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Sample records for maternal haplogroup n1a

  1. Maternal admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on mtDNA haplogroups.

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    Martínez-Cortés, Gabriela; Salazar-Flores, Joel; Haro-Guerrero, Javier; Rubi-Castellanos, Rodrigo; Velarde-Félix, Jésus S; Muñoz-Valle, José F; López-Casamichana, Mavil; Carrillo-Tapia, Eduardo; Canseco-Avila, Luis M; Bravi, Claudio M; López-Armenta, Mauro; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor

    2013-08-01

    The maternal ancestry (mtDNA) has important applications in different research fields, such as evolution, epidemiology, identification, and human population history. This is particularly interesting in Mestizos, which constitute the main population in Mexico (∼93%) resulting from post-Columbian admixture between Spaniards, Amerindians, and African slaves, principally. Consequently, we conducted minisequencing analysis (SNaPshot) of 11 mitochondrial single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 742 Mestizos of 10 populations from different regions in Mexico. The predominant maternal ancestry was Native American (92.9%), including Haplogroups A, B, C, and D (47, 23.7, 15.9, and 6.2%, respectively). Conversely, European and African ancestries were less frequent (5.3 and 1.9%, respectively). The main characteristics of the maternal lineages observed in Mexican-Mestizos comprised the following: 1) contrasting geographic gradient of Haplogroups A and C; 2) increase of European lineages toward the Northwest; 3) low or absent, but homogeneous, African ancestry throughout the Mexican territory; 4) maternal lineages in Mestizos roughly represent the genetic makeup of the surrounding Amerindian groups, particularly toward the Southeast, but not in the North and West; 5) continuity over time of the geographic distribution of Amerindian lineages in Mayas; and 6) low but significant maternal population structure (FST  = 2.8%; P = 0.0000). The average ancestry obtained from uniparental systems (mtDNA and Y-chromosome) in Mexican-Mestizos was correlated with previous ancestry estimates based on autosomal systems (genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats). Finally, the comparison of paternal and maternal lineages provided additional information concerning the gender bias admixture, mating patterns, and population structure in Mestizos throughout the Mexican territory.

  2. Mitochondrial haplogroups

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    Benn, Marianne; Schwartz, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2008-01-01

    Rare mutations in the mitochondrial genome may cause disease. Mitochondrial haplogroups defined by common polymorphisms have been associated with risk of disease and longevity. We tested the hypothesis that common haplogroups predict risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, morbidity from other...

  3. Characterization of mitochondrial haplogroups in a large population-based sample from the United States.

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    Mitchell, Sabrina L; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Murdock, Deborah G; Crawford, Dana C

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are valuable for investigations in forensic science, molecular anthropology, and human genetics. In this study, we developed a custom panel of 61 mtDNA markers for high-throughput classification of European, African, and Native American/Asian mitochondrial haplogroup lineages. Using these mtDNA markers, we constructed a mitochondrial haplogroup classification tree and classified 18,832 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date characterizing mitochondrial haplogroups in a population-based sample from the United States, and the first study characterizing mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in self-identified Mexican Americans separately from Hispanic Americans of other descent. We observed clear differences in the distribution of maternal genetic ancestry consistent with proposed admixture models for these subpopulations, underscoring the genetic heterogeneity of the United States Hispanic population. The mitochondrial haplogroup distributions in the other self-identified racial/ethnic groups within NHANES were largely comparable to previous studies. Mitochondrial haplogroup classification was highly concordant with self-identified race/ethnicity (SIRE) in non-Hispanic whites (94.8 %), but was considerably lower in admixed populations including non-Hispanic blacks (88.3 %), Mexican Americans (81.8 %), and other Hispanics (61.6 %), suggesting SIRE does not accurately reflect maternal genetic ancestry, particularly in populations with greater proportions of admixture. Thus, it is important to consider inconsistencies between SIRE and genetic ancestry when performing genetic association studies. The mitochondrial haplogroup data that we have generated, coupled with the epidemiologic variables in NHANES, is a valuable resource for future studies investigating the contribution of mtDNA variation to human health and disease.

  4. Association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and vascular complications of diabetes mellitus: A population-based study.

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    Martikainen, Mika H; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Majamaa, Kari

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroups and maternal family history of diabetes mellitus were associated with vascular diabetes mellitus complications in a population-based cohort of 299 Finnish diabetes mellitus patients with disease onset in young adult age. We found that haplogroup U was more prevalent among patients with no vascular diabetes mellitus complications than among those with at least one complication (p = 0.038). Haplogroup U was also more prevalent among the patients who reported maternal family history of diabetes mellitus than among those who did not (p = 0.0013). Furthermore, haplogroup U was more prevalent among patients with maternal family history of diabetes mellitus but no vascular diabetes mellitus complications than among those with at least one vascular diabetes mellitus complication but no maternal family history of diabetes mellitus (p = 0.0003 for difference). These findings suggest that different mtDNA-related factors may influence the risk of diabetes mellitus per se and the risk of vascular diabetes mellitus complications. Further studies are, however, warranted to replicate and elaborate on these results.

  5. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of the domestic goat reveals six haplogroups with high diversity.

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    Saeid Naderi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From the beginning of domestication, the transportation of domestic animals resulted in genetic and demographic processes that explain their present distribution and genetic structure. Thus studying the present genetic diversity helps to better understand the history of domestic species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genetic diversity of domestic goats has been characterized with 2430 individuals from all over the old world, including 946 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now (mainly the Fertile Crescent. These individuals represented 1540 haplotypes for the HVI segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. This large-scale study allowed the establishment of a clear nomenclature of the goat maternal haplogroups. Only five of the six previously defined groups of haplotypes were divergent enough to be considered as different haplogroups. Moreover a new mitochondrial group has been localized around the Fertile Crescent. All groups showed very high haplotype diversity. Most of this diversity was distributed among groups and within geographic regions. The weak geographic structure may result from the worldwide distribution of the dominant A haplogroup (more than 90% of the individuals. The large-scale distribution of other haplogroups (except one, may be related to human migration. The recent fragmentation of local goat populations into discrete breeds is not detectable with mitochondrial markers. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that all groups had a recent demographic expansion corresponding roughly to the period when domestication took place. But even with a large data set it remains difficult to give relative dates of expansion for different haplogroups because of large confidence intervals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose standard criteria for the definition of the different haplogroups based on the result of mismatch analysis and on the use of sequences of

  6. Maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA variants in familial Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, David K; Pankratz, Nathan; Kissell, Diane K; Pauciulo, Michael W; Halter, Cheryl A; Rudolph, Alice; Pfeiffer, Ronald F; Nichols, William C; Foroud, Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    .... We examined the possibility of a maternal inheritance bias as well as the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and maternal inheritance and disease risk in a case-control study of 168...

  7. Oxidative phosphorylation differences between mitochondrial DNA haplogroups modify the risk of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

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    Gómez-Durán, Aurora; Pacheu-Grau, David; Martínez-Romero, Iñigo; López-Gallardo, Ester; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2012-08-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited optic atrophy caused by mitochondrial DNA point mutations. Previous epidemiological studies have shown that individuals from mitochondrial genetic backgrounds (haplogroups) J/Uk and H have a higher and a lower risk, respectively, of suffering this disorder. To analyze the bases of these associations at cellular and molecular levels, functional studies with cybrids provide high quality evidence. Cybrids from haplogroup J contain less mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) and synthesize a smaller amount of mitochondrial DNA-encoded polypeptides than those from haplogroup H. Haplogroup J cybrids also display lower oxygen consumption, mitochondrial inner membrane potential and total adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA levels correlate with many parameters of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These results suggest that the mitochondrial DNA amount determines oxidative phosphorylation capacity and, along with other recently published observations, support the possibility that mitochondrial DNA levels may be responsible for the bias of the disorder toward males, for the incomplete penetrance of mutations causing Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and for the association of the disease with particular mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

  8. MITOCHONDRIAL HAPLOGROUPS DEFINE TWO PHENOTYPES OF OSTEOARTHRITIS

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    Mercedes eFernandez-Moreno

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess a mitochondrion-related phenotype in patients with osteoarthritis (OA.Methods. Serum levels of the following OA-related biomarkers: matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1; MMP-3; MMP-13; myeloperoxidase (MPO; a peptide of the alpha-helical region of type II collagen, Coll2-1, and its nitrated form Coll2-1NO2; a C-terminal neoepitope generated by the collagenase-mediated cleavage of collagen type II triple helix, C2C; the C-propeptide of collagen type II, CPII; hyaluronic acid (HA; human cartilage glycoprotein-39, YKL-40; cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP and cathepsin K were analyzed in 48 OA patients and 52 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups H and J. Logistic regression models and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were performed to predict the onset of OA. Results. MMP-13 was the only biomarker significantly increased in OA patients compared to healthy controls in both haplogroups H and J. The collagen type II biomarkers, Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, the Coll2-1NO2/Coll2-1 ratio, C2C, CPII and the C2C:CPII ratio were significantly increased in OA patients carrying haplogroup H compared to OA carriers of the haplogroup J. Two logistic regression models for diagnosis were constructed and adjusted for age, gender and body mass index (BMI. For haplogroup H, the biomarkers significantly associated with OA were MMP-13 and Coll2-1; the area under the curve (AUC of the ROC curve for this model was 0.952 (95%CI=0.892-1.012. For haplogroup J, the only biomarker significantly associated with OA was MMP-13; the AUC for this model was 0.895 (95%CI=0.801-0.989.Conclusion. Some OA-related biomarkers show a clearly different profile depending on the mtDNA haplogroup.

  9. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 in north Africa: an early holocene arrival from Iberia.

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    Claudio Ottoni

    Full Text Available The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61% of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000-9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages.

  10. Sisters' curse: sexually antagonistic effects constrain the spread of a mitochondrial haplogroup superior in sperm competition.

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    Padua, Michael V; Zeh, David W; Bonilla, Melvin M; Zeh, Jeanne A

    2014-12-22

    Maternal inheritance of mitochondria creates a sex-specific selective sieve with implications for male longevity, disease susceptibility and infertility. Because males are an evolutionary dead end for mitochondria, mitochondrial mutations that are harmful or beneficial to males but not females cannot respond directly to selection. Although the importance of this male/female asymmetry in evolutionary response depends on the extent to which mitochondrial mutations exert antagonistic effects on male and female fitness, few studies have documented sex-specific selection acting on mitochondria. Here, we exploited the discovery of two highly divergent mitochondrial haplogroups (A and B2) in central Panamanian populations of the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analyses suggest that selection on the ND4 and ND4L mitochondrial genes may partially explain sexually antagonistic mitochondrial effects on reproduction. Males carrying the rare B2 mitochondrial haplogroup enjoy a marked advantage in sperm competition, but B2 females are significantly less sexually receptive at second mating than A females. This reduced propensity for polyandry is likely to significantly reduce female lifetime reproductive success, thereby limiting the spread of the male beneficial B2 haplogroup. Our findings suggest that maternal inheritance of mitochondria and sexually antagonistic selection can constrain male adaptation and sexual selection in nature.

  11. A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup I

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    Revesz Peter Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent recovery of ancient DNA from a growing number of human samples shows that mitochondrial DNA haplogroup I was introduced to Europe after the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. This paper provides a spatio-temporal analysis of the various subhaplogroups of mitochondrial DNA I. The study suggests that haplogroup I diversified into haplogroups I1, I2’3, I4 and I5 at specific regions in Eurasia and then spread southward to Crete and Egypt.

  12. Mitochondrial Haplogroups Affect Severity But Not Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy

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    Bregman, Jana A.; Herren, David J.; Estopinal, Christopher B.; Chocron, Isaac M.; Harlow, Paula A.; Warden, Cassandra; Brantley, Milam A.; Samuels, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported European mitochondrial haplogroup H to be a risk factor for and haplogroup UK to be protective against proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) among Caucasian patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR). The purpose of this study was to determine whether these haplogroups are also associated with the risk of having DR among Caucasian patients with diabetes. Methods Deidentified medical records for 637 Caucasian patients with diabetes (223 with DR) were obtained from BioVU, Vanderbilt University's electronic, deidentified DNA databank. An additional 197 Caucasian patients with diabetes (98 with DR) were enrolled from the Vanderbilt Eye Institute (VEI). We tested for an association between European mitochondrial haplogroups and DR status. Results The percentage of diabetes patients with DR did not differ across the haplogroups (P = 0.32). The percentage of patients with nonproliferative DR (NPDR; P = 0.0084) and with PDR (P = 0.027) significantly differed across the haplogroups. In logistic regressions adjusting for sex, age, diabetes type, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c, neither haplogroup H nor haplogroup UK had a significant effect on DR compared with diabetic controls. Haplogroup UK was a significant risk factor (OR = 1.72 [1.13–2.59], P = 0.010) for NPDR compared with diabetic controls in the unadjusted analysis, but not in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.29 [0.79–2.10], P = 0.20). Conclusions Mitochondrial haplogroups H and UK were associated with severity, but not presence, of DR. These data argue that the effect of these haplogroups is related to ischemia and neovascularization, the defining features of PDR. PMID:28245487

  13. The role of mtDNA background in disease expression: a new primary LHON mutation associated with Western Eurasian haplogroup J.

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    Brown, Michael D; Starikovskaya, Elena; Derbeneva, Olga; Hosseini, Seyed; Allen, Jon C; Mikhailovskaya, Irina E; Sukernik, Rem I; Wallace, Douglas C

    2002-02-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally transmitted form of blindness caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Approximately 90% of LHON cases are caused by 3460A, 11778A, or 14484C mtDNA mutations. These are designated "primary" mutations because they impart a high risk for LHON expression. Although the 11778A and 14484C mutations unequivocally predispose carriers to LHON, they are preferentially associated with mtDNA haplogroup J, one of nine Western Eurasian mtDNA lineages, suggesting a synergistic and deleterious interaction between these LHON mutations and haplogroup J polymorphism(s). We report here the characterization of a new primary LHON mutation in the mtDNA ND4L gene at nucleotide pair 10663. The homoplasmic 10663C mutation has been found in three independent LHON patients who lack a known primary mutation and all of which belong to haplogroup J. This mutation has not been found in a large number of haplotype-matched or non-haplogroup-J control mtDNAs. Phylogenetic analysis with primarily complete mtDNA sequence data demonstrates that the 10663C mutation has arisen at least three independent times in haplogroup J, indicating that it is not a rare lineage-specific polymorphism. Analysis of complex I function in patient lymphoblasts and transmitochondrial cybrids has revealed a partial complex I defect similar in magnitude to the 14484C mutation. Thus, the 10663C mutation appears to be a new primary LHON mutation that is pathogenic when co-occurring with haplogroup J. These results strongly support a role for haplogroup J in the expression of certain LHON mutations.

  14. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

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    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human mitochondrial variants influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Whether mitochondrial respiratory capacity per mitochondrion (intrinsic activity) in human skeletal muscle is affected by differences in mitochondrial variants is not known. We recruited 54 males...... and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  15. High resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

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    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-09-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps.

  16. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

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    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  17. Relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia.

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    Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Egashira, Yuka; Kishida, Fumi; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2016-04-29

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between mtDNA polymorphism and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia. The study included 28 healthy male students, consisting of 18 students in haplogroup D and 10 in haplogroup M7+G. Measurement sensors were attached to the participants for approximately 30 min in an environment with a temperature of 28 °C. After resting for 15 min, the programmed operation of the hypobaric chamber decreased the atmospheric pressure by 11.9 Torr every minute to simulate an increase in altitude of 150 m until 9.7 Torr (equivalent to 2500 m) and then decreased 9.7 Torr every minute until 465 Torr (equivalent to 4000 m). At each altitude, the pressure was maintained for 15 min and various measurements were taken. Haplogroup D showed higher SpO2 (p < 0.05) and significantly higher SpO2 during the pressure recovery period when compared with haplogroup M7+G. The distal skin temperature was higher in haplogroup D when compared with M7+G. These results suggested that haplogroup D maintained SpO2 at a higher level with higher peripheral blood flow during acute hypobaric exposure.

  18. Association Between Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Variation and Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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    Chalkia, Dimitra; Singh, Larry N; Leipzig, Jeremy; Lvova, Maria; Derbeneva, Olga; Lakatos, Anita; Hadley, Dexter; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wallace, Douglas C

    2017-08-23

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive or restrictive behavior. Although multiple physiologic and biochemical studies have reported defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in patients with ASD, the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has remained relatively unexplored. To assess what impact mitochondrial lineages encompassing ancient mtDNA functional polymorphisms, termed haplogroups, have on ASD risk. In this cohort study, individuals with autism and their families were studied using the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange cohort genome-wide association studies data previously generated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. From October 2010 to January 2017, we analyzed the data and used the mtDNA single-nucleotide polymorphisms interrogated by the Illumina HumanHap 550 chip to determine the mtDNA haplogroups of the individuals. Taking into account the familial structure of the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange data, we then determined whether the mtDNA haplogroups correlate with ASD risk. Odds ratios of mitochondrial haplogroup as predictors of ASD risk. Of 1624 patients with autism included in this study, 1299 were boys (80%) and 325 were girls (20%). Families in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange collection (933 families, encompassing 4041 individuals: 1624 patients with ASD and 2417 healthy parents and siblings) had been previously recruited in the United States with no restrictions on age, sex, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Relative to the most common European haplogroup HHV, European haplogroups I, J, K, O-X, T, and U were associated with increased risk of ASD, as were Asian and Native American haplogroups A and M, with odds ratios ranging from 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.06) to 2.18 (95% CI, 1.59-3) (adjusted P < .04). Hence, mtDNA haplogroup variation is an important risk factor for ASD. Because haplogroups I, J, K, O-X, T, and U encompass 55% of the

  19. MtDNA haplogroups and elite Korean athlete status.

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    Kim, K C; Cho, H I; Kim, W

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation has recently been suggested to have an association with athletic performance or physical endurance. Since mtDNA is haploid and lacks recombination, specific mutations in the mtDNA genome associated with human exercise tolerance or intolerance arise and remain in particular genetic backgrounds referred to as haplogroups. To assess the possible contribution of mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants to differences in elite athletic performance, we performed a population-based study of 152 Korean elite athletes [77 sprint/power athletes (SPA) and 75 endurance/middle-power athletes (EMA)] and 265 non-athletic controls (CON). The overall haplogroup distribution of EMA differed significantly from CON (p<0.01), but that of SPA did not. The EMA have an excess of haplogroups M* (OR 4.38, 95% CI 1.63-11.79, p=0.003) and N9 (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.92-5.81, p=0.042), but a dearth of haplogroup B (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.09-0.75, p=0.003) compared with the CON. Thus, our data imply that specific mtDNA lineages may provide a significant effect on elite Korean endurance status, although functional studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to further substantiate these findings.

  20. Mitogenomes from two uncommon haplogroups mark late glacial/postglacial expansions from the near east and neolithic dispersals within Europe.

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    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available The current human mitochondrial (mtDNA phylogeny does not equally represent all human populations but is biased in favour of representatives originally from north and central Europe. This especially affects the phylogeny of some uncommon West Eurasian haplogroups, including I and W, whose southern European and Near Eastern components are very poorly represented, suggesting that extensive hidden phylogenetic substructure remains to be uncovered. This study expanded and re-analysed the available datasets of I and W complete mtDNA genomes, reaching a comprehensive 419 mitogenomes, and searched for precise correlations between the ages and geographical distributions of their numerous newly identified subclades with events of human dispersal which contributed to the genetic formation of modern Europeans. Our results showed that haplogroups I (within N1a1b and W originated in the Near East during the Last Glacial Maximum or pre-warming period (the period of gradual warming between the end of the LGM, ∼19 ky ago, and the beginning of the first main warming phase, ∼15 ky ago and, like the much more common haplogroups J and T, may have been involved in Late Glacial expansions starting from the Near East. Thus our data contribute to a better definition of the Late and postglacial re-peopling of Europe, providing further evidence for the scenario that major population expansions started after the Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic times, but also evidencing traces of diffusion events in several I and W subclades dating to the European Neolithic and restricted to Europe.

  1. The background of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J increases the sensitivity of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cells to 2,5-hexanedione toxicity.

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    Anna Ghelli

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited blinding disease due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations in complex I subunit genes, whose incomplete penetrance has been attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Indeed, the mtDNA background defined as haplogroup J is known to increase the penetrance of the 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 mutations. Recently it was also documented that the professional exposure to n-hexane might act as an exogenous trigger for LHON. Therefore, we here investigate the effect of the n-hexane neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD on cell viability and mitochondrial function of different cell models (cybrids and fibroblasts carrying the LHON mutations on different mtDNA haplogroups. The viability of control and LHON cybrids and fibroblasts, whose mtDNAs were completely sequenced, was assessed using the MTT assay. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate driven by complex I substrates was determined with the luciferine/luciferase method. Incubation with 2,5-HD caused the maximal loss of viability in control and LHON cells. The toxic effect of this compound was similar in control cells irrespective of the mtDNA background. On the contrary, sensitivity to 2,5-HD induced cell death was greatly increased in LHON cells carrying the 11778/ND4 or the 14484/ND6 mutation on haplogroup J, whereas the 11778/ND4 mutation in association with haplogroups U and H significantly improved cell survival. The 11778/ND4 mutation on haplogroup U was also more resistant to inhibition of complex I dependent ATP synthesis by 2,5-HD. In conclusion, this study shows that mtDNA haplogroups modulate the response of LHON cells to 2,5-HD. In particular, haplogroup J makes cells more sensitive to its toxic effect. This is the first evidence that an mtDNA background plays a role by interacting with an environmental factor and that 2,5-HD may be a risk element for visual loss in LHON. This proof of principle has broad

  2. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

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    Dzimiri Nduna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Results Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42% and H3 (13%. The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 ± 2 ky and H3 (11 ± 4 ky in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. Conclusion The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously

  3. Mitochondrial haplogroups modify the risk of developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Danish population.

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    Christian M Hagen

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in sarcomere function. The disease is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Evolutionarily developed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, defining mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters, is associated with functional differences in mitochondrial function and susceptibility to various diseases, including ischemic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups, in particular H, J and K, might modify disease susceptibility to HCM. Mitochondrial DNA, isolated from blood, was sequenced and haplogroups identified in 91 probands with HCM. The association with HCM was ascertained using two Danish control populations. Haplogroup H was more prevalent in HCM patients, 60% versus 46% (p = 0.006 and 41% (p = 0.003, in the two control populations. Haplogroup J was less prevalent, 3% vs. 12.4% (p = 0.017 and 9.1%, (p = 0.06. Likewise, the UK haplogroup cluster was less prevalent in HCM, 11% vs. 22.1% (p = 0.02 and 22.8% (p = 0.04. These results indicate that haplogroup H constitutes a susceptibility factor and that haplogroup J and haplogroup cluster UK are protective factors in the development of HCM. Thus, constitutive differences in mitochondrial function may influence the occurrence and clinical presentation of HCM. This could explain some of the phenotypic variability in HCM. The fact that haplogroup H and J are also modifying factors in ischemic cardiomyopathy suggests that mtDNA haplotypes may be of significance in determining whether a physiological hypertrophy develops into myopathy. mtDNA haplotypes may have the potential of becoming significant biomarkers in cardiomyopathy.

  4. Mitochondrial Haplogroup Influences Motor Function in Long-Term HIV-1-Infected Individuals

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    Azar, Ashley; Giovannetti, Tania; Pirrone, Vanessa; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Passic, Shendra; Kercher, Katherine; Williams, Jean W.; Wigdahl, Brian; Dampier, William; Libon, David J.; Sell, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary divergence of the mitochondrial genome has given rise to distinct haplogroups. These haplogroups have arisen in specific geographical locations and are responsible for subtle functional changes in the mitochondria that may provide an evolutionary advantage in a given environment. Based on these functional differences, haplogroups could define disease susceptibility in chronic settings. In this study, we undertook a detailed neuropsychological analysis of a cohort of long-term HIV-1-infected individuals in conjunction with sequencing of their mitochondrial genomes. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the best model for predicting both working memory and declarative memory were age and years since diagnosis. In contrast, years since diagnosis and sub-haplogroup were significantly predictive of psychomotor speed. Consistent with this, patients with haplogroup L3e obtained better scores on psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks when compared to the remainder of the cohort, suggesting that this haplogroup provides a protective advantage when faced with the combined stress of HIV-1 infection and long-term antiretroviral therapies. Differential performance on declarative memory tasks was noted for individuals with other sub-L haplogroups, but these differences were not as robust as the association between L3e and psychomotor speed and dexterity tasks. This work provides evidence that mitochondrial haplogroup is related to neuropsychological test performance among patients in chronic disease settings such as HIV-1 infection. PMID:27711166

  5. Mitochondrial haplogroup C4c: a rare lineage entering America through the ice-free corridor?

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    Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Olivieri, Anna; Angerhofer, Norman; Gandini, Francesca; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Semino, Ornella; Woodward, Scott R; Achilli, Alessandro; Torroni, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recent analyses of mitochondrial genomes from Native Americans have brought the overall number of recognized maternal founding lineages from just four to a current count of 15. However, because of their relative low frequency, almost nothing is known for some of these lineages. This leaves a considerable void in understanding the events that led to the colonization of the Americas following the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In this study, we identified and completely sequenced 14 mitochondrial DNAs belonging to one extremely rare Native American lineage known as haplogroup C4c. Its age and geographical distribution raise the possibility that C4c marked the Paleo-Indian group(s) that entered North America from Beringia through the ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. The similarities in ages andgeographical distributions for C4c and the previously analyzed X2a lineage provide support to the scenario of a dual origin for Paleo-Indians. Taking into account that C4c is deeply rooted in the Asian portion of the mtDNA phylogeny and is indubitably of Asian origin, the finding that C4c and X2a are characterized by parallel genetic histories definitively dismisses the controversial hypothesis of an Atlantic glacial entry route into North America.

  6. Maternal Footprints of Southeast Asians in North India

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    Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Kivisild, Toomas; Selvi Rani, Deepa; Singh, Vijay Kumar; Ismail, Thanseem; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Metspalu, Mait; Bhaskar, L.V.K.S.; Reddy, Alla G.; Chandra, Sarat; Pande, Veena; Naidu, B. Prathap; Adarsh, Niharika; Verma, Abhilasha; Jyothi, Inaganti Amara; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Devasena, Ragala; Kumari, Babita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Singh, Shefali; Rao, Geeta; Gupta, Pranav; Sonvane, Vartika; Kumari, Kavita; Basha, Afsar; Bhargavi, K.R.; Lalremruata, Albert; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Kaur, Gurukamal; Reddy, K.K.; Rao, A. Papa; Villems, Richard; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Singh, Lalji

    2008-01-01

    We have analyzed 7,137 samples from 125 different caste, tribal and religious groups of India and 99 samples from three populations of Nepal for the length variation in the COII/tRNALys region of mtDNA. Samples showing length variation were subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis based on HVS-I and informative coding region sequence variation. The overall frequencies of the 9-bp deletion and insertion variants in South Asia were 1.9 and 0.6%, respectively. We have also defined a novel deep-rooting haplogroup M43 and identified the rare haplogroup H14 in Indian populations carrying the 9-bp deletion by complete mtDNA sequencing. Moreover, we redefined haplogroup M6 and dissected it into two well-defined subclades. The presence of haplogroups F1 and B5a in Uttar Pradesh suggests minor maternal contribution from Southeast Asia to Northern India. The occurrence of haplogroup F1 in the Nepalese sample implies that Nepal might have served as a bridge for the flow of eastern lineages to India. The presence of R6 in the Nepalese, on the other hand, suggests that the gene flow between India and Nepal has been reciprocal. PMID:18223312

  7. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup background affects LHON, but not suspected LHON, in Chinese patients.

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    A-Mei Zhang

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that mtDNA background could affect the clinical expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation of 304 Chinese patients with m.11778G>A (sample #1 and of 843 suspected LHON patients who lack the three primary mutations (sample #2 to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on disease onset. Haplogroup frequencies in the patient group was compared to frequencies in the general Han Chinese population (n = 1,689; sample #3. The overall matrilineal composition of the suspected LHON population resembles that of the general Han Chinese population, suggesting no association with mtDNA haplogroup. In contrast, analysis of these LHON patients confirms mtDNA haplogroup effect on LHON. Specifically, the LHON sample significantly differs from the general Han Chinese and suspected LHON populations by harboring an extremely lower frequency of haplogroup R9, in particular of its main sub-haplogroup F (#1 vs. #3, P-value = 1.46×10(-17, OR = 0.051, 95% CI: 0.016-0.162; #1 vs. #2, P-value = 4.44×10(-17, OR = 0.049, 95% CI: 0.015-0.154; in both cases, adjusted P-value A but not suspected LHON. Haplogroup F has a protective effect against LHON, while M7b is a risk factor.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Background Affects LHON, but Not Suspected LHON, in Chinese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rui; Salas, Antonio; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mtDNA background could affect the clinical expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of 304 Chinese patients with m.11778G>A (sample #1) and of 843 suspected LHON patients who lack the three primary mutations (sample #2) to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on disease onset. Haplogroup frequencies in the patient group was compared to frequencies in the general Han Chinese population (n = 1,689; sample #3). The overall matrilineal composition of the suspected LHON population resembles that of the general Han Chinese population, suggesting no association with mtDNA haplogroup. In contrast, analysis of these LHON patients confirms mtDNA haplogroup effect on LHON. Specifically, the LHON sample significantly differs from the general Han Chinese and suspected LHON populations by harboring an extremely lower frequency of haplogroup R9, in particular of its main sub-haplogroup F (#1 vs. #3, P-value = 1.46×10−17, OR = 0.051, 95% CI: 0.016–0.162; #1 vs. #2, P-value = 4.44×10−17, OR = 0.049, 95% CI: 0.015–0.154; in both cases, adjusted P-value A but not suspected LHON. Haplogroup F has a protective effect against LHON, while M7b is a risk factor. PMID:22110754

  9. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup background affects LHON, but not suspected LHON, in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Jia, Xiaoyun; Bi, Rui; Salas, Antonio; Li, Shiqiang; Xiao, Xueshan; Wang, Panfeng; Guo, Xiangming; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mtDNA background could affect the clinical expression of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of 304 Chinese patients with m.11778G>A (sample #1) and of 843 suspected LHON patients who lack the three primary mutations (sample #2) to discern mtDNA haplogroup effect on disease onset. Haplogroup frequencies in the patient group was compared to frequencies in the general Han Chinese population (n = 1,689; sample #3). The overall matrilineal composition of the suspected LHON population resembles that of the general Han Chinese population, suggesting no association with mtDNA haplogroup. In contrast, analysis of these LHON patients confirms mtDNA haplogroup effect on LHON. Specifically, the LHON sample significantly differs from the general Han Chinese and suspected LHON populations by harboring an extremely lower frequency of haplogroup R9, in particular of its main sub-haplogroup F (#1 vs. #3, P-value = 1.46×10(-17), OR = 0.051, 95% CI: 0.016-0.162; #1 vs. #2, P-value = 4.44×10(-17), OR = 0.049, 95% CI: 0.015-0.154; in both cases, adjusted P-value LHON in Chinese patients with m.11778G>A but not suspected LHON. Haplogroup F has a protective effect against LHON, while M7b is a risk factor.

  10. Concept for estimating mitochondrial DNA haplogroups using a maximum likelihood approach (EMMA)☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Alexander W.; Dür, Arne; van Oven, Mannis; Parson, Walther

    2013-01-01

    The assignment of haplogroups to mitochondrial DNA haplotypes contributes substantial value for quality control, not only in forensic genetics but also in population and medical genetics. The availability of Phylotree, a widely accepted phylogenetic tree of human mitochondrial DNA lineages, led to the development of several (semi-)automated software solutions for haplogrouping. However, currently existing haplogrouping tools only make use of haplogroup-defining mutations, whereas private mutations (beyond the haplogroup level) can be additionally informative allowing for enhanced haplogroup assignment. This is especially relevant in the case of (partial) control region sequences, which are mainly used in forensics. The present study makes three major contributions toward a more reliable, semi-automated estimation of mitochondrial haplogroups. First, a quality-controlled database consisting of 14,990 full mtGenomes downloaded from GenBank was compiled. Together with Phylotree, these mtGenomes serve as a reference database for haplogroup estimates. Second, the concept of fluctuation rates, i.e. a maximum likelihood estimation of the stability of mutations based on 19,171 full control region haplotypes for which raw lane data is available, is presented. Finally, an algorithm for estimating the haplogroup of an mtDNA sequence based on the combined database of full mtGenomes and Phylotree, which also incorporates the empirically determined fluctuation rates, is brought forward. On the basis of examples from the literature and EMPOP, the algorithm is not only validated, but both the strength of this approach and its utility for quality control of mitochondrial haplotypes is also demonstrated. PMID:23948335

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and the Risk of Sporadic Parkinson's Disease in Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Fang Chen; Wan-Jin Chen; Xiao-Zhen Lin; Qi-Jie Zhang; Jiang-Ping Cai; Chia-Wei Liou; Ning Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).However,the precise role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variations is obscure.On the other hand,mtDNA haplogroups have been inconsistently reported to modify the risk of PD among different population.Here,we try to explore the relationship between mtDNA haplogroups and sporadic PD in a Han Chinese population.Methods:Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms,which define the major Asian mtDNA haplogroups (A,B,C,D,F,G),were detected via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 279 sporadic PD patients and 510 matched controls of Han population.Results:Overall,the distribution ofmtDNA haplogroups did not show any significant differences between patients and controls.However,after stratification by age at onset,the frequency of haplogroup B was significantly lower in patients with early-onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls (odds ratio [OR] =0.225,95% confidence interval [CI]:0.082-0.619,P =0.004),while other haplogroups did not show significant differences.After stratification by age at examination,among subjects younger than 50 years of age:Haplogroup B also showed a lower frequency in PD cases (OR =0.146,95% CI:0.030-0.715,P =0.018) while haplogroup D presented a higher risk of PD (OR =3.579,95% CI:1.112-11.523,P =0.033),other haplogroups also did not show significant differences in the group.Conclusions:Our study indicates that haplogroup B might confer a lower risk for EOPD and people younger than 50 years in Han Chinese,while haplogroup D probably lead a higher risk of PD in people younger than 50 years of age.In brief,particular Asian mtDNA haplogroups likely play a role in the pathogenesis of PD among Han Chinese.

  12. Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups.

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    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Carracedo, Ángel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Many studies based on genetic diversity of North African populations have contributed to elucidate the modelling of the genetic landscape in this region. North Africa is considered as a distinct spatial-temporal entity on geographic, archaeological, and historical grounds, which has undergone the influence of different human migrations along its shaping. For instance, Libya, a North African country, was first inhabited by Berbers and then colonized by a variety of ethnic groups like Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs and, in recent times, Italians. In this study, we contribute to clarify the genetic variation of Libya and consequently, of North African modern populations, by the study of Libyan male lineages. A total of 22 Y-chromosome-specific SNPs were genotyped in a sample of 175 Libyan males, allowing the characterization of 18 Y-chromosomal haplogroups. The obtained data revealed a predominant Northwest African component represented by haplogroup E-M81 (33.7%) followed by J(xJ1a,J2)-M304 (27.4%), which is postulated to have a Middle Eastern origin. The comparative study with other populations (∼5,400 individuals from North Africa, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe) revealed a general genetic homogeneity among North African populations (FST = 5.3 %; P-value Libya and in North Africa is characterized by two genetic components. The first signature is typical of Berber-speaking people (E-M81), the autochthonous inhabitants, whereas the second is (J(xJ1a,J2)-M304), originating from Arabic populations. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of an Arabic expansion from the Middle East, shaping the North African genetic landscape. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Association of Genes, Pathways, and Haplogroups of the Mitochondrial Genome with the Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort.

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    Yuqing Li

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial genome encodes for the synthesis of 13 proteins that are essential for the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS system. Inherited variation in mitochondrial genes may influence cancer development through changes in mitochondrial proteins, altering the OXPHOS process, and promoting the production of reactive oxidative species. To investigate the role of the OXPHOS pathway and mitochondrial genes in colorectal cancer (CRC risk, we tested 185 mitochondrial SNPs (mtSNPs, located in 13 genes that comprise four complexes of the OXPHOS pathway and mtSNP groupings for rRNA and tRNA, in 2,453 colorectal cancer cases and 11,930 controls from the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Using the sequence kernel association test, we examined the collective set of 185 mtSNPs, as well as subsets of mtSNPs grouped by mitochondrial pathways, complexes, and genes, adjusting for age, sex, principal components of global ancestry, and self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. We also tested for haplogroup associations using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for the same covariates. Stratified analyses were conducted by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity. In European Americans, a global test of all genetic variants of the mitochondrial genome identified an association with CRC risk (P = 0.04. In mtSNP-subset analysis, the NADH dehydrogenase 2 (MT-ND2 gene in Complex I was associated with CRC risk at a P-value of 0.001 (q = 0.015. In addition, haplogroup T was associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.19-2.33, P = 0.003. No significant mitochondrial pathway and gene associations were observed in the remaining four racial/ethnic groups--African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. In summary, our findings suggest that variations in the mitochondrial genome and particularly in the MT-ND2 gene may play a role in CRC risk among European Americans, but not in other maternal racial/ethnic groups. Further replication is warranted and

  14. mtDNA haplogroup J Modulates telomere length and Nitric Oxide production

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    Fernández-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress due to the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO and other oxygen reactive species (ROS, play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. Therefore, the goal of this work is to describe the difference in telomere length of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs and Nitric Oxide (NO production between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup J and non-J carriers, as indirect approaches of oxidative stress. Methods The telomere length of PBL was analyzed in DNA samples from 166 healthy controls (114 J and 52 non-J and 79 OA patients (41 J and 38 non-J by means of a validated qPCR method. The NO production was assessed in 7 carriers of the haplogroup J and 27 non-J carriers, by means of the colorimetric reaction of the Griess reagent in supernatants of cultured chondrocytes. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA from these samples was analyzed by qPCR. Appropiated statistical analyses were performed Results Carriers of the haplogroup J showed a significantly longer telomere length of PBLs than non-J carriers, regardless of age, gender and diagnosis (p = 0.025. Cultured chondrocytes carrying the mtDNA haplogroup J also showed a lower NO production than non-J carriers (p = 0.043. No significant correlations between age and telomore length of PBLs were detected neither for carriers of the haplogroup J nor for non-J carriers. A strong positive correlation between NO production and iNOS expression was also observed (correlation coefficient = 0.791, p Conclusion The protective effect of the mtDNA haplogroup J in the OA disease arise from a lower oxidative stress in carriers of this haplogroup, since this haplogroup is related to lower NO production and hence longer telomere length of PBLs too.

  15. Reprint of: high resolution mapping of Y haplogroup G in Tyrol (Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Burkhard; Niederstätter, Harald; Erhart, Daniel; Gassner, Christoph; Schennach, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    The distribution of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a (G-P15) in present-day paternal lineages in Tyrol (Austria) was analyzed by applying a high-density regional sampling scheme that also covered remote mountain areas. There is evidence from ancient genetic data for a high frequency of Y-chromosomal haplogroup G in prehistoric populations of Central Europe, whilst nowadays levels well below 10% are routinely observed. A population sample comprising ∼3700 specimens was analyzed for Y-chromosomal variation by genotyping Y-SNPs and Y-STRs. The set of binary markers included nine SNPs specific for sub-lineages of haplogroup G. The frequency of haplogroup G in 2379 unrelated men born in Tyrol amounted to 11.3%. Nearly all of these Y chromosomes belonged to haplogroup G2a. The main sub-haplogroup within G2a was defined by the SNP L497 (G2a3b1c) and reached a population frequency of 8.6%. Although this average level is higher than reported for other countries the geographical distribution of haplogroup G-L497 showed a differentiated pattern with a clustered distribution within some alpine valleys, where maxima above 40% were found. Both, the estimation of coalescent times and a principle coordinates analysis based on RST values derived from Y-STR haplotypes from different sub-regions of Tyrol revealed evidence for an old settlement history associated with Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup G in the Tyrolean Alps.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup R in the Han population and recovery from septic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ping; Lv, Rong; He, Qiang; Zhu, Yiling; Yang, Xianghong; Chen, Jianghua

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether the main mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of the Han people are associated with neurological recovery from septic encephalopathy. We studied 137 individuals with septic encephalopathy who were sequentially admitted to the intensive care unit or the emergency intensive care unit at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, and the People's Hospital of Zhejiang Province. Demographic and clinical data were recorded along with clinical outcome over 28 days. The Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score was calculated daily until it reached 15 or until the patient died during the 28-day period. Follow-up was completed for all study participants. We then determined the mtDNA haplogroups of the patients by analyzing sequences of hypervariable mtDNA segments and testing diagnostic polymorphisms in the mtDNA coding region with DNA probes. MtDNA haplogroup R, one of the main mtDNA haplogroups of the Han people, was a strong independent predictor of outcome following septic encephalopathy, conferring a 4.053-fold (95% CI 1.803-9.110, p = 0.001) increased chance of neurological recovery within 28 days compared with those with a non-R mtDNA haplogroup. In the Han population, mtDNA haplogroup R is a strong independent predictor of the outcome of septic encephalopathy, conferring an increased chance of neurological recovery compared with individuals with a non-R haplogroup. Our results provide potential insights into the mechanisms involved in septic encephalopathy, and reveal that the mtDNA haplogroup R is an independent predictor of the outcome of septic encephalopathy.

  17. Mitochondrial haplogroup D4 confers resistance and haplogroup B is a genetic risk factor for high-altitude pulmonary edema among Han Chinese.

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    Luo, Y J; Gao, W X; Li, S Z; Huang, X W; Chen, Y; Liu, F Y; Huang, Q Y; Gao, Y Q

    2012-10-09

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a life-threatening condition caused by acute exposure to high altitude. Accumulating evidence suggests that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of HAPE. However, conclusions from association studies have been hindered by limited sample size due to the rareness of this disease. It is known that mitochondria are critical for hypoxic adaptation, and mitochondrial malfunction can be an important factor in HAPE development. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and polymorphisms affect HAPE susceptibility. We recruited 204 HAPE patients and 174 healthy controls in Tibet (3658 m above sea level), all Han Chinese, constituting the largest sample size of all HAPE vulnerability studies. Among mtDNA haplogroups, we found that haplogroup D4 is associated with resistance to HAPE, while haplogroup B is a genetic risk factor for this condition. Haplogroup D4 (tagged by 3010A) may enhance the stability of 16S rRNA, resulting in reduced oxidative stress and protection against HAPE. Within haplogroup B, subhaplogroup B4c (tagged by 15436A and 1119C) was associated with increased risk for HAPE, while subhaplogroup B4b may protect against HAPE. We indicate that there are differences in HAPE susceptibility among mtDNA haplogroups. We conclude that mitochondria are involved in adverse reactions to acute hypoxic exposure; our finding of differences in susceptibility as a function of mitochondrial DNA haplotype may shed light on the pathogenesis of other disorders associated with hypoxia, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  18. Machine-learning approaches for classifying haplogroup from Y chromosome STR data.

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    Joseph Schlecht

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome contains information about the ancestry of male lineages. Because of their low rate of mutation, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are the markers of choice for unambiguously classifying Y chromosomes into related sets of lineages known as haplogroups, which tend to show geographic structure in many parts of the world. However, performing the large number of SNP genotyping tests needed to properly infer haplogroup status is expensive and time consuming. A novel alternative for assigning a sampled Y chromosome to a haplogroup is presented here. We show that by applying modern machine-learning algorithms we can infer with high accuracy the proper Y chromosome haplogroup of a sample by scoring a relatively small number of Y-linked short tandem repeats (STRs. Learning is based on a diverse ground-truth data set comprising pairs of SNP test results (haplogroup and corresponding STR scores. We apply several independent machine-learning methods in tandem to learn formal classification functions. The result is an integrated high-throughput analysis system that automatically classifies large numbers of samples into haplogroups in a cost-effective and accurate manner.

  19. Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians do not demonstrate enrichment in mitochondrial haplogroup J.

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    Liran I Shlush

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity has been reported in several population subgroups. While studies from northern Italy and Finland, have described a higher frequency of haplogroup J among centenarians in comparison to non-centenarian, several other studies could not replicate these results and suggested various explanations for the discrepancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have evaluated haplogroup frequencies among Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians using two different sets of matched controls. No difference was observed in the haplogroup J frequencies between the centenarians or either matched control group, despite adequate statistical power to detect such a difference. Furthermore, the lack of association was robust to population substructure in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Given this discrepancy with the previous reported associations in the northern Italian and the Finnish populations, we conducted re-analysis of these previously published data, which supported one of several possible explanations: i inadequate matching of cases and controls; ii inadequate adjustment for multiple comparison testing; iii cryptic population stratification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There does not exist a universal association of mitochondrial haplogroup J with longevity across all population groups. Reported associations in specialized populations may reflect genetic or other interactions specific to those populations or else cryptic confounding influences, such as inadequate matching attributable to population substructure, which are of general relevance to all studies of the possible association of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups with common complex phenotypes.

