math anxiety and its relationship with bas...

  17. The Effect of an Educator's Teaching Style on the Math Anxiety of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosch, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Many adults are obstructed from specialized professions based on their anxiety of math. Math anxiety has been extensively researched for over 3 decades. Scholars have attempted to define its origins as well as the means to eliminate its often-debilitating effect on learners. Research indicates that learners with math anxiety often give up career…

  18. Can I Count on Getting Better? Association between Math Anxiety and Poorer Understanding of Medical Risk Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Morsanyi, Kinga; O'Connor, Patrick A

    2016-10-01

    Lower numerical ability is associated with poorer understanding of health statistics, such as risk reductions of medical treatment. For many people, despite good numeracy skills, math provokes anxiety that impedes an ability to evaluate numerical information. Math-anxious individuals also report less confidence in their ability to perform math tasks. We hypothesized that, independent of objective numeracy, math anxiety would be associated with poorer responding and lower confidence when calculating risk reductions of medical treatments. Objective numeracy was assessed using an 11-item objective numeracy scale. A 13-item self-report scale was used to assess math anxiety. In experiment 1, participants were asked to interpret the baseline risk of disease and risk reductions associated with treatment options. Participants in experiment 2 were additionally provided a graphical display designed to facilitate the processing of math information and alleviate effects of math anxiety. Confidence ratings were provided on a 7-point scale. Individuals of higher objective numeracy were more likely to respond correctly to baseline risks and risk reductions associated with treatment options and were more confident in their interpretations. Individuals who scored high in math anxiety were instead less likely to correctly interpret the baseline risks and risk reductions and were less confident in their risk calculations as well as in their assessments of the effectiveness of treatment options. Math anxiety predicted confidence levels but not correct responding when controlling for objective numeracy. The graphical display was most effective in increasing confidence among math-anxious individuals. The findings suggest that math anxiety is associated with poorer medical risk interpretation but is more strongly related to confidence in interpretations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring Math Anxiety (in Spanish) with the Rasch Rating Scale Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R

    2007-01-01

    Two successive studies probed the psychometric properties of a Math Anxiety questionnaire (in Spanish) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model. Participants were 411 and 216 Spanish adolescents. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the scale with both the Fennema and Sherman Attitude Scale and a math achievement test. The results show that the scores are psychometrically appropriate, and replicate those reported in meta-analyses: medium-sized negative correlations with achievement and with attitudes toward mathematics, as well as moderate sex-related differences (with girls presenting higher anxiety levels than boys).

  1. Validation Study of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: Spanish Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer L.; Sifuentes, Lucía Macías

    2016-01-01

    With growing numbers of Hispanic students enrolling in post-secondary school, there is a need to increase retention and graduation rates. The purpose of this study was to validate the Spanish adaptation of the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS). The AMAS was translated and administered to 804 freshman students at a post-secondary institution in…

  2. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition…

  3. Maths anxiety and medication dosage calculation errors: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Davis, Samantha

    2016-09-01

    A student's accuracy on drug calculation tests may be influenced by maths anxiety, which can impede one's ability to understand and complete mathematic problems. It is important for healthcare students to overcome this barrier when calculating drug dosages in order to avoid administering the incorrect dose to a patient when in the clinical setting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maths anxiety on healthcare students' ability to accurately calculate drug dosages by performing a scoping review of the existing literature. This review utilised a six-stage methodology using the following databases; CINAHL, Embase, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Trip database (http://www.tripdatabase.com/) and Grey Literature report (http://www.greylit.org/). After an initial title/abstract review of relevant papers, and then full text review of the remaining papers, six articles were selected for inclusion in this study. Of the six articles included, there were three experimental studies, two quantitative studies and one mixed method study. All studies addressed nursing students and the presence of maths anxiety. No relevant studies from other disciplines were identified in the existing literature. Three studies took place in the U.S, the remainder in Canada, Australia and United Kingdom. Upon analysis of these studies, four factors including maths anxiety were identified as having an influence on a student's drug dosage calculation abilities. Ultimately, the results from this review suggest more research is required in nursing and other relevant healthcare disciplines regarding the effects of maths anxiety on drug dosage calculations. This additional knowledge will be important to further inform development of strategies to decrease the potentially serious effects of errors in drug dosage calculation to patient safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (PEducation and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students.

  5. Math anxiety in Thai early adolescents: a cognitive-behavioral perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsiriwech, Tawatchai; Pisitsungkagarn, Kullaya; Jarukasemthawee, Somboon

    2017-08-29

    With its high prevalence and debilitating impact on students, math anxiety is well studied within the educational context. However, the problem has yet to be examined from the psychological perspective, which is necessary in order to produce a more comprehensive perspective and to pave the way for therapeutic intervention. The current study, therefore, was conducted to identify cognitive and behavioral factors relevant to the occurrence and maintenance of math anxiety. Data were collected from 300 grade 9 students (150 females and 150 males) from public and private schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Participants responded to the measures of math anxiety, negative math beliefs, negative math appraisals and math avoidance. Structural equation modeling was conducted. Model fit indices obtained consistently suggested the good fitness of the model to the data [e.g. χ2/df = 0.42, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.00]. Negative math beliefs, negative math appraisals and math avoidance had a significant direct effect on math anxiety. Additionally, the indirect effect of negative math appraisal was observed between negative math beliefs and math anxiety. In summary, the proposed model accounted for 84.5% of the variance in the anxiety. The findings are discussed with particular focus on implications for therapeutic intervention for math anxiety.

  6. Maths Anxiety in Psychology Undergraduates: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Formulating and Implementing Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross; Wylie, Judith; Hanna, Donncha

    2016-01-01

    Due to the empirical nature of the discipline, psychology students, during the course of their degree, are required to become proficient with a range of quantitative methods. Unfortunately many of these students experience high levels of maths anxiety, which can have a damaging effect on this aspect of their educational development. The first…

  7. The space-math link in preschool boys and girls: Importance of mental transformation, targeting accuracy, and spatial anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wang I

    2017-06-01

    Spatial abilities are pertinent to mathematical competence, but evidence of the space-math link has largely been confined to older samples and intrinsic spatial abilities (e.g., mental transformation). The roles of gender and affective factors are also unclear. This study examined the correlations between counting ability, mental transformation, and targeting accuracy in 182 Hong Kong preschoolers, and whether these relationships were weaker at higher spatial anxiety levels. Both spatial abilities related with counting similarly for boys and girls. Targeting accuracy also mediated the male advantage in counting. Interestingly, spatial anxiety moderated the space-math links, but differently for boys and girls. For boys, spatial abilities were irrelevant to counting at high anxiety levels; for girls, the role of anxiety on the space-math link is less clear. Results extend the evidence base of the space-math link to include an extrinsic spatial ability (targeting accuracy) and have implications for intervention programmes. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Much evidence of a space-math link in adolescent and adult samples and for intrinsic spatial abilities. What does this study add? Extended the space-math link to include both intrinsic and extrinsic spatial abilities in a preschool sample. Showed how spatial anxiety moderated the space-math link differently for boys and girls. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The Influence of Math Anxiety, Math Performance, Worry, and Test Anxiety on the Iowa Gambling Task and Balloon Analogue Risk Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelow, Melissa T; Barnhart, Wesley R

    2017-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown that performance on behavioral decision-making tasks, such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), is influenced by external factors, such as mood. However, the research regarding the influence of worry is mixed, and no research has examined the effect of math or test anxiety on these tasks. The present study investigated the effects of anxiety (including math anxiety) and math performance on the IGT and BART in a sample of 137 undergraduate students. Math performance and worry were not correlated with performance on the IGT, and no variables were correlated with BART performance. Linear regressions indicated math anxiety, physiological anxiety, social concerns/stress, and test anxiety significantly predicted disadvantageous selections on the IGT during the transition from decision making under ambiguity to decision making under risk. Implications for clinical evaluation of decision making are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Math anxiety: who has it, why it develops, and how to guard against it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-08-01

    Basic math skills are important for success in school and everyday life. Yet many people experience apprehension and fear when dealing with numerical information, termed math anxiety. Recently, researchers have started to probe the antecedents of math anxiety, revealing some surprising insights into its onset, risk factors, and remediation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  11. The Development and Validation of the Children's Anxiety in Math Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Molly M.

    2013-01-01

    Math anxiety has been historically overlooked in samples of children. This may be due in part to the lack of appropriate tools to measure anxiety in young children. The current exploratory study reports on the development and examination of reliability, validity, and factor structure of a new tool to measure math anxiety in young children. The…

  12. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Julia F; Huber, Stefan; Moeller, Korbinian; Klein, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS), which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  13. The influence of math anxiety on symbolic and non-symbolic magnitude processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Felicitas Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deficits in basic numerical abilities have been investigated repeatedly as potential risk factors of math anxiety. Previous research suggested that also a deficient approximate number system (ANS, which is discussed as being the foundation for later math abilities, underlies math anxiety. However, these studies examined this hypothesis by investigating ANS acuity using a symbolic number comparison task. Recent evidence questions the view that ANS acuity can be assessed using a symbolic number comparison task. To investigate whether there is an association between math anxiety and ANS acuity, we employed both a symbolic number comparison task and a non-symbolic dot comparison task, which is currently the standard task to assess ANS acuity. We replicated previous findings regarding the association between math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect for response times. High math anxious individuals showed a larger distance effect than less math anxious individuals. However, our results revealed no association between math anxiety and ANS acuity assessed using a non-symbolic dot comparison task. Thus, our results did not provide evidence for the hypothesis that a deficient ANS underlies math anxiety. Therefore, we propose that a deficient ANS does not constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Moreover, our results suggest that previous interpretations regarding the interaction of math anxiety and the symbolic distance effect have to be updated. We suggest that impaired number comparison processes in high math anxious individuals might account for the results rather than deficient ANS representations. Finally, impaired number comparison processes might constitute a risk factor for the development of math anxiety. Implications for current models regarding the origins of math anxiety are discussed.

  14. Remediation of Childhood Math Anxiety and Associated Neural Circuits through Cognitive Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Iuculano, Teresa; Chen, Lang; Menon, Vinod

    2015-09-09

    Math anxiety is a negative emotional reaction that is characterized by feelings of stress and anxiety in situations involving mathematical problem solving. High math-anxious individuals tend to avoid situations involving mathematics and are less likely to pursue science, technology, engineering, and math-related careers than those with low math anxiety. Math anxiety during childhood, in particular, has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. Identifying cognitive interventions and brain mechanisms by which math anxiety can be ameliorated in children is therefore critical. Here we investigate whether an intensive 8 week one-to-one cognitive tutoring program designed to improve mathematical skills reduces childhood math anxiety, and we identify the neurobiological mechanisms by which math anxiety can be reduced in affected children. Forty-six children in grade 3, a critical early-onset period for math anxiety, participated in the cognitive tutoring program. High math-anxious children showed a significant reduction in math anxiety after tutoring. Remarkably, tutoring remediated aberrant functional responses and connectivity in emotion-related circuits anchored in the basolateral amygdala. Crucially, children with greater tutoring-induced decreases in amygdala reactivity had larger reductions in math anxiety. Our study demonstrates that sustained exposure to mathematical stimuli can reduce math anxiety and highlights the key role of the amygdala in this process. Our findings are consistent with models of exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders and have the potential to inform the early treatment of a disability that, if left untreated in childhood, can lead to significant lifelong educational and socioeconomic consequences in affected individuals. Significance statement: Math anxiety during early childhood has adverse long-term consequences for academic and professional success. It is therefore important to identify ways to alleviate

  15. ERP Measures of Math Anxiety: How Math Anxiety Affects Working Memory and Mental Calculation Tasks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manousos A. Klados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1,2,and 3-back task. Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms. These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks.

  16. How is anxiety related to math performance in young students? A longitudinal study of Grade 2 to Grade 3 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Elisa; Tomasetto, Carlo; Passolunghi, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Both general and math-specific anxiety are related to proficiency in mathematics. However, it is not clear when math anxiety arises in young children, nor how it relates to early math performance. This study therefore investigated the early association between math anxiety and math performance in Grades 2 and 3, by accounting for general anxiety and by further inspecting the prevalent directionality of the anxiety-performance link. Results revealed that this link was significant in Grade 3, with a prevalent direction from math anxiety to performance, rather than the reverse. Longitudinal analyses also showed an indirect effect of math anxiety in Grade 2 on subsequent math performance in Grade 3. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of monitoring anxiety from the early stages of schooling in order to promote proficient academic performance.

  17. Math Anxiety and Its Relationship with Basic Arithmetic Skills among Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvo, Riikka; Koponen, Tuire; Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Räikkönen, Eija; Peura, Pilvi; Dowker, Ann; Aro, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children have been found to report and demonstrate math anxiety as early as the first grade. However, previous results concerning the relationship between math anxiety and performance are contradictory, with some studies establishing a correlation between them while others do not. These contradictory results might be related to varying…

  18. Preschool Teachers' Perceived Math Anxiety and Self-Efficacy for Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carolyn D.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between math anxiety and perceived self-efficacy for teaching mathematics in preschool teachers. Perceptions of and attributions for the teachers' perceived math anxiety and perceived self-efficacy for teaching mathematics were also explored. The study employed a mixed-method design consisting of both…

  19. Admission Math Level and Student Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the study performance data for three cohorts of students for the course in Economics at the Business Diploma (herafter HD) study program at Copenhagen Business School. Out main findings are 1) that students with the lowest level of math from high school are performing worse...

  20. The Neurocognitive Architecture of Individual Differences in Math Anxiety in Typical Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwright, Charlotte E; Looi, Chung Yen; Sella, Francesco; Inuggi, Alberto; Santos, Flávia Heloísa; González-Salinas, Carmen; Santos, Jose M García; Kadosh, Roi Cohen; Fuentes, Luis J

    2018-05-31

    Math Anxiety (MA) is characterized by a negative emotional response when facing math-related situations. MA is distinct from general anxiety and can emerge during primary education. Prior studies typically comprise adults and comparisons between high- versus low-MA, where neuroimaging work has focused on differences in network activation between groups when completing numerical tasks. The present study used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify the structural brain correlates of MA in a sample of 79 healthy children aged 7-12 years. Given that MA is thought to develop in later primary education, the study focused on the level of MA, rather than categorically defining its presence. Using a battery of cognitive- and numerical-function tasks, we identified that increased MA was associated with reduced attention, working memory and math achievement. VBM highlighted that increased MA was associated with reduced grey matter in the left anterior intraparietal sulcus. This region was also associated with attention, suggesting that baseline differences in morphology may underpin attentional differences. Future studies should clarify whether poorer attentional capacity due to reduced grey matter density results in the later emergence of MA. Further, our data highlight the role of working memory in propagating reduced math achievement in children with higher MA.

  1. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, E; Devine, A; Hill, F; Szűcs, Denes

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. METHOD: We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and ...

  2. Avoidance temperament and social-evaluative threat in college students' math performance: a mediation model of math and test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Jeffrey; Lench, Heather C; Kao, Grace; Yeh, Yu-Chen; Kwok, Oi-man

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing has become a common form of student evaluation with high stakes, and limited research exists on understanding the roles of students' personality traits and social-evaluative threat on their academic performance. This study examined the roles of avoidance temperament (i.e., fear and behavioral inhibition) and evaluative threat (i.e., fear of failure and being viewed as unintelligent) in standardized math test and course grades in college students. Undergraduate students (N=184) from a large public university were assessed on temperamental fear and behavioral inhibition. They were then given 15 minutes to complete a standardized math test. After the test, students provided data on evaluative threat and their math performance (scores on standardized college entrance exam and average grades in college math courses). Results indicate that avoidance temperament was linked to social-evaluative threat and low standardized math test scores. Furthermore, evaluative threat mediated the influence of avoidance temperament on both types of math performance. Results have educational and clinical implications, particularly for students at risk for test anxiety and underperformance. Interventions targeting emotion regulation and stress management skills may help individuals reduce their math and test anxieties.

  3. The Effect of Math Anxiety on the Academic Success of Developmental Mathematics Students at a Texas Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin-Carroll, Kristen D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between math anxiety and academic success of developmental mathematics students at a Texas community college based on age, gender, and level of developmental mathematics program. A quantitative, casual-comparative design was used to determine relationships. A total of 185 developmental…

  4. Math Anxiety Questionnaire: Similar Latent Structure in Brazilian and German School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Wood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety is a relatively frequent phenomenon often related to low mathematics achievement and dyscalculia. In the present study, the German and the Brazilian versions of the Mathematics Anxiety Questionnaire (MAQ were examined. The two-dimensional structure originally reported for the German MAQ, that includes both affective and cognitive components of math anxiety was reproduced in the Brazilian version. Moreover, mathematics anxiety also was found to increase with age in both populations and was particularly associated with basic numeric competencies and more complex arithmetics. The present results suggest that mathematics anxiety as measured by the MAQ presents the same internal structure in culturally very different populations.

  5. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Anxiety is not enough to drive me away: A latent profile analysis on math anxiety and math motivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety (MA and mathematics motivation (MM are important multi-dimensional non-cognitive factors in mathematics learning. While the negative relation between global MA and MM is well replicated, the relations between specific dimensions of MA and MM are largely unexplored. The present study utilized latent profile analysis to explore profiles of various aspects of MA (including learning MA and exam MA and MM (including importance, self-perceived ability, and interest, to provide a more holistic understanding of the math-specific emotion and motivation experiences. In a sample of 927 high school students (13-21 years old, we found 8 distinct profiles characterized by various combinations of dimensions of MA and MM, revealing the complexity in the math-specific emotion-motivation relation beyond a single negative correlation. Further, these profiles differed on mathematics learning behaviors and mathematics achievement. For example, the highest achieving students reported modest exam MA and high MM, whereas the most engaged students were characterized by a combination of high exam MA and high MM. These results call for the need to move beyond linear relations among global constructs to address the complexity in the emotion-motivation-cognition interplay in mathematics learning, and highlight the importance of customized intervention for these heterogeneous groups.

  7. Anxiety is not enough to drive me away: A latent profile analysis on math anxiety and math motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas; Schofield, Kerry; Malanchini, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematics motivation (MM) are important multi-dimensional non-cognitive factors in mathematics learning. While the negative relation between global MA and MM is well replicated, the relations between specific dimensions of MA and MM are largely unexplored. The present study utilized latent profile analysis to explore profiles of various aspects of MA (including learning MA and exam MA) and MM (including importance, self-perceived ability, and interest), to provide a more holistic understanding of the math-specific emotion and motivation experiences. In a sample of 927 high school students (13–21 years old), we found 8 distinct profiles characterized by various combinations of dimensions of MA and MM, revealing the complexity in the math-specific emotion-motivation relation beyond a single negative correlation. Further, these profiles differed on mathematics learning behaviors and mathematics achievement. For example, the highest achieving students reported modest exam MA and high MM, whereas the most engaged students were characterized by a combination of high exam MA and high MM. These results call for the need to move beyond linear relations among global constructs to address the complexity in the emotion-motivation-cognition interplay in mathematics learning, and highlight the importance of customized intervention for these heterogeneous groups. PMID:29444137

  8. Anxiety is not enough to drive me away: A latent profile analysis on math anxiety and math motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Shakeshaft, Nicholas; Schofield, Kerry; Malanchini, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) and mathematics motivation (MM) are important multi-dimensional non-cognitive factors in mathematics learning. While the negative relation between global MA and MM is well replicated, the relations between specific dimensions of MA and MM are largely unexplored. The present study utilized latent profile analysis to explore profiles of various aspects of MA (including learning MA and exam MA) and MM (including importance, self-perceived ability, and interest), to provide a more holistic understanding of the math-specific emotion and motivation experiences. In a sample of 927 high school students (13-21 years old), we found 8 distinct profiles characterized by various combinations of dimensions of MA and MM, revealing the complexity in the math-specific emotion-motivation relation beyond a single negative correlation. Further, these profiles differed on mathematics learning behaviors and mathematics achievement. For example, the highest achieving students reported modest exam MA and high MM, whereas the most engaged students were characterized by a combination of high exam MA and high MM. These results call for the need to move beyond linear relations among global constructs to address the complexity in the emotion-motivation-cognition interplay in mathematics learning, and highlight the importance of customized intervention for these heterogeneous groups.

  9. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  10. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  11. The "Responsive Classroom" Approach and Fifth Grade Students' Math and Science Anxiety and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Merritt, Eileen G.; Patton, Christine L.

    2013-01-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as…

  12. The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; McGraw, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is an extensive amount of research that examines the relation between math anxiety and math performance in adolescents and adults, little work has focused on this relation in young children. Recently more attention has been paid to the early development of math anxiety, and new measures have been created for use with this age group. In the present study, we report on the development and validation of a revised version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children (MASYC; Harari et al., 2013). We conducted cognitive interviews with the 12 MASYC items with nine children and then administered the MASYC and five newly-developed items to 296 first-, second- and third-grade children. Results from cognitive interviews show that three of the items from the original scale were being systematically misinterpreted by young children. We present a revised measure (the MASYC-R) consisting of 13 items (eight original, five newly-developed) that shows strong evidence for reliability and validity. Results also showed that a small, but meaningful, proportion of children at this age show signs of high math anxiety. Validity of the MASYC-R was supported through correlations with a number of other factors, including general anxiety, math performance, and math attitudes. In addition, results suggest that a substantial proportion of the variance in math anxiety can be explained from these other variables together. The findings suggest that the MASYC-R is appropriate for use with young children and can help researchers to answer important questions about the nature and development of math anxiety at this age. PMID:27605917

  13. The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen M Ganley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there is an extensive amount of research that examines the relation between math anxiety and math performance in adolescents and adults, little work has focused on this relation in young children. Recently more attention has been paid to the early development of math anxiety, and new measures have been created for use with this age group. In the present study, we report on the development and validation of a revised version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children (MASYC; Harari, Vukovic, & Bailey, 2013. We conducted cognitive interviews with the 12 MASYC items with 9 children and then administered the MASYC and five newly-developed items to 296 first-, second- and third-grade children. Results from cognitive interviews show that three of the items from the original scale were being systematically misinterpreted by young children. We present a revised measure (the MASYC-R consisting of 13 items (eight original, five newly-developed that shows strong evidence for reliability and validity. Results also showed that a small, but meaningful, proportion of children at this age show signs of high math anxiety. Validity of the MASYC-R was supported through correlations with a number of other factors, including general anxiety, math performance, and math attitudes. In addition, results suggest that a substantial proportion of the variance in math anxiety can be explained from these other variables together. The findings suggest that the MASYC-R is appropriate for use with young children and can help researchers to answer important questions about the nature and development of math anxiety at this age.

  14. The Development and Validation of a Revised Version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M; McGraw, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    Although there is an extensive amount of research that examines the relation between math anxiety and math performance in adolescents and adults, little work has focused on this relation in young children. Recently more attention has been paid to the early development of math anxiety, and new measures have been created for use with this age group. In the present study, we report on the development and validation of a revised version of the Math Anxiety Scale for Young Children (MASYC; Harari et al., 2013). We conducted cognitive interviews with the 12 MASYC items with nine children and then administered the MASYC and five newly-developed items to 296 first-, second- and third-grade children. Results from cognitive interviews show that three of the items from the original scale were being systematically misinterpreted by young children. We present a revised measure (the MASYC-R) consisting of 13 items (eight original, five newly-developed) that shows strong evidence for reliability and validity. Results also showed that a small, but meaningful, proportion of children at this age show signs of high math anxiety. Validity of the MASYC-R was supported through correlations with a number of other factors, including general anxiety, math performance, and math attitudes. In addition, results suggest that a substantial proportion of the variance in math anxiety can be explained from these other variables together. The findings suggest that the MASYC-R is appropriate for use with young children and can help researchers to answer important questions about the nature and development of math anxiety at this age.

  15. The Influence of Mathematics Anxiety in Middle and High School Students Math Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mutawah, Masooma Ali

    2015-01-01

    Math anxiety has been the focus of much psychological and educational research in the past few years, there are many international studies showing that mathematics anxiety is an influence on student's achievements in school, but little research has been done about this issue in Bahrain. Bahrain is a country in the Arabian Gulf region, its economic…

  16. "Change My Thinking Patterns towards Maths": A Bibliotherapy Workshop for Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sue; Raven, Monica

    2014-01-01

    In small-group workshops, a joint initiative of the researcher and the student counsellor, primary (elementary) pre-service teachers (PSTs) wrote about critical incidents in their mathematics learning, and shared them with the group. Then, PSTs read extracts about mathematics anxiety (maths anxiety), and wrote and shared their reflections…

  17. Communication apprehension and maths anxiety as barriers to communication and numeracy skills development in accounting and business education

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, John; Hassall, Trevor; Arquero-Montano, Jose; Donoso-Anes, Jose Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – To establish the existence of barriers to communication and numeracy skills development and to establish the levels of these exhibited by accounting and business students at the commencement of their courses in higher education.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Uses questionnaires to establish the levels of communication apprehension (CA) and maths anxiety (MA) in students at the commencement of their accounting and business courses in higher education. Establishes the underlying fa...

  18. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Mathematics Anxiety Levels among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Baloğlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between college students’ subjective and objective assessment of mathematics anxiety levels. Students rated their general and current mathematics anxiety levels, mathematical ability levels, and confidence in doing mathematics. The Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale was used as an objective measure of their mathematics anxiety levels. Participants were 559 students, 406 (72.6%) women and 151 (27.0%) men. Results showed that perceived general mathe...

  19. Who is afraid of math? Two sources of genetic variance for mathematical anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Hart, Sara Ann; Kovas, Yulia; Lukowski, Sarah; Soden, Brooke; Thompson, Lee A; Plomin, Robert; McLoughlin, Grainne; Bartlett, Christopher W; Lyons, Ian M; Petrill, Stephen A

    2014-09-01

    Emerging work suggests that academic achievement may be influenced by the management of affect as well as through efficient information processing of task demands. In particular, mathematical anxiety has attracted recent attention because of its damaging psychological effects and potential associations with mathematical problem solving and achievement. This study investigated the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the observed differences in the anxiety people feel when confronted with mathematical tasks. In addition, the genetic and environmental mechanisms that link mathematical anxiety with math cognition and general anxiety were also explored. Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 514 12-year-old twin siblings. Genetic factors accounted for roughly 40% of the variation in mathematical anxiety, with the remaining being accounted for by child-specific environmental factors. Multivariate genetic analyses suggested that mathematical anxiety was influenced by the genetic and nonfamilial environmental risk factors associated with general anxiety and additional independent genetic influences associated with math-based problem solving. The development of mathematical anxiety may involve not only exposure to negative experiences with mathematics, but also likely involves genetic risks related to both anxiety and math cognition. These results suggest that integrating cognitive and affective domains may be particularly important for mathematics and may extend to other areas of academic achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Who’s Afraid of Math? Two Sources of Genetic Variance for Mathematical Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Hart, Sara Ann; Kovas, Yulia; Lukowski, Sarah; Soden, Brooke; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert; McLoughlin, Grainne; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Lyons, Ian M.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Emerging work suggests that academic achievement may be influenced by the management of affect as well as through efficient information processing of task demands. In particular, mathematical anxiety has attracted recent attention because of its damaging psychological effects and potential associations with mathematical problem-solving and achievement. The present study investigated the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the observed differences in the anxiety people feel when confronted with mathematical tasks. In addition, the genetic and environmental mechanisms that link mathematical anxiety with math cognition and general anxiety were also explored. Methods Univariate and multivariate quantitative genetic models were conducted in a sample of 514 12-year-old twin siblings. Results Genetic factors accounted for roughly 40% of the variation in mathematical anxiety, with the remaining being accounted for by child-specific environmental factors. Multivariate genetic analyses suggested that mathematical anxiety was influenced by the genetic and non-familial environmental risk factors associated with general anxiety and additional independent genetic influences associated with math-based problem solving. Conclusions The development of mathematical anxiety may involve not only exposure to negative experiences with mathematics, but also likely involves genetic risks related to both anxiety and math cognition. These results suggest that integrating cognitive and affective domains may be particularly important for mathematics, and may extend to other areas of academic achievement. PMID:24611799

  1. Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…

  2. Math anxiety: Brain cortical network changes in anticipation of doing mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klados, Manousos A; Pandria, Niki; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2017-12-01

    Following our previous work regarding the involvement of math anxiety (MA) in math-oriented tasks, this study tries to explore the differences in the cerebral networks' topology between self-reported low math-anxious (LMA) and high math-anxious (HMA) individuals, during the anticipation phase prior to a mathematical related experiment. For this reason, multichannel EEG recordings were adopted, while the solution of the inverse problem was applied in a generic head model, in order to obtain the cortical signals. The cortical networks have been computed for each band separately, using the magnitude square coherence metric. The main graph theoretical parameters, showed differences in segregation and integration in almost all EEG bands of the HMAs in comparison to LMAs, indicative of a great influence of the anticipatory anxiety prior to mathematical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective and Motivational Factors Mediate the Relation between Math Skills and Use of Math in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Schmitz, Eva A.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life. PMID:27148122

  4. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda RJ Jansen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations. Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521 were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence mediated the relationship between math skills and use of math in everyday life, taken gender differences into account. Results showed that women reported higher math anxiety, lower perceived math competence, and lower use of math in everyday life, compared to men. Women's skills were estimated at a lower level than men's. For both women and men, higher skills were associated with higher perceived math competence, which in turn was associated with more use of math in everyday life. Only for women, math anxiety also mediated the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life.

  5. Dyslexia in higher education: implications for maths anxiety, statistics anxiety and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Julie-Ann; McGladdery, Gary; Dyer, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    This study examined levels of mathematics and statistics anxiety, as well as general mental health amongst undergraduate students with dyslexia (n = 28) and those without dyslexia (n = 71). Students with dyslexia had higher levels of mathematics anxiety relative to those without dyslexia, while statistics anxiety and general mental health were comparable for both reading ability groups. In terms of coping strategies, undergraduates with dyslexia tended to use planning-based strategies and seek instrumental support more frequently than those without dyslexia. Higher mathematics anxiety was associated with having a dyslexia diagnosis, as well as greater levels of worrying, denial, seeking instrumental support and less use of the positive reinterpretation coping strategy. By contrast, statistics anxiety was not predicted by dyslexia diagnosis, but was instead predicted by overall worrying and the use of denial and emotion focused coping strategies. The results suggest that disability practitioners should be aware that university students with dyslexia are at risk of high mathematics anxiety. Additionally, effective anxiety reduction strategies such as positive reframing and thought challenging would form a useful addition to the support package delivered to many students with dyslexia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Online Visual and Interactive Technological Tool (OVITT) on Early Adolescent Students' Mathematics Performance, Math Anxiety and Attitudes toward Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabuchi, Nkechi

    2013-01-01

    This study reported the results of a 3-month quasi-experimental study that determined the effectiveness of an online visual and interactive technological tool on sixth grade students' mathematics performance, math anxiety and attitudes towards math. There were 155 sixth grade students from a middle school in the North Texas area who participated…

  7. Exploring the relationship between math anxiety and gender through implicit measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Bialik, Noam; Solar, Yael

    2012-01-01

    Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is suggested as a strong antecedent for the low visibility of women in the science and engineering workforce. However, the assumption of gender differences in math anxiety is still being studied and results are inconclusive, probably due to the use of explicit measures such as direct questionnaires. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in males and females by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Specifically, university students (23 males and 30 females) completed a priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative, or related to mathematics). Participants were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division) was true or false. People are typically found to respond to target stimuli more rapidly after presentation of an affectively related prime than after an affectively unrelated one. In the current study, shorter response latencies for positive as compared to negative affective primes were found in the male group. An affective priming effect was found in the female group as well, but with a reversed pattern. That is, significantly shorter response latencies were observed in the female group for negative as compared to positive targets. That is, for females, negative affective primes act as affectively related to simple arithmetic problems. In contrast, males associated positive affect with simple arithmetic. In addition, only females with lower or insignificant negative affect toward arithmetic study at faculties of mathematics and science. We discuss the advantages of examining pure anxiety factors with implicit measures which are free of response factors. In addition it is suggested that environmental factors may enhance the association between math achievements

  8. The Modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale: A Valid and Reliable Instrument for Use with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety (MA) can be observed in children from primary school age into the teenage years and adulthood, but many MA rating scales are only suitable for use with adults or older adolescents. We have adapted one such rating scale, the Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS), to be used with British children aged 8-13. In this study, we assess the scale's reliability, factor structure, and divergent validity. The modified AMAS (mAMAS) was administered to a very large ( n = 1746) cohort of British children and adolescents. This large sample size meant that as well as conducting confirmatory factor analysis on the scale itself, we were also able to split the sample to conduct exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of items from the mAMAS alongside items from child test anxiety and general anxiety rating scales. Factor analysis of the mAMAS confirmed that it has the same underlying factor structure as the original AMAS, with subscales measuring anxiety about Learning and Evaluation in math. Furthermore, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the mAMAS alongside scales measuring test anxiety and general anxiety showed that mAMAS items cluster onto one factor (perceived to represent MA). The mAMAS provides a valid and reliable scale for measuring MA in children and adolescents, from a younger age than is possible with the original AMAS. Results from this study also suggest that MA is truly a unique construct, separate from both test anxiety and general anxiety, even in childhood.