  20. Characterization of mtDNA haplogroups in 14 Mexican indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-Espinosa, Rosenda I; Arenas-Aranda, Diego; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Buentello-Malo, Leonor; González-Valencia, Gerardo; Torres, Javier; Alvarez, Berenice; Mendoza, Irma; Flores, Mario; Sandoval, Lucila; Loeza, Francisco; Ramos, Irma; Muñoz, Leopoldo; Salamanca, Fabio

    2007-06-01

    In this descriptive study we investigated the genetic structure of 513 Mexican indigenous subjects grouped in 14 populations (Mixteca-Alta, Mixteca-Baja, Otomi, Purépecha, Tzeltal, Tarahumara, Huichol, Nahua-Atocpan, Nahua-Xochimilco, Nahua-Zitlala, Nahua-Chilacachapa, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Necoxtla, and Nahua-Coyolillo) based on mtDNA haplogroups. These communities are geographically and culturally isolated; parents and grandparents were born in the community. Our data show that 98.6% of the mtDNA was distributed in haplogroups A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2. Haplotype X6 was present in the Tarahumara (1/53) and Huichol (3/15), and haplotype L was present in the Nahua-Coyolillo (3/38). The first two principal components accounted for 95.9% of the total variation in the sample. The mtDNA haplogroup frequencies in the Purépecha and Zitlala were intermediate to cluster 1 (Otomi, Nahua-Ixhuatlancillo, Nahua-Xochimilco, Mixteca-Baja, and Tzeltal) and cluster 2 (Nahua-Necoxtla, Nahua-Atocpan, and Nahua-Chilacachapa). The Huichol, Tarahumara, Mixteca-Alta, and Nahua-Coyolillo were separated from the rest of the populations. According to these findings, the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups found in Mexican indigenous groups is similar to other Amerindian haplogroups, except for the African haplogroup found in one population.

  1. The Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup B2 enhances the risk of HPV for cervical cancer: de-regulation of mitochondrial genes may be involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Medina-Martínez, Ingrid; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Macías, Luis; Alfaro, Ana; Alcántara-Vázquez, Avissai; Alonso, Patricia; Gomez, Guillermo; Cruz-Talonia, Fernando; Serna, Luis; Muñoz-Cortez, Sergio; Borges-Ibañez, Manuel; Espinosa, Ana; Kofman, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2012-04-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main causal factor for cervical cancer (CC), there are data suggesting that genetic factors could modulate the risk for CC. Sibling studies suggest that maternally inherited factors could be involved in CC. To assess whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms are associated to CC, HPV infection and HPV types, a case-control study was performed in the Mexican population. Polymorphism of mtDNA D-loop was investigated in 187 CC patients and 270 healthy controls. HPV was detected and typed in cervical scrapes. The expression of 29 mitochondrial genes was analyzed in a subset of 45 tumor biopsies using the expression microarray ST1.0. The Amerindian haplogroup B2 increased the risk for CC (odds ratio (OR)=1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.58) and enhanced 36% (OR=208; 95% CI: 25.2-1735.5) the risk conferred by the HPV alone (OR=152.9; 95% CI: 65.4-357.5). In cases, the distribution of HPV types was similar in all haplogroups but one (D1), in which is remarkable the absence of HPV18, a very low frequency of HPV16 and high frequencies of HPV45, HPV31 and other HPV types. Two mtDNA genes (mitochondrial aspartic acid tRNA (MT-TD), mitochondrial lysine tRNA (MT-TK)) could be involved in the increased risk conferred by the haplogroup B2, as they were upregulated exclusively in B2 tumors (P<0.01, t-test). Although the association of mtDNA with CC and HPV infection is clear, other studies with higher sample size will be needed to elucidate the role of mtDNA in cervical carcinogenesis.

  2. Gene expression pattern in transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrid cells harboring type 2 diabetes-associated mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwoo Hwang

    Full Text Available Decreased mitochondrial function plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Recently, it was reported that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups confer genetic susceptibility to T2DM in Koreans and Japanese. Particularly, mtDNA haplogroup N9a is associated with a decreased risk of T2DM, whereas haplogroups D5 and F are associated with an increased risk. To examine functional consequences of these haplogroups without being confounded by the heterogeneous nuclear genomic backgrounds of different subjects, we constructed transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid cells harboring each of the three haplogroups (N9a, D5, and F in a background of a shared nuclear genome. We compared the functional consequences of the three haplogroups using cell-based assays and gene expression microarrays. Cell-based assays did not detect differences in mitochondrial functions among the haplogroups in terms of ATP generation, reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular dehydrogenase activity. However, differential expression and clustering analyses of microarray data revealed that the three haplogroups exhibit a distinctive nuclear gene expression pattern that correlates with their susceptibility to T2DM. Pathway analysis of microarray data identified several differentially regulated metabolic pathways. Notably, compared to the T2DM-resistant haplogroup N9a, the T2DM-susceptible haplogroup F showed down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and up-regulation of glycolysis. These results suggest that variations in mtDNA can affect the expression of nuclear genes regulating mitochondrial functions or cellular energetics. Given that impaired mitochondrial function caused by T2DM-associated mtDNA haplogroups is compensated by the nuclear genome, we speculate that defective nuclear compensation, under certain circumstances, might lead to the development of T2DM.

  3. HaploGrep: a fast and reliable algorithm for automatic classification of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Pacher, Dominic; Schönherr, Sebastian; Weissensteiner, Hansi; Binna, Robert; Specht, Günther; Kronenberg, Florian

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing source of controversy in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) research is based on the detection of numerous errors in mtDNA profiles that led to erroneous conclusions and false disease associations. Most of these controversies could be avoided if the samples' haplogroup status would be taken into consideration. Knowing the mtDNA haplogroup affiliation is a critical prerequisite for studying mechanisms of human evolution and discovering genes involved in complex diseases, and validating phylogenetic consistency using haplogroup classification is an important step in quality control. However, despite the availability of Phylotree, a regularly updated classification tree of global mtDNA variation, the process of haplogroup classification is still time-consuming and error-prone, as researchers have to manually compare the polymorphisms found in a population sample to those summarized in Phylotree, polymorphism by polymorphism, sample by sample. We present HaploGrep, a fast, reliable and straight-forward algorithm implemented in a Web application to determine the haplogroup affiliation of thousands of mtDNA profiles genotyped for the entire mtDNA or any part of it. HaploGrep uses the latest version of Phylotree and offers an all-in-one solution for quality assessment of mtDNA profiles in clinical genetics, population genetics and forensics. HaploGrep can be accessed freely at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at.

  4. European Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups are Associated with Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Inflammation in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, David C.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Bush, William S.; Letendre, Scott; Franklin, Donald; Grant, Igor; Hulgan, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are ancestry-related patterns of single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with differential mitochondrial function in model systems, neurodegenerative diseases in HIV-negative populations, and chronic complications of HIV infection, including neurocognitive impairment. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups are associated with neuroinflammation in HIV-infected adults. Methods CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) is a US-based observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments. Participants who consented to DNA collection underwent whole blood mtDNA sequencing, and a subset also underwent lumbar puncture. IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α (high-sensitivity), and IP-10 were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by immunoassay. Multivariable regression of mtDNA haplogroups and log-transformed CSF biomarkers were stratified by genetic ancestry using whole-genome nuclear DNA genotyping (European [EA], African [AA], or Hispanic ancestry [HA]), and adjusted for age, sex, antiretroviral therapy (ART), detectable CSF HIV RNA, and CD4 nadir. A total of 384 participants had both CSF cytokine measures and genetic data (45% EA, 44% AA, 11% HA, 22% female, median age 43 years, 74% on ART). Results In analyses stratified by the 3 continental ancestry groups, no haplogroups were significantly associated with the 4 biomarkers. In the subgroup of participants with undetectable plasma HIV RNA on ART, European haplogroup H participants had significantly lower CSF TNF-α (P = 0.001). Conclusions Lower CSF TNF-α may indicate lower neuroinflammation in the haplogroup H participants with well-controlled HIV on ART.

  5. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  6. Mitochondrial Haplogroup T Is Associated with Obesity in Austrian Juveniles and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Sabine; Mangge, Harald; Langhof, Helmut; Halle, Martin; Siegrist, Monika; Aigner, Elmar; Paulmichl, Katharina; Paulweber, Bernhard; Datz, Christian; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara; Weghuber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent publications have reported contradictory data regarding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and its association with body mass index. The aim of the present study was to compare the frequencies of mtDNA haplogroups as well as control region (CR) polymorphisms of obese juveniles (n = 248) and obese adults (n = 1003) versus normal weight controls (njuvenile = 266, nadults = 595) in a well-defined, ethnically homogenous, age-matched comparative cohort of Austrian Caucasians. Methodology and Principal Findings Using SNP analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European mitochondrial haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. Of these, only the T haplogroup frequency was increased in the juvenile obese cohort versus the control subjects [11.7% in obese vs. 6.4% in controls], although statistical significance was lost after adjustment for sex and age. Similar data were observed in a local adult cohort, in which haplogroup T was found at a significantly higher frequency in the overweight and obese subjects than in the normal weight group [9.7% vs. 6.2%, p = 0.012, adjusted for sex and age]. When all obese subjects were considered together, the difference in the frequency of haplogroup T was even more clearly seen [10.1% vs. 6.3%, p = 0.002, OR (95% CI) 1.71 (1.2–2.4), adjusted for sex and age]. The frequencies of the T haplogroup-linked CR polymorphisms C16294T and the C16296T were found to be elevated in both the juvenile and the adult obese cohort compared to the controls. Nevertheless, no mtDNA haplogroup or CR polymorphism was robustly associated with any of several investigated metabolic and cardiovascular parameters (e.g., blood pressure, blood glucose concentration, triglycerides, cholesterol) in all obese subjects. Conclusions and Significance By investigation of this large ethnically and geographically homogenous cohort of Middle European Caucasians, only mtDNA haplogroup T was identified as an obesity risk factor. PMID:26322975

  7. May “Mitochondrial Eve” and Mitochondrial Haplogroups Play a Role in Neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Caldarazzo Ienco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, play a critical role in several metabolic processes and apoptotic pathways. Multiple evidences suggest that mitochondria may be crucial in ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, mitochondrial haplogroups have been linked to multiple area of medicine, from normal ageing to diseases, including neurodegeneration. Polymorphisms within the mitochondrial genome might lead to impaired energy generation and to increased amount of reactive oxygen species, having either susceptibility or protective role in several diseases. Here, we highlight the role of the mitochondrial haplogroups in the pathogenetic cascade leading to diseases, with special attention to Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups influence lipoatrophy after Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Sher L.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Poole, Jason C.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Palella, Frank J.; Bream, Jay H.; Wallace, Douglas C.; O’Brien, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Although highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) has been extremely effective in lowering AIDS incidence among patients infected with HIV, certain drugs included in HAART can cause serious mitochondrial toxicities. One of the most frequent adverse events is lipoatrophy, which is the loss of subcutaneous fat in the face, arms, buttocks and/or legs as an adverse reaction to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The clinical symptoms of lipoatrophy resemble those of inherited mitochondrial diseases, which suggests that host mitochondrial genotype may play a role in susceptibility. We analyzed the association between mitochondrial haplogroup and severity of lipoatrophy in HIV-infected European American patients on HAART in the Multicenter AIDS cohort Study (MACS) and found that mitochondrial haplogroup H was strongly associated with increased atrophy (arms: p = 0.007, OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.17–2.69 legs: p = 0.037, OR = 1.54 95% CI = 1.03–2.31, and buttocks: p = 0.10, OR = 1.41 95% CI = 0.94–2.12). We also saw borderline significance for haplogroup T as protective against lipoatrophy (p = 0.05, OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.20–1.00). These data suggest that mitochondrial DNA haplogroup may influence the propensity for lipoatrophy in patients receiving NRTIs. PMID:19339895

  9. Phy-Mer: A novel alignment-free and reference-independent mitochondrial haplogroup classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Navarro-Gomez (Daniel); J. Leipzig (Jeremy); L. Shen (Lishuang); M.T. Lott (Marie T.); A.P.M. Stassen (Alphons P.M.); D.C. Wallace; J.L. Wiggs (Janey); M.J. Falk (Marni J.); M. van Oven (Mannis); X. Gai (Xiaowu)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractMotivation: All current mitochondrial haplogroup classification tools require variants to be detected from an alignment with the reference sequence and to be properly named according to the canonical nomenclature standards for describing mitochondrial variants, before they can be compare

  10. Y-SNP haplogroups related to the Yqh+ heteromorphism in the Mexican northwestern population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enrique Jhonatan Romo-Martínez; Gabriela Martínez-Cortés; Reyna Lucía Barajas-Torres; Rodrigo Rubi-Castellanos; María Teresa Magaña-Torres; Héctor Rangel-Villalobos; Juan Ramón González-García

    2012-12-01

    Morphological variation of the Y chromosome has been observed in different populations. This variation is mostly related to the heteromorphic Yq12 band, which is composed of a variable block of constitutive heterochromatin. The Yqh+ heteromorphism has a worldwide frequency of 2.85% and is considered clinically innocuous. The aim of this study was to identify the ancestry of the Yqh+ heteromorphism present in individuals from western Mexico. For this purpose, 17 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and SNaPshot assays. In 28 Yqh+ males, only five haplogroups were observed; with a haplogroup diversity of 0.4841 ± 0.1094, which was less than that observed in a study of unselected Mexican mestizo population. Differences were specifically conferred by the high frequencies of haplogroups R1b1 and P*(xQ,R), and by the absence of the Amerindian haplogroup Q (Q*(xQ1a3a) plus Q1a3a) from the Yqh+ group. This study suggests a post-1492 incorporation for Yqh+ chromosomes into the Mexican northwestern population.

  11. Mitochondrial haplogroups and control region polymorphisms in age-related macular degeneration: a case-control study.

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    Edith E Mueller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Onset and development of the multifactorial disease age-related macular degeneration (AMD are highly interrelated with mitochondrial functions such as energy production and free radical turnover. Mitochondrial dysfunction and overproduction of reactive oxygen species may contribute to destruction of the retinal pigment epithelium, retinal atrophy and choroidal neovascularization, leading to AMD. Consequently, polymorphisms of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA are postulated to be susceptibility factors for this disease. Previous studies from Australia and the United States detected associations of mitochondrial haplogroups with AMD. The aim of the present study was to test these associations in Middle European Caucasians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mitochondrial haplogroups (combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms and mitochondrial CR polymorphisms were analyzed in 200 patients with wet AMD (choroidal neovascularization, CNV, in 66 patients with dry AMD, and in 385 controls from Austria by means of multiplex primer extension analysis and sequencing, respectively. In patients with CNV, haplogroup H was found to be significantly less frequent compared to controls, and haplogroup J showed a trend toward a higher frequency compared to controls. Five CR polymorphisms were found to differ significantly in the two study populations compared to controls, and all, except one (T152C, are linked to those haplogroups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It can be concluded that haplogroup J is a risk factor for AMD, whereas haplogroup H seems to be protective for AMD.

  12. Mitochondrial haplogroups and polymorphisms reveal no association with sporadic prostate cancer in a southern European population.

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    María Jesús Álvarez-Cubero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that mitochondria play an important role in certain cancers (prostate, renal, breast, or colorectal and coronary disease. These organelles play an essential role in apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species; in addition, mtDNA also reveals the history of populations and ancient human migration. All these events and variations in the mitochondrial genome are thought to cause some cancers, including prostate cancer, and also help us to group individuals into common origin groups. The aim of the present study is to analyze the different haplogroups and variations in the sequence in the mitochondrial genome of a southern European population consisting of subjects affected (n = 239 and non-affected (n = 150 by sporadic prostate cancer. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using primer extension analysis and DNA sequencing, we identified the nine major European haplogroups and CR polymorphisms. The frequencies of the haplogroups did not differ between patients and control cohorts, whereas the CR polymorphism T16356C was significantly higher in patients with PC compared to the controls (p = 0.029. PSA, staging, and Gleason score were associated with none of the nine major European haplogroups. The CR polymorphisms G16129A (p = 0.007 and T16224C (p = 0.022 were significantly associated with Gleason score, whereas T16311C (p = 0.046 was linked with T-stage. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not suggest that mtDNA haplogroups could be involved in sporadic prostate cancer etiology and pathogenesis as previous studies performed in middle Europe population. Although some significant associations have been obtained in studying CR polymorphisms, further studies should be performed to validate these results.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are associated with severe sepsis and mortality in patients who underwent major surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Sousa, Maria Angeles; Tamayo, Eduardo; Guzmán-Fulgencio, María; Heredia, María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Amanda; Gómez, Esther; Almansa, Raquel; Gómez-Herreras, José I; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Gutiérrez-Junco, Sandra; Bermejo-Martin, Jesús F; Resino, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    To analyse whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with severe sepsis and mortality after major surgery. We performed a case-control study on 240 cardiac or abdominal surgery patients developing severe sepsis (Case-group) and 267 cardiac or abdominal surgery patients without severe sepsis and with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, Control-group). Furthermore, a longitudinal substudy was performed for analysing the survival in septic patients. Only European white patients within the N macro-cluster were included. Case-group underwent cardiac surgery had lower frequencies of cluster HV (p = 0.005) and haplogroup H (p = 0.005) and higher frequencies of cluster JT (p = 0.028) than Control-group; but no significant differences were found for abdominal surgery. Besides, both cluster HV and haplogroup H were associated with decreased odds of severe sepsis (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.45 (95%CI = 0.25; 0.82); p = 0.009 and aOR = 0.48 (95%CI = 0.26; 0.87); p = 0.015, respectively) among patients underwent cardiac surgery. In Case-group, 45.4% (109/240) patients died with a survival median of 39 (95%CI = 31.4; 46.62) days. When the clusters were examined, 41% (55/134) patients within cluster HV died versus 71.4% (10/14) patients within cluster IWX (p = 0.018). Additionally, patients within cluster IWX had an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.22; (95%CI = 1.14; 4.34); p = 0.019). European mitochondrial haplogroups might be related to the onset of severe sepsis in patients who underwent major cardiac surgery, but not in patients underwent major abdominal surgery. Besides, mtDNA haplogroups could have influence on mortality in septic patients. Copyright © 2014 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal immunisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Marcel; Lambach, Philipp; Ortiz, Justin R.; Reis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the potential of maternal immunisation to protect maternal, fetal, and infant health. Maternal tetanus vaccination is part of routine antenatal care and immunisation campaigns in many countries, and it has played an important part in the reduction of maternal and

  15. Mitochondrial haplogroup U is associated with a reduced risk to develop exfoliation glaucoma in the German population

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    Wissinger Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various lines of evidence demonstrate the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Therefore, mitochondrial DNA is a promising candidate for genetic susceptibility studies on glaucoma. To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups influence the risk to develop glaucoma, we genotyped 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that define the European mitochondrial DNA haplogroups in healthy controls and two German patient cohorts with either exfoliation glaucoma or the normal tension subgroup of primary open angle glaucoma. Results Mitochondrial haplogroup U was significantly under-represented in patients with exfoliation glaucoma (8.3% compared with 18.9% in controls; p = 0.004. Conclusions People with haplogroup U have a lower risk to develop exfoliation glaucoma. Our results substantiate the suggestion that mitochondrial alterations have an impact on the etiology of glaucoma.

  16. An alternative model for the early peopling of southern South America revealed by analyses of three mitochondrial DNA haplogroups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Saint Pierre, Michelle; Bravi, Claudio M; Motti, Josefina M B; Fuku, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Masashi; Llop, Elena; Bonatto, Sandro L; Moraga, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    ... seven complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. We identified two novel mtDNA monophyletic clades, preliminarily designated B2l and C1b13, which together with the recently described D1g sub-haplogroup have locally high frequencies...

  17. Haplogroup T Is an Obesity Risk Factor: Mitochondrial DNA Haplotyping in a Morbid Obese Population from Southern Italy

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    Carmela Nardelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups have been associated with the expression of mitochondrial-related diseases and with metabolic alterations, but their role has not yet been investigated in morbid obese Caucasian subjects. Therefore, we investigated the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and morbid obesity in patients from southern Italy. The mtDNA D-loop of morbid obese patients (n=500; BMI > 40 kg/m2 and controls (n=216; BMI 45 kg/m2 and in fact together account for 8% of the BMI. In conclusion, our finding that haplogroup T increases the risk of obesity by about two-fold, suggests that, besides nuclear genome variations and environmental factors, the T haplogroup plays a role in morbid obesity in our study population from southern Italy.

  18. Control region variability of haplogroup C1d and the tempo of the peopling of the Americas.

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    Gonzalo Figueiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the founding mitochondrial haplogroups involved in the peopling of the Americas, haplogroup C1d has been viewed as problematic because of its phylogeny and because of the estimates of its antiquity, apparently being much younger than other founding haplogroups. Several recent analyses, based on data from the entire mitochondrial genome, have contributed to an advance in the resolution of these problems. The aim of our analysis is to compare the conclusions drawn from the available HVR-I and HVR-II data for haplogroup C1d with the ones based on whole mitochondrial genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HVR-I and HVR-II sequences defined as belonging to haplogroup C1d by standard criteria were gathered from the literature as well as from population studies carried out in Uruguay. Sequence phylogeny was reconstructed using median-joining networks, geographic distribution of lineages was analyzed and the age of the most recent common ancestor estimated using the ρ-statistic and two different mutation rates. The putative ancestral forms of the haplogroup were found to be more widespread than the derived lineages, and the lineages defined by np 194 were found to be widely distributed and of equivalent age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis of control region sequences is found to still harbor great potential in tracing microevolutionary phenomena, especially those found to have occurred in more recent times. Based on the geographic distributions of the alleles of np 7697 and np 194, both discussed as possible basal mutations of the C1d phylogeny, we suggest that both alleles were part of the variability of the haplogroup at the time of its entrance. Moreover, based on the mutation rates of the different sites stated to be diagnostic, it is possible that the anomalies found when analyzing the haplogroup are due to paraphyly.

  19. Timing and deciphering mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup R0 variability in Central Europe and Middle East

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    Göbel Tanja

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly half of the West Eurasian assemblage of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is fractioned into numerous sub-lineages of the predominant haplogroup (hg R0. Several hypotheses have been proposed on the origin and the expansion times of some R0 sub-lineages, which were partially inconsistent with each other. Here we describe the phylogenetic structure and genetic variety of hg R0 in five European populations and one population from the Middle East. Results Our analysis of 1,350 mtDNA haplotypes belonging to R0, including entire control region sequences and 45 single nucleotide polymorphisms from the coding region, revealed significant differences in the distribution of different sub-hgs even between geographically closely located regions. Estimates of coalescence times that were derived using diverse algorithmic approaches consistently affirmed that the major expansions of the different R0 hgs occurred in the terminal Pleistocene and early Holocene. Conclusion Given an estimated coalescence time of the distinct lineages of 10 – 18 kya, the differences in the distributions could hint to either limited maternal gene flow after the Last Glacial Maximum due to the alpine nature of the regions involved or to a stochastic loss of diversity due to environmental events and/or disease episodes occurred at different times and in distinctive regions. Our comparison of two different ways of obtaining the timing of the most recent common ancestor confirms that the time of a sudden expansion can be adequately recovered from control region data with valid confidence intervals. For reliable estimates, both procedures should be applied in order to cross-check the results for validity and soundness.

  20. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  1. HaploGrep 2: mitochondrial haplogroup classification in the era of high-throughput sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Hansi; Pacher, Dominic; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Forer, Lukas; Specht, Günther; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kronenberg, Florian; Salas, Antonio; Schönherr, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles can be classified into phylogenetic clusters (haplogroups), which is of great relevance for evolutionary, forensic and medical genetics. With the extensive growth of the underlying phylogenetic tree summarizing the published mtDNA sequences, the manual process of haplogroup classification would be too time-consuming. The previously published classification tool HaploGrep provided an automatic way to address this issue. Here, we present the completely updated version HaploGrep 2 offering several advanced features, including a generic rule-based system for immediate quality control (QC). This allows detecting artificial recombinants and missing variants as well as annotating rare and phantom mutations. Furthermore, the handling of high-throughput data in form of VCF files is now directly supported. For data output, several graphical reports are generated in real time, such as a multiple sequence alignment format, a VCF format and extended haplogroup QC reports, all viewable directly within the application. In addition, HaploGrep 2 generates a publication-ready phylogenetic tree of all input samples encoded relative to the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence. Finally, new distance measures and optimizations of the algorithm increase accuracy and speed-up the application. HaploGrep 2 can be accessed freely and without any registration at http://haplogrep.uibk.ac.at. PMID:27084951

  2. Evaluation of Y chromosomal SNP haplogrouping in the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Eriko; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Kakimoto, Yu; Satoh, Fumiko; Nakatome, Masato; Miyashita, Keiko; Osawa, Motoki

    2016-09-01

    The Y chromosomal haplogroup determined from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) combinations is a valuable genetic marker to study ancestral male lineage and ethical distribution. Next-generation sequencing has been developed for widely diverse genetics fields. For this study, we demonstrate 34 Y-SNP typing employing the Ion PGM™ system to perform haplogrouping. DNA libraries were constructed using the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel. Emulsion PCR was performed, then DNA sequences were analyzed on the Ion 314 and 316 Chip Kit v2. Some difficulties became apparent during the analytic processes. No-call was reported at rs2032599 and M479 in six samples, in which the least coverage was observed at M479. A minor misreading occurred at rs2032631 and M479. A real time PCR experiment using other pairs of oligonucleotide primers showed that these events might result from the flanking sequence. Finally, Y haplogroup was determined completely for 81 unrelated males including Japanese (n=59) and Malay (n=22) subjects. The allelic divergence differed between the two populations. In comparison with the conventional Sanger method, next-generation sequencing provides a comprehensive SNP analysis with convenient procedures, but further system improvement is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of the Y-Chromosome Haplogroups Within a Recently Settled Turkish Population in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Serkan; Doğan, Gŭlşen; Ašić, Adna; Besić, Larisa; Klimenta, Biljana; Hukić, Mirsada; Turan, Yusuf; Primorac, Dragan; Marjanović, Damir

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroup distribution is widely used when investigating geographical clustering of different populations, which is why it plays an important role in population genetics, human migration patterns and even in forensic investigations. Individual determination of these haplogroups is mostly based on the analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located in the non-recombining part of Y-chromosome (NRY). On the other hand, the number of forensic and anthropology studies investigating short tandem repeats on the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs) increases rapidly every year. During the last few years, these markers have been successfully used as haplogroup prediction methods, which is why they have been used in this study. Previously obtained Y-STR haplotypes (23 loci) from 100 unrelated Turkish males recently settled in Sarajevo were used for the determination of haplogroups via 'Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor' software. The Bayesian probability of 90 of the studied haplotypes is greater than 92.2% and ranges from 51.4% to 84.3% for the remaining 10 haplotypes. A distribution of 17 different haplogroups was found, with the Y- haplogroup J2a being most prevalent, having been found in 26% of all the samples, whereas R1b, G2a and R1a were less prevalent, covering a range of 10% to 15% of all the samples. Together, these four haplogroups account for 63% of all Y-chromosomes. Eleven haplogroups (E1b1b, G1, I1, I2a, I2b, J1, J2b, L, Q, R2, and T) range from 2% to 5%, while E1b1a and N are found in 1% of all samples. Obtained results indicate that a large majority of the Turkish paternal line belongs to West Asia, Europe Caucasus, Western Europe, Northeast Europe, Middle East, Russia, Anatolia, and Black Sea Y-chromosome lineages. As the distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroups is consistent with the previously published data for the Turkish population residing in Turkey, it was concluded that the analyzed population could also be recognized as

  4. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups and serum levels of anti-oxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Moreno Mercedes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress play a main role in the initiation and progression of the OA disease and leads to the degeneration of mitochondria. To prevent this, the chondrocytes possess a well-coordinated enzymatic antioxidant system. Besides, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroups are associated with the OA disease. Thus, the main goal of this work is to assess the incidence of the mtDNA haplogroups on serum levels of two of the main antioxidant enzymes, Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (Mn-SOD or SOD2 and catalase, and to test the suitability of these two proteins for potential OA-related biomarkers. Methods We analyzed the serum levels of SOD2 and catalase in 73 OA patients and 77 healthy controls carrying the haplogroups J, U and H, by ELISA assay. Knee and hip radiographs were classified according to Kellgren and Lawrence (K/L scoring from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed to test the effects of clinical variables, including gender, body mass index (BMI, age, smoking status, diagnosis, haplogroups and radiologic K/L grade on serum levels of these enzymes. Results Serum levels of SOD2 appeared statistically increased in OA patients when compared with healthy controls (p Conclusions The increased levels of SOD2 in OA patients indicate an increased oxidative stress OA-related, therefore this antioxidant enzyme could be a suitable candidate biomarker for diagnosis of OA. Mitochondrial haplogroups significantly correlates with serum levels of catalase

  5. Mutation rate switch inside Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups: impact of selection and consequences for dating settlement in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pierron

    Full Text Available R-lineage mitochondrial DNA represents over 90% of the European population and is significantly present all around the planet (North Africa, Asia, Oceania, and America. This lineage played a major role in migration "out of Africa" and colonization in Europe. In order to determine an accurate dating of the R lineage and its sublineages, we analyzed 1173 individuals and complete mtDNA sequences from Mitomap. This analysis revealed a new coalescence age for R at 54.500 years, as well as several limitations of standard dating methods, likely to lead to false interpretations. These findings highlight the association of a striking under-accumulation of synonymous mutations, an over-accumulation of non-synonymous mutations, and the phenotypic effect on haplogroup J. Consequently, haplogroup J is apparently not a Neolithic group but an older haplogroup (Paleolithic that was subjected to an underestimated selective force. These findings also indicated an under-accumulation of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations localized on coding and non-coding (HVS1 sequences for haplogroup R0, which contains the major haplogroups H and V. These new dates are likely to impact the present colonization model for Europe and confirm the late glacial resettlement scenario.

  6. Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sakshi; Singh, Ashish; Rajkumar, Raja; Sampath Kumar, Katakam; Kadarkarai Samy, Subburaj; Nizamuddin, Sheikh; Singh, Amita; Ahmed Sheikh, Shahnawaz; Peddada, Vidya; Khanna, Vinee; Veeraiah, Pandichelvam; Pandit, Aridaman; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2016-01-01

    The global distribution of J2-M172 sub-haplogroups has been associated with Neolithic demic diffusion. Two branches of J2-M172, J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 make a considerable part of Y chromosome gene pool of the Indian subcontinent. We investigated the Neolithic contribution of demic dispersal from West to Indian paternal lineages, which majorly consists of haplogroups of Late Pleistocene ancestry. To accomplish this, we have analysed 3023 Y-chromosomes from different ethnic populations, of which 355 belonged to J2-M172. Comparison of our data with worldwide data, including Y-STRs of 1157 individuals and haplogroup frequencies of 6966 individuals, suggested a complex scenario that cannot be explained by a single wave of agricultural expansion from Near East to South Asia. Contrary to the widely accepted elite dominance model, we found a substantial presence of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups in both caste and tribal populations of India. Unlike demic spread in Eurasia, our results advocate a unique, complex and ancient arrival of J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 haplogroups into Indian subcontinent. PMID:26754573

  7. Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by Y chromosome haplogroup O3a1c-002611

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Chao WANG; Shi YAN; Zhen-Dong QIN; Yan LU; Qi-Liang DING; Lan-Hai WEI; Shi-Lin LI

    2013-01-01

    Y chromosome haplogroup O3-M122 is the most prevalent haplogroup in East Asia,and provides an ideal tool for dissecting primary dispersals of the East Asians.Most of the sub-haplogroups of O3-M122 have been sufficiently investigated except for O3al c-002611,despite its great prevalence and huge population,especially in Han Chinese.In this study,we identified 508 individuals with haplogroup O3 a 1 c-002611 out of 7801 males from 117 East and Southeast Asian populations,typed at two newly discovered downstream Y-SNP markers and ten commonly used Y-STRs.Defined by SNPs IMS-JST002611 (in short,002611),F11,and F238,three lineages internal to haplogroup O3alc-002611 have distinct geographical distributions.Furthermore,Y-STR diversity shows a general south-tonorth decline,which is consistent with the prehistorically northward migration of the other O3-M122 lineages.The northward migration ofhaplogroup O3alc-002611 started about 13 thousand years ago (KYA).The expansions of subclades F11 and F238 in ancient Han Chinese began about 5 and 7 KYA immediately after the separation between the ancestors of the Han Chinese and Tibeto-Burman.

  8. The other genome: a systematic review of studies of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and outcomes of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Anna B; Samuels, David C; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity is implicated in some treatment-limiting antiretroviral therapy complications, and reports of mitochondrial dysfunction in untreated HIV infection suggest antiretroviral therapy independent effects of HIV. Several studies have explored associations between mtDNA haplogroups (patterns of mtDNA polymorphisms) and outcomes of HIV infection and/or antiretroviral therapy, but findings have been inconsistent. We systematically reviewed published studies examining mtDNA haplogroups in HIV-infected persons to summarize reported outcome associations, and to highlight potential future research directions. We identified 21 articles published from 2005-2013. Multiple different phenotypes were studied; most were antiretroviral therapy associated metabolic outcomes (e.g. lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia). Haplogroup H was associated with the most outcomes, including AIDS progression, CD4 T-cell recovery, cirrhosis (in hepatitis C coinfection), and metabolic outcomes. This review is the first to focus on the emerging area of mtDNA haplogroups in HIV, and summarizes the published literature on associations between mtDNA haplogroups and clinical outcomes in populations of European and African descent. Several reported associations require replication and ideally biological verification before definitive conclusions can be drawn, but research in this area has the potential to explain outcome disparities and impact clinical management of patients.

  9. Maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA variants in familial Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Ronald F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial function is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD and may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD, but the causes of mitochondrial impairment in PD are unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recapitulated in cell lines expressing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA from PD patients, implicating mtDNA variants or mutations, though the role of mtDNA variants or mutations in PD risk remains unclear. We investigated the potential contribution of mtDNA variants or mutations to the risk of PD. Methods We examined the possibility of a maternal inheritance bias as well as the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and maternal inheritance and disease risk in a case-control study of 168 multiplex PD families in which the proband and one parent were diagnosed with PD. 2-tailed Fisher Exact Tests and McNemar's tests were used to compare allele frequencies, and a t-test to compare ages of onset. Results The frequency of affected mothers of the proband with PD (83/167, 49.4% was not significantly different from the frequency of affected females of the proband generation (115/259, 44.4% (Odds Ratio 1.22; 95%CI 0.83 - 1.81. After correcting for multiple tests, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroups or of the 10398G complex I gene polymorphism in PD patients compared to controls, and no significant associations with age of onset of PD. Mitochondrial haplogroup and 10398G polymorphism frequencies were similar in probands having an affected father as compared to probands having an affected mother. Conclusions These data fail to demonstrate a bias towards maternal inheritance in familial PD. Consistent with this, we find no association of common haplogroup-defining mtDNA variants or for the 10398G variant with the risk of PD. However, these data do not exclude a role for mtDNA variants in other populations, and it remains possible that other inherited mitochondrial DNA variants, or somatic m

  10. Association between Y haplogroups and autosomal AIMs reveals intra-population substructure in Bolivian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Carlos; Gomes, Verónica; Romanini, Carola; Oliveira, Andréa M; Rocabado, Omar; Aquino, Juliana; Amorim, António; Gusmão, Leonor

    2015-07-01

    For the correct evaluation of the weight of genetic evidence in a forensic context, databases must reflect the structure of the population, with all possible groups being represented. Countries with a recent history of admixture between strongly differentiated populations are usually highly heterogeneous and sub-structured. Bolivia is one of these countries, with a high diversity of ethnic groups and different levels of admixture (among Native Americans, Europeans and Africans) across the territory. For a better characterization of the male lineages in Bolivia, 17 Y-STR and 42 Y-SNP loci were genotyped in samples from La Paz and Chuquisaca. Only European and Native American Y-haplogroups were detected, and no sub-Saharan African chromosomes were found. Significant differences were observed between the two samples, with a higher frequency of European lineages in Chuquisaca than in La Paz. A sample belonging to haplogroup Q1a3a1a1-M19 was detected in La Paz, in a haplotype background different from those previously found in Argentina. This result supports an old M19 North-south dispersion in South America, possibly via two routes. When comparing the ancestry of each individual assessed through his Y chromosome with the one estimated using autosomal AIMs, (a) increased European ancestry in individuals with European Y chromosomes and (b) higher Native American ancestry in the carriers of Native American Y-haplogroups were observed, revealing an association between autosomal and Y-chromosomal markers. The results of this study demonstrate that a sub-structure does exist in Bolivia at both inter- and intrapopulation levels, a fact which must be taken into account in the evaluation of forensic genetic evidence.

  11. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  12. Respiratory function in cybrid cell lines carrying European mtDNA haplogroups: implications for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Valerio; Vergani, Lodovica; Bernazzi, Barbara; Zampieron, Claudia; Bucchi, Laura; Valentino, Maria; Rengo, Chiara; Torroni, Antonio; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2002-10-09

    The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable differences in multiple parameters exploring respiratory function were observed when mtDNAs belonging to European haplogroups X, H, T and J were used. Different possible explanations for the previously established association between haplogroup J and LHON 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 pathogenic mutations are discussed, including the unconventional proposal that mtDNA haplogroup J may exert a protective rather than detrimental effect.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and type 2 diabetes: a study of 897 cases and 1010 controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, P F; Mowbray, C; Patel, S K; Elson, J L; Sampson, M; Hitman, G A; McCarthy, M I; Hattersley, A T; Walker, M

    2007-06-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in the secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells, and pathogenic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can cause diabetes. The aetiology of type 2 diabetes has a strong genetic component, raising the possibility that genetic variants of mtDNA alter the risk of developing the disorder. Recent studies have produced conflicting results. By studying 897 UK cases of type 2 diabetes and 1010 population-matched controls, it is shown that European mtDNA haplogroups are unlikely to play a major role in the risk of developing the disorder.

  14. Comparison of mtDNA haplogroups in Hungarians with four other European populations: a small incidence of descents with Asian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadasi, Edit; Gyurus, P; Czakó, Márta; Bene, Judit; Kosztolányi, Sz; Fazekas, Sz; Dömösi, P; Melegh, B

    2007-06-01

    Hungarians are unique among the other European populations because according to history, the ancient Magyars had come from the eastern side of the Ural Mountains and settled down in the Carpathian basin in the 9th century AD. Since variations in the human mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) are routinely used to infer the histories of different populations, we examined the distribution of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of the mtDNA in apparently healthy, unrelated Hungarian subjects in order to collect data on the genetic origin of the Hungarian population. Among the 55 samples analyzed, the large majority belonged to haplogroups common in other European populations, however, three samples fulfilled the requirements of haplogroup M. Since haplogroup M is classified as a haplogroup characteristic mainly for Asian populations, the presence of haplogroup M found in approximately 5% of the total suggests that an Asian matrilineal ancestry, even if in a small incidence, can be detected among modern Hungarians.

  15. Ensemble learning algorithms for classification of mtDNA into haplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol; Li, Yuran; Lee, Chih; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2011-01-01

    Classification of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into their respective haplogroups allows the addressing of various anthropologic and forensic issues. Unique to mtDNA is its abundance and non-recombining uni-parental mode of inheritance; consequently, mutations are the only changes observed in the genetic material. These individual mutations are classified into their cladistic haplogroups allowing the tracing of different genetic branch points in human (and other organisms) evolution. Due to the large number of samples, it becomes necessary to automate the classification process. Using 5-fold cross-validation, we investigated two classification techniques on the consented database of 21 141 samples published by the Genographic project. The support vector machines (SVM) algorithm achieved a macro-accuracy of 88.06% and micro-accuracy of 96.59%, while the random forest (RF) algorithm achieved a macro-accuracy of 87.35% and micro-accuracy of 96.19%. In addition to being faster and more memory-economic in making predictions, SVM and RF are better than or comparable to the nearest-neighbor method employed by the Genographic project in terms of prediction accuracy.

  16. The peopling of Europe from the mitochondrial haplogroup U5 perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Malyarchuk

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that the most ancient European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5, has evolved essentially in Europe. To resolve the phylogeny of this haplogroup, we completely sequenced 113 mitochondrial genomes (79 U5a and 34 U5b of central and eastern Europeans (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Russians and Belorussians, and reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree, that incorporates previously published data. Molecular dating suggests that the coalescence time estimate for the U5 is approximately 25-30 thousand years (ky, and approximately 16-20 and approximately 20-24 ky for its subhaplogroups U5a and U5b, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis reveals that expansions of U5 subclusters started earlier in central and southern Europe, than in eastern Europe. In addition, during the Last Glacial Maximum central Europe (probably, the Carpathian Basin apparently represented the area of intermingling between human flows from refugial zones in the Balkans, the Mediterranean coastline and the Pyrenees. Age estimations amounting for many U5 subclusters in eastern Europeans to approximately 15 ky ago and less are consistent with the view that during the Ice Age eastern Europe was an inhospitable place for modern humans.

  17. The peopling of Europe from the mitochondrial haplogroup U5 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Perkova, Maria; Rogalla, Urszula; Vanecek, Tomas; Tsybovsky, Iosif

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the most ancient European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5, has evolved essentially in Europe. To resolve the phylogeny of this haplogroup, we completely sequenced 113 mitochondrial genomes (79 U5a and 34 U5b) of central and eastern Europeans (Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Russians and Belorussians), and reconstructed a detailed phylogenetic tree, that incorporates previously published data. Molecular dating suggests that the coalescence time estimate for the U5 is approximately 25-30 thousand years (ky), and approximately 16-20 and approximately 20-24 ky for its subhaplogroups U5a and U5b, respectively. Phylogeographic analysis reveals that expansions of U5 subclusters started earlier in central and southern Europe, than in eastern Europe. In addition, during the Last Glacial Maximum central Europe (probably, the Carpathian Basin) apparently represented the area of intermingling between human flows from refugial zones in the Balkans, the Mediterranean coastline and the Pyrenees. Age estimations amounting for many U5 subclusters in eastern Europeans to approximately 15 ky ago and less are consistent with the view that during the Ice Age eastern Europe was an inhospitable place for modern humans.

  18. Y-STR Haplogroup Diversity in the Jat Population Reveals Several Different Ancient Origins

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    David G. Mahal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity with several other ethnic communities in the Indian subcontinent. A startling new assessment of the genetic ancient origins of these people was revealed with DNA science.

  19. Mitochondrial haplogroups - Ischemic cardiovascular disease, other diseases, mortality, and longevity in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M.; Schwartz, M.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    from other causes, mortality, and longevity in a general population of European descent. Methods and Results-We followed 9254 individuals from the Danish general population, in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, prospectively for risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease, morbidity from other causes......, and mortality during 25 and 11 years, respectively. Haplogroup frequencies were as follows: H (45.9%), U (15.9%), T (9.9%), J (9.1), K (6.2%), V (4.5%), W/I (3.8%), and Z (3.5%). Hazard ratios for hospitalization due to all cardiovascular disorders (haplogroup U: 1.0 [95% confidence interval{CI}, 0.9 to 1.1]; T......: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.0]; J: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.1]; K: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; V: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; W/I: 0.8 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0]; Z: 1.0 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.2(), ischemic heart disease (U: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.8 to 1.1]; T: 0.9 [95% CI, 0.7 to 1.0]; J: 1.1 [95% CI, 0.9 to 1.2]; K: 1.1 [95% CI...

  20. Relationship between seasonal cold acclimatization and mtDNA haplogroup in Japanese

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    Nishimura Takayuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate the interaction between mtDNA haplogroup and seasonal variation that contributes to cold adaptation. Methods There were 15 subjects (seven haplotype D subjects and eight haplotype non-D subjects. In summer and winter, the subjects were placed in an environment where the ambient temperature dropped from 27 °C to 10 °C in 30 minutes. After that, they were exposed to cold for 60 minutes. Results In summer, the decrease in rectal temperature and increase in oxygen consumption was smaller and cold tolerance was higher in the haplotype non-D group than in the haplotype D group. In winter, no significant differences were seen in rectal temperature or oxygen consumption, but the respiratory exchange ratio decreased in the haplotype D group. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that haplogroup D subjects are a group that changes energy metabolism more, and there appears to be a relationship between differences in cold adaptability and mtDNA polymorphism within the population. Moreover, group differences in cold adaptability seen in summer may decrease in winter due to supplementation by seasonal cold acclimatization.

  1. Low penetrance of the 14484 LHON mutation when it arises in a non-haplogroup J mtDNA background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Neil; Herrnstadt, Corinna; Shults, Cliff; Mackey, David A

    2003-06-01

    The penetrance in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) pedigrees is determined primarily by a mutation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), but secondary factors are also necessary for manifestation of the disorder. It has been proposed that mtDNA polymorphisms affect penetrance in LHON pedigrees. In particular, it has been postulated that one or more polymorphisms associated with European haplogroup J mtDNAs substantially increase the penetrance of the primary LHON mutation at nucleotide 14484. We report here a haplogroup H matrilineal pedigree (VIC14) in which the single affected member carries the 14484 LHON mutation, but who manifested a milder and atypical optic nerve disorder. In addition, during a population screen, we identified an individual who carried the 14484 mutation but who had normal vision. Finally, the 14484 mutation is under-represented among haplogroup H mtDNAs that carry a LHON mutation. These results, in conjunction with other studies that are reviewed, indicate that 14484 LHON mutations have a low penetrance when they arise in a haplogroup H mtDNA background.