  9. Factors That Promote Anxiety toward Math on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; Moreno-García, Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Rojas-Kramer, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Regardless of the social or economic status of a student, it is a fact that math is always present. This discipline is considered as a competitive tool for achieving a more productive life. However, the gap in academic achievement is big. Consequently, in the last decades the research on education has set attention on this point. Therefore, this…

  10. Dealing with Maths Anxiety: How "Do" You Teach Mathematics in a Geography Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Mathematics is often taught covertly as a "service" subject in geography departments, but can often be a cause of fear for students who may not have studied the subject post-GCSE. Negative attitudes are common and many students show signs of maths anxiety. This paper details how students' attitudes were changed by a new foundation mathematics…

  11. The Relation between Parental Involvement and Math Anxiety: Implications for Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven O.; Vukovic, Rose K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research served as the platform for this study's research question: Does math anxiety mediate the relation between parental involvement and mathematics achievement? The primary purpose of this study was to examine this mediation model in a sample of at-risk second graders. Due to previous research, the investigators hypothesized that math…

  12. Gender Differences in Factors Pertaining to Math Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Math anxiety has been seen as one of the biggest obstacles to student success in mathematics. The nature of this condition, as well as its relationships with numerous predictors, has been investigated for decades. However, there is still a significant lack of agreement among the findings of these research studies. The current study examines gender…

  13. Reducing Math Anxiety: Findings from Incorporating Service Learning into a Quantitative Reasoning Course at Seattle University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Henrich

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available How might one teach mathematics to math-anxious students and at the same time reduce their math anxiety? This paper describes what we found when we incorporated a service learning component into a quantitative reasoning course at Seattle University in Fall 2010 (20 students and Spring 2011 (28 students. The course is taken primarily by humanities majors, many of whom would not take a course in math if they didn’t need to satisfy the university’s core requirement. For the service learning component, each student met with and tutored children at local schools for 1-2 hours per week (total about 15 service hours, kept a weekly journal reflecting on the experience, and wrote a five-page final paper on the importance and reasonable expectations of mathematics literacy. The autobiographies, self-description at the beginning of the class, focus group interviews at the end of the term, journal entries, final essays, and student evaluations indicated that the students gained confidence in their mathematical abilities, a greater interest in mathematics, and a broader sense of the importance of math literacy in modern society. One notable finding was that students discovered that the act of manufacturing enthusiasm about math as a tool for tutoring the children made them more enthusiastic about math in their own courses.

  14. Exploring the relationship between math anxiety and gender through implicit measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is suggested as a strong antecedent for the low visibility of women in the science and engineering workforce. However, the assumption of gender differences in math anxiety is still being studied and results are inconclusive, probably due to the use of explicit measures such as direct questionnaires. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in males and females by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Specifically, university students (23 males and 30 females completed a priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative, or related to mathematics. Participants were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division was true or false. People are typically found to respond to target stimuli more rapidly after presentation of an affectively related prime than after an affectively unrelated one. In the current study, shorter response latencies for positive as compared to negative affective primes were found in the male group. An affective priming effect was found in the female group as well, but with a reversed pattern. That is, significantly shorter response latencies were observed in the female group for negative as compared to positive targets. That is, for females, negative affective primes act as affectively related to simple arithmetic problems. In contrast, males associated positive affect with simple arithmetic. In addition, only females with lower or insignificant negative affect towards arithmetic study at faculties of mathematics and science. We discuss the advantages of examining pure anxiety factors with implicit measures which are free of response factors. In addition it is suggested that environmental factors may enhance the association between

  15. Perceived Instructor Argumentativeness, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Classroom Communication Climate in Relation to Student State Motivation and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yang; Durbin, James M.; Rancer, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how student perceptions of math/statistics instructors' argumentativeness and verbal aggressiveness are related to student perceptions of classroom communication climate, student state motivation, and student math anxiety. A total of 216 completed questionnaires were returned by the student participants (96 males and 120…

  16. Attitude Differences between Male and Female Students at Clovis Community College and Their Relationships to Math Anxiety: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershot, Richard Lane

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of males and females at Clovis Community College towards math anxiety and to look for possible factors that could be used to assist in the assignment of students to various math classes. The subjects in the study were fifty male students and fifty female students. Subjects responded to a math…

  17. Tai Chi/ Yoga Effects on Anxiety, Heartrate, EEG and Math Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of tai chi/yoga. Design 38 adults participated in a 20-minute tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short tai chi form and 10 minutes of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. Main outcome measures The pre- and post- tai chi/ yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Results Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. Conclusions The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the tai chi/yoga class. PMID:20920810

  18. Tai chi/yoga effects on anxiety, heartrate, EEG and math computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2010-11-01

    To determine the immediate effects of a combined form of Tai chi/yoga. 38 adults participated in a 20-min Tai chi/yoga class. The session was comprised of standing Tai chi movements, balancing poses and a short Tai chi form and 10 min of standing, sitting and lying down yoga poses. The pre- and post- Tai chi/yoga effects were assessed using the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EKG, EEG and math computations. Heartrate increased during the session, as would be expected for this moderate-intensity exercise. Changes from pre to post-session assessments suggested increased relaxation including decreased anxiety and a trend for increased EEG theta activity. The increased relaxation may have contributed to the increased speed and accuracy noted on math computations following the Tai chi/yoga class. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Math

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2006-01-01

    Flummoxed by formulas? Queasy about equations? Perturbed by pi? Now you can stop cursing over calculus and start cackling over Math, the newest volume in Bill Robertson's accurate but amusing Stop Faking It! best sellers. As Robertson sees it, too many people view mathematics as a set of rules to be followed, procedures to memorize, and theorems to apply. This book focuses on the reasoning behind the rules, from math basics all the way up to a brief introduction to calculus.

  20. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Structure of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahman Farrokhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: The aim of this study is to explore the confirmatory factor analysis results of the Persian adaptation of Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale (AMAS, proposed by Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare & Hunt. "nMethod: The validity and reliability assessments of the scale were performed on 298 college students chosen randomly from Tabriz University in Iran. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out to determine the factor structures of the Persian version of AMAS. "nResults: As expected, the two-factor solution provided a better fit to the data than a single factor. Moreover, multi-group analyses showed that this two-factor structure was invariant across sex. Hence, AMAS provides an equally valid measure for use among college students. "nConclusions:  Brief AMAS demonstrates adequate reliability and validity. The AMAS scores can be used to compare symptoms of math anxiety between male and female students. The study both expands and adds support to the existing body of math anxiety literature.

  1. The shopping brain: math anxiety modulates brain responses to buying decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Childers, Terry L; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Metacognitive theories propose that consumers track fluency feelings when buying, which may have biological underpinnings. We explored this using event-related potential (ERP) measures as twenty high-math anxiety (High MA) and nineteen low-math anxiety (Low MA) consumers made buying decisions for promoted (e.g., 15% discount) and non-promoted products. When evaluating prices, ERP correlates of higher perceptual and conceptual fluency were associated with buys, however only for High MA females under no promotions. In contrast, High MA females and Low MA males demonstrated greater FN400 amplitude, associated with enhanced conceptual processing, to prices of buys relative to non-buys under promotions. Concurrent late positive component (LPC) differences under no promotions suggest discrepant retrieval processes during price evaluations between consumer groups. When making decisions to buy or not, larger (smaller) P3, sensitive to outcome responses in the brain, was associated with buying for High MA females (Low MA females) under promotions, an effect also present for males under no promotions. Thus, P3 indexed decisions to buy differently between anxiety groups, but only for promoted items among females and for no promotions among males. Our findings indicate that perceptual and conceptual processes interact with anxiety and gender to modulate brain responses during consumer choices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can Low-Cost Online Summer Math Programs Improve Student Preparation for College-Level Math? Evidence from Randomized Experiments at Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Griffiths, Rebecca J.; Mulhern, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Every year many students enter college without the math preparation needed to succeed in their desired programs of study. Many of these students struggle to catch up, especially those who are required to take remedial math courses before entering college-level math. Increasing the number of students who begin at the appropriate level of math has…

  3. Separating math from anxiety: The role of inhibitory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Caviola, Sara; Giofrè, David; Borella, Erika

    2017-07-06

    Deficits in executive functions have been hypothesized and documented for children with severe mathematics anxiety (MA) or developmental dyscalculia, but the role of inhibition-related processes has not been specifically explored. The main aim of the present study was to shed further light on the specificity of these profiles in children in terms of working memory (WM) and the inhibitory functions involved. Four groups of children between 8 and 10 years old were selected: one group with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and no MA, one with severe MA and developmental dyscalculia (MA-DD), one with severe MA and no DD (MA), and one with typical development (TD). All children were presented with tasks measuring two inhibition-related functions, that is, proactive interference and prepotent response, and a WM task. The results showed that children with severe MA (but no DD) were specifically impaired in the proactive interference task, while children with DD (with or without MA) failed in the WM task. Our findings point to the importance of distinguishing the cognitive processes underlying these profiles.

  4. Stress, Time Pressure, Strategy Selection and Math Anxiety in Mathematics: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviola, Sara; Carey, Emma; Mammarella, Irene C; Szucs, Denes

    2017-01-01

    We review how stress induction, time pressure manipulations and math anxiety can interfere with or modulate selection of problem-solving strategies (henceforth "strategy selection") in arithmetical tasks. Nineteen relevant articles were identified, which contain references to strategy selection and time limit (or time manipulations), with some also discussing emotional aspects in mathematical outcomes. Few of these take cognitive processes such as working memory or executive functions into consideration. We conclude that due to the sparsity of available literature our questions can only be partially answered and currently there is not much evidence of clear associations. We identify major gaps in knowledge and raise a series of open questions to guide further research.

  5. Measurement of math beliefs and their associations with math behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M; Schorschinsky, Nancy; Wade, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose in the present study was to expand understanding of math beliefs in college students by developing 3 new psychometrically tested scales as guided by expectancy-value theory, self-efficacy theory, and health belief model. Additionally, we identified which math beliefs (and which theory) best explained variance in math behaviors and performance by college students and which students were most likely to have problematic math beliefs. Study participants included 368 college math students who completed questionnaires to report math behaviors (attending class, doing homework, reading textbooks, asking for help) and used a 5-point rating scale to indicate a variety of math beliefs. For a subset of 84 students, math professors provided final math grades. Factor analyses produced a 10-item Math Value Scale with 2 subscales (Class Devaluation, No Future Value), a 7-item single-dimension Math Confidence Scale, and an 11-item Math Barriers Scale with 2 subscales (Math Anxiety, Discouraging Words). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that high levels of the newly discovered class devaluation belief (guided by expectancy-value theory) were most consistently associated with poor math behaviors in college students, with high math anxiety (guided by health belief model) and low math confidence (guided by self-efficacy theory) also found to be significant. Analyses of covariance revealed that younger and male students were at increased risk for class devaluation and older students were at increased risk for poor math confidence. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS TO UNDERSTAND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MATH ANXIETY, GENDERS, PERSONALITY TYPES, AND STUDY HABITS AT A UNIVERSITY IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Smail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is the foundation of all sciences, but most students have problems learning math. Although students’ success in life related to their success in learning, many would not take a math course unless it is their university’s core requirements. Multiple reasons exist for students’ poor performance in mathematics, but one prevalent variable worth consideration is the personality type. This work seeks to uncover relationships, if any, between students’ math anxiety and the students’ learning type in learning math and preparing for exams and tests. We use Bayesian networks to link those different variables and detect possible relationships among these variables. The data was obtained from population of 468 students during spring in 2009 at a U.S. institution in Jordan. Not many researches have been performed in the area of math study and personality types so we undertook this study to add to this area of knowledge. The study reveals that math anxiety related to gender, personality type, and study habits among this group of university students. Keywords: Mathematics Anxiety, MBTI, Personality Types, Bayesian Networks DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3405.17-34

  7. Reactive recruitment of attentional control in math anxiety: an ERP study of numeric conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of numeric conflict monitoring in math-anxious individuals, by analyzing whether math anxiety is related to abnormal processing in early conflict detection (as shown by the N450 component and/or in a later, response-related stage of processing (as shown by the conflict sustained potential; Conflict-SP. Conflict adaptation effects were also studied by analyzing the effect of the previous trial's congruence in current interference. To this end, 17 low math-anxious (LMA and 17 high math-anxious (HMA individuals were presented with a numerical Stroop task. Groups were extreme in math anxiety but did not differ in trait or state anxiety or in simple math ability. The interference effect of the current trial (incongruent-congruent and the interference effect preceded by congruence and by incongruity were analyzed both for behavioral measures and for ERPs. A greater interference effect was found for response times in the HMA group than in the LMA one. Regarding ERPs, the LMA group showed a greater N450 component for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity, while the HMA group showed greater Conflict-SP amplitude for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity. Our study showed that the electrophysiological correlates of numeric interference in HMA individuals comprise the absence of a conflict adaptation effect in the first stage of conflict processing (N450 and an abnormal subsequent up-regulation of cognitive control in order to overcome the conflict (Conflict-SP. More concretely, our study shows that math anxiety is related to a reactive and compensatory recruitment of control resources that is implemented only when previously exposed to a stimuli presenting conflicting information.

  8. Reactive recruitment of attentional control in math anxiety: an ERP study of numeric conflict monitoring and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    This study uses event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of numeric conflict monitoring in math-anxious individuals, by analyzing whether math anxiety is related to abnormal processing in early conflict detection (as shown by the N450 component) and/or in a later, response-related stage of processing (as shown by the conflict sustained potential; Conflict-SP). Conflict adaptation effects were also studied by analyzing the effect of the previous trial's congruence in current interference. To this end, 17 low math-anxious (LMA) and 17 high math-anxious (HMA) individuals were presented with a numerical Stroop task. Groups were extreme in math anxiety but did not differ in trait or state anxiety or in simple math ability. The interference effect of the current trial (incongruent-congruent) and the interference effect preceded by congruence and by incongruity were analyzed both for behavioral measures and for ERPs. A greater interference effect was found for response times in the HMA group than in the LMA one. Regarding ERPs, the LMA group showed a greater N450 component for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity, while the HMA group showed greater Conflict-SP amplitude for the interference effect preceded by congruence than when preceded by incongruity. Our study showed that the electrophysiological correlates of numeric interference in HMA individuals comprise the absence of a conflict adaptation effect in the first stage of conflict processing (N450) and an abnormal subsequent up-regulation of cognitive control in order to overcome the conflict (Conflict-SP). More concretely, our study shows that math anxiety is related to a reactive and compensatory recruitment of control resources that is implemented only when previously exposed to a stimuli presenting conflicting information.

  9. Counseling the Math Anxious

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie

    1977-01-01

    Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)

  10. A Quasi-Experimental Study Investigating the Effect of Scent on Students' Memory of Multiplication Facts and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leap, Evelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study was conducted with two fifth grade classrooms to investigate the effect of scent on students' acquisition and retention of multiplication facts and math anxiety. Forty participants received daily instruction for nine weeks, using a strategy-rich multiplication program called Factivation. Students in the Double Smencil…

  11. Comparing the Math Anxiety of Secondary School Female Students in Groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Khatoon; Pourrazavy, Zinat alsadat

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is comparing math anxiety of secondary school female students in groups (Science and Mathematical Physics) Public Schools, district 2, city of Sari. The purpose of the research is applied research, it is a development branch, and in terms of the nature and method, it is a causal-comparative research. The statistical…

  12. Stress, Time Pressure, Strategy Selection and Math Anxiety in Mathematics: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caviola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review how stress induction, time pressure manipulations and math anxiety can interfere with or modulate selection of problem-solving strategies (henceforth “strategy selection” in arithmetical tasks. Nineteen relevant articles were identified, which contain references to strategy selection and time limit (or time manipulations, with some also discussing emotional aspects in mathematical outcomes. Few of these take cognitive processes such as working memory or executive functions into consideration. We conclude that due to the sparsity of available literature our questions can only be partially answered and currently there is not much evidence of clear associations. We identify major gaps in knowledge and raise a series of open questions to guide further research.

  13. Sleep quality and anxiety level in employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teker, Ayse Gulsen; Luleci, Nimet Emel

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the sleep quality and anxiety level of a group of employees, as well as determine the relationship between sleep quality and anxiety and other factors. A total of 130 of 185 employees at a university campus were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A descriptive questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were the data collection instruments. In addition to univariate analysis, the relationship between the 2 scales was examined with Spearman correlation analysis. Of the participants, 38.9% had poor sleep quality. Gender, income level, presence of a chronic disease, regular medication use, and relationship with family and the social environment were found to affect both sleep quality and anxiety. A decrease in sleep quality was associated with an increase in the level of anxiety. Poor sleep quality and a high anxiety level are common in this country, as in the rest of the world. Socioeconomic interventions and psychosocial support to improve the status of individuals with risk factors, such as chronic disease, will reduce anxiety and improve sleep quality and overall psychosocial health. Further prospective studies should be conducted with different groups of participants and with larger samples to expand knowledge of the relationship between sleep quality and anxiety.

  14. Math anxiety and developmental dyscalculia: A study on working memory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Caviola, Sara; Szűcs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    Although many children encounter difficulties in arithmetic, the underlying cognitive and emotive factors are still not fully understood. This study examined verbal and visuospatial short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) performance in children with developmental dyscalculia (DD) and high mathematics anxiety (MA) compared with typically developing (TD) children. Groups were matched on reading comprehension performance and IQ as well as on general anxiety. We aimed to test whether children with DD and MA were differently impaired in verbal and visuospatial STM and WM. Children were individually tested with four computerized tasks: two STM tasks (forward verbal and visuospatial recall) and two WM tasks (backward verbal and visuospatial recall). Relative to children with TD, those with DD did not show impairments on the forward or backward verbal tasks, but showed specific impairments in the visuospatial WM task. In contrast, children with MA were particularly impaired in the verbal WM task. Knowing the underlying cognitive processes that differentiate why children with DD and MA fail in math could have both educational and clinical implications.

  15. Explaining Gaps in Readiness for College-Level Math: The Role of High School Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Iatarola, Patrice; Conger, Dylan

    2009-01-01

    Despite increased requirements for high school graduation, almost one-third of the nation's college freshmen are unprepared for college-level math. The need for remediation is particularly high among students who are low income, Hispanic, and black. Female students are also less likely than males to be ready for college-level math. This article…

  16. Combining Basic Business Math and Electronic Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Ronald

    As a means of alleviating math anxiety among business students and of improving their business machine skills, Spokane Falls Community College offers a course in which basic business math skills are mastered through the use of desk top calculators. The self-paced course, which accommodates varying student skill levels, requires students to: (1)…

  17. Examination of Science and Math Course Achievements of Vocational High School Students in the Scope of Self-Efficacy and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Mehmet; Geban, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    This study attempted to predict physics, chemistry, and biology and math course achievements of vocational high school students according to the variables of student self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, state anxiety and trait anxiety. Study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the students of a vocational high school…

  18. Impact of Delivery Modality, Student GPA, and Time-Lapse since High School on Successful Completion of College-Level Math after Taking Developmental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Diane; North, Teresa Lynn; Avella, John

    2016-01-01

    This study considered whether delivery modality, student GPA, or time since high school affected whether 290 students who had completed a developmental math series as a community college were able to successfully complete college-level math. The data used in the study was comprised of a 4-year period historical student data from Odessa College…

  19. Three brief assessments of math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Eric T; Ashcraft, Mark H

    2012-12-01

    Because of wide disparities in college students' math knowledge-that is, their math achievement-studies of cognitive processing in math tasks also need to assess their individual level of math achievement. For many research settings, however, using existing math achievement tests is either too costly or too time consuming. To solve this dilemma, we present three brief tests of math achievement here, two drawn from the Wide Range Achievement Test and one composed of noncopyrighted items. All three correlated substantially with the full achievement test and with math anxiety, our original focus, and all show acceptable to excellent reliability. When lengthy testing is not feasible, one of these brief tests can be substituted.

  20. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Devine, Amy; Hill, Francesca; Szűcs, Dénes

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance. We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8-9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11-13). We conducted latent profile analysis of students' anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance. Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety). Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety. There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one's anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance.

  1. Differentiating anxiety forms and their role in academic performance from primary to secondary school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Carey

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of mathematics anxiety are more likely to have other forms of anxiety, such as general anxiety and test anxiety, and tend to have some math performance decrement compared to those with low math anxiety. However, it is unclear how the anxiety forms cluster in individuals, or how the presence of other anxiety forms influences the relationship between math anxiety and math performance.We measured math anxiety, test anxiety, general anxiety and mathematics and reading performance in 1720 UK students (year 4, aged 8-9, and years 7 and 8, aged 11-13. We conducted latent profile analysis of students' anxiety scores in order to examine the developmental change in anxiety profiles, the demographics of each anxiety profile and the relationship between profiles and academic performance.Anxiety profiles appeared to change in specificity between the two age groups studied. Only in the older students did clusters emerge with specifically elevated general anxiety or academic anxiety (test and math anxiety. Our findings suggest that boys are slightly more likely than girls to have elevated academic anxieties relative to their general anxiety. Year 7/8 students with specifically academic anxiety show lower academic performance than those who also have elevated general anxiety.There may be a developmental change in the specificity of anxiety and gender seems to play a strong role in determining one's anxiety profile. The anxiety profiles present in our year 7/8 sample, and their relationships with math performance, suggest a bidirectional relationship between math anxiety and math performance.

  2. Self-Constructs and Anxiety Across Cultures. Research Report. ETS RR-09-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of three related constructs, math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, across 41 countries. One factorial structure was achieved at both between- and within-country levels. Within-country variations of the self-constructs were also noted in relation to math performance: Self-concept showed…

  3. The Relationship of Math Anxiety and Mathematics Comprehension in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Shannon Rae

    2010-01-01

    The high school dropout rate in a southern U.S. state is 22.1% and students who fall behind in reading and math in middle school are more likely to fail 9th grade. This specific failure is one of the strongest predictors that a student will ultimately drop out of school. The research questions of this study addressed the relationship between math…

  4. The Effects of Math Acceleration in Middle School at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossenbach, Chris Payton

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods capstone is to investigate the effectiveness of the math acceleration initiative that began in the studied school district in 2009 and the impact the initiative has had on mathematics enrollment at the high school level. This research project followed cohorts of students during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 school…

  5. Applied Math & Science Levels Utilized in Selected Trade & Industrial Vocational Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James R.

    Research identified and evaluated the level of applied mathematics and science used in selected trade and industrial (T&I) subjects taught in the Kentucky Vocational Education System. The random sample was composed of 52 programs: 21 carpentry, 20 electricity/electronics, and 11 machine shop. The 96 math content items that were identified as…

  6. Combining Geography, Math, and Science to Teach Climate Change and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldakowski, Ray; Johnson, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of integrating geography into existing math and science curriculum to teach climate change and sea level rise. The desired outcome is to improve student performance in all three subjects. A sample of 120 fifth graders from three schools were taught the integrated curriculum over a period of two to three weeks.…

  7. An Investigation on Elementary School Students' Level of Math Learning, Using Math E-Books (A Case Study: Pishtazan Computer Primary School, 4th Zone of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Naseri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the focus on technology exists in all schools and classes, teachers need to know how to apply it in their teaching practices. The use of ICT in education is an undeniable necessity. Since the use of information and communication technology can smooth the paths of teaching-learning process for students, the researchers in this study tried to apply one of the information and communication technology tools, called electronic books (E-books in teaching math. The aim of this study is to examine elementary school students' level of math learning, using math e-books with the focus on teaching multiplication (Case Study: Pishtazan computer primary school, the 4th zone of Tehran. Using a quasi-experimental study, 61 third grade students from two primary schools for girls located in the 4th education zone of Tehran were selected. Math tests were used to collect data. Using T-test for independent samples, the results showed that level of math learning was higher in the students who have been trained with the help of e-book, compared to the students who have been trained through traditional teaching method.

  8. Developmental Math Students and College-Level Coursework. Data Notes. Volume 1, Number 8, November/December 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Using data from Achieving the Dream: Community Colleges Count, this issue examines the percentages and numbers of students who attempted and completed both developmental and college-level math. The analysis reveals that a large portion of students either do not attempt or do not complete developmental math coursework. Furthermore, the data show…

  9. How Do Students' Mastery and Performance Goals Relate to Math Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furner, Joseph M.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    A changing, economically competitive world has necessitated reform in mathematics education. Yet mathematics anxiety has been a prevalent concern among educators and others in our society for decades. Some students tend to be more anxious about the testing process and can often freeze up, others just cringe when they are confronted with any form…

  10. Who Is Afraid of Math? Two Sources of Genetic Variance for Mathematical Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Hart, Sara Ann; Kovas, Yulia; Lukowski, Sarah; Soden, Brooke; Thompson, Lee A.; Plomin, Robert; McLoughlin, Grainne; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Lyons, Ian M.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging work suggests that academic achievement may be influenced by the management of affect as well as through efficient information processing of task demands. In particular, mathematical anxiety has attracted recent attention because of its damaging psychological effects and potential associations with mathematical problem solving…

  11. Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Bieg, Madeleine; Lüdtke, Oliver; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Study 1) and attended math classes (Study 2). The discrepant findings for trait versus state math anxiety were partly accounted for by students' beliefs about their competence in mathematics, with female students reporting lower perceived competence than male students despite having the same average grades in math. Implications for educational practices and the assessment of anxiety are discussed.

  12. Math anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability in British undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Miriam; Jones, Ray; Lea, Susan

    2012-04-01

    Nurses need to be able to make drug calculations competently. In this study, involving 229 second year British nursing students, we explored the influence of mathematics anxiety, self-efficacy, and numerical ability on drug calculation ability and determined which factors would best predict this skill. Strong significant relationships (p anxiety, self-efficacy, and ability. Students who failed the numerical and/or drug calculation ability tests were more anxious (p < .001) and less confident (p ≤ .002) in performing calculations than those who passed. Numerical ability made the strongest unique contribution in predicting drug calculation ability (beta = 0.50, p < .001) followed by drug calculation self-efficacy (beta = 0.16, p = .04). Early testing is recommended for basic numerical skills. Faculty are advised to refresh students' numerical skills before introducing drug calculations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

  14. Student School-Level Math Knowledge Influence on Applied Mathematics Study Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Kriauzienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to find out the influence of student school-level math knowledge on courses of applied mathematics studies: what is the importance of having a math maturity exam for students, an estimate of social science students’ motivation to learn math, and attendance of seminars. Students who did take the state exam attended more seminars than the students who did not take math exam, and vice versa. Design/methodology/approach—this work describes research which involved persistent MRU Public Administration degree program second-year students. Doing statistical analysis of the data will be a link between school-level mathematics knowledge and attendance activity in seminars and motivation to learn mathematics. Findings—the research is expected to establish a connection between school-level mathematics knowledge and student motivation to learn mathematics. It was found that there is no correlation between student opinions about school mathematics courses and result of their first test. Determine relationship between attendance of exercises and public examinations. Between the stored type of exam and test results are dependent. Determine relationship between exercise attendance and test results, as shown by the calculated correlation coefficient Based on the results, it’s recommended to increase the number of exercises. A more refined analysis of the data is subject to further investigation. Research limitations/implications—this method is just one of the possible ways of application. Practical implications—that kind of research and its methodology can be applied not only to the subject of applied mathematics studies, but also to other natural or social sciences. Originality/Value—empirical experiment data can be used in other studies of Educology nature analysis.

  15. Student School-Level Math Knowledge Influence on Applied Mathematics Study Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Laukevičius

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—to find out the influence of student school-level math knowledge on courses of applied mathematics studies: what is the importance of having a math maturity exam for students, an estimate of social science students’ motivation to learn math, and attendance of seminars. Students who did take the state exam attended more seminars than the students who did not take math exam, and vice versa.Design/methodology/approach—this work describes research which involved persistent MRU Public Administration degree program second-year students. Doing statistical analysis of the data will be a link between school-level mathematics knowledge and attendance activity in seminars and motivation to learn mathematics.Findings—the research is expected to establish a connection between school-level mathematics knowledge and student motivation to learn mathematics.It was found that there is no correlation between student opinions about school mathematics courses and result of their first test.Determine relationship between attendance of exercises and public examinations.Between the stored type of exam and test results are dependent.Determine relationship between exercise attendance and test results, as shown by the calculated correlation coefficientBased on the results, it’s recommended to increase the number of exercises. A more refined analysis of the data is subject to further investigation.Research limitations/implications—this method is just one of the possible ways of application.Practical implications—that kind of research and its methodology can be applied not only to the subject of applied mathematics studies, but also to other natural or social sciences.Originality/Value—empirical experiment data can be used in other studies of Educology nature analysis.

  16. Mathematics anxiety in secondary students in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steve

    2009-02-01

    Whatever the changes that are made to the mathematics curriculum in England, there will always remain a problem with mathematics anxiety. Maths anxiety is rarely facilitative. This study examined aspects of mathematics in secondary schools and how students rated them as sources of anxiety. Over 2000 students in independent and mainstream schools in England completed a 20-item questionnaire designed to investigate maths anxiety levels. The same questionnaire was given to over 440 dyslexic males in specialist schools within the same age range. The results showed that examinations and tests create high levels of anxiety in approximately 4% of students. The results suggest that certain aspects and topics in the maths curriculum, such as long division, cause similar levels of anxiety for students in all year groups in secondary schools.

  17. The Level of Anxiety and Pain Perception of Endodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Perković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to compare the level of anxiety reported by patients and assessed by dentists. Also, the expected and actual pain during the treatment perceived by the patient and dentist were assessed. Methods: sixty six endodontic patients filled in two questionnaires, prior to and after the treatment, so did their therapists. The first set of questions for patients was regarding demographics, the frequency of dental visits, the level of anxiety and expectations about the level of pain. Before the treatment, dentists estimated the level of patients’ anxiety and the expected intensity of pain. After the treatment, the patients evaluated the level of experienced pain and dentists’ empathy during the treatment, while dentists reassessed the intensity of patients’ pain.The data were statistically analysed by t-test for paired samples and by Spearmans’s Rho correlation coefficient at level of significance set at 0.05. Results: Patients’ expectation of pain intensity was higher than the actual pain during the treatment (t-test=3.540, p=0.001. There was no difference in the level of pain which dentists expected and their perception of pain during the procedure. There was a statistically significant correlation between the patients’ level of anxiety and recognition of it by dentists (Spearman Rho=0.460, p<0.001. A higher level of anxiety increased the expected intensity of pain (Spearman Rho=0.401, p=0.001. Actual intensity of pain was not significantly associated with dental anxiety (Spearman Rho=0.080, p=0.524. Conclusion: Since the level of dental anxiety was associated with the increased intensity of expected pain, a vicious cycle of pain and anxiety may be terminated by giving positive information to the patient before and during endodontic procedures.

  18. The cross-sectional study of anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Arslan Iqbal; Muhammad Waseem Abbas; Muhammad Zohaib Chaudhary; Muhammad Nouman Iqbal; Mohammad Sami Aleem; Rukhsar Javaid; Hasnain Ahmed; Taleea Younas; Faiza Maqsood; Fiza Fatima; Hafiz Hasnain Ahmed; Sana Mushtaq

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is defined as physical, behavioral, social and psychological response to treat self-concept characterized by subjective, consciously perceived feelings of tension. Nowadays anxiety is most commonly found among medical students. This study was conducted to find out the anxiety levels and ratio of severity of thirteen symptoms of anxiety. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted among 178 medical students which tests the level of anxiety and severity of symptom...

  19. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, Antonio de Pádua; Barros, Daniel Martins de; Valim, André; Gorenstein, Clarice

    2009-09-01

    To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. The emotional response of subjects was assessed by heart rate variation and anxiety level (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) after viewing standardized pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content from the International Affective Picture System. Psychopathic murderers presented lower anxiety levels and smaller heart rate variations when exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli than nonpsychopathic murderers or non-psychopathic non-criminals. The results also demonstrated that the higher the score for factor 1 on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the lower the heart rate variation and anxiety level. The results suggest that psychopathic murderers do not present variation in emotional response to different visual stimuli. Although the non-psychopathic murderers had committed the same type of crime as the psychopathic murderers, the former tended to respond with a higher level of anxiety and heart rate variation.

  20. Using Bayesian Networks to Understand Relationships among Math Anxiety, Genders, Personality Types, and Study Habits at a University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smail, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Mathematics is the foundation of all sciences, but most students have problems learning math. Although students' success in life related to their success in learning, many would not take a math course unless it is their university's core requirements. Multiple reasons exist for students' poor performance in mathematics, but one prevalent variable…

  1. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD undergo stress in coping with their child′s condition. Aim : To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Settings and Design : Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. Materials and Methods : One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Statistical Analysis : Chi-square test or unpaired student′s t-test was applied wherever applicable. Results : The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (±SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0, 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (±SD 4.75, range 0-21, mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (±SD 3.11, range 0-13, and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (±SD 2.05, range 0-10. Their common worries were related to child′s poor school performance (95%, child′s future (90%, child′s behavior (51%, and visits to our clinic (31%. Conclusion : Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  2. Anxiety levels in mothers of children with specific learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, S; Kumbhare, N; Kulkarni, M; Shah, N

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children with specific learning disability (SpLD) undergo stress in coping with their child's condition. To measure the levels of anxiety and find out the cause of anxiety in mothers of children with SpLD at time of diagnosis. Prospective rating-scale and interview-based study conducted in our clinic. One hundred mothers of children (70 boys, 30 girls) with SpLD were interviewed using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A) and a semi-structured questionnaire. Detailed clinical and demographic data of mothers were noted. Chi-square test or unpaired student's t-test was applied wherever applicable. The mean age of mothers was 40.14 years (+/-SD 4.94, range 25.07-54.0), 73% belonged to upper or upper middle socioeconomic strata of society, 67% were graduates or postgraduates, 58% were full-time home-makers, and 33% lived in joint families. Levels of anxiety were absent in 24%, mild in 75%, and moderate in 1% of mothers. Their mean total anxiety score was 5.65 (+/-SD 4.75, range 0-21), mean psychic anxiety score was 3.92 (+/-SD 3.11, range 0-13), and mean somatic anxiety score was 1.76 (+/-SD 2.05, range 0-10). Their common worries were related to child's poor school performance (95%), child's future (90%), child's behavior (51%), and visits to our clinic (31%). Most mothers of children with SpLD have already developed mild anxiety levels by the time this hidden disability is diagnosed. These anxieties should be addressed by counseling to ensure optimum rehabilitation of these children.