  2. Phases and geometry of the N=1 A_2 quiver gauge theory and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Casero, R; Casero, Roberto; Trincherini, Enrico

    2003-01-01

    We study the phases and geometry of the N=1 A_2 quiver gauge theory using matrix models and a generalized Konishi anomaly. We consider the theory both in the Coulomb and Higgs phases. Solving the anomaly equations, we find that a meromorphic one-form sigma(z)dz is naturally defined on the curve Sigma associated to the theory. Using the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture, we evaluate the effective low-energy superpotential and demonstrate that its equations of motion can be translated into a geometric property of Sigma: sigma(z)dz has integer periods around all compact cycles. This ensures that there exists on Sigma a meromorphic function whose logarithm sigma(z)dz is the differential. We argue that the surface determined by this function is the N=2 Seiberg-Witten curve of the theory.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups confer differences in risk for age-related macular degeneration: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenney M Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of vision loss in elderly, Caucasian populations. There is strong evidence that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in the cell death found in AMD retinas. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of the Caucasian mitochondrial JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD. We also assessed for gender bias and additive risk with known high risk nuclear gene SNPs, ARMS2/LOC387715 (G > T; Ala69Ser, rs10490924 and CFH (T > C; Try402His, rs1061170. Methods Total DNA was isolated from 162 AMD subjects and 164 age-matched control subjects located in Los Angeles, California, USA. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction enzyme digestion were used to identify the J, U, T, and H mitochondrial haplogroups and the ARMS2-rs10490924 and CFH-rs1061170 SNPs. PCR amplified products were sequenced to verify the nucleotide substitutions for the haplogroups and ARMS2 gene. Results The JTU haplogroup cluster occurred in 34% (55/162 of AMD subjects versus 15% (24/164 of normal (OR = 2.99; p = 0.0001. This association was slightly greater in males (OR = 3.98, p = 0.005 than the female population (OR = 3.02, p = 0.001. Assuming a dominant effect, the risk alleles for the ARMS2 (rs10490924; p = 0.00001 and CFH (rs1061170; p = 0.027 SNPs were significantly associated with total AMD populations. We found there was no additive risk for the ARMS2 (rs10490924 or CFH (rs1061170 SNPs on the JTU haplogroup background. Conclusions There is a strong association of the JTU haplogroup cluster with AMD. In our Southern California population, the ARMS2 (rs10490924 and CFH (rs1061170 genes were significantly but independently associated with AMD. SNPs defining the JTU mitochondrial haplogroup cluster may change the retinal bioenergetics and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup A Decreases the Risk of Drug Addiction but Conversely Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Infection in Chinese Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A-Mei; Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Feng-Liang; Bi, Rui; Yang, Bi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Hao; Logan, Ian; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction is one of the most serious social problems in the world today and addicts are always at a high risk of acquiring HIV infection. Mitochondrial impairment has been reported in both drug addicts and in HIV patients undergoing treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup could affect the risk of drug addiction and HIV-1 infection in Chinese. We analyzed mtDNA sequence variations of 577 Chinese intravenous drug addicts (289 with HIV-1 infection and 288 without) and compared with 2 control populations (n = 362 and n = 850). We quantified the viral load in HIV-1-infected patients with and without haplogroup A status and investigated the potential effect of haplogroup A defining variants m.4824A > G and m.8794C > T on the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by using an allotopic expression assay. mtDNA haplogroup A had a protective effect against drug addiction but appeared to confer an increased risk of HIV infection in addicts. HIV-1-infected addicts with haplogroup A had a trend for a higher viral load, although the mean viral load was similar between carriers of haplogroup A and those with other haplogroup. Hela cells overexpressing allele m.8794 T showed significantly decreased ROS levels as compared to cells with the allele m.8794C (P = 0.03). Our results suggested that mtDNA haplogroup A might protect against drug addiction but increase the risk of HIV-1 infection. The contradictory role of haplogroup A might be caused by an alteration in mitochondrial function due to a particular mtDNA ancestral variant.

  5. Maternal Guilt

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    Anna Rotkirch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emphasis on humans as cooperative breeders invites new research on human family dynamics. In this paper we look at maternal guilt as a consequence of conditional maternal investment. Solicited texts written by Finnish mothers with under school-aged children in 2007 (n = 63 described maternal emotions perceived as difficult and forbidden. Content analysis of guilt-inducing situations showed that guilt arose from diverging interest and negotiations between the mother and child (i.e., classic parent-offspring conflict. Also cultural expectations of extensive and perpetual high-quality maternal investment or the “motherhood myth” induced guilt in mothers. We argue that guilt plays an important role in maternal-investment regulation. Maternal guilt is predicted to vary with social and cultural context but also to show universal characteristics due to parent-offspring conflict and allomaternal manipulation. Results are preliminary and intended to stimulate research into the mechanisms, gender differences and cultural variations of guilt and other social emotions in human parenting.

  6. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b

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    Wang Wen-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. Results A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Conclusions Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s. The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  7. Inland post-glacial dispersal in East Asia revealed by mitochondrial haplogroup M9a'b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min-Sheng; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Yao, Yong-Gang; Mitra, Bikash; Cheng, Yao-Ting; Zhao, Mian; Liu, Jia; Wang, Hua-Wei; Pan, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Dong; Zou, Yang; Yang, Yang; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Kong, Qing-Peng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-10

    Archaeological studies have revealed a series of cultural changes around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Asia; whether these changes left any signatures in the gene pool of East Asians remains poorly indicated. To achieve deeper insights into the demographic history of modern humans in East Asia around the Last Glacial Maximum, we extensively analyzed mitochondrial DNA haplogroup M9a'b, a specific haplogroup that was suggested to have some potential for tracing the migration around the Last Glacial Maximum in East Eurasia. A total of 837 M9a'b mitochondrial DNAs (583 from the literature, while the remaining 254 were newly collected in this study) pinpointed from over 28,000 subjects residing across East Eurasia were studied here. Fifty-nine representative samples were further selected for total mitochondrial DNA sequencing so we could better understand the phylogeny within M9a'b. Based on the updated phylogeny, an extensive phylogeographic analysis was carried out to reveal the differentiation of haplogroup M9a'b and to reconstruct the dispersal histories. Our results indicated that southern China and/or Southeast Asia likely served as the source of some post-Last Glacial Maximum dispersal(s). The detailed dissection of haplogroup M9a'b revealed the existence of an inland dispersal in mainland East Asia during the post-glacial period. It was this dispersal that expanded not only to western China but also to northeast India and the south Himalaya region. A similar phylogeographic distribution pattern was also observed for haplogroup F1c, thus substantiating our proposition. This inland post-glacial dispersal was in agreement with the spread of the Mesolithic culture originating in South China and northern Vietnam.

  8. The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1* substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Rai, Ekta; Sharma, Prithviraj; Jena, Mamata; Singh, Shweta; Darvishi, Katayoon; Bhat, Audesh K; Bhanwer, A J S; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2009-01-01

    Many major rival models of the origin of the Hindu caste system co-exist despite extensive studies, each with associated genetic evidences. One of the major factors that has still kept the origin of the Indian caste system obscure is the unresolved question of the origin of Y-haplogroup R1a1*, at times associated with a male-mediated major genetic influx from Central Asia or Eurasia, which has contributed to the higher castes in India. Y-haplogroup R1a1* has a widespread distribution and high frequency across Eurasia, Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, with scanty reports of its ancestral (R*, R1* and R1a*) and derived lineages (R1a1a, R1a1b and R1a1c). To resolve these issues, we screened 621 Y-chromosomes (of Brahmins occupying the upper-most caste position and schedule castes/tribals occupying the lower-most positions) with 55 Y-chromosomal binary markers and seven Y-microsatellite markers and compiled an extensive dataset of 2809 Y-chromosomes (681 Brahmins, and 2128 tribals and schedule castes) for conclusions. A peculiar observation of the highest frequency (up to 72.22%) of Y-haplogroup R1a1* in Brahmins hinted at its presence as a founder lineage for this caste group. Further, observation of R1a1* in different tribal population groups, existence of Y-haplogroup R1a* in ancestors and extended phylogenetic analyses of the pooled dataset of 530 Indians, 224 Pakistanis and 276 Central Asians and Eurasians bearing the R1a1* haplogroup supported the autochthonous origin of R1a1 lineage in India and a tribal link to Indian Brahmins. However, it is important to discover novel Y-chromosomal binary marker(s) for a higher resolution of R1a1* and confirm the present conclusions.

  9. Phylogeography of mtDNA haplogroup R7 in the Indian peninsula

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    Shukla Parul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human genetic diversity observed in Indian subcontinent is second only to that of Africa. This implies an early settlement and demographic growth soon after the first 'Out-of-Africa' dispersal of anatomically modern humans in Late Pleistocene. In contrast to this perspective, linguistic diversity in India has been thought to derive from more recent population movements and episodes of contact. With the exception of Dravidian, which origin and relatedness to other language phyla is obscure, all the language families in India can be linked to language families spoken in different regions of Eurasia. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome evidence has supported largely local evolution of the genetic lineages of the majority of Dravidian and Indo-European speaking populations, but there is no consensus yet on the question of whether the Munda (Austro-Asiatic speaking populations originated in India or derive from a relatively recent migration from further East. Results Here, we report the analysis of 35 novel complete mtDNA sequences from India which refine the structure of Indian-specific varieties of haplogroup R. Detailed analysis of haplogroup R7, coupled with a survey of ~12,000 mtDNAs from caste and tribal groups over the entire Indian subcontinent, reveals that one of its more recently derived branches (R7a1, is particularly frequent among Munda-speaking tribal groups. This branch is nested within diverse R7 lineages found among Dravidian and Indo-European speakers of India. We have inferred from this that a subset of Munda-speaking groups have acquired R7 relatively recently. Furthermore, we find that the distribution of R7a1 within the Munda-speakers is largely restricted to one of the sub-branches (Kherwari of northern Munda languages. This evidence does not support the hypothesis that the Austro-Asiatic speakers are the primary source of the R7 variation. Statistical analyses suggest a significant correlation between

  10. The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro; Alshamali, Farida; Pereira, Joana B; Fernandes, Verónica; Silva, Nuno M; Afonso, Carla; Costa, Marta D; Musilová, Eliska; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa

    2012-03-01

    Although fossil remains show that anatomically modern humans dispersed out of Africa into the Near East ∼100 to 130 ka, genetic evidence from extant populations has suggested that non-Africans descend primarily from a single successful later migration. Within the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tree, haplogroup L3 encompasses not only many sub-Saharan Africans but also all ancient non-African lineages, and its age therefore provides an upper bound for the dispersal out of Africa. An analysis of 369 complete African L3 sequences places this maximum at ∼70 ka, virtually ruling out a successful exit before 74 ka, the date of the Toba volcanic supereruption in Sumatra. The similarity of the age of L3 to its two non-African daughter haplogroups, M and N, suggests that the same process was likely responsible for both the L3 expansion in Eastern Africa and the dispersal of a small group of modern humans out of Africa to settle the rest of the world. The timing of the expansion of L3 suggests a link to improved climatic conditions after ∼70 ka in Eastern and Central Africa rather than to symbolically mediated behavior, which evidently arose considerably earlier. The L3 mtDNA pool within Africa suggests a migration from Eastern Africa to Central Africa ∼60 to 35 ka and major migrations in the immediate postglacial again linked to climate. The largest population size increase seen in the L3 data is 3-4 ka in Central Africa, corresponding to Bantu expansions, leading diverse L3 lineages to spread into Eastern and Southern Africa in the last 3-2 ka.

  11. Population expansion in the North African late Pleistocene signalled by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Silva, Nuno M; Franco-Duarte, Ricardo; Fernandes, Verónica; Pereira, Joana B; Costa, Marta D; Martins, Haidé; Soares, Pedro; Behar, Doron M; Richards, Martin B; Macaulay, Vincent

    2010-12-21

    The archaeology of North Africa remains enigmatic, with questions of population continuity versus discontinuity taking centre-stage. Debates have focused on population transitions between the bearers of the Middle Palaeolithic Aterian industry and the later Upper Palaeolithic populations of the Maghreb, as well as between the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Improved resolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup U6 phylogeny, by the screening of 39 new complete sequences, has enabled us to infer a signal of moderate population expansion using Bayesian coalescent methods. To ascertain the time for this expansion, we applied both a mutation rate accounting for purifying selection and one with an internal calibration based on four approximate archaeological dates: the settlement of the Canary Islands, the settlement of Sardinia and its internal population re-expansion, and the split between haplogroups U5 and U6 around the time of the first modern human settlement of the Near East. A Bayesian skyline plot placed the main expansion in the time frame of the Late Pleistocene, around 20 ka, and spatial smoothing techniques suggested that the most probable geographic region for this demographic event was to the west of North Africa. A comparison with U6's European sister clade, U5, revealed a stronger population expansion at around this time in Europe. Also in contrast with U5, a weak signal of a recent population expansion in the last 5,000 years was observed in North Africa, pointing to a moderate impact of the late Neolithic on the local population size of the southern Mediterranean coast.

  12. Population expansion in the North African Late Pleistocene signalled by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U6

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    Costa Marta D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The archaeology of North Africa remains enigmatic, with questions of population continuity versus discontinuity taking centre-stage. Debates have focused on population transitions between the bearers of the Middle Palaeolithic Aterian industry and the later Upper Palaeolithic populations of the Maghreb, as well as between the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Results Improved resolution of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup U6 phylogeny, by the screening of 39 new complete sequences, has enabled us to infer a signal of moderate population expansion using Bayesian coalescent methods. To ascertain the time for this expansion, we applied both a mutation rate accounting for purifying selection and one with an internal calibration based on four approximate archaeological dates: the settlement of the Canary Islands, the settlement of Sardinia and its internal population re-expansion, and the split between haplogroups U5 and U6 around the time of the first modern human settlement of the Near East. Conclusions A Bayesian skyline plot placed the main expansion in the time frame of the Late Pleistocene, around 20 ka, and spatial smoothing techniques suggested that the most probable geographic region for this demographic event was to the west of North Africa. A comparison with U6's European sister clade, U5, revealed a stronger population expansion at around this time in Europe. Also in contrast with U5, a weak signal of a recent population expansion in the last 5,000 years was observed in North Africa, pointing to a moderate impact of the late Neolithic on the local population size of the southern Mediterranean coast.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup D4a is a marker for extreme longevity in Japan.

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    Erhan Bilal

    Full Text Available We report results from the analysis of complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences from 112 Japanese semi-supercentenarians (aged above 105 years combined with previously published data from 96 patients in each of three non-disease phenotypes: centenarians (99-105 years of age, healthy non-obese males, obese young males and four disease phenotypes, diabetics with and without angiopathy, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease patients. We analyze the correlation between mitochondrial polymorphisms and the longevity phenotype using two different methods. We first use an exhaustive algorithm to identify all maximal patterns of polymorphisms shared by at least five individuals and define a significance score for enrichment of the patterns in each phenotype relative to healthy normals. Our study confirms the correlations observed in a previous study showing enrichment of a hierarchy of haplogroups in the D clade for longevity. For the extreme longevity phenotype we see a single statistically significant signal: a progressive enrichment of certain "beneficial" patterns in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians in the D4a haplogroup. We then use Principal Component Spectral Analysis of the SNP-SNP Covariance Matrix to compare the measured eigenvalues to a Null distribution of eigenvalues on Gaussian datasets to determine whether the correlations in the data (due to longevity arises from some property of the mutations themselves or whether they are due to population structure. The conclusion is that the correlations are entirely due to population structure (phylogenetic tree. We find no signal for a functional mtDNA SNP correlated with longevity. The fact that the correlations are from the population structure suggests that hitch-hiking on autosomal events is a possible explanation for the observed correlations.

  14. Mitochondrial genomic analysis of late onset Alzheimer's disease reveals protective haplogroups H6A1A/H6A1B: the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging.

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    Perry G Ridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common cause of dementia and AD risk clusters within families. Part of the familial aggregation of AD is accounted for by excess maternal vs. paternal inheritance, a pattern consistent with mitochondrial inheritance. The role of specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variants and haplogroups in AD risk is uncertain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 1007 participants in the Cache County Study on Memory in Aging, a population-based prospective cohort study of dementia in northern Utah. AD diagnoses were made with a multi-stage protocol that included clinical examination and review by a panel of clinical experts. We used TreeScanning, a statistically robust approach based on haplotype networks, to analyze the mtDNA sequence data. Participants with major mitochondrial haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B showed a reduced risk of AD (p=0.017, corrected for multiple comparisons. The protective haplotypes were defined by three variants: m.3915G>A, m.4727A>G, and m.9380G>A. These three variants characterize two different major haplogroups. Together m.4727A>G and m.9380G>A define H6A1, and it has been suggested m.3915G>A defines H6A. Additional variants differentiate H6A1A and H6A1B; however, none of these variants had a significant relationship with AD case-control status. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings provide evidence of a reduced risk of AD for individuals with mtDNA haplotypes H6A1A and H6A1B. These findings are the results of the largest study to date with complete mtDNA genome sequence data, yet the functional significance of the associated haplotypes remains unknown and replication in others studies is necessary.

  15. Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution in the Tuzla Canton of Bosnia and Herzegovina: A concordance study using four different in silico assignment algorithms based on Y-STR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, S; Babic, N; Gurkan, C; Goksu, A; Marjanovic, D; Hadziavdic, V

    2016-12-01

    Y-chromosomal haplogroups are sets of ancestrally related paternal lineages, traditionally assigned by the use of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphism (Y-SNP) markers. An increasingly popular and a less labor-intensive alternative approach has been Y-chromosomal haplogroup assignment based on already available Y-STR data using a variety of different algorithms. In the present study, such in silico haplogroup assignments were made based on 23-loci Y-STR data for 100 unrelated male individuals from the Tuzla Canton, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) using the following four different algorithms: Whit Athey's Haplogroup Predictor, Jim Cullen's World Haplogroup & Haplogroup-I Subclade Predictor, Vadim Urasin's YPredictor and the NevGen Y-DNA Haplogroup Predictor. Prior in-house assessment of these four different algorithms using a previously published dataset (n=132) from B&H with both Y-STR (12-loci) and Y-SNP data suggested haplogroup misassignment rates between 0.76% and 3.02%. Subsequent analyses with the Tuzla Canton population sample revealed only a few differences in the individual haplogroup assignments when using different algorithms. Nevertheless, the resultant Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution by each method was very similar, where the most prevalent haplogroups observed were I, R and E with their sublineages I2a, R1a and E1b1b, respectively, which is also in accordance with the previously published Y-SNP data for the B&H population. In conclusion, results presented herein not only constitute a concordance study on the four most popular haplogroup assignment algorithms, but they also give a deeper insight into the inter-population differentiation in B&H on the basis of Y haplogroups for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. [The analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and variants for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese families carrying the m.14484T >C mutation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangjuan; Zhu, Jinping; Gao, Min; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Fuxin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Liu, Xiaoling; Wei, Qiping; Tong, Yi; Zhang, Minglian; Qu, Jia; Guan, Minxin

    2014-04-01

    The m.14484T>C mutation in mitochondrial ND6 gene (MT-ND6) is a primary mutation underlying the development of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) , but by itself not enough to cause visual loss. To explore the role of mitochondrial haplogroups on the expression of LHON for the people carrying the m.14484T>C mutation, we performed systematic and extended mutational screening of MT-ND6 gene in a cohort of 1177 Han Chinese patients with LHON. A total of 67 affected subjects carried the homoplasmic m.14484T>C mutation, accounting for 5.7% of this LHON population. The penetrances of optic neuropathy among 51 pedigrees carrying the m.14484T>C mutation ranged from 5.6% to 100.0%, with the average of 21.5%. The sequence analysis of entire mitochondrial genomes of 51 probands exhibited distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to 18 Eastern Asian haplogroups. The frequencies of haplogroup A and haplogroup F were sig-nificantly less in the LHON mtDNA samples than those in 106 Chinese controls. On the other hand, the haplogroup M10a accounted for 9.8% of the patient's mtDNA samples but was absent in 106 Chinese controls. Strikingly, the average pene-trance (46.13%) of optic neuropathy for the pedigrees carrying mitochondrial haplogroup M10a was higher than those car-rying other mtDNA haplogroups. These observations indicated that mitochondrial haplogroup M10a may increase the risk of visual loss.

  17. The last Viking King: a royal maternity case solved by ancient DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Jørgen; Binladen, Jonas; Hansen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Estridsen to haplogroup H; Estrid's sequence differed from that of Sven at two positions in HVR-1, 16093T-->C and 16304T-->C, indicating that she belongs to subgroup H5a. Given the maternal inheritance of mtDNA, offspring will have the same mtDNA sequence as their mother with the exception of rare cases...... (approximately 35 years) at the time of death than the 70 years history records tell. Although the entombed woman cannot be the Estrid, she may well be one of Sven's two daughters-in-law who were also called Estrid and who both became queens....

  18. Two families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy carrying G11778A and T14502C mutations with haplogroup H2a2a1 in mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chen; Wei, Tanwei; Hu, Bo; Peng, Chunyan; Qiu, Xueping; Wei, Li; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial haplogroup has been reported to affect the clinical expression of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between mutations and the haplogroup of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in families. Two unrelated families with LHON were enrolled in the study, and clinical, genetic and molecular characterizations were determined in the affected and unaffected family members. Polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing was performed using 24 pairs of overlapping primers for whole mtDNA to screen for mutations and haplogroup. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to evaluate the pathogenic effect of these mtDNA mutations and the haplogroup. The G11778A mutation was identified in the two families. In addition, the members of family 2 exhibited the T14502C mutation and those in family 1 exhibited the T3394C and T14502C mutations, which were regarded as secondary mutations. The penetrance of visual loss in families 1 and 2 were 30.8 and 33.3%, respectively. In addition, the two families were found to be in the H2a2a1 haplogroup. In this limited sample size, it was demonstrated that the H2a2a1 haplogroup had a possible protective effect against LHON. Additional modifying factors, including environmental factors, lifestyle, estrogen levels and nuclear genes may also be important in LHON.

  19. Rare mtDNA haplogroups and genetic differences in rich and poor Danish Iron-Age villages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, L; Gilbert, M T P; Kivisild, T

    2008-01-01

    individuals from two different types of settlements, Bøgebjerggård and Skovgaarde, in Southern Denmark. Bøgebjerggård (ca. 0 AD) represents the lowest level of free, but poor farmers, whereas Skovgaarde 8 km to the east (ca. 200-270 AD) represents the highest level of the society. Reproducible results were...... obtained for 18 subjects harboring 17 different haplotypes all compatible (in their character states) with the phylogenetic tree drawn from present day populations of Europe. This indicates that the South Scandinavian Roman Iron-Age population was as diverse as Europeans are today. Several...... of the haplogroups (R0a, U2, I) observed in Bøgebjerggård are rare in present day Scandinavians. Most significantly, R0a, harbored by a male, is a haplogroup frequent in East Africa and Arabia but virtually absent among modern Northern Europeans. We suggest that this subject was a soldier or a slave, or a descendant...

  20. New population and phylogenetic features of the internal variation within mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup R0.

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    Vanesa Alvarez-Iglesias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: R0 embraces the most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA lineage in West Eurasia, namely, haplogroup H (approximately 40%. R0 sub-lineages are badly defined in the control region and therefore, the analysis of diagnostic coding region polymorphisms is needed in order to gain resolution in population and medical studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced the first hypervariable segment (HVS-I of 518 individuals from different North Iberian regions. The mtDNAs belonging to R0 (approximately 57% were further genotyped for a set of 71 coding region SNPs characterizing major and minor branches of R0. We found that the North Iberian Peninsula shows moderate levels of population stratification; for instance, haplogroup V reaches the highest frequency in Cantabria (north-central Iberia, but lower in Galicia (northwest Iberia and Catalonia (northeast Iberia. When compared to other European and Middle East populations, haplogroups H1, H3 and H5a show frequency peaks in the Franco-Cantabrian region, declining from West towards the East and South Europe. In addition, we have characterized, by way of complete genome sequencing, a new autochthonous clade of haplogroup H in the Basque country, named H2a5. Its coalescence age, 15.6+/-8 thousand years ago (kya, dates to the period immediately after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to other H lineages that experienced re-expansion outside the Franco-Cantabrian refuge after the LGM (e.g. H1 and H3, H2a5 most likely remained confined to this area till present days.

  1. Maternal phenylketonuria

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    Kristina Štuikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria is a hereditary metabolic disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Elevated phenylalanine levels in a pregnant woman with phenylketonuria result in phenylalanine embryopathy. Failure to follow special diets during gestation results in neonatal dysplasia. More favorable outcomes are observed when phenylalanine levels remain within normal ranges prior to conception, or at least when they reach normal levels by the 4th-10th weeks of gestation. We report the case of a newborn with maternal phenylketonuria.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and haplogroup distribution in Chinese patients with LHON and m.14484T>C.

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    Dandan Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON, MIM 535000 is one of the most common mitochondrial genetic disorders caused by three primary mtDNA mutations (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m. 14484T>C. The clinical expression of LHON is affected by many additional factors, e.g. mtDNA background, nuclear genes, and environmental factors. Hitherto, there is no comprehensive study of Chinese LHON patients with m.14484T>C. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we analyzed the mtDNA sequence variations and haplogroup distribution pattern of the largest number of Chinese LHON patients with m.14484T>C to date. We first determined the complete mtDNA sequences in eleven LHON probands with m.14484T>C, to discern the potentially pathogenic mutations that co-segregate with m.14484T>C. We then dissected the matrilineal structure of 52 patients with m.14484T>C (including 14 from unrelated families and 38 sporadic cases and compared it with the reported Han Chinese from general populations. Complete mtDNA sequencing showed that the eleven matrilines belonged to nine haplogroups including Y2, C4a, M8a, M10a1a, G1a1, G2a1, G2b2, D5a2a1, and D5c. We did not identify putatively pathogenic mutation that was co-segregated with m.14484T>C in these lineages based on the evolutionary analysis. Compared with the reported Han Chinese from general populations, the LHON patients with m.14484T>C had significantly higher frequency of haplogroups C, G, M10, and Y, but a lower frequency of haplogroup F. Intriguingly, we also observed a lower prevalence of F lineages in LHON subjects with m.11778G>A in our previous study, suggesting that this haplogroup may enact similar role during the onset of LHON in the presence of m.14484T>C or m.11778G>A. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our current study provided a comprehensive profile regarding the mtDNA variation and background of Chinese patients with LHON and m.14484T>C. Matrilineal background might affect the expression of LHON

  3. The worldwide spread of the tiger mosquito as revealed by mitogenome haplogroup diversity

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    Vincenza Battaglia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas and Europe. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five haplogroups in Asia, but population surveys appear to indicate that only three of these (A1a1, A1a2 and A1b were involved in the recent worldwide spread. We also found out that a derived lineage (A1a1a1 within A1a1, which is now common in Italy, most likely arose in North America from an ancestral Japanese source. These different genetic sources now coexist in many of the recently colonized areas, thus probably creating novel genomic combinations which might be one of the causes of the apparently growing ability of Ae. albopictus to expand its geographical range.

  4. The Worldwide Spread of the Tiger Mosquito as Revealed by Mitogenome Haplogroup Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Vincenza; Gabrieli, Paolo; Brandini, Stefania; Capodiferro, Marco R; Javier, Pio A; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Achilli, Alessandro; Semino, Ornella; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano; Torroni, Antonio; Olivieri, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In the last 40 years, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, indigenous to East Asia, has colonized every continent except Antarctica. Its spread is a major public health concern, given that this species is a competent vector for numerous arboviruses, including those causing dengue, chikungunya, West Nile, and the recently emerged Zika fever. To acquire more information on the ancestral source(s) of adventive populations and the overall diffusion process from its native range, we analyzed the mitogenome variation of 27 individuals from representative populations of Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five haplogroups in Asia, but population surveys appear to indicate that only three of these (A1a1, A1a2, and A1b) were involved in the recent worldwide spread. We also found out that a derived lineage (A1a1a1) within A1a1, which is now common in Italy, most likely arose in North America from an ancestral Japanese source. These different genetic sources now coexist in many of the recently colonized areas, thus probably creating novel genomic combinations which might be one of the causes of the apparently growing ability of A. albopictus to expand its geographical range.

  5. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  6. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a–L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  7. Mitochondrial haplogroup U5b3: a distant echo of the epipaleolithic in Italy and the legacy of the early Sardinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Maria; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Perego, Ugo A; Sanna, Daria; Metspalu, Ene; Tambets, Kristiina; Tamm, Erika; Accetturo, Matteo; Carossa, Valeria; Lancioni, Hovirag; Panara, Fausto; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Brisighelli, Francesca; Woodward, Scott R; Francalacci, Paolo; Parson, Walther; Salas, Antonio; Behar, Doron M; Villems, Richard; Semino, Ornella; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Torroni, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    There are extensive data indicating that some glacial refuge zones of southern Europe (Franco-Cantabria, Balkans, and Ukraine) were major genetic sources for the human recolonization of the continent at the beginning of the Holocene. Intriguingly, there is no genetic evidence that the refuge area located in the Italian Peninsula contributed to this process. Here we show, through phylogeographic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation performed at the highest level of molecular resolution (52 entire mitochondrial genomes), that the most likely homeland for U5b3-a haplogroup present at a very low frequency across Europe-was the Italian Peninsula. In contrast to mtDNA haplogroups that expanded from other refugia, the Holocene expansion of haplogroup U5b3 toward the North was restricted by the Alps and occurred only along the Mediterranean coasts, mainly toward nearby Provence (southern France). From there, approximately 7,000-9,000 years ago, a subclade of this haplogroup moved to Sardinia, possibly as a result of the obsidian trade that linked the two regions, leaving a distinctive signature in the modern people of the island. This scenario strikingly matches the age, distribution, and postulated geographic source of a Sardinian Y chromosome haplogroup (I2a2-M26), a paradigmatic case in the European context of a founder event marking both female and male lineages.

  8. The first peopling of South America: new evidence from Y-chromosome haplogroup Q.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Battaglia

    Full Text Available Recent progress in the phylogenetic resolution of the Y-chromosome phylogeny permits the male demographic dynamics and migratory events that occurred in Central and Southern America after the initial human spread into the Americas to be investigated at the regional level. To delve further into this issue, we examined more than 400 Native American Y chromosomes (collected in the region ranging from Mexico to South America belonging to haplogroup Q - virtually the only branch of the Y phylogeny observed in modern-day Amerindians of Central and South America - together with 27 from Mongolia and Kamchatka. Two main founding lineages, Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3, were detected along with novel sub-clades of younger age and more restricted geographic distributions. The first was also observed in Far East Asia while no Q1a3a1-L54(xM3 Y chromosome was found in Asia except the southern Siberian-specific sub-clade Q1a3a1c-L330. Our data not only confirm a southern Siberian origin of ancestral populations that gave rise to Paleo-Indians and the differentiation of both Native American Q founding lineages in Beringia, but support their concomitant arrival in Mesoamerica, where Mexico acted as recipient for the first wave of migration, followed by a rapid southward migration, along the Pacific coast, into the Andean region. Although Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3 display overlapping general distributions, they show different patterns of evolution in the Mexican plateau and the Andean area, which can be explained by local differentiations due to demographic events triggered by the introduction of agriculture and associated with the flourishing of the Great Empires.

  9. The first peopling of South America: new evidence from Y-chromosome haplogroup Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Vincenza; Grugni, Viola; Perego, Ugo Alessandro; Angerhofer, Norman; Gomez-Palmieri, J Edgar; Woodward, Scott Ray; Achilli, Alessandro; Myres, Natalie; Torroni, Antonio; Semino, Ornella

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in the phylogenetic resolution of the Y-chromosome phylogeny permits the male demographic dynamics and migratory events that occurred in Central and Southern America after the initial human spread into the Americas to be investigated at the regional level. To delve further into this issue, we examined more than 400 Native American Y chromosomes (collected in the region ranging from Mexico to South America) belonging to haplogroup Q - virtually the only branch of the Y phylogeny observed in modern-day Amerindians of Central and South America - together with 27 from Mongolia and Kamchatka. Two main founding lineages, Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3), were detected along with novel sub-clades of younger age and more restricted geographic distributions. The first was also observed in Far East Asia while no Q1a3a1-L54(xM3) Y chromosome was found in Asia except the southern Siberian-specific sub-clade Q1a3a1c-L330. Our data not only confirm a southern Siberian origin of ancestral populations that gave rise to Paleo-Indians and the differentiation of both Native American Q founding lineages in Beringia, but support their concomitant arrival in Mesoamerica, where Mexico acted as recipient for the first wave of migration, followed by a rapid southward migration, along the Pacific coast, into the Andean region. Although Q1a3a1a-M3 and Q1a3a1-L54(xM3) display overlapping general distributions, they show different patterns of evolution in the Mexican plateau and the Andean area, which can be explained by local differentiations due to demographic events triggered by the introduction of agriculture and associated with the flourishing of the Great Empires.

  10. Impaired spermatogenesis and gr/gr deletions related to Y chromosome haplogroups in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin; Song, Seung-Hun; Bak, Chong Won; Sung, Se Ra; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Dong Ryul; Shim, Sung Han

    2012-01-01

    Microdeletion of the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) regions in Y chromosome is a well-known genetic cause of male infertility resulting from spermatogenetic impairment. However, the partial deletions of AZFc region related to spermatogenetic impairment are controversial. In this study, we characterized partial deletion of AZFc region in Korean patients with spermatogenetic impairment and assessed whether the DAZ and CDY1 contributes to the phenotype in patients with gr/gr deletions. Total of 377 patients with azoo-/oligozoospermia and 217 controls were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), analysis of DAZ-CDY1 sequence family variants (SFVs), and quantitative fluorescent (QF)-PCR. Of the 377 men with impaired spermatogenesis, 59 cases (15.6%) had partial AZFc deletions, including 32 gr/gr (8.5%), 22 b2/b3 (5.8%), four b1/b3 (1.1%) and one b3/b4 (0.3%) deletion. In comparison, 14 of 217 normozoospermic controls (6.5%) had partial AZFc deletions, including five gr/gr (2.3%) and nine b2/b3 (4.1%) deletions. The frequency of gr/gr deletions was significantly higher in the azoo-/oligozoospermic group than in the normozoospermic control group (p = 0.003; OR = 3.933; 95% CI = 1.509-10.250). Concerning Y haplogroup, we observed no significant differences in the frequency of gr/gr deletions between the case and the control groups in the YAP+ lineages, while gr/gr deletion were significantly higher in azoo-/oligozoospermia than normozoospermia in the YAP- lineage (p = 0.004; OR = 6.341; 95% CI = 1.472-27.312). Our data suggested that gr/gr deletion is associated with impaired spermatogenesis in Koreans with YAP- lineage, regardless of the gr/gr subtypes.

  11. Mitochondrial haplogroup C in ancient mitochondrial DNA from Ukraine extends the presence of East Eurasian genetic lineages in Neolithic Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexey G; Newton, Jeremy R; Potekhina, Inna D

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages have revealed the presence of East Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups in the Central European Neolithic. Here we report the finding of East Eurasian lineages in ancient mtDNA from two Neolithic cemeteries of the North Pontic Region (NPR) in Ukraine. In our study, comprehensive haplotyping information was obtained for 7 out of 18 specimens. Although the majority of identified mtDNA haplogroups belonged to the traditional West Eurasian lineages of H and U, three specimens were determined to belong to the lineages of mtDNA haplogroup C. This find extends the presence of East Eurasian lineages in Neolithic Europe from the Carpathian Mountains to the northern shores of the Black Sea and provides the first genetic account of Neolithic mtDNA lineages from the NPR.

  12. Brief Report: European Mitochondrial Haplogroups Impact on Liver Fibrosis Progression Among HCV and HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients From Northwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernilla, Andres; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Grandal, Marta; Pernas, Berta; Pértega, Sonia; Delgado, Manuel; Mariño, Ana; Álvarez, Hortensia; Mena, Alvaro; Rodríguez-Osorio, Iria; Pedreira, Jose Domingo; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Poveda, Eva

    2016-10-01

    The impact of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups on the outcome of liver fibrosis was evaluated in 362 hepatitis C virus infection (HCV)-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (147 and 215, respectively) in clinical follow-up at 2 reference hospitals in the Northwest of Spain. The mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H was the most prevalent (50.3%) in this population. The cluster Others and V were recognized as risk factors for the development of liver fibrosis while haplogroup H and HCV genotype 4 confer a lower risk. This information might be useful for prioritization of HCV treatment, especially for F0-F1 patients for whom there is no urgency for treatment.

  13. Evidence for sub-haplogroup h5 of mitochondrial DNA as a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Santoro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia among senile subjects. It has been proposed that AD can be caused by defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Given the fundamental contribution of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA for the respiratory chain, there have been a number of studies investigating the association between mtDNA inherited variants and multifactorial diseases, however no general consensus has been reached yet on the correlation between mtDNA haplogroups and AD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We applied for the first time a high resolution analysis (sequencing of displacement loop and restriction analysis of specific markers in the coding region of mtDNA to investigate the possible association between mtDNA-inherited sequence variation and AD in 936 AD patients and 776 cognitively assessed normal controls from central and northern Italy. Among over 40 mtDNA sub-haplogroups analysed, we found that sub-haplogroup H5 is a risk factor for AD (OR=1.85, 95% CI:1.04-3.23 in particular for females (OR=2.19, 95% CI:1.06-4.51 and independently from the APOE genotype. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an interaction between H5 and age. When the whole sample is considered, the H5a subgroup of molecules, harboring the 4336 transition in the tRNAGln gene, already associated to AD in early studies, was about threefold more represented in AD patients than in controls (2.0% vs 0.8%; p=0.031, and it might account for the increased frequency of H5 in AD patients (4.2% vs 2.3%. The complete re-sequencing of the 56 mtDNAs belonging to H5 revealed that AD patients showed a trend towards a higher number (p=0.052 of sporadic mutations in tRNA and rRNA genes when compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that high resolution analysis of inherited mtDNA sequence variation can help in identifying both ancient polymorphisms defining sub-haplogroups and

  14. Data from complete mtDNA sequencing of Tunisian centenarians: testing haplogroup association and the "golden mean" to longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marta D; Cherni, Lotfi; Fernandes, Verónica; Freitas, Fernando; Ammar El Gaaied, Amel Ben; Pereira, Luísa

    2009-04-01

    Since the mitochondrial theory of ageing was proposed, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity has been largely studied in old people, however complete genomes are still rare, being limited to Japanese and UK/US samples. In this work, we evaluated possible longevity associated polymorphisms/haplogroups in an African population, from Tunisia, by performing complete mtDNA sequencing. This population has a mixed Eurasian/sub-Saharan mtDNA gene pool, which could potentially facilitate the evaluation of association for sub-Saharan lineages. Sub-Saharan haplogroups were shown to be significantly less represented in centenarians (9.5%) than in controls (54.5%), but it is not possible to rule out an influence of population structure, which is high in these populations. No recurrent polymorphism were more frequent in centenarians than in controls, and although the Tunisian centenarians presented less synonymous and replacement polymorphisms than controls, this difference was not statistically significant. So far, it does not seem that centenarians have significantly less mildly deleterious substitutions, not only in Tunisia but also in Japanese and UK/US samples, as tested here, not favouring a "golden mean" to longevity.

  15. Internal diversification of mitochondrial haplogroup R0a reveals post-last glacial maximum demographic expansions in South Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerný, Viktor; Mulligan, Connie J; Fernandes, Verónica; Silva, Nuno M; Alshamali, Farida; Non, Amy; Harich, Nourdin; Cherni, Lotfi; El Gaaied, Amel Ben Ammar; Al-Meeri, Ali; Pereira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Widespread interest in the first successful Out of Africa dispersal of modern humans ∼60-80 thousand years ago via a southern migration route has overshadowed the study of later periods of South Arabian prehistory. In this work, we show that the post-Last Glacial Maximum period of the past 20,000 years, during which climatic conditions were becoming more hospitable, has been a significant time in the formation of the extant genetic composition and population structure of this region. This conclusion is supported by the internal diversification displayed in the highly resolved phylogenetic tree of 89 whole mitochondrial genomes (71 being newly presented here) for haplogroup R0a-the most frequent and widespread haplogroup in Arabia. Additionally, two geographically specific clades (R0a1a1a and R0a2f1) have been identified in non-Arabic speaking peoples such as the Soqotri and Mahri living in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula where a past refugium was identified by independent archaeological studies. Estimates of time to the most recent common ancestor of these lineages match the earliest archaeological evidence for seafaring activity in the peninsula in the sixth millennium BC.

  16. Investigating the Role of Mitochondrial Haplogroups in Genetic Predisposition to Meningococcal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Fachal, Laura; Marcos-Alonso, Sonia; Vega, Ana; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Meningococcal disease remains one of the most important infectious causes of death in industrialized countries. The highly diverse clinical presentation and prognosis of Neisseria meningitidis infections are the result of complex host genetics and environmental interactions. We investigated whether mitochondrial genetic background contributes to meningococcal disease (MD) susceptibility. Methodology/Principal Findings Prospective controlled study was performed through a national research network on MD that includes 41 Spanish hospitals. Cases were 307 paediatric patients with confirmed MD, representing the largest series of MD patients analysed to date. Two independent sets of ethnicity-matched control samples (CG1 [N = 917]), and CG2 [N = 616]) were used for comparison. Cases and controls underwent mtDNA haplotyping of a selected set of 25 mtDNA SNPs (mtSNPs), some of them defining major European branches of the mtDNA phylogeny. In addition, 34 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in cases and CG2 in order to monitor potential hidden population stratification. Samples of known African, Native American and European ancestry (N = 711) were used as classification sets for the determination of ancestral membership of our MD patients. A total of 39 individuals were eliminated from the main statistical analyses (including fourteen gypsies) on the basis of either non-Spanish self-reported ancestry or the results of AIMs indicating a European membership lower than 95%. Association analysis of the remaining 268 cases against CG1 suggested an overrepresentation of the synonym mtSNP G11719A variant (Pearson's chi-square test; adjusted P-value = 0.0188; OR [95% CI] = 1.63 [1.22–2.18]). When cases were compared with CG2, the positive association could not be replicated. No positive association has been observed between haplogroup (hg) status of cases and CG1/CG2 and hg status of cases and several clinical variants

  17. Maternal phylogenetic relationships and genetic variation among Arabian horse populations using whole mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanshour, Anas M; Cothran, Ernest Gus

    2013-09-13

    Maternal inheritance is an essential point in Arabian horse population genetics and strains classification. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing is a highly informative tool to investigate maternal lineages. We sequenced the whole mtDNA D-loop of 251 Arabian horses to study the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Arabian populations and to examine the traditional strain classification system that depends on maternal family lines using native Arabian horses from the Middle East. The variability in the upstream region of the D-loop revealed additional differences among the haplotypes that had identical sequences in the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). While the American-Arabians showed relatively low diversity, the Syrian population was the most variable and contained a very rare and old haplogroup. The Middle Eastern horses had major genetic contributions to the Western horses and there was no clear pattern of differentiation among all tested populations. Our results also showed that several individuals from different strains shared a single haplotype, and individuals from a single strain were represented in clearly separated haplogroups. The whole mtDNA D-loop sequence was more powerful for analysis of the maternal genetic diversity in the Arabian horses than using just the HVR1. Native populations from the Middle East, such as Syrians, could be suggested as a hot spot of genetic diversity and may help in understanding the evolution history of the Arabian horse breed. Most importantly, there was no evidence that the Arabian horse breed has clear subdivisions depending on the traditional maternal based strain classification system.

  18. Identification of West Eurasian mitochondrial haplogroups by mtDNA SNP screening: results of the 2006-2007 EDNAP collaborative exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parson, Walther; Fendt, Liane; Ballard, David

    2008-01-01

    The European DNA Profiling (EDNAP) Group performed a collaborative exercise on a mitochondrial (mt) DNA screening assay that targeted 16 nucleotide positions in the coding region and allowed for the discrimination of major west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups. The purpose of the exercise was to evalua...

  19. Genetic diversity and maternal origin of Bangladeshi chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M S A; Chen, Shanyuan; Faruque, S; Bhuiyan, A K F H; Beja-Pereira, Albano

    2013-06-01

    Local domestic chicken populations are of paramount importance as a source of protein in developing countries. Bangladesh possesses a large number of native chicken populations which display a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme wet and hot environments of this region. This and the fact that wild jungle fowls (JFs) are still available in some regions of the country, it urges to study the present genetic diversity and relationships between Bangladeshi autochthonous chicken populations. Here, we report the results of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence polymorphisms analyses to assess the genetic diversity and possible maternal origin of Bangladeshi indigenous chickens. A 648-bp fragment of mtDNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed in 96 samples from four different chicken populations and one red JF population. Sequence analysis revealed 39 variable sites that defined 25 haplotypes. Estimates of haplotype and nucleotide diversities ranged from 0.745 to 0.901 and from 0.011 to 0.016, respectively. The pairwise differences between populations ranged from 0.091 to 1.459 while most of the PhiST (ΦST) values were significant. Furthermore, AMOVA analysis revealed 89.16 % of the total genetic diversity was accounted for within population variation, indicating little genetic differentiation among the studied populations. The median network analysis from haplotypes of Bangladeshi chickens illustrated five distinct mitochondrial haplogroups (A, D, E, F and I). Individuals from all Bangladeshi chicken populations were represented in the major clades D and E; those maternal origins are presumed to be from Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries, more particularly from South China, Vietnam, Myanmar and Thailand. Further, phylogenetic analysis between indigenous chicken populations and sub-species of red JFs showed G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus shared with almost all haplogroups and had major influence than G. g. murghi in the origin of

  20. Confirmation of Y haplogroup tree topologies with newly suggested Y-SNPs for the C2, O2b and O3a subhaplogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, So Yeun; Lee, Hwan Young; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) are useful markers for reconstructing male lineages through hierarchically arranged allelic sets known as haplogroups, and are thereby widely used in the fields such as human evolution, anthropology and forensic genetics. The Y haplogroup tree was recently revised with newly suggested Y-SNP markers for designation of several subgroups of haplogroups C2, O2b and O3a, which are predominant in Koreans. Therefore, herein we analyzed these newly suggested Y-SNPs in 545 unrelated Korean males who belong to the haplogroups C2, O2b or O3a, and investigated the reconstructed topology of the Y haplogroup tree. We were able to confirm that markers L1373, Z1338/JST002613-27, Z1300, CTS2657, Z8440 and F845 define the C2 subhaplogroups, C2b, C2e, C2e1, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2, respectively, and that markers F3356, L682, F11, F238/F449 and F444 define the O subhaplogroups O2b1, O2b1b, O3a1c1, O3a1c2 and O3a2c1c, respectively. Among six C2 subhaplogroups (C2b, C2e, C2e1*, C2e1a, C2e1b and C2e2), the C2e haplogroup and its subhaplogroups were found to be predominant, and among the four O2b subhaplogroups (O2b*, O2b1*, O2b1a and O2b1b), O2b1b was most frequently observed. Among the O3a subhaplogroups, O3a2c1 was predominant and it was further divided into the subhaplogroups O3a2c1a and O3a2c1c with a newly suggested marker. However, the JST002613-27 marker, which had been known to define the haplogroup C2f, was found to be an ancestral marker of the C2e haplogroup, as is the Z1338 marker. Also, the M312 marker for the O2b1 haplogroup designation was replaced by F3356, because all of the O2b1 haplotypes showed a nucleotide change at F3356, but not at M312. In addition, the F238 marker was always observed to be phylogenetically equivalent to F449, while both of the markers were assigned to the O3a1c2 haplogroup. The confirmed phylogenetic tree of this study with the newly suggested Y-SNPs could be valuable for anthropological and

  1. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Neuhausen, Susan L; Ding, Yuan Chun; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas Vo; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Conejero, Raquel Andrés; Segota, Ena; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Thelander, Margo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Pensotti, Valeria; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Varesco, Liliana; Capone, Gabriele L; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brady, Angela; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Cook, Jackie; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E; Kennedy, M John; Tischkowitz, Marc; Rogers, Mark T; Porteous, Mary E; Morrison, Patrick J; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K; Isaacs, Claudine; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schmutzler, Rita K; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Markov, Nadja Bogdanova; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; de Pauw, Antoine; Lefol, Cédrick; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Damiola, Francesca; Dreyfus, Hélène; Barjhoux, Laure; Golmard, Lisa; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valérie; Sornin, Valérie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Carter, Jonathan; Van Le, Linda; Piedmonte, Marion; DiSilvestro, Paul A; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans Mw; Kets, Carolien M; Aalfs, Cora M; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Hogervorst, Frans Bl; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne Ej; Oosterwijk, Jan C; van Roozendaal, Kees Ep; Rookus, Matti A; Devilee, Peter; van der Luijt, Rob B; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Del Valle, Jesús; Jakubowska, Anna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Maugard, Christine; Amadori, Alberto; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R; Spurdle, Amanda B; Foulkes, William; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Szabo, Csilla I; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Robson, Mark; Vijai, Joseph; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A; Friedman, Eitan; Zidan, Jamal; Laitman, Yael; Lindblom, Annika; Melin, Beatrice; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Nussbaum, Robert L; Ramus, Susan J; Nathanson, Katherine L; Domchek, Susan M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Arun, Banu K; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Thomas, Gilles; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Phelan, Catherine M; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Cox, David G

    2015-04-25

    Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen species production, leading to cancer risk. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We genotyped 22,214 (11,421 affected, 10,793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched in affected or unaffected individuals. We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. This study illustrates how original approaches such as the phylogeny-based method we used can empower classical molecular epidemiological studies aimed at identifying association or risk modification effects.

  2. Goodbye, Mandatory Maternity Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    In precedent-setting decrees, courts and federal and State authorities have branded compulsory maternity leaves either unconstitutional or illegal. School administrators are urged to prod boards of education to adopt more lenient maternity leave policies -- now. (Author)

  3. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  4. Maternal anxiety, maternal sensitivity, and attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson-Hinde, J.; Chicot, R.; Schouldice, A.; Hinde, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has related maternal anxiety to insecurity of attachment. Here we ask whether different aspects of maternal sensitivity mediate this link. From a community sample of intact families with 1-3 children, mothers with 4.5-year-olds were selected for low, medium, or high anxiety levels

  5. Phases and geometry of the N = 1 A{sub 2} quiver gauge theory and matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casero, Roberto [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano - Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3 - 20126 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: Roberto.Casero@mib.infn.it; Trincherini, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano - Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza, 3 - 20126 Milan (Italy)

    2003-09-01

    We study the phases and geometry of the N = 1 A2 quiver gauge theory using matrix models and a generalized Konishi anomaly. We consider the theory both in the Coulomb and Higgs phases. Solving the anomaly equations, we find that a meromorphic one-form {sigma} (z)dz is naturally defined on the curve {sigma} associated to the theory. Using the Dijkgraaf-Vafa conjecture, we evaluate the effective low-energy superpotential and demonstrate that its equations of motion can be translated into a geometric property of {sigma} : {sigma} (z)dz has integer periods around all compact cycles. This ensures that there exists on {sigma} a meromorphic function whose logarithm {sigma} (z)dz is the differential. We argue that the surface determined by this function is the N = 2 Seiberg-Witten curve of the theory. (author)

  6. Healthy Maternal Ambivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael-Leff, Joan

    2010-01-01

    This paper critically reviews the psychoanalytic omission in theorizing maternal subjectivity and the subsequent idealisation of the early mother-baby bond that excludes negative maternal feelings. It suggests that painful maternal experiences of resentment, persecution and hatred remain under-explored. Perhaps, even more alarming, this exclusion compels mothers to hide conflictual and shameful feelings from professionals – and from themselves. The paper suggests that healthy maternal ambival...

  7. Phylogeography of the human mitochondrial haplogroup L3e: a snapshot of African prehistory and Atlantic slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelt, H J; Alves-Silva, J; Guimarães, P E; Santos, M S; Brehm, A; Pereira, L; Coppa, A; Larruga, J M; Rengo, C; Scozzari, R; Torroni, A; Prata, M J; Amorim, A; Prado, V F; Pena, S D

    2001-11-01

    The mtDNA haplogroup L3e, which is identified by the restriction site +2349 MboI within the Afro-Eurasian superhaplogroup L3 (-3592 HpaI), is omnipresent in Africa but virtually absent in Eurasia (except for neighbouring areas with limited genetic exchange). L3e was hitherto poorly characterised in terms of HVS-I motifs, as the ancestral HVS-I type of L3e cannot be distinguished from the putative HVS-I ancestor of the entire L3 (differing from the CRS by a transition at np 16223). An MboI screening at np 2349 of a large number of Brazilian and Caribbean mtDNAs (encompassing numerous mtDNAs of African ancestry), now reveals that L3e is subdivided into four principal clades, each characterised by a single mutation in HVS-I, with additional support coming from HVS-II and partial RFLP analysis. The apparently oldest of these clades (transition at np 16327) occurs mainly in central Africa and was probably carried to southern Africa with the Bantu expansion(s). The most frequent clade (transition at np 16320) testifies to a pronounced expansion event in the mid-Holocene and seems to be prominent in many Bantu groups from all of Africa. In contrast, one clade (transition at np 16264) is essentially restricted to Atlantic western Africa (including Cabo Verde). We propose a tentative L3e phylogeny that is based on 197 HVS-I sequences. We conclude that haplogroup L3e originated in central or eastern Africa about 46,000 (+/-14,000) years ago, and was a hitchhiker of much later dispersal and local expansion events, with the rise of food production and iron smelting. Enforced migration of African slaves to the Americas translocated L3e mitochondria, the descendants of which in Brazil and the Caribbean still reflect their different regional African ancestries.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA variants of respiratory complex I that uniquely characterize haplogroup T2 are associated with increased risk of age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul SanGiovanni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD, a chronic neurodegenerative and neovascular retinal disease, is the leading cause of blindness in elderly people of western European origin. While structural and functional alterations in mitochondria (mt and their metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative and vascular diseases, the relationship of inherited variants in the mitochondrial genome and mt haplogroup subtypes with advanced AMD has not been reported in large prospective cohorts. METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the relationship of inherited mtDNA variants with advanced AMD in 1168 people using a three-stage design on samples from 12-year and 10-year prospective studies on the natural history of age-related eye disease. In Stage I we resequenced the entire genome in 99 elderly AMD-free controls and 215 people with advanced AMD from the 12-year study. A consistent association with AMD in 14 of 17 SNPs characterizing the mtDNA T haplogroup emerged. Further analysis revealed these associations were driven entirely by the T2 haplogroup, and characterized by two variants in Complex I genes (A11812G of MT-ND4 and A14233G of MT-ND6. We genotyped T haplogroups in an independent sample of 490 cases and 61 controls from the same study (Stage II and in 56 cases and 246 controls from the 10-year study (Stage III. People in the T2 haplogroup were approximately 2.5 times more likely to have advanced AMD than their peers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.54, 95%CI 1.36-4.80, Phaplogroup and Complex I are reasonable targets for novel functional analyses and therapeutic research in AMD.

  9. What is Maternal Labour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Sandford

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available What happens when we attempt to draw together the concepts of 'the maternal' and of 'labour' in the category of 'maternal labour'? What is the specificity of maternal labour as 'labour' and what is its specificity as 'maternal'? This paper argues that there is a peculiar difficulty in the category of 'maternal labour', even a fundamental contradiction, but that this is not a reason to reject it. Beginning with a brief discussion of Marx's comments, in the Introduction to the 'Grundrisse', on the category of labour, the paper then considers some classic Marxist feminist literature from the 1970s and 1980s on the relation between Marxism and feminism and on the domestic labour debates in order to try to explain the nature of the contradiction in the category of 'maternal labour' and its significance for thinking the possibility of a non-capitalist maternal subject.

  10. From press release to news: mapping the framing of the 2009 H1N1 A influenza pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seow Ting; Basnyat, Iccha

    2013-01-01

    Pandemics challenge conventional assumptions about health promotion, message development, community engagement, and the role of news media. To understand the use of press releases in news coverage of pandemics, this study traces the development of framing devices from a government public health agency's press releases to news stories about the 2009 H1N1 A influenza pandemic. The communication management of the H1N1 pandemic, an international news event with local implications, by the Singapore government is a rich locus for understanding the dynamics of public relations, health communication, and journalism. A content analysis shows that the evolution of information from press release to news is marked by significant changes in media frames, including the expansion and diversification in dominant frames and emotion appeals, stronger thematic framing, more sources of information, conversion of loss frames into gain frames, and amplification of positive tone favoring the public health agency's position. Contrary to previous research that suggests that government information subsidies passed almost unchanged through media gatekeepers, the news coverage of the pandemic reflects journalists' selectivity in disseminating the government press releases and in mediating the information flow and frames from the press releases.

  11. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    or unaffected individuals. RESULTS: We discovered that subclade T1a1 was depleted in affected BRCA2 mutation carriers compared with the rest of clade T (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.34 to 0.88; P = 0.01). Compared with the most frequent haplogroup in the general population (that is......, H and T clades), the T1a1 haplogroup has a HR of 0.62 (95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). We also identified three potential susceptibility loci, including G13708A/rs28359178, which has demonstrated an inverse association with familial breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates how...

  12. Ancient Paleo-DNA of Pre-Copper Age North-Eastern Europe: Establishing the Migration Traces of R1a1 Y-DNA Haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander S. Semenov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The work considers the problems of paleogenetics and anthropology connected with problem of pre-Copper Age after-Glacial repopulation process of the North-Eastern Europe. The unified data, obtained in various laboratories in 2010-2016, collects a certain amount of the ancient mt-DNA and Y-DNA haplogroup samples of the considered period, what allows establishing the connection between some of them, comparing them with the data of neighboring regions, and attributing them to certain migration flows traceable in archeology. The paper makes an attempt to build a picture of the population of North-Eastern Europe in pre-Copper Age time and to systemize the paleo DNA genotyping results into clusters corresponding to different migration waves. The paper can be of use for biomedical purposes also, as some correlations between diseases and haplogroups were noticed in various medical works.

  13. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  14. Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out Of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Fulvio; La Fratta, Roberta; Santolamazza, Piero; Sellitto, Daniele; Pascone, Roberto; Moral, Pedro; Watson, Elizabeth; Guida, Valentina; Colomb, Eliane Beraud; Zaharova, Boriana; Lavinha, João; Vona, Giuseppe; Aman, Rashid; Calì, Francesco; Akar, Nejat; Richards, Martin; Torroni, Antonio; Novelletto, Andrea; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2004-01-01

    We explored the phylogeography of human Y-chromosomal haplogroup E3b by analyzing 3,401 individuals from five continents. Our data refine the phylogeny of the entire haplogroup, which appears as a collection of lineages with very different evolutionary histories, and reveal signatures of several distinct processes of migrations and/or recurrent gene flow that occurred in Africa and western Eurasia over the past 25,000 years. In Europe, the overall frequency pattern of haplogroup E-M78 does not support the hypothesis of a uniform spread of people from a single parental Near Eastern population. The distribution of E-M81 chromosomes in Africa closely matches the present area of distribution of Berber-speaking populations on the continent, suggesting a close haplogroup–ethnic group parallelism. E-M34 chromosomes were more likely introduced in Ethiopia from the Near East. In conclusion, the present study shows that earlier work based on fewer Y-chromosome markers led to rather simple historical interpretations and highlights the fact that many population-genetic analyses are not robust to a poorly resolved phylogeny. PMID:15042509

  15. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity surveillance in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Victoria M; Campbell, Melanie; Carson, George; Fraser, William; Liston, Robert M; Walker, Mark; Barrett, Jon

    2010-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System has provided a comprehensive review of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada, and has identified several important limitations to existing national maternal data collection systems, including variability in the detail and quality of mortality data. The Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System report recommended the establishment of an ongoing national review and reporting system, as well as consistency in definitions and classifications of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity, in order to enhance surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity. Using review articles and studies that examined maternal mortality in general as opposed to maternal mortality associated with particular management strategies or conditions, maternal mortality and severe morbidity classifications, terminology, and comparative statistics were reviewed and employed to evaluate deficiencies in past and current methods of data collection and to seek solutions to address the need for enhanced and consistent national surveillance of maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity in Canada.

  16. Linguistic tone is related to the population frequency of the adaptive haplogroups of two brain size genes, ASPM and Microcephalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan; Ladd, D Robert

    2007-06-26

    The correlations between interpopulation genetic and linguistic diversities are mostly noncausal (spurious), being due to historical processes and geographical factors that shape them in similar ways. Studies of such correlations usually consider allele frequencies and linguistic groupings (dialects, languages, linguistic families or phyla), sometimes controlling for geographic, topographic, or ecological factors. Here, we consider the relation between allele frequencies and linguistic typological features. Specifically, we focus on the derived haplogroups of the brain growth and development-related genes ASPM and Microcephalin, which show signs of natural selection and a marked geographic structure, and on linguistic tone, the use of voice pitch to convey lexical or grammatical distinctions. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the population frequency of these two alleles and the presence of linguistic tone and test this hypothesis relative to a large database (983 alleles and 26 linguistic features in 49 populations), showing that it is not due to the usual explanatory factors represented by geography and history. The relationship between genetic and linguistic diversity in this case may be causal: certain alleles can bias language acquisition or processing and thereby influence the trajectory of language change through iterated cultural transmission.

  17. Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Reidla, Maere; Chukhryaeva, Marina; Järve, Mari; Post, Helen; Karmin, Monika; Saag, Lauri; Agdzhoyan, Anastasiya; Kushniarevich, Alena; Litvinov, Sergey; Ekomasova, Natalya; Tambets, Kristiina; Metspalu, Ene; Khusainova, Rita; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Osipova, Ludmila P; Fedorova, Sardana; Utevska, Olga; Koshel, Sergey; Balanovska, Elena; Behar, Doron M; Balanovsky, Oleg; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A; Villems, Richard; Rootsi, Siiri

    2016-07-07

    The paternal haplogroup (hg) N is distributed from southeast Asia to eastern Europe. The demographic processes that have shaped the vast extent of this major Y chromosome lineage across numerous linguistically and autosomally divergent populations have previously been unresolved. On the basis of 94 high-coverage re-sequenced Y chromosomes, we establish and date a detailed hg N phylogeny. We evaluate geographic structure by using 16 distinguishing binary markers in 1,631 hg N Y chromosomes from a collection of 6,521 samples from 56 populations. The more southerly distributed sub-clade N4 emerged before N2a1 and N3, found mostly in the north, but the latter two display more elaborate branching patterns, indicative of regional contrasts in recent expansions. In particular, a number of prominent and well-defined clades with common N3a3'6 ancestry occur in regionally dissimilar northern Eurasian populations, indicating almost simultaneous regional diversification and expansion within the last 5,000 years. This patrilineal genetic affinity is decoupled from the associated higher degree of language diversity.

  18. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  19. Multiplexed SNP typing of ancient DNA clarifies the origin of Andaman mtDNA haplogroups amongst South Asian tribal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Endicott

    Full Text Available The issue of errors in genetic data sets is of growing concern, particularly in population genetics where whole genome mtDNA sequence data is coming under increased scrutiny. Multiplexed PCR reactions, combined with SNP typing, are currently under-exploited in this context, but have the potential to genotype whole populations rapidly and accurately, significantly reducing the amount of errors appearing in published data sets. To show the sensitivity of this technique for screening mtDNA genomic sequence data, 20 historic samples of the enigmatic Andaman Islanders and 12 modern samples from three Indian tribal populations (Chenchu, Lambadi and Lodha were genotyped for 20 coding region sites after provisional haplogroup assignment with control region sequences. The genotype data from the historic samples significantly revise the topologies for the Andaman M31 and M32 mtDNA lineages by rectifying conflicts in published data sets. The new Indian data extend the distribution of the M31a lineage to South Asia, challenging previous interpretations of mtDNA phylogeography. This genetic connection between the ancestors of the Andamanese and South Asian tribal groups approximately 30 kya has important implications for the debate concerning migration routes and settlement patterns of humans leaving Africa during the late Pleistocene, and indicates the need for more detailed genotyping strategies. The methodology serves as a low-cost, high-throughput model for the production and authentication of data from modern or ancient DNA, and demonstrates the value of museum collections as important records of human genetic diversity.

  20. Associations of Y-chromosome subdeletion gr/gr with the prevalence of Y-chromosome haplogroups in infertile patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Mohammad; Dhillon, Varinderpal S; Khalil, Hesham Saleh; Sexana, Anubha; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Microdeletions in azoospermia factor (AZF) region on distal Yq are associated with male infertility and spermatogenic failure due to intra-chromosomal homologous recombination between large nearly identical repeat amplicons and are found in ∼10% of azoospermic and severe oligozoospermic cases. Although AZFc is deleted in azoospermia or oligozoospermia, no definitive conclusion has been drawn for the role of partial AZFc deletions to spermatogenic failure. Therefore, this study is planned to investigate the role of gr/gr subdeletions in individuals with spermatogenic failure and to find its relationship with Y chromosome haplogroups (HGs) in infertile men from Indian population. It is a case-control study involving 236 azoospermic, 182 oligospermic and 240 healthy normozoospermic men. We found 18 gr/gr, 11 b1/b3 and 2 b2/b3 subdeletions in azoospermic patients and 12 gr/gr, 5 b1/b3 and 4 b2/b3 subdeletions in oligospermic patients. However, we also found seven gr/gr deletions in normozoospermic men. Seven patients each with spermatogenic arrest and oligospermia who carry gr/gr subdeletions have deleted DAZ3/DAZ4 genes. A total of 11 patients with sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS) and 5 oligospermic patients with gr/gr subdeletions also have DAZ1/DAZ2 genes deleted indicating that deletions of DAZ genes contributed differently to damage to spermatogenic process. L1 HG is found in patients showing b1/b3 subdeletions, whereas HG H1a2 and H1b were found in normozoospermic individuals with gr/gr subdeletions. Our results provide evidence of association between the occurrence of subdeletions and male infertility as well as the severity of the spermatogenic failure.

  1. Rural maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine J; Couchie, Carol; Ehman, William; Graves, Lisa; Grzybowski, Stefan; Medves, Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    To provide an overview of current information on issues in maternity care relevant to rural populations. Medline was searched for articles published in English from 1995 to 2012 about rural maternity care. Relevant publications and position papers from appropriate organizations were also reviewed. This information will help obstetrical care providers in rural areas to continue providing quality care for women in their communities. Recommendations 1. Women who reside in rural and remote communities in Canada should receive high-quality maternity care as close to home as possible. 2. The provision of rural maternity care must be collaborative, woman- and family-centred, culturally sensitive, and respectful. 3. Rural maternity care services should be supported through active policies aligned with these recommendations. 4. While local access to surgical and anaesthetic services is desirable, there is evidence that good outcomes can be sustained within an integrated perinatal care system without local access to operative delivery. There is evidence that the outcomes are better when women do not have to travel far from their communities. Access to an integrated perinatal care system should be provided for all women. 5. The social and emotional needs of rural women must be considered in service planning. Women who are required to leave their communities to give birth should be supported both financially and emotionally. 6. Innovative interprofessional models should be implemented as part of the solution for high-quality, collaborative, and integrated care for rural and remote women. 7. Registered nurses are essential to the provision of high-quality rural maternity care throughout pregnancy, birth, and the postpartum period. Maternity nursing skills should be recognized as a fundamental part of generalist rural nursing skills. 8. Remuneration for maternity care providers should reflect the unique challenges and increased professional responsibility faced by providers in

  2. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread.

  3. Maternal and neonatal tetanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58 000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  4. Maternal Competition in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linney, Catherine; Korologou-Linden, Laurel; Campbell, Anne

    2017-03-01

    We examined maternal competition, an unexplored form of competition between women. Given women's high investment in offspring and mothers' key role in shaping their reproductive, social, and cultural success as adults, we might expect to see maternal competition between women as well as mate competition. Predictions about the effect of maternal characteristics (age, relationship status, educational background, number of children, investment in the mothering role) and child variables (age, sex) were drawn from evolutionary theory and sociological research. Mothers of primary school children (in two samples: N = 210 and 169) completed a series of questionnaires. A novel nine-item measure of maternal competitive behavior (MCQ) and two subscales assessing Covert (MCQ-C) and Face-to-Face (MCQ-FF) forms of competition were developed using confirmatory factor analysis. Competitiveness (MCQ score) was predicted by maternal investment, single motherhood, fewer children, and (marginally) child's older age. The effect of single motherhood (but not other predictors) was partially mediated by greater maternal investment. In response to a scenario of their child underperforming relative to their peers, a mother's competitive distress was a positive function of the importance she ascribed to their success and her estimation of her child's ability. Her competitive distress was highly correlated with the distress she attributed to a female friend, hinting at bidirectional dyadic effects. Qualitative responses indicated that nonspecific bragging and boasting about academic achievements were the most common irritants. Although 40% of women were angered or annoyed by such comments, less than 5% endorsed a direct hostile response. Instead, competitive mothers were conversationally shunned and rejected as friends. We suggest that the interdependence of mothers based on reciprocal childcare has supported a culture of egalitarianism that is violated by explicit competitiveness.

  5. Second Trimester Maternal Serum Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: AFP Maternal; Maternal Serum AFP; MSAFP; msAFP; Triple Screen; Triple Test; Quad Screen; ... Free Fetal DNA Were you looking instead for AFP tumor markers , used to help diagnose and monitor ...

  6. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  7. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  8. Maternity Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society. PMID:28983432

  9. maternal mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi; however there has been a lack of effective imple- mentation. ... the SWAp Programme of Work. 3”. Methods ... the current maternal mortality strategy may be implement- ... point of delivery. ... include the cost of a new chitenje (sarong) necessary for child- ..... nomic status and access to care for TB in urban Lilongwe.

  10. Maternal temperature during labour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, F. D.; Wolf, H.; Smjt, B. J.; Bekedam, D. J.; de Vos, R.; Wahlen, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to describe the variation of normal maternal temperature during labour. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Two hospitals in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Population All women with a live singleton pregnancy and a gestational age of 36 weeks or more admitted

  11. Maternal Sexuality and Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I consider the ways in which lactation has been discussed as a form of maternal sexuality, and the implications this carries for our understanding of breastfeeding practices and sexuality. Drawing on knowledge constructed in the western world during the last half of the twentieth century, the paper identifies a shift between the…

  12. Presence of mutation m.14484T>C in a Chinese family with maternally inherited essential hypertension but no expression of LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Zhang, A-Mei; Zhang, Wen; Yuan, Yong; Guo, Li; Yu, Dandan; Liu, Juan; Yang, Da-Kuan; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2012-10-01

    Essential hypertension (EH, MIM 145500) is the most common cardiovascular disease and affects one-quarter of the world's adult population. Families with EH in a mode of maternal transmission have been occasionally observed in clinical settings and suggested an involvement of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. We aimed to characterize the role of mtDNA mutation in EH. We reported a large Han Chinese family with a maternally inherited EH and an extraordinarily high percentage of sudden death mainly in affected females. Analysis of the entire mtDNA genome of the proband identified a homoplasmic primary mutation m.14484T>C for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), along with several variants indicating haplogroup F1 status. Intriguingly, no maternal member in this family had LHON though they all harbored m.14484T>C. The arterial stiffness of the members carrying mutation m.14484T>C was significantly increased than that of non-maternal members without this mutation. No environmental factor (including age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hyperlipidemia) was correlated with the decreased aortic elastic properties observed in affected members. Mitochondrial respiration rate and membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) were significantly reduced in lymphoblastoid cell lines established from affected members carrying m.14484T>C when compared to control cell lines (PC causes EH under certain circumstance. This study provides a paradigm for diverse phenotypes of the primary LHON mutation and suggests for the necessity of routine cardiac evaluation in patients with the primary LHON mutation.

  13. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. [Social inequalities in maternal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C

    2015-10-01

    Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality.

  15. Insights into the origin of rare haplogroup C3* Y chromosomes in South America from high-density autosomal SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzavilla, Massimo; Geppert, Maria; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Roewer, Lutz; Xue, Yali

    2015-01-01

    The colonization of Americas is thought to have occurred 15–20 thousand years ago (Kya), with little or no subsequent migration into South America until the European expansions beginning 0.5 Kya. Recently, however, haplogroup C3* Y chromosomes were discovered in two nearby Native American populations from Ecuador. Since this haplogroup is otherwise nearly absent from the Americas but is common in East Asia, and an archaeological link between Ecuador and Japan is known from 6 Kya, an additional migration 6 Kya was suggested. Here, we have generated high-density autosomal SNP genotypes from the Ecuadorian populations and compared them with genotypes from East Asia and elsewhere to evaluate three hypotheses: a recent migration from Japan, a single pulse of migration from Japan 6 Kya, and no migration after the First Americans. First, using forward-time simulations and an appropriate demographic model, we investigated our power to detect both ancient and recent gene flow at different levels. Second, we analyzed 207,321 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 16 Ecuadorian individuals, comparing them with populations from the HGDP panel using descriptive and formal tests for admixture. Our simulations revealed good power to detect recent admixture, and that ≥5% admixture 6 Kya ago could be detected. However, in the experimental data we saw no evidence of gene flow from Japan to Ecuador. In summary, we can exclude recent migration and probably admixture 6 Kya as the source of the C3* Y chromosomes in Ecuador, and thus suggest that they represent a rare founding lineage lost by drift elsewhere. PMID:25435155

  16. Maternal near miss: an indicator for maternal health and maternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Pragti

    2014-07-01

    Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  17. Maternal near miss: An indicator for maternal health and maternal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragti Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is one of the important indicators used for the measurement of maternal health. Although maternal mortality ratio remains high, maternal deaths in absolute numbers are rare in a community. To overcome this challenge, maternal near miss has been suggested as a compliment to maternal death. It is defined as pregnant or recently delivered woman who survived a complication during pregnancy, childbirth or 42 days after termination of pregnancy. So far various nomenclature and criteria have been used to identify maternal near-miss cases and there is lack of uniform criteria for identification of near miss. The World Health Organization recently published criteria based on markers of management and organ dysfunction, which would enable systematic data collection on near miss and development of summary estimates. The prevalence of near miss is higher in developing countries and causes are similar to those of maternal mortality namely hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis and obstructed labor. Reviewing near miss cases provide significant information about the three delays in health seeking so that appropriate action is taken. It is useful in identifying health system failures and assessment of quality of maternal health-care. Certain maternal near miss indicators have been suggested to evaluate the quality of care. The near miss approach will be an important tool in evaluation and assessment of the newer strategies for improving maternal health.

  18. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    were not obstacles which the proposed changes should overcome, but are on the contrary necessary, as it is the alliances between the particular interests and the proposed changes that motor the initiatives. The interests were not invented through the initiatives but are formed through history. Although...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... not in the intended manner. It was, however, an achievement to relate the different interests for a period. In this dissertation I will elucidate the proposed changes in the initiatives as well as expound on the manner in which they were proposed. It is argued that the different interests involved in the initiatives...

  19. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  20. Maternal obesity and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R; Kolberg, B H; Varner, M W; Railsback, L D

    1987-05-01

    We examined the risk of maternal obesity in 588 pregnant women weighing at least 113.6 kilograms (250 pounds) during pregnancy. Compared with a control group matched for age and parity, we found a significantly increased risk in the obese patient for gestational diabetes, hypertension, therapeutic induction, prolonged second stage of labor, oxytocin stimulation of labor, shoulder dystocia, infants weighing more than 4,000 grams and delivery after 42 weeks gestation. Certain operative complications were also more common in obese women undergoing cesarean section including estimated blood loss of more than 1,000 milliliters, operating time of more than two hours and wound infection postoperatively. These differences remained significant after controlling for appropriate confounding variables. We conclude that maternal obesity should be considered a high risk factor.

  1. Maternal obesity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devlieger, Roland; Benhalima, Katrien; Damm, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Paralleling the global epidemic of obesity figures in the general population, the incidence of maternal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2 at the start of pregnancy) has been rising over the last world. While most European countries do not systematically report obesity figures in their pregnant population......, the prevalence of maternal obesity varies from 7 to 25% and seems strongly related to social and educational inequalities. Obesity during pregnancy represents an important preventable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and is associated with negative long-term health outcomes for both mothers...... and offspring. These effects are often aggravated by the high incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance and excessive gestational weight gain found in this group. The main controversies around the management of the obese pregnant women are related to (1) the value of repeated weighing during pregnancy, (2...

  2. Maternal Hartnup disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, B E; Levy, H L

    1986-07-01

    We describe childbearing in two unrelated women with Hartnup disorder, an inborn error of neutral amino acid transport. Two living, unaffected offspring born after untreated and uneventful pregnancies, one from each woman, have had normal growth and development. The older one had an IQ of 92 at 4 years while the younger one at 4 months had a Development Quotient of 107 on the Mental Scale and 102 on the Motor Scale. A third offspring had a neural tube defect complicated by hydrocephalus and died at 3 months. This mother had a family history of major congenital anomalies. We think that this experience supports the view that Hartnup disorder in the mother, unlike phenylketonuria, does not have an adverse effect on the fetus. The presence of normal ratios of the amino acid concentrations between maternal and umbilical veins in one mother also suggests that placental transport of free amino acids, unlike renal transport, may not be reduced in maternal Hartnup disorder.

  3. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy...... in European countries; and •lists of possible opportunities for action in European countries. The overview and exploration of the national recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy are based on the results of a survey in which 51 of the 53 Member States in the WHO....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  4. Characterization of the Polish Primitive Horse (Konik) maternal lines using mitochondrial D-loop sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslak, Jakub; Wodas, Lukasz; Borowska, Alicja; Cothran, Ernest G; Khanshour, Anas M; Mackowski, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Polish Primitive Horse (PPH, Konik) is a Polish native horse breed managed through a conservation program mainly due to its characteristic phenotype of a primitive horse. One of the most important goals of PPH breeding strategy is the preservation and equal development of all existing maternal lines. However, until now there was no investigation into the real genetic diversity of 16 recognized PPH dam lines using mtDNA sequence variation. Herein, we describe the phylogenetic relationships between the PPH maternal lines based upon partial mtDNA D-loop sequencing of 173 individuals. Altogether, 19 mtDNA haplotypes were detected in the PPH population. Five haplotypes were putatively novel while the remaining 14 showed the 100% homology with sequences deposited in the GenBank database, represented by both modern and primitive horse breeds. Generally, comparisons found the haplotypes conformed to 10 different recognized mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, E, G, J, M, N, P, Q and R). A multi-breed analysis has indicated the phylogenetic similarity of PPH and other indigenous horse breeds derived from various geographical regions (e.g., Iberian Peninsula, Eastern Europe and Siberia) which may support the hypothesis that within the PPH breed numerous ancestral haplotypes (found all over the world) are still present. Only in the case of five maternal lines (Bona, Dzina I, Geneza, Popielica and Zaza) was the segregation of one specific mtDNA haplotype observed. The 11 remaining lines showed a higher degree of mtDNA haplotype variability (2-5 haplotypes segregating in each line). This study has revealed relatively high maternal genetic diversity in the small, indigenous PPH breed (19 haplotypes, overall HapD = 0.92). However, only some traditionally distinguished maternal lines can be treated as genetically pure. The rest show evidence of numerous mistakes recorded in the official PPH pedigrees. This study has proved the importance of maternal genetic diversity monitoring based upon

  5. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction....

  6. The Maternal Heroine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Messer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a Chinese curse quoted in glib desk calendars that have a phrase for each day: ‘May you live in interesting times’. In fiction, maternity has not often been seen as terribly interesting, and in the real world having babies often stops a mother from writing, off and on and even for years. The story of mothers and babies seems elusive, not fit for the imagination, for where’s the story? The ‘maternal heroine’, a protagonist and main character whose actions and identity are closely bound up with her work and experience of herself as a mother of young and dependent children, is rare. How could she not be? She’s busy giving off strong whiffs of routine. Where’s the drama in that? And what are babies? They’re not thinking, arguing agents for change—hardly protagonists—even if antagonistic at the cocktail hour. At least, that is one way of opening up the question of the maternal heroine.

  7. Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

    2008-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life.

  8. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  9. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  10. Maternally acquired runt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, A E; Billingham, R E

    1973-01-19

    Without altering the structural integrity of the placenta by irradiation or drugs, we have shown that it is possible to immunize females both adoptively and actively against the paternally inherited transplantation antigens of their fetuses. Such immunization causes a high incidence of runt disease among the litters. Although the putative chimeric status of the affected offspring has yet to be confirmed, the results of our experiments support the thesis that runt disease is caused by the activities of "unwanted" immigrant lymphocytes from the maternal circulation. Our results suggest that immunologically activated cells are more likely to cross the placenta than normal cells and that this greater mobility may not be related to the immunologic specificity of the activated cells. Two factors may have contributed to the apparent failure of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate the capacity of transplantation immunity to affect the well-being of a fetus or, more correctly, its placenta, in the way that might be expected of a homograft. (i) Investigators were preoccupied with obtaining a classic type of rejection, in utero, analogous to the rejection of an orthotopic skin homograft. The birth of consistently healthy-looking litters, interpreted as a failure of the experiment, convinced the investigators of the efficacy of nature's solution of the homograft problem and there was no reason for them to suspect its possible limitations. Observation of the litters for several weeks might have uncovered the phenomenon of maternally induced runt disease. (ii) Most investigators resorted to hyperimmunization of the mothers. This would have facilitated the synthesis of protective isoantibodies capable of interfering with the expression of the potentially harmful cellular immune response (6). Ever since the abnormalities of runt disease were first described they have repeatedly been compared to those observed in patients with certain lymphomas (17). Various theories have been

  11. Maternal mortality due to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Vivian Carolina; Pearlman, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Maternal mortality is an important indicator of adequacy of health care in our society. Improvements in the obstetric care system as well as advances in technology have contributed to reduction in maternal mortality rates. Trauma complicates up to 7% of all pregnancies and has emerged as the leading cause of maternal mortality, becoming a significant concern for the public health system. Maternal mortality secondary to trauma can often be prevented by coordinated medical care, but it is essential that caregivers recognize the unique situation of providing simultaneous care to 2 patients who have a complex physiologic relationship. Optimal management of the pregnant trauma victim requires a multidisciplinary team, where the obstetrician plays a central role. This review focuses on the incidence of maternal mortality due to trauma, the mechanisms involved in traumatic injury, the important anatomic and physiologic changes that may predispose to mortality due to trauma, and finally, preventive strategies that may decrease the incidence of traumatic maternal death.

  12. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  13. [Epidemiology and maternal thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01

    The monthly incidence of deep vein thrombosis during pregnancy varies from 0.1 to 0.8 per 1000 pregnancies, depending on the study. These figures are undoubtedly an underestimation because they were determined from clinical events with no estimation of asymptomatic forms which, in general, increase the prevalence about 3-fold. Although the absolute figures are reliable, the consequences in terms of maternal mortality and post-phlebitis sequelae warrant the careful attention paid to this condition. Moreover, it should be recalled that the prevalence of superficial venous thrombosis is similar and may be associated with a risk of pulmonary embolism.

  14. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  15. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  16. Maternal Talk About Disappearance Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Beverly A.

    1995-01-01

    Examined maternal talk about events regarding hidden, missing, or absent persons or objects, and the relationship of maternal language to children's acquisition of words for disappearance, among 12 mother-infant pairs. Results found that infants who had acquired "gone" and similar terms experienced more disappearance events than children…

  17. Evolution of maternal effect senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorad, Jacob A; Nussey, Daniel H

    2016-01-12

    Increased maternal age at reproduction is often associated with decreased offspring performance in numerous species of plants and animals (including humans). Current evolutionary theory considers such maternal effect senescence as part of a unified process of reproductive senescence, which is under identical age-specific selective pressures to fertility. We offer a novel theoretical perspective by combining William Hamilton's evolutionary model for aging with a quantitative genetic model of indirect genetic effects. We demonstrate that fertility and maternal effect senescence are likely to experience different patterns of age-specific selection and thus can evolve to take divergent forms. Applied to neonatal survival, we find that selection for maternal effects is the product of age-specific fertility and Hamilton's age-specific force of selection for fertility. Population genetic models show that senescence for these maternal effects can evolve in the absence of reproductive or actuarial senescence; this implies that maternal effect aging is a fundamentally distinct demographic manifestation of the evolution of aging. However, brief periods of increasingly beneficial maternal effects can evolve when fertility increases with age faster than cumulative survival declines. This is most likely to occur early in life. Our integration of theory provides a general framework with which to model, measure, and compare the evolutionary determinants of the social manifestations of aging. Extension of our maternal effects model to other ecological and social contexts could provide important insights into the drivers of the astonishing diversity of lifespans and aging patterns observed among species.

  18. National level maternal health decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koduah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal deaths and morbidity still pose an enormous challenge for health authorities in Ghana, a lower middle income country. Despite massive investments in maternal and neonatal health and special attention through Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 4 a

  19. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Meydan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1 was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222 across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens.

  20. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  1. Migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists within Africa based on population structure of Chad Basin and phylogeography of mitochondrial L3f haplogroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulligan Connie J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chad Basin, lying within the bidirectional corridor of African Sahel, is one of the most populated places in Sub-Saharan Africa today. The origin of its settlement appears connected with Holocene climatic ameliorations (aquatic resources that started ~10,000 years before present (YBP. Although both Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo language families are encountered here, the most diversified group is the Chadic branch belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language phylum. In this article, we investigate the proposed ancient migration of Chadic pastoralists from Eastern Africa based on linguistic data and test for genetic traces of this migration in extant Chadic speaking populations. Results We performed whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of 16 L3f haplotypes, focused on clade L3f3 that occurs almost exclusively in Chadic speaking people living in the Chad Basin. These data supported the reconstruction of a L3f phylogenetic tree and calculation of times to the most recent common ancestor for all internal clades. A date ~8,000 YBP was estimated for the L3f3 sub-haplogroup, which is in good agreement with the supposed migration of Chadic speaking pastoralists and their linguistic differentiation from other Afro-Asiatic groups of East Africa. As a whole, the Afro-Asiatic language family presents low population structure, as 92.4% of mtDNA variation is found within populations and only 3.4% of variation can be attributed to diversity among language branches. The Chadic speaking populations form a relatively homogenous cluster, exhibiting lower diversification than the other Afro-Asiatic branches (Berber, Semitic and Cushitic. Conclusion The results of our study support an East African origin of mitochondrial L3f3 clade that is present almost exclusively within Chadic speaking people living in Chad Basin. Whole genome sequence-based dates show that the ancestral haplogroup L3f must have emerged soon after the Out-of-Africa migration (around

  2. Towards elimination of maternal deaths: maternal deaths surveillance and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hounton Sennen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current methods for estimating maternal mortality lack precision, and are not suitable for monitoring progress in the short run. In addition, national maternal mortality ratios (MMRs alone do not provide useful information on where the greatest burden of mortality is located, who is concerned, what are the causes, and more importantly what sub-national variations occur. This paper discusses a maternal death surveillance and response (MDSR system. MDSR systems are not yet established in most countries and have potential added value for policy making and accountability and can build on existing efforts to conduct maternal death reviews, verbal autopsies and confidential enquiries. Accountability at national and sub-national levels cannot rely on global, regional and national retrospective estimates periodically generated from academia or United Nations organizations but on routine counting, investigation, sub national data analysis, long term investments in vital registration and national health information systems. Establishing effective maternal death surveillance and response will help achieve MDG 5, improve quality of maternity care and eliminate maternal mortality (MMR ≤ 30 per 100,000 by 2030.

  3. Epidemiological assessment of influenza (H1N1- A in patients hospitalized in Tohid hospital in Sanandaj, Iran during 2013-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshiyar Ghafouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza virus which is highly contagious and spread easily. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of influenza (H1N1 type A in patients admitted to Tohid hospital, Sanandaj, Iran during 2013-2014. Material and Methods: This study was descriptive. Data were collected using a questionnaire which was designed based on study goals. The questionnaires were completed via interview, observation and performing clinical tests. After clinical confirmation of influenza by a specialist, genotype was determined by PCR. Results: Of the total 76 cases, 36 cases (48.6% were male, mean age was 42.7 ± 16.3 and 13.5% were rural and 86.5 were urban dwellers. 52 patient (70.3% were hospitalized and 22 (29.7% were outpatients. Travel history was including, abroad 9.5%, domestic 16.2% and without traveling 75.3%. The average time between referring to the doctor and sampling for H1N1 was 2.7 days. The prevalence of influenza (H1N1 A was 1.4%. Conclusion: The low incidence of H1N1 influenza type A in this study was probably due to travel to infected areas. Considering virus mutation, the readiness of health services to prevent an epidemic of this disease is essential and recommended.

  4. Maternal employment, breastfeeding, and health: evidence from maternity leave mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Public health agencies around the world have renewed efforts to increase the incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Maternity leave mandates present an economic policy that could help achieve these goals. We study their efficacy, focusing on a significant increase in maternity leave mandates in Canada. We find very large increases in mothers' time away from work post-birth and in the attainment of critical breastfeeding duration thresholds. We also look for impacts of the reform on self-reported indicators of maternal and child health captured in our data. For most indicators we find no effect.

  5. Fortification of maternal milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Di Natale

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of human milk (HM, well recognized for the term infant, extend to the feeding of premature infants, because their nutrition support must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic compromise, and maternal psycosocial conditions. Studies show that preterm milk contains higher protein levels and more fat than term human milk. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that preterm neonates should receive sufficient nutrients to enable them to grow at a rate similar to that of fetuses of the same gestational age. There are no doubts about the fact that maternal milk is the best food for all neonates, but unfortified human breast milk may not meet the recommended nutritional needs of growing preterm infants. Human milk must therefore be supplemented (fortified with the nutrients in short supply. The objective of fortification is to increase the concentration of nutrients to such levels that at the customary feeding volumes infants receive amounts of all nutrients that meet the requirements. The are two different forms of fortification of human milk: standard and individualized. The new concepts and recommendations for optimization of human milk fortification is the “individualized fortification”. Actually, two methods have been proposed for individualization: the “targeted/tailored fortification” and the “adjustable fortification”. In summary, the use of fortified human milk produces adequate growth in premature infants and satisfies the specific nutritional requirements of these infants. The use of individualized fortification is recommended. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. Global distribution of Y-chromosome haplogroup C reveals the prehistoric migration routes of African exodus and early settlement in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hua; Shi, Hong; Qi, Xue-Bin; Xiao, Chun-Jie; Jin, Li; Ma, Runlin Z; Su, Bing

    2010-07-01

    The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.

  7. Maternity leave in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2011-08-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies.

  8. Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003407.htm Fetal-maternal erythrocyte distribution To use the sharing features ... unborn baby is leaking into the mother's blood circulation. The more of the baby's cells there are, ...

  9. Maternal Mortality Trend in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    it generally indicates the urgent need of improving the quality of maternal health services; scaling up evidence based interventions ... inadequate care, inefficient management of delivery, and ... There are many factors that affect the outcome of.