  3. Talking Math, Blogging Math

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    Talking Math, Blogging Math is a curriculum designed to aid middle school Pre- Algebra students' mathematical problem-solving through the use of academic language instruction, explanatory proofs, and online technology (blogging). Talking Math, Blogging Math was implemented over a period of ten weeks during the 2008 - 2009 school year. The school where the curriculum was implemented is a non-traditional classroom-based charter school. The 7th, 8th and 9th grade students attended class twice a ...

  4. Associations between HPA axis functioning and level of anxiety in children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallen, V. L.; Tulen, J. H. M.; Utens, E. M. W. J.; Treffers, P. D. A.; de Jong, F. H.; Ferdinand, R. F.

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis becomes active in response to stress. Hence, increased levels of anxiety in children and adolescents may be associated with changes in HPA-axis functioning. The aim of this study was to test if level of anxiety or specific anxiety disorders were

  5. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  6. The Anxiety Level of Caregivers of Neurological Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serel Arslan, Selen; Demir, Numan; Karaduman, A Ayşe

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to investigate anxiety level of caregivers of neurological patients with dysphagia, and the relationship of patient-related factors to anxiety level of dysphagia caregivers. A total of 103 adult neurological patients with dysphagia (study group), 30 without dysphagia (control group), and their primary caregivers were included. Types of feeding, condition of dependency in eating and drinking, dysphagia duration, and history of previous dysphagia treatment were recorded for study group. In study group, the Turkish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (T-EAT-10) was used to determine dysphagia symptom severity. Penetration and aspiration severity was determined with the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) that has two subscales including state anxiety (S-STAI) and trait anxiety (T-STAI) was used to determine anxiety level of caregivers. There was no difference between groups in terms of age, gender, weight, and height. The mean S-STAI was 42.56 ± 10.10 for the study group and 29.20 ± 6.64 for the control group (p dysphagia treatment (p = 0.01, r = 0.25). No correlation was found between STAI (in terms of both S-STAI and T-STAI) and T-EAT-10, PAS, types of feeding, condition of dependency in eating and drinking, dysphagia duration (p > 0.05). Caregivers of neurological patients with dysphagia have greater anxiety level than caregivers of neurological patients without dysphagia.

  7. Levels of depression and anxiety among parents of autistic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunay Firat

    2016-09-01

    Results: Participants in the study were parents of 26 male (65% and 14 female (35% autistic children. The average age of the children was 62.9+/-16.6 months. .Mothers had higher levels of depression and anxiety scores. Mothers of autistic children who participated in the study received higher scores on depression, state anxiety and trait anxiety compared to fathers. Among mothers, a significant relationship was found between level of education and level of state anxiety. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that mothers have higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to fathers. This finding might be explained with reference to customs and traditions of the Turkish society in which the study was conducted, which require women to take more responsiblity for family matters. It is recommended that special education and rehabilitation centers provide counseling to parents about the effects of having an autistic children on their lives, and advise them on seeking psychological help if necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 539-547

  8. Spirituality, Illness Unpredictability, and Math Anxiety Effects on Negative Affect and Affect-Management Coping for Individuals Diagnosed with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amber K; Parrott, Roxanne L; Smith, Rachel A

    2018-04-01

    A growing number of genetic tests are included in diagnostic protocols associated with many common conditions. A positive diagnosis associated with the presence of some gene versions in many instances predicts a range of possible outcomes, and the uncertainty linked to such results contributes to the need to understand varied responses and plan strategic communication. Uncertainty in illness theory (UIT; Mishel, 1988, 1990) guided the investigation of efforts to feel in control and hopeful regarding genetic testing and diagnosis for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Participants included 137 individuals with AATD recruited from the Alpha-1 Research Registry who were surveyed about their subjective numeracy, anxiety about math, spirituality, perceptions of illness unpredictability, negative affect regarding genetic testing, and coping strategies about a diagnosis. Results revealed that experiencing more fear and worry contributed both directly and indirectly to affect-management coping strategies, operating through individual perceptions of illness unpredictability. The inability to predict the symptoms and course of events related to a genetic illness and anxiety regarding math heightened fear and worry. Spirituality lessened both illness unpredictability and negative affective responses to a diagnosis. Results affirm the importance of clinician and counselor efforts to incorporate attention to patient spirituality. They also illustrate the complexity associated with strategic efforts to plan communication about the different versions of a gene's effects on well-being, when some versions align with mild health effects and others with severe effects.

  9. Teaching Math Their Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankersley, Karen

    1993-01-01

    Teachers at a K-8 urban school in Phoenix, Arizona, worked to develop an effective math program that generated student interest and positive self-esteem. They eventually set aside classroom and large enclosed porch area to house math manipulative lab, where children could learn new concepts at concrete level. Results are excitement about math and…

  10. An Investigation of Boys' and Girls' Emotional Experience of Math, Their Math Performance, and the Relation between These Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturan, Selin; Jansen, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in children's emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages 7-15 years). In Study 2, perceived math…

  11. An investigation of boys’ and girls’ emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erturan, S; Jansen, B.

    2015-01-01

    GGender differences in children’s emotional experience of math, their math performance, and the relation between these variables were investigated in two studies. In Study 1, test anxiety, math anxiety, and math performance (whole-number computation) were measured in 134 children in grades 3-8 (ages

  12. Anxiety Levels of Children Living in Intact, Single Parent, and Blended Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tammie D.; And Others

    Researchers have not yet been able to determine the effect of divorce on children's level of anxiety. Many studies suggest that divorce and remarriage can cause a great deal of anxiety in children. A study was conducted to determine if elementary, middle, and high school students differ in levels of state anxiety (level of anxiety at a particular…

  13. Effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance. Sixty-eight (68) volunteer male and female students who were randomly selected from different academic faculties at the University of Lagos participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 32 years, with body weights ...

  14. The Effects of Distraction on Preoperative Anxiety Level in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, Aynur; Doru, Özlem; Kucukoglu, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of distraction on the preoperative anxiety levels of pediatric patients. A prospective, two-group experimental design was used. This study was conducted in the clinic of pediatric surgery of a university hospital in Turkey between November 20, 2013 and January 25, 2014. The population of the study was composed of a total of 83 children (40 in the study group and 43 in the control group) who met the inclusion. The data were collected using the "Personal Information Form," "Separation Scoring," and "State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State Form." Distraction was performed on the children in the study group during the preoperative period. No intervention was applied to the children in the control group. The results of this study demonstrated that the separation scores and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children-State scores of the children in the study group, on whom distraction was applied, were lower than those of the control group. Distraction applied to children in the preoperative period significantly reduced anxiety and separation anxiety. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual Form Perception Can Be a Cognitive Correlate of Lower Level Math Categories for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jiaxin; Zhang, Yiyun; Cheng, Dazhi; Li, Dawei; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have assessed the cognitive correlates of performance in mathematics, but little research has been conducted to systematically examine the relations between visual perception as the starting point of visuospatial processing and typical mathematical performance. In the current study, we recruited 223 seventh graders to perform a visual form perception task (figure matching), numerosity comparison, digit comparison, exact computation, approximate computation, and curriculum-based mathematical achievement tests. Results showed that, after controlling for gender, age, and five general cognitive processes (choice reaction time, visual tracing, mental rotation, spatial working memory, and non-verbal matrices reasoning), visual form perception had unique contributions to numerosity comparison, digit comparison, and exact computation, but had no significant relation with approximate computation or curriculum-based mathematical achievement. These results suggest that visual form perception is an important independent cognitive correlate of lower level math categories, including the approximate number system, digit comparison, and exact computation. PMID:28824513

  16. [Anxiety level and its determinants in rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojs, Ewa; Ziarko, Michał; Kaczmarek, Łukasz; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic disease with many somatic, psychological and social consequences. Somatic consequences are connected mainly with increasing levels of negative emotions such as depression, anxiety and a tendency to react with anger to many daily life situations. Additionally, loss of hope has been reported as another effect of rheumatoid arthritis. The goal of the study was to describe anxiety levels and its determinants in RA patients. The study was carried out on 31 RA patients, 22 (71%) of whom were females and 9 (29%) of whom were males. The respondents were assessed with a set of questionnaires such as Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC), The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire - Revised (EPQ-R). We have found the relationship between anxiety as (1) a state and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.23, p = 0.09), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = -0.34, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.29, p = 0.03) and (2) anxiety as a trait and external locus of control - powerful others (tau-b = 0.40, p = 0.01), task - oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.36, p = 0.01), emotion-oriented style of coping (tau-b = 0.33, p = 0.02) and neuroticism levels (tau-b = 0.47, p = 0,01).

  17. Advanced Math Equals Career Readiness. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The equation is simple: No matter their background, students who take challenging math courses in high school get better jobs and earn more money throughout their entire lives. This paper stresses that: (1) Higher-level math opens doors for any and all postsecondary programs and keeps it open for advancement beyond entry-level jobs; and (2)…

  18. Employment of an Informal Educational Mathematical Facility to Lower Math Anxiety and Improve Teacher and Student Attitudes Towards Understanding Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Students do not pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) because of a lack of ability, but rather a lack of positive experiences with mathematics. Research has concluded that attitudes in math directly influence success in mathematics. As many as 75% of high school graduates in the United States suffer from mild to…

  19. The Impact of an Elementary Algebra Course on Success in a College-Level Liberal Arts Math Course and Persistence in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lori Ann

    2017-01-01

    Many students enter community college underprepared for college-level math and are placed into developmental elementary algebra without consideration if the algebra will provide a foundation for their needed college-level math course. Large percentages of those students are unable to succeed in the developmental course and, therefore, are unable…

  20. The Effectiveness of Distance Education across Virginia's Community Colleges: Evidence from Introductory College-Level Math and English Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna Smith

    2011-01-01

    Although online learning is rapidly expanding in the community college setting, there is little evidence regarding its effectiveness among community college students. In the current study, the authors used a statewide administrative data set to estimate the effects of taking one's first college-level math or English course online rather than face…

  1. Maths in Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.

  2. Quality of Life: Domains for Understanding Maths Anxiety in First Year Pre-Service Teachers through Identity Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics anxiety in primary pre-service teachers' affects their future teaching of mathematics and achievement of students. Data collected via Critical Incident Technique were used to investigate this anxiety as perceived and identified by first year pre-service teachers. This paper proposes the application of the Quality of Life conceptual…

  3. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers

    OpenAIRE

    Serafim,Antonio de Pádua; Barros,Daniel Martins de; Valim,André; Gorenstein,Clarice

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. METHOD: 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38); non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37) serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35) according to the Psychopathy Checklist-R...

  4. Completing the Remedial Sequence and College-Level Credit-Bearing Math: Comparing Binary, Cumulative, and Continuation Ratio Logistic Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics is the most common subject area of remedial need and the majority of remedial math students never pass a college-level credit-bearing math class. The majorities of studies that investigate this phenomenon are conducted at community colleges and use some type of regression model; however, none have used a continuation ratio model. The…

  5. The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN: Leveling the Playing Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Wenner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN is a set of online tutorials designed to help students develop and review mathematical skills that are applied in undergraduate geoscience courses. We present results of a three-year study of more than 4000 students in 106 geoscience courses at a variety of post-secondary schools who were assigned TMYN tutorials as supplemental mathematics instruction. Changes in student scores from pre- to post-test suggest that the support provided by programs such as TMYN can begin to reduce the gap between mathematically well-prepared and underprepared students; in essence, TMYN levels the quantitative playing field for all geoscience students. On average, both high- and low-performing students who fully participated in the use of TMYN as a part of their course showed learning gains, although gains were larger for students who performed poorly on the pre-test. Our findings emphasize the conclusion that students who interact with context-specific quantitative problems can potentially improve their mathematical skills, regardless of initial level of mathematical preparation. We suggest that this type of support could generalize to other science courses.

  6. Relationship between appetite levels and anxiety symptoms in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elihud Salazar

    2012-06-01

    Very poor or poor appetite level was associated with female sex, older age, lower creatinine, lower DRI, and higher anxiety symptoms. Intervention of anxiety with cognitive behavioral therapy could improve nutritional treatment among vulnerable patients.

  7. Maths in Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-01-01

    I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a ...

  8. Maths in Prison

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Catherine; Carr, Michael

    2015-01-01

    I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT). This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a p...

  9. Self-Concept Predicts Academic Achievement Across Levels of the Achievement Distribution: Domain Specificity for Math and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Chen, Meichu

    2017-09-18

    This study examines whether self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later math and reading attainment across different levels of achievement. Data from three large-scale longitudinal data sets, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, and Panel Study of Income Dynamics-Child Development Supplement, were used to answer this question by employing quantile regression analyses. After controlling for demographic variables, child characteristics, and early ability, the findings indicate that self-concept of ability in math and reading predicts later achievement in each respective domain across all quantile levels of achievement. These results were replicated across the three data sets representing different populations and provide robust evidence for the role of self-concept of ability in understanding achievement from early childhood to adolescence across the spectrum of performance (low to high). © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  11. Assessing the Difficulty Level of Math Board Games for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated differences in difficulty among three types of math board games used as curricular materials in some preschool classrooms. Difference in performance between low- and middle-income children on the three types of games was also explored. Children drew cards containing one to five large dots; they then attempted to place an…

  12. Problems in the Pipeline: Stereotype Threat and Women's Achievement in High-Level Math Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Catherine; Aronson, Joshua; Harder, Jayne Ann

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that negative stereotypes can undermine women's performance on mathematics tests. Despite considerable laboratory evidence for the role of "stereotype threat" in girls' and women's math test performance, the relevance of such findings for the "real world" gender test-score gap remains unclear and debates about causes focus…

  13. Affective and motivational factors mediate the relation between math skills and use of math in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.R.J.; Schmitz, E.A.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the use of math in everyday life (the propensity to recognize and solve quantitative issues in real life situations). Data from a Dutch nation-wide research on math among adults (N = 521) were used to investigate the question whether math anxiety and perceived math competence

  14. Turning Negatives into Positives: The Role of an Instructional Math Course on Preservice Teachers' Math Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Lisa; Perry, David; Steck, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs about mathematics can play a role in their teaching effectiveness (Bandura, 1993). Negative attitudes toward math (e.g., math anxiety) or low self-efficacy beliefs for teaching math can act as barriers to the teaching process, impacting the achievement and math beliefs of students (Beilock, Gunderson, Ramirez, & Levine, 2010;…

  15. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Uddin Raja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being competent in their field of work, professional’s worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life. The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons behind the anxiety level in undergraduate students of a public speaking class and recommend strategies to overcome this fear. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a sample of 50 students using convenience sampling technique from a reputable private sector business school in Karachi. The findings showed that students who fear public speaking can perform well if they use certain strategies to fight their fears. 75% participants admitted their fear of public speaking and 95% participants agreed that if proper counseling, instruction and coaching is provided, this fear can be overcome. Research revealed that exposure to virtual environment can facilitate student confidence and enables themto face audience irrespective of the size.

  16. Factors Affecting the Level of Test Anxiety among EFL Learners at Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Selami

    2013-01-01

    Many studies on test anxiety among adult language learners have been performed, while only a few studies have dealt with overall test anxiety. In addition, these studies do not specifically address test anxiety in foreign language learning among elementary school language learners. Thus, this study aims to investigate the level of test anxiety…

  17. Coping With Stress of Teacher Trainees With Different Levels of Computer Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Ceyhan, Esra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine whether levels and styles of coping with the stress of teacher trainees having low and high levels of computer anxiety across a number of variables. This research was carried out with 800 teacher trainees. Data were collected using the Computer Anxiety Scale, Coping With Stress Scale, and an Information Form. The results of the study indicate that the computer anxiety levels of teacher trainees differentiate levels and styles of coping with stress. It was f...

  18. Examination of Athletes' Anxiety, Motivation, Imagination Value in Competitions with Different Severity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallayici, Mustafa; Eroglu Kolayis, Ipek; Kesilmis, Inci; Kesilmis, Mehmet Melih

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine athletes' anxiety, motivation, and imagination value in competitions with different severity level. The research was conducted on swimming athlete in elite level 18 female and 19 male totally 37. To measure the level of imagination, imagine inventory in sports and to measure trait anxiety levels STAI were…

  19. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at your home, feeling a bit worried about getting everything done on time can help you focus and finish the job. This kind of anxiety is a normal response to stress. But too much anxiety is another thing. It’s not normal and it’s not helpful. You ...

  20. Anxiety levels in employees and students in psychiatric nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Bole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several research finding indicate that nursing care professionals are often faced with situations which may lead to anxiety. The aim of the present research was to determine the prevalence and typical signs of anxiety among nursing employees and nursing students in psychiatric settings. Methods: The Burns Anxiety Inventory was used as an assessment tool to measure anxiety. The research sample consisted of 242 participants. The data collected were processed by the descriptive statistics, Leveneʹs test, the ANOVA statistical test, the Welchʹs t-test, and the post hoc analysis. Pearsonʹs correlation coefficient was used to measure the strength of the association between the variables. Results: The results of the current study show that nearly half of the participants experience anxiety, but the differences were noted as regards their anxiety thoughts (p = 0.039. Anxiety feelings are more prevalent in female students (p = 0.046. Habitual smokers (p = 0.030 and casual smokers (p = 0.020 are more likely to develop anxious feelings and physical signs of anxiety. The anxiety signs are also more pronounced in the respondents with self-assessed lower economic status (p = 0.001 and poor self-rated health (p = 0.0001. Discussion and conclusion: The professionals and students in psychiatric nursing often encounter situations conducive to the development of anxiety. Further studies on the current topic are therefore recommended to design adequate educational programmes to timely recognise anxiety symptoms and to implement mutual and self-help measure.

  1. Comparisons of Test Anxiety Level of Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test anxiety has been noted to be a common experience among students and has been found to have a debilitating effect on academic performance and general well-being of affected people. Despite the universality of the experience, the manifestation of test anxiety varies across some psychosocial and demographic ...

  2. Evaluation of Fathers\\' Anxiety Level in the First 8 Weeks after Mothers\\' Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Maleki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pregnancy and transition to parenthood lead to major psychological and social changes in women and men. This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the fathers' anxiety level in the first 8 weeks after mothers' delivery. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study with stratified random sampling method, the anxiety level was evaluated in 403 fathers. The data collection tools were demographic characteristics questionnaire and standard State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S with cutoff of 45, which were completed after obtaining a written informed consent from each participant. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression model at 95% level of confidence. Results: The mean state and trait anxiety scores of fathers' were 34.04±9.24 and 34.57±9.80, respectively. Approximately 14% of the fathers had state and 15% had trait anxiety. There was a significant relationship between state anxiety of fathers and their income, and between trait anxiety and age, occupation, and having insurance. Fathers' anxiety level decreased with increasing age. the odds of having trait anxiety was higher in men with low education and no insurance. Conclusion: Considering the increasing level of fathers’ anxiety after mothers' delivery compared to the general population and its relationship with individual and social factors, it seems necessary to improve social supports, especially for young men.

  3. The Evaluation of Anxiety Levels and Determinant Factors in Preoperative Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Cevik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Preoperative anxiety is a prevalent concern with negative effects on perioperative period but is usually ignored. The objectives of this study are to identify the preoperative anxiety levels of surgical patients and to evaluate the associated factors affecting this level. Methods: One hundred volunteer patients scheduled for elective surgery were included the study. Data were collected by using “Personal Information Form “and “State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-I”. Evaluations were based on a significance level of p<0.05. Results: The percentage of female to male patients was 48% and 52%. The mean anxiety levels of both gender were 42.46 ± 8.95 and 42.10 ± 9.49 respectively (p=0.85. There was no difference between females and males in terms of anxiety. Age, occupational condition, marital status, and education level was not found as determinant factors on preoperative anxiety levels. Male individuals of large families were more anxious than the others, but this difference was not significant (p=0.11. Previous surgical experience was not a predictive factor for preoperative anxiety. The anxiety level was significantly high in men using cigarette and alcohol (p<0.01. Fear, apprehension, and stress was highly related with high level of anxiety, but insecurity and inexperience were not a predicting factor. The anxiety levels of cool patients were significantly lower than the others (p<0.01. Conclusions: Preoperative anxiety is a multifactorial issue and must be good handled. The aim must be based on reduction strategies. It must be considered that preoperative information is the best way to decrease preoperative anxiety.

  4. An Informed Approach to Improving Quantitative Literacy and Mitigating Math Anxiety in Undergraduates Through Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follette, K.; McCarthy, D.

    2012-08-01

    Current trends in the teaching of high school and college science avoid numerical engagement because nearly all students lack basic arithmetic skills and experience anxiety when encountering numbers. Nevertheless, such skills are essential to science and vital to becoming savvy consumers, citizens capable of recognizing pseudoscience, and discerning interpreters of statistics in ever-present polls, studies, and surveys in which our society is awash. Can a general-education collegiate course motivate students to value numeracy and to improve their quantitative skills in what may well be their final opportunity in formal education? We present a tool to assess whether skills in numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in astronomy. Initial classroom applications define the magnitude of this problem and indicate that significant improvements are possible. Based on these initial results we offer this tool online and hope to collaborate with other educators, both formal and informal, to develop effective mechanisms for encouraging all students to value and improve their skills in basic numeracy.

  5. Electrochromic Radiator Coupon Level Testing and Full Scale Thermal Math Modeling for Use on Altair Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Erika T.; Bower, Chad E.; Sheth, Rubik; Stephan, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    In order to control system and component temperatures, many spacecraft thermal control systems use a radiator coupled with a pumped fluid loop to reject waste heat from the vehicle. Since heat loads and radiation environments can vary considerably according to mission phase, the thermal control system must be able to vary the heat rejection. The ability to "turn down" the heat rejected from the thermal control system is critically important when designing the system. Electrochromic technology as a radiator coating is being investigated to vary the amount of heat rejected by a radiator. Coupon level tests were performed to test the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, thermal math models were developed to better understand the turndown ratios required by full scale radiator architectures to handle the various operation scenarios encountered during a mission profile for the Altair Lunar Lander. This paper summarizes results from coupon level tests as well as the thermal math models developed to investigate how electrochromics can be used to increase turn down ratios for a radiator. Data from the various design concepts of radiators and their architectures are outlined. Recommendations are made on which electrochromic radiator concept should be carried further for future thermal vacuum testing.

  6. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  7. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Hart

    Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  8. Level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khan, I.; Bashir, M.S.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior among young female athletes. Methodology: A questionnaire based survey was undertaken among 71 athletes (15-25 years old) athletes from University of Lahore and Lahore College for Women University. Then the level of anxiety and disordered eating behavior calculated. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: Out of 71 athletes, 56 (78.87%) had anxiety due to eating disorder and 15 (21.12%) had no eating disorder. And 67 (94.3%) athletes had raised anxiety levels while 3 (4.2%) had no anxiety. Conclusion: Dieting behavior and binge eating that prompted eating disorder are the main cause of anxiety among young female athletes. (author)

  9. EXAMINING HOW WHEELCHAIR BASKETBALL PLAYERS’ SELF-ESTEEM AND MOTIVATION LEVELS IMPACT ON THEIR STATE AND TRAIT ANXIETY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kolayis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine how wheelchair basketball players’ self-esteem and motivation levels impact on their state and trait anxiety levels. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Sport Motivation Scale and STAI (State Trait Anxiety Inventory were applied to the athletes before a competition. Data were collected from 124 athletes with disabilities. In this study, descriptive statistical techniques, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis (enter method were used. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, all of which function as predicting variables, predicted 42% variance in state anxiety and 50% variance in trait anxiety. Motivation and self-esteem are the best predictors of trait and state anxiety among the premier league wheelchair basketball players. Finally, a review of factors that impact on anxiety and quality of performance such as motivation and self-esteem is provided.

  10. Anxiety and depression levels among multidisciplinary health residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Salvagni Rotta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess symptoms of anxiety and depression of professionals of Multidisciplinary Health Residence Programs. Methods: this is a cross-sectional study, performed with fifty professionals, using three instruments: one for socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Beck’s Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: predominance of females (92.0%, average age 26 years old, single (88.0%, family income from two to five salaries (56.0% satisfied with the work (82.0% and thought about quitting the program (56.0% showed anxiety (50.0% and depression (28.0%. Conclusion: there was an association between anxiety and depression in multidisciplinary residents, which points to the need for rethinking strategies for identifying these symptoms and control of stress factors for the promotion of mental health.

  11. Depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, H; Erkin, G; Nalbant, L

    2013-12-01

    Studies investigating depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with CP and related factors are limited, and controversial findings are reported in these studies. The study was aimed to determine depression and anxiety levels in mothers of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to define factors related to depression and anxiety levels. A descriptive study. Outpatient physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic of an education and research hospital. The study was composed of two groups: group 1, 116 mothers of children with CP and group 2, 114 mothers of healthy children. Mothers of children with spastic-type CP were included into group 1. Functional levels in children with CP were investigated with The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Depression levels of mothers in both groups were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and anxiety levels with Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). BDI and BAI scores were statistically and significantly higher in group 1, compared to group 2. Among mothers in group 1, a positive correlation was determined between GMFCS score, and depression and anxiety levels. However, no correlation was detected between depression and anxiety levels, and body involvement of CP, education status, age and economic level among patients. In logistic regression analysis, the most significant risk factors of depressive symptoms were detected to be GMFCS score and speech defects. Our findings indicate that depression and anxiety levels of mothers with CP children are higher than those with healthy children and associated with speech defects and functional disability levels in children with CP. Healthcare professionals should take into account that depression and anxiety levels may be higher in mothers of children with CP. For an effective rehabilitation program related to children with CP, depression and anxiety levels in mothers of such children should be taken into account, and mothers should closely be followed and if

  12. Academic level and student’s faculty as factors of test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel E. Oladipo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Test anxiety as a prominent problem among students has been a focus of study for decades now, with studies focusing more on such factors as age, gender and study habit in relation to test anxiety. There is a dearth of literature in respect of such factors as academic level and student’s faculty in relation to test anxiety among undergraduates. The focus of the present study therefore, was to investigate academic level and students’ faculty as factors predicting test anxiety among undergraduates in Nigeria. Using simple random sampling technique, a total of 197(126 males and 71 females undergraduates participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30years (M=21.6,SD=2.68.Four hypotheses were tested with Pearson Product moment correlation and Multiple regression analysis. The results revealed that academic level and students’ faculty had no correlation with test anxiety. Moreover, the result of the multiple regression analysis showed that academic level and students’ faculty have no independent and joint influence on test anxiety. It was concluded that irrespective of student’s academic level and faculty, test anxiety is unavoidable. Other factors might be responsible for student test anxiety especially among undergraduates Nigeria. It is therefore recommend that more research should be conducted in this area so as to determine the salient factors that predict test anxiety.

  13. Analysis of Scientific Research Related Anxiety Levels of Undergraduate Students'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Sefa; Hasiloglu, Mehmet Akif

    2018-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the scientific research-related anxiety levels of the undergraduate students studying in the department of faculty of science and letters and faculty of education to analyse these anxiety levels in terms of various variables (students' gender, using web based information sources, going to the library,…

  14. The Impact of Pathological Levels of Internet-Related Anxiety on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Joiner, Richard; Gavin, Jeff; Crook, Charles; Maras, Pam; Guiller, Jane; Scott, Adrian J.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the use of the Internet during the first year of university education of students who have pathological levels of Internet anxiety with those who do not. Two hundred and sixteen first year psychology students (females 184, males 32) were surveyed for their levels of Internet-related anxiety, from which 12 (5.6%) were…

  15. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Es...

  16. Modern maths

    CERN Multimedia

    Thom,R

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. R. Thom expose ses vues sur l'enseignement des mathématiques modernes et des mathémathiques de toujours. Il est un grand mathématicien et était professeur à Strasbourg; maintenant il est professeur de hautes études scientifiques et était invité par le Prof. Piaget à Genève

  17. Raised Anxiety Levels Among Outpatients Preparing to Undergo a Medical Imaging Procedure: Prevalence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Kristy L; Boyes, Allison W; Carey, Mariko L; Hall, Alix E; Symonds, Michael; Brown, Sandy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W

    2018-04-01

    To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and sociodemographic, health, and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in the outpatient medical imaging department at a major public hospital in Australia, with institutional board approval. Adult outpatients undergoing a medical imaging procedure (CT, x-ray, MRI, ultrasound, angiography, or fluoroscopy) completed a preprocedural survey. Anxiety was measured by the short-form state scale of the six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI: Y-6). The number and percentage of participants who reported raised anxiety levels (defined as a STAI: Y-6 score ≥ 33.16) and their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry were calculated. Characteristics associated with raised anxiety were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 548 (86%) patients who consented to participate, 488 (77%) completed all STAI: Y-6 items. Half of the participants (n = 240; 49%) experienced raised anxiety, and of these, 48% (n = 114) reported feeling most anxious or worried about the possible results. Female gender, imaging modality, medical condition, first time having the procedure, and lower patient-perceived health status were statistically significantly associated with raised anxiety levels. Raised anxiety is common before medical imaging procedures and is mostly attributed to the possible results. Providing increased psychological preparation, particularly to patients with circulatory conditions or neoplasms or those that do not know their medical condition, may help reduce preprocedural anxiety among these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors Affecting the State Anxiety Level of Higher Education Students in Macau: The Impact of Trait Anxiety and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Yan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the levels of anxiety of 589 day- and night-class students in higher education in Macau two weeks before the final examination period. The Chinese version of the 40-item Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch & Lusherier, 1970) was applied in this study. The two anxiety scales are…

  19. A study of statistics anxiety levels of graduate dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Paul S; Jacks, Mary E; Smiley, Lynn A; Walden, Carolyn E; Clark, William D; Nguyen, Carol A

    2015-02-01

    In light of increased emphasis on evidence-based practice in the profession of dental hygiene, it is important that today's dental hygienist comprehend statistical measures to fully understand research articles, and thereby apply scientific evidence to practice. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate statistics anxiety among graduate dental hygiene students in the U.S. A web-based self-report, anonymous survey was emailed to directors of 17 MSDH programs in the U.S. with a request to distribute to graduate students. The survey collected data on statistics anxiety, sociodemographic characteristics and evidence-based practice. Statistic anxiety was assessed using the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale. Study significance level was α=0.05. Only 8 of the 17 invited programs participated in the study. Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale data revealed graduate dental hygiene students experience low to moderate levels of statistics anxiety. Specifically, the level of anxiety on the Interpretation Anxiety factor indicated this population could struggle with making sense of scientific research. A decisive majority (92%) of students indicated statistics is essential for evidence-based practice and should be a required course for all dental hygienists. This study served to identify statistics anxiety in a previously unexplored population. The findings should be useful in both theory building and in practical applications. Furthermore, the results can be used to direct future research. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. EFFECT OF SPIRITUAL NURSING CARE ON THE LEVEL OF ANXIETY IN PATIENTS WITH STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Trihandini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety in stroke patients occurs as a normal reaction to stress with life changes; however, when it becomes excessive, It becomes disabling. Effort to deal with anxiety is needed and spiritual approach nursing care is considered useful in caring patients with stroke. Objective: To examine the effect of spiritual nursing care on anxiety in stroke patients in the inpatient ward. Methods: This study used a quasy experimental design with pretest-postest control group. Thirty respondents were selected using consecutive sampling, which 15 respondents assigned in the experiment and control group. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale was used to measure anxiety. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results: The results showed that the mean level of anxiety in the experiment group before intervention was 29.33 and decreased to 9 after intervention, while in the control group the mean level of anxiety before intervention was 29.47 and decreased to 17.73 after intervention. Paired t-test obtained p-value 0.000 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a significant effect of spiritual nursing care on anxiety levels in patients with stroke. Conclusion: Spiritual nursing care could reduce anxiety in patients with stroke.

  1. Effect of physical activity on anxiety levels in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Janik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a very important period in a woman's life, but it is often associated not only with positive emotions, but also with negative emotions such as anxiety, stress or depression. Women most often fear birth and various medical complications during pregnancy. Very often their unpleasant experiences at the beginning such as nausea, fatigue and strong anxiety cause them to give up their physical activity. Numerous studies show that the physical activity of pregnant women has a positive impact on mother and child health. First and foremost, it is a powerful preventive agent in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, but also has a beneficial effect on the well-being of future mothers, including lowering anxiety and lowering the incidence of postpartum depression. That is why it is so important to educate pregnant women what exercises are most beneficial for them.

  2. Anxiety level and self-esteem in youth with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the research was to compare youth with cerebral palsy (CP and healthy individuals in terms of self-esteem and anxiety level, and to evaluate the relation between self-esteem and anxiety in both study groups. Participants and procedure The study included 30 individuals with CP and 30 healthy individuals, aged 16 to 22 years. The anxiety level was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, while self-esteem was assessed using Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (SES and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI. Results No significant differences between youth with CP and healthy teenagers were observed in terms of anxiety level as a state or trait, global self-esteem and all the indicators of self-efficacy: family, friends, college, personal and the overall indicator of the sense of self-efficacy. State anxiety correlates with nearly all indicators of self-esteem in youth with CP, except for the sense of self-esteem in the family, although the control group also lacked that correlation. As far as trait anxiety is concerned, the values of correlations are higher and the relation seems to be more likely in the group with CP. Conclusions Youth with CP function like their healthy peers in terms of the anxiety level and self-esteem. The correlation between state anxiety and the dimensions of self-esteem in youth with CP suggests that their self-esteem is lower and more dependent on situational factors, especially anxiety-related ones, and the low level of trait anxiety suggested high self-esteem of an individual.