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  12. Maternal scaffolding behavior: links with parenting style and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amanda; Pike, Alison

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to specify the relationship between positive and harsh parenting and maternal scaffolding behavior. A 2nd aim was to disentangle the effects of maternal education and parenting quality, and a 3rd aim was to test whether parenting quality mediated the association between maternal education and scaffolding practices. We examined associations between positive and harsh parenting practices and contingent and noncontingent tutoring strategies. Ninety-six mother-child dyads (49 boys, 47 girls) from working- and middle-class English families participated. Mothers reported on parenting quality at Time 1 when children were 5 years old and again approximately 5 years later at Time 2. Mother-child pairs were observed working together on a block design task at Time 2, and interactions were coded for contingent (contingent shifting) and noncontingent (fixed failure feedback) dimensions of maternal scaffolding behavior. Positive and harsh parenting accounted for variance in contingent behavior over and above maternal education, whereas only harsh parenting accounted for unique variance in noncontingent scaffolding practices. Our findings provide new evidence for a more differentiated model of the relation between general parenting quality and specific scaffolding behaviors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Phylogeny of Y-chromosome haplogroup C3b-F1756, an important paternal lineage in Altaic-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan-Hai; Huang, Yun-Zhi; Yan, Shi; Wen, Shao-Qing; Wang, Ling-Xiang; Du, Pan-Xin; Yao, Da-Li; Li, Shi-Lin; Yang, Ya-Jun; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2017-06-01

    In previous studies, a specific paternal lineage with a null value for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) marker DYS448 was identified as common among Mongolic- and Turkic-speaking populations. This paternal lineage (temporarily named C3*-DYS448del) was determined to be M217+, M93-, P39-, M48-, M407-, and P53.1-, and its origin and phylogeny remain ambiguous. Here, we analyzed Y-chromosome sequences of 10 male that are related this paternal lineage and redefined it as C3b1a1a1a-F1756 (C3b-F1756). We generated a highly revised phylogenetic tree of haplogroup C3b-F1756, including 21 sub-clades and 360 non-private Y-chromosome polymorphisms. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the C3*-DYS448del lineage in eastern Eurasia, including 18 270 samples from 297 populations. Whole Y-chromosome sequences, Y-STR haplotypes, and frequency data were used to generate a distribution map, a network, and age estimations for lineage C3*-DYS448del and its sub-lineages. Considering the historical records of the studied populations, we propose that two major sub-branches of C3b-F1756 may correspond to early expansions of ancestors of modern Mongolic- and Turkic-speaking populations. The large number of newly defined Y-chromosome polymorphisms and the revised phylogenetic tree for C3b-F1756 will assist in investigation of the early history of Altaic-speaking populations in the future.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 1 June 2017; doi:10.1038/jhg.2017.60.

  14. Severe maternal outcome: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Grover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality ratio (MMR is considered an indicator of obstetric care available in a society and reduction in MMR has been one of the important millennium development goals defined by World Health Organization (WHO but it has always been recognized that maternal mortality is just the tip of iceberg. WHO has now defined maternal near-miss cases thus broadening the focus on life threatening conditions encountered by pregnant women. A study was started at our obstetric unit based on near-miss maternal mortality concept in March 2015 and is currently underway. We analyzed the initial data of the first few months and recognized four of such special cases which find mention in this review. We decided to review the literature with special reference to these cases as every such case is a lesson in itself for the health care provider, highlighting the acts of omission or interventions that may make the difference between a high risk pregnancy terminating without complication or ending as a near-miss or mortality. We reviewed the literature about various causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. In addition to the sincere efforts done by the doctors from different specialities, a good blood bank facility, ICU care as well as government provided transport facility played important roles in these cases. A long term analysis of this data can certainly guide the policy makers about the areas that need more stress and financial support. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(3.000: 596-602

  15. [Maternal malnutrition. The nursing task].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotestán Liverpool, G; Grant, W A; Ibáñez Peña, E

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective study of 577 patients from urban and periurban areas of Las Tunas municipality is made. These patients were delivered in "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna" Hospital between January and April 1986, both inclusive; their characteristics included being single pregnancies and not having suffered maternal diseases that influenced fetal growth. The following variables were studied: state of maternal nutrition at implantation, initial weight and weight gain, newborn weight, as well as maternal age and place of residence; these variables were interrelated with the view to know their influence or lack of influence on fetal weight. A survey of 89 of these women is made; they had been classified as malnourished and the purpose of the survey is to analyze their knowledge and views on malnutrition, as well as the instructions received during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions are derived and nursing recommendations are made.

  16. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively...... for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time......-invariant heterogeneity between mothers, I compare outcomes of mothers' consecutive children. Mothers who work during the first pregnancy trimester have a lower risk of preterm birth. I fi nd no eff ect on the probability of having a baby of small size for gestational age (SGA). To rule out the possibility that health...

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  19. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... 100,000 live births, but it increased to 8.7 after classification by the European panel (P deaths differs between European countries. These differences in coding contribute to variations in the reported numbers of maternal deaths...

  20. Maternal age and child morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Malene Meisner; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess the asso......INTRODUCTION: The mean age at delivery has increased over the latest half of a century. Women of advanced maternal age have increased obstetrical risks and increased risk of chromosomal abnormalities and some other specified diagnoses in the offspring. The aim of this study was to assess...

  1. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    nutritional status on, maternal measles antibodies of mother-infant pairs at birth ... The (mean ± SD) MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth were. 134.66 ± 93.31 (95% CI, ..... be of public health benefit because policy makers can use this work as a.

  2. MATERNAL MORTALITY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Maternal Mortality in A Tertiary Care Centre. OBJECTIVE: To study maternal mortality and the complications leading to maternal death. METHODS: A retrospective study of hospital record to study maternal mortality and its causes over 3 years from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: There were a total of 58 maternal deaths out of 2823 live births giving a maternal mortality ratio of 2054.55 per one lakh live births. Unbooked and late referrals account for 77.58% of maternal deaths. The majority of deaths around 75.86% were in 20-30 years age group. Haemorrhage was the commonest causes of death (24.12% followed by sepsis (18.96% and pregnancy induced hypertension 15.51% Anemia contributed to the most common indirect cause of maternal morality. CONCLUSION: Haemorrhage, sepsis and pregnancy induced hypertension including eclampsia were the direct major causes of death. Anaemia and cardiac diseases were other indirect causes of death.

  3. Pregnancy outcomes according to increasing maternal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jin Koo

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Increasing maternal age is an independent and substantial risk factor for adverse perinatal and obstetric outcomes. These adverse outcomes become more common as increasing maternal age without a clear cutoff age.

  4. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  5. Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Maternal Language: Implications for Infant Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryski, Katie R.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Semple, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and maternal language was examined in a community sample of 50 mothers of infants age 3-12 months. It was hypothesized that higher maternal symptoms of ADHD would be related to lower quality of maternal language use. Recordings of mothers' speech were coded for complexity and elaboration of speech…

  6. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the Netherlan

  7. Maternal mortality and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Ruth R.; Schutte, Joke M.; Stekelenburg, Jelle; Zwart, Joost J.; van Roosmalen, Jos

    Objective: To assess maternal death and severe maternal morbidity from acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) in the Netherlands. Study design: A retrospective study of all cases of maternal mortality in the Netherlands between 1983 and 2006 and all cases of severe maternal morbidity in the

  8. [Maternal and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    After a year-long diagnosis of Chile's health situation, the Ministry of Health in 1991 formulated a new maternal-child health program designed to assure that all pregnancies would be desired and would occur under optimal conditions. Orientation for responsible parenthood will be an important part of the process. Other objectives include reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and of sexually transmitted diseases. The pregnancy rate for young women 15-19 changed very little in Chile between 1952-82, because of the lack of sex education and family planning services. Family planning programs designed especially for adolescents would help to combat unwanted pregnancies and could offer the methods most suitable for young women. The well-known longitudinal study in Czechoslovakia which followed the development of children whose mothers were denied legal abortions in the 1960s showed the children to be at increased risk of unsatisfactory social adjustment in later life and suggested some consequences of unwanted pregnancy. A study of unwanted pregnancy in Chile was initiated in 4 prenatal care centers in a working class area of Santiago in 1984. 2485 women in the 6th or 7th month of pregnancy were classified according to their existing family sizes. Only 33.1% of the women desired the pregnancy at that time and 38.4% desired it but at a later time. 28.5% did not desire it at all. Women who did not desire the pregnancy waited significantly longer to obtain prenatal care than women who desired it. Age, economic problems, being single, family conflicts, already having the desired number of children, and short intervals since the most recent birth were associated with not desiring the current pregnancy. Of the 1663 women who did not desire the pregnancy, only 13.1% of those single, 35.8% of those in union, and 44.0% of those married used a contraceptive method. 2133 of the mothers were interviewed 6 months and 1977 12 months after delivery. Birth weights did not vary

  9. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  10. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); Perng, W. (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation

  11. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gaillard (Romy); S.L. Rifas-Shiman (Sheryl); W. Perng (Wei); E. Oken (Emily); M.W. Gillman (Matthew W.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal obesity-mediated proinflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic

  12. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Schutte; E.A.P. Steegers; N.W.E. Schuitemaker; J.G. Santema; K. de Boer; M. Pel; G. Vermeulen; W. Visser; J. van Roosmalen

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Setting Nationwide in the Netherlands. Population 2,557,208 live births. Methods Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the pe

  13. Prenatal Maternal Stress Programs Infant Stress Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Waffarn, Feizal; Sandman, Curt A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prenatal exposure to inappropriate levels of glucocorticoids (GCs) and maternal stress are putative mechanisms for the fetal programming of later health outcomes. The current investigation examined the influence of prenatal maternal cortisol and maternal psychosocial stress on infant physiological and behavioral responses to stress.…

  14. Maternal and Child Health Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Topics Programs & Initiatives Funding Opportunities Data, Research & Epidemiology About MCHB Maternal and Child Health Bureau  News & Announcements HHS Awards more than $742,000 to Health Centers in American Samoa and the Virgin Islands to Fight Zika (6/23/16) Approved on June 6, 2016 -- ...

  15. Multigenerational effects of maternal undernutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Francine H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to reduced nutrient availability can have major effects in determining susceptibility to chronic disease later in life. Martínez et al. (2014) demonstrate multigenerational effects of poor maternal nutrition and evidence of germ-line transmission through alterations in DNA methylation. PMID:24896533

  16. Oxytocin and Maternal Brain Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Although dramatic postnatal changes in maternal behavior have long been noted, we are only now beginning to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that support this transition. The present paper synthesizes growing insights from both animal and human research to provide an overview of the plasticity of the mother's brain, with a particular…

  17. Mitochondrial haplogroup M9a specific variant ND1 T3394C may have a modifying role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated ND4 G11778A mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minglian; Zhou, Xiangtian; Li, Chengwu; Zhao, Fuxin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Yuan, Meixia; Sun, Yan-Hong; Wang, Jingzheng; Tong, Yi; Liang, Min; Yang, Li; Cai, Wanshi; Wang, Lifei; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin

    2010-01-01

    We report here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of four Han Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The penetrances of optic neuropathy in these Chinese pedigrees were 38%, 38%, 44% and 56%. This observation is in contrast with the previously identified 14 Chinese families with very low penetrance of LHON. The age-at-onset for visual impairment in matrilineal relatives in these Chinese families varied from 18 to 30years. Furthermore, the ratios between affected male and female matrilineal relatives in these families were 3:0, 3:0, 3:1 and 2:3, respectively. Molecular analysis of mitochondrial genomes identified the known ND4 G11778A mutation and distinct sets of variants belonging to the Asian haplogroups M9a. Of these, the ND1 T3394C mutation caused the substitution of a highly conserved histidine for tyrosine (Y30H) at amino acid position 30. This mutation was associated with LHON in other families with low penetrance of optic neuropathy and other clinical abnormalities. The presence of both G11778A and T3394C mutations appears to contribute to higher penetrance of optic neuropathy in these four Chinese families than other Chinese families carrying only the G11778A mutation. Therefore, the mitochondrial haplogroup M9a specific variant T3394C may modulate the phenotypic manifestation of LHON-associated G11778A mutation in these Chinese pedigrees.

  18. Maternal 'near miss' at Royal Darwin Hospital: An analysis of severe maternal morbidity at an Australian regional tertiary maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratnam, Skandarupan; Burton, Alice; Connan, Kirsten Fiona; de Costa, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of severe maternal morbidity using World Health Organization (WHO) 'near-miss' criteria is gaining in importance as a valuable tool in the assessment of maternity care of women. Identification of cases allows an understanding of aetiology of severe morbidity and factors contributing to poor maternal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of maternal 'near miss' at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and the utility of the WHO near-miss criteria as a tool for data collection in a regional Australian context. Cases of maternal 'near miss' and deaths were prospectively identified over a period of 12 months using the WHO criteria. During the audit period, there were 2080 live births at Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH): 10 women presented with a 'near miss' and there was one maternal death. The maternal mortality ratio for the hospital was 48/100 000 live births, the maternal 'near-miss' index ratio was 4.8/1000 live births, and the combination of maternal deaths and near misses gave a severe maternal outcome (SMO) ratio of 5.3/1000 live births. The main cause of obstetric 'near miss' was obstetric haemorrhage. Indigenous women and women from remote areas comprised a significant portion of 'near-miss' cases. The rates of maternal 'near miss' at RDH are consistent with other studies in the developed world. The WHO maternal 'near-miss' audit tool helps health professionals understand and anticipate severe maternal morbidities, with the aim of improving maternal and perinatal outcomes. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Maternal responsiveness and maternal selectivity in domestic sheep and goats: the two facets of maternal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindron, Pascal; Lévy, Frédéric; Keller, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    Sheep and goats rapidly establish an exclusive relationship with their neonate following contact with it during a sensitive period of maternal responsiveness induced by the physiological events occurring at parturition. The data concerning the sensory, physiological, and neurobiological factors involved in the activation of both maternal responsiveness and the establishment of selective nursing indicates that these processes are activated simultaneously by the combined action of two main factors, the prepartum rise in circulating estrogen and the vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) caused by fetus expulsion. On the one hand, these two factors act on a neural network including the main olfactory system (MOB), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) to induce maternal responsiveness towards any neonate. The intracerebral release of oxytocin (OT) from the PVN, and the triggering of olfactory attraction for amniotic fluid (AF) are key elements in this process. On the other hand, VCS at birth also sets the MOB ready to memorize the individual odor of the neonate, through the release of peptides and neurotransmitters (noradrenaline and acetylcholine). In addition to the MOB, the network involved in recognition mainly includes the medial and cortical amygdala. Across consolidation processes, reorganization occurs in the network engaged in lamb recognition. Whether this memorization may be potentiated by other sensory cues is not known. The identification of the chemosensory compounds involved in the attraction for AF and in the recognition of the neonate is important for understanding the mechanisms of maternal attachment.

  20. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  1. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  2. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijper, Bram; Johnstone, Rufus A; Townley, Stuart

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M) in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  3. The evolution of multivariate maternal effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Kuijper

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in predicting the social and ecological contexts that favor the evolution of maternal effects. Most predictions focus, however, on maternal effects that affect only a single character, whereas the evolution of maternal effects is poorly understood in the presence of suites of interacting traits. To overcome this, we simulate the evolution of multivariate maternal effects (captured by the matrix M in a fluctuating environment. We find that the rate of environmental fluctuations has a substantial effect on the properties of M: in slowly changing environments, offspring are selected to have a multivariate phenotype roughly similar to the maternal phenotype, so that M is characterized by positive dominant eigenvalues; by contrast, rapidly changing environments favor Ms with dominant eigenvalues that are negative, as offspring favor a phenotype which substantially differs from the maternal phenotype. Moreover, when fluctuating selection on one maternal character is temporally delayed relative to selection on other traits, we find a striking pattern of cross-trait maternal effects in which maternal characters influence not only the same character in offspring, but also other offspring characters. Additionally, when selection on one character contains more stochastic noise relative to selection on other traits, large cross-trait maternal effects evolve from those maternal traits that experience the smallest amounts of noise. The presence of these cross-trait maternal effects shows that individual maternal effects cannot be studied in isolation, and that their study in a multivariate context may provide important insights about the nature of past selection. Our results call for more studies that measure multivariate maternal effects in wild populations.

  4. Current Concepts of Maternal Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowensohn, Richard I.; Stadler, Diane D.; Naze, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Background A nutrient-rich maternal diet before and during pregnancy is associated with improved fetal health, more appropriate birth weight, and increased rates of maternal and infant survival. Physicians need a better understanding of the role of diet in shaping fetal outcomes. Given this background, we reviewed and summarized articles on maternal nutrition found in MEDLINE since 1981, written in English, and limited to human subjects. For the Offspring Maternal diets high in sugar and fat lead to an increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. Folic acid should be supplemented prior to conception and continued through at least the first 28 days of fetal life to prevent neural tube defects, and vitamin C should be given to women who smoke to lower the incidence of asthma and wheezing in the children. Iodine deficiency is increasing, and iodine should be included in prenatal supplements. If the maternal hemoglobin is 7 g/dL or more, there is no evidence that iron supplementation is needed. Fish intake during pregnancy is protective against atopic outcomes, whereas high-meat diets contribute to elevated adult blood pressure and hypersecretion of cortisol. For the Mother Calcium supplementation lowers the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Conclusions Given the limits of our current knowledge, a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and selected fish is desirable for the best outcomes. Diets high in sugar and fat lead to higher rates of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Folic acid, iodine, and calcium in all pregnant women and vitamin C in smokers are the only supplements so far shown to be of value for routine use. The physician treating a pregnant woman should be ready to advise a healthy diet for the benefit of the fetus. Target Audience Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians Learning Objectives After participating in this activity, the

  5. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ancient DNA reveals a migration of the ancient Di-qiang populations into Xinjiang as early as the early Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi-Zhu; Zhang, Ye; Wei, Dong; Li, Hong-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Bin; Cui, Yin-Qiu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Xinjiang is at the crossroads between East and West Eurasia, and it harbors a relatively complex genetic history. In order to better understand the population movements and interactions in this region, mitochondrial and Y chromosome analyses on 40 ancient human remains from the Tianshanbeilu site in eastern Xinjiang were performed. Twenty-nine samples were successfully assigned to specific mtDNA haplogroups, including the west Eurasian maternal lineages of U and W and the east Eurasian maternal lineages of A, C, D, F, G, Z, M7, and M10. In the male samples, two Y chromosome haplogroups, C* and N1 (xN1a, N1c), were successfully assigned. Our mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA analyses combined with the archaeological studies revealed that the Di-qiang populations from the Hexi Corridor had migrated to eastern Xinjiang and admixed with the Eurasian steppe populations in the early Bronze Age.

  8. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  9. The measurement of maternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, C

    2012-02-01

    The issue of maternal obesity has become a major public health problem. Internationally, the diagnosis of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI) that is, weight in kg\\/height in m2. While epidemiological associations have been shown between different BMI categories and adverse clinical outcomes, there is also a growing realisation that BMI has significant limitations. In this review, we assess current methods to measure body fat and, in particular, their application in pregnant women.

  10. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  11. Contrasting maternal and paternal histories in the linguistic context of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Chiara; Whitten, Mark; Beyer, Klaus; Schreiber, Henning; Li, Mingkun; Pakendorf, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Burkina Faso is located in the heart of West Africa and is a representative of the local structured patterns of human variability. Here, different cultures and languages are found in a geographic contiguity, as a result of several waves of migration and the succession of long- and short-term empires. However, historical documentation for this area is only partial, focusing predominantly on the recent empires, and linguistic surveys lack the power to fully elucidate the social context of the contact-induced changes. In this paper, we report Y-chromosomal data and complete mtDNA genome sequences for ten populations from Burkina Faso whose languages belong to two very distantly related branches of the Niger-Congo phylum, the Gur and Mande language families. In addition, two further populations, the Mande-speaking Mandenka from Senegal and the Yoruba from Nigeria, were included for regional comparison. We focus on the different historical trajectories undergone by the maternal and paternal lineages. Our results reveal a striking structure in the paternal line, which matches the linguistic affiliation of the ethnolinguistic groups, in contrast to the near-complete homogeneity of the populations in the maternal line. However, while the ancient structure along the linguistic lines is apparent in the Y-chromosomal haplogroup affiliation, this has clearly been overlain by more recent migrations, as shown by significant correlations between the genetic distances based on Y chromosome short tandem repeats and geographic distances between the populations, as well as by the patterns of shared haplotypes. Using the complete mtDNA sequences, we are able to reconstruct population size variation in the past, showing a strong sign of expansion in the concomitance with the Holocene Climate Optimum approximately 12,000-10,000 years ago, which has been suggested as the cause of the spread of the Niger-Congo phylum in the area. However, subsequent climatic fluctuations do not appear to

  12. [Maternal mortality among black women in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alaerte Leandro

    2006-11-01

    Every minute a woman dies in the world due to labor or complications of pregnancy. Maternal mortality is a public health problem in Brazil and affects the country's various regions unequally. Researchers agree that maternal death occurs mainly in women with lower income and less schooling. The racial issue emerges in the midst of socioeconomic issues. The analysis is hampered by the difficulty in understanding Brazil's official classification of race/color, which often impedes recording this information. Various Maternal Mortality Committees are applying the color item and reviewing their data. The current article analyzes various Maternal Mortality Committee reports, showing that the risk of maternal mortality is greater among black women (which encompasses two census categories, negra, or black, and parda, or brown), thus representing a major expression of social inequality. The article concludes with a review of political and technical recommendations to decrease maternal mortality.

  13. [Maternal and foetal prognostic during severe toxemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdi, Radhouane; Kaabi, Mehdi; Zayene, Houssine; Basly, Mohamed; Messaoudi, Fathi; Messaoudi, Lotfi; Chibani, Mounir

    2005-02-01

    Severe gravidic toxemia gives heavy maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to loosen the factors of bad maternal and foetal prognostic. It's a retrospective study about 100 cases of severe and complicated gravidic toxemia repertorieted in the maternity of Military Hospital of Tunis. Maternal morbidity is dominated by the complications of hypertension and a blood disorders. We raised 4 cases of eclampsia, 9 cases of retro placental hematome and 5 cases of HELLP syndrome. We don't deplore any maternal death. Perinatal mortality is 28.8%. The rate of delay intra-uterine growth was 43.8% and the prematurity 65.9%. More toxemia appears early during pregnancy more maternal and foetal prognostic is compromised.

  14. Public health approach to address maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sanjay K; Anand, K; Misra, Puneet; Kant, Shashi; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY) that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women's health.

  15. Public health approach to address maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K Rai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing maternal mortality is one of the major challenges to health systems worldwide, more so in developing countries that account for nearly 99% of these maternal deaths. Lack of a standard method for reporting of maternal death poses a major hurdle in making global comparisons. Currently much of the focus is on documenting the "number" of maternal deaths and delineating the "medical causes" behind these deaths. There is a need to acknowledge the social correlates of maternal deaths as well. Investigating and in-depth understanding of each maternal death can provide indications on practical ways of addressing the problem. Death of a mother has serious implications for the child as well as other family members and to prevent the same, a comprehensive approach is required. This could include providing essential maternal care, early management of complications and good quality intrapartum care through the involvement of skilled birth attendants. Ensuring the availability, affordability, and accessibility of quality maternal health services, including emergency obstetric care (EmOC would prove pivotal in reducing the maternal deaths. To increase perceived seriousness of the community regarding maternal health, a well-structured awareness campaign is needed with importance be given to avoid adolescent pregnancy as well. Initiatives like Janani Surakhsha Yojna (JSY that have the potential to improve maternal health needs to be strengthened. Quality assessments should form an essential part of all services that are directed toward improving maternal health. Further, emphasis needs to be given on research by involving multiple allied partners, with the aim to develop a prioritized, coordinated, and innovative research agenda for women′s health.

  16. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    OpenAIRE

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-01-01

    A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB). Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal ...

  17. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  18. The perinatal and maternal outcome in pregnancy with advanced maternal age 35 years and >35 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi S. Kalewad

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Pregnancies in women of advanced maternal age are considered high risk for Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. A proper preconception consultation and intensive antenatal care assessment can individualize and potentially reduce the risks for women with advanced maternal age. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 1929-1935

  19. Maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes in adolescent and adult pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Bárbara; Tendais, Iva; Dias, Cláudia C

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzes differences between adolescent and adult pregnant women and the contribution of maternal age to maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes during pregnancy. A sample of 398 Portuguese pregnant women (111 younger than 19 years) was recruited in a Portuguese Maternity Hospital and completed the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire between the 24(th) and 36(th) weeks of gestation. Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Questionnaire(1) RESULTS: Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment (poorer body image and worse marital relationship) and poorer maternal attitudes (more negative attitudes to sex) than adult pregnant women. When controlling for socio-demographics, age at pregnancy predicts poorer body image and more negative attitudes to sex, but not a worse marital relationship, more somatic symptoms or negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby. A worse marital relationship was better predicted by living without the partner, and more somatic symptoms and negative attitudes to pregnancy and the baby was predicted by higher education. Adolescent pregnant women show lower maternal adjustment and poorer maternal attitudes than adult pregnant women according to socio-demographics and unfavorable developmental circumstances. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  1. Cesarean section by maternal request

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAPHAEL CÂMARA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.

  2. Educación maternal

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicer Fuentes, Inmaculada Concepción

    2010-01-01

    Definir y/o describir los objetivos, metodología y contenidos de la educación maternal como componente del proceso asistencial integrado de atención al “Embarazo, Parto y Puerperio” de la Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía. Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos del crecimiento y desarrollo ovular Definir y/o describir los aspectos básicos de la educación sanitaria durante el embarazo, incluyendo aspectos como nutrición, fármacos, vacunas, atención prenatal y prevención ...

  3. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  4. Electroerosión. 1a. Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José William Moreno Portillo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mediante este trabajo se quiere dar a conocer los principios básicos que gobiernan el proceso de electroerosión, las partes principales de los equipos que se utilizan en el proceso y sus funciones, al igual que los principios de operación y sus principales parámetros tecnológicos. También se pretende dar algunos criterios que se deben tener en cuenta para la selección de un equipo de electroerosión y se hacen algunas consideraciones sobre el diseño de piezas que se van a obtener mediante este proceso.

  5. Nature, nurture or nutrition? Impact of maternal nutrition on maternal care, offspring development and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, K L; Vickers, M H; Beltrand, J; Meaney, M J; Sloboda, D M

    2012-05-01

    We have previously reported that offspring of mothers fed a high fat (HF) diet during pregnancy and lactation enter puberty early and are hyperleptinaemic, hyperinsulinaemic and obese as adults. Poor maternal care and bonding can also impact offspring development and disease risk.We therefore hypothesized that prenatal nutrition would affect maternal care and that an interaction may exist between a maternal HF diet and maternal care, subsequently impacting on offspring phenotype.Wistar rats were mated and randomized to control dams fed a control diet (CON) or dams fed a HF diet from conception until the end of lactation (HF). Maternal care was assessed by observing maternal licking and grooming of pups between postnatal day (P)3 and P8. Postweaning (P22), offspring were fed a control (–con) or HF (–hf) diet. From P27, pubertal onset was assessed. At ∼P105 oestrous cyclicity was investigated. Maternal HF diet reduced maternal care; HF-fed mothers licked and groomed pups less than CON dams.Maternal fat:lean ratio was higher in HF dams at weaning and was associated with higher maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, but there was no effect of maternal care on fat:lean ratio or maternal hormone levels. Both female and male offspring of HF dams were lighter from birth to P11 than offspring of CON dams, but by P19, HF offspring were heavier than controls. Prepubertal retroperitoneal fat mass was greater in pups from HF-fed dams compared to CON and was associated with elevated circulating leptin concentrations in females only, but there was neither an effect of maternal care, nor an interaction between maternal diet and care on prepubertal fat mass. Pups from HF-fed dams went into puberty early and this effect was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet.Maternal and postweaning HF diets independently altered oestrous cyclicity in females: female offspring of HF-fed mothers were more likely to have prolonged or persistent oestrus, whilst female offspring fed

  6. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  7. Trisomy 21 mosaicism and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan K

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the maternal age-specific risk for trisomy 21 mosaicism. Data were obtained on 322 trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism and 27,943 simple trisomy 21 diagnoses recorded in the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register from 1989 to 2009 in England and Wales. Trisomy 21 cases with mosaicism have a mean maternal age of 33.1 years compared to 35.0 years for free trisomy 21 cases. Sixty-seven percent of trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are maternal age dependent, with a risk 0.8% that of the corresponding maternal age specific risk for simple trisomy 21. However 33% (0.8 per 100,000 births) are not maternal age dependent, indicating that maternal age is not the only risk factor for mosaicism. Trisomy 21 diagnoses with mosaicism are more likely to be female than free trisomy 21 diagnoses, however there was no association of fetal sex with maternal age which indicates that there is another factor involved in the presence of mosaicism not associated with maternal age, but associated with fetal sex.

  8. Maternal Inattention and Impulsivity and Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by examining whether maternal inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are associated with different parenting behaviors. Ninety-six mother-son dyads participated in the study, and the boys ranged between 4 and 8 years of age. Maternal inattention was uniquely and positively associated with mothers' use of…

  9. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, J. de; Schutte, J.; Poeran, J.; Roosmalen, J. van; Bonsel, G.; Steegers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: de Graaf J, Schutte J, Poeran J, van Roosmalen J, Bonsel G, Steegers E. Regional differences in Dutch maternal mortality. BJOG 2012;119:582-588. Objective To study regional differences in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential inquiry into the causes of

  10. Maternal Depression and Developmental Disability: Research Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…

  11. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  12. STUDI PROSPEKTIF KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI SUKABUMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ratna Budiarso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A sample survey to assess maternal mortality was conducted in two subdistricts of Sukabumi regency, West Jawa comprising 65.000 people in 15 villages. Data were collected from 1 September 1982 throught 31 agustus 1983. In one year period 2407 deliveries were recorded, with 9 deaths during deliveries and 2 deaths during pregnancies. The maternal mortality ratio was 468.1 per 100,000 live births (LB. Age specific maternal mortality ratio increased at the age of 30 years and over. The maternal mortality rate was 73.7 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. Specific maternal mor­tality rate was high among women aged 30—39 years, which was partly associated with the high fertility rate among the group besides the increasing risk of maternal deaths. Direct obstetric causes were reported in 383.0 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB, which were frequently due to hemorrhage and obstructed labour. Indirect obstetric causes were reported in 85.1 maternal deaths per 100,000 LB.

  13. Developing a successful alternative maternity unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C

    1987-07-01

    The users of maternity services are becoming increasingly interested in alternative delivery options, as a result hospitals are developing customer oriented, competitive maternity services. In this article, the author describes one hospital's efforts at developing a customer oriented family birthing center: the rationale, the benefits, the marketing and the satisfying results.

  14. First trimester bleeding and maternal cardiovascular morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2012-01-01

    First trimester bleeding without miscarriage is a risk factor for complications later in the pregnancy, such as preterm delivery. Also, first trimester miscarriage has been linked to subsequent maternal ischemic heart disease. We investigated the link between maternal cardiovascular disease prior...... to and subsequent to first trimester bleeding without miscarriage....

  15. Putting the "M" back in the Maternal and Child Health Bureau: reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Michael C; Highsmith, Keisher; de la Cruz, David; Atrash, Hani K

    2015-07-01

    Maternal mortality and severe morbidity are on the rise in the United States. A significant proportion of these events are preventable. The Maternal Health Initiative (MHI), coordinated by the Maternal and Child Health Bureau at the Health Resources and Services Administration, is intensifying efforts to reduce maternal mortality and severe morbidity in the U.S. Through a public-private partnership, MHI is taking a comprehensive approach to improving maternal health focusing on five priority areas: improving women's health before, during and beyond pregnancy; improving the quality and safety of maternity care; improving systems of maternity care including both clinical and public health systems; improving public awareness and education; and improving surveillance and research.

  16. Predictors of maternal mortality in institutional deliveries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    7. Hospital Services Management Board, Katsina, Nigeria. 8. Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, ... Key words: maternal mortality; maternal death; predictors .... instrumental delivery, symphysiotomy, or assisted ..... For this reason,.

  17. [Beneficial effect of maternity leave on delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Séguin, Louise; Goulet, Lise

    2002-01-01

    To identify the contribution of the duration of the prenatal maternity leave on term delivery. Characteristics of the prenatal maternity leave and delivery among 363 working women who had delivered a full-term infant at 1 of 4 hospitals in Montreal during 1996 were studied. The presence of an intervention or complication during delivery was observed in 68.9% of the participants. The average duration of the prenatal maternity leave was about 8 weeks (SD = 7). The adjusted risk of a difficult delivery decreased significantly with the duration of the prenatal maternity leave (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99). The duration of the maternity leave before delivery is associated with an easier term delivery for working women.

  18. Determinants of Maternal Mortality in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Abbasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality refers to the death of a woman who dies during pregnancy or within six weeks after delivery. A number of factors contribute to the high maternal mortality ratio around the globe, particularly, in underdeveloped countries. Pakistan has the highest mortality ratio (260 per 100,000 live births in the region and is one of the developing countries which have committed to decrease maternal mortality by 2015, according to the millennium developing goals (MDG 5. However, there are number of factors which made Pakistan unable to achieve the MDG 5 by 2015. In Pakistan there are many factors such as biological, socio-economic, cultural and poor quality of Reproductive Health Services (RHS, which contribute to the alarming figure of Maternal Mortality.. This paper aimed to do an in-depth analysis of the determinants of maternal mortality in Pakistan.

  19. Striving for Respectful Maternity Care Everywhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rose L; Patel, Suha J; Scott, Jennifer; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Nour, Nawal M

    2016-09-01

    Purpose The mistreatment of women during childbirth in health facilities is a growing area of research and public attention. Description In many countries, disrespect and abuse from maternal health providers discourage women from seeking childbirth with a skilled birth attendant, which can lead to poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. This commentary highlights examples from three countries-Kenya, Mexico and the United States-and presents different forms of mistreatment during childbirth, which range from physical abuse to non-consented care to discriminatory practices. Assessment Building on the momentum from the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, and the Global and Maternal Neonatal Health Conference, the global community has placed respectful maternity care at the forefront of the maternal and neonatal health agenda. Conclusion Research efforts must focus on context-specific patient satisfaction during childbirth to identify areas for quality improvement.

  20. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...... reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from...

  1. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... been made. There is not a simple and straight-forward intervention, which by itself will bring maternal mortality significantly down; and it is commonly agreed on that the high maternal mortality can only be addressed if the health system is strengthened. There is a common consensus about...... the importance of skilled attendance at delivery to address the high, maternal mortality. This consensus is also reflected in the MDG 5, where the proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel is considered a key indicator. But even if countries invest massive efforts to increase skilled care...

  2. THE MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE: AN UPDATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Berghella

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Maternal-Fetal Medicine is contributing to an improvement of maternal well-being and of neonatal health, introducing a number of new and useful technologies. Advances in genomics in the field of prenatal screening and diagnosis allowed the discovery of fragments of cell-free fetal DNA in the maternal circulation and the use of chromosomal microarrays, which can test for microdeletions and microduplications in addition to aneuploidies. Color Doppler applications during pregnancy are expanding exponentially and Doppler flow velocity waveforms indices have provided important information from maternal, placental and fetal circulation with clinical implications. Ultrasound monitoring of fetal growth represents a fundamental tool to evaluate fetal wellbeing and several methods have been developed to improve fetal weight estimation accuracy. The combination of new biophysical and biochemical markers is enriching Maternal-Fetal Medicine and more research will allow to improve pregnancy outcome.

  3. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  4. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in the European haplogroups HV, JT, and U do not have a major role in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrell, Helena; Salas, Antonio; Abasolo, Nerea; Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Valero, Joaquín; Alonso, Yolanda; Vilella, Elisabet; Costas, Javier; Martorell, Lourdes

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that certain genetic factors involved in schizophrenia could be located in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Therefore, we hypothesized that mtDNA mutations and/or variants would be present in schizophrenia patients and may be related to schizophrenia characteristics and mitochondrial function. This study was performed in three steps: (1) identification of pathogenic mutations and variants in 14 schizophrenia patients with an apparent maternal inheritance of the disease by sequencing the entire mtDNA; (2) case-control association study of 23 variants identified in step 1 (16 missense, 3 rRNA, and 4 tRNA variants) in 495 patients and 615 controls, and (3) analyses of the associated variants according to the clinical, psychopathological, and neuropsychological characteristics and according to the oxidative and enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We did not identify pathogenic mtDNA mutations in the 14 sequenced patients. Two known variants were nominally associated with schizophrenia and were further studied. The MT-RNR2 1811A > G variant likely does not play a major role in schizophrenia, as it was not associated with clinical, psychopathological, or neuropsychological variables, and the MT-ATP6 9110T > C p.Ile195Thr variant did not result in differences in the oxidative and enzymatic functions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The patients with apparent maternal inheritance of schizophrenia did not exhibit any mutations in their mtDNA. The variants nominally associated with schizophrenia in the present study were not related either to phenotypic characteristics or to mitochondrial function. We did not find evidence pointing to a role for mtDNA sequence variation in schizophrenia.

  6. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  7. Maternal Preeclampsia and Neonatal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Backes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multiorgan, heterogeneous disorder of pregnancy associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimal strategies in the care of the women with preeclampsia have not been fully elucidated, leaving physicians with incomplete data to guide their clinical decision making. Because preeclampsia is a progressive disorder, in some circumstances, delivery is needed to halt the progression to the benefit of the mother and fetus. However, the need for premature delivery has adverse effects on important neonatal outcomes not limited to the most premature infants. Late-preterm infants account for approximately two thirds of all preterm deliveries and are at significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Reviewed is the current literature in the diagnosis and obstetrical management of preeclampsia, the outcomes of late-preterm infants, and potential strategies to optimize fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia.

  8. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  9. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G×E interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G×E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life.

  10. Severe maternal morbidity for 2004-2005 in the three Dublin maternity hospitals.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Cliona M

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and causes of severe maternal morbidity in Dublin over a two year period from 2004 to 2005. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study from January 2004 to December 2005 was undertaken in the three large maternity hospitals in Dublin, which serve a population of 1.5 million people. All are tertiary referral centres for obstetrics and neonatology and have an annual combined delivery rate of circa 23,000 births. Cases of severe maternal morbidity were identified. A systems based classification was used. The primary cause of maternal morbidity and the number of events experienced per patient was recorded. RESULTS: We identified 158 women who fulfilled the definition for severe maternal morbidity, giving a rate of 3.2 per 1000 maternities. There were two maternal deaths during the time period giving mortality to morbidity ratio of 1:79. The commonest cause of severe morbidity was vascular dysfunction related to obstetric haemorrhage. Eclampsia comprised 15.4% of cases. Intensive care or coronary care admission occurred in 12% of cases. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of severe maternal morbidity in this population is 3.2\\/1000 maternities. Obstetric haemorrhage was the main cause of severe maternal morbidity.

  11. Genetic Regulation of Maternal Oxytocin Response and Its Influences on Maternal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Kohlhoff, Jane; Mendoza Diaz, Antonio; Barnett, Bryanne; Silove, Derrick; Dadds, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    We interrogated the genetic modulation of maternal oxytocin response and its association with maternal behavior using genetic risk scores within the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene. We identified a novel SNP, rs968389, to be significantly associated with maternal oxytocin response after a challenging mother-infant interaction task (Still Face Paradigm) and maternal separation anxiety from the infant. Performing a multiallelic analysis across OXTR by calculating a cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant gene-by-environment (G × E) interaction, with OXTR genetic risk score interacting with adult separation anxiety to modulate levels of maternal sensitivity. Mothers with higher OXTR genetic risk score and adult separation anxiety showed significantly reduced levels of maternal sensitivity during free play with the infant. The same G × E interaction was also observed for the extended OXTR cumulative genetic risk score that included rs968389. Moreover, the extended cumulative OXTR genetic risk score itself was found to be significantly associated with maternal separation anxiety as it specifically relates to the infant. Our results suggest a complex montage of individual and synergistic genetic mediators of maternal behavior. These findings add to specific knowledge about genetic regulation of maternal oxytocin response in relation to maternal adjustment and infant bonding through the first few months of life. PMID:27872764

  12. The maternal health outcomes of paid maternity leave: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Zoe; Garrett, Cameryn C; Hewitt, Belinda; Keogh, Louise; Hocking, Jane S; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2015-04-01

    Paid maternity leave has become a standard benefit in many countries throughout the world. Although maternal health has been central to the rationale for paid maternity leave, no review has specifically examined the effect of paid maternity leave on maternal health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine the association between paid maternity leave and maternal health. We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts) and Google Scholar. We searched websites of relevant organisations, reference lists of key papers and journals, and citation indices for additional studies including those not in refereed journals. There were no language restrictions. Studies were included if they compared paid maternity leave versus no paid maternity leave, or different lengths of paid leave. Data were extracted and an assessment of bias was performed independently by authors. Seven studies were identified, with participants from Australia, Sweden, Norway, USA, Canada, and Lebanon. All studies used quantitative methodologies, including cohort, cross-sectional, and repeated cross-sectional designs. Outcomes included mental health and wellbeing, general health, physical wellbeing, and intimate partner violence. The four studies that examined leave at an individual level showed evidence of maternal health benefits, whereas the three studies conducting policy-level comparisons reported either no association or evidence of a negative association. The synthesis of the results suggested that paid maternity leave provided maternal health benefits, although this varied depending on the length of leave. This has important implications for public health and social policy. However, all studies were subject to confounding bias and many to reverse causation. Given the small number of studies and the methodological limitations of the evidence, longitudinal studies are

  13. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  14. Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaodi; Wood, Charles E.; Richards, Elaine; Anthony, Russell V.; Dahl, Geoffrey E.; Tao, Sha

    2014-01-01

    In normal pregnancy, cortisol increases; however, further pathological increases in cortisol are associated with maternal and fetal morbidities. These experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that increased maternal cortisol would increase maternal glucose concentrations, suppress fetal growth, and impair neonatal glucose homeostasis. Ewes were infused with cortisol (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) from day 115 of gestation to term; maternal glucose, insulin, ovine placental lactogen, estrone, progesterone, nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and electrolytes were measured. Infusion of cortisol increased maternal glucose concentration and slowed the glucose disappearance after injection of glucose; maternal infusion of cortisol also increased the incidence of fetal death at or near parturition. The design of the study was altered to terminate the study prior to delivery, and post hoc analysis of the data was performed to test the hypothesis that maternal metabolic factors predict the fetal outcome. In cortisol-infused ewes that had stillborn lambs, plasma insulin was increased relative to control ewes or cortisol-infused ewes with live lambs. Maternal cortisol infusion did not alter maternal food intake or plasma NEFA, BHB, estrone, progesterone or placental lactogen concentrations, and it did not alter fetal body weight, ponderal index, or fetal organ weights. Our study suggests that the adverse effect of elevated maternal cortisol on pregnancy outcome may be related to the effects of cortisol on maternal glucose homeostasis, and that chronic maternal stress or adrenal hypersecretion of cortisol may create fetal pathophysiology paralleling some aspects of maternal gestational diabetes. PMID:24920731

  15. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Bader

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 hour urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the Parental PTSD Questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusions: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased risk for stress

  16. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  17. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  18. KEMATIAN MATERNAL DI NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Tjitra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was carried out in villages around health centers, which were distributed over 10 regencies in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province. All deaths occurring in 1986 were recorded and reported to the health centers. Each case was investigated by the health center doctor to identify the multiple causes of death as well as its related factors. Pregnancy and delivery histories of maternal deaths were analysed. In the study area, the maternal mortality ratio was found to be 1346 per 100,000 live births, and the maternal mortality rate was 101 per 100,000 women aged 15-49 years. The maternal mortality ratio, among women under 20 years of age, was 3390 per 100,000 live births; and 4545 per 100,000 live births among women aged 40 years and over. The predominant factor as a risk of maternal deaths was attributable to delivery assistance by non medical personnel, which was 71%. Maternal deaths attributable to the first parities was 40%, and to pregnancies without antenatal care was 20.1%}. The most prevalent disease causing maternal deaths were haemorrhage 46.2%}, postpartum infections 30.8% and retained placenta 30.8%. To reduce maternal mortality, the most important intervention is to provide qualified delivery assistants especially for the first parities, and the provision of accessible delivery centers for emergency cases in addition to provision of appropriate antenatal care for early detection of high risk pregnancies. Family planning programs will have to be more specified towards high risk groups, i.e women aged under 20 years or 35 years and over, as well as women of high parity. A similar study is recommended to be conducted throughout the other parts of East Nusa Tenggara islands in order to evaluate the general maternal health status of the province.

  19. Doubts and Concerns about Isolated Maternal Hypothyroxinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariacarla Moleti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia may have detrimental effects on both mother and foetus. Nonetheless, this condition is still far from being universally accepted as a separate thyroid disease, and a standard definition of this state of mild thyroid underfunction is still lacking. We will review the biochemical criteria used to define isolated maternal hypothyroxinemia, together with current methodological issues related to FT4 assays. We will also discuss its epidemiological impact in both iodine-deficient and-sufficient areas, and the effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis on maternal thyroid function and neuropsychomotor development in offspring.

  20. The WHO maternal near-miss approach and the maternal severity index model (MSI: tools for assessing the management of severe maternal morbidity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Souza

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To validate the WHO maternal near-miss criteria and develop a benchmark tool for severe maternal morbidity assessments. METHODS: In a multicenter cross-sectional study implemented in 27 referral maternity hospitals in Brazil, a one-year prospective surveillance on severe maternal morbidity and data collection was carried out. Diagnostic accuracy tests were used to assess the validity of the WHO maternal near-miss criteria. Binary logistic regression was used to model the death probability among women with severe maternal complications and benchmark the management of severe maternal morbidity. RESULTS: Of the 82,388 women having deliveries in the participating health facilities, 9,555 women presented pregnancy-related complications, including 140 maternal deaths and 770 maternal near misses. The WHO maternal near-miss criteria were found to be accurate and highly associated with maternal deaths (Positive likelihood ratio 106.8 (95% CI 99.56-114.6. The maternal severity index (MSI model was developed and found to able to describe the relationship between life-threatening conditions and mortality (Area under the ROC curve: 0.951 (95% CI 0.909-0.993. CONCLUSION: The identification of maternal near-miss cases using the WHO list of pregnancy-related life-threatening conditions was validated. The MSI model can be used as a tool for benchmarking the performance of health services managing women with severe maternal complications and provide case-mix adjustment.

  1. Severe maternal morbidity associated with maternal birthplace in three high-immigration settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Glazier, Richard H; Mortensen, Laust;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality and morbidity vary substantially worldwide. It is unknown if these geographic differences translate into disparities in severe maternal morbidity among immigrants from various world regions. We assessed disparities in severe maternal morbidity between immigrant women...... provided aggregate data according to standardized definitions of the outcome, maternal regions of birth and covariates for pooled analyses. We used random effects and stratified logistic regression to obtain odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for maternal age, parity...... and comparability scores. RESULTS: We retrieved 2,322,907 deliveries in all three receiving countries, of which 479,986 (21%) were to immigrant women. Compared with non-immigrants, only Sub-Saharan African women were consistently at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity in all three receiving countries (pooled...

  2. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of ...

  3. Maternal effects and maternal selection arising from variation in allocation of free amino acid to eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, Devi; Hunt, John; Mitchell, Christopher; Moore, Allen J

    2015-01-01

    Maternal provisioning can have profound effects on offspring phenotypes, or maternal effects, especially early in life. One ubiquitous form of provisioning is in the makeup of egg. However, only a few studies examine the role of specific egg constituents in maternal effects, especially as they relate to maternal selection (a standardized selection gradient reflecting the covariance between maternal traits and offspring fitness). Here, we report on the evolutionary consequences of differences in maternal acquisition and allocation of amino acids to eggs. We manipulated acquisition by varying maternal diet (milkweed or sunflower) in the large milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Variation in allocation was detected by examining two source populations with different evolutionary histories and life-history response to sunflower as food. We measured amino acids composition in eggs in this 2 × 2 design and found significant effects of source population and maternal diet on egg and nymph mass and of source population, maternal diet, and their interaction on amino acid composition of eggs. We measured significant linear and quadratic maternal selection on offspring mass associated with variation in amino acid allocation. Visualizing the performance surface along the major axes of nonlinear selection and plotting the mean amino acid profile of eggs from each treatment onto the surface revealed a saddle-shaped fitness surface. While maternal selection appears to have influenced how females allocate amino acids, this maternal effect did not evolve equally in the two populations. Furthermore, none of the population means coincided with peak performance. Thus, we found that the composition of free amino acids in eggs was due to variation in both acquisition and allocation, which had significant fitness effects and created selection. However, although there can be an evolutionary response to novel food resources, females may be constrained from reaching phenotypic optima with

  4. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: Vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Luthar, Suniya S.; Sexton, Chris C.

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children’s early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers’ everyday functioning, and results s...

  5. Reproduction at an advanced maternal age and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Mark V

    2015-05-01

    Advanced age is a risk factor for female infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal anomalies, stillbirth, and obstetric complications. These concerns are based on centuries-old observations, yet women are delaying childbearing to pursue educational and career goals in greater numbers than ever before. As a result, reproductive medicine specialists are treating more patients with age-related infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, while obstetricians are faced with managing pregnancies often complicated by both age and comorbidities. The media portrayal of a youthful but older woman, able to schedule her reproductive needs and balance family and job, has fueled the myth that "you can have it all," rarely characterizing the perils inherent to advanced-age reproduction. Reproductive medicine specialists and obstetrician/gynecologists should promote more realistic views of the evidence-based realities of advanced maternal age pregnancy, including its high-risk nature and often compromised outcomes. Doctors should also actively educate both patients and the public that there is a real danger of childlessness if individuals choose to delay reproduction. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations between child weight and maternal feeding styles are mediated by maternal perceptions and concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webber, L; Hill, C; Cooke, L; Carnell, S; Wardle, J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether controlling parental feeding practices are associated with children's adiposity and test the hypothesis that any associations are mediated by maternal perception of their child's weight...

  7. Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmuseau, Maarten H D; Delorme, Philippe; Germain, Patrick; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Gilissen, Anja; Van Geystelen, Anneleen; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Decorte, Ronny

    2014-05-01

    Genetic analysis strongly increases the opportunity to identify skeletal remains or other biological samples from historical figures. However, validation of this identification is essential and should be done by DNA typing of living relatives. Based on the similarity of a limited set of Y-STRs, a blood sample and a head were recently identified as those belonging respectively to King Louis XVI and his paternal ancestor King Henry IV. Here, we collected DNA samples from three living males of the House of Bourbon to validate the since then controversial identification of these remains. The three living relatives revealed the Bourbon's Y-chromosomal variant on a high phylogenetic resolution for several members of the lineage between Henry IV and Louis XVI. This 'true' Bourbon's variant is different from the published Y-STR profiles of the blood as well as of the head. The earlier identifications of these samples can therefore not be validated. Moreover, matrilineal genealogical data revealed that the published mtDNA sequence of the head was also different from the one of a series of relatives. This therefore leads to the conclusion that the analyzed samples were not from the French kings. Our study once again demonstrated that in order to realize an accurate genetic identification of historical remains DNA typing of living persons, who are paternally or maternally related with the presumed donor of the samples, is required.

  8. Epidemiology of Maternal Mortality in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal Mortality Programme Assessment), based at the University of Aberdeen, ...... observed in districts with higher female literacy rates. Number of years of .... urine sampling to detect protein and diabetes blood sampling for syphilis.

  9. No. 263-Maternity Leave in Normal Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Dean

    2017-10-01

    To assist maternity care providers in recognizing and discussing health- and illness-related issues in pregnancy and their relationship to maternity benefits. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in 2009 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., maternity benefits) and key words (e.g., maternity, benefits, pregnancy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2009. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the web sites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Service Availability and Readiness Assessment of Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    availability and the readiness of maternal, newborn and child health facilities to provide basic health care interventions for ... tetanus, syphilis, HIV, malaria, anemia and ... child mortality and morbidity in Madagascar, the .... Data analysis.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring IQ

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Breslau, Naomi; Paneth, Nigel; Lucia, Victoria C; Paneth-Pollak, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Maternal smoking in pregnancy lowers birthweight. It is unclear, however, whether smoking during pregnancy lowers offspring IQ, and, if it does, whether it is through the smoking effect on fetal growth...

  12. Maternal Insomnia and Children's Family Socialization Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Ambler, Antony; Arseneault, Louise; Houts, Renate M.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine concurrent associations between maternal insomnia and different aspects of the family socialization environment. Design: Mothers reported on their symptoms of insomnia in a private standardized interview and interviewers evaluated the family socialization environment using the Coder's Inventory. Setting: Assessments were conducted in participants' homes within the U.K. Patients or Participants: One thousand one hundred sixteen mothers of British children enrolled in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) study were invited to participate when their children were aged 12 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: After controlling for family socioeconomic status (SES), mothers' relationship status, and maternal depression, maternal insomnia was associated with a poorer family socialization environment (β = −0.10, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = −0.16, −0.04], P Moffitt TE; Ambler A; Arseneault L; Houts RM; Caspi A. Maternal insomnia and children's family socialization environments. SLEEP 2012;35(4):579-582. PMID:22467996

  13. Maternal health and the baby boom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albanesi, Stefania; Olivetti, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    .... Our hypothesis is that the improvements in maternal health contributed to the mid‐twentieth century baby boom and generated a rise in women's human capital, ultimately leading to a decline in desired fertility for subsequent cohorts...

  14. Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among Adolescents in Africa. ... including the provision of appropriate sexuality education and information as well as supportive services to allow adolescents to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

  15. Maternal health care utilisation in Teso District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal clinic visits, the level of utilisation of maternal health care, to identify the main service .... number of antenatal care visits which have impact .... to or experience with modern health services may ..... diet/nutrition ..... Human Fertility.

  16. Maternal bereavement and cryptorchidism in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chunsen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism (undescended testis) is a common anomaly with largely unexplained etiology. Animal studies have suggested maternal emotional stress as a potential risk factor, but this has not been studied in humans. We aimed to investigate whether maternal bereavement due to the death...... of a close relative in the antenatal period increases the occurrence of cryptorchidism in the offspring. METHODS: In a population-based cohort, we studied death of a close relative as the exposure and cryptorchidism entries in nationwide medical registries as the outcome. Danish national registries included...... interval = 0.92-1.14]). Results were similar when the diagnosis was verified with surgery. We adjusted for maternal and paternal age, birth year, and family history of cryptorchidism. CONCLUSION: We observed no association between maternal bereavement before and during pregnancy and the occurrence...

  17. Maternal inflammation during pregnancy and childhood adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Perng, Wei; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with offspring obesity. Underlying mechanisms may involve a maternal-obesity-mediated pro-inflammatory state during pregnancy. Maternal C-reactive protein (CRP)-level during pregnancy is a biomarker of low-grade systemic inflammation. Methods Among 1116 mother-child pairs, we examined associations of maternal second trimester CRP-plasma-level, measured by high-sensitivity-CRP-arrays, with mid-childhood DXA fat-mass-index (FMI), trunk-fat-mass-index (trunkFMI), fat-free-mass-index (FFMI), and early- and mid-childhood BMI-z and waist circumference (WC). Main analyses were adjusted for maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle-related characteristics, gestational age at blood draw, child’s age, sex. Results Higher maternal CRP-level was associated with higher mid-childhood FMI and trunkFMI (adjusted difference: 0.15 kg/m2 [95%CI: 0.01, 0.29] [p-value=0.04] and 0.06 kg/m2 [95%CI: 0.00, 0.12] [p-value=0.06], per SD increment in maternal CRP, respectively), but not FFMI. Higher maternal CRP-level was associated with higher early- and mid-childhood BMI-z and WC in the basic models [p-value<0.05], but these associations attenuated after adjustment for maternal characteristics (adjusted difference in early- and mid-childhood BMI-z and WC: 0.05 [95%CI: −0.03, 0.13] [p-value=0.20], 0.10 cm [95%CI: −0.17, 0.37] [p-value=0.46], 0.07 [95%CI:−0.01, 0.14] [p-value=0.09], 0.34 cm [95%CI: −0.25, 0.94] [p-value=0.26], per SD increment in maternal CRP, respectively). Conclusions Higher second trimester maternal CRP-level was associated with higher mid-childhood overall and central adiposity. PMID:27094573

  18. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Bezerra Nobre; Alexandra Valéria Maria Brentani; Alexandre Archanjo Ferraro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS) is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional ...

  19. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Khushboo; Desai, Parth; Duseja, Shilpa; Kumar, Santosh; Mahendra, Jaideep; Duseja, Sareen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present case–control study was to evaluate the association between maternal periodontitis and preeclampsia. Association studies between maternal periodontitis and elevated risk for preeclampsia have shown conflicting results. Periodontal maintenance is necessary to reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes like preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: Periodontal parameters [bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)] of 1320 women w...

  1. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...... be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5....

  2. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy; Anuradha Murugesan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Jaundice affects a small percentage of pregnant women, yet it takes a major toll on health of both mother and fetus especially in developing countries like India. Jaundice in pregnancy carries a grave prognosis for both the fetus and the mother, and is responsible for 10% of maternal deaths. The aim of the study was to find out the effect of jaundice during pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcome. Methods: 51 pregnant women with jaundice during pregnancy attending the Institute...

  3. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit; Weber, Tom; Møller, Margrete; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2009-02-01

    In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them according to the UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths (CEMD). All deaths of women with a registered pregnancy within 12 months prior to the death were identified by comparing the Danish medical registries, death certificates, and relevant codes according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). All cases were classified using the UK CEMD classification. Cases of maternal death were further evaluated by an audit group. 311 cases were classified. 92 deaths (29.6%) occurred 42 days), 1 woman died from a direct obstetric cause, 46 from indirect causes, and 172 from fortuitous causes. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the major cause of direct maternal deaths. The rate of maternal deaths constituted 9.8/100,000 maternities (i.e. the number of women delivering registrable live births at any gestation or stillbirths at 24 weeks of gestation or later). This is the first systematic report on deaths in Denmark based on data from national registries. The maternal mortality rate in Denmark is comparable to the rates in other developed countries. Fortunately, statistics are low, but each case represents potential learning. Obstetric care has changed and classification methods differ between countries. Prospective registration and registry linkage seem to be a way to ensure completion. This retrospective study has provided the background for a prospective study on registration and evaluation of maternal mortality in Denmark.

  4. Julia Kristeva’s Maternal Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically engages Julia Kristeva’s latest work on maternal passion as an antidote to what she calls “feminine fatigue.”  Oliver elaborates, criticizes, and expands Kristeva’s view that maternity can be a model for thinking about passion and its relation to creativity and even to ethics.  She relates Kristeva’s thinking about feminine fatigue to contemporary feminism in the United States. 

  5. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  6. Men in maternal care: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aparajita

    2012-03-01

    Men's supportive stance is an essential component for making women's world better. There are growing debates among policymakers and researchers on the role of males in maternal health programmes, which is a big challenge in India where society is male driven. This study aims to look into the variations and determinants of maternal health care utilization in India and in three demographically and socioeconomically disparate states, namely Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Maharashtra, by husband's knowledge, attitude, behaviour towards maternal health care and gender violence, using data from the National Family Health Survey III 2005-06 (equivalent to the Demographic and Health Survey in India). Women's antenatal care visits, institutional delivery and freedom in health care decisions are looked into, by applying descriptive statistics and multivariate models. Men's knowledge about pregnancy-related care and a positive gender attitude enhances maternal health care utilization and women's decision-making about their health care, while their presence during antenatal care visits markedly increases the chances of women's delivery in institutions. From a policy perspective, proper dissemination of knowledge about maternal health care among husbands and making the husband's presence obligatory during antenatal care visits will help primary health care units secure better male involvement in maternal health care.

  7. Enhanced surveillance of maternal mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Larissa J; Lloyd, Linda E; Selwyn, Beatrice J

    2012-12-01

    Maternal mortality is often used to measure health and well-being for women. Improved surveillance efforts can improve maternal mortality estimates and inform the development of strategies to address the needs of maternal and child health populations. The purpose of this study was to provide better estimates of maternal mortality in Texas by using enhanced surveillance methods. Results from our analyses of fetal death and live birth records in Texas from 2000 through 2006 were then linked to pregnancy-related death records and death records of women of childbearing age (15-44 years) in Texas from 2001 through 2006. Enhanced surveillance identified almost 3.5 times as many deaths that might be associated with pregnancy than do current methods and confirmed a persistent race/ethnicity trend in maternal mortality. The leading cause of these 2001-2006 pregnancy-associated deaths was accidents. Enhanced surveillance allows the identification of additional deaths possibly associated with pregnancy and provides a stable foundation to investigate trends further and to review maternal mortality cases systematically.

  8. Noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Y Yu

    Full Text Available Fetal DNA is present in the plasma of pregnant women. Massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA has been used to detect fetal trisomies 21, 18, 13 and selected sex chromosomal aneuploidies noninvasively. Case reports describing the detection of fetal microdeletions from maternal plasma using massively parallel sequencing have been reported. However, these previous reports were either polymorphism-dependent or used statistical analyses which were confined to one or a small number of selected parts of the genome. In this report, we reported a procedure for performing noninvasive prenatal karyotyping at 3 Mb resolution across the whole genome through the massively parallel sequencing of maternal plasma DNA. This method has been used to analyze the plasma obtained from 6 cases. In three cases, fetal microdeletions have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In two cases, fetal microduplications have been detected successfully from maternal plasma. In the remaining case, the plasma DNA sequencing result was consistent with the pregnant mother being a carrier of a microduplication. Simulation analyses were performed for determining the number of plasma DNA molecules that would need to be sequenced and aligned for enhancing the diagnostic resolution of noninvasive prenatal karyotyping to 2 Mb and 1 Mb. In conclusion, noninvasive prenatal molecular karyotyping from maternal plasma by massively parallel sequencing is feasible and would enhance the diagnostic spectrum of noninvasive prenatal testing.

  9. [Maternal breastfeeding: health factor. Historical memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriuso, L; de Miguel, M; Sánchez, M

    2007-01-01

    Maternal breastfeeding is a habit that has been closely linked to the survival of the human species since time immemorial. Following a stage when it was massively abandoned in the mid-XX century, we are now witnessing a recovery of this habit, especially in the so-called "developed" world, promoted by the health institutions in light of the scientific evidence. The superiority of maternal breastfeeding over artificial feeding is beyond dispute as the scientific evidence makes clear. Maternal breastfeeding is a positive factor for the health of the mother and for the child. Hence the promotion and recovery of this habit is more than just a fashion or tendency: it is an incontrovertible factor in maternal-child health. Through the Foral Order of January 28th 2004, the government of Navarre has brought together the numerous administrative initiatives that are emerging in our province for the promotion of maternal breastfeeding by promoting a Technical Advisory Commission for the Promotion of Maternal Breastfeeding in Navarre.

  10. It takes more than one for parenting: How do maternal temperament and child's conduct problems relate to maternal parenting behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-10-01

    The current study examined how individual differences in maternal temperament and child problem behaviors correlate with observed maternal positivity and negativity toward the child. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers reported their own temperament (surgency, orienting sensitivity, effortful control and negative affect) and their children's problem behaviors. Maternal behavior was videotaped in a set of structured interaction tasks with the child during a lab visit. Results indicated that children's problem behaviors were related to less maternal positivity and more negativity. In addition, observed maternal negativity was associated with less maternal effortful control and more negative affect. In contrast, maternal temperament was unrelated to observed maternal positivity toward the child. Furthermore, maternal temperament was related to mothers' positivity and negativity but only for children high in problem behaviors. The findings implicate that child problem behaviors may interact with maternal temperament in explaining variance in caregiving positivity and negativity.

  11. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglim, B; O'Higgins, A; Daly, N; Farren, M; Turner, M J

    2015-06-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obese women compared with 31.5cm (SD 1.6) in women with a normal BMI (p < 0.001) at 18-22 weeks gestation. In the obese women it increased on average by 1.5cm by 36-40 weeks compared with an increase of 1.6 cm in women with a normal BMI. The antenatal measurement of NC is a simple, inexpensive tool that is potentially useful for screening obese women who may benefit from an antenatal anaesthetic assessment.

  12. Cesarean section by maternal request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Raphael; Burlá, Marcelo; Ferrari, José; Lima, Lana; Amim, Joffre; Braga, Antonio; Rezende, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks. RESUMO A cesariana a pedido materno é aquela realizada em uma gestante sem indicações médicas e sem contraindicação para tentativa do parto vaginal. Existe grande controvérsia sobre a realização da cesariana a pedido. Riscos potenciais da cesariana a pedido incluem complicações em gravidezes subsequentes, tais como: rotura uterina, placenta prévia e acretismo. Potenciais benefícios da cesariana a pedido englobam um menor risco de hemorragia pós-parto na primeira cesariana e menos complicações cirúrgicas quando comparada ao parto vaginal. A cesariana a pedido jamais deve ser realizada antes de 39 semanas.

  13. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges and opportunities of reducing maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shija, Angela E; Msovela, Judith; Mboera, Leonard E G

    2011-12-01

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. Most of maternal deaths are caused by factors attributed to pregnancy, childbirth and poor quality of health services. More than 80% of maternal deaths can be prevented if pregnant women access essential maternity care and assured of skilled attendance at childbirth as well as emergency obstetric care. The objective of this review was to analyse maternal mortality situation in Tanzania during the past 50 years and to identify efforts, challenges and opportunities of reducing it. This paper was written through desk review of key policy documents, technical reports, publications and available internet-based literature. From 1961 to 1990 maternal mortality ratio in Tanzania had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. However, from 1990's there been an increasing trend to 578 per 100,000 live births. Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 to 454 per 100,000 live births. Despite a high coverage (96%) in pregnant women who attend at least one antenatal clinic, only half of the women (51%) have access to skilled delivery. Coverage of emergence obstetric services is 64.5% and utilization of modern family planning method is 27%. Only about 13% of home deliveries access post natal check-up. Despite a number of efforts maternal mortality is still unacceptably high. Some of the efforts done to reduce maternal mortality in Tanzania included the following initiatives: reproductive and child survival; increased skilled delivery; maternal death audit; coordination and integration of different programs including maternal and child health services, family planning, malaria interventions, expanded program on immunization and adolescent health and nutrition programmes. These initiatives are however challenged by inadequate access to maternal health care services. In order to considerably reduce maternal deaths some of recommended

  14. Strikingly different penetrance of LHON in two Chinese families with primary mutation G11778A is independent of mtDNA haplogroup background and secondary mutation G13708A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huawei [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)]|[Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Jia Xiaoyun; Ji Yanli [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Kong Qingpeng [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China); Zhang Qingjiong [State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060 (China)], E-mail: qingjiongzhang@yahoo.com; Yao Yonggang [Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223 (China)]|[State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)], E-mail: ygyaozh@yahoo.com; Zhang Yaping [Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)]|[State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650223 (China)

    2008-08-25

    The penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in families with primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations is very complex. Matrilineal and nuclear genetic background, as well as environmental factors, have been reported to be involved in different affected pedigrees. Here we describe two large Chinese families that show a striking difference in the penetrance of LHON, in which 53.3% and 15.0% of members were affected (P < 0.02), respectively. Analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of the two families revealed the presence of the primary mutation G11778A and several other variants suggesting the same haplogroup status G2a. The family with higher penetrance contained a previously described secondary mutation G13708A, which presents a polymorphism in normal Chinese samples and does not affect in vivo mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as described in a previous study. Evolutionary analysis failed to indicate any putatively pathogenic mutation that cosegregated with G11778A in these two pedigrees. Our results suggest that the variable penetrance of LHON in the two Chinese families is independent of both their mtDNA haplotype background and a secondary mutation G13708A. As a result, it is likely that unknown nuclear gene involvement and/or other factors contribute to the strikingly different penetrance of LHON.

  15. Maternal transfer of mercury to songbird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Josh; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the maternal transfer of mercury to eggs in songbirds, determined whether this relationship differed between songbird species, and developed equations for predicting mercury concentrations in eggs from maternal blood. We sampled blood and feathers from 44 house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and 34 tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) mothers and collected their full clutches (n = 476 eggs) within 3 days of clutch completion. Additionally, we sampled blood and feathers from 53 tree swallow mothers and randomly collected one egg from their clutches (n = 53 eggs) during mid to late incubation (6–10 days incubated) to evaluate whether the relationship varied with the timing of sampling the mother's blood. Mercury concentrations in eggs were positively correlated with mercury concentrations in maternal blood sampled at (1) the time of clutch completion for both house wrens (R2 = 0.97) and tree swallows (R2 = 0.97) and (2) during mid to late incubation for tree swallows (R2 = 0.71). The relationship between mercury concentrations in eggs and maternal blood did not differ with the stage of incubation when maternal blood was sampled. Importantly, the proportion of mercury transferred from mothers to their eggs decreased substantially with increasing blood mercury concentrations in tree swallows, but increased slightly with increasing blood mercury concentrations in house wrens. Additionally, the proportion of mercury transferred to eggs at the same maternal blood mercury concentration differed between species. Specifically, tree swallow mothers transferred 17%–107% more mercury to their eggs than house wren mothers over the observed mercury concentrations in maternal blood (0.15–1.92 μg/g ww). In contrast, mercury concentrations in eggs were not correlated with those in maternal feathers and, likewise, mercury concentrations in maternal blood were not correlated with those in feathers (all R2 mercury concentrations from maternal blood to eggs (and

  16. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  17. Exploring the effects of maternal eating patterns on maternal feeding and child eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Halley; Power, Thomas G; Nicklas, Theresa; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-04-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the importance of maternal feeding practices and children's eating behavior in the development of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between maternal and child eating patterns, and to examine the degree to which these relationships were mediated through maternal feeding practices. Two hundred and twenty-two low-income mothers and their preschool children participated. About half of the families were African American and half were Latino. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing maternal eating patterns, maternal feeding practices, and children's eating patterns. Maternal external eating (eating in response to outside stimuli, not internal hunger/thirst cues) was positively correlated with two child eating scores: picky eating and desire to eat. Mediational analyses showed that external eating in mothers was related to picky eating in children through high maternal control in feeding; the relationship between mothers' external eating and desire to eat in children was not mediated through maternal control. Picky eating and desire to eat in children were related to emotional eating in mothers as well. The implications of these results for understanding the development of childhood obesity are considered.

  18. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivier, J D A; Akerud, H; Kaihola, H; Pawluski, J L; Skalkidou, A; Högberg, U; Sundström-Poromaa, I

    2013-01-01

    It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well-documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) which are

  19. Relations among Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and Maternal Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Cox, Martha J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relations among intimate partner violence (IPV), maternal depressive symptoms, and maternal harsh intrusive parenting. Using a cross-lagged, autoregressive path model, they sought to clarify the directionality of the relations among these 3 variables over the first 2 years of the child's life. The results indicated that,…

  20. Maternal Mortality and Serious Maternal Morbidity in Jehovah's Witnesses in The Netherlands EDITORIAL COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Refusal of blood by women with major obstetric hemorrhage who are Jehovah's witnesses increases their risk of maternal death. This retrospective study of case notes assessed the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality from major obstetric hemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses. The data was obtained fro

  1. Maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van Wolfswinkel; J.J. Zwart; J.M. Schutte; J.J. Duvekot; M. Pel; J. van Roosmalen

    2009-01-01

    To determine the risk of maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity because of major obstetric haemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands. A retrospective study of case notes. All tertiary care centres, general teaching hospitals and other general hospitals in the Netherlands. All

  2. Maternal hormones meet environmental variability : Context-dependent effects of maternal hormones in avian egg yolks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, maternal effects have been widely recognized as an important way through which mothers can modify offspring phenotypes above and over direct genetic effects. As a wide variety of animals are prenatal exposed to maternal hormones, accumulating evidences also suggest that mate

  3. The Contributions of Maternal Sensitivity and Maternal Depressive Symptoms to Epigenetic Processes and Neuroendocrine Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Hawes, Katheleen; Guerin, Dylan; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Tronick, Edward; Lester, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether maternal responsiveness may buffer the child to the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on DNA methylation of "NR3C1," "11ß-HSD2," and neuroendocrine functioning. DNA was derived from buccal epithelial cells and prestress cortisol was obtained from the saliva of 128 infants. Mothers with depressive…

  4. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  5. The Longitudinal Interplay of Maternal Warmth and Adolescents' Self-Disclosure in Predicting Maternal Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett Salafia, Elizabeth H.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Grundy, Amber M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations among maternal warmth, adolescents' self-disclosure, and maternal knowledge during the transition to adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 131 married mothers and their adolescents. Results from longitudinal analysis using adolescent reports indicated that greater…

  6. Maternal Psychopathology and Infant Development at 18 Months: The Impact of Maternal Personality Disorder and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M.; Marks, Maureen N.; Davies, Helen A.; Farrelly, Simone; Schacht, Robin; Moran, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No previous longitudinal study has examined the impact of comorbid maternal personality disorder (PD) and depression on child development. We set out to examine whether maternal PD and depression assessed at 2 months post partum would be independently associated with adverse developmental outcomes at 18 months of age. Method: Women were…

  7. Maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.

    To determine the risk of maternal mortality and serious maternal morbidity because of major obstetric haemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses in the Netherlands. A retrospective study of case notes. All tertiary care centres, general teaching hospitals and other general hospitals in the Netherlands. All

  8. Maternal Mortality and Serious Maternal Morbidity in Jehovah's Witnesses in The Netherlands EDITORIAL COMMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wolfswinkel, M. E.; Zwart, J. J.; Schutte, J. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Pel, M.; Van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Refusal of blood by women with major obstetric hemorrhage who are Jehovah's witnesses increases their risk of maternal death. This retrospective study of case notes assessed the risk of maternal morbidity and mortality from major obstetric hemorrhage in Jehovah's witnesses. The data was obtained

  9. The Relations among Maternal Depressive Disorder, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Toddler Behavior Problems and Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravener, Julie A.; Rogosch, Fred A.; Oshri, Assaf; Narayan, Angela J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.

    2012-01-01

    Direct and indirect relations among maternal depression, maternal Expressed Emotion (EE: Self- and Child-Criticism), child internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and child attachment were examined. Participants were mothers with depression (n = 130) and comparison mothers (n = 68) and their toddlers (M age = 20 mo.; 53% male). Assessments…

  10. MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME IN PLACENTA PREVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basa Akkamamba

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the-  Risk factors for placenta previa.  Signs of placenta previa.  Modes of delivery.  Maternal and foetal outcome.  Incidence of placenta previa. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a longitudinal prospective study group consisting of 75 cases of pregnancies with placenta previa. Analysis of maternal and neonatal outcome in cases of placenta previa occurring over a period of 2 years from November 2013 to October 2016. This study was carried out at Government General Hospital, Kakinada, attached to Rangaraya Medical College. RESULTS Maternal morbidity in placenta previa is due to antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum complications. Maternal mortality due to placenta previa was nil. Perinatal death with minor placenta previa was 5.12% with major placenta previa was 47.22%. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, incidence of antepartum haemorrhage was 0.87% and placenta previa contributed to 37.12% of cases. The general perinatal mortality was 28 per 1000 live births and that due to placenta previa 280 per 1000 live births, i.e. approximately 4 times higher than general perinatal mortality rate. The maternal mortality rate due to placenta previa in this study was nil. But, maternal morbidity was high that is more than 60% of cases had antenatal, intranatal and postnatal complications and anaemia worsened the clinical state of patient.

  11. Trends in maternal mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2016-09-01

    Maternal mortality is a major global concern. Although a notable decline in maternal mortality in the United States occurred during the mid-20th century, this progress stalled during the late 20th century. Furthermore, maternal mortality rates have increased during the early 21st century. Around the year 2000 the maternal mortality rate began to rise and has since nearly doubled. Given that at least half of maternal deaths in the U.S. are preventable, the rise in maternal deaths in the U.S. is historic and worrisome. This overview will try to provide a context for understanding the problem of this rise in maternal mortality in the U.S. by briefly discussing how maternal mortality rates are reported from National Vital Statistics data and from a National Surveillance system. Trends and causes of maternal deaths and the difficulty with interpreting these trends will be discussed.

  12. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence variation in maternal lineages of Iranian native horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridi, M; Masoudi, A A; Vaez Torshizi, R; Hill, E W

    2013-04-01

    To understand the origin and genetic diversity of Iranian native horses, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences were generated for 95 horses from five breeds sampled in eight geographical locations in Iran. Sequence analysis of a 247-bp segment revealed a total of 27 haplotypes with 38 polymorphic sites. Twelve of 19 mtDNA haplogroups were identified in the samples. The most common haplotypes were found within haplogroup X2. Within-population haplotype and nucleotide diversities of the five breeds ranged from 0.838 ± 0.056 to 0.974 ± 0.022 and 0.011 ± 0.002 to 0.021 ± 0.001 respectively, indicating a relatively high genetic diversity in Iranian horses. The identification of several ancient sequences common between the breeds suggests that the lineage of the majority of Iranian horse breeds is old and obviously originated from a vast number of mares. We found in all native Iranian horse breeds lineages of the haplogroups D and K, which is concordant with the previous findings of Asian origins of these haplogroups. The presence of haplotypes E and K in our study also is consistent with a geographical west-east direction of increasing frequency of these haplotypes and a genetic fusion in Iranian horse breeds. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  14. Genetic Affiliation of Pre-Hispanic and Contemporary Mayas Through Maternal Linage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna Isabel; Muñoz, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Ramírez, Gerardo; Beaty, Kristine G; López-Armenta, Mauro; Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Moreno-Galeana, Miguel; Meza, Adrián Martínez; Ramos, Eduardo; Crawford, Michael H; Romano-Pacheco, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Maya civilization developed in Mesoamerica and encompassed the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, Belize, part of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western parts of Honduras and El Salvador. This civilization persisted approximately 3,000 years and was one of the most advanced of its time, possessing the only known full writing system at the time, as well as art, sophisticated architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems. This civilization reached the apex of its power and influence during the Preclassic period, from 2000 BCE to 250 CE. Genetic variation in the pre-Hispanic Mayas from archaeological sites in the Mexican states of Yucatan, Chiapas, Quintana Roo, and Tabasco and their relationship with the contemporary communities in these regions have not been previously studied. Consequently, the principal aim of this study was to determine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in the pre-Hispanic Maya population and to assess the relationship of these individuals with contemporary Mesoamerican Maya and populations from Asia, Beringia, and North, Central, and South America. Our results revealed interactions and gene flow between populations in the different archaeological sites assessed in this study. The mtDNA haplogroup frequency in the pre-Hispanic Maya population (60.53%, 34.21%, and 5.26% for haplogroups A, C, and D, respectively) was similar to that of most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, with haplogroup A exhibiting the highest frequency. Haplogroup B most likely arrived independently and mixed with populations carrying haplogroups A and C based on its absence in the pre-Hispanic Mexican Maya populations and low frequencies in most Mexican and Guatemalan Maya populations, although this also may be due to drift. Maya and Ciboneys sharing haplotype H10 belonged to haplogroup C1 and haplotype H4 of haplogroup D, suggesting shared regional haplotypes. This may indicate a shared genetic ancestry, suggesting more regional interaction

  15. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-09-24

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety.

  16. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh.

  17. Maternal Mortality in Women with Epilepsy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Holohan, M

    2016-10-01

    It is estimated that, in Ireland, there are 10,000 women with epilepsy of childbearing potential1. In this paper the maternal mortality rate for women with epilepsy attending the Rotunda Hospital Epilepsy Clinic 2004 - 2013 was determined. There were 3 maternal deaths in women with epilepsy during this time, which represents a mortality rate of 0.8%. In those women who died, there were concerns in relation to risks to the foetus by taking Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED) and also issues with access to neurology services before pregnancy, acceptance of specialist support and lack of consistency in advice from health care professionals outside of Ireland. Implementing the nationally agreed care plan for women with epilepsy will improve the quality of care given and potentially we will see a reduction in maternal mortality in these women.

  18. Maternal Obesity, Inflammation, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Segovia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, especially in women of child-bearing age, is a global health concern. In addition to increasing the immediate risk of gestational complications, there is accumulating evidence that maternal obesity also has long-term consequences for the offspring. The concept of developmental programming describes the process in which an environmental stimulus, including altered nutrition, during critical periods of development can program alterations in organogenesis, tissue development, and metabolism, predisposing offspring to obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in later life. Although the mechanisms underpinning programming of metabolic disorders remain poorly defined, it has become increasingly clear that low-grade inflammation is associated with obesity and its comorbidities. This review will discuss maternal metainflammation as a mediator of programming in insulin sensitive tissues in offspring. Use of nutritional anti-inflammatories in pregnancy including omega 3 fatty acids, resveratrol, curcumin, and taurine may provide beneficial intervention strategies to ameliorate maternal obesity-induced programming.

  19. Creating a collaborative culture in maternity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, Soo; Finlayson, Kenny; Fleming, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Effective collaboration between professional groups is increasingly seen as an essential element in good quality and safe health care. This is especially important in the context of maternity care, where most women have straightforward labour and birth experiences, but some require rapid transfer between care providers and settings. This article presents current accounts of collaboration--or lack of it--in maternity care in the United Kingdom, United States, and Australia. It then examines tools designed to measure collaboration and teamwork within general health care contexts. Finally, a set of characteristics are proposed for effective collaboration in maternity care, as a basis for further empirical work in this area. Copyright (c) 2010 American College of Nurse-Midwives. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thrombosis in pregnancy and maternal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andra H

    2015-09-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of thrombosis four- to five-fold. Seventy-five to eighty percent of pregnancy-related thrombotic events are venous and twenty to -twenty-five percent are arterial. The main reason for the increased risk is hypercoagulability. Women are hypercoagulable because they have evolved so that they are protected against the bleeding challenges of pregnancy, miscarriage, or childbirth. Both genetic and acquired risk factors can further increase the risk of thrombosis. The maternal consequences of thrombosis of pregnancy include permanent vascular damage, disability, and death. While the maternal outcomes of thrombosis can be modified by anticoagulation therapy, management of thrombosis during pregnancy is the subject of another paper in this issue (see paper by B. Konkle). This review will focus on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and maternal consequences of thrombosis in pregnancy.

  1. Maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Mark; Tang, Alvin; Levy, Denis; Grossfeld, Paul; Kashani, Iraj; Shaughnessy, Robin; Rothman, Abraham

    2002-02-01

    The maternal psychological impact of fetal echocardiography may be deleterious in the face of newly diagnosed congenital heart disease. This questionnaire-based study prospectively examined the psychological impact of both normal and abnormal fetal echocardiography. Normal fetal echocardiography decreased maternal anxiety, increased happiness, and increased the closeness women felt toward their unborn children. In contrast, when fetal echocardiography detected congenital heart disease, maternal anxiety typically increased, and mothers commonly felt less happy about being pregnant. However, among women who had recently delivered infants with congenital heart disease, those who had had fetal echocardiography during the pregnancy felt less responsible for their infants' defects and tended to have improved their relationships with the infants' fathers after the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Further study of the psychological and medical impact of fetal echocardiography will be necessary to define and optimize the clinical value of this powerful diagnostic tool.

  2. The effects of maternal depression and maternal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor exposure on the offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelien DA Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 20% of pregnant women suffer from depression and it is well documented that maternal depression can have long-lasting effects on the child. Currently, common treatment for maternal depression has been the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs which are used by 2-3% of pregnant women in the Nordic countries and by up to 10% of pregnant women in the United States. Antidepressants cross the placenta and are transferred to the fetus, thus, the question arises as to whether children of women taking antidepressants are at risk for altered neurodevelopmental outcomes and, if so, whether the risks are due to SSRI medication exposure or to the underlying maternal depression. This review considers the effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure on offspring development in both clinical and preclinical populations. As it is impossible in humans to study the effects of SSRIs without taking into account the possible underlying effects of maternal depression (healthy pregnant women do not take SSRIs, animal models are of great value. For example, rodents can be used to determine the effects of maternal depression and/or perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring outcomes. Unraveling the joint (or separate effects of maternal depression and SSRI exposure will provide more insights into the risks or benefits of SSRI exposure during gestation and will help women make informed decisions about using SSRIs during pregnancy.

  3. Maternal History of Parentification, Maternal Warm Responsiveness, and Children’s Externalizing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Borkowski, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Destructive parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family system that overtaxes their developmental capacity. According to parentification theory, destructive parentification in family of origin poses a risk to child development in subsequent generations; however, there is a paucity of empirical research examining the impact of a maternal history of destructive parentification on parenting quality and child outcomes in subsequent generations. The present study examined the potential risk of maternal history of parentification on child adjustment by hypothesizing that a maternal history of parentification in family of origin would have a negative impact on quality of maternal warm responsiveness at 18 months of age which would, in turn, be associated with increased children’s externalizing symptoms at 36 months. Results indicated that there was a significant indirect effect of maternal history of destructive parentification in family of origin on child externalizing behavior in the next generation through maternal warm responsiveness, supporting the hypothesized model. This finding suggests that facilitating the development of maternal contingent responsiveness among mothers with a history of destructive parentification may promote more adaptive child development in the next generation. PMID:22888779

  4. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  5. Cues of Maternal Condition Influence Offspring Selfishness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W. Y.; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females’ cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:24498046

  6. Relationship between maternal dietary patterns and hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, Christianne A R; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Mendez, Michelle A

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the role of maternal nutrition in the development of hypospadias, which is the most common urogenital congenital anomaly. This study investigated the relationship between maternal nutrition and the risk of hypospadias, particularly focusing on maternal food patterns. We compared 471 hypospadias cases with 490 controls in the United Kingdom. A questionnaire including information on life style, occupation, usual maternal diet and dietary supplements was administered using telephone interviews. Cases and controls were compared for individual food item intake and food patterns derived by cluster analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for income, maternal age, low birthweight, smoking and folic acid supplement use was used to assess the relationship between maternal nutrition and hypospadias. Three food patterns were created with the labels 'health conscious', 'mixed' and 'non-health conscious'. 'Non-health conscious' subjects (low frequency of consumption of yoghurt, cheese, eggs, fruit and vegetables, fish, beans and pulses, olive oil and organic food) had a higher risk of hypospadias (odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval 1.06, 2.26) compared with 'health conscious' subjects (high frequency of consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, dried fruit, fresh or frozen fish, beans, pulses, soya products, olive oil and organic food), after adjustment for potential confounders. Intakes of individual foods were not strongly associated with hypospadias. We could not exclude the possibility of residual confounding, and this needs to be further investigated. We found an association between food pattern and hypospadias, with those with less health conscious food patterns having a higher risk. Further study is needed to confirm this association.

  7. Advanced Maternal Age Worsens Postpartum Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude S. Morton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age at which women experience their first pregnancy has increased throughout the decades. Pregnancy has an important influence on maternal short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Pregnancy at an advanced maternal age increases maternal risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa and caesarian delivery; complications which predict worsened cardiovascular health in later years. Aging also independently increases the risk of cardiovascular disease; therefore, combined risk in women of advanced maternal age may lead to detrimental cardiovascular outcomes later in life. We hypothesized that pregnancy at an advanced maternal age would lead to postpartum vascular dysfunction. We used a reproductively aged rat model to investigate vascular function in never pregnant (virgin, previously pregnant (postpartum and previously mated but never delivered (nulliparous rats at approximately 13.5 months of age (3 months postpartum or equivalent. Nulliparous rats, in which pregnancy was spontaneously lost, demonstrated significantly reduced aortic relaxation responses (methylcholine [MCh] Emax: 54.2 ± 12.6% vs. virgin and postpartum rats (MCh Emax: 84.8 ± 3.5% and 84.7 ± 3.2% respectively; suggesting pregnancy loss causes a worsened vascular pathology. Oxidized LDL reduced relaxation to MCh in aorta from virgin and postpartum, but not nulliparous rats, with an increased contribution of the LOX-1 receptor in the postpartum group. Further, in mesenteric arteries from postpartum rats, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH-mediated vasodilation was reduced and a constrictive prostaglandin effect was apparent. In conclusion, aged postpartum rats exhibited vascular dysfunction, while rats which had pregnancy loss demonstrated a distinct vascular pathology. These data demonstrate mechanisms which may lead to worsened outcomes at an advanced maternal age; including early pregnancy loss and later life cardiovascular dysfunction.

  8. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.

  9. Prevalence of maternal chronic diseases during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jølving, Line Riis; Nielsen, Jan; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    chronic diseases were chronic lung diseases/asthma (1.73%), thyroid disorders (1.50%) and anxiety and personality disorders (1.33%). Taking increasing maternal age at birth into account, the relative risk for women to have a chronic disease from 2009 to 2013 was 4.14 (95% CI 4.05-4.22), compared...... pregnancy. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This register-based cohort study included all women giving birth in Denmark between 1989 and 2013 based on data from Danish health registers. Maternal chronic diseases included 23 disease categories...

  10. Neonatal thyrotoxicosis caused by maternal autoimmune hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Miguel Fragata; Maria, Ana Teresa; Prado, Sara; Limbert, Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal immune hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially fatal condition. It occurs in 1–5% of infants born to women with Graves’ disease (GD). In most of the cases it is due to maternal antibodies transferred from the mother into the fetal compartment, stimulating the fetal thyroid by binding thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH) receptor. We present a case of neonatal thyrotoxicosis due to maternal GD detected at 25 days of age and discuss the potential pitfalls in the diagnosis. PMID:25750228

  11. Fetal and maternal complications in macrosomic pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Yvonne Kwun-Yue Cheng, Terence T LaoDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong KongAbstract: The prediction and management of fetal macrosomia remains an obstetric challenge. Significant maternal and neonatal complications can result from the birth of a macrosomic infant, and include prolonged labor, operative delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, perineal trauma, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, chorioamnionitis, meconium aspiration, perinatal asphyxia, low Apgar scores, neonatal hypoglycemia, and perinatal mortality. This review article discusses these maternal and perinatal risks and the management of suspected macrosomia.Keywords: macrosomia, large for gestational age, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, perineal tear

  12. Maternal Lifestyle and Pregnancy Complications: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bakker (Rachel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAdverse maternal lifestyle habits during pregnancy are important modifiable risk factors for pregnancy complications in Western countries. Most common adverse maternal lifestyle habits include smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine consumption. Although not directly lifestyle related

  13. Maternal Risk Factors for Childhood Anaemia in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and ... Keywords: Maternal, anaemia, child, risk factor, Ethiopia. Introduction. Anaemia is one ... maternal and child health; nutrition; women's empowerment and.

  14. Original Research Maternal biomass smoke exposure and birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Division of Environmental Epidemiology (EEPI), Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, The ... maternal education (low/medium/ higher), maternal religion ... such as the Wealth Index (a composite measure of a.

  15. the policies and production in maternal mortality reduction in cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. T. U. Agan

    Mortality and Promoting Maternal Health in Cross River State,. Nigeria. Archibong E. I ... leading social cause of death. The state has ... from the government to improve social and health ..... maternal health issues through the media, commu-.

  16. Community Perception of Maternal Mortality in Northeastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    have misconceptions about the causes of maternal mortality. There were many ... 2015 as part of the Millennium. Development Goals (goal number 5). 7 . To .... said there was no maternal death happen .... assisted states in Nigeria 2004.

  17. Putting the "M" back in maternal-fetal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alton, Mary E; Bonanno, Clarissa A; Berkowitz, Richard L; Brown, Haywood L; Copel, Joshua A; Cunningham, F Gary; Garite, Thomas J; Gilstrap, Larry C; Grobman, William A; Hankins, Gary D V; Hauth, John C; Iriye, Brian K; Macones, George A; Martin, James N; Martin, Stephanie R; Menard, M Kathryn; O'Keefe, Daniel F; Pacheco, Luis D; Riley, Laura E; Saade, George R; Spong, Catherine Y

    2013-06-01

    Although maternal death remains rare in the United States, the rate has not decreased for 3 decades. The rate of severe maternal morbidity, a more prevalent problem, is also rising. Rise in maternal age, in rates of obesity, and in cesarean deliveries as well as more pregnant women with chronic medical conditions all contribute to maternal mortality and morbidity in the United States. We believe it is the responsibility of maternal-fetal medicine (MFM) subspecialists to lead a national effort to decrease maternal mortality and morbidity. In doing so, we hope to reestablish the vital role of MFM subspecialists to take the lead in the performance and coordination of care in complicated obstetrical cases. This article will summarize our initial recommendations to enhance MFM education and training, to establish national standards to improve maternal care and management, and to address critical research gaps in maternal medicine.