  3. Analysis of Depression and Anxiety Levels in Patients with Dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Kayhan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of anxiety and depression in a sample of elderly patients with chronic respiratory failure and the relationships between these comorbidities and the severity of dyspnea. Material and Method: Sixty-four consecutive inpatients with asthma and chronic obstructive disease were evaluated in a chest disease hospital. A questionnaire including sociodemographic features was applied to patients and healthy control group. Anxiety was assessed by Spielberg state and trait anxiety scale, and depression by Beck depression inventory. Spirometric tests, respiratory symptoms and severity of dyspnea were evaluated in the study group. Results: The mean age of study group was 67.28±9.13 (range between 50-88 years. Of those 22 (34.4% were females and 42 (65.6% were males. The mean Beck depression inventory scores of the group was 18.42±10.00 (range between 5-47, the mean Spielberg’s state anxiety score was 40.20±8.13 and the mean Spielberg’s trait score was 44.70±7.94 these results were close to control group. Depression with Beck depression inventory scores was diagnosed in 24 (37.5%, absent or mild depression in 40 (62.5%, moderate depression in 13 (20.3% and severe depression in 11 (17.2% patients. There was a relation between age and depression scores (p=0.022. Depression scores, Spielberg’s state and trait inventory scores were found statistically related with each other. Discussion: The results of the present study support that anxiety and depressive disorders are found with a high incidence in patients with respiratory impairments but the severity of dyspnea measures does not affect the scores of depression and anxiety.

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  5. Math Safari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Vaunda; Stanko, Anne

    1992-01-01

    Describes Math Safari, a mathematical, scientific, geographic, informational adventure for fourth grade students. It integrates all curriculum areas and other skills by using information children must find in books to pose math problems about animals. It encourages cooperative learning, critical reading, analysis, and use of research skills. (SM)

  6. Listening to music during electromyography does not influence the examinee's anxiety and pain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Drory, Vivian E

    2014-09-01

    Listening to music is a low-cost intervention that has demonstrated ability to reduce pain and anxiety levels in various medical procedures. Subjects undergoing electrophysiological examinations were randomized into a music-listening group and a control group. Visual analog scales were used to measure anxiety and pain levels during the procedure. Thirty subjects were randomized to each group. No statistically significant difference was found in anxiety or pain levels during the procedure between groups. However, most subjects in the music-listening group reported anxiety and pain reduction and would prefer to hear music in a future examination. Although listening to music during electrophysiological examinations did not reduce anxiety or pain significantly, most subjects felt a positive effect and would prefer to hear music; therefore, we suggest that music may be offered optionally in the electromyography laboratory setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Examination of Occupational Anxiety Levels and Academic Self-Efficacy of Physical Education Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlevan, Zeka; Mustu,Eda; Çepikkurt, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at determining the occupational anxiety level of pre-service physical education teachers according to variables, and revealing the correlation between occupational anxiety and academic self-efficacy. Study group consists of 586 pre-service teachers from 10 different universities in Turkey. Data is collected by "Occupational…

  8. An Investigation of Music Teacher Candidates' Performance Anxiety Levels in Piano Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2018-01-01

    Examination anxiety in piano education, one of the important courses in music education, can negatively affect both success in examinations and the education of students. This study aimed to determine the anxiety levels of students in the music education departments of universities in western Turkey regarding their piano examinations and their…

  9. Anxiety Level in Students of Public Speaking: Causes and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Despite being competent in their field of work, professional's worldwide struggle due to lack of good public speaking skills. Their assessments and appraisals are often not depictive of their professional competitiveness; therefore, it is important for students to overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to…

  10. Level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Syusyuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Object of research – to determine level of biogenic amines in pregnant women with psycho-emotional disorders stipulated by anxiety. Group of examined women and methods of research. 90 Pregnant women were examined in ІІ and ІІІ trimester of pregnancy. The main group includes 58 pregnant women with the medium and high level of state anxiety and 32 pregnant women with anxiety level of 30 points and less that indicates the low level of SA (control group. For estimation of the state anxiety and trait anxiety the scale of Spielberger-Hanin was used. Level of serotonin and melatonin was measured with fluorometric method in blood hemolysate of pregnant women. Results. According to the obtained results of biochemical research of hemolysate of packed red cells of blood of examined women it was stated that increase of state anxiety was accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin level and decrease of melatonin level. Thus, special features have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index. Pregnant women of the main group have the index which was 2.5 times higher than the same index in women of the control group. Conclusions. Results of performed research among pregnant women have indicated that increase of state anxiety is accompanied by statistically reliable (p < 0.05 rise of serotonin content in blood and statistically reliable (p < 0.05 decrease of melatonin. Such results have direct influence on increase (p < 0.05 of serotonin/melatonin index in pregnant women with medium and high levels of state anxiety comparing to the certain index in women with the low level of anxiety.

  11. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of NOC Outcomes "Anxiety Level" and "Anxiety Self-Control" in a Portuguese Outpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Francisco Miguel Correia; Araújo, Odete Sofia Silva Lomba; Sequeira, Carlos Alberto da Cruz; Lluch Canut, María Teresa; Martins, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    To adopt the language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of "Anxiety level" and "Anxiety self-control" NOC outcomes in Portuguese adult patients. Methodological design. The final European Portuguese version of the NOC outcome "Anxiety level," composed by 16 indicators, proved excellent internal consistency. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was forced to three factors. The NOC outcome "Anxiety self-control," composed of nine indicators, demonstrated a questionable internal consistency. EFA was forced to two factors. European Portuguese versions of the studied NOC outcomes proved to be tools with acceptable psychometric properties for evaluating anxiety in Portuguese patients. This study contributed to the development of NOC language and to the enrichment of nursing's body of knowledge. Adaptar a linguagem e avaliar as propriedades psicométricas dos resultados NOC "Nível de ansiedade" e "Autocontrolo da ansiedade" em utentes portugueses adultos. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico. A versão portuguesa do resultado NOC "Nível de ansiedade", composta por 16 indicadores, apresentou uma excelente consistência interna. A análise fatorial exploratória (AFE) foi forçada a três dimensões. O resultado NOC "Autocontrolo da ansiedade", composto por nove indicadores, apresentou uma consistência interna questionável. A AFE foi forçada a duas dimensões. CONCLUSÕES: As versões portuguesas dos resultados NOC estudados são instrumentos com propriedades psicométricas aceitáveis para avaliar a ansiedade em utentes portugueses. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA DE ENFERMAGEM: Este estudo contribuiu para o desenvolvimento da linguagem NOC e para enriquecer o corpo de conhecimento de Enfermagem. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  12. Advanced Math: Closing the Equity Gap. Math Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    Minority and low-income students are less likely to have access to, enroll in and succeed in higher-level math courses in high school than their more advantaged peers. Under these circumstances, higher-level math courses function not as the intellectual and practical boost they should be, but as a filter that screens students out of the pathway to…

  13. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.

  14. State-trait anxiety levels during pregnancy and foetal parameters following intervention with music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, J; Ventura-Miranda, M I; Requena-Mullor, M; Parron-Carreño, T; Alarcon-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-01

    Research indicates that anxiety during pregnancy may be a risk factor for the development of alterations in the mental health of the pregnant woman and of obstetric complications. to investigate the effect of music therapy on maternal anxiety, before and after a non-stress test (NST), and the effect of maternal anxiety on the birthing process and birth size. 409 nulliparous women coming for routine prenatal care were randomized in the third trimester to receive either music therapy (n = 204) or no music therapy (n = 205) during an NST. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory before and after the NST. After the NST, the women from the music group showed significantly lower scores in state anxiety (OR = 0.87; p < 0.001) as well as trait anxiety (p < 0.001) than the control group. Furthermore, the pregnant women from the music group presented lower levels of state-trait anxiety than the control group in relation to the variables of birth process, and higher birth weight and chest circumference in the newborn (OR = 3.5 and OR = 0.81, respectively; p < 0.05). This study was limited by the fact that it was a single-centre study; the observers conducting the NST were not blinded to the allocation, although neither midwife had any knowledge of the maternal anxiety scores, and we could not apply the double-blind method due to the nature of the observation. Our findings confirm that music therapy intervention during pregnancy could reduce elevated state-trait anxiety levels during the third trimester. Further research into the influence of music therapy as intervention on maternal anxiety and on the birthing process and birth size is required during pregnancy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Neurocognitive Function on Math Computation in Pediatric ADHD: Moderating Influences of Anxious Perfectionism and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Alexandra; Rozenman, Michelle; Piacentini, John C; McGough, James J; Loo, Sandra K; McCracken, James T

    2018-03-20

    Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed. Auditory-verbal working memory speed significantly predicted math computation. A three-way interaction revealed that at low levels of anxious perfectionism, slower processing speed predicted poorer math computation for boys compared to girls. These findings indicate the uniquely predictive values of auditory-verbal working memory and processing speed on math computation, and their differential moderation. These findings provide preliminary support that gender and anxious perfectionism may influence the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and academic achievement.

  16. Math Stuff

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2002-01-01

    Whether it's stuff in your kitchen or garden, stuff that powers your car or your body, stuff that helps you work, communicate or play, or stuff that you've never heard of you can bet that mathematics is there. MATH STUFF brings it all in the open in the Pappas style. Not many people think of mathematics as fascinating, exciting and invaluable. Yet Pappas writes about math ideas in such a way that conveys its often overlooked fascination, excitement, and worth. MATH STUFF deals with 38 topics in an non-threatening way that piques our curiosities. Open the book at random, and learn about such to

  17. Effect of music on level of anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chia-Hui; Chen, Yi-Yu; Wu, Kuan-Ta; Wang, Shu-Chi; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Yu-Yin; Lin, Chia-I; Kuo, Hsiang-Ju; Dai, Chia-Yen; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan

    2017-03-01

    Listening to music can be a noninvasive method for reducing the anxiety level without any adverse effects. The aim of this study was to explore whether music can reduce anxiety and to compare two different styles of music, informal classical music and light music, to ascertain the more effective style of music in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy without sedation. This study enrolled 138 patients who underwent colonoscopy without sedation during a general health examination from February 2009 to January 2015. The patients were randomly assigned to a group that did not listen to music, a group that listened to music by David Tolley, or a group that listened to music by Kevin Kern. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to evaluate the status of anxiety. A trend test for mild anxiety was performed on the patients in the three groups, and a significant trend was noted (p=0.017 for all patients; p=0.014 for analysis by sex). Multivariate analysis for mild anxiety on the patients in each group was also performed in this study, and music by Kevin Kern was found to have the lowest odds ratio (Odds ratio=0.34, p=0.045). Listening to music, especially music by Kevin Kern, reduced the level of anxiety in patients undergoing colonoscopy examination without sedation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  18. Profile of brazilian dental students and its relationship to anxiety levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayane Cavalcante Ferreira da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the profile of dental students and its relationship to anxiety levels. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was applied to 207 first- to fifth-year undergraduates enrolled in the dentistry program at the School of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceará, Brazil. Participants were aged 17 to 29 years, and the maiority were women (57.5%. Students had a weekly workload of up to 40 hours and performed at least two complementary activities, in addition to their undergraduate training. Almost all students (95.7% had attended private high schools and 80.6% lived with their parents or spouses. Regarding parental education, 59.4% of mothers and 55.6% of fathers had a higher education degree. Most students showed medium levels of anxiety according to measurements of state anxiety (53.1% and trait anxiety (81.6%. It can be concluded that more than 50% of students in the Dentistry graduation course of the Federal University of Ceará showed an average level of anxiety, and that the excessive workload and enrichment activities necessary to obtain the undergraduate degree in Dentistry probably can be influencing the anxiety levels of students, however, more studies and statistical tests should be performed to identify the root causes in order to preserve the mental health of these future dentists.

  19. The impact of age on anxiety level and cognitive function in patients with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Stilidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer is highly prevalent in Russia, especially among the elderly patients. We analyzed the influence of age on anxiety level and cognitive function on patients with colorectal cancer.Materials and methods. In the period 2012–2015 we analyzed pre-operatively the level of anxiety (HADS scale and cognitive disfunction (MoCA test in 244 patients who underwent radical colorectal resection.Results. Patients younger than 60 constituted 34 %, 60–74 years – 31 %, 75 years and older – 35 %. We were able to show a correlation between age and anxiety level according to HADS. The same trend was found according to MoCA test.Conclusion. Oncopsychologist shall develop individualized treatment plan according to anxiety and cognitive levels in patients with colorectal cancer.

  20. The Effect of Provision of Information Regarding Infertility Treatment Strategies on Anxiety Level of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hamdieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may have many emotional and psychological implications on infertilecouples. So far, different methods for reducing anxiety in infertile couples have been evaluated. Thegoal of this study is to evaluate the effect of provision of information regarding infertility treatmentto infertile couples on their anxiety levels.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a before and after clinical trial. Forty-twoindividuals were considered as cases and 40 as controls. In order to evaluate anxiety and depressionin participants, the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire was used. Theintervention group received information about infertility treatment through a two hour face-to-facemeeting and was provided with a brochure. Anxiety level was assessed at the time of admission,immediately after the session and two weeks later. Assessment was performed twice for the controlgroup; once at the time of admission and secondly, two weeks later.Results: Our results show that receiving information about infertility treatment significantlydecreases anxiety among infertile couples two weeks post-training. This decline does not have asignificant correlation with age, sex, education level of the couple, and neither with the durationnor the cause of infertility. Providing information does not have any significant effect on the rate ofdepression among couples.Conclusion: It is recommended that provision of information regarding infertility treatmentmethods should be considered as a means of decreasing anxiety among infertile couples who referto infertility treatment centers.

  1. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.

  2. Survey of Anxiety Levels and Its Relation to Students Demographic of Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Norouzinia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.

  3. Making the case for STEM integration at the upper elementary level: A mixed methods exploration of opportunity to learn math and science, teachers' efficacy and students' attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brianna M.

    Student achievement in science and math has been linked to per capita gross domestic product (GDP) growth propagating the belief that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education is an important factor in economic prosperity. However, The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), favors math over science, positioning the subjects as competitors rather than collaborators. Additionally, NCLB focuses almost exclusively on the cognitive outcome of students' achievement with the affective outcome of students' attitudes being nearly ignored. Positive attitudes toward science and math early on are essential for subsequent and cumulative decisions students make in taking courses, choosing majors, and pursuing careers. Positioning students' attitudes as a desirable educational outcome comparable to students' achievement is an emerging goal in the literature. Using the case of one school district in south-central Pennsylvania with three elementary schools, 15 upper elementary teachers, and 361 students, the purpose of this study was to better understand influences on upper elementary students' attitudes toward STEM (SA) subjects and careers. The study aimed to explore two influences on SA, opportunity to learn (OTL) and teacher's efficacy (TE), in the comparative contexts of math and science. The studied employed a mixed methods convergent design in which five data sets from four sources were collected over three phases to triangulate three constructs: OTL, TE, and SA. The goal of the study was to offer recommendations to the case school district for enhancing OTL, TE, and thus SA. Findings regarding OTL revealed that the opportunity to learn science was lower than math. Finding regarding TE revealed that outcome expectancy was lower than personal teaching efficacy in both science and math; and, teachers had low STEM career awareness, STEM integration, and technology use. Findings regarding SA revealed a lower perceived usefulness of science compared to math

  4. Stress, Anxiety and Depression Levels Among Elderly Referrals to Tehran Elderly Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham Ghafari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stress and anxiety have well–known effects in the pathogenesis of many physical and mental disorders. Aging adults are vulnerable to the effects of a negative stressor factors so, this study aims to investigate the level of stress anxiety and depression among the elderly referred to elderly clubs of Tehran in 2009. Methods & Materials: This is a cross-sectional study carried out on 104 aging adults, selected from elderly clubs of Tehran on 2009. Depression, Anxiety and Stress questionnaires (DASS-21, were filled out for this group. Finally obtained data was statistically analyzed by means of SPSS15 using T- test and One Way ANOVA at the significant level P≤0.05. Results: Of the total subjects under study 24% were male, and 76% female, with a mean age of 63.37±4.32 and 65.08±4.82 years respectively. The proportion of women with high anxiety score was higher than men. There were also higher anxiety levels in illness people (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study on depression, anxiety and stress as an indicator of lifestyle reveals high stress levels in the elderly population, which warrants appropriate planning and community-based interventions, to improve lifestyle and reduce stress level in aging adults.

  5. Early Math Interest and the Development of Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Paige H.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Arnold, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Prior models suggest that math attitudes and ability might strengthen each other over time in a reciprocal fashion (Ma, 1997). The current study investigated the relationship between math interest and skill both concurrently and over time in a preschool sample. Analyses of concurrent relationships indicated that high levels of interest were…

  6. Test anxiety levels and related factors: students preparing for university exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Ayse Sonay; Balci, Serap; Kose, Dilek

    2014-11-01

    To assess test anxiety levels and related factors among students preparing for university exams. The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at Istanbul University, Turkey, and comprised students preparing for exams in two private courses for the 2010-11 academic year. Data was collected via an original questionnaire and the Test Anxiety Inventory. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analyses. Of the 1250 students who qualified for the study, the final sample size was 376 (30%). Of them, 210 (55.9%) were females, and 154 (41%) were 18 years old. Students' mean Test Anxiety Inventory scores were 39.44±11.34. Female students' overall test anxiety scores and mean emotionality subscale score were significantly higher than those of their male counterparts. Students whose mothers had an educational attainment between primary school n=170 (45.2%) and a high school diploma n=184 (48.9%), as well as those with four or more siblings n=49 (15%), had significantly higher mean overall Test Anxiety Inventory scores. Among other things, test anxiety is influenced by maternal educational level, type of high school, number of exams, and number of siblings. Preparing a relaxed study environment for students, providing the family monetary or social support, and encouraging participation in social activities are recommendedto decreajb anxiety in students preparing for university exams.

  7. Behavioral Indexes of Test Anxiety in Mathematics among Senior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL MACÍAS-MARTÍNEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of Mathematics has been and is still a source of frustration and anxiety for a large number of students. The purpose of this study was to inquire systematically upon levels of test anxiety through behavioral and physiological procedures before and after a Math test, in 205 senior high school students. Academic worries were assessed by means of a computerized task based on the emotional version of the Stroop paradigm designed ex profeso to measure school anxiety (Hernández-Pozo, Macías & Torres, 2004. The Stroop task was administered, along with recordings of blood pressure and pulse, before and after the first Math test of the course. Academic general scores were inverse to the behavioral anxiety level, however the best Math scores were associated to middle levels of behavioral anxiety. Contradictory findings between academic performance in Math and global score, and the apparent lack of gender difference in anxiety measured through behavioral procedures suggests the need to review the generality of previous assertions relating academic performance inversely with levels of anxiety of high school students.

  8. Association between Anxiety Levels and Weight Change in the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rieke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between anxiety and weight change in a multiethnic cohort followed for approximately 10 years. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis who met specified inclusion criteria (n = 5,799. Weight was measured at baseline and four subsequent follow-up exams. Anxiety was analyzed as sex-specific anxiety quartiles (QANX. The relationship between anxiety level and weight change was examined using a mixed-effect model with weight as the dependent variable, anxiety and time as the independent variables, and adjusted for covariates. Results. Average annual weight change (range was −0.17 kg (−6.04 to 4.38 kg for QANX 1 (lowest anxiety, −0.16 kg (−10.71 to 4.45 kg for QANX 2, −0.15 kg (−8.69 to 6.39 kg for QANX 3, and −0.20 kg (−7.12 to 3.95 kg for QANX 4 (highest anxiety. No significant association was noted between QANX and weight change. However, the highest QANX was associated with a −2.48 kg (95% CI = −3.65, −1.31 lower baseline weight compared to the lowest QANX after adjustment for all covariates. Conclusions. Among adults, age 45–84, higher levels of anxiety, defined by the STPI trait anxiety scale, are associated with lower average baseline weight but not with weight change.

  9. Math Education at a Crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    With an enrollment of 550 students once a year the first year course Math1 at the Technical University of Denmark is one of the largest courses at university level in Denmark. Since its re-formation 6 years ago a number of interesting valuable assets concerning undergraduate math education...

  10. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Hamidah; Putri Teesa Santoso; RM Haryadi Karyono

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP), in the Faculty of Medicine, Univers...

  11. Comparison of the Levels of Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness of Patients with Epilepsy and Healthy Individuals

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    Emine Rabia Koç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is characterized by sudden seizures and loss of control in patients; it leads to constantly be under stress. Psychiatric disorders, particularly depressive disorders are more frequent in patients with epilepsy than in the whole of society. In this study; we aimed to compare depression,anxiety and desperation levels between epileptic patients and healthy ones. METHODS: 34 patients and 34 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. Demographic features of all subjects were also recorded. Neurologic examination, Electroencephalography (EEG and cranial magnetic resonance imaging(MRI of patients were also evaluated. State-Trait Anxety Inventory (STAI is for anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDE is for depression, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BUO is for hopelessness were evaluated. RESULTS: Epileptic patients were with mean age of 24.56 ± 8.49, healthy subjects were with the mean age 27.44 ± 5.66 years. 13 of patients were female(38.2% and 21 patients were male(%38.2 in all groups.There was no significant difference about demographic features(p>0.05. When continuous and instant anxiety levels of epileptic and healthy groups were compared, no significant difference was observed between instant anxiety levels(p> 0.05; but there was difference between continuous anxiety levels (p <0.05. Also, hopelessness and depression levels were similar between groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed that depression, anxiety and hopelessness levels were higher in epileptic patients when compared to healthy people. In addition, patients with seizure control with less drug use will reduce the level of trait anxiety was concluded.

  12. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children’s Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925

  13. [Test anxiety: associations with personal and family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Salgado, Ana; González-Pienda, Julio A; Valle, Antonio; Joly, Cristina; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-11-01

    Test anxiety is a common behavior among students facing social pressure centered on mastery. Only a few studies have analyzed the relations between test anxiety, academic procrastination, personal and family variables and math grades. This work focus on the analysis of the impact of students' social-personal variables such as parents' education level, number of siblings and under-achievement by performing ANOVAs in two samples of 533 and 796 students from junior high-school. Corroborating the findings in other studies, the data stress that test anxiety is higher in girls and decreases when students' parents have higher educational levels, with the number of courses flunked, and when students' math grades were lower. Test anxiety and procrastination correlate positive and significantly. Findings are discussed and compared with those of previous researches. The implications for teaching practice are also analyzed.

  14. Math Branding in a Community College Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantz, Malcolm; Sadowski, Edward B.

    2010-01-01

    As a strategy to promote the Arapahoe Community College Library's collections and services, the Library undertook to brand itself as a math resource center. In promoting one area of expertise, math was selected to help address the problem of a large portion of high school graduates' inability to work at college-level math. A "Math…

  15. The Attentional Blink Paradigm in Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kathleen Skinner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The attentional biases of individuals with high and low levels of depression and anxiety were tested using the Attentional Blink paradigm. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task was used to detect biases in identification of emotionally valenced target images. The independent variables were depression, anxiety, lag of target stimulus, and emotional valence of target images. The dependent variables were accuracy, reaction times, and pupil dilation. As predicted, attentional biases were found for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, independently and co-morbidly, for dependent variables. The data suggest that there are both differences and similarities in the effects of symptoms of anxiety and depression on attentional biases around emotional stimuli.

  16. Analysis of death anxiety levels in nursing staff of critical care units

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    Mª Cristina Pascual Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When the patients are in the end-of-life, the cares would focus to favor a good death, for that reason the nursing staff must know how to integrate the death like a part of the life, being avoided that produces anxiety to them before the possibility of taking part its own fears to the death. The core of nursing staff in intensive care units is to maintain life of their patients, reason why the end-of life in them is not easy or natural.Objective: Evaluate the death anxiety levels in intensive care nursing staff.Material and method: An observational study was conducted descriptive cross hospital adult and Paediatric ICU General University Gregorio Marañón Hospital, through survey to nurses and auxiliary nurses of those units.The anxiety inventory was used to Death (Death Anxiety Inventory [DAI] for the assessment of anxiety before death. Outcomes: Paediatric ICU nurses have higher levels of anxiety that the adult ICU as well as the less experienced professionals and those declared not feel trained in the subject.Conclusions: Experience and the training are key elements that help professionals face to death, from management we must ensure that patients in stage terminal are served by professionals with this profile.

  17. A study on level of physical activity, depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents.

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    Tajik, Esra; Abd Latiff, Latiffah; Adznam, Siti N; Awang, Hamidin; Yit Siew, Chin; Abu Bakar, Azrin S

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate physical activity has adverse health consequences among adolescents. Mental health problem can be developed by lack of physical activity however it is controversial. The current study aimed to examine the association between level of physical activity with depression, anxiety and stress symptoms among adolescents. A representative sample of 1747 adolescents (13-14 years) was randomly selected from 6 schools in a south part of Malaysia. Respondents were asked to fill consent form, and questionnaires including Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Majority of respondents (71.9%) was Malay and more than half of the adolescents had low physical activity. About 40% had depression symptoms, followed by anxiety symptoms (65.9%) and stress symptoms (38.5%). Level of physical activity was significantly associated with gender, anxiety and stress (P<0.001). There were no associations with race, religion and depression symptom. This study provides some evidence among school-going adolescents related to anxiety and stress symptoms and low physical activities. Further studies are needed to show the protection effects of higher physical activity for depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in adolescents.

  18. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on state anxiety levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Pires, Gabriel Natan; Bezerra, Andreia Gomes; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2016-08-01

    Increased anxiety levels have been widely recognized as one of the most important consequences of sleep deprivation. However, despite this general consensus, there are still aspects of this relationship, such as the extent of the anxiogenic potential and the specific effects of different types of sleep deprivation, which remain unclear. As no broad review has been undertaken to evaluate this relationship, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of sleep deprivation on state anxiety. Our search strategy encompassed two databases - Pubmed/Medline and Scopus - through which we were able to identify 756 articles. After the selection process, 18 articles, encompassing 34 experiments, composed our final sample. Our analyses indicate that sleep deprivation, whether total or not, leads to a significant increase in state anxiety levels, but sleep restriction does not. Regarding the effect of the length of the period of sleep deprivation, no significant results were observed, but there was a notable tendency for an increase in anxiety in longer sleep deprivations. With regard to tools, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) seems to be the best one to measure sleep-induced anxiogenesis, while the Profile of Mood States (POMS) presented inconclusive results. In conclusion, it can be affirmed that sleep deprivation induces a state of increased anxiety, with similar results also in the case of total sleep deprivation; however, results in more specific experimental conditions are not definitive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Relationship between perceived parenting style with anxiety levels and loneliness in visually impaired children and adolescents

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    Mualla Hamurcu

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.

  20. The effect of training administered to working mothers on maternal anxiety levels and breastfeeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Esra K; Arikan, Duygu

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of training administered to working mothers and its duration on maternal anxiety levels and breastfeeding habits. Within the scope of Health for All in the 21st Century project, a goal was set to increase the rate of infants fed exclusively by breastfeeding during the first six months of life to 80% by the year 2015. A randomised design with repeated measures. During collection of pretest data, a Personal Information Form, a Questionnaire Form and a State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to the mothers in the experimental and control groups. Five home visits were conducted starting two weeks before the date when mothers returned to work and ending when the infants became six months old. Breastfeeding techniques were taught to these mothers. Data were subjected to Proc MEAN, FREQ, anova and GENMOD procedures. The rate of natural feeding (breastfeeding exclusively) among trained mothers was greater than untrained mothers. The frequency of breastfeeding affects maternal anxiety levels; the anxiety level of mothers decreased with increasing frequency of breastfeeding. Educating working mothers about breastfeeding reduces their anxiety levels and influences positively their breastfeeding habits. With the support of health-care staff to increase awareness and knowledge on the value and sufficiency of breast milk, the rate and period of natural feeding increased significantly among working mothers. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Level of anxiety as one of the criteria of efficiency of emotional stability in sport dancing

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    Ermolaeva Y.S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: improve the efficiency of performance of competitive sports dance in pairs due to the formation and improvement of indicators of emotional stability. The objectives of the study was to examine the personality characteristics of athletes in the dance couple, affecting their emotional stability. Also determine the conditions for the formation of emotional stability dancing. Material : the study involved 32 dancers aged 12-14 years old. Spielberger questionnaire was used. Results : it was found that the level of trait anxiety was 40.2 points. Athletes also met with high and low trait anxiety. The average level of situational anxiety at rest the dancers stood at 38.8 points. Before the tournament, this index increased significantly (54.5 points. Conclusions : for dancers with a high level of anxiety should generate a sense of confidence and success in their abilities. For dancers with low levels of anxiety requires waking activity, arousal of interest, a sense of responsibility in the task of training activity.

  2. [The degree of asthma severity in children and the level of maternal anxiety and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska-Płusa, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    Care for sick children most often falls to mothers, which may affect their mental state, causing the states of depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of asthma in children and the level of anxiety and depression in mothers, taking into account the importance of the material status of the family, the educational level of the mothers, the presence of critical events, as well as the coexistence of allergic diseases in other family members. The study included 60 mothers of children with bronchial asthma. Age of mothers in the investigated families was on average 37.28 +/- 6.24 years, and most had a high school education (55.0%) or higher (28.3%). 16.7% of mothers and 8.3% fathers suffered from asthma. 13.3% of mothers of children with asthma were brought child alone. To assess the level of anxiety the inventory for measuring state and trait anxiety (STAI - State Trait Anxiety Inventory) developed by Spielberger, Gorsuch'a and Lushene'a was applied. To determine the changes in depressive the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI - Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire) was used. The Student's t test was included for two independent populations and a comparison of the results obtained in the questionnaire for diagnosing the level of anxiety and depression. For other parameters the correlation coefficient r-Pearson rank and Kendall's tau were performed. Mothers of children with moderate asthma compared to mothers of children with mild asthma had higher levels of anxiety (both state and properties), and also a slightly higher level of depression. Maternal age was connected positively and moderately strongly with the number held by children (r = 0.380; p = 0.003) and age of a child with asthma (r = 0.613, p = 0.0005). The duration of the child's disease was associated positively and moderately strongly with the level of state anxiety mother (X-1) (r = 0.345; p = 0.007) and a bit less and also positively with the

  3. Talking Maths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Discussion in maths lessons has always been something encouraged by ATM but can be difficult to initiate for non-specialist and inexperienced teachers who may feel they need material in books to get them going. In this article, the author describes resources aimed at encouraging discussion among primary mathematicians. These resources include: (1)…

  4. Penguin Math

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    Green, Daniel; Kearney, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Emperor penguins, the largest of all the penguin species, attain heights of nearly four feet and weigh up to 99 pounds. Many students are not motivated to learn mathematics when textbook examples contain largely nonexistent contexts or when the math is not used to solve significant problems found in real life. This article's project explores how…

  5. Tangible Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatos, Lori L.

    2006-01-01

    Educators recognize that group work and physical involvement with learning materials can greatly enhance the understanding and retention of difficult concepts. As a result, math manipulatives--such as pattern blocks and number lines--have increasingly been making their way into classrooms and children's museums. Yet without the constant guidance…

  6. Math Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    Many experts give the nation's schools a poor grade for their approach to teaching mathematics and for their preparation of mathematics teachers. While many policymakers make much of data that suggest children in the United States lag behind many other advanced countries in math, many experts call for a change in mathematics education,…

  7. The Effects of Test Anxiety on Learning at Superficial and Deep Levels of Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Claire E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Using a deep-level processing strategy, low test-anxious college students performed significantly better than high test-anxious students in learning a paired-associate word list. Using a superficial-level processing strategy resulted in no significant difference in performance. A cognitive-attentional theory and test anxiety mechanisms are…

  8. Mathematics related anxiety: Mathematics bogeyman or not?

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    Videnović Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Data of the PISA 2003 survey indicate high levels of mathematics anxiety of students in Serbia. More than half of our students worry whether they will have difficulties in mathematics class or whether they will earn poor marks. Aims of this study therefore are: examining relationship between math anxiety and achievement at mathematics literacy scale; establishing possible predictors of math anxiety and identification of students' groups in relations to their relationship towards mathematics as a subject. Mathematics anxiety is statistically negatively correlated with school achievement and achievement at mathematics literacy scale. Socio-demographic factors, motivational and cognitive aspects related to learning mathematics, perception of school and classroom climate explain 40% variance of mathematics anxiety. Based on students' relationship towards mathematics they cam be divided into three groups; while dimensions that apart them are uninterested-interested in mathematics and presence-absence of anxiety. The group displaying anxiety scores lowest among the three. Applying qualitative analysis students' and teachers' attitudes on specific issues related to teaching and learning mathematics was examined.

  9. Level of anxiety in parents of high-risk premature twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardo, V; Freato, F; Cereda, C

    1998-01-01

    We attempted to define parental anxiety in a population of parents of high-risk premature twins (mean birth weight 1,493 +/- 227 kg; mean gestational age 33 +/- 3.5 weeks), admitted to III level NICU. We specifically examined the following factors; gestational age of the twins, whether or not the twins had ventilatory support, pulmonary sequelae, major malformations or intra-ventricular hemorrhage, parental gender and highest level of education obtained by the parent. In the immediate pre-discharge period and a month later, a questionnaire (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) was given to all parents of premature twins presenting for the discharge. The parents of 30 twins entered the study twice, at the discharge of their first twin (mean postnatal age 40 +/- 32 days), and one month later. They included 15 mothers and 11 fathers, aged 33 +/- 5.5 and 33 +/- 4.2 years, and at the second evaluation 11 mothers and 10 fathers, respectively. As case-controls we examined parental anxiety of fifteen consecutive singleton high-risk prematures, with equal gestational age, discharged immediately after. Our results indicate that the parents of high-risk twin and singleton prematures present an elevated, lasting state-trait anxiety level. Pre- and post-discharge parental anxiety is more elevated (not significant) in twinning with respect to the prematurity alone. When assessed separately by parental gender, in both these groups an increased (not significant) anxiety was persistently found in the mothers. We recommend that, although neonatologists generally define the discharge of the high-risk premature based upon the acquired stabilization of vital parameters, they pay special attention to the twin group we have identified which is at increased risk for predischarge parental anxiety.

  10. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  11. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

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    Islande C. Delgado Monge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such course was collected and the instrument of Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare and Hunt was adjusted to it (2003. Data collected were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS applying the corresponding hypothesis tests. According with the results, students showed a medium level of math anxiety and women showed a math anxiety significantly higher than men, while student graduated from private schools showed a significantly lower level of math anxiety than those from public schools or from the modality “General Equivalency Diploma”. Besides, the higher the math anxiety of the student is, the lower their academic achievement will be. Finally, there were no statistically significant differences between math anxiety and the number of times students have taken the course.

  12. Effect of Regular Exercise on Anxiety and Self-Esteem Level in College Students

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    Zahra Hamidah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular exercise is often presented as an effective tool to influence the psychological aspect of a human being. Recent studies show that anxiety and self-esteem are the most important psychological aspects especially in college students. This study aimed to determine the differences of anxiety and self-esteem level between students who joined and did not join regular exercise program, Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP, in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out to 64 students who joined and did not join Pendas XXI AMP. Thirty six students (12 females and 20 males who joined Pendas XXI AMP participated in aerobic and anaerobic exercise sessions lasting for 30 minutes per session, three times in 5 months. The control group was 32 students who did not join Pendas XXI AMP, with matching gender composition as the case group (12 females and 20 males. Two questionnaires, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale questionnaire and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale questionnaire, were administered to both groups. The data were analyzed using chi-square test (α=0.05. Results: : There were statistically significant differences in anxiety level (p=0.016 and self-esteem level (p=0.039 between case and control groups. The students who joined Pendas XXI AMP have lower anxiety and higher self-esteem levels. Conclusions: Planned, structured, and repeated physical activities have a positive influence in anxiety and self-esteem levels.

  13. [The interdependence of coronary pain control and level of anxiety in women with ischiaemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleba, Elzbieta; Nasiłowska-Barud, Alicja; Wysokiński, Andrzej; Jedrych, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Interdependences between pain and anxiety in cardiac ischaemia are multidimensional and complex. Both of these phenomena share a lot of traits and they tend to reinforce each other at physiological level. Apart from arduousness of pain, cognitive understanding of its nature becomes an important mediating factor. One of important characteristics of the patient's attitude towards their illness is localization of pain control. The aim of the study was to analyze an interdependence between an anxiety as a state and as a trait and the localization of pain control in women with coronary heart decease. The study included 52 female patients hospitalised at The Department of Cardiology of The Medical University of Lublin who underwent coronarography. The used methods included an interview, State - Trait Anxiety Inventory of Spielberger (STAI) and The Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ). The results did not confirm an often suggested opinion that internal localization of pain control reduces anxiety and activates the patient. The intensity of the internal localization of pain control correlates significantly with the intensity of the dependence of pain of activity of the doctors as well as on the anxiety as trait. It is higher in women with lower education. Perhaps better educated patients, not so ready to react with anxiety, can treat pain more realistically as a sign of a pathological process which can be understood and evaluated not so much as a catastrophe. They do not feel personally responsible for the pain, either, and are able to accept the limits of the doctor's assistance, having no unrealistic expectations with regard to the pain treatment. The results of the research indicate that in women with ischiaemic heart decease better adjustment to the illness and a lower level of anxiety as a trait are connected with the understanding and acceptance of their situation by the patient, rather than with too big extent of expectations towards the control of pain

  14. Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia.

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    Jacobs, Madeline; Snow, Joseph; Geraci, Marilla; Vythilingam, Meena; Blair, R J R; Charney, Dennis S; Pine, Daniel S; Blair, Karina S

    2008-12-01

    Generalized social phobia (GSP) is characterized by a marked fear of most social situations. It is associated with an anomalous neural response to emotional stimuli, and individuals with the disorder frequently show interpretation bias in social situations. From this it might be suggested that GSP involves difficulty in accurately perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. Here we applied the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) to medication-free GSP (n=28) and no pathology (n=21) individuals. Patients with GSP performed within the normal range on the measure however severity of social anxiety significantly correlated with emotional intelligence (EI). Specifically, there was a negative correlation between social anxiety severity and Experiential (basic-level emotional processing) EI. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between social anxiety severity and Strategic (higher-level conscious emotional processing) EI. These results suggest that EI may index emotional processing systems that mitigate the impact of systems causally implicated in GSP.

  15. Vitamin D status is associated with anxiety levels in postmenopausal women evaluated for osteoporosis

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    Gabriella Martino

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status has been previously associated with a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. The nervous system express vitamin D receptors and thus vitamin D may be involved in mental health. Poor data exist about the correlation between vitamin D and anxiety levels.Our aim was to investigate the association of vitamin D status with anxiety severity. A group of 177 postmenopausal women (mean age 65.5±8.22 yr. referring to an outpatients clinic for the prevention of osteoporosis were evaluated. Severity of perceived anxiety symptoms was measured by the Hamilton Anxiety rating scale (HAMA. Depression levels were also evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition scale (BDI-II.  25(OHD serum levels, indicative of vitamin D status, were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. 25(OHD levels were significantly related HAMA-score (r=-0.15, p=0.04; particularly a deep association was observed between 25(OHD levels and somatic symptoms (r=-0.195, p=0.009. HAMA score was associated with BDI-II score (r=0.487, p=<0.001; HAMA psychic symptom score was also related with age and time since menopause (r=0.149, p=0.039 and r=0.222, p=0.003, respectively. At a multiple regression analysis, after correcting for age and depression levels, 25(OHD was predictive of HAMA score (β =-0,05961, p= 0.02, SE=-2.206, but the strength of association was lost further correcting for time since menopause.  In conclusion, in a setting of postmenopausal women, we observed a significant association between anxiety levels and serum 25(OHD concentrations irrespective of age and depression levels.

  16. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training - a Preliminary Study

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    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD patients, on the depression and anxiety. Methods: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used in the study. Results: A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1 and final examination (t2 indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2 in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1. The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2. Conclusions: Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction.

  17. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The effect of a researcher designated music intervention on hospitalised psychiatric patients with different levels of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chyn-Yng; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Tso-Ying; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Yang, Hui-Ling; Chen, Wen-Chun; Chung, Min-Huey; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a music intervention on hospitalised psychiatric patients with different levels of anxiety. In clinical practice, psychiatric inpatients and nurses routinely suffer from anxiety. A music intervention may possibly be useful, but knowledge as to how useful and how effective it is in patients with different levels of anxiety is limited. The study design was a three-group, repeated-measures experimental study. Subjects were 22 psychiatric patients who were divided into three groups based on their level of anxiety. They listened to 20 minutes of music each day for 10 days and were assessed using the Beck Anxiety Inventory before and after the music intervention and at a one-week follow-up; an electroencephalogram and finger temperature were monitored before and during the music intervention. Anxiety levels of all three groups showed a significant difference (p = 0·0339) after the intervention. The difference alpha and beta electroencephalogram percentages for all three groups showed a significant difference (p = 0·04; p = 0·01). The finger temperature showed a non-significant difference (p = 0·41). A music intervention can effectively alleviate the anxiety of hospitalised psychiatric patients who suffer from all levels of anxiety. The study recommends a practice in alleviating anxiety. Effective lower-cost interventions to reduce anxiety in psychiatric inpatient settings would be of interest to nurses and benefit patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Engaging Math-Avoidant College Students

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    M. Paul Latiolais

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an informal, personal account of how we, as two college teachers, became interested in math anxiety, decided to explore it amongst students at our institution in order to inform our teaching, and became convinced that the massive problem is math avoidance. We tried discussion groups, but few students attended, although those that did made useful suggestions. Thus informed, we designed an innovative course, Confronting College Mathematics as a Humanities course with the possibility of credit toward the math requirement, but it was undersubscribed in its first offering and had to be canceled. How can we get college students who avoid math to break through the barrier of math avoidance? We have now begun to explore a new approach: Second Life, where students can engage math—and quantitative literacy—virtually, and anonymously.

  20. The Relationship Between Stressors and Anxiety Levels After CABG in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Jafari, Azam; Khalilian, Ali Reza; Ziabakhsh Tabari, Shervin

    2016-05-01

    Hospitalization and surgery are crucial adverse life events that lead to considerable anxiety in patients. The present study aimed to investigate stressors after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and identify stressors that predict anxiety. This is a descriptive-analytical study that uses a non-random convenience sampling method on patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery at the cardiac surgery intensive care unit of Fatemeh Zahra Cardiac center in Sari, Iran. A total of 186 patients completed the post-surgical stressors questionnaire and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on postoperative days 2 or 3 in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequencies, means, and standard deviations. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the relationship between the observed variables, and the logistic regression model was used to identify the relationship between stressors and anxiety after-surgery. Post-surgical anxiety predictors included insufficient sleep during hospitalization (Odds ratio [OR]: 5.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46 - 20.00; P = 0.010), treatment not explained to the patient by the nurse (OR: 4.83; 95% CI: 1.82 - 12.84; P = 0.002), being away from family members (OR: 3.88; 95% CI: 1.46 - 10.26; P = 0.006), presence of a chest tube (OR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.83 - 5.84; P = 0.000), and pain in any part of the body (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.06 - 3.58; P = 0.031). Physical or physiological and psychological stressors impose greater stress and are predictors of anxiety. When preparing their nursing care plan, nurses should consider these stressors that affect anxiety levels in patients undergoing CABG surgery and those hospitalized in intensive care units.

  1. Mathematics Anxiety and the Affective Drop in Performance

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    Ashcraft, Mark H.; Moore, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a brief review of the history and assessment of math anxiety, its relationship to personal and educational consequences, and its important impact on measures of performance. Overall, math anxiety causes an "affective drop," a decline in performance when math is performed under timed, high-stakes conditions, both in laboratory…

  2. Anxiety Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-Analysis

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    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Heeman, E.J.

    The aim of the current study was to meta-analytically examine whether anxiety levels in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are elevated. A total of 83 articles were selected from a systematic literature search and were included in the meta-analyses. Results demonstrated that children with

  3. Investigation of High School Students' Attitude and Anxiety Levels towards Mathematics in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…

  4. The effect of a separate consultation on anxiety levels before third molar surgery

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    van Wijk, A.J.; Lindeboom, J.A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The present study tested the effect of a separate consultation with an oral and maxillofacial surgeon on levels of anxiety before third molar extraction. Study design. Patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group. Experimental subjects received standard

  5. The effect of a separate consultation on anxiety levels before third molar surgery

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    van Wijk, Arjen; Lindeboom, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    The present study tested the effect of a separate consultation with an oral and maxillofacial surgeon on levels of anxiety before third molar extraction. Patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental or the control group. Experimental subjects received standard information about third

  6. EXAMINATION OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS' ANXIETY LEVELS ABOUT TEACHING PROFESSION

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    Ferhat Karakaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to determine the levels of occupational anxiety of pre-service teachers' who read science and primary school teacher programs according to various variables. In this research a questionnaire developed by Köklükaya and Yıldırım (2016 which has validity and reliability analyzes was used. Anxiety Scale for Teaching Profession (ASTP was used. The research was carried out with 266 prospective teachers who were educated at Kahramanmaras Sütcü Imam University in the academic year of 2015-2016. Independent t test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal- Wallis analysis and Tukey significance test were used to determine the statistical significa nce of the obtained data in the research using relational screening model. According to research findings, it was determined that there was no significant difference (p <.05 in the level of vocational anxiety among the teacher candidates according to the degree of willingness to choose the department, grade level and academic achievement score. According to the gender variable, there was no significant difference in the pre-service teachers' who read in the department of primary school teachers', and it was found that the science teachers' professional anxiety levels had a significant difference according to the gender variable.

  7. Swiss and Turkish Pre-Service Science Teachers' Anxiety Levels for Educational Technology

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    Efe, Hulya Aslan; Efe, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to culturally explain pre-service science teachers' instructional technology-related anxiety levels by analyzing the variables of their instructional technology using experiences, frequency of using instructional technologies, access to instructional technologies, instructional technology-related attitude and their instructional…

  8. Examination of Anxiety Levels and Anger Expression Manners of Undergraduate Table Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Tamer; Türkçapar, Ünal

    2016-01-01

    This research was done for the determination of how their anxiety levels' and anger expressions' get shaped according to some variances. For this reason there were 76 female 125 male totally 201 sportsmen, who participated to the table tennis championship between universities in 2016 and ages differ from 18 to 28, were included the research group.…

  9. Anxiety towards Mathematics and Educational Level: A Study on Means Differences

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    Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; García-Santillán, Arturo; Córdova-Rangel, Arturo; González-Gómez, Santiago; Tejada-Peña, Esmeralda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research work is to analyze whether there is a difference in the degree of anxiety towards mathematics among students of different educational levels. The study is not experimental and cross sectional, and it is based on difference of means between groups. The sample is not probabilistic, and consisted of 226 students from…

  10. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Lifelong Learning Tendencies and Teaching Profession Anxiety Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Rasit; Öztürk, Duygu Saniye

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between pre-service teachers' lifelong learning tendencies and teaching profession anxiety levels with respect to certain variables (their gender and subject area) and is designed as a survey study. The fourth year pre-service teachers (n=455) in the spring semester of the 2015-2016 academic year…

  11. Scales for evaluating self-perceived anxiety levels in patients admitted to intensive care units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá-Galvañ, Juana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    To review studies of anxiety in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit to describe the level of anxiety and synthesize the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. The CUIDEN, IME, ISOC, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PSYCINFO databases for 1995 to 2005 were searched. The search focused on 3 concepts: anxiety, intensive care, and mechanical ventilation for the English-language databases and ansiedad, cuidados intensivos, and ventilación mecánica for the Spanish-language databases. Information was extracted from 18 selected articles on the level of anxiety experienced by patients and the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. Moderate levels of anxiety were reported. Levels were higher in women than in men, and higher in patients undergoing positive pressure ventilation regardless of sex. Most multi-item instruments had high coefficients of internal consistency. The reliability of instruments with only a single item was not demonstrated, even though the instruments had moderate-to-high correlations with other measurements. Midlength scales, such the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory or the shortened state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory are best for measuring anxiety in critical care patients.

  12. Anxiety Level in Dyspeptic Patients at the Gastroenterohepatology Outpatient Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia

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    Radistrya Sekaranti Brahmanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyspepsia is a disease with a high worldwide prevalence, including in Asia; however, the pathophysiology of the disease is still unclear. Recent studies suggest adapting a biopsychosocial model to understand the pathophysiology of dyspepsia that proposes the important role of anxiety. The aim of this study was to assess the anxiety level in dyspeptic patients who visited the Gastroenterohepatology Outpatient Clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using total sampling method was conducted from September–November 2012 to 19 patients aged 36−85 years old who consisted of 11 women and 8 men patients dyspepsia syndrome in the Gastroenterohepatology outpatient clinic Dr Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The anxiety levels were measured using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. All data were analyzed based on gender, age, and occupational status of the patients. Results: Eleven of the nineteen patients had high anxiety levels. Women were more likely to experience high anxiety levels (8 of 11. The group with the highest number of patients with high anxiety was the 46−55 years old group, the high anxiety level was more common among patients who were government or private sector employees. Conclusion: The anxiety level in dyspeptic patients who visited the Gastroenterohepatology outpatient clinic in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung was high.

  13. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

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    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  14. Amniocentesis increases level of anxiety in women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome

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    Yanuarita Tursinawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgound Invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND through amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS can detect Down syndrome. Pregnant women usually experience a variety of psychological responses associated with invasive PND. This study is intended to assess depression, anxiety and stress levels and the factors related to their psychological responses in pregnant women with invasive prenatal diagnosis of Down syndrome. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Kandang Kerbau Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore. The psychological responses of 70 women undergoing PND were assessed by Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21 questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze association between knowledge and perceived risk with psychological responses (CI 95% and significance value p13 weeks who had pursued amniocentesis. Women with no previous children had higher levels of depression and stress. Women who pursued amniocentesis had significantly higher anxiety scores compared to women undergoing CVS (p=0.015. Conclusions Women’s psychological responses are associated with gestational age, type of procedure and parity. The level of anxiety increased in women who underwent amniocentesis for diagnosis of Down syndrome. Knowledge and perceived risk of having a baby with Down syndrome do not seem to have psychological effects to women.

  15. [The effects of hatha yoga exercises on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marina Lima Daleprane; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri; Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to evaluate the effects of hatha yoga on stress and anxiety levels in mastectomized women. It also investigates the relationship between these levels with the following variables: age; marital status; religion; instruction; profession; smoke addiction; elitism; staging of the disease; and treatment phase. This involved controlled random clinical trial sampling of 45 mastectomized women treated at the Ilza Bianco outpatient service of Santa Rita de Cássia Hospital in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo from March to November 2010. The experimental group participated in 6 individually-applied sessions with incentive for ongoing home practice and was re-evaluated after the period, whereas the control group was re-evaluated after a proportional period. For the study of the variables, the interview and recording on a form technique was used, along with the Anxiety Trait and State Test, and the Stress Symptoms and Signs Test. For statistical treatment, the Statistical Pack for Social Sciences was used. The data are statistically significant and have shown that hatha yoga exercises decrease stress and anxiety in the experimental group. No connection between confounding variables and anxiety and stress levels was found.

  16. Metacognition and Confidence: Comparing Math to Other Academic Subjects

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    Shanna eErickson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two studies addressed student metacognition in math, measuring confidence accuracy about math performance. Underconfidence would be expected in light of pervasive math anxiety. However, one might alternatively expect overconfidence based on previous results showing overconfidence in other subject domains. Metacognitive judgments and performance were assessed for biology, literature, and mathematics tests. In Study 1, high school students took three different tests and provided estimates of their performance both before and after taking each test. In Study 2, undergraduates similarly took three shortened SAT II Subject Tests. Students were overconfident in predicting math performance, indeed showing greater overconfidence compared to other academic subjects. It appears that both overconfidence and anxiety can adversely affect metacognitive ability and can lead to math avoidance. The results have implications for educational practice and other environments that require extensive use of math.

  17. COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY: IMPACT OF POSITIVE SELF TALK TRAINING ON JUNIOR LEVEL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

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    Abdussalam Kanniyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, coaches and athletes from a wide variety of sports have begun to realize the importance of the mental side of athletic performance. Sport specialists agree that athletic performance is influenced not only by physical skills but also by psychological ones. In order to achieve peak performance athletes need a “total package” including physical skills, psychological skills, fitness and injury prevention (Singh 2011. Study was aimed to examine the effect of Positive Self-Talk training on the Competition anxiety and self-confidence of junior level football players. 36 junior level football players, aged 18.7 ± 2.8 years, were randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 was used to assess cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Positive Self-Talk training was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks. Results of ANOVA revealed significant difference between the pre- test and post test scores of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self- confidence in the experimental group while no significant difference in the control group.

  18. The effect of music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing hysterosalpingography

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    Agwu, K.K. [Department of Medical Radiography and Radiological Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu (Nigeria)]. E-mail: kenagwu2000@yahoo.com; Okoye, I.J. [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu (Nigeria)

    2007-05-15

    Objectives: To determine the effect of music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing a hysterosalpingography procedure. Patients and methods: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Music chosen earlier by the patients was played during the hysterosalpingography procedure for the experimental group. The control group was studied without music. Certain physiological parameters and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the patients' anxiety levels before and during the investigation. Patient's willingness to have a repeat procedure, should it become necessary, was also assessed in both groups as a measure of acceptability of the investigation. The z-test was used to analyze the results for any statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control groups. Results: The blood pressure (BP) monitored during the procedure was reduced in 31 (62%) of the patients in the experimental group compared to their pre-investigation values. Reduction in the pulse rate (PR) in 28 (56%) of the patients was also noted in the experimental group. On the other hand, the blood pressure of 37 (74%) of the patients and the pulse rate of 32 (64%) patients in the control group were increased from their pre-investigation values. The physiological parameters in the experimental group were significantly lower than the values in the control group during the investigation (p < 0.05). A comparison of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores taken before and during the procedure shows significantly lower scores for the experimental group compared to those for the control group (p < 0.05). More patients, 41 (82%) in the experimental group were also willing to have a repeat procedure compared to 16 (32%) patients in the control. Conclusion: Music reduces the physiological and cognitive responses of anxiety in patients undergoing hysterosalpingography and can be harnessed for

  19. The effect of music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing hysterosalpingography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwu, K.K.; Okoye, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of music on the anxiety levels of patients undergoing a hysterosalpingography procedure. Patients and methods: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. Music chosen earlier by the patients was played during the hysterosalpingography procedure for the experimental group. The control group was studied without music. Certain physiological parameters and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess the patients' anxiety levels before and during the investigation. Patient's willingness to have a repeat procedure, should it become necessary, was also assessed in both groups as a measure of acceptability of the investigation. The z-test was used to analyze the results for any statistically significant differences between the experimental and the control groups. Results: The blood pressure (BP) monitored during the procedure was reduced in 31 (62%) of the patients in the experimental group compared to their pre-investigation values. Reduction in the pulse rate (PR) in 28 (56%) of the patients was also noted in the experimental group. On the other hand, the blood pressure of 37 (74%) of the patients and the pulse rate of 32 (64%) patients in the control group were increased from their pre-investigation values. The physiological parameters in the experimental group were significantly lower than the values in the control group during the investigation (p < 0.05). A comparison of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores taken before and during the procedure shows significantly lower scores for the experimental group compared to those for the control group (p < 0.05). More patients, 41 (82%) in the experimental group were also willing to have a repeat procedure compared to 16 (32%) patients in the control. Conclusion: Music reduces the physiological and cognitive responses of anxiety in patients undergoing hysterosalpingography and can be harnessed for clinical

  20. Evaluation of Exam Anxiety Level among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Students and its Association with Demographic Characteristics in 2014

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    MM Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Test -anxiety is one of the most common mental health problems among the students that can impair performance and leads to failure of the exam. So, this study aimed to determine the rate of exam-anxiety among Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences' students. Methods: This cross sectional-analytic study was conducted on 510 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences by convenience sampling method in 2014. In this study, data collection tool was Test-Anxiety questionnaire includes 25 questions. Data were analyzed with the Pearson correlation and t-test using SPSS 16 software. Results: 198 students (38. 8% had mild exam-anxiety, 140 students (27. 5% moderate exam-anxiety and 172 students (33. 7% had severe exam-anxiety. The difference between the mean of anxiety scores was significant at various fields of study (P <0. 05.  Midwifery students experienced more stress in comparison with the students of other fields. There was a significant relationship between exam anxiety level, and the variables of gender, location, age and total grades average of students (P<0/05. There was not a significant relationship between exam anxiety level and marital status, parental occupation, semester entrance and employment of students. Conclusion: Due to the high level of exam anxiety among the different fields of medicine as well as the negative effect of this type of anxiety on academic performance of students, the necessity of the use of psychological services, counseling, identification of causes of anxiety, and planning for decreasing this problem was recommended. Obviously, in this regard, more attention should be paid to the highest-risk groups such as female midwifery students.

  1. Relationships between self-downing beliefs and math performance in Greek adolescent students : A predictive study based on Rational-Emotive Behavior Education (REBE) as theoretical perspective

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    Katsiki, Alexandra; Minnaert, Alexander; Katsikis, Demitris

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence from both educational practice and research that math performance is often associated with increased levels of test anxiety, stress and discomfort and that students’ cognitions account for this performance. Rational-Emotive Behavior Education (REBE), derived from Ellis’s

  2. Simple arithmetic: not so simple for highly math anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyesang; Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G

    2017-12-01

    Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low-compared to high-math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less-a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Pain Perception and Anxiety Levels during Menstrual Cycle Associated with Periodontal Therapy

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    Nikhat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the pain perception and anxiety levels of female patients undergoing scaling and root planing during menstrual (perimenstrual period with those observed during postmenstrual period. Materials and Methods. This was a single blind study, with a split-mouth design. Forty-four women with chronic periodontitis with regular menstrual cycles were subjected to complete Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS during their first debridement visit. Patients were randomly selected to undergo their first debridement visit during either their menstrual or postmenstrual period. Scaling was performed under local anesthesia in bilateral quadrants of patients during the periods. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to score pain levels for each quadrant after performing scaling and root planing. Results. Increase in pain perception among females during their menstrual or perimenstrual period was significantly greater than their postmenstrual period (P < 0.05. It is observed that women whose first appointment was given in perimenstrual period had more pain (VAS (P = 0.0000 when compared to those women whose first appointment was given in postmenstrual period. Conclusion. Females in their menstrual period demonstrated higher pain responses and high anxiety levels to supra- and subgingival debridement. This increase in the pain levels of women during their menstrual period was statistically significant. If the appointments are given in postmenstrual period, women feel less pain.

  4. Impact of marbling art therapy activities on the anxiety levels of psychiatric patients

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    Utaş Akhan, Latife; Atasoy, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Study was conducted to explore the impact of marbling art therapy on the anxiety levels of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.Methods: Data for the study were at a university hospital and in the psychiatric service,polyclinic of a State Hospital with 34 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 34 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Investigations were carried out with study groups and a control group.Findings:Following marbling, it was found that there were signi...

  5. Pilates and aerobic training improve levels of depression, anxiety and quality of life in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; Rayes, Angeles Bonal Rosell; Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa de; Sarro, Karine Jacon; Andrade, Marilia Santos

    2017-12-01

    To compare the effects of Pilates and walking on quality of life, depression, and anxiety levels. Sixty-three overweight/obese participants were randomly divided into: control (n = 20), walking (n = 21), and Pilates (n = 22) groups. Pilates and walking groups attended eight weeks of 60-minute exercise sessions three times per week. Quality of life, depression, and state- and trait-anxiety levels were evaluated before and after eight weeks of training. Scores of quality of life, depression, and trait-anxiety improved in the Pilates and walking groups. State-anxiety levels improved only in the walking group. Pilates and walking positively impact quality of life, depression and anxiety. The Pilates method could be used as an alternative to improve mood disorders in overweight/obese individuals.

  6. Depression, anxiety and stress levels in industrial workers: A pilot study in Bangalore, India

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    Sheldon Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health disorders affect around 500 million people worldwide. In India, around 10-12% of people are affected by a mental disorder either due to stress, depression, anxiety, or any other cause. Mental health of workers affects the productivity of the workplace, with estimates putting these losses to be over 100 million dollars annually. Aims: The study aims to measure depression, anxiety, and stress levels of workers in an industry and to investigate if it has any effect on productivity of the firm. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a cross-sectional design and was conducted among workmen of the firm. A sociodemographic based questionnaire and a mental health screening tool -Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21 were used for the same. A total of 90 completed questionnaires were analyzed for the study. The data was analyzed for central tendencies as well as for any associations and correlations. Results: The study showed that none of the workers had a positive score for depression. It also showed that around 36% of the workers had a positive score for anxiety and 18% of the workers had a positive score for stress on DASS-21 scale. The odds ratio between stress and number of leaves taken by a worker in the last 3 months suggested a dose-response relationship, but was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The study found a prevalence rate of around 18-36% for anxiety and stress amongst the workers at the factory. Large-scale studies will help understand the effect mental health status has on the Indian workplace.

  7. The effect of drawing and writing technique on the anxiety level of children undergoing cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Naime; Kilicarslan-Toruner, Ebru; Sari, Çigdem

    2017-06-01

    To determine the effect of the drawing and writing technique on the anxiety level of children undergoing cancer treatment in hospital. Research was conducted in the haematology-oncology clinic of a university hospital, using a quasi-experimental design (pre-and-post intervention evaluations of a single group). The sample comprised 30 hospitalised children aged 9-16 years. Data were collected with Socio-demographic form, clinical data form, and the State Anxiety Inventory. The institution gave written approval for the study and parents provided written consent. Drawing, writing and mutual story-telling techniques were used as part of a five-day programme. Children were asked to draw a picture of a hospitalised child and write a story about this drawing. After drawing and writing, mutual storytelling were used to more constructive story with positive feelings. The drawing, writing techniques was implemented on the first and third days of the programme and mutual storytelling was implemented on the second and fourth days. Data were reported as percentages and frequencies and the intervention effect analysed with the Wilcoxon test. The average age of children was 12.56 years ± 2.67 and 76.7% were girls. The mean age diagnosis and mean treatment duration were 11.26 years ± 3.17 and 16.56 months ± 20.75 respectively. Most of the children (50%) had leukaemia and were receiving chemotherapy (66.7%). In most cases (76.7%) the mother was the primary caregiver. Scores on the State Anxiety Inventory were lower-indicating lower anxiety-after the intervention (36.86 ± 4.12 than before it (40.46 ± 4.51) (p < 0.05). The therapeutic intervention reduced children's state anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

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    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  9. Attitudes and anxiety levels of medical students towards the acquisition of competencies in communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Elizabete M; Severo, Milton; Bettencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Maria A

    2011-12-01

    Results of third year medical students' attitudes and stress levels towards the acquisition of communication skills before and after a Communication and Clinical Skills Course (CCSC) at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Porto (FMUP), Portugal, are presented. 115 students attending third-year CCSC completed a demographic questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Communication Skills Attitudes Scale and Interpersonal Behavior Survey. Significant negative correlation was found between anxiety levels and attitudes towards learning communication skills in general as well as the teaching and learning process. At the end of the Course students reported that when compared to the start, their communication skills are less sufficient. At the end of this CCSC at FMUP, students recognized its major importance and how they need to invest and improve communication skills. However, it seems important to monitor the attitudes and anxiety levels of students towards patient care and communication during the medical course and to identify ways of overcoming barriers towards learning communication skills. It is recommended that there should be a complete (transversal and vertical) integration of communication skills, including effective teaching methods, assessments, and examinations in order to be valued by the students. This would necessitate curricular changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing Musical Self-Esteem and Performance Anxiety Levels of Students Receiving Professional Music Education at Different Institutions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otacioglu, Sena Gürsen

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to establish which variables cause the interrelations between musical self-esteem and performance-anxiety levels of students receiving professional music education at different institutions to vary. In relation to this framework, "musical self-esteem" and "performance anxiety" scores of students…

  11. Anxiety Level and Descriptive Features of Women Requesting Mammography at Early Diagnosis Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Gok Ozer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This research was conducted as a descriptive study for the purpose of determining the level of anxiety of women requesting to have mammography done in Denizli State Hospital at the Early Diagnosis Center. METHODS: The research population was comprised of all individuals who came to the Early Diagnosis Center between December 2005 and May 2006 to have mammography done. Between these dates refer to the center (101 persons and women who received oral onamlari working group formed. Data were collected using a survey form and Beck Anxiety Inventory in face-to-face interviews. In the analysis of the data, number and percentage calculations, t test, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests were used. RESULTS: The mean age of the women participating in the research was 50.68±7.43 years. The majority (71.3% of the women were housewives, married (89.1%, had a child (97.0%, did not have a family history of breast cancer (86.1%, had not previously been diagnosed with any kind of cancer (92.1%, had not had any previous breast-related illness (84.2%, had not had radiation therapy for any reason (86.1%. A statistically significant association was found between women's status of having previously had radiation therapy and their anxiety level (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: The anxiety level of women who had previously had radiation therapy for any reason was found to be higher. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 333-338

  12. Pain anxiety differentially mediates the association of pain intensity with function depending on level of intolerance of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischerauer, Stefan F; Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Vissers, Frederique L; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2018-02-01

    Uncertainty about symptom duration, cause, prognosis and treatment is common in patients who seek medical care, yet individual ability to manage this uncertainty varies. Intolerance of uncertainty is considered an important factor in the etiology and persistence of negative emotions- in particular, depression and anxiety. We explored the contribution of intolerance of uncertainty to anxiety due to pain and physical function in patients seeking care at an orthopedic medical practice. Participants (N = 105, mean age of 51 ± 17, 63% male) were administered PROMIS Physical Function v1.2 Upper Extremity CAT, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-short form (PASS-20), and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-short version (IUS-12). Results showed that the mediating role of pain anxiety is contingent upon the level of intolerance of uncertainty. Specifically, a minimum level of intolerance of uncertainty is required for the development of pain anxiety and its effect on function, and as intolerance of uncertainty rises from low to medium to high levels, the effect of pain on function goes from being independent of the anxiety to being more and more carried by and through anxiety about pain. These findings support the contention that intolerance of uncertainty plays a crucial role in the relationship between pain, pain anxiety, and physical function. Intolerance of uncertainty appears to be a trans-diagnostic target for coping skills training. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Variation in levels of anxiety to dental treatment among nonorphan and orphan children living under different systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikkala, Jayanth; Chandrabhatla, Srinivas Kumar; Vanga, Narasimha Rao V

    2015-08-01

    It is essential to understand the factors influencing the level of anxiety to dental treatment among different children as it can influence seeking dental care. Here, we assessed the impact of parental loss on dental anxiety among 6-13-year-old children. A total of 444 children within the age group 6-13 years were selected. Group 1 consisted of orphan children living in government-run orphanages, Group 2 consisted of orphan children taken care by a person with a motherly relationship, Group 3 consisted of abandoned children living in private organization and Group 4 consisted of children living with their parents. Dental anxiety was measured using children's fear survey schedule-dental subscale and modified faces version of modified child dental anxiety scale. The highest number of anxious children were observed in Group 4 and the difference in the anxiety levels among the four groups was found to be highly statistically significant. Children living in government-run orphanages had least dental anxiety. All the orphans may not have the same anxiety levels and the environment of upbringing the orphans plays a significant role in the development of the anxiety.