  18. Haemolytic disease of the newborn due to multiple maternal antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suresh B; Deepthi K; Yashovardhan A; Arun R; Sreedhar Babu KV; Jothibai DS; Bhavani V

    2014-01-01

    ...) is shortened by the action of specific maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. Rhesus (Rh)- D haemolytic disease of the newborn is a prototype of maternal isoimmunization and foetal haemolytic disease...

  19. Influence of maternal acceptance on selfesteem as expressed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of maternal acceptance on selfesteem as expressed by secondary school ... Thus, maternal acceptance plays an inestimable role in the process of child's ... It was also recommended that various agencies should organize seminars ...

  20. Maternal mortality in a Transitional Hospital in Enugu, South East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality in a Transitional Hospital in Enugu, South East Nigeria. ... deaths at Enugu State University Teaching Hospital Parklane, over its 5 year transition period ... There were 7146 live births and 60 maternal deaths giving an overall ...

  1. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  2. Lessons from the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, J; Ravindran, J

    2014-09-01

    Malaysia has successfully reduced maternal mortality through several efforts which, in the broad sense, include (i) the overall socio-economic development of the country; (ii) strengthened health services; and (iii) specific efforts and initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality, one of which is the audit of maternal deaths by the confidential enquiry into maternal deaths. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  4. Single versus Dual Paycheck: Married Parents' Attitudes about Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebusch, Jenna-Lyn; Miller, Heather; Fulmer, Kimberly; Fontanez, Mary; Ellis, Trisha; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Carey, Brandi; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study examines attitudes about maternal employment by comparing the responses of married parents from single versus two-paycheck families. Participants in this study were 138 mothers and 120 fathers given the Beliefs About the Consequences of Maternal Employment for Children Scale (BACMEC), which assesses views about maternal employment.…

  5. Maternity Leave Provisions for Classroom Teachers in Larger School Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service Circular, 1966

    1966-01-01

    Maternity leave provisions for classroom teachers in 129 school systems having enrollments of 25,000 or more are reported for 1965-66 in this national survey. Tables contain information on compulsory absence prior to anticipated date of birth and earliest permissible return from maternity leaves. Brief descriptions of maternity leave practices are…

  6. Silent memory induction in maternal immune young animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, W.J.A.; Rooij, van E.M.A.; Scholten, J.W.; Zwart, R.J.; Kimman, T.G.; Bianchi, A.

    1998-01-01

    Maternal immunity was shown to be an effector mechanism which does not include transfer of memory. 'Boosting' of maternal immunity by vaccination was not effective. Transferred maternal immunity negatively interfered with the induction of optimal protection by vaccination. Antibody formation was not

  7. Mediating Links between Maternal Childhood Trauma and Preadolescent Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Singer, Lynn T.; Minnes, Sonia; Kim, Hyunsoo; Short, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously examine maternal psychological distress and social support as mediators linking maternal childhood trauma (MCT) to both maternal and child-reported behavior at 9 years of age in 231 birth mother-child dyads, who were primarily poor, urban, and African American. One half of the mothers…

  8. Maternal oxytocin response predicts mother-to-infant gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuropeptide oxytocin is importantly implicated in the emergence and maintenance of maternal behavior that forms the basis of the mother–infant bond. However, no research has yet examined the specific association between maternal oxytocin and maternal gaze, a key modality through which the mothe...

  9. Maternal hair--an appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrea, Enrique M; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Bielawski, Dawn M; Posecion, Norberto C; Corrion, Melissa L; Jin, Yan; Janisse, James J; Ager, Joel W

    2006-07-01

    The detection of exposure of pregnant women to toxicants in the environment is important because these compounds can be harmful to the health of the woman and her fetus. The aim of this study was to analyze for pesticides/herbicides in paired maternal hair and blood samples to determine the most appropriate matrix for detecting maternal exposure to these compounds. A total of 449 pregnant women were prospectively recruited at midgestation from an agricultural site in the Philippines where a preliminary survey indicated significant use at home and on the farm of the following compounds: propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon, and transfluthrin. Paired maternal hair and blood samples were obtained from each subject upon recruitment into the study (midgestation) and at birth and were analyzed for the above compounds, as well as lindane and DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane], and some of their known metabolites by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The highest exposure rate was seen for propoxur and bioallethrin and maternal hair analysis provided the highest detection rate for these two compounds, compared to blood, at both time periods: (1) At midgestation, 10.5% positive for propoxur in hair compared to 0.7% in blood (Phair compared to 0% in blood (P hair compared to 4% in blood (P hair compared to 0% in blood (P hair samples were also positive for malathion, chlorpyrifos, pretilachlor, and DDT. Only a few of the pesticide metabolites were detected, principally 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, malathion monocarboxylic acid, and DDE [1,1,dichloro-2-2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], and they were mostly found in maternal blood. There was a significant association between the use of the home spray pesticide, Baygon, and propoxur in maternal hair at birth (P=0.001) and between the use of a slow-burning mosquito coil and the presence of bioallethrin in maternal hair at midgestation and at birth (P=0

  10. Effects of maternal smoking on neonatal morbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-Pley, EA de; Wouters, EJ; Jong, PA de; Voorhorst, FJ; Stolte, SB; Kurver,

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a prospective study of the association between maternal smoking and neonatal morbidity variables is presented. Caucasian nulliparous women (n = 115)were studied throughout pregnancy, childbirth and puerperal period. Birthweight(-centiles), Apgar scores, mode of delivery, umbilical arte

  11. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  12. Maternal mortality in Denmark, 1985-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Westergaard, Hanne Brix; Bødker, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, maternal mortality has been reported over the last century, both locally through hospital reports and in national registries. The purpose of this study was to analyze data from national medical registries of pregnancy-related deaths in Denmark 1985-1994 and to classify them...

  13. The maternal to zygotic transition in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Lu, Xukun; Dean, Jurrien

    2013-10-01

    Prior to activation of the embryonic genome, the initiating events of mammalian development are under maternal control and include fertilization, the block to polyspermy and processing sperm DNA. Following gamete union, the transcriptionally inert sperm DNA is repackaged into the male pronucleus which fuses with the female pronucleus to form a 1-cell zygote. Embryonic transcription begins during the maternal to zygotic transfer of control in directing development. This transition occurs at species-specific times after one or several rounds of blastomere cleavage and is essential for normal development. However, even after activation of the embryonic genome, successful development relies on stored maternal components without which embryos fail to progress beyond initial cell divisions. Better understanding of the molecular basis of maternal to zygotic transition including fertilization, the activation of the embryonic genome and cleavage-stage development will provide insight into early human development that should translate into clinical applications for regenerative medicine and assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal deaths in Denmark 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. DESIGN: Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records. SET...

  15. Early Environmental Correlates of Maternal Emotion Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Adkins, Daniel; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha

    2008-04-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of this study was to examine contextual, child, and maternal factors that are associated with mothers' early emotion talk in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample. DESIGN: Emotion talk (positive and negative labels) was coded for 1111 mothers while engaged with their 7-month-olds in viewing an emotion-faces picture book. Infant attention during the interaction was also coded. Mothers' parenting style (positive engagement and negative intrusiveness) was coded during a dyadic free-play interaction. Demographic information was obtained, as well as maternal ratings of child temperament and mother's knowledge of infant development. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that social context and maternal qualities are significant predictors of mothers' early positive and negative emotion talk. In particular, mothers who were African American, had higher income, and who showed more positive engagement when interacting with their infants demonstrated increased rates of positive and negative emotion talk with their infants. For negative emotion talk, social context variables moderated other predictors. Specifically, infant attention was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for African American mothers, and knowledge of infant development was positively associated with negative emotion talk only for non-African American mothers. The positive association between maternal positive engagement and negative emotion talk was greater for lower-income families than for higher-income families. CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' emotion language with infants is not sensitive to child factors but is associated with social contextual factors and characteristics of the mothers themselves.

  16. Is Maternal Employment Related to Childhood Obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...

  17. Maternal death and the Millennium Development Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress h...... be developed. Finally, political leadership, openness to discuss women's rights, including abortion, and involving the community i.e. MDG 3 is essential to attain MDG 5.......Maternal health is one of the main global health challenges and reduction of the maternal mortality ratio, from the present 0.6 mio. per year, by three-quarters by 2015 is the target for the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5). However this goal is the one towards which the least progress has...... innovative strategy. Along with the strategy of aiming at increasing the number of health facility based deliveries and the empowerment of non physicians to provide obstetric surgery, some preventive functions of basic care targeting women who prefer to deliver outside the health facilities should...

  18. Maternal Mortality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne S.

    1977-01-01

    Figures from 1800 through 1973 are used to demonstrate that black women have had substantially higher rates of death in childbirth than white women. As mortality has declined, the relative difference between whites and blacks has actually increased. Factors affecting mortality and future prospects for reducing maternal deaths are discussed. (GC)

  19. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did.

  20. Feto-maternal outcome in twin pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiben V. Gajera

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Most of the complications in multiple gestations are preventable. High risk units in the obstetric ward and well developed NICU set up would reduce the maternal, perinatal morbidity and mortality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1836-1839

  1. Costs and Benefits of Treating Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Lavelle, Tara; Schultz, Dana

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 15 million mothers with young children in the U.S. suffer from depression. Untreated maternal depression has serious consequences for the mother's long-term health and for her child's development and functioning. it can also be costly, driving up health care use, reducing employment, and creating the need for early childhood…

  2. Maternal drugs and neonatal renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sahay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal use of drugs during pregnancy may cause irreversible renal failure in the newborn. This report highlights the adverse effect of telmisartan during the last trimester of pregnancy. The neonate presented with oliguric renal failure and the renal histology showed proximal tubular dysgenesis.

  3. RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF MATERNAL DEATH IN JIMMA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Hospital based reports in Addis and Jimma more than a decade ago also documented a ratio of 9.6 and 26 per 1000 ... There is no updated information on maternal death in the study area. ... This study was undertaken to analyze the current.

  4. Maternal Responsiveness and Subsequent Child Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpal, Mary; Maccoby, Eleanor E.

    1985-01-01

    Contrasts effects of three modes of mother/child interaction on children's subsequent compliance with maternal directives. Subjects were 39 children from lower-middle-class families, ranging in age from approximately three to four-and-a-half. Responsive play and noninteractive conditions produced higher levels of compliance than the untrained free…

  5. Costs and Benefits of Treating Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Lavelle, Tara; Schultz, Dana

    2014-01-01

    An estimated 15 million mothers with young children in the U.S. suffer from depression. Untreated maternal depression has serious consequences for the mother's long-term health and for her child's development and functioning. it can also be costly, driving up health care use, reducing employment, and creating the need for early childhood…

  6. Human maternal plasma proteomic changes with parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Significance: Proteomic technology is constantly advancing, and the latest techniques enable gel-free analysis of minimally preprocessed, complex biological samples, enabling simultaneous identification and quantification of many hundreds of proteins. The technique of TMT labelling and Orbitrap mass spectrometry is applicable to the analysis of serial maternal plasma samples in order to identify potential markers of the onset of labour.

  7. Update in Maternal and Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    This review emphasizes research that confirms or questions established practices regarding maternal and infant nutrition. Controversial issues include weight gain and use of vitamins and mineral supplements during pregnancy and the effects of second-hand smoke. Infant nutrition topics include use of unmodified cow's milk, level of fat, and…

  8. Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart

    OpenAIRE

    Hornberger, L K

    2006-01-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre‐conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

  9. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  10. Women's Decisions about Breastfeeding and Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein

    1996-01-01

    Extends the concept of role incompatibility to examine potential incompatibilities between breastfeeding and maternal employment. Hypothesizes women may face both structural and attitudinal conflicts between these behaviors. Found significantly more women employed part-time are likely to breastfeed and for longer durations than women employed…

  11. Jaundice during pregnancy: maternal and fetal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Krishnamoorthy

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Jaundice in pregnancy has adverse fetomaternal outcome. Improvement in health awareness, education and regular antenatal checkups, early referrals result in early diagnosis and treatment of jaundice during pregnancy thus reducing maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2541-2545

  12. Maternal Work Conditions and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfe, Christina; Hsin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    How do maternal work conditions, such as psychological stress and physical hazards, affect children's development? Combining data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Occupational Information Network allows us to shed some light on this question. We employ various techniques including OLS with…

  13. Maternal deaths following nevirapine- based antiretroviral therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... At the same time, maternal mortality-related HIV has continued ... of CD4 cell count, hepatitis B infection, the presence of abnormal ... health professionals remain at odds over the choice of non- ... tomography scan of her brain was normal. ... enable neural tube closure and embryogenesis of the face to be ...

  14. Impact of maternal and neonatal health initiatives on inequity in maternal health care utilization in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Rahman, Mohammad Masudur; Moinuddin, Md; Rahman, Ahmed Ehsanur; Ahmed, Shakil; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in maternal and child health, inequity persists in maternal care utilization in Bangladesh. Government of Bangladesh (GOB) with technical assistance from United Nation Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) started implementing Maternal and Neonatal Health Initiatives in selected districts of Bangladesh (MNHIB) in 2007 with an aim to reduce inequity in healthcare utilization. This study examines the effect of MNHIB on inequity in maternal care utilization. Two surveys were carried out in four districts in Bangladesh- baseline in 2008 and end-line in 2013. The baseline survey collected data from 13,206 women giving birth in the preceding year and in end-line 7,177 women were interviewed. Inequity in maternal healthcare utilization was calculated pre and post-MNHIB using rich-to-poor ratio and concentration index. Mean age of respondents were 23.9 and 24.6 years in 2008 and 2013 respectively. Utilization of pregnancy-related care increased for all socioeconomic strata between these two surveys. The concentration indices (CI) for various maternal health service utilization in 2013 were found to be lower than the indices in 2008. However, in comparison to contemporary BDHS data in nearby districts, MNHIB was successful in reducing inequity in receiving ANC from a trained provider (CI: 0.337 and 0.272), institutional delivery (CI: 0.435 in 2008 to 0.362 in 2013), and delivery by skilled personnel (CI: 0.396 and 0.370). Overall use of maternal health care services increased in post-MNHIB year compared to pre-MNHIB year and inequity in maternal service utilization declined for three indicators out of six considered in the paper. The reductions in CI values for select maternal care indicators imply that the program has been successful not only in improving utilization of maternal health services but also in lowering inequality of service utilization across socioeconomic groups

  15. Obstetric near-miss and maternal mortality in maternity university hospital, Damascus, Syria: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Chamat Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating severe maternal morbidity (near-miss is a newly recognised tool that identifies women at highest risk of maternal death and helps allocate resources especially in low income countries. This study aims to i. document the frequency and nature of maternal near-miss at hospital level in Damascus, Capital of Syria, ii. evaluate the level of care at maternal life-saving emergency services by comparatively analysing near-misses and maternal mortalities. Methods Retrospective facility-based review of cases of near-miss and maternal mortality that took place in the years 2006-2007 at Damascus Maternity University Hospital, Syria. Near-miss cases were defined based on disease-specific criteria (Filippi 2005 including: haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, dystocia, infection and anaemia. Main outcomes included maternal mortality ratio (MMR, maternal near miss ratio (MNMR, mortality indices and proportion of near-miss cases and mortality cases to hospital admissions. Results There were 28 025 deliveries, 15 maternal deaths and 901 near-miss cases. The study showed a MNMR of 32.9/1000 live births, a MMR of 54.8/100 000 live births and a relatively low mortality index of 1.7%. Hypertensive disorders (52% and haemorrhage (34% were the top causes of near-misses. Late pregnancy haemorrhage was the leading cause of maternal mortality (60% while sepsis had the highest mortality index (7.4%. Most cases (93% were referred in critical conditions from other facilities; namely traditional birth attendants homes (67%, primary (5% and secondary (10% healthcare unites and private practices (11%. 26% of near-miss cases were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Conclusion Near-miss analyses provide valuable information on obstetric care. The study highlights the need to improve antenatal care which would help early identification of high risk pregnancies. It also emphasises the importance of both: developing protocols to

  16. Maternal Mortality in Nepal: Unraveling the Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwal, Juhee V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishMaternal mortality has been recognised as a public health problem in the developing countries. The situation concerning maternal mortality in Nepal remained unexplored and vague until the early 1990s. By using 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey, this study discusses the maternal mortality situation in Nepal and analyses the differentials in maternal mortality by place of residence,region, ethnic and religious groups, age at death, and parity. Almost 28 percent of deaths of women in reproductive age was accountable to maternal causes.Logistic regression analysis shows ‘ethnicity,’ ‘age of women,’ and ‘number of births’ as strong predictors of maternal mortality. A number of policy recommendations are suggested to help lower maternal mortality.FrenchLa mortalité liée à la maternité est un des phénomènes de santé qui a étéidentifié dans les pays en voie de développement. La situation de la mortalitéliée à la maternité au Népal est restée inexplorée et assez vague jusqu’au débutdes années 1990. En utilisant les données du Nepal Family Health Survey de1996, cet article examine la situation de la mortalité liée à la maternité au Népalet analyse les différentiels des taux de mortalité par lieu de résidence, région,groupe ethnique et religieux, âge au décès, et parité. Presque 28 pourcent desdécès de femmes en âge de procréer sont liés à la maternité. L’analyse derégression logique démontre que « l’ethnicité », « l’âge des femmes », et le« nombre de naissances » sont de forts prédicteurs du taux des mortalités liées àla maternité.

  17. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects r...

  18. Maternal age at Holocaust exposure and maternal PTSD independently influence urinary cortisol levels in adult offspring

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal PTSD appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: 95 Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluat...

  19. Food availability and maternal immunization affect transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ismail

    Full Text Available The ability of mothers to transfer antibodies (Abs to their young and the temporal persistence of maternal Abs in offspring constitute important life-history traits that can impact the evolution of host-parasite interactions. Here, we examined the effects of food availability and parental immunization on the transfer and persistence of maternal antibodies in nestling pigeons (Columba livia. This species can transmit maternal Abs to offspring before hatching through the egg yolk and potentially after hatching through crop milk. However, the role of this postnatal substance in immunity remains elusive. We used a full cross-fostering design to disentangle the effects of food limitation and parental immunization both before and after hatching on the levels and persistence of maternal Abs in chicks. Parents were immunized via injection with keyhole limpet hemocyanin antigens. Using an immunoassay that specifically detected the IgY antibodies that are known to be transmitted via the yolk, we found that the levels of anti-KLH Abs in newly hatched chicks were positively correlated with the levels of anti-KLH Abs in the blood of their biological mothers. However, this correlation was not present between chicks and their foster parents, suggesting limited IgY transfer via crop milk to the chick's bloodstream. Interestingly, biological mothers subjected to food limitation during egg laying transferred significantly fewer specific maternal Abs, which suggests that the transfer of antibodies might be costly for them. In addition, the persistence of maternal Abs in a chick's bloodstream was not affected by food limitation or the foster parents' anti-KLH Ab levels; it was only affected by the initial level of maternal anti-KLH Abs that were present in newly hatched chicks. These results suggest that the maternal transfer of Abs could be costly but that their persistence in an offspring's bloodstream may not necessarily be affected by environmental conditions.

  20. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. MATERNAL NEAR MISS AND MATERNAL MORTALITY AS HEALTH INDICATORS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simarpreet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To assess the various causes and incidence of maternal near miss (MNM and maternal deaths (MD and to define the limitations and to search the level of delay. METHODS: A prospective and observational study, including women who were admitted in emergency from April 2012 to March 2013 with severe maternal complications and who fulfilled any of the WHO criteria of MNM. Results: A total of 6008 live births (LB and 156 severe maternal outcomes (25.9/1000 LB were observed, consisting of 140 MNM (23.3/1000 LB and 16 MD(266/100, 000 LB. The maternal near miss/mortality ratio was 8.75. Hypertensive disorders accounted for the most common event of MNM (50.6%, followed by haemorrhagic disorders (38.6%. Majority of maternal deaths were due to hypertensive disorders (31.2% and sepsis (25%. CONCLUSION: Reduction of present MNM and MD may be achieved by strictly following management protocols for hypertension and haemorrhage.

  2. Social Support and Maternal Depression from Pregnancy to Postpartum: The Association with Positive Maternal Behaviours among Brazilian Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; Koller, Sílvia H.; Volling, Brenda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent motherhood is a risky situation related to poorer quality of infant caregiving. The lack of social support and increased odds for maternal depression are the main concerns. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal-foetal attachment, social support and maternal depression measured during pregnancy and after birth were associated…

  3. Maternal self-confidence postpartum and at pre-school age: the role of depression, anxiety disorders, maternal attachment insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Schlüter, Myriam Kim; Nonnenmacher, Nora; Müller, Mitho; Reck, Corinna

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of maternal postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DMS-IV on maternal self-confidence throughout infancy and early childhood. Exploratively, associations between maternal attachment insecurity and maternal self-confidence at pre-school age were examined. The sample (N = 54) of this prospective longitudinal study was comprised of n = 27 women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV criteria and n = 27 healthy women without present or history of mental health disorders or psychotherapy. Data was collected in the postpartum period (M = 60.08 days) and at pre-school age (M = 4.7 years). Subjects were recruited between 2004 and 2011 in South Germany. Data revealed a significant difference in maternal self-confidence between clinical and control group at child's pre-school age: Women with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder scored lower on maternal self-confidence than healthy controls, but only if they had current SCID-diagnoses or partly remitted symptoms. According to explorative analyses maternal attachment insecurity turned out to be the strongest predictor of maternal self-confidence at pre-school age besides maternal mental health status. The results emphasize the impact of attachment insecurity and maternal mental health regarding maternal self-confidence leading to potential adverse long-term consequences for the mother-child relationship. Attachment based interventions taking maternal self-confidence into account are needed.

  4. The importance of maternal nutrition for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition plays a major role in maternal and child health and it is widely recognized that optimum nutrition in early life is the foundation for long-term health. A healthy maternal dietary pattern, along with adequate maternal body composition, metabolism and placental nutrient supply, reduces the risk of maternal, fetal and long-term effects in the offspring. While undernutrition is mainly an issue of low-income countries, malnutrition, due to poor quality diet, is becoming a global health problem.Preconceptional counseling of women of childbearing age should spread awareness of the importance of maternal nutrition before and during pregnancy and should promote a cultural lifestyle change, in favor of a healthy weight before conceiving and balanced healthy diet with high-quality foods consumption. Supplementation and/or fortification can make a contribution when recommended micronutrient intakes are difficult to be met through food alone. In industrialized countries, although a balanced diet is generally accessible, a switch to a high-fat and low-quality diet has led to inadequate vitamin and mineral intake during pregnancy. Evidence do not support a routine multiple micronutrient supplementation but highlights the importance of an individualized approach, in order to recognize nutritional deficiencies of individuals, thus leading to healthful dietary practices prior to conception and eventually to tailored supplementation. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  5. MATERNAL NEAR MISS: AN EXPERIENCE IN RURAL MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality is an important indicator of health care system. As the mortality rates are consistently decreasing the focus is shifted on maternal near miss which describes severe maternal morbidity which shares the common pathway as mortality. Maternal near miss indicators are relevant in developing world and low resource setting as it indicates the gaps in the health system. In 2009 WHO working group has standardized the criteria for selecting these cases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study is performed in rural medical college between October 2012 to september2014 and maternal near miss cases are identified according to WHO criteria. Variables related to age, parity, gestational age, intensive care unit admission, ventilator support, requirement of massive blood transfusion were analyzed. Further the events leading to maternal near miss were studied. Finally the indices like maternal near miss incidence ratio, maternal near miss: maternal mortality ratio and mortality index were calculated. RESULTS: during the study period 2409 deliveries were conducted of which 2385 were live births. Potentially life threatening conditions were identified to be 265 and maternal near miss cases were 22. Maternal near miss incidence ratio was 9.2per 1000 live births, maternal near miss to maternal mortality ratio was 11:1 and mortality index was 8.3%. The leading causes of maternal near miss were abruption and rupture uterus requiring emergency hysterectomy. The morbidity was high in unbooked cases. CONCLUSION: maternal near miss is good alternative indicator of health care system. Lacunae between grass root level and tertiary centers should be filled.

  6. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    of maternity leave on a range of health indicators including the number of hospital admissions for both mother and child and the probability of the mother receiving antidepressants. The reform led to an increase in average post-birth maternity leave matters for child or maternal health outcomes and thus we...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  7. Audit of maternal mortality ratio and causes of maternal deaths in the largest maternity hospital in Cairo, Egypt (Kasr Al Aini) in 2008 and 2009: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Ragab, Wael S; Aboulgheit, Samah S

    2013-09-01

    This study examined maternal deaths at Cairo University Maternity Hospital between January 2008 and December 2009. The aim was to calculate Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) as well as identify the causes and predisposing factors to maternal deaths. Data were collected from the files of the hospitalized pregnant women in the hospital. There were 38 maternal deaths and MMR was 79 per 100,000 live births for the two years examined. The main causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiac arrest. Substandard medical care and the delay in seeking of medical advice were two contributing factors to maternal deaths recorded. The need for audit and publication of all obstetric hospitals MMR to compare and identify areas of improvements is recommended.

  8. Can prenatal maternal stress increase the risk of asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Maternal stress adversely affects a mother's well-being and health and also negatively impacts her offspring. That this relationship also holds true for maternal stress during the pregnancy period is intuitive. However, whether maternal stress increases the risk of asthma development in her offspring is less clear and will be evaluated in this review. There is evidence from murine models to suggest that maternal stress during pregnancy increases the risk of asthma in the offspring. While recent experimental research adds to the increasing body of evidence supporting a causal relationship between prenatal maternal stress and asthma risk in the offspring, the epidemiological evidence supporting this notion is insufficient. Almost all existing observational studies suffer from severe methodological limitations. Nevertheless, the results from experimental work on maternal stress during pregnancy and asthma risk in the offspring, in concert with other obvious adverse health effects in the offspring are sufficient to justify a recommendation to reduce maternal stressors, particularly during pregnancy.

  9. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep.

  10. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  11. Maternal and neonatal complications of macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkwabong, Elie

    2014-10-01

    This case control study, aimed at identifying complications of macrosomia, was conducted in two major hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon over a 6-month period from 1 October 2012. Maternity records were compared of births weighing ≥4000 g with those weighing between 3000 g and 3500 g. The main outcome variables were mode of delivery, low genital lacerations, Apgar score, birth injuries, postpartum haemorrhage and early neonatal death. Data were analysed using SPSS 18.0. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test and t-test were used for comparison. P macrosomia is associated with increased maternal and neonatal complications. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. The Turkish version of Maternal Attachment Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Kavlak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The research has been designed as methodological with purpose of the validity and the reliability of the Turkish language version of Maternal Attachment Inventory on mothers within one and four months postpartum. Method: This study was carried out with mothers registered at 19 Health Clinics and three Maternal-Child Health and Family Planning Clinics in which connected to Bornova Health Presidency in Izmir. The sample of research has been composed three clinics in which determined with the purposive sampling technique. First stage, the research was studied on 165 mothers when their babies were approximately 30-40 days old in these registered clinics.At the second stage of research has been interviewed again with 78 mothers when their babies were approximately 90-105 days old.Results: It is determined that experts consensuses about content of items as a result of analysis (Kendall’s W=0.274, p=0.001

  13. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  14. Discovering Self: Childbearing Adolescents' Maternal Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Janelle; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood have long been a topic of interest for many healthcare professionals. However, there are limited data on how childbearing adolescents incorporate motherhood identity into their sense of self. The purpose of this study was to explore how childbearing adolescents perceive motherhood as becoming part of their personal identity. This qualitative study using ethnographic data collection involved 7 months of observation, interaction, and interviews. Data were collected from nine expectant adolescents during in-depth interviews. All participants were patients at a teen mother and child clinic staffed by certified nurse midwives and a pediatrician. Narrative content analysis revealed the overall theme of discovering self, with three major themes: confirming the pregnancy, the loss of my body, and imagining my child in my arms. Adolescent mothers may need assistance to construct their maternal identity in order to strengthen self-perceptions and improve maternal/child outcomes.

  15. The neurobiology of infant maternal odor learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Raineki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Infant rats must learn to identify their mother’s diet-dependent odor. Once learned, maternal odor controls pups’ approach to the mother, their social behavior and nipple attachment. Here we present a review of the research from four different laboratories, which suggests that neural and behavioral responses to the natural maternal odor and neonatal learned odors are similar. Together, these data indicate that pups have a unique learning circuit relying on the olfactory bulb for neural plasticity and on the hyperfunctioning noradrenergic locus coeruleus flooding the olfactory bulb with norepinephrine to support the neural changes. Another important factor making this system unique is the inability of the amygdala to become incorporated into the infant learning circuit. Thus, infant rats appear to be primed in early life to learn odors that will evoke approach responses supporting attachment to the caregiver.

  16. Maternal near miss and quality of maternal health care in Baghdad, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir Maysoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maternal near-miss concept has been developed as an instrument for assisting health systems to evaluate and improve their quality of care. Our study aimed at studying the characteristics and quality of care provided to women with severe complications in Baghdad through the use of the World Health Organization (WHO near-miss approach for maternal health. Methods This is a facility-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 6 public hospitals in Baghdad between March 1, 2010 and the June 30, 2010. WHO near-miss approach was utilized to analyze the data in terms of indicators of maternal near miss and access to and quality of maternal care. Results The maternal near-miss rate was low at 5.06 per 1,000 live births, while the overall maternal near miss: mortality ratio was 9:1. One third of the near-miss cases were referred from other facilities and the mortality index was the same for referred women and for in-hospital women (11%. The intensive care unit (ICU admission rate was 37% for women with severe maternal outcomes (SMO, while the overall admission rate was 0.28%. Anemia (55% and previous cesarean section (45% were the most common associated conditions with severe maternal morbidity. The use of magnesium sulfate for treatment of eclampsia, oxytocin for prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, prophylactic antibiotics during caesarean section, and corticosteroids for inducing fetal lung maturation in preterm birth is suboptimum. Conclusions The WHO near-miss approach allowed systematic identification of the roadblocks to improve quality of care and then monitoring the progress. Critical evidence-based practices, relevant to the management of women experiencing life-threatening conditions, are underused. In addition, possible limitations in the referral system result in a very high proportion of women presenting at the hospital already in a severe health condition (i.e. with organ dysfunction. A shortage of ICU

  17. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. TEENAGE PREGNANCY: DEMOGRAPHICS, MATERNAL AND FOETAL OUTCOME

    OpenAIRE

    Radhika Gollapudi; Jagadeeshwari Sistla

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pregnancy though is a physiological event in a woman’s life, it has its own associated complications. In teenage pregnancies, the physical and emotional state of stress coupled with biological immaturity leads to adverse effect both on the health of the mother and the foetus. METHODS This study is a clinical prospective study analysing the demographics, maternal health issues and the foetal outcome in teenage pregnancies. The study was conducted over a period of o...

  19. Maternal regulation and toddlers’ effortful control

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Effortful control is a regulatory component of emotion (Calkins & Hill, 2007). This descriptive study analyzed the relation between maternal co-regulation strategies and children self-regulation strategies in order to evaluate their effortful control skills.19 dyads [mother-child] with children between 18 and 36 months old participated and were divided in three groups, the sample was taken from government´s nurseries. A transversal study with direct observation of the experimental situati...

  20. A case of near miss maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sood

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eclampsia is a common cause of maternal morbidity and at times, mortality. Usually patients show dramatic improvement soon after delivery. But rarely eclampsia, dealt by obstetricians often, can herald an underlying life-threatening disease process requiring intensive care support and multi- disciplinary care. Such a case is being reported here. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 833-835

  1. Feto-maternal haemorrhage in therapeutic abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J. C.; Britt, R. P.

    1969-01-01

    The incidence of feto-maternal haemorrhage in induced abortion has been studied with the Kleihauer technique. All four methods of termination used were shown to result in such haemorrhages. The incidence below 12 weeks' gestation, however, was very small and there seems to be no reason for offering routine rhesus-immunoglobulin to these women. When it is essential to terminate a pregnancy of 12 weeks' size or more in a rhesus-negative woman immunoglobulin should be given. PMID:4187694

  2. Maternal education and child healthcare in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Mohammed Nazmul; Tasnim, Tarana

    2008-01-01

    Child health is one of the important indicators for describing mortality conditions, health progress and the overall social and economic well being of a country. During the last 15 years, although Bangladesh has achieved a significant reduction in the child mortality rate, the levels still remain very high. The utilization of qualified providers does not lead to the desired level; only a third relies on qualified providers. This study is mainly aimed at investigating the influence of maternal education on health status and the utilization of child healthcare services in Bangladesh. This study is based on the data of the Household Income Expenditure Survey (HIES) conducted by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) during 2000. The analysis of the findings reveals that 19.4% of the children under five reported sickness during 30 days prior to the survey date. Moreover, approximately one out of every thirteen children suffers from diarrhoea in the country. It is striking to note that a significant portion of the parents relied on unqualified or traditional providers for the children's healthcare because of low cost, easy accessibility and familiarity of the services. The study suggests that maternal education is a powerful and significant determinant of child health status in Bangladesh. Maternal education also positively affects the number of children receiving vaccination. In order to improve the health condition of children in Bangladesh maternal education should be given top priority. The public policies should not just focus on education alone, but also consider other factors, such as access to health facilities and quality of services. Health awareness campaign should be strengthened as part of the public health promotion efforts. More emphasis should also be given to government-NGO (Non Government Organization) partnerships that make vaccination programs successful and, thereby, reduce the incidence of preventable diseases.

  3. FAMILY STRUCTURE TRANSITIONS AND MATERNAL PARENTING STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we find that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers report higher levels of parenting stress than mothers in stable coresidential relationships. Mothers who enter coresidential relationships with biological fathers report lower...

  4. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

  5. Maternal Germinal Trisomy 21 in Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj A. Hultén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has now been over 50 years since it was discovered that Down syndrome is caused by an extra chromosome 21, i.e., trisomy 21. In the interim, it has become clear that in the majority of cases, the extra chromosome is inherited from the mother, and there is, in this respect, a strong maternal age effect. Numerous investigations have been devoted to clarifying the underlying mechanism, most recently suggesting that this situation is exceedingly complex, involving both biological and environmental factors. On the other hand, it has also been proposed that germinal trisomy 21 mosaicism, arising during the very early stages of maternal oogenesis with accumulation of trisomy 21 germ cells during subsequent development, may be the main predisposing factor. We present data here on the incidence of trisomy 21 mosaicism in a cohort of normal fetal ovarian samples, indicating that an accumulation of trisomy 21 germ cells does indeed take place during fetal oogenesis, i.e., from the first to the second trimester of pregnancy. We presume that this accumulation of trisomy 21 (T21 cells is caused by their delay in maturation and lagging behind the normal cells. We further presume that this trend continues during the third trimester of pregnancy and postnatally, up until ovulation, thereby explaining the maternal age effect in Down syndrome.

  6. Influences of Maternal Care on Chicken Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In domestic chickens, the provision of maternal care strongly influences the behavioural development of chicks. Mother hens play an important role in directing their chicks’ behaviour and are able to buffer their chicks’ response to stressors. Chicks imprint upon their mother, who is key in directing the chicks’ behaviour and in allowing them to develop food preferences. Chicks reared by a mother hen are less fearful and show higher levels of behavioural synchronisation than chicks reared artificially. In a commercial setting, more fearful chicks with unsynchronised behaviour are more likely to develop behavioural problems, such as feather pecking. As well as being an inherent welfare problem, fear can also lead to panic responses, smothering, and fractured bones. Despite the beneficial effects of brooding, it is not commercially viable to allow natural brooding on farms and so chicks are hatched in large incubators and reared artificially, without a mother hen. In this review we cover the literature demonstrating the important features of maternal care in domestic chickens, the behavioural consequences of deprivation and the welfare implications on commercial farms. We finish by suggesting ways to use research in natural maternal care to improve commercial chick rearing practice.

  7. Maternal inflammatory markers and term labor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierny, Jill T; Unal, E Ramsey; Flood, Pamela; Rhee, Ka Young; Praktish, Allison; Olson, Tara Hudak; Goetzl, Laura

    2014-05-01

    We sought to examine the relationship between maternal markers of inflammation and labor performance. A nested cohort study was performed utilizing an established cohort of term nulliparous patients. Maternal blood was collected at the onset of regular, painful contractions in patients undergoing labor induction or at admission in patients with spontaneous labor. Levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined using standard multiplex methodology. Maternal demographic data were collected prospectively. Detailed retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on cervical dilation, effacement, and station during labor. Subjects were excluded if they failed to achieve complete dilation. Mixed effects modeling was used to examine the association between serum cytokine quartiles and labor progress in the latent and active phases. In all, 334 women were included in our analysis. The lowest quartile of IL-6 was associated with slower latent labor (P = .001). In contrast, the highest quartiles of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were associated with slower active labor (P = .03 and .0002, respectively). Proinflammatory activation is important in labor initiation. However, once active labor is established, excess inflammation can be detrimental to efficient labor progress. These data may explain, in part, the known associations among clinical chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent mental health: Challenges with maternal noncompliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Nejtek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Vicki A Nejtek, Sarah Hardy, Scott WinterUniversity of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USAAbstract: The leading cause of suicide ideation, attempts, and completion in adolescents is persistent and unresolved parental conflict. National statistics show extremely high rates of childhood neglect and abuse are perpetrated most often by single mothers. Psychiatric disorders arising from maternal–child dysfunction are well-documented. However, resources to prevent offspring victimization are lacking. Here, we report maternal neglect of a 15-year-old male brought to the psychiatric emergency room for suicidal ideation. An inpatient treatment plan including pharmacotherapy, family therapy and psychological testing was initiated. The patient’s mother failed to attend clinic appointments or family therapy sessions. Clinician attempts to engage the mother in the treatment plan was met with verbal assaults, aggression, and threatening behavior. The patient decompensated in relation to the mother’s actions. Child Protective Services were contacted and a follow-up assessment with the patient and mother is pending. Psychiatric treatment of the mother may be a necessary intervention and prevention regimen for both the adolescent and the mother. Without consistent Child Protective Services oversight, medical and psychosocial follow-up, the prognosis and quality of life for this adolescent is considered very poor. Stringent mental health law and institutional policies are needed to adequately intercede and protect adolescents with mental illness.Keywords: adolescent, suicide, maternal treatment noncompliance, maternal neglect

  9. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2013-01-01

    . Results were derived from a random-effects meta-analysis, and statistical heterogeneity assessed by the I (2) statistic. In sub-analyses we also calculated summary estimates stratified by direct and indirect death causes. We included 13 studies with more than 42 million women and 4,995 maternal deaths......To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population....... Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta...

  10. The difficulties of conducting maternal death reviews in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broek Nynke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews is a tool widely recommended to improve the quality of obstetric care and reduce maternal mortality. Our aim was to explore the challenges encountered in the process of facility-based maternal death review in Malawi, and to suggest sustainable and logically sound solutions to these challenges. Methods SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats analysis of the process of maternal death review during a workshop in Malawi. Results Strengths: Availability of data from case notes, support from hospital management, and having maternal death review forms. Weaknesses: fear of blame, lack of knowledge and skills to properly conduct death reviews, inadequate resources and missing documentation. Opportunities: technical assistance from expatriates, support from the Ministry of Health, national protocols and high maternal mortality which serves as motivation factor. Threats: Cultural practices, potential lawsuit, demotivation due to the high maternal mortality and poor planning at the district level. Solutions: proper documentation, conducting maternal death review in a blame-free manner, good leadership, motivation of staff, using guidelines, proper stock inventory and community involvement. Conclusion Challenges encountered during facility-based maternal death review are provider-related, administrative, client related and community related. Countries with similar socioeconomic profiles to Malawi will have similar 'pull-and-push' factors on the process of facility-based maternal death reviews, and therefore we will expect these countries to have similar potential solutions.

  11. The difficulties of conducting maternal death reviews in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongnyuy, Eugene J; van den Broek, Nynke

    2008-01-01

    Background Maternal death reviews is a tool widely recommended to improve the quality of obstetric care and reduce maternal mortality. Our aim was to explore the challenges encountered in the process of facility-based maternal death review in Malawi, and to suggest sustainable and logically sound solutions to these challenges. Methods SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis of the process of maternal death review during a workshop in Malawi. Results Strengths: Availability of data from case notes, support from hospital management, and having maternal death review forms. Weaknesses: fear of blame, lack of knowledge and skills to properly conduct death reviews, inadequate resources and missing documentation. Opportunities: technical assistance from expatriates, support from the Ministry of Health, national protocols and high maternal mortality which serves as motivation factor. Threats: Cultural practices, potential lawsuit, demotivation due to the high maternal mortality and poor planning at the district level. Solutions: proper documentation, conducting maternal death review in a blame-free manner, good leadership, motivation of staff, using guidelines, proper stock inventory and community involvement. Conclusion Challenges encountered during facility-based maternal death review are provider-related, administrative, client related and community related. Countries with similar socioeconomic profiles to Malawi will have similar 'pull-and-push' factors on the process of facility-based maternal death reviews, and therefore we will expect these countries to have similar potential solutions. PMID:18786267

  12. Maternal drug abuse versus maternal depression: vulnerability and resilience among school-age and adolescent offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthar, Suniya S; Sexton, Chris C

    2007-01-01

    In this study of 360 low-income mother-child dyads, our primary goal was to disentangle risks linked with commonly co-occurring maternal diagnoses: substance abuse and affective/anxiety disorders. Variable- and person-based analyses suggest that, at least through children's early adolescence, maternal drug use is no more inimical for them than is maternal depression. A second goal was to illuminate vulnerability and protective processes linked with mothers' everyday functioning, and results showed that negative parenting behaviors were linked with multiple adverse child outcomes. Conversely, the other parenting dimensions showed more domain specificity; parenting stress was linked with children's lifetime diagnoses, and limit setting and closeness with children's externalizing problems and everyday competence, respectively. Results are discussed in terms of implications for resilience theory, interventions, and social policy.