  14. Associations between delayed completion of high school and educational attainment and symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression....... This study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...

  15. Assessment level of anxiety and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis

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    Kusnetsova D.E.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In patients with multiple sclerosis observed polymorphism of the emergency psychiatric disorders with a wide range of psychopathological phenomena — from neurotic and personality disorders to psychotic states and epileptiform syndrome. However, the problems of mental health problems in people with MS for a long time little attention was paid. The aim of our study was to analyze the level of anxiety and depression severity in patients with multiple sclerosis. According to this objective have been identifed objectives of the study: to determine the level of depression and anxiety in MS patients according to sex, age, course, duration of disease. For our work was selected group of patients with documented diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, Charles Poser criteria, consisting of 79 persons, with a disease duration of more than 2 years. We used a specially designed questionnaire, which included a table to assess complaints, anamnesis, the neurological status of the patient, and standard questionnaires (test anxiety, Taylor Depression Scale Research psychoneurology them. Spondylitis, the index of overall psychological well-being. The study found that mood disorders such as anxiety, depression, often occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis. However, they are expressed in groups of patients receiving and not receiving DMD, in many ways. Thus, it should be recommended  Vat practical neurologists in the treatment of multiple sclerosis patients to pay attention to whether or not they have a certain range of mental disorders, and above all, anxious-depressive syndrome, which is in need of medical and non-pharmacological correction.

  16. Regular aerobic exercise correlates with reduced anxiety and incresed levels of irisin in brain and white adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Nazan; Yuksel, Oguz; Kizildag, Servet; Yuce, Zeynep; Gumus, Hikmet; Karakilic, Aslı; Guvendi, Guven; Koc, Basar; Kandis, Sevim; Ates, Mehmet

    2018-05-29

    We have recently shown that regular voluntary aerobic exercised rats have low levels of anxiety. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is produced by many tissues; and the role it plays in anxiolytic behavior is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We've have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues. No significant difference of irisin levels in the liver, muscle and serum were detected in the exercise group, when compared to controls. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between brain irisin levels and activity in middle area of open field test and in the open arms of elevated plus maze test; both which are indicators of low anxiety levels. Our results suggest that decrease in anxiolytic behavior due to regular voluntary exercise may be associated with locally produced brain irisin. White adipose tissue irisin levels also correlated very strongly with low anxiety. However, no serum irisin increase was detected, ruling out the possibility of increased peripheral irisin levels affecting the brain via the bloodstream. Further research is necessary to explain the mechanisms of which peripheral and central irisin effects anxiety and the brain region affected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

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    Su?rez-Pellicioni, Macarena; N??ez-Pe?a, Maria Isabel; Colom?, ?ngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present s...

  18. [Levels of state-trait anxiety between mothers and fathers who have children in an intensive care unit.

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    Rojas-Carrasco, Karmina Elena

    2013-01-01

    Background: when there is a child patient in the family, it is frequent that parents get upset. Anxiety in the mother and father could be different depending on the way each one lives the critical situation of the child patient. The purpose was to measure levels of anxiety in fathers and mothers who had a hospitalized child in an intensive care unit. Methods: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was applied to a group of 50 pairs of parents who had a hospitalized child in the intensive care unit in a pediatric hospital. A no probabilistic intentional sample was used. Differences between groups were analyzed by Student's t test. Results: no significant differences were obtained between mothers and fathers for both state-anxiety and trait-anxiety. Significant differences were obtained intra-groups between both kinds of anxiety. Conclusions: having a child who is chronically sick or hospitalized for intensive therapy causes similar levels of anxiety in both parents. Anxiety is significantly increased in both parents when their child is hospitalized in an intensive therapy unit.

  19. Investigation of the relationship between knowledge concerning radiation and the level of anxiety toward radiation in student nurses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    In the medical fields, the use of radiation is indispensable in diagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and various other areas. On the other hand, great anxiety is often felt due to the misunderstanding of radiation, and this anxiety is seen in not only patients but also nurses. In this study, a questionnaire survey about knowledge of radiation and the level of anxiety was carried out in student nurses for three years from 2005 to 2007. The questionnaire included the level of anxiety about radiation and 12 basic question items concerning radiation. The results showed that the student with poor knowledge about radiation showed high anxiety. After a series of lectures concerning radiation, the acquisition of knowledge and a decrease in anxiety were observed in the students. However, it was still shown that people with scarce knowledge concerning radiation still had high anxiety at the end of the lectures. In conclusion, it was shown that education about radiation is necessary to decrease anxiety about radiation among nurses in medical care. (author)

  20. Comprehensive eight-month intervention reduces weight and improves depression and anxiety levels in severe and morbid obesity

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    Alfonso Cofre-Lizama

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The comprehensive eight-month intervention had significant benefits for participants in weight loss and improved levels of anxiety and depression. For this reason, the intervention performed may be recommended for the treatment of this condition.

  1. The Effect of Foot Reflexology on the Anxiety Levels of Women in Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılar Erkek, Zümrüt; Aktas, Songul

    2018-04-01

    This research was conducted to analyze the effect of foot reflexology on the anxiety levels of women during labor. The study was conducted as a semiexperimental study. It was conducted with 154 nulliparous pregnant women who applied to a maternity unit of a state hospital in the north-western part of Turkey to give birth. Foot reflexology was applied once to the pregnant women in the experimental group when cervical dilation was 3-4 cm. The treatment was applied to the right foot and left foot reflex points for 15 min, for a total of 30 min. The data in the study were collected using the "Pregnant Women Introductory Information Form" and the "Spielberger State-trait Anxiety Inventory" (STAI TX-1). In evaluating the data, number, percentage, Chi-square, independent samples t-test, and repeated measure analysis of variance test were used. The mean scores of the STAI TX-1 were used to analyze the results. The mean STAI TX-1 scores were measured before reflexology, in the latent and active phases of labor and early in postpartum period (four times in total). The mean STAI TX-1 scores were higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p Foot reflexology was found to have a positive effect in lowering the total anxiety scores of the pregnant women. Reflexology is a noninvasive and economical method, which may be used by health professionals to reduce problems during labor. A decrease in anxiety experienced at birth improves women's positive birth experiences, promotes a secure mother-infant attachment, and protects postpartum mental health.

  2. EXAMINING OCCUPATIONAL ANXIETY LEVELS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS TEACHER DEPARTMENT STUDENTS

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    Ayşe Feray Özbal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the occupational anxiety levels of physical education and sports teacher department students in terms of age, gender, university, grade level, mother’s and father’s educational levels and family income. A total of 511 students (208 female, 303 male from 6 different universities participated in the study. Independent samples t-test for gender and age variables; One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was used for grade level, university, mother’s and father’s education levels and family income. Significant differences were found in Interaction With Students, Occupational Exam subscales in terms of gender; Interaction With Students and Individual Self-Development subscales in terms of age (p.05. As a result, It can be concluded that the significant difference between gender groups is derived from social values, and the difference in age groups is due to lack of occupational qualification.

  3. Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinsten, Orly; Tannock, Rosemary

    2010-07-15

    Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD) by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Participants (12 children with DD and 11 typically-developing peers) completed a novel priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative or related to mathematics). Children were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication or division) was true or false. Typically, people respond to target stimuli more quickly after presentation of an affectively-related prime than after one that is unrelated affectively. Participants with DD responded faster to targets that were preceded by both negative primes and math-related primes. A reversed pattern was present in the control group. These results reveal a direct link between emotions, arithmetic and low achievement in math. It is also suggested that arithmetic-affective priming might be used as an indirect measure of math anxiety.

  4. Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia

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    Tannock Rosemary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Methods Participants (12 children with DD and 11 typically-developing peers completed a novel priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative or related to mathematics. Children were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication or division was true or false. Typically, people respond to target stimuli more quickly after presentation of an affectively-related prime than after one that is unrelated affectively. Result Participants with DD responded faster to targets that were preceded by both negative primes and math-related primes. A reversed pattern was present in the control group. Conclusion These results reveal a direct link between emotions, arithmetic and low achievement in math. It is also suggested that arithmetic-affective priming might be used as an indirect measure of math anxiety.

  5. Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD) by using a novel affective priming task as an indirect measure. Methods Participants (12 children with DD and 11 typically-developing peers) completed a novel priming task in which an arithmetic equation was preceded by one of four types of priming words (positive, neutral, negative or related to mathematics). Children were required to indicate whether the equation (simple math facts based on addition, subtraction, multiplication or division) was true or false. Typically, people respond to target stimuli more quickly after presentation of an affectively-related prime than after one that is unrelated affectively. Result Participants with DD responded faster to targets that were preceded by both negative primes and math-related primes. A reversed pattern was present in the control group. Conclusion These results reveal a direct link between emotions, arithmetic and low achievement in math. It is also suggested that arithmetic-affective priming might be used as an indirect measure of math anxiety. PMID:20633269

  6. Levels of anxiety in parents in the 24 hr before and after their child's surgery: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomicino, Laura; Maccacari, Elena; Buchini, Sara

    2018-01-01

    To (i) investigate pre- and postoperative anxiety levels in parents of surgical patients; (ii) identify factors that affect parental anxiety; and (iii) analyse assistance provided and overall parental satisfaction to assess whether and how this aspect can impact their anxiety level. Surgery as an event generates anxiety in children and their parents. Children who are anxious before surgery are likely to develop more postoperative psychological and physiological complications than those who are not. The role parents play in influencing emotional states of their children has been well demonstrated. However, specific national programmes aimed at helping parents develop new models for coping are relatively inexistent in Italy. Longitudinal study. One hundred and one parents of children undergoing surgery at a healthcare facility in Padua, Italy, completed the Italian version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y questionnaire. They also answered questions about their parents' socio-demographic situation, the amount and quality of preoperative information received, assistance provided and their overall satisfaction with this information. The preoperative level of anxiety in parents who were interviewed was higher than Italian normative data, especially in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery and Pediatric Urology departments. Mothers had a significantly higher level of anxiety than fathers. Communicating possible complications of surgical procedures increased anxiety, while providing information about pre- and postsurgery nutrition and pain management and providing local anaesthetic on children decreased parental anxiety. Parents expressed a sufficiently high level of satisfaction although they defined the hospital environment as uncomfortable. Aspects of care that can make hospitalisation less traumatic for parents are as follows: greater support, involving them in the treatment process, improving hospital department admission procedures and providing thorough preoperative

  7. Level of Anxiety, Depression, Self-Esteem, Social Anxiety, and Quality of Life among the Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Gökhan Açmaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous disease and many symptoms are seen with varying degrees. The aim of the present study was to determine which symptoms increased such problems as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and social worry by classifying PCOS according to symptoms. Methods. The study was carried out with two groups. The first group consisted of 86 patients who were diagnosed with PCOS and the second group consisted of 47 healthy volunteers. Liebowitz’ Social Anxiety Scale, Rosenberg’ Self-Esteem Scale, Short-Form 36, Quality of Life Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered to each volunteer. Results. Depression scores of infertile group were higher while anxiety scores of the obese group were bigger than other groups. It was the obesity group that received the smallest score in self-esteem and trust in people and the highest score in sensitiveness to criticism. The most affected group was oligomenorrhea-hirsutism group in terms of physical functioning, physical role function, pain, social functioning, emotional role function, and emotional well-being. Conclusion. We suggest that not only gynecologist but also a multidisciplinary team may examine these patients.

  8. Effect of music therapy on pain and anxiety levels of cancer patients: A pilot study

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    Priyadharshini Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pain associated with cancer is highly detrimental to the quality of life of the affected individuals. It also contributes to the anxiety of the patient. There is a need for a nonpharmacological approach in addition to the pharmacological therapy for the management of the pain for a more holistic improvement in the individual. With this study, we wish to achieve this through music. Objective: To assess the effect of music therapy on pain scores and anxiety levels of cancer patients with pain. Study Design: In this quantitative study, a comparative study was done on fourteen cancer patients admitted for pain relief under the Department of Pain and Palliative Medicine, of a tertiary care hospital, having moderate to severe pain (numerical pain rating scale [NRS] - of 4 to 10. Subjects and Methods: Convenience sampling was used. Patients were allocated to test group or control group nonrandomly. The test group patients were subjected to music therapy for 20 min while the control group patients were kept occupied by talking to them for 20 min. The NRS scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional pain scores and the Hamilton anxiety rating scale was used to assess the pre- and post-interventional anxiety scores in the two groups. Statistics: Student′s t-test was used for comparing the pre- and post-interventional data. Two sample t-test was used to compare the data obtained from the control and study groups. Results: Statistically significant reduction seen in the pain scores in the test group after music therapy (P = 0.003. No statistically significant reduction seen in the pain score in the control group (P = 0.356. There was a statistically significant reduction in the postintervention pain scores in the test group compared to the control group (P = 0.034. The reduction in anxiety levels in both groups after intervention was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Music therapy was found to lower the pain score of

  9. Association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Abdullah Cüneyt; Findikli, Ebru; Korkmaz, Sevda; Koc, Merve Iris

    2016-01-01

    Background Here we aimed to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic. Methods This study consists of 73 violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic who were literate and agreed to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form created by us to investigate alcohol-substance abuse, suicide attempt, previous history of trauma, self and family history of psychiatric disorders and Beck Anxiety Inventory was given to the patients. Results Of the patients exposed to violence 63% (n=46) were female and 27% (n=27) were male. Of these patients, 68.5% (n=50) were married, 43.8% (n=25) were workers, 34.2% were housewives, 11% were unemployed, and 11% were civil servants. Of the violence-exposed patients, 56.2% (n=41) were primary school, 21.9% (n=16) were high school, and 21.9% (n=16) were university graduates. Smoking and alcohol use rates were 54.8% (n=40) and 17.8% (n=13), respectively. The most common trauma type was assault using physical force with a ratio of 78.1% (n=57). In addition, anxiety scores were high in 42.5% (n=31) and moderate in 9.6% (n=7) of the patients. Mentioned psychiatric disorder was present in 17.8% (n=13) of the patients and 19.2% (n=14) of the patients’ relatives. The correlation between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety scores revealed that married patients had higher anxiety scores (Pviolence-exposed patients admitted to emergency room were females, 56.2% were primary school graduates, and 43.8% were factory workers; this result shows that low socioeconomical status and education level affect exposure to trauma especially in females. In addition, ~20% of the patients and patients’ relatives had a psychiatric disorder and 53.4% of perpetrators were parents, spouses, and children; this result shows that psychiatric history and family relations are one of the

  10. The Chicken or the Egg? The Direction of the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Emma; Hill, Francesca; Devine, Amy; Szücs, Dénes

    2015-01-01

    This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA) and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory), or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model). The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory), in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  11. The chicken or the egg? The direction of the relationship between mathematics anxiety and mathematics performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eCarey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the two possible causal directions between mathematics anxiety (MA and poor mathematics performance. Either poor maths performance may elicit MA (referred to as the Deficit Theory, or MA may reduce future maths performance (referred to as the Debilitating Anxiety Model. The evidence is in conflict: the Deficit Theory is supported by longitudinal studies and studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities, but the Debilitating Anxiety Model is supported by research which manipulates anxiety levels and observes a change in mathematics performance. It is suggested that this mixture of evidence might indicate a bidirectional relationship between MA and mathematics performance (the Reciprocal Theory, in which MA and mathematics performance can influence one another in a vicious cycle.

  12. Parental acculturation level moderates outcome in peer-involved and parent-involved CBT for anxiety disorders in Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavik, Daniella; Buitron, Victor; Rey, Yasmin; Marin, Carla E; Silverman, Wendy K; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) are efficacious treatments for anxiety disorders in Latino youth. However, there is a gap in knowledge about moderators of CBT outcomes in Latino youth. This study addresses this gap by examining parental acculturation as a moderator of youth anxiety outcomes in a randomized controlled trial of parent-involved CBT (CBT/P) and peer-involved group CBT (GCBT) in 139 Latino youth (ages 6 to 16 years; mean age = 9.68 years). Comparable youth anxiety reduction effects were found for CBT/P and GCBT. Parental acculturation to majority US culture, but not identification with country of origin, significantly moderated youth anxiety outcomes: at low levels of parental acculturation to majority US culture, youth posttreatment anxiety scores were lower in GCBT than CBT/P; at high levels of parental acculturation to majority US culture, youth posttreatment anxiety scores were lower in CBT/P than GCBT. These findings provide further evidence for the efficacy of CBTs for anxiety disorders in Latino youth and also provide guidance for moving toward personalization of CBTs' selection depending on parental acculturation levels.

  13. Psychological skills usage and the competitive anxiety response as a function of skill level in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Richard; D Mellalieu, Stephen; Hanton, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65) and nonelite (n=50) participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations. Key PointsNonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity.Elite athletes maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of psychological skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative.This process occurs through imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques.Nonelite performers who are debilitators should implement relaxation-based programs. However, in high activation level sports performers should reduce symptom intensity, restructure cognitions, and then raise activation states again to appropriate levels.Elite performers who are debilitators should implement cognitive restructuring techniques to interpret their anxiety as facilitative via a combination of goal setting, self-talk, and imagery.

  14. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  15. Determination Anxiety Level of the Youngsters Studying in Denizli Apprenticeship Training Center

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    Ozgur Metin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: This study was carried out as a definitive work in order to determine the anxiety level and self-respect of the students studying in Denizli Apprenticeship Training Center. METHODS: The study population was composed of 1276 individuals registered at Denizli Apprenticeship Training Center. The size of the sample was established to be as 235 individuals considering the formula used in the conditions where the study population was determined but 231 individuals were contacted. Those recruited in the study were chosen with the stratified randomized sampling method. The data were obtained during February-March 2005 in the class via the questionnaire formed by the researcher, the State-Continuous Anxiety Inventory and Coopersmith Self-respect Scale. For the evaluation of the data mean, standard deviation, percentage and quantity estimations, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test, Mann-Whitney Test and one way ANOVA tests were employed. RESULTS: The mean age of the youngsters recruited in the study was 17.06 1.45. 75.3% of the subjects were male, 33.8% had 4 or more siblings, 79.7% were graduated from middle school and 76.7% were living with their families. Another working individual was present in 87.9% of the subjects. 16.5% of the subjects pointed out that they their master did not provided them assistance for a job they held for the first time whereas 35.5% of the subjects stated that they experienced difficulties in case when they needed license of absence. 40.3% of the students enunciated that they were obliged to do work that strain their power, and 29.9% stated that they were not appreciated. The difference between the sex of the subjects, the education status of their fathers and the anxiety level of the youngsters was found to be significant (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The anxiety level of the females involved in the study and the youngsters whose fathers’ education level was middle school or higher was detected to be greater. [TAF Prev Med

  16. Association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocagil H

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Hilal Hocagil,1 Filiz Izci,2 Abdullah Cüneyt Hocagil,1 Ebru Findikli,3 Sevda Korkmaz,4 Merve Iris Koc5 1Department of Emergency, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Istanbul Bilim University, Istanbul, 3Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 5Department of Psychiatry, Erenkoy Training and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Here we aimed to investigate sociodemographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and association between sociodemographic characteristics and anxiety levels of violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic.Methods: This study consists of 73 violence-exposed patients admitted to emergency clinic who were literate and agreed to participate in the study. A sociodemographic data form created by us to investigate alcohol-substance abuse, suicide attempt, previous history of trauma, self and family history of psychiatric disorders and Beck Anxiety Inventory was given to the patients.Results: Of the patients exposed to violence 63% (n=46 were female and 27% (n=27 were male. Of these patients, 68.5% (n=50 were married, 43.8% (n=25 were workers, 34.2% were housewives, 11% were unemployed, and 11% were civil servants. Of the violence-exposed patients, 56.2% (n=41 were primary school, 21.9% (n=16 were high school, and 21.9% (n=16 were university graduates. Smoking and alcohol use rates were 54.8% (n=40 and 17.8% (n=13, respectively. The most common trauma type was assault using physical force with a ratio of 78.1% (n=57. In addition, anxiety scores were high in 42.5% (n=31 and moderate in 9.6% (n=7 of the patients. Mentioned psychiatric disorder was present in 17.8% (n=13 of the patients and 19.2% (n=14 of the patients’ relatives. The correlation between sociodemographic

  17. Children's drawings as a measure of anxiety level: a clinical pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puura, Arto; Puura, Kaija; Rorarius, Michael; Annila, Päivi; Viitanen, Hanna; Baer, Gerhard

    2005-03-01

    No simple method exists to distinguish children in need for premedication. The present study was planned to detect preoperative anxiety levels of children by rating their drawings. Sixty ASA I children aged 4-7 years undergoing adenoidectomy were divided into AGIT and CALM groups according to agitation level observed during venous cannulation. All children drew a picture at three different times: (i) just after arrival in the day-case unit, (ii) 10 min before operation and, (iii) prior to leaving for home. The children were also randomized to three premedication groups: group D, rectal diazepam 0.5 mg x kg(-1); group P, 0.9% NaCl 0.1 ml x kg(-1) rectally; group NT, no premedication. Five features (size of the drawing, form of the drawing line, colors used, mark of the pen and clarity of the picture) from the children's drawings were rated with a 3-point scale. The ratings of each feature were made to form a sum score of anxiety ranging from 0 to 10. In the analysis of variance for repeated measures both the premedication group and agitation score were taken into the model as factors. The anxiety score of the drawings of the agitated children (during venous cannulation) was significantly higher already after arrival in the hospital [AGIT 4.76 (95% CI: 3.56-5.96) Vs CALM 3.67 (95% CI: 2.97-4.37) P = 0.029], but there were no statistical differences between the different premedication groups. When routine sedative premedication is not used the drawings of the children might detect the children needing sedative premedication.

  18. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  19. Specific Cognitive Predictors of Early Math Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2015-01-01

    Development of early math skill depends on a prerequisite level of cognitive development. Identification of specific cognitive skills that are important for math development may not only inform instructional approaches but also inform assessment approaches to identifying children with specific learning problems in math. This study investigated the…

  20. Math Self-Assessment, but Not Negative Feelings, Predicts Mathematics Performance of Elementary School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Geraldi Haase

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics anxiety has been associated to performance in school mathematics. The association between math anxiety and psychosocial competencies as well as their specific contribution to explain school mathematics performance are still unclear. In the present study, the impact of sociodemographic factors, psychosocial competencies, and math anxiety on mathematics and spelling performance was examined in school children with and without mathematics difficulties. The specific contributions of psychosocial competencies (i.e., general anxiety and attentional deficits with hyperactivity and math anxiety (i.e., self-assessment in mathematics to school mathematics performance were found to be statistically independent from each other. Moreover, psychosocial competencies—but not math anxiety—were related also to spelling performance. These results suggest that psychosocial competencies are more related to general mechanisms of emotional regulation and emotional response towards academic performance, while mathematics anxiety is related to the specific cognitive aspect of self-assessment in mathematics.

  1. Impact of Personality Traits, Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness Levels on Quality of Life in the Patients with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsanov, Dauren; Erdogan, Zeynep İyigün; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Çelebi, Esra; Alço, Gül; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ordu, Çetin; Öztürk, Alper; Duymaz, Tomris; Pilavcı, Kezban Nur; Elbüken, Filiz; Ağaçayak, Filiz; Aktepe, Fatma; Ünveren, Gizem; Özdem, Gözdem; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of personality traits, anxiety, depression and hopelessness levels on quality of life in the patients with breast cancer. Materials and methods The study was performed on 90 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 90 healthy women. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Collection Form designed by us, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Quality of Life Scale–Short Form (SF-36) were administered to patients and to control group. Results The patients with breast cancer were found to indicate higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower levels of quality of life, and higher scores of personality inventory subscales as compared to the healthy control group. In the patient group, it was identified that the quality of life subscale scores were found to be negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, hopelessness and neurotic personality scores; there was a positive correlation between neurotic personality scores and depression, anxiety and hopelessness scores. Conclusions It can be concluded that the breast cancer patients with extraversion personality traits have lower levels of anxiety and depression, keeping their quality of life better, whereas the patients with higher neuroticism scores may have more impaired quality of life. Therefore, the psychiatric evaluation of the breast cancer patients during and after the treatment cannot be ruled out. PMID:29774319

  2. Impact of Personality Traits, Anxiety, Depression and Hopelessness Levels on Quality of Life in the Patients with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzci, Filiz; Sarsanov, Dauren; Erdogan, Zeynep İyigün; İlgün, Ahmet Serkan; Çelebi, Esra; Alço, Gül; Kocaman, Nazmiye; Ordu, Çetin; Öztürk, Alper; Duymaz, Tomris; Pilavcı, Kezban Nur; Elbüken, Filiz; Ağaçayak, Filiz; Aktepe, Fatma; Ünveren, Gizem; Özdem, Gözdem; Eralp, Yeşim; Özmen, Vahit

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of personality traits, anxiety, depression and hopelessness levels on quality of life in the patients with breast cancer. The study was performed on 90 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and 90 healthy women. Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Collection Form designed by us, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Beck Anxiety Scale (BAS), Beck Depression Scale (BDS), Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and Quality of Life Scale-Short Form (SF-36) were administered to patients and to control group. The patients with breast cancer were found to indicate higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower levels of quality of life, and higher scores of personality inventory subscales as compared to the healthy control group. In the patient group, it was identified that the quality of life subscale scores were found to be negatively correlated with anxiety, depression, hopelessness and neurotic personality scores; there was a positive correlation between neurotic personality scores and depression, anxiety and hopelessness scores. It can be concluded that the breast cancer patients with extraversion personality traits have lower levels of anxiety and depression, keeping their quality of life better, whereas the patients with higher neuroticism scores may have more impaired quality of life. Therefore, the psychiatric evaluation of the breast cancer patients during and after the treatment cannot be ruled out.

  3. The effects of breathing techniques training on the duration of labor and anxiety levels of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Sevil; Basar, Fatma

    2017-11-01

    To assess the effects of breathing techniques training on anxiety levels of pregnant women and the duration of labor. The study utilizes a randomized controlled trial design. The pregnant women were divided into control (n = 35) or experimental group (n = 35) randomly. The experimental group received breathing techniques training in the latent phase and these techniques were applied in the following phases accordingly. The anxiety levels of pregnant women were evaluated three times in total. The duration of labor was considered as the duration of the first stage of labor and the duration of the second stage of labor. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and the mean duration of labor. This study concludes that breathing techniques are an effective method in the reduction of anxiety and influence the duration of delivery during labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of therapeutic Swedish massage on anxiety level and vital signs of Intensive Care Unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Silva, Tatiana; Stripari Schujmann, Debora; Yamada da Silveira, Leda Tomiko; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Fu, Carolina

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate how Swedish massage affects the level of anxiety and vital signs of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. Quasi-experimental study. ICU patients, 18-50 years old, cooperative, respiratory and hemodynamic stable, not under invasive mechanical ventilation. allergic to massage oil, vascular or orthopedic post-operative, skin lesions, thrombosis, fractures. A 30-min Swedish massage was applied once. arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, S-STAI questionnaire. Timing of evaluation: pre-massage, immediately post-massage, 30 min post-massage. Comparison: T-test, corrected by Bonferroni method, level of significance of 5%, confidence interval of 95%. 48 patients included, 30 (62.5%) female, mean age 55.46 (15.70) years old. Mean S-STAI pre-massage: 42.51 (9.48); immediately post-massage: 29.34 (6.37); 30 min post-massage: 32.62 (8.56), p < 0.001 for all comparison. Mean vital signs achieved statistical significance between pre-massage and immediately post-massage. Swedish massage reduced anxiety of ICU patients immediately and 30 min post-massage. Vital signs were reduced immediately post-massage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Level of Anxiety and Depression Among Iranian Infertile Couples Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization or Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Yassini

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 10% of Iranian couples wishing to have a child experience some types of infertility which may impose a considerable psychological burden on them. The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the level of anxiety and depression among infertile couples undergoing IVF or ICSI treatment cycles in Iran. Methods: Fifty infertile couples that who undergoing IVF (n=25 or ICSI (n=25 cycles were considered for this descriptive cross-sectional study. Also, 25 married couples (18-40 years old with history of fertility served as control subjects. All husbands and wives were examined by means of Beck Depression and Spielberger Anxiety Inventories. Results: Comparing with controls, the highest rates of moderate and severe anxiety, were observed in women undergoing IVF (76% and 12%, respectively; P<0.05. However, the rate of depression among women in IVF group was comparable to women undergoing ICSI. Also, the highest rates of severe depression and anxiety were demonstrated among housewives (23.9% and 11%, respectively. The lowest rates of severe anxiety and depression were observed in husbands participated in either IVF or ICSI cycles. In addition, illiterates, compared with educated couples, undergoing IVF or ICSI program were shown to have the highest rates of both depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The results showed that the levels of anxiety and depression were higher in women, especially housewives, undergoing IVF or ICSI cycles than control subjects. Also, men showed lower rates of anxiety and depression than women undergoing IVF or ICSI. Therefore, this can provide useful information and guidance for health professionals working with infertile patients. KeyWords: anxiety, depression, infertility, IVF, ICSI, Iran

  6. Solving America's Math Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Concern about students' math achievement is nothing new, and debates about the mathematical training of the nation's youth date back a century or more. In the early 20th century, American high-school students were starkly divided, with rigorous math courses restricted to a college-bound elite. At midcentury, the "new math" movement sought,…

  7. Developmental Math Programs in California Community College: An Analysis of Math Boot Camp at Cosumnes River College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Torence J.

    2017-01-01

    The California Community College system, as an open access institution, is tasked with helping students who possess math skills far below college-level complete math course requirements for obtaining an associate degree or transfer to a university. Colleges have created various developmental math programs to achieve this mission; this paper…

  8. Association of physical activity level with depression, anxiety, and quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Mutlu, Caner; Taskiran, Hanifegul; Ozgen, Ilker Tolga

    2015-11-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have low physical activity levels and are at high risk for psychosocial morbidities, including depression, heightened anxiety and low health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to assess the associations of physical activity level with depression, anxiety, and HRQoL in children with T1DM. A cross-sectional study design, including children with T1DM aged between 8 and 12 years and healthy controls, was used. Physical activity (PA) level was assessed with the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Anxiety was screened by The Screen for Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Quality of life was assessed with the The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL 4.0). Forty-seven T1DM and 55 healthy children were included with mean ages of 9.87±1.63 and 9.56±1.60 years, respectively. The T1DM group had significantly higher depression and anxiety score (pchildren with T1DM. The result of our study suggested that only HRQoL was related to physical activity, anxiety and HbA1c in children with T1DM.

  9. Examining School-Level Reading and Math Proficiency Trends and Changes in Achievement Gaps for Grades 3-8 in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina. REL 2017-235

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sarah; Zhou, Chengfu; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    The 2001 authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act and its standards and accountability requirements generated interest among state education agencies in Florida, Mississippi, and North Carolina, which are served by the Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, in monitoring changes in student reading and math proficiency at the school level.…

  10. Emotional Freedom Techniques for Reducing Anxiety and Cortisol Level in Pregnant Adolescent Primiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardjan Mardjan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anxiety during pregnancy in  primiparous mother will be a hard burden because of the immature both psycologic and reproductive organs which can increase the risk of maternal mortality, infant mortality, prolonged childbirth, LBW, postpartum depression, etc. An effort to minimize the anxiety is the implementation of EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques during the third trimester.  This research purposed to assess the effectiveness of EFT to decrease anxiety in facing childbirth. This research used the quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test method of treatment and control. The treatment was done during the third trimester, started and followed for 3 months ie month 7th, 8th, 9th. The EFT was implemented every month then continued independently by the mother, until before childbirth process. The research instrument used TMAS (Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and cortisol blood test. The subjects were 38 respondents consisted of 19 interventions and 19 controls. Result with paired t-test, TMAS1,2,3, each stage got significant difference, pre and post blood cortisol level p = 0.0001. Linear regression analysis on TMAS p = 0.001 and R² = 0.57, whereas blood cortisol level p = 0.004 and R² = 0.43. This analysis proved EFT contributed significantly 57% to lower anxiety levels and 43% to lower blood cortisol level, indirectly affected the readiness to face childbirth process.                                                            ABSTRAK         Kecemasan selama kehamilan pada ibu primipara akan memberatkan kondisi bayi dalam kandungan karena secara psikologis kejiwaannya belum siap dan organ reproduksi belum sempurna yang dapat meningkatkan risiko dalam persalinan dan merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab kematian ibu, bayi, partus lama, BBLR, depresi postpartum, dll. Upaya meminimalisasi kecemasan ini dilakukan dengan metode EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques selama trimester

  11. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  12. In the company we keep: social physique anxiety levels differ around parents and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of two scales which assessed social physique anxiety (SPA) in the context of peers (peer SPA) and parents (parent SPA), and differences in reported levels of peer SPA and parent SPA. Young adults (N = 381, 161 males, M(age) = 18.69 years) completed self-report measures. Results supported the internal consistency, convergent validity and factor structure of the peer SPA and parent SPA scales. Also, participants reported significantly higher levels of peer SPA compared to parent SPA. Findings offer preliminary support for the investigation of contextualized SPA using the scales tested in this study, and suggest more research is needed to better understand the processes that may increase or decrease SPA when surrounded by peers and parents.

  13. Reflex syncope, anxiety level, and family history of cardiovascular disease in young women: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, D; Szewczuk-Bogusławska, M; Kaczmarek, M; Agrawal, A K; Rudnicki, J; Gajek, J; Melander, O; Sutton, R; Fedorowski, A

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is an emotion, which stimulates sympathetic nervous outflow potentially facilitating vasovagal reflex syncope (VVS) but reports on anxiety levels in patients with VVS are sparse. We studied anxiety levels in young women (21-40 years) referred for unexplained transient loss of consciousness (TLOC), and age-matched female controls with or without past history of TLOC (≈probable VVS). Referred patients underwent head-up tilt (HUT) according to current ESC Guidelines. State and Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire evaluated anxiety levels plus a questionnaire explored risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Sixty-five of 91 women were diagnosed with VVS on HUT. Among 549 controls, 223 (40.6%) reported at least one episode of TLOC. State-anxiety level in patients with VVS undergoing HUT (42.4 ± 9.3) was higher compared with both controls with (38.3 ± 10.2; P < 0.01) and without past TLOC history (35.9 ± 9.8; P < 0.001). Trait anxiety in patients with VVS (42.7 ± 8.4), and controls with TLOC history (42.4 ± 8.4) was higher compared with controls without TLOC history (39.7 ± 8.5; P < 0.01). In the logistic regression using controls without TLOC as reference, both VVS diagnosis and past history of TLOC were associated with family history of CVD [odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-4.4; P = 0.007, and 2.3, 1.4-3.6; P = 0.001, respectively], and this association was independent of anxiety level. Trait anxiety and family history of CVD are increased in both young women with VVS and controls with history of TLOC. However, the height of anxiety level does not explain CVD heredity and other mechanisms may link syncope with CVD. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Anxiety, depression and self-esteem levels in obese children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Seda; Orhon, Filiz Şimşek; Tayfun, Meltem; Uçaktürk, Seyit Ahmet; Demirel, Fatma

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a global health problem affecting all age groups. Childhood obesity, which may cause chronic diseases including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, etc., deserves more attention. However, few studies highlight the association between childhood obesity and psychological diseases. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the psychological condition in obese children. One hundred and sixty-seven obese (body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile) and 200 normal weight children (BMI between 5th and 85th percentile) aged 9-16 years were enrolled into this case-control study. In order to assess the self-concept, anxiety and depression levels: the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS), state and trait anxiety inventory for children (STAI-C) and the children depression inventory (CDI) were administered both obese and control groups. There were significant differences among obese and control groups in terms of the total score of PHCSCS [55 (22-69) versus 65 (57-74)], STAI-C [37 (20-55) versus 28 (20-42)], and CDI [12 (4-39)] versus [8 (3-19)]; respectively (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001). We also found statistically significant differences among groups in all of the subscales parameters of PHCSCS (p<0.001). Our results indicate that obese children may experience psychiatric disorders more than normal-weight peers.

  15. Exploratory Study on the Impact of Information on Performance Psychology on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian Music Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ray

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of information on psychology of music on Stress and Anxiety Levels of Brazilian students of music performance, both undergraduate and graduate, and cross information on their levels of stress and anxiety. It includes an investigation on curricular programs of Brazilian public universities based on previous investigation by the authors (RAY; et al, 2011. The main goals: 1 to investigate how much information Brazilian music performance students has access to access during their courses; and 2 to identify potential indicators of the impact this information may have on the levels of stress and anxiety in the performances of these students; Methodology:  Students from six Brazilian public universities were requested to fill out three forms: the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI; the Inventory of Stress Symptoms LIPP and an additional form that investigated the participants routine for preparation to performance. Results: information on music performance psychology is only presented privately at teacher’s discretion. As compulsory classes have not been included in the curriculum, it was not possible to infer results on this subject. More than half of the participants (51,72% don’t present stress condition. Almost half of them (48,27% have some level of stress. All participants fit within some level of anxiety.

  16. Reported parental characteristics in relation to trait depression and anxiety levels in a non-clinical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G

    1979-09-01

    Care and overprotection appear to reflect the principal dimensions underlying parental behaviours and attitudes. In previous studies of neurotically depressed patients and of a non-clinical group, subjects who scored their parents as lacking in care and/or overprotective had the greater depressive experience. The present study of another non-clinical group (289 psychology students) replicated those findings in regard to trait depression levels. In addition, associations between those parental dimensions and trait anxiety scores were demonstrated. Multiple regression analyses established that 9-10% of the variance in mood scores was accounted for by scores on those parental dimensions. Low maternal care scores predicted higher levels of both anxiety and depression, while high maternal overprotection scores predicted higher levels of anxiety but not levels of depression. Maternal influences were clearly of greater relevance than paternal influences.

  17. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  18. The Influence of Social Support on the Levels of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Students in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugbey, Nuworza; Osei-Boadi, Samuel; Atefoe, Ethel Akpene

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of social support from family, friends and significant others on the levels depression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students of University of Ghana. A total of one hundred and sixty-five (165) students were sampled from all the levels and were administered with standardized questionnaires measuring social…

  19. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  20. Academic Locus of Control, Tendencies Towards Academic Dishonesty and Test Anxiety Levels as the Predictors of Academic Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have focused on finding the level of effect that academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic dishonesty, and test anxiety levels have had on academic self-efficacy, and providing a separate explanation ratio for each. The relationship among the effects of the academic locus of control, tendencies towards academic…

  1. Comparison of the effects of lavender and diazepam on the anxiety level of patients before orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shahinfar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waiting for surgery is one of the stressful environmental factors for each patient. The anxiety caused by waiting could have adverse effects on the patient treatment and recovery process. Given the complications caused by the management of anxiety through pharmaceutical methods, the application of complementary medicine is of paramount importance. This study aimed to compare the effects of lavender and diazepam on the anxiety level of the patients before orthopedic surgery. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on the patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, who referred to one of the teaching hospitals of Bojnord, Iran, in 2015. In total, 60 patients were selected through randomized convenience sampling and divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 300 mg of lavender extract, whereas the control group orally consumed diazepam 5 mg prior to the surgery. The anxiety level of the patients was measured one night and one hour before the surgery using the Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The data analysis was performed in the SPSS version 16, using the paired sample t-test, Fisher’s exact test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. Results: According to the results of the present study, the mean anxiety level of the intervention group varied from 9.8±6.0 to 76.2±5.5 (P<0.001 after the intervention. On the other hand, the mean anxiety level of the participants of the control group decreased from 100.0±5.5 to 80.0±5.7 (P<0.001. However, this difference was not statistically significant between the two groups. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, similar to diazepam, the lavender can diminish the anxiety level in the patients before the orthopedic surgery. It is recommended to use the lavender before the surgeries to decrease the anxiety level since the herbal medicine is associated with less complications, compared to the diazepam.

  2. Evaluation of the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pourmovahed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients experience high levels of anxiety before angiography, which is mostly associated with irreparable effects on health status of such individuals. Use of alternative medicine to reduce stress and anxiety is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography. Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on 70 patients admitted to cardiac wards before angiography in three selected hospitals of Shiraz, Iran in 2015. Samples were selected through randomized and available sampling and divided into two groups of control (n=35 and intervention (n=35. In this study, the intervention group received one hour of music before angiography for 20 minutes, whereas the usual care of ward was provided for the control group. Data was collected using the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI by Spielberger one hour before angiography (immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes after angiography (immediately after the intervention through interviews with all the participants. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as paired and independent-tests. Results: In this study, mean anxiety scores of patients in the intervention and control groups before the intervention were 48.45±6.63 and 48.25±6.63, respectively. After the intervention, these scores were changed to 44.28±5.21 and 49.02±7.74 in the intervention (P=0.004 and control (P=0.90 groups, respectively. Therefore, a significant difference was observed between the groups after the intervention (P=0.008. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, music before angiography could lead to a significant decrease in anxiety level of patients. Therefore, this approach could be used as an effective method to alleviate anxiety in patients.

  3. Evaluation of the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmovahed Zahra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Patients experience high levels of anxiety before angiography, which is mostly associated with irreparable effects on health status of such individuals. Use of alternative medicine to reduce stress and anxiety is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of music on anxiety level of patients hospitalized in cardiac wards before angiography. Materials and Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 70 patients admitted to cardiac wards before angiography in three selected hospitals of Shiraz, Iran in 2015. Samples were randomized convenience sampling and divided into two groups of control (n=35 and intervention (n=35. In this study, the intervention group received one hour of music before angiography for 20 minutes, whereas the usual care of ward was provided for the control group. Data was collected using the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI by Spielberger one hour before angiography (immediately before the intervention and 20 minutes after angiography (immediately after the intervention through interviews with all the participants. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, as well as paired and independent-tests. Results: In this study, mean anxiety scores of patients in the intervention and control groups before the intervention were 48.45±6.63 and 48.25±6.63, respectively. After the intervention, these scores were changed to 44.28±5.21 and 49.02±7.74 in the intervention (P=0.004 and control (P=0.90 groups, respectively. Therefore, a significant difference was observed between the groups after the intervention (P=0.008. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, music before angiography could lead to a significant decrease in anxiety level of patients. Therefore, this approach could be used as an effective method to alleviate anxiety in patients.

  4. The Aftermath of Remedial Math: Investigating the Low Rate of Certificate Completion among Remedial Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…

  5. Estimation of the level of anxiety in rats: differences in results of open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel's conflict test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Nazarova, G A; Alekseeva, E V; Bashkatova, V G

    2013-07-01

    We compared individual anxiety assessed by three standard tests, open-field test, elevated plus-maze test, and Vogel conflict drinking test, in the same animals. No significant correlations between the main anxiety parameters were found in these three experimental models. Groups of animals with high and low anxiety rats were formed by a single parameter and subsequent selection of two extreme groups (10%). It was found that none of the tests could be used for reliable estimation of individual anxiety in rats. The individual anxiety level with high degree of confidence was determined in high-anxiety and low-anxiety rats demonstrating behavioral parameters above and below the mean values in all tests used. Therefore, several tests should be used for evaluation of the individual anxiety or sensitivity to emotional stress.

  6. A metabolomic study of fipronil for the anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish larvae at environmentally relevant levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cui; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Quan; Li, Zhuoyu; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    Field residue of fipronil can interfere with the physiological characters of the domesticated fish; thus, lethal dose test and the general biomarker cannot delineate the low-level situation. Manipulating by video track, we observed an anxiety-like behavior including high speed and abnormal photoperiod accommodation after exposure to fipronil at environmental typical dose in zebrafish larvae. Examining the unbiased metabolomic profiles, we found perturbation in several metabolic pathways, including the increased contents of fatty acids and glycerol and the decreased levels of the glycine, serine, and branched amino acid. We presumed that observed enhanced fatty acid utility was in response to increase energy demands caused by anxiety like behavior. Additionally, the body burden of neurotransmitter such as glycine and L-glutamate may concurrently stimulate the swimming behavior. The insight of this study showed that integral perturbation such as metabolism helps us to further understand the risk to aquatic fish at the environmentally relevant levels. - Highlights: • Fipronil increased the swimming speed at 10 μg/L to zebrafish larvae. • Accommodation to light–dark photoperiod switch was disturbed by fipronil. • Metabolomics indicated an increase energy availability for anxiety-like behavior. • Anxiety-like behavior induced by fipronil may attribute to neurotransmitter changes. - Zebrafish larvae exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fipronil display anxiety like behavior that may attribute to observed changes in energy utilization and neurotransmitter disturbances.

  7. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora ePoli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109=0.23, p<0.05. Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109=0.28, p<0.05 and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p<0.001. Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

  8. The Influence of Resistance Exercise Training on the Levels of Anxiety in Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe José Aidar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the effect of a strength training program on indicators of trait and state anxiety in patients with ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into two groups: experimental group (EG consisting of 11 subjects aged years and a control group (CG with 13 subjects aged years. EG underwent 12 weeks of strength training, with a frequency of three times a week. For data collection, a State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI was used. Significant differences were found between pre- and posttest in EG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest with no differences in CG for trait anxiety ( pretest posttest and state anxiety ( pretest posttest. In the evaluation between the groups, significant differences were found for all indicators of trait anxiety ( EG; CG and state anxiety ( EG; CG. This pilot study indicates that strength training may provide an improvement in trait and state anxiety more than one year after stroke.

  9. Anxiety and depression levels in prepubertal obese children: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Francesco Lavano,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Domenico Bove,6 Michele Sorrentino,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy; 6Centro per la Diagnosi e Cura dei Disturbi dell’apprendimento e del Comportamento Associazione per la ricerca scientifica Fusis, Alvignano, Italy Introduction: Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in Western and in developing countries and has been accompanied by many serious and severe comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea syndrome, depression, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, steatohepatitis, and intracranial hypertension, as well as medical concerns unique to youth, such as accelerated pubertal and skeletal development and orthopedic disorders. To date, no specific studies about the psychological assessment in pediatric obesity are present. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the putative relationship between psychological troubles and obesity in a sample of school-aged children. Materials and methods: The study population consists of 148 obese subjects (body mass index [BMI] >95th percentile (69 males, mean age 8.9±1.23 years consecutively referred from clinical pediatricians to the Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry department at the Second University of Naples. In all subjects, weight, height, and BMI z-score were evaluated. In order to assess the anxiety levels and the presence of

  10. The Examination of the Correlation between Social Physique Anxiety Levels and Narcissism Levels of the Students Who Studied at the SPES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to discover the correlation between social physique anxiety levels and narcissism levels of the students of the school of the physical education and sports. A total of 308 students who studied at different academic departments of the school of the physical education and sports of Mustafa Kemal University participated in…

  11. Male aromatase-knockout mice exhibit normal levels of activity, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, C; Antoniou, K; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Balthazart, J; Bakker, J

    2005-09-08

    It is well known that estradiol derived from neural aromatization of testosterone plays a crucial role in the development of the male brain and the display of sexual behaviors in adulthood. It was recently found that male aromatase knockout mice (ArKO) deficient in estradiol due to a mutation in the aromatase gene have general deficits in coital behavior and are sexually less motivated. We wondered whether these behavioral deficits of ArKO males could be related to changes in activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology. ArKO and wild type (WT) males were subjected to open field (OF), elevated plus maze (EPM), and forced swim tests (FST), after being exposed or not to chronic mild stress (CMS). CMS was used to evaluate the impact of chronic stressful procedures and to unveil possible differences between genotypes. There was no effect of genotype on OF, EPM and FST behavioral parameters. WT and ArKO mice exposed to CMS or not exhibited the same behavioral profile during these three types of tests. However, all CMS-exposed mice (ArKO and WT) spent less time in the center of the EPM. Additionally, floating duration measured in the FST increased between two tests in both WT and ArKO mice, though that increase was less prominent in mice previously subjected to CMS than in controls. Therefore, both ArKO and WT males displayed the same behavior and had the same response to CMS however CMS exposure slightly modified the behavior displayed by mice of both genotypes in the FST and EPM paradigms. These results show that ArKO males display normal levels of activity, exploration, anxiety and "depressive-like" symptomatology and thus their deficits in sexual behavior are specific in nature and do not result indirectly from other behavioral changes.

  12. Teachers and Counselors: Building Math Confidence in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Furner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics teachers need to take on the role of counselors in addressing the math anxious in today's math classrooms. This paper looks at the impact math anxiety has on the future of young adults in our high-tech society. Teachers and professional school counselors are encouraged to work together to prevent and reduce math anxiety. It is important that all students feel confident in their ability to do mathematics in an age that relies so heavily on problem solving, technology, science, and mathematics. It really is a school's obligation to see that their students value and feel confident in their ability to do math, because ultimately a child's life: all decisions they will make and careers choices may be determined based on their disposition toward mathematics. This paper raises some interesting questions and provides some strategies (See Appendix A for teachers and counselors for addressing the issue of math anxiety while discussing the importance of developing mathematically confident young people for a high-tech world of STEM.

  13. Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gutiérrez, Carlos Javier; Zafra-Santos, Edson

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team) by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2) 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2), emotional intelligence (SSRI) and levels of anxiety (STAI). A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4) Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes. PMID:29724008

  14. Comparison of local anesthetic effects of lidocaine versus tramadol and effect of child anxiety on pain level in circumcision procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Fazli; Tuncel, Altug; Balci, Melih; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sacan, Ozlem; Kisa, Cebrail; Kayali, Mustafa; Atan, Ali

    2013-10-01

    To compare the local anesthetic effects of tramadol hydrochloride with those of lidocaine in circumcision procedures. We also investigated the effect of child anxiety on pain level. A total of 70 children were included in this study. The children were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 26) received lidocaine hydrochloride + epinephrine and they underwent circumcision using Ali's clamp(®). Group 2 (n = 35) received lidocaine hydrochloride + epinephrine and group 3 (n = 12) 5% tramadol. The last two groups underwent conventional circumcision. The mean anxiety score was 22.6. We did not find significant differences in terms of anxiety score among the groups (p = 0.761). When the pain scores of the groups during injection were compared, it was found that there were no significant differences. However, the pain score of the third group was significantly high when it was compared with the first and second group 2 and 10 min after injection. In the correlation analysis, we found a positive correlation between children's anxiety scores and the pain degree during injection (r = 0.373, p = 0.001). Tramadol may not provide effective local anesthesia in male circumcision. The child's anxiety before the circumcision seems to have a negative effect on pain level. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Classical Turkish Music on Pain Severity and Anxiety Levels in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ülkü; Taşcı, Sultan; Yıldızhan, Esra; Aslan, Süheyla; Eser, Bülent

    2018-05-18

    Bone marrow aspiration is a painful procedure. In addition, the anxiety experienced during the procedure can affect the pain felt during the procedure. This study was conducted as a randomized controlled study to determine the effect of classical Turkish music on pain severity and anxiety levels in patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The study was performed in an oncology hospital with a total of 30 patients, of whom 14 were in the intervention group and 16 were in the control group. All underwent bone marrow aspiration and biopsy for the first time. Ethics committee approval, institutional permission, and the study participants' written informed consent were obtained. Data were collected using patient information forms and follow-up charts, the Visual Analog Scale, and the State Anxiety Inventory. It was determined that the scores gathered from the State Anxiety Inventory during the first follow-up increased in the second follow-up in both the intervention and control groups, and this increase was statistically significant in the intervention group (p < .05). The mean pain severity scores of the patients undergoing the procedure were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (p < .05). This study found that classical Turkish music reduced the severity of pain but increased the levels of anxiety in patients undergoing bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carlino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders (ADs are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD, and Panic Disorder (PAD. Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes.

  17. Getting Manipulative about Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Janet K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Math manipulatives that are made from inexpensive, common items help students understand basic mathematics concepts. Learning activities using Cheerios, jellybeans, and clay as teaching materials are suggested. (DF)

  18. GRE math tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three GRE Math Tests! The GRE math section is not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to ""beat"" the section. But GRE math is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your math score will improve--significantly! The GRE cannot be ""beaten."" But it can be mastered--through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the problems in this book are designed to prompt you to think like a test writer. For example, you will find ""Duals."" These are pairs of similar problems in which only one prop

  19. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  20. Effect of psychological preparation on anxiety level before colonoscopy in outpatients referred to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatam Boustani; Sirus Pakseresht; Mohammad-Reza Haghdoust; Saeid Qanbari; Hadis Mehregan-Nasab

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Gastrointestinal disorders are common complaints for which endoscopy and colonoscopy are the most important diagnostic procedures.Anxiety is an unpleasant,ambiguous feeling of apprehension and fear of unknown origin that occurs during stressful situations or injury.Lack of sufficient information and fear of pain can cause anxiety prior to a colonoscopy,reducing the number of patients willing to undergo the procedure and increasing colonoscopy time.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of psychological preparation on anxiety before colonoscopy in patients presenting to Golestan Hospital during the years 1994 and 1995.MATERIAL and METHODS:This study was a double-blind clinical trial of patients presenting to the colonoscopy unit in Golestan Hospital in 1994 and 1995.A total of 80 patients were divided into two groups:intervention and control.A primary assessment of anxiety was performed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.Before the colonoscopy,the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was completed by the patients again.The effectiveness of psychological preparation before colonoscopy and its effect on anxiety were evaluated using statistical software SPSS 20.RE SULTS:The mean age of participants was 46.33 ± 12.2 years in the intervention group and 44.8 ± 12.26 years in the control group.In this study,there were 41 males (51.3%) and 39 females (48.7%);15 patients (18.7%) were single and the rest married.In terms of demographic variables,there were no significant differences between the two groups (p > 0.05).The average scores of state and trait anxiety in the intervention group showed a statistically significant difference before and after the intervention (p =0.000).CONCLUSION:Trait and state anxiety levels after psychological preparation showed a statistically significant reduction.This indicates the effectiveness of intervention programs to reduce anxiety before colonoscopy.

  1. Dr Math at your service

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author explains how the Dr Math service works; how tutors are recruited to act as Dr Math; and how school pupils can reach Dr Math for help with their mathematics homework....

  2. Prevalence of anxiety and depression among diabetic African patients in Guinea: association with HbA1c levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, A; Baldé, N M; Enoru, S; Bangoura, J S; Sobngwi, E; Bonnet, F

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence and risk factors associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression were determined in African people with diabetes. This cross-sectional study involved 491 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) recruited from four diabetes clinics (Conakry, Labé, Boké and Kankan) in Guinea. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression. Logistic regression analysis stratified by gender was performed to identify the associated risk factors. Anxiety and depression symptoms were present in 58.7% and 34.4%, respectively, of the 491 patients with T2D (62.7% women, mean±SD age: 57.9±10.2years). Odds ratios (95% CI) of risk factors independently associated with anxiety were urban residence [2.98 (1.81-4.89)] in women, and low socioeconomic status [0.19 (0.05-0.70)] and HbA1c≥9.0% [2.61 (1.0-6.39)] in men. Factors associated with depression were urban residence [2.13 (1.27-3.58)], older age [1.03 (1.01-1.06)], low socioeconomic status [2.21 (1.34-3.66)] and no previous measurement of HbA1c [12.45 (1.54-100.34)] in women, and insulin therapy [2.28 (1.05-4.92)] and HbA1c≥9.0% [3.85 (1.02-14.48)] in men. Anxiety and depression symptoms in people with type T2D are common in Guinea. Urban residence, low socioeconomic status and high levels of HbA1c were significantly associated with a greater risk of anxiety and depression, highlighting the psychological burden related to diabetes in Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity in prelimbic cortex is required for adjusting the anxiety response level during the elevated plus-maze retest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C A J; Do Monte, F H M; Gazarini, L; Carobrez, A P; Bertoglio, L J

    2010-09-29

    The prelimbic (PL) subregion of medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in anxiety regulation. It is unknown, however, whether PL cortex also serves to fine-tuning the level of anxiety-related behavior exhibited on the next exposure to the same potentially threatening situation. To address this, we infused cobalt (1.0 mM) to temporarily inactivate the PL cortex during testing, post-testing or retesting in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). This protocol was chosen because it allowed us to concurrently investigate anxiety and the process of aversive learning and memory. PL cortex inactivation during the EPM testing increased the exploration of open-arms, substantiating its role in anxiety. PL cortex inactivation during the EPM retesting counteracted the further avoidance to open-arms exhibited by rats. Interestingly, as evidenced by min-by-min analysis, the cobalt-treated group behaved on EPM retesting as did the vehicle-treated group on EPM testing. This result may imply that activity in PL cortex is necessary for retrieving previously learned information that adjusts the anxiety response level on EPM retesting. Alternatively, a simple reduction in anxiety could explain the cobalt-induced increase in retest open-arms exploration. Neither test nor post-test PL cortex inactivation affected the further avoidance to open-arms observed on EPM retesting. To extend the investigation of PL cortex role in the regulation of open-arms avoidance, we infused other drugs prior to testing or retesting in the EPM. Antagonism of PL cortex adrenergic beta-1 receptors with atenolol (10 nmol), cholinergic muscarinic receptors with scopolamine (20 nmol) or glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors with AP5 (6.0 nmol) interfered with the level of open-arms exploration on testing, but not on retesting. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  5. Pengaruh Kecemasan Matematika (Mathematics Anxiety) terhadap Kemampuan Koneksi Matematis Siswa SMP

    OpenAIRE

    Anita, Ika Wahyu

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics is considered a scourge for students to grow when students are dealing with anxiety. The study of anxiety has become one of the important factors to be studied. This study was to determine the relationship between math anxiety and influence the ability of mathematical connections. The data were processed using the method of multiple regression-correlation using math anxiety questionnaire instrument is divided into three criteria mathematics anxiety, test the ability to connect mat...

  6. Depression and anxiety levels in therapy-na(i)ve patients with inflammatory bowel disease and cancer of the colon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Branislav R Filipovi(c); Branka F Filipovi(c); Mirko Kerkez; Nikola Milini(c); Tomislav Ran(d)elovi(c)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether depression and anxiety are more expressed in patients with the first episode of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in individuals with newly discovered cancer of the colon (CCa).METHODS: A total of 32 patients with IBD including 13males and 19 females, aged 27 to 74, and 30 patients with CCa including 20 males and 10 females, aged 39-78,underwent a structured interview, which comprised Hamilton's Depression Rating Inventory, Hamilton's Anxiety Rating Inventory and Paykel's Stressful Events Rating Scale.RESULTS: Patients of the IBD group expressed both depression and anxiety. Depressive mood, sense of guilt, psychomotor retardation and somatic anxiety were also more pronounced in IBD patients. The discriminant function analysis revealed the total depressive score was of high importance for the classification of a newly diagnosed patient into one of the groups.CONCLUSION: Newly diagnosed patients with IBD have higher levels of depression and anxiety. Moreover, a psychiatrist in the treatment team is advisable from the beginning.

  7. [Reducing stress levels and anxiety in primary-care physicians through training and practice of a mindfulness meditation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Justo, Clemente

    2010-11-01

    To check the effectiveness of a mindfulness development meditation technique on stress and anxiety in a group of primary-care physicians. Quasi-experimental with pretest/posttest/follow-up measurements in a control group and an experimental group. SITE: University of Almeria. 38 primary-care physicians enrolled in a Teaching Aptitude Course (CAP). An experimental group and a control group were formed with 19 participants in each. The experimental group took a psycho-educational meditation program for training and practice in mindfulness. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), the Strain Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Questionnaire were used to measure stress and anxiety levels. A comparative statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric U test, finding a significant reduction in all the primary-care physician stress and anxiety variables in the experimental group compared to the control group in pretest-posttest and follow-up tests. The results of this study support the effectiveness of mindfulness development meditation techniques in decreasing stress and anxiety in primary-care physicians. Nevertheless, the study shows various limitations that would have to be corrected in successive studies to bring more validity to the results. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effect of Aromatherapy on Level of Exam Anxiety Among Nursing Students in Alborz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoshkesht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exam anxiety and reduce of that, is one of the problems of educational systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy on level of exam anxiety among nursing students in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a triple blind clinical trial on 91 nursing students of Alborz University of Medical Sciences which have been sampled simply and randomized divided into group A and group B. Vital signs and Spielberg state–trait anxiety inventory were measured and recorded at baseline and 5 minutes after intervention and after exam .Then, the students were asked to place the bottle of aroma (lavender or sterile water at a distance of 5 cm of nose and inhale for 10 minutes. Half of students were exposed to bottles that fulfilled by 5 drops of lavender essential oil and half of them were exposed to bottles that fulfilled by 5 drops of sterile water that labeled as A or B and was blind for subjects, researchers and analyzer. After analysis, content of each bottle was disclosed. Results: The results showed that there were meaningful difference between average exam anxiety, pulse and systolic blood pressure along the time (P=0.000, 0.023, 0.009. Conclusion: These results showed that although aromatherapy has been not meaningful statistical effective but can reduce the exam anxiety in nursing student along the time.

  9. Associations between parenting behavior and anxiety in a rodent model and a clinical sample: relationship to peripheral BDNF levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Molle, R; Portella, A K; Goldani, M Z; Kapczinski, F P; Leistner-Segala, S; Salum, G A; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2012-01-01

    Adverse early-life environment is associated with anxiety-like behaviors and disorders. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is sensitive to this environment and could be a marker of underlying brain changes. We aimed at evaluating the development of anxiety-like behaviors in a rat model of early adversity, as well as the possible association with BDNF levels. Similar associations were investigated in a sample of adolescent humans. For the rat study, Wistar rat litters were divided into: early-life stress (ELS, limited access to nesting material) and control groups. Maternal behavior was observed from days 1 to 9 of life and, as adults, rats were subjected to behavioral testing and BDNF measurements in plasma, hippocampus, amygdala and periaqueductal gray. For the human study, 129 adolescents were evaluated for anxiety symptoms and perceived parental care. Serum BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene were investigated. We found that ELS dams showed more pure contact, that is, contact with low care and high control, toward pups, and their adult offspring demonstrated higher anxiety-like behaviors and plasma BDNF. Also the pure contact correlated positively with adult peripheral BDNF. Similarly in humans, there was a positive correlation between maternal overprotection and serum BDNF only in Met carriers. We also found negative correlations between maternal warmth and separation anxiety, social phobia and school phobia. Finally, our translational approach revealed that ELS, mediated through variations in maternal care, is associated with anxiety in both rats and humans and increased peripheral BDNF may be marking these phenomena. PMID:23168995

  10. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients' vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender. Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings.

  11. Barron's SAT math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Leff MS, Lawrence S

    2016-01-01

    This completely revised edition reflects all of the new questions and question types that will appear on the new SAT, scheduled to be administered in Spring 2016. Includes hundreds of revised math questions and answer explanations, math strategies, test-taking tips, and much more.

  12. String Math 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The series of String-Math conferences has developed into a central event on the interface between mathematics and physics related to string theory, quantum field theory and neighboring subjects. The conference will take place from July 24-28 in the main building of Hamburg university. The String-Math conference is organised by the University of Hamburg jointly with DESY Hamburg.

  13. GRE math workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madore, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Reflective of the current GRE, this third edition includes a description of the General Math Exam explaining structure, questions types, and scoring, strategies for problem solving, two full-length math sample sections structured to reflect the actual exam, answers thoroughly explained, and more.

  14. Analyzing the Gender Gap in Math Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale US Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Galluzzo, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The US portion of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 student questionnaire comprising of 4,733 observations was used in a multiple regression framework to predict math achievement from demographic variables, such as gender, race, and socioeconomic status, and two student-specific measures of perception, math anxiety and…

  15. Math Avoidance: A Barrier to American Indian Science Education and Science Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Rayna

    1978-01-01

    For American Indian students, math anxiety and math avoidance are the most serious obstacles to general education and to the choice of scientific careers. Indian students interviewed generally exhibited fear and loathing of mathematics and a major lack of basic skills which were caused by a missing or negative impression of the mathematics…

  16. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137

  17. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACARENA eSUÁREZ PELLICIONI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA and 20 low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias towards math-related words in HMA individuals.

  18. Effects of a Peer Evaluation Technique on Nursing Students' Anxiety Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patricia; Greene, Debbie; Coke, Sallie

    2017-11-16

    Techniques to help decrease students' stress and anxiety during a nursing program can be beneficial to their overall health and mental well-being. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine if a peer evaluation technique during clinical skill practice sessions decreases anxiety prior to skill performance evaluation with nursing faculty. Participant feedback supports the integration of a peer evaluation technique when learning clinical skills.

  19. Flight Software Math Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    2013-01-01

    The flight software (FSW) math library is a collection of reusable math components that provides typical math utilities required by spacecraft flight software. These utilities are intended to increase flight software quality reusability and maintainability by providing a set of consistent, well-documented, and tested math utilities. This library only has dependencies on ANSI C, so it is easily ported. Prior to this library, each mission typically created its own math utilities using ideas/code from previous missions. Part of the reason for this is that math libraries can be written with different strategies in areas like error handling, parameters orders, naming conventions, etc. Changing the utilities for each mission introduces risks and costs. The obvious risks and costs are that the utilities must be coded and revalidated. The hidden risks and costs arise in miscommunication between engineers. These utilities must be understood by both the flight software engineers and other subsystem engineers (primarily guidance navigation and control). The FSW math library is part of a larger goal to produce a library of reusable Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) FSW components. A GN&C FSW library cannot be created unless a standardized math basis is created. This library solves the standardization problem by defining a common feature set and establishing policies for the library s design. This allows the libraries to be maintained with the same strategy used in its initial development, which supports a library of reusable GN&C FSW components. The FSW math library is written for an embedded software environment in C. This places restrictions on the language features that can be used by the library. Another advantage of the FSW math library is that it can be used in the FSW as well as other environments like the GN&C analyst s simulators. This helps communication between the teams because they can use the same utilities with the same feature set and syntax.

  20. Perceptions of Blended Learning Competencies and Obstacles among Educational Technology Students in Light of Different Anxiety Levels and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalalah, Osamah Ahmad; Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of locus of control and anxiety level on the Jordanian educational technology students' perceived blended learning competencies and obstacles. The independent variables were the locus of control (Internal, External) and anxiety level (Low, Moderate, High). The dependent variables were the…

  1. Examining the Pre - competition Anxiety Levels of Sportsmen Participating in a Folk Dance Branch in Terms of Some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan HACICAFEROĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with in order to determine the pre - competition anxiety levels of sportsmen participating in the Turkish Folk Dance branch in terms of some variables. The population of the study, which was carried out using a general screening model, consisted of 253 sportsmen, partici pated with the local halay dance in the group competition, organized by the Turkish Folk Dance Federation in city of Malatya , and its sampling consisted of 187 sportsmen chosen from the population by a random method. State (instantaneous Anxiety part of t he State - Trait Continuous Anxiety Scale was used in the study. In analyzing the data, frequency, percentage, standard deviation, arithmetic mean, t - test and one - way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test were used in the study to find the source of the difference. As the result of the study, it has been determined that the ove rall arithmetic mean of the pre - competition instantaneous anxiety state felt by the sportsmen, statistically was 2. 34. A statistically significant difference was found in the r esearch in terms of pre - competition instantaneous anxiety state of feeling of the sportsmen, depending on the variables of gender, age and folk playing time. Nonetheless, depending on the gender, it was determined in the research, that the sportsmen of 2 0 - 22 and 17 - 19 age groups, in favour of the female athletes and according to the age variable, the sportsmen who played folk dances less than a year according to the dancing time variable, felt more pre - competition instantaneous anxiety compared to the sportsmen of other groups.