  13. Maternal obesity alters the apelinergic system at the feto-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssens, Sandy; Marx-Deseure, Aurore; Lecoutre, Simon; Butruille, Laura; Fournel, Audren; Knauf, Claude; Besengez, Capucine; Breton, Christophe; Storme, Laurent; Deruelle, Philippe; Lesage, Jean

    2016-03-01

    Apelin and its receptor APJ have been implicated in pathologies including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Little is known about the function of the apelinergic system during gestation. We evaluated in mice this system at the feto-maternal interface in insulin-resistant obese female (HF) mice. Maternal apelinemia was decreased at term and fetal apelinemia was sixfold higher than maternal level. Ex-vivo, the placenta releases apelin at E12.5 and E18.5. In HF pregnant mice at term, apelinemia as well as placental apelin and APJ mRNA levels were increased whereas placental release of apelin was drastically reduced compared to controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship of maternal mentalization and executive functioning to maternal recognition of infant cues and bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jennifer M; Wittkowski, Anja; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2008-11-01

    The study examined associations between maternal mentalization ability, executive functioning, recognition of infant cues, and bonding in a non-clinical sample of mothers. It employed a correlational design. Sixty-four mothers of young infants completed assessments of mentalization ability, executive functioning, and bonding. Photographs of infant facial expressions were utilized to assess ability to recognize infant cues of emotion, but this was not found to correlate with either maternal mentalization or executive functioning ability. Whilst a trend towards a significant positive relationship between mothers' cued ability to attribute mental states and their ability to recognize infant facial expressions was observed, no significant relationships were found between bonding scores and performance on the executive functioning and mentalization measures. The present study contributes to our current understanding of the influence of maternal cognitive factors, specifically mentalization and executive functioning, on the development of the mother-infant relationship. Future research, methodological issues, and clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  15. EFFECT OF MATERNAL SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS ON MATERNAL HEALTH INDICATORS AND NEONATAL PARAMETERS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infant mortality rate is a serious issue worldwide. Pakistan being a developing country comprises of diverse socioeconomic classes. Various studies have suggested some association of maternal anthropometric parameters with neonatal outcomes. The aim behind this research is to determine the impact of socioeconomic conditions on maternal health indicators and neonatal parameters in the population of Pakistan. This study included 90 pregnant females belonging to different socioeconomic conditions and were grouped according to their socioeconomic classes. Data was collected from the case histories of participants admitted in different hospitals of Karachi. The data of maternal and neonatal parameters was assessed statistically and their associations with the socioeconomic conditions were assessed. Maternal hemoglobin and maternal gravidity have shown a strong association with socioeconomic conditions with high significance (p < 0.05. However, neonatal parameters have shown diverse results among the three classes. Neonatal gestational age was found to be significant in comparison between upper versus lower (p = 0.001 and upper versus middle classes (p = 0.006, but it was insignificant in case of middle versus lower class (p = 0.88. Likewise, neonatal birth weight is significant between upper versus lower (p = 0.001 and upper versus middle classes (p = 0.019, but it was insignificant in case of middle versus lower class (p = 0.258. Neonatal apgar score is found to be significant in upper versus lower (p = 0.001 and middle versus lower classes (p = 0.001 and insignificant between middle and lower class (p = 0.125. This study concludes that socioeconomic factors play a vital role in determining the maternal health characteristics which in turn affects the neonatal outcomes. It is therefore recommended that antenatal care should be provided to all pregnant females. The whole community should work hand in hand to establish good health care centers, create

  16. Methylome of fetal and maternal monocytes and macrophages at the feto-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Young; Romero, Roberto; Tarca, Adi L; Bhatti, Gaurav; Kim, Chong Jai; Lee, JoonHo; Elsey, Amelia; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia S; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2012-07-01

    Decidual macrophages (dMφ) of the mother and placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells, HC) of the fetus are deployed at a critical location: the feto-maternal interface. This study was conducted to compare the DNA methylome of maternal and fetal monocytes, dMφ, and HC and thereby to determine the immunobiological importance of DNA methylation in pregnancy. Paired samples were obtained from normal pregnant women at term not in labor and their neonates. Maternal monocytes (MMo) and fetal monocytes (FMo) were isolated from the peripheral blood of mothers and fetal cord blood, respectively. dMφ and HC were obtained from the decidua of fetal membranes and placentas, respectively. DNA methylation profiling was performed using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation27 BeadChip. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot were performed for validation experiments. (i) Significant differences in DNA methylation were found in each comparison (MMo versus FMo, 65 loci; dMφ versus HC, 266 loci; MMo versus dMφ, 199 loci; FMo versus HC, 1030 loci). (ii) Many of the immune response-related genes were hypermethylated in fetal cells (FMo and HC) compared to maternal cells (MMo and dMφ). (iii) Genes encoding markers of classical macrophage activation were hypermethylated, and genes encoding alternative macrophage activation were hypomethylated in dMφ and HC compared to MMo and FMo, respectively. (iv) mRNA expressions of DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B were significantly lower in dMφ than in HC. (v) 5-azacytidine treatment increased expression of INCA1 in dMφ. The findings herein indicate that DNA methylation patterns change during monocyte-macrophage differentiation at the feto-maternal interface. It is also suggested that DNA methylation is an important component of the biological machinery conferring an anti-inflammatory phenotype to macrophages at the feto-maternal interface. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Maternal serum leptin during pregnancy and infant birth weight: the influence of maternal overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vinod K; Straughen, Jennifer K; Trudeau, Sheri

    2013-05-01

    Few studies have examined whether the distinct metabolic patterns found in obese and nonobese pregnant women have different effects on the growing fetus. Our objective was to estimate the influence of longitudinal variation in maternal serum leptin levels on variation in infant birth weight in overweight/obese versus normal-weight women. In a prospective cohort of 286 gravidas, maternal weight and serum leptin levels at 6-10, 10-14, 16-20, 22-26, and 32-36 weeks gestation were measured. Effects of leptin levels on infant birth weight adjusted for gestational age at delivery (aBW) were analyzed using a linear regression model that accounted for the relationship of time-varying predictors to the log-transformed leptin concentrations. Different relationships of aBW to maternal serum leptin and its rate of change across pregnancy were exhibited by overweight/obese and normal-weight gravidas. For normal-weight women, aBW is not associated with either the magnitude of the logarithm of the leptin concentration or with its rate of change in either the first or second half of pregnancy. Conversely, for overweight/obese women, an increase in the rate of change in maternal serum leptin in the second half of pregnancy is significantly associated with a decrease in aBW. This effect is distinct from that of maternal weight. Differences in the effect of maternal serum leptin on fetal growth between overweight/ obese and normal-weight women suggest metabolic and physiologic heterogeneity between these groups. Such differences may be involved in the long-term physiologic effects of the obese intrauterine environment on the health of the offspring. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins in pregnancy in relation to maternal and fetal plasma levels at delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaife, Alison R; McNeill, Geraldine; Campbell, Doris M; Martindale, Sheelagh; Devereux, Graham; Seaton, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that maternal intake of antioxidant vitamins is associated with maternal and cord plasma levels at delivery. Women were recruited in early pregnancy in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital and habitual diet during pregnancy was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire mailed at 34 weeks gestation. Blood samples were taken at recruitment (n 1149) and maternal (n 1149) and cord blood samples (n 747) taken at delivery for analyses of vitamins A, C, E and beta-carotene. Maternal plasma levels of vitamin E and beta-carotene at delivery were significantly higher than levels in early pregnancy while levels of vitamins A and C were significantly lower. Positive correlations were observed for maternal levels of all the vitamins between early pregnancy and delivery. At delivery, maternal plasma concentrations of vitamins A, E and beta-carotene were significantly higher than cord levels, while maternal levels of vitamin C were significantly lower. There were significant correlations between maternal and cord plasma concentrations for beta-carotene and vitamin C but not for vitamins A or E. Maternal dietary intakes were positively correlated with maternal plasma levels of vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in early pregnancy, with maternal plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C at delivery and with cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C. The results from the present study show that, in this population, maternal diet influences cord plasma levels of beta-carotene and vitamin C, but not vitamins A and E.

  19. Maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior: exploration of possible mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Alyson C; Hoza, Betsy; Arnold, L Eugene; Pelham, William E; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Jensen, Peter S

    2007-10-01

    Possible mediators of the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior were examined for 96 children with ADHD and their mothers drawn from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) as part of an add-on investigation conducted by two of the six MTA sites. General cognitions (i.e., maternal locus of control and self-esteem) and parenting-specific factors (i.e., maternal parenting efficacy and parenting stress) were examined as possible mediators. Findings provide initial support that maternal parenting stress, as well as maternal locus of control and self-esteem mediate the relation between maternal depressive symptomatology and parenting behavior. This provides support for the argument that some families of children with ADHD may benefit from an expanded version of parent management training that includes sessions directly targeting affective and cognitive factors in parents, similar to treatment programs used to treat childhood conduct problems.

  20. [Situation of maternal mortality in Peru, 2000 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dl Carpio Ancaya, Lucy

    2013-07-01

    We perform an analysis concerning the situation of maternal mortality in Peru, based on the information of the System of Epidemiologic Surveillance of Maternal Mortality of the General Directorate of Epidemiology of the Ministry of Health and the Family and Health Demographic Survey. We can see a decrease in the rates of maternal mortality between 2000 and 2012. The direct causes are the same but in different proportions according to the natural regions, being the hemorrhage the first cause of maternal mortality. The coverage of birth attention in health establishments has increased in the last years but it is still necessary to improve the capacity of quick response and the quality of the health services. Maternal mortality in Peru is related to inequity and lack of women empowerment to excerpt their rights, specially the sexual and reproductive rights. It is necessary to strengthen the strategies that have been implemented in order to accomplish of the reduction in maternal mortality in Peru.

  1. The Role of Maternal Cognitive Ability in Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Rubalcava; Graciela Teruel

    2004-01-01

    The literature on child health suggests mother`s schooling is a key determinant of child health. Little is known of how other sources of maternal human capital contribute to her children`s health. This paper investigates the differential returns on child health of three sources of maternal human capital: schooling, cognitive ability and childhood background. Conditional on schooling and mother`s height, we first analyze the effect of maternal cognitive ability on her children`s health. Next, ...

  2. The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, amending the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, the new bill, The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016 was introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha (or Council of States, the upper house of the Parliament of India. Central aim of this article is to critically review the amendments to the bill regarding geographies of maternity leave and its associated facilities.

  3. Maternal trait anxiety, emotional distress, and salivary cortisol in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pluess, M; Bolten, M. *; Pirke, K. M.; Hellhammer, D. (Dirk)

    2010-01-01

    Animal models suggest that stress-induced hormonal changes in the mother during pregnancy lead to enduring changes in the fetus and empirical links between prenatal maternal stress and negative child development have been discerned repeatedly in human studies. But the role of heritable personality traits has received little attention in the latter work. The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationship between maternal personality, psychological measures of maternal distress a...

  4. Maternal Mortality in Six East Anglian Parishes, 1539-1619.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the maternal mortality rate in six early modern rural parishes of East Anglia where a midwife was known to be practicing. Register entries from the six parishes are translated and transcribed and maternal outcomes established and discussed. Midwives and their families are researched to establish marital status, parity and social standing. Maternal mortality is calculated and differing rates for women experiencing multiple births, stillbirths and base births examined.

  5. An autopsy study of maternal mortality: A tertiary healthcare perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchabhai T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An audit of autopsies of maternal deaths is important for the establishment of accurate cause of maternal deaths and to determine the contribution of various etiologies responsible in a given community. Aim: To study the causes of maternal deaths as determined by a pathological autopsy. Settings and Design: A retrospective study of all the cases of maternal deaths that underwent a pathological autopsy in a tertiary healthcare center from January 1998 to December 2006. Materials and Methods: The autopsy records with clinical notes were retrieved; gross and histopathology specimens and slides were studied to establish the accurate cause of maternal deaths. The variables like age (years, stay in the hospital, gravidity, trimester of pregnancy and method of delivery were used to classify and analyze the data from the autopsies. The causes of maternal deaths were divided in to direct and indirect; each being classified into subgroups based on the most evident pathology on autopsy. Results: The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR over a nine-year period (1998-2006 was 827/100000 live births (471 maternal deaths against 56944 live births. An autopsy was performed in 277 cases (58.8%. In the autopsy group, the most common causes of maternal mortality were pre-ecclampsia/ecclampsia (40 of 277, 14.44% and hemorrhage (32 of 277; 11.55%; However, indirect causes like infectious diseases (27 of 277; 9.75% and cardiac (27 of 277; 9.75% disease also contributed to maternal deaths. Conclusion: Indirect causes like rheumatic heart disease and infections like tuberculosis, malaria or leptospirosis and nutritional anemia are still major causes of maternal mortality in developing countries like India. Intensive efforts need to be taken in these areas to reduce the maternal mortality in developing countries like India.

  6. Transfer and Decline of Maternal Antibody to Feline Calicivirus

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R. P.; Povey, R C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve kittens born to four queens immune to feline calicivirus acquired maternal serum neutralizing antibody to feline calicivirus primarily via the colostrum. At one week of age, their titres approached or equalled those of their dams. In the absence of feline calicivirus infection, titres of maternal antibody declined to undetected levels between ten and 14 weeks of age. The half-life of maternal antibody was approximately 15 days.

  7. Woman-Centered Maternity Nursing Education and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Giarratano, Gloria

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological study was to uncover the meanings of the clinical experiences of registered nurses working in maternity settings after they studied maternity nursing from a woman-centered, feminist perspective in a generic baccalaureate nursing program. Purposeful sampling was conducted to locate and recruit nurses who had graduated from this nursing program between the December 1996 and December 1998 semesters and were currently working in a maternal-newborn...

  8. The Effect of Maternal Employment on Children's Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel Dunifon; Anne Toft Hansen; Sean Nicholson; Lisbeth Palmhøj Nielsen

    2013-01-01

    Using a Danish data set that follows 135,000 Danish children from birth through 9th grade, we examine the effect of maternal employment during a child's first three and first 15 years on that child's grade point average in 9th grade. We address the endogeneity of employment by including a rich set of household control variables, instrumenting for employment with the gender- and education-specific local unemployment rate, and by including maternal fixed effects. We find that maternal employmen...

  9. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Passanha; Maria Helena D'Aquino Benício; Sônia Isoyama Venâncio; Márcia Cristina Guerreiro dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were ...

  10. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  11. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Ngilangwa David P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outco...

  12. Maternal Predictors of Rejecting Parenting and Early Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Daniel S Shaw

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined relations among maternal psychological resources, rejecting parenting, and early adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 231 low-income mothers and their sons with longitudinal assessments from age 18 months to 12 years. The maternal resources examined were age at first birth, aggressive personality, and empathy. Each of the maternal resources predicted rejecting parenting during early childhood in structural equation models that controlled for toddler difficu...

  13. Levels of maternal serum corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) at midpregnancy in relation to maternal characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yumin; Holzman, Claudia; Chung, Hwan; Senagore, Patricia; Talge, Nicole M; Siler-Khodr, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Summary BACKGROUND Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in maternal blood originates primarily from gestational tissues and elevated levels in midpregnancy have been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigators have hypothesized that high levels of maternal stress might lead to elevated CRH levels in pregnancy. Yet a few studies have measured maternal CRH levels among subgroups of women who experience disproportionate socioeconomic disadvantage, such as African-American and Hispanic women, and found that these groups have lower CRH levels in pregnancy. Our goal was to identify maternal characteristics related to CRH levels in midpregnancy and examine which if any of these factors help to explain race differences in CRH levels. METHODS The Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study prospectively enrolled women at 15–27 weeks’ gestation from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (1998–2004). Data from the POUCH Study were used to examine maternal demographics, anthropometrics, health behaviors, and psychosocial factors (independent variables) in relation to midpregnancy blood CRH levels modeled as log CRH pg/ml (dependent variable). Analyses were conducted within a subcohort from the POUCH Study (671 non-Hispanic Whites, 545 African Americans) and repeated in the subcohort subset with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=746). Blood levels of CRH and independent variables were ascertained at the time of enrollment. All regression models included week of enrollment as a covariate. In addition, final multivariable regression models alternately incorporated different psychosocial measures along with maternal demographics and weight. Psychosocial variables included measures of current depressive symptoms, perceived stress, coping style, hostility, mastery, anomie, and a chronic stressor (history of abuse as a child and adult). RESULTS In subcohort models, the adjusted mean CRH level was significantly lower in African Americans vs. non-Hispanic whites

  14. The Influence of Maternal Psychosocial Characteristics on Infant Feeding Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J.; Thompson, Amanda L.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children’s later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors—specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms—influence mothers’ infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. PMID:27174251

  15. Maternal obesity and fetal metabolic programming: a fertile epigenetic soil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heerwagen, Margaret J R; Miller, Melissa R; Barbour, Linda A; Friedman, Jacob E

    2010-01-01

    .... In addition to maternal glucose, hyperlipidemia and inflammation may contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic through fetal metabolic programming, the mechanisms of which are not well understood...

  16. MATERNAL MORTALITY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY IN A TERTIARY CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Rao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES : M aternal death is a preventable tragedy. The aim of this study is to analyze the causes of maternal mortality in a tertiary centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted by reviewing the records for maternal deaths over the period of one year 1 - 08 - 2 013 to 31 - 07 - 2014 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , Guntur Medical College , Guntur. Every maternal death was scrutinized for various aspects likely to be related to death such as age , locality of residence , antenatal care , admission death interval and the cause of death. RESULTS: The maternal mortality in the present study is 788/ 1 lakh live births. There were 62 maternal deaths in the study period. Most deaths occurred in the 20 - 25 age group. 51.6% of deaths occurred in the first seventy two hours after admission. Hypertensive disorders ( 25.80% and hemorrhage (12.5% are the two most common direct causes of maternal death. Post - operative and post abortal sepsis , amniotic fluid embolism , pulmonary embolism and peripartum cardiomyopathy are the other direct causes. Indirect causes of maternal deaths were seen in 34.9% of the cases. Hepatitis (9.64% , severe anemia is the two leading indirect causes of maternal deaths. CONCLUSION: Most of the maternal deaths can be prevented if the high risk antenatal women are identified earlier and referred to the tertiary centre earlier for diagnosis and management

  17. First trimester maternal urinary metabolomic profile to predict macrosomia

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walshe, J

    2011-02-01

    Institute of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, RCPI Four Provinces Meeting, Junior Obstetrics & Gynaecology Society Annual Scientific Meeting, Royal Academy of Medicine in Ireland Dublin Maternity Hospitals Reports Meeting, Nov 2010

  18. Severe maternal morbidity: screening and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sarah K; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2016-09-01

    This document builds upon recommendations from peer organizations and outlines a process for identifying maternal cases that should be reviewed. Severe maternal morbidity is associated with a high rate of preventability, similar to that of maternal mortality. It also can be considered a near miss for maternal mortality because without identification and treatment, in some cases, these conditions would lead to maternal death. Identifying severe morbidity is, therefore, important for preventing such injuries that lead to mortality and for highlighting opportunities to avoid repeat injuries. The two-step screen and review process described in this document is intended to efficiently detect severe maternal morbidity in women and to ensure that each case undergoes a review to determine whether there were opportunities for improvement in care. Like cases of maternal mortality, cases of severe maternal morbidity merit quality review. In the absence of consensus on a comprehensive list of conditions that represent severe maternal morbidity, institutions and systems should either adopt an existing screening criteria or create their own list of outcomes that merit review.

  19. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  20. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and cognitive performance in adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kafouri, S; Leonard, G; Perron, M; Richer, L; Séguin, JR; Veillette, S; Pausova, Z; Paus, T

    2009-01-01

    Background The incidence of cigarette smoking during pregnancy remains high. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is known to be associated with cognitive and behavioural sequelae in childhood and adolescence...

  1. Maternal education and intelligence predict offspring diet and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Cueto, Santiago; Jacoby, Enrique

    2005-09-01

    The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. We report evidence on the relation of 2 parental characteristics, maternal education level and maternal intelligence, to infant and toddler diet and nutritional status. Our sample consisted of 241 low-income Peruvian mothers and their infants assessed from 3 to 12 mo, with a further follow-up of 104 of these infants at 18 mo of age. Using a nonexperimental design, we related measures of level of maternal education, maternal intelligence, and family socioeconomic status to infant anthropometry, duration of exclusive breast-feeding, adequacy of dietary intake, and iron status. Results indicated unique positive relations between maternal education level and the extent of exclusive breast-feeding. Significant relations between maternal education and offspring length were partially mediated by maternal height. There also were unique positive relations between maternal intelligence and quality of offspring diet and hemoglobin level. All findings remained significant even after controlling for family socioeconomic characteristics. This pattern of results illustrates the importance of parental characteristics in structuring the adequacy of offspring diet. Maternal education and intelligence appear to have unique influences upon different aspects of the diet and nutritional status of offspring.

  2. Minireview: Fetal-Maternal Hormonal Signaling in Pregnancy and Labor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendelson, Carole R

    2009-01-01

    ...). Although in most mammals, parturition is associated with a marked decline in maternal progesterone, in humans, circulating progesterone and uterine PR remain elevated throughout pregnancy, suggesting...

  3. Correlation between maternal inflammatory markers and fetomaternal adiposity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-10-01

    Outside pregnancy, both obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with changes in inflammatory cytokines. Obesity in pregnancy may be complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and\\/or fetal macrosomia. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between maternal cytokines and fetomaternal adiposity in the third trimester in women where the important confounding variable GDM had been excluded. Healthy women with a singleton pregnancy and a normal glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks gestation were enrolled at their convenience. Maternal cytokines were measured at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Maternal adiposity was assessed indirectly by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI), and directly by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Fetal adiposity was assessed by ultrasound measurement of fetal soft tissue markers and by birthweight at delivery. Of the 71 women studied, the mean maternal age and BMI were 29.1 years and 29.2 kg\\/m(2) respectively. Of the women studied 32 (45%) were obese. Of the cytokines, only maternal IL-6 and IL-8 correlated with maternal adiposity. Maternal TNF-α, IL-β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels did not correlate with either fetal body adiposity or birthweight. In this well characterised cohort of pregnant non-diabetic women in the third trimester of pregnancy we found that circulating maternal cytokines are associated with maternal adiposity but not with fetal adiposity.

  4. Maternal serum copeptin as a marker for fetal growth restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Foda

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Maternal serum copeptin level can differentiate between the normal sized and small for gestational age fetuses. Also, it can differentiate between constitutionally small and growth restricted fetuses.

  5. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Saving Mothers' Lives: the continuing benefits for maternal health from the United Kingdom (UK) Confidential Enquires into Maternal Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyneth

    2012-02-01

    The actions that have followed the recommendations of successive publications of the UK Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths have helped save mothers' lives and reduced ill health and morbidity. Through the implementation of their recommendations, they have helped improve access to, and the quality of, the maternity care provided for all pregnant women in the United Kingdom. The enquires help review, assess, and identify the underlying remediable factors that contributed to mothers' deaths and aggregate the lessons learned to make recommendations to develop services that help overcome many of the barriers to safe, high-quality maternity care, which vulnerable women continue to face. This chapter provides a short summary of the positive contributions the successive reports on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, "Saving Mothers' Lives," have made to maternal health outcomes in the United Kingdom for more than half a century. It also demonstrates why such systems continue to be beneficial around the world, including countries with very low maternal mortality rates.

  7. The role of the Vlax Roma in shaping the European Romani maternal genetic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Barešić, Ana; Klarić, Irena Martinović; Cukrov, Slavena; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Janićijević, Branka

    2011-10-01

    The Roma are comprised of many founder groups of common Indian origins but different socio-cultural characteristics. The Vlax Roma are one of the founder Roma populations characterized by a period of bondage in the historic Romanian principalities, and by the archaic Romanian language. Demographic history suggests different migration routes of Roma populations, especially after their arrival in Mesopotamia and the eastern boundary of the Byzantine Empire. Although various genetic studies of uniparental genetic markers showed a connection between Roma genetic legacy and their migration routes, precise sampling of Roma populations elucidates this relationship in more detail. In this study, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA of 384 Croatian Vlax Roma from two geographic locations in the context of 734 European Roma samples. Our results show that Roma migration routes are marked with two Near-Eastern haplogroups, X2 and U3, whose inverse proportional incidence clearly separates the Balkan and the Vlax Roma from other Roma populations that reached Europe as part of the first migration wave. Spatial and temporal characteristics of these haplogroups indicate a possibility of their admixture with Roma populations before arrival in Europe. Distribution of haplogroup M35 indicates that all Vlax Roma populations descend from one single founder population that might even reach back to the original ancestral Indian population. Founder effects followed by strict endogamy rules can be traced from India to contemporary small, local communities, as in the case of two Croatian Vlax Roma populations that show clear population differentiation despite similar origins and shared demographic history.

  8. Maternal Influences on Asian American–Pacific Islander Adolescents’ Perceived Maternal Sexual Expectations and Their Sexual Initiation

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Tsui-Sui Annie; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Guthrie, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Maternal influences on adolescents’ sexual initiation have been examined over two time points in 433 Asian American–Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescents in a secondary analysis of the Add Health data set using structural equation modeling. A longitudinal model built on a preliminary qualitative study is used to examine the fit between data and model. Maternal perceived connectedness and adolescents’ perceived maternal sexual expectations in sexual timing are found to be protective for delaying...

  9. Association between maternal lifestyle and preschool nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Bezerra Nobre

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: Many of the health behaviors involved in the emergence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD are originated in childhood under parental influence. Mothers are the ones most involved in the education and health care of children. Lifestyle (LS is a social determinant of health. Very few studies tried to understand the influence of maternal LS on child nutrition. Objective: To verify the association between maternal behavioral and non-behavioral LS and nutritional aspects in preschool children. Method: From January 2010 to December 2010, we performed a cross-sectional study with 255 mothers of preschool children who were residents of five different sub-districts in southwestern São Paulo. A proportional stratified random sample was selected using two layers (“schools” and “children”. From the mother, sociodemographic and LS information were collected. From the child, data on anthropometry, sedentary behavior and food intake were collected. The association was calculated using chi-square test and logistic regression. Results: Children who ate minimally processed food were born from mothers with more socially aware non-behavioral LS, while children that ate more processed food were born from mothers with more consumerist non-behavioral LS. No association was found between nutritional characteristics of preschoolers and types of maternal behavioral LS. Children presenting “sedentary behavior” and the habit of eating “ultra-processed foods” had 113% and 84% higher chances, respectively, of being born to mothers that belonged to the “consumerist” cluster. Conclusion: Mothers living a consumerist lifestyle can promote negative influences on child nutrition.

  10. A review of maternal mortality in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hematram Yadav

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been a significant decline inmaternal mortality from 540 per 100,000 live birthsin I957 to 28 per 100,000 in 2010. This decline is dueto several factors. Firstly the introduction of the ruralhealth infrastructure which is mainly constructing healthcentres and midwife clinics for the rural population.This provided the accessibility and availability ofprimary health care and specially, antenatal care forthe women. This also helped to increase the antenatalcoverage for the women to 98% in 2010 and it increasedthe average number of antenatal visits per women from6 in 1980 to 12 visits in 2010 for pregnant women.Along with the introduction of health centres,another main feature was the introduction of specificprogrammes to address the needs of the women andchildren. In the 1950s the introduction of Maternaland Child Health (MCH programme was an importantstep. Later in the late 1970s there was the introductionof the High Risk Approach in MCH care and SafeMotherhood in the 1980s. In 1990, an important stepwas the introduction of the Confidential Enquiry intoMaternal Deaths (CEMD. Another significant factor inthe reduction is the identification of high risk mothersand this is being done by the introduction of the colourcoding system in the health centres. Other factorsinclude the increase in the number of safe deliveries byskilled personnel and the reduction in the number ofdeliveries by the Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs.The reduction in fertility rate from 6.3 in 1960 to 3.3 in2010 has been another important factor. To achieve the2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDG to furtherreduce maternal deaths by 50%, more needs to be doneespecially to identify maternal deaths that are missed byomission or misclassification and also to capture the latematernal deaths.

  11. Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.

    2010-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective The present study was designed to examine the extent to which mothers’ emotional (i.e., empathy, negative emotions) and cognitive (i.e., accurate detection of distress, goals about infant crying, and emotion efficacy) responses to infant distress are related to maternal sensitivity in tasks designed to elicit infant distress. Mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to distress were assessed both prenatally in response to unfamiliar infants and postnatally in response to own infant. The extent to which prenatal and postnatal measures correlated with one another and with sensitivity to distress was examined. Design One-hundred and one mothers were interviewed prenatally about their responses to videotapes of crying infants, then videotaped interacting with their own infants at 6-months postpartum in two emotionally arousing tasks during which maternal sensitivity and infant distress were rated, and participated in a video-recall interview about their thoughts and feelings during the emotionally arousing tasks. Results Mothers’ prenatal and postnatal goals in relation to infant distress and emotional reactions to infant distress were the most consistent predictors of sensitivity, but prenatal accurate detection of infant distress also predicted sensitivity. Furthermore, mothers’ goals, emotional reactions to crying, and accurate distress detection buffered maternal sensitivity from the negative effect of observed infant distress. That is, infant distress was less strongly negatively associated with sensitivity when mothers had more infant-oriented goals, reported fewer negative emotions in response to infant crying, or were skilled at detecting infant distress. Conclusions Assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress provides insights into the origins of sensitivity to infant distress. Methodological issues relevant to assessing mothers’ emotional and cognitive responses to infant distress are raised. PMID

  12. Maternal satisfaction with maternal-infant nursing care in Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Peña, Yolanda; R de la Gala, Silvia Esthela Vázquez; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2009-01-01

    Evaluate and compare maternal-satisfaction (global and areas) with maternal-child nursing care (MSMINC) and to explore the relationship of MSMINC with wait time, length of visit, and maternal age and education. Cross-sectional descriptive study comprising 213 mothers. Group 1 (n = 84), mothers of children aged <1 year, and Group 2 (n = 129), mothers of children between 1 and 4 years of age. The patient satisfaction scale was applied. Global MSMINC was 76.26 and 79.21 for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. No associated factors were found in Group 1. In Group 2, wait time was associated with MSMINC in the technical-professional area (F = 3.13; df = 128; B = -0.21; p = 0.01). The fact that these study participants identified only MSMINC-associated factors in the technical-professional area may indicate that care is centered on technical procedures. Given that MSMINC-associated factors were not identified in Group 1, we recommend exploration of maternal expectations and perceptions of care.

  13. Maternal Dispositional Empathy and Electrodermal Reactivity: Interactive Contributions to Maternal Sensitivity with Toddler-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Helen T.; McElwain, Nancy L.; Groh, Ashley M.; Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal dispositional empathy and skin conductance level (SCL) reactivity to infant emotional cues as joint predictors of maternal sensitivity. Sixty-four mother-toddler dyads (31 boys) were observed across a series of interaction tasks during a laboratory visit, and maternal sensitivity was coded from approximately 55 minutes of observation per family. In a second, mother-only laboratory visit, maternal SCL reactivity to infant cues was assessed using a cry-laugh audio paradigm. Mothers reported on their dispositional empathy via a questionnaire. As hypothesized, mothers with greater dispositional empathy exhibited more sensitive behavior at low, but not high, levels of SCL reactivity to infant cues. Analyses examining self-reported emotional reactivity to the cry-laugh audio paradigm yielded a similar finding: dispositional empathy was related to greater sensitivity when mothers reported low, but not high, negative emotional reactivity. Results provide support for Dix’s (1991) affective model of parenting that underscores the combined contribution of the parent’s empathic tendencies and his/her own emotional experience in response to child emotions. Specificity of the Empathy × Reactivity interaction is discussed with respect to the context in which reactivity was assessed (infant cry versus laugh) and the type of sensitivity examined (sensitivity to the child’s distress versus non-distress). PMID:24955589

  14. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  15. The Determinants of Negative Maternal Parenting Behaviours: Maternal, Child, and Paternal Characteristics and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Zuroff, David C.; Koestner, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study tested Belsky's determinants of parenting, namely maternal characteristics, child characteristics, and contextual issues, namely the mother's perception of the husband as a father, husband, and person. Three hundred and seventy-nine mothers first investigated by Sears, Maccoby, and Levin completed a standardised interview to assess…

  16. Acute Effects of Maternal Smoking on Fetal-Placental-Maternal System Hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Santos Müller

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study acute hemodynamic alterations in the fetal-placental maternal system immediately after maternal exposure to nicotine. METHODS: This is a noncontrolled experimental study involving 21 pregnant smoking women, randomly selected, with uncomplicated pregnancies and without risk factors for fetal heart disease. Patients underwent ultrasound and fetal echocardiography before and after smoking a cigarette. They were asked to abstain from smoking for 12 hours before the study. The mean nicotine content of the cigarettes used in the study was 0.5mg of nicotine and 6mg of carbon monoxide. RESULTS: The average number of cigarettes smoked per a day prior to the study was 9.67. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 36 weeks. The mean maternal heart rate was elevated (P<0.001 as was the mean fetal heart rate (P=0.044. Maternal systolic blood pressure (P=0.004 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.033 were also elevated after smoking. A decrease occurred in the systolic/diastolic ratio in the right uterine artery (P=0.014 and in the left uterine artery (P=0.039. The other hemodynamic variables remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking can cause changes in physiologic variables of fetal-placental circulation, but it does not change fetal cardiac function, in the dose of nicotine and its components used in this study. The decrease in systolic/diastolic ratio in the uterine arteries is probably related to a dose-dependent nicotine pattern.

  17. Maternal Control Strategies, Maternal Language Usage and Children's Language Usage at Two Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Wilberta; Miles, Sally; Leavitt, Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n = 60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were…

  18. Analysis of maternal death autopsies from the nationwide registration system of maternal deaths in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Wakasa, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Nakata, Masahiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Osato, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2017-02-14

    To clarify the necessity for and problems related to autopsy for determining the cause of maternal death in Japan. Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery were analyzed by the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee between 2012 and 2015 in Japan. Maternal deaths were analyzed to verify the requirement of autopsy in cases in which autopsy was performed and the need for autopsy in cases in which it was not performed. Among the 49 cases performed autopsy, the final diagnosis was compatible with the clinical course in 24 cases, while the autopsy diagnosis was incompatible with the clinical course in 13 cases. In two cases, the final diagnosis was based on the clinical course, but an autopsy could exclude other possible causes. In three cases, no exact cause of maternal death was identified after autopsy. On the other hand, in cases without an autopsy, the final diagnosis was made using ante-mortem operating findings and surgical specimens in twenty-one cases. Though, thirty-one cases were estimated diagnosis based on post-mortem imaging or ante-mortem examinations, the exact original cause of death was not determined in 25 cases, and the cause of death could not be identified in eight cases without autopsy. Because in most cases the autopsy provides an exact cause of death, the necessity of autopsies should be more widely accepted in Japan.

  19. Maternity waiting facilities for improving maternal and neonatal outcome in low-resource countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lonkhuijzen, L.; Stekelenburg, J.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A Maternity Waiting Home (MWH) is a facility, within easy reach of a hospital or health centre which provides Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC). Women may stay in the MWH at the end of their pregnancy and await labour. Once labour starts, women move to the health facility so that labour and

  20. Associations among Context-Specific Maternal Protective Behavior, Toddlers' Fearful Temperament, and Maternal Accuracy and Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal protective responses to temperamentally fearful toddlers have previously been found to relate to increased risk for children's development of anxiety-spectrum problems. Not all protective behavior is "overprotective", and not all mothers respond to toddlers' fear with protection. Therefore, the current study aimed to identify conditions…

  1. Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Bedford, Felice L

    2011-01-01

    A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention. Four investigations were pursued: Search of the motif in 250 000 control region records across 8 databases, comparison of frequencies of T subhaplogroups (T1, T2b, T2c, T2e, T4, T*) across 11 diverse populations, creation of a phylogenic median-joining network from public T2e control region entries, and analysis of o...

  2. Sephardic signature in haplogroup T mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Felice L

    2012-04-01

    A rare combination of mutations within mitochondrial DNA subhaplogroup T2e is identified as affiliated with Sephardic Jews, a group that has received relatively little attention. Four investigations were pursued: Search of the motif in 250 000 control region records across 8 databases, comparison of frequencies of T subhaplogroups (T1, T2b, T2c, T2e, T4, T(*)) across 11 diverse populations, creation of a phylogenic median-joining network from public T2e control region entries, and analysis of one Sephardic mitochondrial full genomic sequence with the motif. It was found that the rare motif belonged only to Sephardic descendents (Turkey, Bulgaria), to inhabitants of North American regions known for secret Spanish-Jewish colonization, or were consistent with Sephardic ancestry. The incidence of subhaplogroup T2e decreased from the Western Arabian Peninsula to Italy to Spain and into Western Europe. The ratio of sister subhaplogroups T2e to T2b was found to vary 40-fold across populations from a low in the British Isles to a high in Saudi Arabia with the ratio in Sephardim more similar to Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Italy than to hosts Spain and Portugal. Coding region mutations of 2308G and 14499T may locate the Sephardic signature within T2e, but additional samples and reworking of current T2e phylogenetic branch structure is needed. The Sephardic Turkish community has a less pronounced founder effect than some Ashkenazi groups considered singly (eg, Polish), but other comparisons of interest await comparable averaging. Registries of signatures will benefit the study of populations with a large number of smaller-size founders.

  3. Prenatally programmed hypertension: role of maternal diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have led to the hypothesis of the fetal origin of adult diseases, suggesting that some adult diseases might be determined before birth by altered fetal development. Maternal diabetes subjects the fetus to an adverse environment that has been demonstrated to result in metabolic, cardiovascular and renal impairment in the offspring. The growing amount of obesity in young females in developed and some developing countries should contribute to increasing the incidence of diabetes among pregnant women. In this review, we discuss how renal and extrarenal mechanisms participate in the genesis of hypertension induced by a diabetic status during fetal development.

  4. Maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osol, George; Mandala, Maurizio

    2009-02-01

    Sufficient uteroplacental blood flow is essential for normal pregnancy outcome and is accomplished by the coordinated growth and remodeling of the entire uterine circulation, as well as the creation of a new fetal vascular organ: the placenta. The process of remodeling involves a number of cellular processes, including hyperplasia and hypertrophy, rearrangement of existing elements, and changes in extracellular matrix. In this review, we provide information on uterine blood flow increases during pregnancy, the influence of placentation type on the distribution of uterine vascular resistance, consideration of the patterns, nature, and extent of maternal uterine vascular remodeling during pregnancy, and what is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms.

  5. Maternal transmission in sporadic Huntington's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, A; Milà, M.; Castellví-Bel, S; Rosich, M; Jiménez, D; Badenas, C.; ESTIVILL, X.

    1997-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of a (CAG)n repeat in the IT15 gene. Three per cent of cases are sporadic and in those in which family studies have been performed, the origin of the mutation was always paternal. The first sporadic case of Huntington's disease is presented in which a premutated maternal allele of 37 CAG repeats was transmitted expanded to the proband (43 CAG repeats). Molecular analysis of the IT15 gene is extrem...

  6. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most

  7. Fracture of maternal sternum during spontaneous delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubert, J; Gerber, B

    2009-12-01

    We report of a maternal sternal fracture during a spontaneous delivery in a 31-year-old primipara without a suitable trauma. The putative mechanism of fracture was strong hyperflexion of the thoracic spine and additional cervical flexion with pushing the chin to the thorax due to active management of labour. The history of the healthy woman was free of related risk factors. A possible promoting factor might be pregnancy-induced bone loss. Although there were clear symptoms, the diagnosis of the fracture was delayed by a week because nobody took account of such a possibility.

  8. [Maternal arrhythmias during pregnancy. Practical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacewicz-Jach, Zdzisława; Peregud-Pogorzelska, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is accompanied by a variety of cardiovascular changes in normal women, and these changes can increased incidence of maternal cardiac arrhythmias. Supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias reguiring treatment are rarely seen during pregnancy in healthy women. Structural cardiac defects or residual defects after repair may contribute to the occurrence of clinically relevant arrhythmias. Arrhythmias during pregnancy include a wide spectrum. The most common are simple ventricular and atrial ectopy, sinusal tachycardia and supraventricular tachycardia. The foetus may suffer both haemodynamic alternations and adverse effects of the treatment (teratogenic risk, foetal growth and development). The management of arrhythmias in pregnant women is similar to that taken in patients who are not pregnant.

  9. The Life of Metis: Cunning Maternal Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper charts the different and co-existent uses of the Greek myth and concept of Metis for feminist philosophy. I show how the move from using the myth of Metis to an engagement with the marginalised ancient Greek concept of cunning intelligence (metis is significant in addressing problems of agency and political action in contemporary feminist debates. The paper addresses the concept of metis cunning intelligence in relation to the maternal and argues for a theory of metis charcterised by a double action, and finally links this approach to recent ideas in Deleuzian feminist theory.

  10. Maternal Diet, Behaviour and Offspring Skeletal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Goodfellow

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporotic fracture has a major impact upon health, both in terms of acute and long term disability and economic cost. Peak bone mass, achieved in early adulthood, is a major determinant of osteoporosis risk in later life. Poor early growth predicts reduced bone mass, and so risk of fracture in later life. Maternal lifestyle, body build and 25(OH vitamin D status predict offspring bone mass. Recent work has suggested epigenetic mechanisms as key to these observations. This review will explore the role of the early environment in determining later osteoporotic fracture risk.

  11. Sectio på maternal request

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind; Forstholm, Malene Merete; Lidegaard, Ojvind

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of women give birth by caesarean section (CS) in Denmark, some without any medical reasons for this procedure. This is called maternal request sectio (MRS). To analyse the development of MRS over a five-year period and investigate how parity, former birth......-24. MRS was most frequent in the Capital Region. Women who had experienced CS, third degree perineal tear, or perinatal death in their first delivery, had a 3.8, 1.3 and 2.0 times increased risk of MRS in their next delivery. The weight of the child had no influence on MRS. CONCLUSION: MRS has increased...

  12. Relevance of Health Knowledge in Reporting Maternal Health Complications and Use of Maternal Health Care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Shraboni; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Goli, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    We measured levels of women's health knowledge and their association with the reporting of maternal health complications and related health care use. We found that women with higher levels of health knowledge reported more pregnancy and postnatal complications, and used more maternal health care services. Education has a positive impact on health, but education alone is not enough to ensure recognizing and reporting of health complications and increasing the demand for maternal health care services. We conclude that the provision of health education for women will help them to identify maternal health complications and improve their reporting and related health care use.

  13. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Cinelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FAs are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI or gestational weight gain (GWG, affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51% were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021, LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044 and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016; inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001; excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004. Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009, omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015 and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036, even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both.

  14. Maternal Activity in Relation to Birth Size in Rural India The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shobha; Kanade, Asawari; Margetts, Barrie M; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Desai, Bhavana; Jackson, Alan; Fall, Caroline HD

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the relationship of the mother's physical activity to the birth size of her baby in a rural Indian population. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Six villages near Pune, Maharashtra, India. Subjects 797 women were studied after excluding abortions and termination of pregnancies (112), fetal anomalies (8), multiple pregnancies (3), incomplete pre-pregnancy anthropometry (14) and pregnancies detected later than 21 weeks of gestation (168). Method An activity questionnaire was developed after focus group discussions and incorporated community-specific activities. It was validated against an observer-maintained diary. Activity scores were derived using published data on energy costs to weight the contributions of various activities. It was then administered to assess physical activity at 18 (± 2) and 28 (±2) weeks of gestation. Outcome measures Birth outcome, maternal weight gain and neonatal anthropometry. Results The activity questionnaire was used to classify women into light, moderate and heavy activity categories. Maternal activity did not influence the incidence of prematurity or stillbirth, or the duration of gestation. It was inversely related to maternal weight gain up to 28 weeks of gestation (p=0.002). Higher maternal activity in early, as well as mid gestation, was associated with lower mean birth weight (p=0.05 and 0.02 respectively), and smaller neonatal head circumference (p=0.005 and 0.009) and mid-arm circumference (p=0.03 and 0.01) after adjusting for the effect of major confounding factors. Conclusions The findings suggest that excessive maternal activity during pregnancy is associated with smaller fetal size in rural India. The approach described for developing an activity questionnaire has potential for adoption in other settings. Sponsorship Wellcome Trust, London, UK, and the Medical Research Council, UK. PMID:12700614

  15. Maternal death audit in Rwanda 2009-2013: a nationwide facility-based retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, F.; Bijlmakers, L.A.; Dillen, J. van; Mivumbi, V.; Ngabo, F.; Velden, K. van der

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Presenting the results of 5 years of implementing health facility-based maternal death audits in Rwanda, showing maternal death classification, identification of substandard (care) factors that have contributed to death, and conclusive recommendations for quality improvements in maternal

  16. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  17. Effects of maternal diabetes on trophoblast cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marlúcia Bastos Aires; Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a health condition characterizedby hyperglycemia over a prolonged period. There arethree main types of DM: DM type 1 (DM1), DM2 andgestational DM (GDM). Maternal diabetes, which includesthe occurrence of DM1 and DM2 during pregnancy orGDM, increases the occurrence of gesttionalcomplicationsand adverse fetal outcomes. The hyperglycemic intrauterineenvironment affects not only the fetus but alsothe placental development and function in humans andexperimental rodents. The underlying mechanisms arestill unclear, but some evidence indicates alterationsin trophoblast proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle control in diabetes. A proper coordination of trophoblast proliferation, differentiation and invasion is required for placental development. Initially, increased expression of proliferative markers in junctional and labyrinth zones of rat placentas and villous cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, stromal cells and fetal endothelial cells in human placentas is reported among diabetics. Moreover, reduced apoptotic index and expression of some apoptotic genes are described in placentas of GDM women. In addition, cell cycle regulators including cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors seem to be affected by the hyperglycemic environment. More studies are necessary to check the balance between proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in trophoblast cells during maternal diabetes.

  18. IMPACT OF MATERNAL OBESITY ON OBSTETRIC OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafiyan Mahin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and obesity are public health problems in pregnant women and is associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal complications. Objective was to determine maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in obese women. A Prospective study was conducted at Gynecology ward, Razi medical and educational center, Ahvaz, Iran during year 2011. A total of 850 subjects were participated in this study for 18 weeks follow- up. The subjects were divided into two groups. Overweight/ obese (n= 300 and normal (n=550 groups. The outcomes measurement was gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced- hypertension, cesarean section, and intrauterine death and anesthesia complications. Data was analysed using SPSS, version 16. There was significant association between obesity and gestational diabetes 95% CI, 8.45-19.7, P < 0.0001. Hypertension pregnancy -induced was higher 4.3% in obese pregnant compared to normal weight pregnant women (95% CI, 2.1- 4.9, p < 0.0001. Postpartum infection and bleeding among obese women was 10 and 11.3 times higher than normal weight pregnant women (95% CI, 85-370, p < 0.0001 (p < 0.0001 respectively. Obesity in reproductive age has been known effect on pregnancy outcomes, labor and infants and even children in their later life. Therefore, at risk people should be identified. Pre-pregnancy weight should be closed to normal range with strict nutritional and health care.

  19. Maternal healthcare in migrants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Caldas, José; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo; Salcedo-Barrientos, Dora; Dias, Sónia

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy is a period of increased vulnerability for migrant women, and access to healthcare, use and quality of care provided during this period are important aspects to characterize the support provided to this population. A systematic review of the scientific literature contained in the MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases was carried out, searching for population based studies published between 1990 and 2012 and reporting on maternal healthcare in immigrant populations. A total of 854 articles were retrieved and 30 publications met the inclusion criteria, being included in the final evaluation. The majority of studies point to a higher health risk profile in immigrants, with an increased incidence of co-morbidity in some populations, reduced access to health facilities particularly in illegal immigrants, poor communication between women and caregivers, a lower rate of obstetrical interventions, a higher incidence of stillbirth and early neonatal death, an increased risk of maternal death, and a higher incidence of postpartum depression. Incidences vary widely among different population groups. Some migrant populations are at a higher risk of serious complications during pregnancy, for reasons that include reduced access and use of healthcare facilities, as well as less optimal care, resulting in a higher incidence of adverse outcomes. Tackling these problems and achieving equality of care for all is a challenging aim for public healthcare services.

  20. Maternal age and trajectories of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Genna, Natacha M; Cornelius, Marie D; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L

    2015-11-01

    Becoming a mother is a developmental transition that has been linked to desistance from substance use. However, timing of motherhood may be a key determinant of cannabis use in women, based on preliminary evidence from teenage mothers. The goal of this study was to identify trajectories of maternal cannabis use, and to determine if maternal age was associated with different trajectories of use. This prospective study examined 456 pregnant women recruited at a prenatal clinic, ranging in age from 13 to 42 years. The women were interviewed about their cannabis use 1 year prior to pregnancy and during each trimester of pregnancy, and at 6, 10, 14, and 16 years post-partum. A growth mixture model of cannabis use reported at each time point clearly delineated four groups: non/unlikely to use, decreasing likelihood of use, late desistance, and increasing likelihood/chronic use (Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted LRT test statistic=35.7, pcannabis across 17 years, including later desistance post-partum and increasing/chronic use. Other substance use and chronic depressive symptoms were also associated with more frequent use. These findings have implications for both prevention and treatment of cannabis use in mothers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.