  2. Relationships between self-downing beliefs and math performance in Greek adolescent students: A predictive study based on Rational-Emotive Behavior Education (REBE) as theoretical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Katsiki, Alexandra; Minnaert, Alexander; Katsikis, Demitris

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence from both educational practice and research that math performance is often associated with increased levels of test anxiety, stress and discomfort and that students’ cognitions account for this performance. Rational-Emotive Behavior Education (REBE), derived from Ellis’s Rational-EmotiveBehavior Theory (REBT), supports that it is mainly students’ cognitions in the form of core (ir) rational beliefs that determine their performance and overallschool achievement. However...

  3. THE EFFECT OF STORYTELLING IN A PLAY THERAPY ON ANXIETY LEVEL IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN DURING HOSPITALIZATION IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL OF BUTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Yati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is one of the psychical stresses experienced by children during hospitalization. A storytelling in a play therapy is considered effective in reducing anxiety. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety level in pre-school children during hospitalization in the general hospital of Buton. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 30 pre-school children selected in this study using accidental sampling, with 15 assigned in each group. The Pre School - Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS was used to measure anxiety in pre-school children. Wilcoxon matched paired test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of anxiety level in the intervention group in pretest was 42 and in posttest was 31.53. Wilcoxon matched paired test showed p-value 0.003 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of storytelling on the level of anxiety in pre-school children. Conclusions: There is a significant influence of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety levels in pre school children during hospitalization. It is suggested that this intervention could be applied as a nursing intervention to reduce anxiety in children.

  4. Levels of Depression and Anxiety Post-Mastectomy in Breast Cancer Patients at a Public Sector Hospital in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sara; Khan, Naveed Ali; Rehman, Ata Ur; Khan, Iqra; Samo, Khursheed A; Memon, Amjad Siraj

    2016-01-01

    There is a noticeable change in the approach with which women nowadays seek help for diseases like breast cancer, primarily due to awareness campaigns, but what happens after surgical procedures is of great significance too. This study focused on the several psychological connotations attached to mastectomy and how the patients cope. To understand the pattern of anxiety and level of depression among Pakistani patients undergoing mastectomy. The sample size consisted of 88 patients who had undergone mastectomy at the different surgical units of the Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January 2012- December 2014; The questionnaire was administered before they were discharged i.e. within 3 days of surgical procedures. The patients were asked if they were willing to participate in this study, those who agreed signed the consent form and then we preceded by asking questions with a standardized tool. A self made questionnaire was constructed keeping in mind the nature and specification of the disease, which consisted of 20 questions related to anxiety and depression, focusing on a mixture of psychological and physiological symptoms. There were a total of 88 patients out of which 36 (41%) were aged 51 to 60 years, 24 (27.2%) of the patients were in the age category of 41 to 50 years, 17 aged 61 and above (19.3%) and only 11 (12.5%) 30-40 years of age, the youngest of all the age categories. The pattern of depression and anxiety was found to be similar among all age categories, severe depression and anxiety predominating over moderate level of such symptoms, with only relatively few patients sufering mild or no depression symptoms. It was concluded that going through mastectomy leads to moderate to severe levels of depression and anxiety, primarily because the females feel incomplete and insecure after losing a part of themselves.

  5. Representation of numerical magnitude in math-anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomé, Àngels

    2018-01-01

    Larger distance effects in high math-anxious individuals (HMA) performing comparison tasks have previously been interpreted as indicating less precise magnitude representation in this population. A recent study by Dietrich, Huber, Moeller, and Klein limited the effects of math anxiety to symbolic comparison, in which they found larger distance effects for HMA, despite equivalent size effects. However, the question of whether distance effects in symbolic comparison reflect the properties of the magnitude representation or decisional processes is currently under debate. This study was designed to further explore the relation between math anxiety and magnitude representation through three different tasks. HMA and low math-anxious individuals (LMA) performed a non-symbolic comparison, in which no group differences were found. Furthermore, we did not replicate previous findings in an Arabic digit comparison, in which HMA individuals showed equivalent distance effects to their LMA peers. Lastly, there were no group differences in a counting Stroop task. Altogether, an explanation of math anxiety differences in terms of less precise magnitude representation is not supported.

  6. [State and trait anxiety level and increase of depression among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Wolafnczyk, Tomasz; Kolakowski, Artur; Pisula, Agnieszka; Liwska, Monika; Zlotkowska, Malgorzata; Srebnicki, Tomasz; Bryliska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate anxiety level (as a trait and as a state) and the intensity of depressive symptoms in mothers of children with hyperkinetic disorder (HD) and with and without comorbid conduct disorder (CD); to determine the relationship between the intensity of anxiety and depression and intensity of symptoms of HD. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and STAI questionnaire to measure state-trait anxiety were filled by 24 mothers of children with HD and 26 mothers of children without HD. Mothers of children with HD were also asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Parents and Teachers (IOWA). Teachers were asked to complete the Conners Questionnaire for Teachers (RCTS). 75% of HD subjects had a comorbid CD, in comparison with 19.2 % in the control group. No significant differences were found between the mothers of children with HD and the control group in the results of BDI scale and STAI questionnaire in anxiety state and anxiety trait subscales. The difference was found between mothers of children with CD and without CD in anxiety-state subscale in STAI questionnaire. No correlations were found between the number of depressive symptoms, anxiety as a state and as a trait and the results of Conners IOWA and RCTS. The presence of HD in children does not correlate with the level of depression and anxiety in their mothers. There is a relationship between the presence of CD in children and elevated levels of state anxiety in their mothers.

  7. Emotional Intelligence, Motivational Climate and Levels of Anxiety in Athletes from Different Categories of Sports: Analysis through Structural Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Castro-Sánchez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Psychological factors can strongly affect the athletes’ performance. Therefore, currently the role of the sports psychologist is particularly relevant, being in charge of training the athlete’s psychological factors. This study aims at analysing the connections between motivational climate in sport, anxiety and emotional intelligence depending on the type of sport practised (individual/team by means of a multigroup structural equations analysis. (2 372 semi-professional Spanish athletes took part in this investigation, analysing motivational climate (PMCSQ-2, emotional intelligence (SSRI and levels of anxiety (STAI. A model of multigroup structural equations was carried out which fitted accordingly (χ2 = 586.77; df = 6.37; p < 0.001; Comparative Fit Index (CFI = 0.951; Normed Fit Index (NFI = 0.938; Incremental Fit Index (IFI = 0.947; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.069. (3 Results: A negative and direct connection has been found between ego oriented climate and task oriented climate, which is stronger and more differentiated in team sports. The most influential indicator in ego oriented climate is intra-group rivalry, exerting greater influence in individual sports. For task-oriented climate the strongest indicator is having an important role in individual sports, while in team sports it is cooperative learning. Emotional intelligence dimensions correlate more strongly in team sports than in individual sports. In addition, there was a negative and indirect relation between task oriented climate and trait-anxiety in both categories of sports. (4 Conclusions: This study shows how the task-oriented motivational climate or certain levels of emotional intelligence can act preventively in the face of anxiety states in athletes. Therefore, the development of these psychological factors could prevent anxiety states and improve performance in athletes.

  8. An examination of Gestalt contact styles, anger and anxiety levels of headache and non headache groups (Turkish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kudiaki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Object: In migraine and tension type headaches, which constitute the largest part of primary headache disorders, the importance of psychological factors and psychotherapy applications are reported consistently. In the gestalt therapy approach, studies on physical disorders and body have a special precaution and it is assumed that the physical disorders that are highly related to psychological factors such as headache may be related to Gestalt contact patterns. This study was conducted to investigate Gestalt contact patterns, anger and anxiety levels, and to identify variables that predict contact patterns in the groups with and without headache. Methods: In the first group, migrain and tension type headache, there were 161 (141 female/20 male participants and in the group without headache there were 126 participants (94 female/32 male. There were 287 participants in total. Data was collected through Personal Information Form, Gestalt Contact Styles Scale – Revised Form, Multidimensional Anger Scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results: The comparisons of groups in terms contact styles, anger and anxiety yields that the individuals in headache group engage in retroflection, deflection and desensitization contact styles more than individuals who do not have headaches and they have higher anger and anxiety levels. Similarly, the results of the regression analysis show that the negative attitudes towards oneself, others and the world are an important predictor of retroflection and deflection contacts styles. Also, the attitude of desensitization seems to play a role in decreasing anxious reactions and decreasing quiet responses. Discussion: The results indicate that unhealthy contact styles, anger and anxiety experiences have negative effects on headache. Thus, Gestalt therapy based psychotherapy techniques can me recommended to be an important foundation for treatment of headaches.

  9. SAT math prep course

    CERN Document Server

    Kolby, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for SAT Math Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the math section of the new SAT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. Features: * Comprehensive Review: Twenty-three chapters provide complete review of SAT math. * Practice: Includes 164 examples and more than 500 exercises! Arranged from easy to medium to hard to very hard. * Diagnostic Test: The diagnostic test measures your strengths and weaknesses and directs you to areas you need to study more. * Performance: If your target is a 700+ score, this is the book!

  10. More math into Latex

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    2007-01-01

    For close to two decades, Math into Latex has been the standard introduction and complete reference for writing articles and books containing mathematical formulas. In this fourth edition, the reader is provided with important updates on articles and books. An important new topic is discussed: transparencies (computer projections). Key features of More Math into Latex, 4th edition: Installation instructions for PC and Mac users; An example-based, visual approach and a gentle introduction with the Short Course; A detailed exposition of multiline math formulas with a Visual Guide; A unified appr

  11. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Ketting, Manon

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from those found in people with lower dental anxiety (LDA). Study participants (n = 596; response rate = 41.1%) comprised a random cross-sectional sample of the Australian adult population who completed a mailed self-complete questionnaire containing items relating to the use and accessibility of dental services, trust in dental professionals, dental anxiety, dental experiences, self-perceived oral health, vulnerability-related perceptions of visiting the dentist, and psychological health. Multiple imputation was used to replace missing values and statistically significant variables in bivariate analyses were entered into a multivariable logistic generalized linear model. More than two-thirds of participants with HDA were currently avoiding or delaying a dental visit. Among people with HDA, dental avoidance was independently and significantly predicted by difficulty paying a $300 dental bill, having no or only little trust in the last-visited dentist, perceived treatment need and dental anxiety. Among people with LDA, only perceived treatment need and dental anxiety predicted avoidance. In addition to their high anxiety, a number of additional barriers to dental visiting were found for people with HDA. These barriers, especially cost and communication issues with dentists, need to be addressed to assist people with HDA obtain necessary, regular dental care. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The impact of Islamic religious education on anxiety level in primipara mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtaryan, Tahereh; Yazdanpanahi, Zahra; Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zare, Najaf

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common pregnancy complications. This study was conducted to examine the impact of religious teaching on anxiety in primiparous mothers referring to the selected perinatal clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on the pregnant women in 20-28 weeks of gestation referring to the selected clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences from July 2013 to June 2014. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling and divided into religious education and control groups. To assess the individuals, a demographic questionnaire, an anxiety trait State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a religious knowledge and attitude trait (pre- test and post-test and 1 or 2 months after the test) were filled in by the two groups. Training classes (religious knowledge and attitude trait) for the cases were held in 6 weeks, and the sessions lasted for 1½ h. The knowledge and attitude scores showed significant differences in the controls and cases after the intervention ( P = 0.001) and 2 months after the study ( P = 0.001). According to the results of independent t -test, a significant difference was found in the state anxiety score ( P = 0.002) and personal score ( P = 0.0197) between the two groups before the intervention; however, the results were strongly significant different after the intervention and 2 months after the study ( P ≤ 0.001). The improvement in the mothers' knowledge and attitude in religious subjects will reduce anxiety in primiparas.

  13. Evaluation of Achievement, Self-Esteem, Depression and Anxiety Levels in Children who Preparing for College Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemaliye DIREKTOR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement, self-esteem, depression and state-trial anxiety of children who were preparing for college examination. 285 students who were preparing for college examination were recruited in Northern Cyprus. All data were obtained by using Sociodemographical Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Childhood Depression Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, during 15-23 October 2016. It has been found that male students have a higher academic achievement and self-esteem levels than female students’. There was a significant negative correlation between students’ self-esteem and depression levels. Results showed that self-esteem and depression predicted academic achievement. Also on the area of child education, extensive studies should be carried out on examination, how the national examinations affect psychological problems. Obtained results were discussed in the light of literature

  14. The effect of giving detailed information about intravenous radiopharmaceutical administration on the anxiety level of patients who request more information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, E.; Ciftci, I.; Demirel, R.; Gecici, O.; Cigerci, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear medicine procedures use radiopharmaceuticals, which produce radiation and potential adverse reactions, albeit at a low rate. It is the patient's ethical, legal, and medical right to be informed of the potential side effects of procedures applied to them. Our purpose was to determine the effect of providing information about intravenous radiopharmaceutical administration on the anxiety level of patients who request more information. This study was completed in two separate Nuclear Medicine Departments. The study included 620 (247 M, 373 F) patients who had been referred for myocardial perfusion, bone, dynamic renal, and thyroid scintigraphic examinations. The patients were divided into two groups according to whether they requested more information or not. Group 1 consisted of 388 patients who wanted to receive more information about the procedure, while Group 2 consisted of 232 patients who did not request additional information. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S and STAI-T) was used to determine a patient's anxiety level. After simple information was given, state and trait anxiety levels were measured in both groups. We gave detailed information to the patients in Group 1 and then measured state anxiety again. Detailed information included an explanation of the radiopharmaceutical risk and probable side effects due to the scan procedure. There was no statistical difference between Groups 1 and 2 in STAI-T or STAI-S scores after simple information was given (p=0.741 and p=0.945, respectively). The mean value of STAI-S score was increased after the provision of detailed information and there was a statistically significant difference between after simple information STAI-S and after detailed information STAI-S (p<0.001). The STAI-S score was increased in 246 patients and decreased in 110 patients after detailed information, while there was no change in 32 patients. After detailed information, the greatest increase in STAI-S score was seen in the

  15. Why Aren't More Minorities Taking Advanced Math?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Erica N.

    2007-01-01

    Black and Latino students are still underepresented in upper-level math classes in the United States, a fact which has serious implications for their academic achievement and futures. Walker provides six suggestions for how educators can encourage more black and Latino students to successfully take higher level math courses: (1) Expand our…

  16. [Effectiveness of a stretching program on anxiety levels of workers in a logistic platform: a randomized controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marín, Jesús; Asún, Sonia; Estrada-Marcén, Nerea; Romero, Rosario; Asún, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    To study the influence of a short programme of stretching exercises on anxiety levels of workers in a Spanish logistic company. A controlled clinical trial was carried out by means of an inter-subject design of random homogeneous blocks. Participants were assigned to the experimental group (n=67), treated with a programme of stretching exercises of 10-minute duration after working hours for a period of 3 months, or to the untreated control group (n=67). The primary result variable was anxiety, and the secondary variables were burnout syndrome, quality of life and flexibility. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) by intention to treat was performed on each of the result variables by controlling the baseline scores, the age and the practice of introjective activities outside the program, with the size effect calculated by means of the partial eta-squared value (η(2)). The results of the ANCOVA showed a moderate effect of the stretching exercise programme on the levels of anxiety (η(2)=0,06; P=.004). Other effects found were substantial for flexibility (η(2)=0,13; P<.001); moderately high for bodily pain (η(2)=0,08; P=.001), and moderate for vitality (η(2)=0,05; P=.016); mental health (η(2)=0,05; P=.017); general health (η(2)=0,04; P=.028) and exhaustion (η(2)=0,04; P=.025). The implementation of a short programme of stretching exercises in the work place was effective for reducing levels of anxiety, bodily pain and exhaustion, and for raising levels of vitality, mental health, general health and flexibility. This type of intervention could be seen as a low-cost strategy for improving the well-being of workers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Jordana K; Rapee, Ronald M; Hiscock, Harriet; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Clifford, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2011-01-05

    The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety) will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500) with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework) will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively) to compare outcomes between the trial arms. This trial addresses gaps

  18. The Cool Little Kids randomised controlled trial: Population-level early prevention for anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiscock Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization predicts that by 2030 internalising problems (e.g. depression and anxiety will be second only to HIV/AIDS in international burden of disease. Internalising problems affect 1 in 7 school aged children, impacting on peer relations, school engagement, and later mental health, relationships and employment. The development of early childhood prevention for internalising problems is in its infancy. The current study follows two successful 'efficacy' trials of a parenting group intervention to reduce internalising disorders in temperamentally inhibited preschool children. Cool Little Kids is a population-level randomised trial to determine the impacts of systematically screening preschoolers for inhibition then offering a parenting group intervention, on child internalising problems and economic costs at school entry. Methods/Design This randomised trial will be conducted within the preschool service system, attended by more than 95% of Australian children in the year before starting school. In early 2011, preschool services in four local government areas in Melbourne, Australia, will distribute the screening tool. The ≈16% (n≈500 with temperamental inhibition will enter the trial. Intervention parents will be offered Cool Little Kids, a 6-session group program in the local community, focusing on ways to develop their child's bravery skills by reducing overprotective parenting interactions. Outcomes one and two years post-baseline will comprise child internalising diagnoses and symptoms, parenting interactions, and parent wellbeing. An economic evaluation (cost-consequences framework will compare incremental differences in costs of the intervention versus control children to incremental differences in outcomes, from a societal perspective. Analyses will use the intention-to-treat principle, using logistic and linear regression models (binary and continuous outcomes respectively to compare outcomes

  19. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Sayed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. Aim: To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. Materials and Methods: The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. Results: The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B. The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. Conclusion: There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.

  20. Effect of the video output of the dental operating microscope on anxiety levels in a pediatric population during restorative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Abrar; Ranna, Vinisha; Padawe, Dimple; Takate, Vilas

    2016-01-01

    Adapting a child to the alien settings of a dental operatory is a major challenge to the dentist. Fear of the unknown and preconceived notions of dental pain causes anxiety in the pediatric patient. This often leads to disruptive and uncooperative behavior in the dental operatory. Many methods of behavior management have been described, of which the Tell-Show-Do (TSD) is an established and time-tested technique of behavior management. To determine if a live visual output of the dental operating microscope (DOM) could be used as an adjunct to the TSD technique, to involve the child more completely in the procedure and reduce the fear of the unknown. The study was a randomized, controlled, crossover, and cross-sectional clinical trial. Data were obtained from two visits. 90 children having carious lesions on both lower first molars, in the 7-9 years age group were selected and divided randomly into two groups. Restorative procedures were performed on one tooth per visit, with visits 1 week apart. Live display of the procedure was shown to the patient using video output of the DOM displayed on a 72 inch LCD monitor, angled for best visibility of the child. Anxiety levels were evaluated using Venhams picture selection test and pulse oximetry. Student's t-test was used to compare the anxiety scores obtained from the two groups. The results showed there was a decrease in the anxiety from the first visit to the second visit. (P = 0.05 for Group A and P = 0.003 for Group B). The patients preferred the visit in which the DOM was used. The operator reported an increased patient compliance and reduced patient movement in the visits in which the DOM was used. There is a reduction in anxiety from the first visit to the second visit for restorative treatment when the DOM is used.

  1. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  2. Sales presentation anxiety, cortisol levels, self-reports, and gene-gene interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Bagozzi, R.P.; van den Berg, W.; Worm, L.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    We study sales presentation anxiety (SPA) using multilevel analysis of a quasi-natural field experiment: the final exam of an executive training course where sales professionals (n = 128) compete in teams to present an account plan to a critical audience who then ask questions and evaluate their

  3. Predictors of dental avoidance among Australian adults with different levels of dental anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armfield, J.M.; Ketting, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It has been proposed that avoidance of dental visits might be the main determinant of poor oral health outcomes in people with high dental anxiety (HDA). This study aimed to determine the predictors of dental avoidance among people with HDA and also whether these predictors differed from

  4. Productive failure in learning math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Manu

    2014-06-01

    When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who were taught first. The second study further showed that when given an opportunity to learn from the failed problem-solving attempts of their peers, students outperformed those who were taught first, but not those who engaged in problem solving first. Process findings showed that the number of student-generated solutions significantly predicted learning outcomes. These results challenge the conventional practice of direct instruction to teach new math concepts and procedures, and propose the possibility of learning from one's own failed problem-solving attempts or those of others before receiving instruction as alternatives for better math learning. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Mathematics Achievement and Anxiety and Their Relation to Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sarah S.; Willcutt, Erik G.; Escovar, Emily; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral difficulties are well documented in reading disabilities, little is known about the relationship between math ability and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Here, we use standardized measures to investigate the relation among early math ability, math anxiety, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a group of…

  6. Investigation of the relationship between anxiety and heart rate variability in fibromyalgia: A new quantitative approach to evaluate anxiety level in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Suleyman; Arslan, Evren; Elmas, Onur; Yildiz, Sedat; Colak, Omer H; Bilgin, Gurkan; Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Akkus, Selami; Comlekci, Selcuk; Koklukaya, Etem

    2015-12-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is identified by widespread musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, morning stiffness and anxiety. Anxiety is very common in Fibromyalgia and generally leads to a misdiagnosis. Self-rated Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and doctor-rated Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAM-A) are frequently used by specialists to determine anxiety that accompanies fibromyalgia. However, these semi-quantitative anxiety tests are still subjective as the tests are scored using doctor-rated or self-rated scales. In this study, we investigated the relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) frequency subbands and anxiety tests. The study was conducted with 56 FMS patients and 34 healthy controls. BAI and HAM-A test scores were determined for each participant. ECG signals were then recruited and 71 HRV subbands were obtained from these ECG signals using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT). The subbands and anxiety tests scores were analyzed and compared using multilayer perceptron neural networks (MLPNN). The results show that a HRV high frequency (HF) subband in the range of 0.15235Hz to 0.40235Hz, is correlated with BAI scores and another HRV HF subband, frequency range of 0.15235Hz to 0.28907Hz is correlated with HAM-A scores. The overall accuracy is 91.11% for HAM-A and 90% for BAI with MLPNN analysis. Doctor-rated or self-rated anxiety tests should be supported with quantitative and more objective methods. Our results show that the HRV parameters will be able to support the anxiety tests in the clinical evaluation of fibromyalgia. In other words, HRV parameters can potentially be used as an auxiliary diagnostic method in conjunction with anxiety tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of Numerical Anxiety and Mathematics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Howard D. Morada

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been observed that most students had negative view towards mathematics and as a result, they also performed poorly.As such, it is imperative for every math teacher to understand the reasons behind this negative view to improve their student’s performance. This observation led the researcher to conduct a study on Correlation of Mathematics Performance and Anxiety of third and fourth year students for school year 2012-2013 across the different programs.This study determined the numerical anxiety level and mathematics performance of the respondents along age, gender and programs. The study revealed that students, regardless of age had passing performance. However, female and male students had fair and passing mathematics performance, respectively. Students from College of Business Education, Teacher Education and Computer Studies had fair performance while those from Marine Transportation, Criminal Justice Education and Engineering had passing performance. The study also revealed that students across different variables had moderate numerical anxiety level. Furthermore, it was found out that mathematics performance is significantly related to numerical anxiety. However, the relationship was inverse and small.

  8. Mothers' alexithymia, depression and anxiety levels and their association with the quality of mother-infant relationship: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yürümez, Esra; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Uğur, Çağatay; Uslu, Runa Idil; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mothers and their developmentally normal infants in terms of maternal alexithymia, depression and anxiety, and marital satisfaction. Fifty children between 18 and 48 months of age, and their mothers, were referred consecutively to the Infant Mental Health Unit of Ankara University School of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The sociodemographic features of the families and the depressive symptoms, anxiety, marital satisfaction and alexithymia levels of the mothers were assessed. The relationships between children in normal developmental stages and their mothers were evaluated and rated using a structured clinical procedure. There was a negative correlation between the mothers' alexithymia scores and the quality of the mother-infant relationship (p Mothers with high alexithymia showed higher depression and lower relationship qualities than mothers with low alexithymia, according to the correlation analysis. When depression and anxiety were controlled, high alexithymia levels were predictive of a low, impaired mother-infant relationship. Since alexithymia is a trait-like variable which has a negative correlation with impairment in a mother-infant relationship, it must be investigated in the assessment of mothers' interactions with their babies.

  9. Examination of “Pre-competition” anxiety levels, of mid-distance runners: A quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebetsos Evangelos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-distance runners are subject to intense cognitive and somatic anxiety, not only during competition but also during practice. An important variable which may influence athletes’ performance is perceived behavioral control on anxiety. The aim of the present study was to examine whether aspects such as sex, sport/competition experience and weekly practices, differentiated the participants respectively. The participants consisted of 110 athletes, 61 male and 49 female athletes, between the ages of 15 and 28 (Μ=20.05, SD=2.82.They all completed the Greek version of the “Pre- Race Questionnaire”. Results indicated differences between the less experienced and more experienced athletes in almost all factors of the questionnaire, for both sport/competition experience, and weekly practices. No gender differences were shown. Overall, results could help sport professionals such as coaches and the athletes themselves, become more familiar with the sport-specific psychological aspects involved in their unique sport.

  10. Environmental radiation level, radiation anxiety, and psychological distress of non-evacuee residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake: Multilevel analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Fukasawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the associations among radiation exposure or psychological exposure to the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (i.e., fear/anxiety immediately after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress among non-evacuee community residents in Fukushima five years after the Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in March 2011. A questionnaire survey was administered to a random sample of non-evacuee community residents from 49 municipalities of Fukushima prefecture from February to April 2016, and data from 1684 respondents (34.4% were analyzed. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident were ascertained from survey meter data, while environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were ascertained from monitoring post data. In the questionnaire, immediate fear/anxiety after the accident, current radiation anxiety, and psychological distress were measured using a single-item question, a 7-item scale, and K6, respectively. Multilevel linear or logistic regression models were applied to analyze the determinants of radiation anxiety and psychological distress. The findings showed that environmental radiation levels at the time of the survey were more strongly associated with radiation anxiety than radiation levels immediately after the accident. Disaster-related experiences, such as direct damage, disaster-related family stress, and fear/anxiety after the accident, and demographic characteristics (e.g., younger age, being married, low socioeconomic status were significantly associated with radiation anxiety. Environmental radiation levels at the time of the accident or survey were not significantly associated with psychological distress. Radiation anxiety largely mediated the association between fear/anxiety after the accident and psychological distress. In addition to environmental radiation levels, respondents’ radiation anxiety was affected by multiple factors

  11. A quasi randomized-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of clowntherapy on children's anxiety and pain levels in emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felluga, Margherita; Rabach, Ingrid; Minute, Marta; Montico, Marcella; Giorgi, Rita; Lonciari, Isabella; Taddio, Andrea; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate if the presence of medical clowns during painful procedures in the emergency department (ED) affects children's anxiety and pain. Forty children (4-11 years) admitted to the ED with the need of painful procedures were prospectively enrolled. They were randomly assigned to the clown group, where children interacted with clowns or to the control group in which they were entertained by parents and ED nurses. The children's anxiety was assessed by the Children's Anxiety and Pain Scales; pain was evaluated with the Numerical Rating Scale and Wong-Backer Scale, according to the children's age. Staff and clown's opinions were evaluated by means of dedicated questionnaires. Children's anxiety levels in the clown group were significantly lower than those compared with the control group, while children's pain levels did not change between the two groups. The presence of clowns in the ED before and during painful procedures was effective in reducing children's anxiety. • Anxiety and fear caused by medical procedures exacerbate children's pain and may interfere with the procedure. • To reduce anxiety, fear, and pain and to facilitate patient's evaluation, different non-pharmacological approaches have been proposed and positive effects of laughter and humor have been reported. What is New: • The presence of clowns in the waiting room and in the ED during medical evaluation and painful procedures helps to reduce children's anxiety.

  12. A Correlation of Community College Math Readiness and Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jayna Nicole

    Although traditional college students are more prepared for college-level math based on college admissions tests, little data have been collected on nontraditional adult learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between math placement tests and community college students' success in math courses and persistence to degree or certificate completion. Guided by Tinto's theory of departure and student retention, the research questions addressed relationships and predictability of math Computer-adaptive Placement Assessment and Support System (COMPASS) test scores and students' performance in math courses, persistence in college, and degree completion. After conducting correlation and regression analyses, no significant relationships were identified between COMPASS Math test scores and students' performance (n = 234) in math courses, persistence in college, or degree completion. However, independent t test and chi-squared analyses of the achievements of college students who tested into Basic Math (n = 138) vs. Introduction to Algebra (n = 96) yielded statistically significant differences in persistence (p = .039), degree completion (p college students' math competencies and degree achievement.

  13. Evaluating Number Sense in Community College Developmental Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, Dorothea A.

    2017-01-01

    Community college developmental math students (N = 657) from three math levels were asked to place five whole numbers on a line that had only endpoints 0 and 20 marked. How the students placed the numbers revealed the same three stages of behavior that Steffe and Cobb (1988) documented in determining young children's number sense. 23% of the…

  14. Do the Math: Course Redesign's Impact on Learning and Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, John; Faulkner, Jerry; Hite, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The math department at Cleveland State Community College embarked upon course redesign in 2008. As a result of this project, student engagement, learning, and success rates have increased dramatically. By including both developmental and college level math courses in the redesign, the department has been able to implement innovative scheduling and…

  15. Math Garden: A new educational and scientific instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatemeier, M.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes the research concerning the construction of a new educational and scientific instrument. This instrument, Math Garden, is a web application in which children can practice arithmetic by playing math games in which items are tailored to their ability level. At the same

  16. [Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Depression, Anxiety and Perceived Stress Levels in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mustafa; Sarıkaya, Yasin; Acar, Mustafa; Kalenderoğlu, Aysun; Doğan, Sedat; Kaskalan, Emin; Karataş, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on depression, anxiety, and perceived stress levels and to identify factors predictive of treatment efficacy in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This study included 51 patients admitted to the Adiyaman University Medical School Otorhinolaryngology Department or Eskisehir Yunus Emre State Hospital between January and September 2014 with one or more complaints including snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, or apnea witnessed by the partner. Diagnosis of OSAS was made by polysomnography and CPAP treatment was initiated. Depression levels were assessed in all study subjects using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at the start of treatment and at 3 months. Anxiety levels were assessed using both the HADS and the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and perceived stress level was assessed using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). After CPAP treatment, we observed significant decreases in both the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of the HADS, in the Trait Anxiety subscale of the STAI, and in the PSQ. An evaluation of the initial parameters that predict improvements in these scales revealed that snoring time predicted decreases in all scale scores. In OSAS patients CPAP treatment has positive effects on psychological parameters like depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. We suggest that possible psychogenic benefits should be considered when deciding to start CPAP treatment, particularly in patients with pronounced and extended snoring who may also have social problems.

  17. [Factors associated with the anxiety level and knowledge about childcare and lactation in first-time pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo-García, Ana; Fuente-González, Paloma; Chudáčik, Michal; Fernández-Fernández, Ana; Suárez-Gil, Patricio; Suárez Martínez, Venancio

    2018-05-23

    To know the level of anxiety and knowledge of childcare and lactation of the current pregnant women, and the clinical-demographic variables with which they are related. Cross-sectional study. Seven health centers of Area V (Asturias). First-time pregnant women who completed preparatory courses from 01.06.2015 to 31.10.2015, excluding multiple gestation, risk pregnancy, contraindicated breastfeeding and language problems. Sociodemographic variables questionnaire, STAI state anxiety questionnaire and 23 questions about childcare and lactation. We performed descriptive and multivariate analysis (program R) of the variables of the questionnaire. We captured 104 pregnant women; average age 34.2(SD: 4.5), 94.2% Spanish, 61.5% university, 17.3% smokers in pregnancy, 23.1% with psychopathological antecedents; 88.4% planned to give breastfeeding. The mean STAI-S was 18.1(SD: 7.4) and scored 4.5(SD: 2.3) mean errors. The most faulty ones were on causes of fever (56.7%), fever measurement (54.8%) and physiological stools (55.7%). The multivariate analysis between knowledge and profile showed statistically significant associations with: being foreign, university, pregnancy planning and matron. In relation to the STAI-S was significant for being a smoker, receiving breastfeeding, psychopathological antecedents and matron. The current pregnant women who complete preparatory courses are mainly mature, university and Spanish. They have good concepts about breastfeeding but many are unaware of basic concepts of fever and stool of the infant. Foreign mothers with unwanted pregnancy and primary education seem to have more confusing concepts. Smoking mothers with psychopathological antecedents and who have not received breastfeeding present more anxiety. The matron significantly influences anxiety and acquired concepts. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Math in Action. Hands-On, Minds-On Math.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra; Stupiansky, Nicholas G.

    1998-01-01

    Hands-on math must also involve students' minds in creative thinking. Math manipulatives must be used for uncovering, not just discovering. This paper presents guidelines for planning hands-on, minds-on math for elementary students. Suggestions include dialoging, questioning, integrating manipulatives and other tools, writing, and evaluating. (SM)

  19. An Annotated Math Lab Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schussheim, Joan Yares

    1980-01-01

    A listing of mathematics laboratory material is organized as follows: learning kits, tape programs, manipulative learning materials, publications, math games, math lab library, and an alphabetized listing of publishers and/or companies offering materials. (MP)

  20. Investigating the Effects of a Structured Writing Program in a Math Classroom: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsa, Heather

    2016-01-01

    In a northeastern state eighth grade math students are struggling with meeting adequate yearly progress in math. The state's math proficiency in the school year 2013-2014 for eighth grade students showed that only 56% scored at grade level or above. The local problem addressed in this study is that 44% of a northeastern state's eighth graders are…